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Sample records for adult alcohol abuse

  1. [Nicotine abusing in adult children of alcoholics].

    PubMed

    Suwała, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACA) are people who were raised in families abusing alcohol where one of the parents (or both) was addicted to alcohol and where alcohol was the main problem affecting all areas of life. It is estimated that in Poland adult population consists of ACA in 35-40%. Those people represent higher risk of addiction to psychoactive substances, most of all alcohol, but also nicotine. Higher addiction propensity among ACA is a result of their personality's features consisting so called "ACA syndrome". The goal of the study was to determine nicotine addiction frequency and assessment of self-propensity to addiction in chosen ACA group, gathered in three abstinent clubs for alcoholics in Warsaw. Nicotine addiction frequency among the study group members was 58.4% and alcohol addiction frequency was 21.2%. Strong nicotine addiction represented 49.2% of smokers. Men more often than women were addicted to nicotine (0.67 vs. 0.52), on the other hand women were more often than men alcohol addicts (0.18 vs. 0.15). All smokers and nicotine addicts (assessment by HIS test) were aware of their addiction. In relation to initial addiction diagnosis by CAGE test regarded higher percentage of people than it resulted from study group self-assessment (21.2% vs. 16.8). Professional psychotherapy for ACA did not influence substantially the nicotine addiction frequency in the study group.

  2. Prevalence of Childhood Physical Abuse in Adult Male Veteran Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Melodie R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study of 100 adult male alcoholics found that about one-third reported they had been physically abused as children. Abused alcoholics reported having more severe psychological symptoms and distress than nonabused counterparts, though they did not differ in the onset, severity, or treatment history for alcohol dependency. (Author/DB)

  3. Childhood personality predicts alcohol abuse in young adults.

    PubMed

    Cloninger, C R; Sigvardsson, S; Bohman, M

    1988-08-01

    431 children (233 boys, 198 girls) born in Stockholm, Sweden, had a detailed behavioral assessment at 11 years of age, including a detailed interview with their school teachers, and at age 27 years were reevaluated to identify alcoholism or alcohol abuse. Specific predictions from a neurobiological learning theory about the role of heritable personality traits in susceptibility to alcohol abuse were tested in this prospective longitudinal study. Three dimensions of childhood personality variation were identified and rated without knowledge of adult outcome. These three dimensions (novelty-seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence) were largely uncorrelated with one another, and each was predictive of later alcohol abuse. Absolute deviations from the mean of each of the three personality dimensions were associated with an exponential increase in the risk of later alcohol abuse. High novelty-seeking and low harm avoidance were most strongly predictive of early-onset alcohol abuse. These two childhood variables alone distinguished boys who had nearly 20-fold differences in their risk of alcohol abuse: the risk of alcohol abuse varied from 4 to 75% depending on childhood personality.

  4. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  5. Mothers' versus Fathers' Alcohol Abuse and Attachment in Adult Daughters of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Schroeder, Valarie M.; Cooke, Cathy G.; Gumienny, Leslie; Platter, Amanda Jeffrey; Fals-Stewart, William

    2010-01-01

    Gender of the alcohol-abusing parent was examined in relation to general and romantic attachment (as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised and the Relationship Scales Questionnaire) in female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs; as indicated by the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test) as compared to non-ACOAs. As compared to…

  6. Childhood Risk Factors for Alcohol Abuse and Psychological Distress among Adult Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Tonda L.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Szalacha, Laura A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationships between childhood and family background variables, including sexual and physical abuse, and subsequent alcohol abuse and psychological distress in adult lesbians. Methodology: Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate relationships between childhood sexual and physical abuse and parenting…

  7. The influence of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on adult offspring risk of lifetime suicide attempt in the United States.

    PubMed

    Alonzo, Dana; Thompson, Ronald G; Stohl, Mahlki; Hasin, Deborah

    2014-05-01

    The influences of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt have not been examined in national data. This study analyzed data from the 2001-2002 NESARC to estimate main and interaction effects of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on lifetime suicide attempt. Adjusted for controls, parental divorce and parental alcohol abuse independently increased odds of lifetime suicide attempt. The effect of parental divorce was not significantly moderated by parental alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to examine whether additional parental and offspring psychiatric and substance use covariates attenuate the association between parental divorce and lifetime suicide attempt.

  8. Education, Alcohol Use and Abuse among Young Adults in Britain. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 50

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Borgonovi, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explore the relationship between education and alcohol consumption. We examine whether the probability of abusing alcohol differs across educational groups. We use data from the British Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of one week's birth in Britain in 1970. Measures of alcohol abuse include alcohol consumption above NHS…

  9. Substance abuse treatment utilization among adults living with HIV/AIDS and alcohol or drug problems.

    PubMed

    Orwat, John; Saitz, Richard; Tompkins, Christopher P; Cheng, Debbie M; Dentato, Michael P; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2011-10-01

    This is a prospective cohort study to identify factors associated with receipt of substance abuse treatment (SAT) among adults with alcohol problems and HIV/AIDS. Data from the HIV Longitudinal Interrelationships of Viruses and Ethanol study were analyzed. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with any service utilization. An alcohol dependence diagnosis had a negative association with SAT (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.36, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.19-0.67), as did identifying sexual orientation other than heterosexual (AOR = 0.46, CI = 0.29-0.72) and having social supports that use alcohol/drugs (AOR = 0.62, CI = 0.45-0.83). Positive associations with SAT include presence of hepatitis C antibody (AOR = 3.37, CI = 2.24-5.06), physical or sexual abuse (AOR = 2.12, CI = 1.22-3.69), social supports that help with sobriety (AOR = 1.92, CI = 1.28-2.87), homelessness (AOR = 2.40, CI = 1.60-3.62), drug dependence diagnosis (AOR = 2.64, CI = 1.88-3.70), and clinically important depressive symptoms (AOR = 1.52, CI = 1.08-2.15). While reassuring that factors indicating need for SAT among people with HIV and alcohol problems (e.g., drug dependence) are associated with receipt, nonneed factors (e.g., sexual orientation, age) that should not decrease likelihood of receipt of treatment were identified.

  10. The Role of Religion in the Recovery from Alcohol and Substance Abuse Among Jordanian Adults.

    PubMed

    Al-Omari, Hasan; Hamed, Razan; Abu Tariah, Hashem

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand religious factors role during recovery period among Jordanian receiving treatment for alcohol and substances abuse. Participants were asked to answer open-ended questions related to role of religion on their recovery from alcohol and substances abuse. Content analysis was used to explore the role of religion on their recovery process. One hundred and forty-six clients from two treatment centers participated with two main themes that emerged from the analysis: role of religion and role of religious men. Religion not only helps during the recovery process, but also is considered as a protector from drug and alcohol abuse in the future.

  11. Alcoholism and Elder Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anetzberger, Georgia J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A comparison group study of abusing and nonabusing caregivers suggested a correlation between alcohol use and violence against elderly parents. Findings reveal that abusers were more likely than nonabusers to drink, to become intoxicated, and to be identified as having a drinking problem. Policy and practice implications are discussed. (Author)

  12. Adolescent Alcohol Abuse. Fastback Series No. 217.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Lowell

    This booklet examines the problem of alcohol use among American teenagers. The role that alcohol plays in adult society is presented and its potential danger for causing teenage alcohol addiction is considered. A discussion on why some teenagers abuse alcohol focuses on familial, peer, sociocultural, environmental, personality, and behavioral…

  13. Interaction between a functional MAOA locus and childhood sexual abuse predicts alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder in adult women.

    PubMed

    Ducci, F; Enoch, M-A; Hodgkinson, C; Xu, K; Catena, M; Robin, R W; Goldman, D

    2008-03-01

    Women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Among male subjects, a functional polymorphism (MAOA-LPR, monoamine oxidase A linked polymorphic region) in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) appears to moderate the effect of childhood maltreatment on antisocial behavior. Our aim was to test whether MAOA-LPR influences the impact of CSA on alcoholism and ASPD in a sample of 291 women, 50% of whom have experienced CSA; we also tested whether haplotypes covering the region where both MAOA and monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) genes are located predict risk of alcoholism and ASPD better than the MAOA-LPR locus alone. Participants included 168 alcoholics (39 with ASPD (antisocial alcoholics) and 123 controls (no alcoholics, no ASPD). Antisocial behavior was also modeled as a continuous trait: ASPD symptoms count. The MAOA-LPR low activity allele was associated with alcoholism (P=0.005), particularly antisocial alcoholism (P=0.00009), only among sexually abused subjects. Sexually abused women who were homozygous for the low activity allele had higher rates of alcoholism and ASPD, and more ASPD symptoms, than abused women homozygous for the high activity allele. Heterozygous women displayed an intermediate risk pattern. In contrast, there was no relationship between alcoholism/antisocial behavior and MAOA-LPR genotype among non-abused women. The MAOA-LPR low activity allele was found on three different haplotypes. The most abundant MAOA haplotype containing the MAOA-LPR low activity allele was found in excess among alcoholics (P=0.008) and antisocial alcoholics (P=0.001). Finally, a MAOB haplotype, which we termed haplotype C, was significantly associated with alcoholism (P=0.006), and to a lesser extent with antisocial alcoholism (P=0.03). In conclusions, MAOA seems to moderate the impact of childhood trauma on adult psychopathology in female subjects in the same way

  14. Aging and Alcohol Abuse: Increasing Counselor Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, June M.; Ballard, Mary B.; Alessi, Hunter

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in older adulthood is a rapidly growing but often hidden problem. The authors provide an overview of the issues related to older adult alcohol abuse through a discussion of physiological, psychological, and social risk factors; an examination of appropriate assessment procedures; and an overview of factors related to treatment.

  15. Growing up with Parental Alcohol Abuse: Exposure to Childhood Abuse, Neglect, and Household Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Shanta R.; Anda, Robert F.; Felitti, Vincent J.; Croft, Janet B.; Edwards, Valerie J.; Giles, Wayne H.

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 8,629 adults examined the association between parental alcohol abuse and child abuse, neglect, and other household dysfunction. Compared to households without alcohol abuse, the adjusted odds ratio for each category of adverse childhood experience was 2 to 13 times higher if parents abused alcohol. (Contains references.) (CR)

  16. Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

  17. Childhood sexual abuse, alcohol use, and PTSD symptoms as predictors of adult sexual assault among lesbians and gay men.

    PubMed

    Han, Sohyun C; Gallagher, Matthew W; Franz, Molly R; Chen, May S; Cabral, Fabiana M; Marx, Brian P

    2013-08-01

    Prior research has indicated that childhood sexual abuse (CSA), alcohol use, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are important risk factors for adult sexual assault (ASA). A notable limitation of this prior work, however, is that it has almost exclusively focused on heterosexual women. The present study sought to remedy this by examining the extent to which CSA, alcohol use, and PTSD symptoms related to ASA among lesbians (n = 122) and gay men (n = 117). Using structural equation modeling, we found that alcohol use was the best predictor of ASA among lesbians whereas CSA was the best predictor of ASA among gay men. These results suggest that certain risk factors may be differentially related to ASA among groups with different sexual orientations. Such findings deepen our current understanding of ASA and offer important directions for reducing the risk of ASA for lesbian and gay individuals.

  18. Alcohol abuse in sickle cell disease: the Pisces Project.

    PubMed

    Levenson, James L; McClish, Donna K; Dahman, Bassam A; Penberthy, Lynne T; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Aisiku, Imoigele P; Roseff, Susan D; Smith, Wally R

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is common in patients with chronic painful medical disorders, but it has not been studied in sickle cell disease (SCD). In a prospective cohort study of SCD adults, 31.4% were identified as abusing alcohol. There were no significant differences between alcohol abusers and nonabusers on demographics, biological variables, depression, anxiety, measures of crisis and noncrisis pain, or opioid use, but abusers reported more pain relief from opioids than nonabusers did. Alcohol abusers had fewer unscheduled clinic visits, emergency room visits, hospital days, and any health care utilization for SCD, but this was only significant for emergency room visits. Quality of life was similar between both groups, except that alcohol abusers unexpectedly had better overall physical summary scores. Alcohol abusers were more likely to report coping by ignoring pain, diverting attention, and using particular self-statements.

  19. Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Listen ©istock.com/ KatarzynaBialasiewicz People who drink too much alcohol might forget things that happened when they were ...

  20. The Aging and Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Jacob A.

    Demographic data suggest that alcohol abuse among the elderly will increase in proportion to the population growth of that group. Four factors which may cause the elderly to be a highly susceptible group for alcohol problems are: (1) retirement and its boredom, role changes, and financial problems; (2) increased concern with death and losses of…

  1. Adolescent Depression, Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviews of 434 college students revealed that prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 6.8 percent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 percent; and of substance abuse, 9.4 percent. Alcohol and substance abuse were associated with MDD. Substance abuse was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. MDD usually preceded alcohol or substance…

  2. Gender moderation and social developmental mediation of the effect of a family-focused substance use preventive intervention on young adult alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Mason, W Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Haggerty, Kevin P; Hawkins, J David; Redmond, Cleve; Spoth, Richard L; Shin, Chungyeol

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the long-term impact of Preparing for the Drug Free Years (PDFY) on young adult alcohol abuse disorder, addressing theory-based questions about how, and for whom, the program had its effects on the outcomes. Participants were 429 families of 6th graders enrolled in 33 rural schools located in the Midwestern United States. Schools were randomly assigned to conditions. Target adolescents (52% female) were interviewed periodically from age 11 to age 22; throughout adolescence, information was collected also from the youths' parents. Moderation and mediation analyses were conducted using regression analysis and structural equation modeling with covariates measured at baseline (age 11), mediators measured at posttest (age 12), and the outcome measured at the young adult follow-up (age 22). Results showed that PDFY reduced the rate of alcohol abuse among target young women, with evidence that this effect was mediated by increased prosocial skills. The rate of alcohol abuse among PDFY group men was not significantly different from that of control group men. Findings have implications for reducing the public health burden of alcohol abuse among young women.

  3. 78 FR 73552 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on... visit. Name of Committees: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National...

  4. Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Innamorati, Marco; Dominici, Giovanni; Ferracuti, Stefano; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D.; Serra, Giulia; Girardi, Paolo; Janiri, Luigi; Tatarelli, Roberto; Sher, Leo; Lester, David

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically-related intermediate phenotypes might influence the relationship between alcohol and suicide. Psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, mood disorders and anxiety disorders, as well as susceptibility to stress, might increase the risk of suicidal behavior, but may also have reciprocal influences with alcohol drinking patterns. Increased suicide risk may be heralded by social withdrawal, breakdown of social bonds, and social marginalization, which are common outcomes of untreated alcohol abuse and dependence. People with alcohol dependence or depression should be screened for other psychiatric symptoms and for suicidality. Programs for suicide prevention must take into account drinking habits and should reinforce healthy behavioral patterns. PMID:20617037

  5. Towards the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facy, FranCoise; Rabaud, Myriam

    2006-01-01

    Mortality resulting from alcohol abuse in young French people is too high in spite of prevention campaigns for road safety in particular. There are problems in identifying alcohol abuse in young people in preventive medicine or alcohol care services. This study was carried out in alcohol centres; data from patients under 25 are analysed and…

  6. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  7. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Officer, 5635...

  8. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  9. 76 FR 77841 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  10. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  11. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  12. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  13. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Review Officer, National Institute ] on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  14. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  15. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  16. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  17. An Involuntary Therapeutic Group for Alcohol Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, David F.; Beck, Terrence

    1984-01-01

    Describes a therapy program for student alcohol abusers conducted by an alcohol treatment specialist. Describes objectives and content of the eight sessions. Follow-up data on the Alcohol Intervention Program suggest it can have positive results. (JAC)

  18. [Child maltreatment due to alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Abuná Salcedo, Lucia Julieta; Carvalho, Ana Maria Pimenta

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the occurrence of maltreatment in children abused by alcohol users. Authors looked at the records of children hospitalized from 2000 to 2003 at the Children Hospital "Dr. Ovidio Aliga Uria". Findings showed that among the total of hospitalizations, 0.62% were due to maltreatment. Considering them, 57.9% involved alcohol users. Approximately 12.9% of them died as a consequence of brain trauma. The characterization of the aggressors showed that they are abusive drinkers with no dependence; with age varying from 20 to 30 years, are members of the children's family; finished primary school, do not have a job and are drug users. Although the low percentage of cases, there is a need to take care of this situation aiming at protecting the children and respecting their rights as well as at providing care to the adult that also experiences stressing conditions.

  19. 76 FR 14980 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse. The meeting will...: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse....

  20. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers.

    PubMed Central

    Tønnesen, H.; Møller, H.; Andersen, J. R.; Jensen, E.; Juel, K.

    1994-01-01

    Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared with that of the total Danish population. On average the 15,214 men were observed for 12.9 years and the 3,093 women for 9.4 years. The overall morbidity of cancer was increased significantly. Of the men, 1,441 developed cancer [relative risk (RR) = 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-1.7], while 182 women did (RR = 1.5; 95% CI 1.3-1.8). Significantly increased incidences were found of cancer in the tongue, mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, liver, larynx, lung and pleura and secondary cancer. The women had significantly increased risk of cervical cancer (RR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.0). The men developed prostatic cancer significantly more frequently than expected (RR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.8). The risk of melanomas (RR = 0.5; 95% CI 0.2-0.8) was significantly lower than expected. The relative risks of cancer of the stomach, pancreas, kidney and endocrine system were only slightly increased. The study group did not develop more colonic (RR = 1.0; 95% CI 0.8-1.3) or rectal cancer (RR = 1.0; CI 0.7-1.3) than expected. The risk of breast cancer in women was slightly increased (RR = 1.3; 95% CI 0.9-1.7), but not statistically significant. Thus, the associations between alcohol and cancer of the upper digestive and respiratory tract and the liver are confirmed. In addition, this study indicates an increased occurrence of cancer of the prostate gland, pleura and uterine cervix in alcohol abusers. PMID:8297729

  1. 78 FR 65347 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20855. Contact Person:...

  2. 78 FR 21615 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial ] Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse &...

  3. Adolescent depression, alcohol and drug abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Deykin, E Y; Levy, J C; Wells, V

    1987-01-01

    The Diagnostic Interview Schedule was employed to ascertain the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), alcohol and substance abuse in a sample of 424 college students aged 16 to 19 years. Applying DSM III criteria, the prevalence of MDD was 6.8 per cent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 per cent; and of substance abuse 9.4 per cent. Alcohol abuse was associated with MDD, but not with other psychiatric diagnoses. Substance abuse was associated both with MDD and with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. The onset of MDD almost always preceded alcohol or substance abuse suggesting the possibility of self-medication as a factor in the development of alcohol or substance abuse. PMID:3492151

  4. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA ... are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders » Older Adults In this Section Underage ...

  5. Youths and Alcohol Abuse: A Continuing Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Donald A.

    1982-01-01

    Defines problem drinking and alcoholism, and differentiates normal drinking escapes from alcohol abuse by teenagers and other youths. Suggests teenagers consume alcohol for a myriad of reasons and this behavior often leads to alcohol dependence which can cause interference in normal relationships with others. (Author)

  6. High Risk Situations for Elderly Alcohol Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupree, Larry W.; Schonfeld, Lawrence

    The Gerontology Alcohol Project, a treatment/research program investigating the characteristics of the late-life onset elderly alcohol abuser, was used as a model for a new program which emphasized teaching the elderly abusers how to break down their personal drinking behavior chain and deal with the antecedents of drinking behavior, to use…

  7. Prevalence of Alcohol Abuse among the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Paul S.

    The current prevailing professional opinion is that the prevalence rates of alcohol abuse among the elderly are low compared to the general population. The prevalence of alcohol abuse among the elderly was examined through a review of the empirical research. This review revealed a number of serious methodological problems. The most important of…

  8. Understanding and Counseling Elderly Alcohol Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Shirley; Remley, Theodore P., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Investigated cause of abusive drinking among the elderly and treatment practices and counseling strategies used by professionals who serve them. Structured interviews with six practitioners who were knowledgeable about alcohol abuse among the elderly revealed consensus that alcoholism is a physiological disorder with attendant psychological and…

  9. Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galanter, Marc, Ed.

    This book presents the state of the art of American medical education in alcohol and drug abuse, and is the culmination of a four-year collaborative effort among the medical school faculty of the Career Teacher Program in Alcohol and Drug Abuse. The first part contains reports, curricula, and survey data prepared for the medical education…

  10. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Awareness Month April is Alcohol Awareness Month Biosensor Challenge Learn more College Drinking Learn More Alcohol Dependence Get the facts Alcohol Awareness Month Biosensor Challenge College Drinking Alcohol Dependence Latest News New & ...

  11. 78 FR 38353 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Applications on HIV- AIDS/Alcohol Comparative Effectiveness & Implementation...

  12. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  13. Resilience characteristics mitigate tendency for harmful alcohol and illicit drug use in adults with a history of childhood abuse: a cross-sectional study of 2024 inner-city men and women.

    PubMed

    Wingo, Aliza P; Ressler, Kerry J; Bradley, Bekh

    2014-04-01

    Resilience refers to abilities to cope adaptively with adversity or trauma. A common psychological sequella of childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences is substance use problems. There are, however, very limited data on relationships among resilience traits, childhood abuse, and alcohol or drug use problems. Hence, we aimed to examine associations between resilience characteristics and lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use in 2024 inner-city adults with high rates of childhood abuse and other trauma exposure. In this cross-sectional study, resilience was assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, childhood abuse with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and Drug Abuse Screening Test. Associations between resilience and substance use were examined with linear regression models, adjusting for trauma load, age, and sex. We found that resilience characteristics mitigated tendency for lifetime alcohol use problems both as a main effect (β = -0.11; p = 0.0014) and an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (β = -0.06; p = 0.0115) after trauma severity, age, and sex were controlled for. Similarly, resilience reduced lifetime illicit drug use both as a main effect (β = -0.03; p = 0.0008) and as an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (β = -0.01; p = 0.0256) after trauma load, age, and sex were adjusted for. Our findings add to a nascent body of literature suggesting that resilience characteristics mitigate risks not only for PTSD, major depression, and suicidality, but also for substance use problems in adults exposed to childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences.

  14. Resilience characteristics mitigate tendency for harmful alcohol and illicit drug use in adults with a history of childhood abuse: A cross-sectional study of 2024 inner-city men and women

    PubMed Central

    Wingo, Aliza P.; Ressler, Kerry J.; Bradley, Bekh

    2015-01-01

    Resilience refers to abilities to cope adaptively with adversity or trauma. A common psychological sequella of childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences is substance use problems. There are, however, very limited data on relationships among resilience traits, childhood abuse, and alcohol or drug use problems. Hence, we aimed to examine associations between resilience characteristics and lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use in 2024 inner-city adults with high rates of childhood abuse and other trauma exposure. In this cross-sectional study, resilience was assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, childhood abuse with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and Drug Abuse Screening Test. Associations between resilience and substance use were examined with linear regression models, adjusting for trauma load, age, and sex. We found that resilience characteristics mitigated tendency for lifetime alcohol use problems both as a main effect (β = −0.11; p = 0.0014) and an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (β = −0.06; p = 0.0115) after trauma severity, age, and sex were controlled for. Similarly, resilience reduced lifetime illicit drug use both as a main effect (β = −0.03; p = 0.0008) and as an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (β = −0.01; p = 0.0256) after trauma load, age, and sex were adjusted for. Our findings add to a nascent body of literature suggesting that resilience characteristics mitigate risks not only for PTSD, major depression, and suicidality, but also for substance use problems in adults exposed to childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences. PMID:24485848

  15. Correlates of Depression in Self-Neglecting Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study Examining the Role of Alcohol Abuse and Pain in Increasing Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Marissa C.; Flores, David V.; Coverdale, John; Burnett, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Self-neglect among older adults results in increased morbidity and mortality rates. Depression is strongly linked to self-neglect and when untreated severely complicates management of health and functional outcomes. The study aims to identify factors correlated with depression to inform approaches to service recruitment and retention that improve long-term outcomes. Methods The sample included urban community-dwelling older adults (n=96), 65-years of age and older with Adult Protective Services substantiated self-neglect. All participants completed a range of validated cognitive, functional and self-report demographic and clinical measures around health and mental health functioning. Results A secondary data analysis using multivariable logistic regression revealed that a positive screen for alcohol abuse, low self-rated health, and higher self-reported pain were associated with significantly higher odds of self-reported depression. Implications Further research is needed to understand the temporality between these correlates and depression and to inform prevention and intervention practices for self-neglecting older adults. PMID:26716386

  16. 77 FR 59405 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA AA-1 Member Conflict Applications...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute [[Page 59406

  17. Substance and Alcohol Abuse Policy for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dublin Univ. (Ireland). Dept. of Teacher Education.

    This brochure sets forth the policy on drug and alcohol abuse for students of Westminster College of Salt Lake City (Utah). The first section of the booklet contains the school's policy prohibiting the use of illegal drugs and of alcohol except where approval has been granted. This section also describes the counseling, treatment and…

  18. Substance and Alcohol Abuse Policy for Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westminster Coll. of Salt Lake City, UT.

    This brochure sets forth the policy on drug and alcohol abuse for employees of Westminster College of Salt Lake City (Utah). The first section of the booklet contains the school's policy prohibiting the use of illegal drugs and prohibiting the use of alcohol except where approval has been granted. This section also describes the counseling,…

  19. 75 FR 69091 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  20. 75 FR 42451 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  1. 75 FR 10807 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Gunzerath, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  2. 76 FR 2128 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Srinivas, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  3. 76 FR 17140 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  4. 76 FR 15989 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  5. 76 FR 22715 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  6. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  7. 78 FR 75929 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  8. 75 FR 10293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review Group Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: June... Buzas, PhD. Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  9. 75 FR 64733 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of...

  10. 78 FR 21616 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  11. 77 FR 22795 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  12. 78 FR 55088 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... applications. Place: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Bethesda, MD...

  13. 76 FR 26735 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

  14. 77 FR 43603 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2081, Rockville,...

  15. 75 FR 69090 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  16. 77 FR 43098 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  17. 75 FR 42451 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., PhD Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  18. 75 FR 42450 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Gunzerath, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  19. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review Group, Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Review...

  20. 76 FR 49494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... intramural programs and projects conducted by the NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON ALCOHOL ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM... Neuroimaging. Place: National Institutes of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Terrance...

  1. 78 FR 35042 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 3061, Rockville, MD 20852, 301- 443-6076....

  2. 77 FR 22793 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  3. 76 FR 16798 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  4. 75 FR 53320 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  5. 75 FR 42451 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  6. 76 FR 26311 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  7. 77 FR 47654 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism..., National Institute of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  8. 76 FR 69746 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... National Institutes Of Health, National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  9. 75 FR 13293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892. 301-443-2861....

  10. 76 FR 34718 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  11. 77 FR 2304 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Special Emphasis..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  12. 77 FR 1706 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  13. 75 FR 43534 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  14. 75 FR 9421 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Rockville, MD...

  15. 76 FR 34719 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  16. 75 FR 10489 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

  17. 77 FR 33477 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2017,...

  18. 76 FR 50743 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  19. 77 FR 52337 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  20. 75 FR 71711 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  1. 78 FR 20932 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: June 12-13, 2013. Closed: June 12, 2013. Time: 5:00 p.m. to 7:30...

  2. 75 FR 46949 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, including consideration of personnel... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 3061, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-6076....

  3. 75 FR 71711 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  4. 76 FR 59709 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville,...

  5. 78 FR 41940 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2019, Bethesda,...

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in substance abuse: alcohol and alcoholism and syndromes associated with alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Spampinato, M Vittoria; Castillo, Mauricio; Rojas, Rafael; Palacios, Enrique; Frascheri, Laura; Descartes, Fernando

    2005-06-01

    Alcohol abuse is common among the population and results in significant diseases that shorten life span. Ethanol may result in chronic brain changes such as atrophy but may also result in neurologic disease that may be acute or chronic and sometimes life threatening. Accompanying vitamin deficiencies may lead to Wernicke's encephalopathy and changes in serum osmosis may lead to several acute demyelinating disorders. In addition, pregnant women who consume alcohol place their babies at high risk for the fetal alcohol syndrome. In this article we review these disorders and emphasize their imaging features.

  7. 77 FR 69869 - National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and National Cancer Advisory Board... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and National Cancer Advisory Board; Notice of Joint...

  8. The adult children of alcoholics trauma inventory.

    PubMed

    Mackrill, Thomas; Hesse, Morten

    2011-01-01

    The Adult Children of Alcoholics Trauma Inventory (ACATI) registers variations in the recalled experience of growing up with problem drinkers. The ACATI includes measures of the duration and severity of parental alcohol-use-related problems, the drinking parents' behavior when intoxicated and sober, physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, and environmental factors. The ACATI correlated well with the Family Tree Questionnaire and showed excellent 14-day test-retest reliability for most variables. The test-retest was carried out in 2009 at a counseling service for young adults from families with alcohol-use-related problems in Denmark (N = 49).

  9. 76 FR 2129 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Bethesda, MD...

  10. 77 FR 39713 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of RFA AA-12-010. Date: July 18, 2012. Time: 1... Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member conflict SEP-- Neurosciences. Date: July...

  11. 78 FR 41938 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Contact Person: Beata Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  12. 78 FR 66015 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis.... Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications Place: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  13. 75 FR 80511 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice....C. App), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: February 16-17, 2011. Closed: February 16, 2011, 5:30 p.m....

  14. [Substance abuse in older adults].

    PubMed

    Bitar, Raoul; Dürsteler, Kenneth M; Rösner, Susanne; Grosshans, Martin; Herdener, Marcus; Mutschler, Jochen

    2014-09-03

    In respect of demographic change, the number of older patients with substance abuse and addiction is on the raise. In this review we present important clinical and therapeutic aspects of substance abuse and addiction in the elderly and focus on alcohol, benzodiazepines and opioids. Daily and risky alcohol consumption is common among older people. They also have an increased risk getting alcohol-related complications. For early detection, laboratory parameters and questionnaires such as the AUDIT-C are suitable. Therapeutically brief interventions have been proved successful. Also, abuse of benzodiazepines, especially low-dose addiction, is widespread among older persons, although often overlooked, and patients often do not recognize their addiction. The physician has to know the correct indication, adequate dosage and pharmacological interactions. A slow-dose reduction is recommended in case of addiction. Thanks to opioid substitution therapy, patients with an opioidaddiction can reach a higher age. Age influences the effects of the substitute, which may require an adjustment of the dosage. Treatment of elderly patients should be based on their needs and resources and is usually very effective.

  15. Glycoconjugates in the detection of alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Kępka, Alina; Szulc, Agata; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Up to 30% of all hospital admissions and health-care costs may be attributable to alcohol abuse. Ethanol, its oxidative metabolites, acetaldehyde and ROS (reactive oxygen species), non-oxidative metabolites of alcohol [e.g. FAEEs (fatty acid ethyl esters)] and the ethanol-water competition mechanism are all involved in the deregulation of glycoconjugate (glycoprotein, glycolipid and proteoglycan) metabolic processes including biosynthesis, modification, transport, secretion, elimination and catabolism. An increasing number of new alcohol biomarkers that are the result of alcohol-induced glycoconjugate metabolic errors have appeared in the literature. Glycoconjugate-related alcohol markers are involved in, or are a product of, altered glycoconjugate metabolism, e.g. CDT (carbohydrate-deficient transferrin), SA (sialic acid), plasma SIJ (SA index of apolipoprotein J), CETP (cholesteryl ester transfer protein), β-HEX (β-hexosaminidase), dolichol, EtG (ethyl glucuronide) etc. Laboratory tests based on changes in glycoconjugate metabolism are useful in settings where the co-operativeness of the patient is impaired (e.g. driving while intoxicated) or when a history of alcohol use is not available (e.g. after trauma). In clinical practice, glycoconjugate markers of alcohol use/abuse let us distinguish alcoholic from non-alcoholic tissue damage, having important implications for the treatment and management of diseases.

  16. Resources: Substances and Alcohol Abuse Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biakeddy, Eddie; Yazzie, Arnold D.

    To assist schools and community organizations in implementing the 1984 Navajo Nation Education Policy on Substance and Alcohol Abuse, the Monitoring-Evaluation and Technical Assistance office has identified resources, materials, and operational programs that should be helpful in the development of programs to prevent and combat the enormous…

  17. 76 FR 59708 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Alcohol Research ] Career Development Awards for Scientists and Clinicians; 93.272, Alcohol...

  18. Tooth decay in alcohol abusers compared to alcohol and drug abusers.

    PubMed

    Dasanayake, Ananda P; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Harris, Colin K; Cooper, Derek J; Peters, Timothy J; Gelbier, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 "alcohol only" abusers to 300 "alcohol and drug" abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. After controlling for the potential confounders, we observe that the "alcohol and drug" group had a 38% higher risk of having decayed teeth compared to the "alcohol only" group (P < .05). As expected, those who belonged to a higher social class (OR = 1.98; 95% CI = 1.43-2.75) and drank wine (OR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.16-2.96) had a higher risk of having more filled teeth. We conclude that the risk of tooth decay among "alcohol only" abusers is significantly lower compared to "alcohol and drug" abusers.

  19. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... ili ovisnost - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Substance Abuse or Dependence 物质滥用或依赖 - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Drugs, Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...

  20. Drugs and chronic alcohol abuse in drivers.

    PubMed

    Appenzeller, Brice M R; Schneider, Serge; Yegles, Michel; Maul, Armand; Wennig, Robert

    2005-12-20

    Blood specimens from 210 drivers (179 male and 31 female) apprehended in Luxembourg from autumn 2001 to spring 2002 and requested for the determination of their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) were tested for medicinal drugs, illicit drugs, and chronic alcohol abuse (by quantification of the carbohydrate-deficient transferrin: CDT). These additional analyses were performed anonymously and with permission of state prosecutor. The 22.8% had consumed medicinal drugs, with benzodiazepines and antidepressants (10.9 and 7.6%, respectively) as main psychoactive classes. Cannabis was the most detected illicit drug (9.5%) but only one in three had THC detectable in their blood. Association of two or more psychoactive substances (poly-drug use) was observed in 27.6% of drivers (90.6% of drug consumers). On the basis of CDT values, 29.5% of drivers investigated were assumed to be chronic alcohol abusers. Statistical analysis revealed that chronic alcohol abuse and medicinal psychoactive drugs were associated with significantly higher BAC. Medicinal psychoactive drugs were clearly associated with poly-drug use, and were furthermore detected at supra-therapeutic levels in 34.9%.

  1. Circulating Cytokines as Biomarkers of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Achur, Rajeshwara N.; Freeman, Willard M.; Vrana, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    There are currently no consistent objective biochemical markers of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Development of reliable diagnostic biomarkers that permit accurate assessment of alcohol intake and patterns of drinking is of prime importance to treatment and research fields. Diagnostic biomarker development in other diseases has demonstrated the utility of both open, systems biology, screening for biomarkers and more rational focused efforts on specific biomolecules or families of biomolecules. Long term alcohol consumption leads to altered inflammatory cell and adaptive immune responses with associated pathologies and increased incidence of infections. This has led researchers to focus attention on identifying cytokine biomarkers in models of alcohol abuse. Alcohol is known to alter cytokine levels in plasma and a variety of tissues including lung, liver, and very importantly brain. A number of cytokine biomarker candidates have been identified, including: TNF alpha, IL1-alpha, IL1-beta, IL6, IL8, IL12 and MCP-1. This is an emerging and potentially exciting avenue of research in that circulating cytokines may contribute to diagnostic biomarker panels and a combination of multiple biomarkers may significantly increase the sensitivity and specificity of the biochemical tests aiding reliable and accurate detection of excessive alcohol intake. PMID:20020329

  2. Identification of alcohol abuse and alcoholism with biological parameters.

    PubMed

    Watson, R R; Mohs, M E; Eskelson, C; Sampliner, R E; Hartmann, B

    1986-08-01

    The prevalence and incidence of heavy alcohol consumption are major problems which have been increasing in many countries in recent years. It is crucial for physicians to consistently identify early drinking problems as well as the various end disease states in order to minimize suffering and maximize recovery. This paper reviews the evolutionary development of clinical tools for detection of alcohol abuse. The focus is primarily on clinical/biochemical indicators of alcohol abuse, emphasizing but not limited to changes in hematological characteristics, liver enzyme activity, lipids, immune function factors, hormones, neurological factors, and some physically based tests. Use of test combinations and sophisticated statistical analysis of pattern changes in test batteries evidence increased diagnostic efficiency.

  3. Drug Abuse & Alcoholism Control Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-09-01

    therapeutic program within the halfway house qnd " RAP " center programs. j. Casual Supplier: One who furnishes illegally, wrongfully or improperly to another...34 RAP " Center. f. To meet as often as required, but once a month as a minium. S. ORGANIZATION. a. The AMIIC should be chaired by a senior combat arms...with health and welfare agencies and alcohol and drug prevention programs in the civilian community. b. Halfway House - RAP Center should: (1) Serve

  4. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are...

  5. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are...

  6. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are...

  7. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are...

  8. Prevalence of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse among Female AFDC Recipients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisco, Carol B.; Pearson, Carol L.

    1994-01-01

    Examined prevalence of alcoholism and drug abuse in 206 female Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) recipients enrolled in welfare-to-work program. Findings support clinical reports of substance abuse problems among public assistance and child welfare populations. Prevalence of alcoholism and drug abuse in sample ranged from 16.1-20.8%.…

  9. 75 FR 47819 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... Alcoholism. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance limited to space... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: September 22-23, 2010. Closed: September 22, 2010, 5:30...

  10. 78 FR 75927 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Richard A. Rippe,...

  11. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2081, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  12. 78 FR 17680 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Closed... of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, NIAAA... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National...

  13. 78 FR 37836 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... No. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National Institutes of Health, HHS) ] Dated: June 18,...

  14. 78 FR 12072 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National...

  15. 78 FR 63483 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special... shutdown of October 2013. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program No. 93.273, Alcohol...

  16. 78 FR 13361 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis.... 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: February 21,...

  17. 78 FR 25755 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; RFA AA13-001, Specialized Alcohol Research Centers. Date: August 15, 2013. Time: 1:00 p.m. to...

  18. 78 FR 37836 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Program No. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: June 18,...

  19. 78 FR 63484 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... 2013. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program No. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs;...

  20. 78 FR 37835 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... No. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: June 18,...

  1. 78 FR 37837 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis....273, Alcohol Research Programs; National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: June 18, 2013. Carolyn...

  2. Psychoanalytic Treatment of Psychological Addiction to Alcohol (Alcohol Abuse)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (dsm5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanalytic technique can be followed. For the patient described, transference interpretation was the fundamental key to recovery. Alcoholic drinking functioned to prevent this man from remembering overwhelming childhood events; events that were also lived out in his current relationships. Murders that occurred when he was a child were hidden in a screen memory. The patient had an obsessional style of relating where almost all feeling was left out of his associations. After he stopped drinking compulsively, he continued to work compulsively. The maternal transference had to be enacted and then interpreted in order for overwhelming memories to be allowed into conscious thought. After psychoanalysis, the patient resumed drinking and worked a normal schedule that allowed more fulfilling relationships. He had no further symptoms of distress from drinking over a 9-year followup. This case illustrates that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological illness, that it does not have the brain changes typical of Alcohol Dependence. Combining epidemiological, neurobiological, longitudinal, and psychoanalytic observations would allow multiple sources of information to be used in creating diagnostic categories. Losing details of human behavior by relying only on epidemiological studies is likely to cause errors in categorization of disorders. In turn, having faulty categories as the basis of further research is likely to impair identification of specific effective treatments. PMID:22144975

  3. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented.

  4. Alcohol and Drug Abuse Among U.S. Veterans: Comparing Associations with Intimate Partner Substance Abuse and Veteran Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark W.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Wolf, Erika J.; Prince, Lauren B.; Hein, Christina L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relative influences of PTSD, other psychopathology, and intimate partner alcohol and drug use on substance-related problems in U.S. veterans (242 couples, N = 484). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that partner alcohol and drug use severity explained more variance in veteran alcohol use and drug use (20% and 13%, respectively) than did veteran PTSD, adult antisocial behavior, or depression symptoms combined (6% for veteran alcohol use; 7% for veteran drug use). Findings shed new light on the influence of relationship factors on veteran alcohol and drug use and underscore the importance of couples-oriented approaches to treating veterans with comorbid PTSD and substance abuse. PMID:23325433

  5. Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages – An Emerging Trend in Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Kelle M; Hauser, Sheketha R; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders are pervasive in society and their impact affects quality of life, morbidity and mortality, as well as individual productivity. Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual’s physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual’s health, behavior, and ability to interact with others. Youth are particularly affected. Unfortunately, adolescent usage also increases the probability for a progression to dependence. Several areas of research indicate that the deleterious effects of alcohol abuse may be exacerbated by mixing caffeine with alcohol. Some behavioral evidence suggests that caffeine increases alcohol drinking and binge drinking episodes, which in turn can foster the development of alcohol dependence. As a relatively new public health concern, the epidemiological focus has been to establish a need for investigating the effects of caffeinated alcohol. While the trend of co-consuming these substances is growing, knowledge of the central mechanisms associated with caffeinated ethanol has been lacking. Research suggests that caffeine and ethanol can have additive or synergistic pharmacological actions and neuroadaptations, with the adenosine and dopamine systems in particular implicated. However, the limited literature on the central effects of caffeinated ethanol provides an impetus to increase our knowledge of the neuroadaptive effects of this combination and their impact on cognition and behavior. Research from our laboratories indicates that an established rodent animal model of alcoholism can be extended to investigate the acute and chronic effects of caffeinated ethanol. PMID:25419478

  6. Alcoholic liver disease and pancreatitis: global health problems being addressed by the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Warren, Kenneth R; Murray, Margaret M

    2013-08-01

    The review article summarizes the mission of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) with focus on the NIAAA's current and future research version for alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic pancreatitis.

  7. Economic issues and public alcohol abuse prevention policies in France

    PubMed

    Spach, Miléna

    2016-10-19

    Objective: To analyse the impact of the alcohol market on the implementation of strong-willed public alcohol abuse prevention policies based on a critical review of the literature. Method: Documentary research and analysis of the alcohol market economic data were performed. An overview of public alcohol abuse prevention policies was conducted from a historical perspective by distinguishing drunkenness control policies, protection of vulnerable populations, and the fight against drink driving and drinking in the workplace. Results: Public alcohol abuse prevention policies are primarily designed to reduce the harmful consequences of alcohol occurring as a result of a drinking episode (motor vehicle accident, highway accidents, etc.), while neglecting the long-term consequences (cancer, cirrhosis, etc.). Moreover, while taxation is one of the major public health tools used to reduce the costs of alcohol-related damage on society, the State exercises legislative and tax protection for alcoholic beverages produced in France. In particular, wine benefits from a lower tax rate than other stronger forms of alcohol (spirits, liquors, etc.). The economic weight of the alcohol market can provide an explanation for these public alcohol abuse prevention policies. Conclusion: In view of the mortality caused by alcohol abuse, France must implement a proactive public policy. An alcohol taxation policy based on the alcohol content, a minimum unit pricing for alcohol, or higher taxes on alcohol are public policies that could be considered in order to reduce alcohol-related mortality.

  8. Child physical abuse and adult mental health: a national study.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F; Blanco, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16-2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention.

  9. DISABILITY ASSOCIATED WITH ALCOHOL ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Samokhvalov, Andriy V.; Popova, Svetlana; Room, Robin; Ramonas, Milita; Rehm, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Alcohol use disorders (AUD), i.e., alcohol dependence and abuse are major contributors to burden of disease. A large part of this burden is due to disability. However, there is still controversy about the best disability weighting for alcohol use disorders. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of alcohol-related disabilities. METHODS Systematic literature review and expert interviews. RESULTS There is heterogeneity in experts’ descriptions of disabilities related to AUD. The major core attributes of disability related to AUD are changes of emotional state, social relationships, memory and thinking. The most important supplementary attributes are anxiety, impairments of speech and hearing. CONCLUSIONS This review identified the main patterns of disability associated with alcohol use disorders. However, there was considerable variability, and data on less prominent patterns were fragmented. Further and systematic research is required for increasing the knowledge on disability related to alcohol use disorders and for application of interventions for reducing the associated burden. OBJECTIVE To provide an overview of disabilities associated with AUD. PMID:20662803

  10. Comorbidity of personality disorders with alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Mellos, Eleftherios; Liappas, Ioannis; Paparrigopoulos, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    There is high comorbidity of alcohol dependence with mood, anxiety, substance abuse and personality disorders. Personality disorders, in particular, are considered to be an important contributing and/or predisposing factor in the pathogenesis, clinical course and treatment outcome of alcohol dependence. According to clinical and epidemiological studies, the prevalence of personality disorders in alcoholism ranges from as low as 22-40% to as high as 58-78%. The literature has focused primarily on antisocial and borderline personality disorders; however, almost the whole spectrum of personality disorders can be encountered in alcohol dependence, such as the dependent, avoidant, paranoid and others. A number of factors, such as sampling methods, diagnostic criteria used or assessment procedures applied, may explain this wide variation. The quest of a distinct 'alcoholic personality' dates from the first half of the 20th century but failed to reveal consistent and strong substantiation. However, renewed efforts provided evidence for the importance of impulsivity/ disinhibition and neuroticism/negative affectivity in the development of alcohol dependence; the role of other personality traits such as extraversion/sociability is still unclear. These findings led to a number of typologies, some of the most popular and influential being those of Cloninger, Babor, and Lesch.

  11. 76 FR 36930 - National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Advisory Council on Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Institute on Drug Abuse... Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Advisory Council on Drug... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and...

  12. 78 FR 10185 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  13. 77 FR 14023 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  14. 76 FR 22715 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  15. 75 FR 36660 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  16. 76 FR 22717 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  17. 76 FR 32978 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  18. 77 FR 28889 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  19. 77 FR 14024 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  20. 77 FR 26770 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  1. 75 FR 37818 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  2. 77 FR 61769 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  3. 77 FR 54919 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review Group Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: November 2, 2012. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To...

  4. 76 FR 44599 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...-- Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior Research Review Subcommittee. Date: November 3, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 6...

  5. 76 FR 44600 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, RFA AA-12-001 DNA Repository for the NIAAA NESARC--III (U24). Date: August 5, 2011. Time: 11...

  6. 75 FR 42756 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: August 19, 2010. Time: 1 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications....

  7. 77 FR 72873 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict Applications--Basic Sciences. Date: December 19, 2012. Time: 1:00 p.m. to...

  8. 76 FR 44597 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA--Member Conflict applications--K Series. Date: August 2, 2011. Time: 2 to 3:30 p.m....

  9. 75 FR 8726 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, Review of Applications on Case Ascertainment to Estimate the U.S. Prevalence of Fetal...

  10. 76 FR 44596 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, Institutional Training Grant Review. Date: October 11, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. Agenda:...

  11. 77 FR 64117 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel. Name of Committee: Date: November 5, 2012. Time: 2:30 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. Agenda: To...

  12. 76 FR 44599 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Time: 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Hyatt Regency...

  13. 76 FR 44597 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...: October 18-19, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications....

  14. 76 FR 44600 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: November 10, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. Agenda:...

  15. 77 FR 54919 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review Group Biomedical Research Review Subcommittee. Date: October 16, 2012. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda:...

  16. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict Applications--Biosciences. Date: October 28, 2010. Time: 11 a.m. to 2...

  17. 75 FR 24961 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NADIA Consortium Review (IN). Date: May 19, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 7 p.m. Agenda: To review...

  18. 75 FR 20852 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on...

  19. 77 FR 43604 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on...

  20. 78 FR 45541 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on...

  1. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on...

  2. 77 FR 68135 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on...

  3. 77 FR 24726 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on...

  4. 78 FR 71628 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on...

  5. 76 FR 39406 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on...

  6. 76 FR 78015 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on...

  7. Forensic aspects of alcohol abuse and homicide.

    PubMed

    Palijan, Tija Zarković; Kovacević, Drazen; Radeljak, Sanja; Kovac, Marina; Mustapić, Jelena

    2009-09-01

    Numerous investigations indicate a close link between violent behavior, homicide (murder) and alcohol intoxication. With increased frequency of drinking and the chronic consummation of alcohol, the risk of the fatal outcome or homicide and victimization caused by violence is more likely to occur. Studies conducted on convicted murderers suggested that about half of them were under the heavy influence of alcohol at the time of perpetration of murder. The sample in this survey consisted of 177 male offenders which committed criminal act of murder in Croatia from the year of 1990 until 2007 (capital murder and attempted murder). All were assigned for the forensic psychiatric evaluation by the Criminal Justice System (Court of Law) at the Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Popovaca, Croatia. For the purpose of this work the sample is divided in two groups of subjects: 1) offenders which were intoxicated at the time of murder and committed offence on intoxicated victim 2) offenders who were sober and committed offence on sober victims. Groups are compared according to the variables of crime and history of alcohol abuse. On the basis of obtained results we can conclude that there are significant differences in relation to the variables and modalities of criminal offence between two groups of offenders and victims. We could conclude that alcohol intoxication in offenders and victims at the time of murder could strongly affect the modalities of murder.

  8. Alcoholism and Familial Abuse: Enhancement of Quality Force Programs Using a Companion-Problem Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    physical auc] sexual abuse and spouse abuse) hurt Air Force readiness and mission accomiplishmnent. The Air Force needs better means of problem identi- A...Abuse and Domestic Violence ................... 7 Alcohol Abuse and Child Physical Abuse ............... 9 i Alcohol Abuse and Child Sexual Abuse...abuse (spouse abuse, child phyzical abuse, and child sexual abuse) are serious problems in today’s Air Force. Beyond the moral considerations, they

  9. 77 FR 39716 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, Review of RFA AA-12-009. Date: July 17-19, 2012. Time: 10:00...

  10. The Relationship between Prenatal Care, Personal Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Abuse in the Home Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grekin, Emily R.; Ondersma, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been…

  11. Child Maltreatment and Adult Substance Abuse: The Role of Memory.

    PubMed

    Elwyn, Laura; Smith, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a risk factor for substance abuse in adulthood. This study examines whether memory of maltreatment is a necessary link in the path leading from prospectively measured childhood maltreatment to adult substance use problems. Official Child Protective Services reports and adult retrospective recall of childhood maltreatment were used to predict illegal drug use and alcohol problems in adulthood controlling for covariates. Memory was a necessary link in the path between prospective reports of maltreatment and alcohol problems, and an important link in the path between prospective reports and illegal drug use. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed.

  12. Child Maltreatment and Adult Substance Abuse: The Role of Memory

    PubMed Central

    ELWYN, LAURA; SMITH, CAROLYN

    2013-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a risk factor for substance abuse in adulthood. This study examines whether memory of maltreatment is a necessary link in the path leading from prospectively measured childhood maltreatment to adult substance use problems. Official Child Protective Services reports and adult retrospective recall of childhood maltreatment were used to predict illegal drug use and alcohol problems in adulthood controlling for covariates. Memory was a necessary link in the path between prospective reports of maltreatment and alcohol problems, and an important link in the path between prospective reports and illegal drug use. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:24319347

  13. Lack of Emotional Support from Parents Early in Life and Alcohol Abuse Later in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Benjamin A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between lacking emotional support from parents early in life and adult alcohol abuse. A series of logistic regression models were run with data collected from a nationally representative sample of over 2,500 adults ages 25-74. The findings reveal a linear relationship between level of…

  14. "Natural Recovery" from Alcohol Abuse among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misch, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    As they progress through college, a significant number of students reduce their abusive alcohol consumption without formal interventions on the part of the university, other agencies, or counseling/mental health services. Such "natural recovery" may offer important clues as to both the etiology and reduction of alcohol abuse on campus. The author…

  15. Attribution of Blame for Wife Abuse by Alcoholics and Nonalcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carducci, Bernardo J.; McNeely, Judith A.

    Several researchers have explored the role of alcohol in domestic violence and attributions of blame. To compare the amount of blame attributed to an incident of wife abuse, alcoholic (N=52) and nonalcoholic (N=159) subjects read an account of wife abuse and distributed a percentage of the blame to the man, the woman, and the situation.…

  16. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses intoxicants to excess is subject to removal (5 U.S.C. 7352). The Relocation Commission recognizes...

  17. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.13 Alcohol and drug abuse programs. (a) Commanders will refer military personnel suspected of drug or...

  18. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.13 Alcohol and drug abuse programs. (a) Commanders will refer military personnel suspected of drug or...

  19. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.13 Alcohol and drug abuse programs. (a) Commanders will refer military personnel suspected of drug or...

  20. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.13 Alcohol and drug abuse programs. (a) Commanders will refer military personnel suspected of drug or...

  1. Alcohol and Drug Abusers Entering Treatment: How Different Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seraganian, Peter; And Others

    A major shift in drug abuse epidemiology has been witnessed in North America over the past decade. Although alcohol continues to be widely abused, usage of other substances has proliferated. While addicted individuals share some attributes, certain demographic, psychological, and cognitive characteristics may distinguish alcoholics from those who…

  2. Prevalence of alcohol abuse and alcoholism in general population of Mostar region, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Skobić, Helena; Sinanović, Osman; Skobić Bovan, Nada; Ivanković, Ante; Pejanović Skobić, Natasa

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of alcohol abuse and alcoholism in the general population of Mostar region, Bosnia and Herzegovina. This study was conducted on a stratified sample of 704 participants. The prevalence of alcohol abuse was determined using standardized questionnaire on alcohol consumption--Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. Prevalence of alcohol abuse with high risk for alcoholism was 9.9% and prevalence of alcohol addiction was 2.1%. In student population, there were 3.9% of alcohol addicts and 11.1% of persons with high risk of alcoholism. In high school population, there were 1.7% of alcohol addicts and 14.4% of persons with high risk of alcoholism. In Mostar region there was a high prevalence of alcoholism and problematic drinking, especially in high school and student population. There is a need for extensive preventive measures that have to include education, early diagnosis and intervention.

  3. Early identification of alcohol abuse: 2: Clinical and laboratory indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Holt, S; Skinner, H A; Israel, Y

    1981-01-01

    Despite awareness of the wide variety of clinical and laboratory abnormalities associated with alcohol abuse, drinking problems often remain undetected in hospital and in general medical practice. The diagnosis of alcohol abuse has been emphasized repeatedly in the literature but far less attention has been paid to indicators that would permit detection of excessive drinking at a stage when intervention might be more effective and less costly. The search for indicators of early alcohol abuse is complicated since many of the medical sequelae of alcoholism are nonspecific and may only be manifested after a number of years of excessive drinking. Part 2 of this two-part series considers various clinical and laboratory features related to alcohol abuse and highlights items that are potentially more sensitive for detecting early stages of problem drinking. Use by physicians of a composite profile of both biomedical and psychosocial indicators of excessive alcohol consumption is recommended for early identification of this problem. PMID:7016289

  4. 75 FR 62553 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended... Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, November 3, 2010, 2 p.m. to November 3, 2010, 5...

  5. 77 FR 14023 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended... Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, March 28, 2012, 4 p.m. to March 29, 2012, 8 p.m.,...

  6. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  7. Health, developmental, and nutritional status of adolescent alcohol and marijuana abusers.

    PubMed

    Farrow, J A; Rees, J M; Worthington-Roberts, B S

    1987-02-01

    The impact of alcohol and marijuana abuse on the physical health and nutritional status of adolescents has not been well documented. The health consequences of alcoholism and chemical abuse in adults may not relate to the pediatric population. Forty-nine adolescent boys (mean age 15.8 years) with varying degrees of alcohol and marijuana use by self-report were evaluated as to their general health, pubertal development and nutritional status using health and dietary history, physical examination, anthropometrics, and biochemical assays of liver function and tissue nutrients. Thirteen (27%) were alcohol and marijuana abusers, 20 (41%) marijuana abusers, and 16 (32%) nonusers. There were significant differences between alcohol and marijuana abusers and marijuana abusers compared to nonusers with respect to endorsing symptoms of nutritional deficiency (muscle weakness, bleeding gums, tiredness, etc) (P less than .001). There were no significant differences between subgroups in other nutritional measures except plasma zinc concentration which was low in marijuana abusers (mean 85 micrograms/dL). All adolescents reported consuming adequate nutrients, although alcohol and marijuana abusers reported eating more snack foods and less fruit, vegetables, and milk than other groups. There were no significant differences in hematologic status (complete blood cell count, transferrin, folate), liver function (gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase), or anthropometric and sexual maturational indices of growth. There were no chronic signs of chemical abuse by physical examinations. It appears that health and nutritional disability from chemical abuse in adolescents relates more to poor dietary habits and symptomatic deterioration in general health than to specific effects on growth or nutritional status. Studies with larger numbers of subjects need to document these findings.

  8. Psychiatric Disorders of Children Living with Drug-Abusing, Alcohol-Abusing, and Non-Substance-Abusing Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined lifetime psychiatric disorders and current emotional and behavioral problems of 8- to 12-year-old children living with drug-abusing (DA) fathers compared to children living in demographically matched homes with alcohol-abusing (AA) or non-substance-abusing fathers. Method: Children's lifetime psychiatric…

  9. Alcohol abusive use increases facial trauma?

    PubMed Central

    Soares-Carneiro, Suzana-Célia-de-Aguiar; Matos da-Silva, Gessyca-Suielly-Melo; de-Barros-Caldas, Luciano-Cruz; Porto, Gabriela-Granja; Leal, Jefferson-Figueiredo; Catunda, Ivson

    2016-01-01

    Background Trauma is among the main death causes and morbidity in the world and is often related to the use of alcohol and its abuse has reached massive proportions, no matter if the country is developed or not, being considered as public health problem. Since there are very few randomized and prospective studies in literature about the association of facial trauma and the use of alcohol, this study aims to investigate the impact of alcohol use in facial trauma. Material and Methods This was a prospective and cross sectional study, involving facial trauma patients attended at Oral Maxillofacial Surgery Division of a State Hospital. Variables included patient´s profile, trauma etiology, facial region involved, type of injury and treatment and days of hospitalization. AUDIT test was applied to identify risks and damages of alcohol use and chemical dependence. Absolute distribution, uni and mutilvaried percentages were made for data evaluation. Pearson´s qui-squared and Fisher´s Exact tests were also used. Results One hundred patients were evaluated. The patient´s mean age was 33.50 years-old, 48% had between 17 and 29 years old, 28% had 30 to 39, and 24% 40 or more. Most of them were male (86%). The most frequent etiology was traffic accident (57%), the extraoral area was most committed (62%), the most frequent type of injury was fractures (78%) and the most affected bone was the mandible (36%). More than half of the patients (53%) had surgical treatment. 38% had their discharge from hospital right after the first attendance. The AUDIT most frequent answer was “moderate use” (46%) and use at risk (39%). There was significant difference between the use of alcohol (AUDIT) and hematoma (0.003) and number of days of hospitalization (p=0.005). Conclusions In this study it was not observed association between alcohol consumption using the AUDIT and trauma etiology, but patient victims of traffic accidents were classified as with risk in the scale. Most of the

  10. Assisting sexually abused adults. Practical guide to interviewing patients.

    PubMed Central

    Leach, M. M.; Bethune, C.

    1996-01-01

    Millions of adults have been sexually abused. Patients often confide in their family physicians concerning their abuse. Physicians must understand their own issues surrounding sexual abuse and its sequelae before they attempt to treat sexually abused patients. The PLISSIT model offers a practical guide for assisting abused adult patients. PMID:8924817

  11. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Selectively Enhances Young Adult Perceived Pleasantness of Alcohol Odors

    PubMed Central

    Hannigan, John H.; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Sokol, Robert J.; Janisse, James; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (PAE) can lead to life-long neurobehavioral and social problems that can include a greater likelihood of early use and/or abuse of alcohol compared to older teens and young adults without PAE. Basic research in animals demonstrates that PAE influences later postnatal responses to chemosensory cues (i.e., odor & taste) associated with alcohol. We hypothesized that PAE would be related to poorer abilities to identify odors of alcohol-containing beverages, and would alter perceived alcohol odor intensity and pleasantness. To address this hypothesis we examined responses to alcohol and other odors in a small sample of young adults with detailed prenatal histories of exposure to alcohol and other drugs. The key finding from our controlled analyses is that higher levels of PAE were related to higher relative ratings of pleasantness for alcohol odors. As far as we are aware, this is the first published study to report the influence of PAE on responses to alcohol beverage odors in young adults. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that positive associations (i.e., “pleasantness”) to the chemosensory properties of alcohol (i.e., odor) are acquired prenatally and are retained for many years despite myriad interceding postnatal experiences. Alternate hypotheses may also be supported by the results. There are potential implications of altered alcohol odor responses for understanding individual differences in initiation of drinking, and alcohol seeking and high-risk alcohol-related behaviors in young adults. PMID:25600468

  12. Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most

    MedlinePlus

    ... Affects Young Adults Most Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most Email Facebook Twitter Text Description of Infographic Young adults (age 18 to 25) are the biggest abusers of prescription (Rx) opioid pain relievers, ADHD stimulants, ...

  13. Drug and alcohol trajectories among adults with schizophrenia: Data from the CATIE Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Desmarais, Sarah L.; Tueller, Stephen J.; Jolley, Jennifer M.; Johnson, Kiersten L.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The primary aim is to describe drug and alcohol trajectories in adults with schizophrenia. Method Growth mixture models were used to examine disordered and non-disordered use and abstinence in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness trial. Results Five classes—always abstinent; fluctuating use, abuse, and occasional abstinence; occasional (ab)use; stopped (ab)use; abusing—fit best. Overlap exists between always abstinent drug and alcohol classes; less overlap exists across other classes. Conclusion There is heterogeneity in drug and alcohol use among adults with schizophrenia. The lack of overlap between classes, save always abstinent, suggests modeling drug and alcohol use separately. PMID:23726721

  14. College Students and Alcohol Abuse: New Resources Can Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. College Students and Alcohol Abuse: New Resources Can Help Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table ... to reducing drunk driving, NIH research is developing new intervention tools and techniques to help colleges, students, ...

  15. Conducting an Initial Interview with the Alcohol Abuser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstein, Lawrence H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Offers model to teach counselor trainees about behaviors exhibited by alcohol abusers in need of detoxification. Discusses behaviors displayed by helpers while conducting initial intake interviews with abusers seeking detoxification in a community setting and offers suggestions for how novice practitioners can establish rapport with such clients…

  16. Genetic and biological markers in drug abuse and alcoholism

    SciTech Connect

    Braude, M.C.; Chao, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Polymorphic Gene Marker Studies; Pharmacogenetic Approaches to the Prediction of Drug Response; Genetic Markers of Drug Abuse in Mouse Models; Genetics as a Tool for Identifying Biological Markers of Drug Abuse; and Studies of an Animal Model of Alcoholism.

  17. Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records. Participant Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggins, Patrick C.; And Others

    This participant manual is designed to provide an overview of federal laws and regulations pertaining to the confidentiality of alcohol and drug abuse patient records. The relationship of federal laws to state laws and regulations is also discussed. The materials, useful for persons involved in the fields of substance abuse treatment or…

  18. Alcohol and drug abuse among U.S. veterans: comparing associations with intimate partner substance abuse and veteran psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mark W; Reardon, Annemarie F; Wolf, Erika J; Prince, Lauren B; Hein, Christina L

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the relative influences of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other psychopathology, and intimate partner alcohol and drug use on substance-related problems in U.S. veterans (242 couples, N = 484). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that partner alcohol and drug use severity explained more variance in veteran alcohol use and drug use (20% and 13%, respectively) than did veteran PTSD, adult antisocial behavior, or depression symptoms combined (6% for veteran alcohol use; 7% for veteran drug use). Findings shed new light on the influence of relationship factors on veteran alcohol and drug use and underscore the importance of couples-oriented approaches to treating veterans with comorbid PTSD and substance abuse.

  19. Maternal inheritance of alcohol abuse. Cross-fostering analysis of adopted women.

    PubMed

    Bohman, M; Sigvardsson, S; Cloninger, C R

    1981-09-01

    The inheritance of alcohol abuse was studied in 913 Swedish women adopted by nonrelatives at an early age. There was a threefold excess of alcohol abusers among the adopted daughters of alcoholic biological mothers compared with other daughters. In addition, there was an excess of alcohol abuse among the daughters of biological fathers with alcohol abuse that was mild and not associated with criminality. However, fathers with extensive treatment for both alcoholism and criminality had no excess of alcoholic daughters. This confirms the heterogeneity among alcoholics noted in earlier work with adopted sons, which found that the latter type of criminal alcoholics also had no excess of alcoholic mothers. Imitation of alcohol abuse by adoptive parents did not increase later alcohol abuse by adopted women. The importance of nonfamilial environments and maternal effects is demonstrated for alcohol abuse in women.

  20. The behavioral economics of young adult substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Murphy, James G; Dennhardt, Ashley A

    2016-11-01

    Alcohol and drug use peaks during young adulthood and can interfere with critical developmental tasks and set the stage for chronic substance misuse and associated social, educational, and health-related outcomes. There is a need for novel, theory-based approaches to guide substance abuse prevention efforts during this critical developmental period. This paper discusses the particular relevance of behavioral economic theory to young adult alcohol and drug misuse, and reviews of available literature on prevention and intervention strategies that are consistent with behavioral economic theory. Behavioral economic theory predicts that decisions to use drugs and alcohol are related to the relative availability and price of both alcohol and substance-free alternative activities, and the extent to which reinforcement from delayed substance-free outcomes is devalued relative to the immediate reinforcement associated with drugs. Behavioral economic measures of motivation for substance use are based on relative levels of behavioral and economic resource allocation towards drug versus alternatives, and have been shown to predict change in substance use over time. Policy and individual level prevention approaches that are consistent with behavioral economic theory are discussed, including brief interventions that increase future orientation and engagement in rewarding alternatives to substance use. Prevention approaches that increase engagement in constructive future-oriented activities among young adults (e.g., educational/vocational success) have the potential to reduce future health disparities associated with both substance abuse and poor educational/vocational outcomes.

  1. What College Students Are Telling Us about Alcohol Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Jeanne A.; Kile, Marilyn J.

    This paper describes the successful use of student focus groups by the University of Wisconsin--Whitewater Student Health Center to assess marketing strategies for alcohol abuse prevention. The focus group is a group of 13 students who met several times with a facilitator to share perceptions, feelings, and attitudes about alcohol abuse…

  2. Alcohol Abuse and Depression in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ping; Hoven, Christina W.; Okezie, Ngozi; Fuller, Cordelia J.; Cohen, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in patterns of the co-occurrence of alcohol abuse and depression in youth. Data were from 1,458 youth (ages 9-17) randomly selected from the community. The child and one parent/guardian in each household were interviewed regarding childhood psychopathology, alcohol and drug use, and a wide array of risk…

  3. A Proactive Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallett, Alphonse J.

    Anticipating a resident population by 1991, the State University of New York Institute of Technology at Utica/Rome is establishing a proactive alcohol and drug abuse prevention program with links to the surrounding community. According to a recent study, the college student population exceeds national norms for alcohol and drug consumption, and…

  4. Investigating Alcohol Abuse among Persons Who Are Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelipovich, M.; Buss, E.

    1991-01-01

    The article presents findings of a survey of disabled populations (3,216 responses) in Wisconsin concerning alcohol abuse and disability. The survey results suggest that people with disabilities consume more alcohol than nondisabled people and some disability groups (including the blind or visually impaired) drink more than others. Assessment and…

  5. Stop the Tears of Drug and Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimon, Jane; Gibson, Terry-Ann; Spear, Caile

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: By participating in this Stop the Tears teaching strategy, students will be able to: (1) analyze how alcohol and drug abuse could affect their lives as well as the lives of their friends and family and, (2) create a media message, such as a poster, pamphlet, poem, or song, in which alcohol and drug prevention is advocated specific to…

  6. Alcohol Abuse on a College Campus: A Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walfish, Steven; And Others

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a needs assessment study conducted by a university-based alcohol abuse prevention project. Results suggest that students are experiencing numerous difficulties in the physical, educational, legal, and psychological areas due to their use of alcoholic beverages. Implications for prevention and intervention…

  7. School/Community-Based Alcoholism/Substance Abuse Prevention Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owan, Tom Choken; And Others

    This report describes school and community efforts to prevent alcoholism and substance abuse among American Indian and Alaskan Native youth. In 1986, the Indian Health Service (IHS) surveyed Bureau of Indian Affairs schools, public schools with large Indian enrollments, and community groups involved in 225 IHS-funded alcohol and substance abuse…

  8. Childhood Sexual Abuse. A Booklet for First Nations Adult Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Alana; And Others

    This booklet offers information about sources of help for First Nations adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse, particularly in Canada. It explains the definition of sexual abuse and describes the specifics of the law regarding such abuse. Descriptions of common aspects of childhood sexual abuse include quotes from adult survivors. Long-term…

  9. Psychological Sequelae in Adult Females Reporting Childhood Ritualistic Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Kathy J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of 19 adult females reporting childhood ritualistic sexual abuse with 27 adult females reporting sexual abuse without ritualism found that women reporting ritualistic abuse scored significantly higher on measures of childhood sexual and physical abuse severity. Neither posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic status nor PTSD…

  10. Recognizing alcohol and drug abuse in patients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Conason, A H; Brunstein Klomek, A; Sher, L

    2006-05-01

    Eating disorders and alcohol/drug abuse are frequently comorbid. Eating-disordered patients are already at an increased risk for morbidity and mortality, so alcohol and drug use pose additional dangers for these patients. Restricting anorexics, binge eaters, and bulimics appear to be distinct subgroups within the eating-disordered population, with binge eaters and bulimics more prone to alcohol and drug use. Personality traits such as impulsivity have been linked to both bulimia nervosa and substance abuse. Many researchers have proposed that an addictive personality is an underlying trait that predisposes individuals to both eating disorders and alcohol abuse. Interviewing is generally the most useful tool in diagnosing alcohol and substance abuse disorders in individuals with eating disorders. It is essential for the physician to be non-judgmental when assessing for substance abuse disorders in this population. We discuss interviewing techniques, screening instruments, physical examination, and biological tests that can be used in evaluating patients with comorbid eating disorders and substance abuse. More studies are needed to understand psychobiological mechanisms of this comorbidity, and to develop treatments for individuals with comorbid eating disorders and substance misuse.

  11. 24 CFR 5.857 - When must I prohibit admission of alcohol abusers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Assisted Housing-Denying Admission and Terminating Tenancy for Criminal Activity or Alcohol Abuse Denying... a household member's abuse or pattern of abuse of alcohol interferes with the health, safety, or... alcohol abusers? 5.857 Section 5.857 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department...

  12. Characteristics of bulimic women with and without alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Bulik, C M; Sullivan, P F; McKee, M; Weltzin, T E; Kaye, W H

    1994-01-01

    We compared the characteristics of hospitalized women with bulimia nervosa alone (N = 19) and with bulimia nervosa plus alcohol abuse (N = 13) using standard measures of depression, eating disorders, general psychiatric symptomatology, and temperament. Bulimic women with alcohol abuse had significantly higher lowest past weight, but did not differ from women with bulimia alone on age, age of onset of bulimia, current weight, and highest past weight. There were no differences in clinical symptoms of bulimia, depression, or general psychiatric symptomatology. On Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), bulimic women with alcohol abuse scored significantly higher on Total Novelty Seeking, on the Novelty Seeking Subscale Disorderliness, and on the Reward Dependence Subscale Attachment. Implications for understanding the relation between bulimia and substance abuse are discussed.

  13. Neuropsychological performance of recently abstinent alcoholics and cocaine abusers.

    PubMed

    Beatty, W W; Katzung, V M; Moreland, V J; Nixon, S J

    1995-03-01

    To examine possible influences of premorbid and comorbid factors on the neuropsychological test performance of recently abstinent (3-5 weeks) drug abusers, we studied 24 alcoholics, 23 cocaine abusers, and 22 healthy controls of comparable age and education. Both alcoholics and cocaine abusers performed significantly more poorly than controls on most measures of learning and memory, problem solving and abstraction and perceptual-motor speed, but the groups did not differ on the measure of sustained attention. Correlational analyses revealed no significant relationships between measures of childhood and residual hyperactivity and neuropsychological performance; scores on the Beck Depression Inventory were related only to performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The findings indicate that abuse of cocaine or alcohol is associated with deficits on neuropsychological tests which cannot be attributed to specific premorbid or comorbid factors such as depression or childhood or residual attention deficit disorder.

  14. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA ... are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders » Other Psychiatric Disorders In this Section ...

  15. Puberty, hormones, and sex differences in alcohol abuse and dependence.

    PubMed

    Witt, Ellen D

    2007-01-01

    Sex differences in patterns of drinking and rates of alcohol abuse and dependence begin to emerge during the transition from late puberty to young adulthood. Increases in pubertal hormones, including gonadal and stress hormones, are a prominent developmental feature of adolescence and could contribute to the progression of sex differences in alcohol drinking patterns during puberty. This paper reviews experimental and correlational studies of gonadal and stress-related hormone changes and their effects on alcohol drinking and other associated actions of alcohol. Mechanisms are suggested by which reproductive hormones and stress-related hormones may modulate neural circuits within the brain reward system to produce sex differences in alcohol drinking patterns and vulnerability to alcohol abuse and dependence which become apparent during the late pubertal period.

  16. Childhood abuse, adult interpersonal abuse, and depression in individuals with extreme obesity.

    PubMed

    Salwen, Jessica K; Hymowitz, Genna F; Vivian, Dina; O'Leary, K Daniel

    2014-03-01

    This study sought to examine (a) a mediational model of childhood abuse, adult interpersonal abuse, and depressive symptoms and (b) the impact of weight-related teasing on rates and correlates of childhood abuse. Charts of 187 extremely obese individuals seeking psychological clearance for bariatric (weight-loss) surgery were retrospectively examined. Among the participants, 61% reported a history of childhood abuse, 30.5% reported adult interpersonal abuse, and 15% reported clinically significant depressive symptoms. Initially, the relationship between childhood abuse and current depressive symptoms was significant (p<.001). However, the introduction of adult interpersonal abuse as a mediator in the model reduced the magnitude of its significance (Sobel's test p=.01). The associations between childhood abuse and adult interpersonal abuse and between adult interpersonal abuse and depressive symptoms were significant (p<.001 and p=.002, respectively), and the model showed a good fit across multiple indices. Finally, weight-related teasing was a significant moderator in the relationship between childhood and adult interpersonal abuse. Bariatric surgery patients report elevated rates of childhood abuse that are comparable to rates in psychiatric populations (e.g., eating disorders, depression), and higher than those in community samples and other medical populations. The relationship between child abuse and depressive symptomatology may be partially explained by the presence of adult interpersonal abuse; additionally, the relationship between childhood and adult interpersonal abuse was stronger for those who did not endure weight-related teasing than for those who did.

  17. Federalizing Medical Campaigns against Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Metlay, Grischa

    2013-01-01

    Context The formation of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention (SAODAP) in the early 1970s dramatically expanded scientific and medical efforts to control alcoholism and drug abuse in the United States. Methods Drawing on a variety of primary, secondary, and archival sources, this article describes the creation and early years of these agencies. Findings I show that while the agencies appeared at roughly the same time, their creation involved separate sets of issues and actors. In addition, I show that SAODAP received more money and resources, even though advocates for alcoholics mobilized a stronger lobbying campaign. Conclusions Two factors explain this discrepancy in money and resources: (1) alcoholism was framed as a public health problem, whereas drug abuse was drawn into broader debates about crime and social decline; and (2) alcohol programs relied on congressional support, whereas drug programs found champions at high levels of the Nixon administration. These political and cultural factors help explain why current programs for illegal drugs receive more federal support, despite alcohol's greater public health burden. PMID:23488713

  18. Drug and alcohol abuse: the bases for employee assistance programs in the nuclear-utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Radford, L.R.; Rankin, W.L.; Barnes, V.; McGuire, M.V.; Hope, A.M.

    1983-07-01

    This report describes the nature, prevalence, and trends of drug and alcohol abuse among members of the US adult population and among personnel in non-nuclear industries. Analogous data specific to the nuclear utility industry are not available, so these data were gathered in order to provide a basis for regulatory planning. The nature, prevalence, and trend inforamtion was gathered using a computerized literature, telephone discussions with experts, and interviews with employee assistance program representatives from the Seattle area. This report also evaluates the possible impacts that drugs and alcohol might have on nuclear-related job performance, based on currently available nuclear utility job descriptions and on the scientific literature regarding the impairing effects of drugs and alcohol on human performance. Employee assistance programs, which can be used to minimize or eliminate job performance decrements resulting from drug or alcohol abuse, are also discussed.

  19. 75 FR 42449 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... Panel, Review of RFA AA10-007 & AA10- 008 Gut-Liver-Brain Interactions in Alcohol Induced...

  20. 76 FR 51378 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol...

  1. Substance abuse vulnerability in offspring of alcohol and drug abusers.

    PubMed

    McCaul, M E

    1998-03-01

    Epidemiological research has clearly demonstrated the importance of a family history as a determinant of future alcohol and, possibly, drug use in offspring of alcoholics. Laboratory studies have examined a wide range of potential markers both in the presence and absence of alcohol challenge, which may predict those subjects at high risk for the future development of alcoholism. While this body of research has yielded several replicable differences in FHP and FHN subjects, it also has been marked by many discrepancies in outcomes across studies. Future refinements in subject ascertainment and laboratory methodologies may help to bring greater procedural uniformity and consistency in study outcomes.

  2. Alcohol and substance abuse in solid-organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Parker, Richard; Armstrong, Matthew J; Corbett, Chris; Day, Edward J; Neuberger, James M

    2013-12-27

    This review focuses on alcohol and substance abuse in the context of solid-organ transplantation. Alcohol and substance abuse are common and may lead to a need for solid-organ transplantation and may also contribute to significant physical and psychologic problems that impact upon the recipient. Damaging levels of alcohol intake can occur in the absence of dependence. Alcohol or substance abuse after transplantation is associated with poor medication compliance and this may increase risk of graft loss. Intravenous drug use is associated with increased risk of infections (especially secondary to opportunistic organisms-bacterial, viral, protozoal, and others-and such infections may be more severe in the immunosuppressed), but there is only anecdotal evidence that such behavior has a worse outcome in transplant recipients. Whereas previous alcohol excess and drug use in kidney recipients are both associated with a small but statistically significantly increased risk of adverse outcomes (hazard ratio, 1.16-1.56), alcohol use within recommended guidelines after transplantation appears safe and possibly beneficial. Robust data are lacking for other organs, but those available suggest that heart transplantation is safe in individuals with a history of alcohol or substance abuse. Health specialists in drug or alcohol addiction should carefully screen all potential transplant candidates for these conditions, and where there is evidence of dependency or abuse, effective psychologic and physical treatment should be offered. Studies have shown that interventions such as psychologic intervention have improved alcohol behavior in the context of liver transplantation. Although there are no comparable studies with other solid-organ recipients, it is reasonable to expect transferable outcomes.

  3. Integrating Substance Abuse Treatment and Child Welfare Services: Findings from the Illinois Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Waiver Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Marsh, Jeanne C.; Testa, Mark F.; Louderman, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug abuse is a major problem for children and families involved with public child welfare. Substance abuse compromises appropriate parenting practices and increases the risk of child maltreatment. A substantial proportion of substantiated child abuse and neglect reports involve parental substance abuse. Once in the system,…

  4. Alcohol and Drug Use, Abuse, and Dependence in Urban Areas and Colonias of the Texas-Mexico Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallisch, Lynn S.; Spence, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of alcohol and drug use, abuse, and dependence among adults on the Texas-Mexico border in 2002-2003. The findings are based on survey responses from a random sample of 1,200 adults living in households in three communities: El Paso, a densely populated city in west Texas; the less dense urbanized areas of the…

  5. The Epidemiology of Alcohol Abuse among American Indians: The Mythical and Real Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Philip A.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes evidence supporting and refuting myths and common beliefs about alcohol abuse among American Indians. Discusses the prevalence of drinking and alcoholism among Indians, alcohol metabolism, drinking styles, alcohol-related deaths, uncritical use of statistics, alcohol-related child abuse and neglect, sex differences, fetal alcohol…

  6. Toward an Understanding of Alcohol Abuse Among the Elderly: A Sociological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnis, John R.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews some of the demographics of aging and alcohol abuse among the aged, and offers a theoretical approach from the sociology of deviance literature toward understanding alcohol abuse among elderly people. (Author)

  7. Rodent Models of Genetic Contributions to Motivation to Abuse Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Crabbe, John C.

    2016-01-01

    The distinction between alcohol use (normative) and abuse (unfortunately common) implies dysregulation of motivation directed toward the drug. Genetic contributions to abuse risk are mediated through personality differences, other predispositions to drink excessively, and differences in sensitivity to the acute and chronic consequences of the drug. How to assess motivation in laboratory animals is not straightforward but risk factors for and consequences of alcohol abuse can be modeled with reasonable fidelity in laboratory rodents. Remarkably few rodent studies focus on the genetic contributions to alcohol’s reinforcing value: almost all examine preferential drinking of unflavored alcohol over water. Such studies will likely never avoid the confounding role of taste preferences and most often yield intake levels insufficient to yield a pharmacologically significant blood alcohol level. Genotypes that avoid alcohol probably do so based on pre-ingestive sensory cues; however, post-ingestive consequences are also important. Thus, the quest for improved measures of reinforcing value continues. We have genetic differences aplenty, but still lack evidence that any genotype will readily self-administer alcohol to the devastating extent that many alcoholics will. Encouraging results that are emerging include improved behavioral methods for elevating alcohol intake and inferring alcohol reinforcement, as well as new genetic animal models. Several ingenious assays to index alcohol’s motivational effects have been used extensively. Alcoholic drinking that attempts to prevent or to alleviate withdrawal symptoms has been modeled. Another characteristic of alcoholic drinking is its persistence despite abundant evidence to the drinker of the damaging effects of the excessive drinking on work, relationships, and/or health. Modeling such persistence in rodents has been uncommon to date. New genetic animal models include lines of mice selectively bred for chronic high drinking

  8. Childhood and Adult Sexual Abuse, Rumination on Sadness, and Dysphoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Michael; Mendelson, Morris; Giannopoulos, Constantina; Csank, Patricia A. R.; Holm, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The study addressed the hypothesis that adults reporting sexual abuse are more likely to exhibit a general tendency to ruminate on sadness. The relations between reported abuse, rumination on sadness, and dysphoria were also examined. Method: Undergraduate students (101 women and 100 men) reported on childhood and adult sexual abuse and…

  9. 24 CFR 5.860 - When am I specifically authorized to evict alcohol abusers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Federally Assisted Housing-Denying Admission and Terminating Tenancy for Criminal Activity or Alcohol Abuse Terminating Tenancy § 5.860 When am I specifically authorized to evict alcohol abusers? The lease must provide... to evict alcohol abusers? 5.860 Section 5.860 Housing and Urban Development Office of the...

  10. Changing the Culture of Alcohol Abuse on Campus: Lessons Learned from Secondhand Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misch, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is the single greatest public health hazard on American college and university campuses, but the culture of abusive alcohol consumption continues to be highly resistant to change. The author argues that secondhand smoke campaigns can be used as models to change the culture of alcohol abuse on campus. He proposes the implementation of…

  11. Modafinil treatment of amphetamine abuse in adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Mann, N; Bitsios, P

    2009-06-01

    Substance abuse is a frequent co-morbid condition of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Treatment with conventional psychostimulants in adult ADHD with co-morbid stimulant abuse may be problematic. In this study, we report the case of a patient with adult ADHD with co-morbid amphetamine abuse who was treated successfully with the non-stimulant alertness-promoting drug modafinil. The drug resolved both the inattention/hyperactivity symptoms as well as the amphetamine abuse. Modafinil may be a suitable candidate treatment for adults with ADHD and stimulant abuse.

  12. Cerebral reserve capacity: implications for alcohol and drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Fein, George; Di Sclafani, Victoria

    2004-01-01

    Cerebral reserve capacity (or functional reserve) refers to the brain's ability to maintain function when confronted by degenerative processes. Functional reserve can be estimated by several associated measures, including premorbid brain size, premorbid IQ, and level of education attained. There is accumulating evidence that the magnitude of reserve capacity is important in determining the onset and progression of the clinical manifestations of neurodegenerative brain diseases. Normal aging also whittles away at this cerebral reserve, and there may be a consequent unmasking of morbid effects that was not clinically evident when this compensatory reserve was sufficient. We review the evidence supporting this model for a number of degenerative brain processes, including Alzheimer's disease, presenile dementia, HIV dementia, aging, and chronic (multiyear) substance abuse. The concept of cerebral functional reserve has important implications for alcohol and drug abuse morbidity. First, given the high genetic contribution to substance abuse, there is an increased likelihood that the parents of substance abusers were substance abusers themselves. Substance abuse during pregnancy can inhibit brain growth, resulting in reduced brain size and reduced reserve capacity (and therefore less ability to compensate for loss of function later in life). Second, substance abuse is often coupled with poverty, and both substance abuse and poverty are associated with some of the same conditions that reduce brain growth. Finally, we comment on the most important public health implication of the cerebral reserve capacity model (vis-à-vis addiction).

  13. Markers for detecting alcoholism and monitoring for continued abuse.

    PubMed

    Morgan, M Y

    1980-01-01

    Several biochemical and haematological abnormalities are associated with excessive alcohol intake and some are used in the recognition and management of alcoholics. The ideal biological marker for detecting and monitoring alcoholics should be sensitive and highly specific for alcohol abuse; its value should be affected by changes in alcohol intake over relatively short periods of time and it should be quick, simple, convenient and inexpensive to estimate. At the present time no simple reliable marker is available which fulfills these criteria. Measurements of serum aspartate transaminase, serum gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase and mean corpuscular volume are of proven value however and the majority of alcoholics can be detected and monitored by combining the measurements of these three tests. Blood/breath alcohol measurements are of limited value for detection but are useful for follow up. Measurement of the plasma alpha-amino-n-butyric acid/leucine ratio is of disputed value and not likely to be of great practical use. Measurement of serum alpha-lipoproteins, erythrocyte delta-aminolaevulinic acid dehydrase activity and qualitative estimation of serum transferrin have all been proposed as markers for alcohol abuse and are currently under evaluation.

  14. Femininity Issues in Women's Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomberg, Edith S. Lisansky

    Alcohol studies, like most psychological studies, have traditionally focused on males. Several psychosocial theories have been used to explain male alcoholism, including dependency, the power drive, and sex role theory. This latter stance may provide a theoretical framework for the etiology of drinking which will apply to both sexes; however,…

  15. Alcohol Abuse May Affect Staffing Choices. Research Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Debra J.

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes research related to predictors of alcohol abuse among college students and research concerning the impact of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on children's social skills. Implications for camps include thoroughly checking references and background information of college students applying for jobs, and helping campers with…

  16. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... P1700.24B). (c) Active duty Army personnel apprehended for drunk driving, on or off the installation... drug abuse facility. (d) Active duty Navy personnel apprehended for drunk driving on or off the... individual is dependent on alcohol or other drugs. Active duty Marines apprehended for intoxicated...

  17. Study Ties Alcohol Abuse to Increased Heart Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... excess and will avoid any justification for excessive drinking because people think it will be good for their heart. These data pretty clearly prove the opposite," he added. He suggested the new research may be more reliable ... on self-reports of alcohol abuse," Marcus said. "That can be an unreliable ...

  18. Counselor Trainee Attitudes toward Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sharon J.; Sneed, Zachery B.; Koch, D. Shane

    2010-01-01

    Using the Counselor Trainee Attitudes Measure (CTAM) to assess student attitudes toward alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA), results indicated that students had more positive attitudes toward AODA when they were in recovery or had a family member in recovery. Furthermore, completion of AODA related courses predicted more positive attitudes toward…

  19. Alcohol Abuse Prevention: A Comprehensive Guide for Youth Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boys' Clubs of America, New York, NY.

    This guide, the culmination of a three year Project TEAM effort by the Boys' Clubs of America, describes numerous strategies for developing an alcohol abuse prevention program. The core of this guide consists of program models developed by the Boys' Club project at seven pilot sites. The models presented cover the following areas: peer leadership,…

  20. 77 FR 16246 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... Panel; Longitudinal Studies on the Impact of Adolescent Drinking on the Adolescent Brain. Date: April...

  1. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse: An Indexed Bibliography of the Behavioral Science Journal Literature, 1970-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorkey, Clayton T.

    This bibliography contains over 1200 behavioral science journal articles dealing with alcoholism and alcohol abuse. The articles were published between 1970 and 1980 in 116 English language journals. This bibliography is intended for administrators, planners, researchers, counselors, educators and students desiring ready access to recent…

  2. 78 FR 66023 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the Clinical, Treatment and...

  3. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): the association between birthplace, acculturation and alcohol abuse and dependence across Hispanic national groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Rodriguez, Lori A

    2009-01-01

    Hispanics are heterogeneous in national origin, evidenced by wide ranges of alcohol abuse and dependence rates across different Hispanic national groups. This paper examines associations between 12-month rates of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence with birthplace and acculturation. The 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey, using a multistage cluster sample design, interviewed 5224 adults (18+ years) in five selected U.S. metropolitan areas: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. Comprehensive data on drinking behavior were collected and the analyses include bivariate and multivariate regression techniques. Alcohol abuse and dependence rates were higher among U.S.-born Puerto Ricans and South/Central Americans compared to their foreign-born counterparts, while no such differences were found for Cuban and Mexican Americans. Overall, those with higher acculturation report higher rates of abuse and dependence (statistically significant only for abuse among Puerto Ricans). Risk factors for abuse include being male and being in the high acculturation group. Risk factors for dependence include being male, being Puerto Rican or Mexican American, having less than a college education, and being U.S.-born. Hispanics were found to share several common risk factors with the larger U.S. population for abuse and dependence, such as male gender, lower education, and lower income.

  4. Intimate partner violence by men abusing and non-abusing alcohol in Poland.

    PubMed

    Makara-Studzinska, Marta; Gustaw, Katarzyna

    2007-03-01

    Alcohol use is to one of the most of risk factors for intimate partner violence. The aim of this study was to check the difference of demographic characteristics and type of violence between of the perpetrators with a history of alcohol abuse (A) versus the perpetrators without a history of alcohol abuse (N). Data were obtained from the survey conducted in the office of the Association for Violence Prevention in the city of Lublin, Poland. 400 perpetrators and their victims (400 subjects) were examined. To collect information from victims a specially designed questionnaire was used (VQ). Besides, another questionnaire (PQ) and The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to measure alcohol use in the perpetrators. About 76% of the perpetrators scored 8 and above (AUDIT). 84.8% of the perpetrators with a history of alcohol abuse (A) versus 9.2% of the perpetrators without a history of alcohol abuse (N) committed acts of violence after alcohol consumption. The A-perpetrators were more likely to be younger, have lower education and break law, and less likely to have permanent jobs than the N- perpetrators. The significant difference in the type of violence was found: the A-perpetrators were more likely to commit physical violence (78.2%) than the Nperpetrators (33.2%) and the N-perpetrators were more likely to commit sexual violence (32.2%) than A-perpetrators (9.14%). We would like to conclude that despite similarities among perpetrators, they are not a homogenous group so different therapeutic approach should be considered.

  5. Recent Advances in Nicotinic Receptor Signaling in Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shafiqur; Engleman, Eric A; Bell, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly abused legal substance and alcoholism is a serious public health problem. It is a leading cause of preventable death in the world. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of alcohol reward and addiction are still not well understood. Emerging evidence indicates that unlike other drugs of abuse, such as nicotine, cocaine, or opioids, alcohol targets numerous channel proteins, receptor molecules, and signaling pathways in the brain. Previously, research has identified brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), a heterogeneous family of pentameric ligand-gated cation channels expressed in the mammalian brain, as critical molecular targets for alcohol abuse and dependence. Genetic variations encoding nAChR subunits have been shown to increase the vulnerability to develop alcohol dependence. Here, we review recent insights into the rewarding effects of alcohol, as they pertain to different nAChR subtypes, associated signaling molecules, and pathways that contribute to the molecular mechanisms of alcoholism and/or comorbid brain disorders. Understanding these cellular changes and molecular underpinnings may be useful for the advancement of brain nicotinic-cholinergic mechanisms, and will lead to a better translational and therapeutic outcome for alcoholism and/or comorbid conditions.

  6. Recent Advances in Nicotinic Receptor Signaling in Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shafiqur; Engleman, Eric A.; Bell, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly abused legal substance and alcoholism is a serious public health problem. It is a leading cause of preventable death in the world. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of alcohol reward and addiction are still not well understood. Emerging evidence indicates that unlike other drugs of abuse, such as nicotine, cocaine, or opioids, alcohol targets numerous channel proteins, receptor molecules, and signaling pathways in the brain. Previously, research has identified brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), a heterogeneous family of pentameric ligand-gated cation channels expressed in the mammalian brain, as critical molecular targets for alcohol abuse and dependence. Genetic variations encoding nAChR subunits have been shown to increase the vulnerability to develop alcohol dependence. Here, we review recent insights into the rewarding effects of alcohol, as they pertain to different nAChR subtypes, associated signaling molecules, and pathways that contribute to the molecular mechanisms of alcoholism and/or comorbid brain disorders. Understanding these cellular changes and molecular underpinnings may be useful for the advancement of brain nicotinic–cholinergic mechanisms, and will lead to a better translational and therapeutic outcome for alcoholism and/or comorbid conditions. PMID:26810002

  7. Substance Abuse among Older Adults. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Paddy; Davis, Carolyn; Howard, Deborah L.; Kimbrough, Phyllis; Nelson, Anne; Paul, Michelle; Shuman, Deborah; Brooks, Margaret K.; Dogoloff, Mary Lou; Vitzthum, Virginia; Hayws, Elizabeth

    As alcohol and other drug disorders become acknowledged as major problems, the need increases for current information on the scope of the problem and appropriate treatment. This TIP serves to educate treatment providers with information about older adults who, in general, are more likely to hide their substance abuse, less likely to seek…

  8. Alcohol Use Disorders, Use and Abuse | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Alcohol Use Disorders Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents NIAAA guidelines for low-risk drinking for alcohol use disorders call for men to drink no ...

  9. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22...

  10. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22...

  11. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22...

  12. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22...

  13. Sexual Abuse of Older Adults: Aps Cases and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaster, Pamela B.; Roberto, Karen A.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a profile of sexual abuse cases among adults aged 60 and older receiving attention from Adult Protective Services units in Virginia over a 5-year period. Design and Methods: We used bivariate analysis to characterize older adults (n = 82) experiencing sexual abuse and the circumstances of the…

  14. Preimmigration Family Cohesion and Drug/Alcohol Abuse Among Recent Latino Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Frank R; De La Rosa, Mario; Sanchez, Mariana; Schwartz, Seth J

    2012-07-01

    Given the growing population of Latino immigrants in the United States, it is critical for counselors to understand pre- and postimmigration social contextual factors affecting the mental health of this heterogeneous ethnic population. The objective of our cross-sectional, retrospective study was to investigate the potential protective influence of preimmigration family cohesion on drug/alcohol abuse just prior to migration among 527 Latino young adults (age 18-34 years). Multivariate Poisson regression indicated that preimmigration family cohesion was inversely related with harmful/hazardous alcohol consumption, the frequency/quantity of alcohol use, and illicit drug use when controlling for the potentially confounding sociodemographic factors of gender, age, education, income, marital status, and immigration status (documented or undocumented). Associations between family cohesion and drug/alcohol use behaviors varied between Central American immigrants and Caribbean/South American regional groups. Preimmigration findings offer a fuller contextual understanding of the lives of Latino young adult immigrants and support the importance of family cohesion as a buffer against drug/alcohol abuse.

  15. Epidemiology of Alcohol Abuse Among Spanish Immigrant Populations.

    PubMed

    Sordo, Luis; Indave, Blanca Iciar; Pulido, Jose; Molist, Gemma; Rosales-Statkus, María Elena; Ruíz-García, Mónica; Barrio, Gregorio

    2015-06-17

    In recent years, the immigrant population has substantially increased in Spain. However, there is a lack of information in the knowledge of alcohol abuse among Spanish immigrants. We describe the epidemiology of alcohol abuse among foreign-born immigrants versus Spanish natives. We carried out a cross-sectional study that uses data from the European Survey of Health on the General Population of Spain of 2009. A sample of 22,188 subjects was analyzed (of whom, 3,162 were foreign). Proxies of problematic alcohol consumption were the prevalence of excessive average consumption and the prevalence of excessive episodic consumption (binge drinking). Descriptive analysis of the population, determination of area of origin with major alcohol consumption and related factors for each kind of consumption, separating immigrant and native population, were performed. The immigrant profile was heterogeneous, though predominantly aged between 35 and 54, and were living with their family and working. 3.4% of immigrants and 3.2% of natives were considered excessive drinkers; 8.9% and 10%, respectively, reported binge drinking in the last year. Immigrants from Northern and Western Europe, and Latin America, Andean countries had significantly a higher report of frequent alcohol consumption and/or binge drinking compared to native. On the contrary, born in Africa was a protective factor. Unemployment was the most relevant related factor, being more important in the immigrant population. The excessive alcohol consumption in immigrants is dissimilar; the interventions must be adapted to their social situation, environments and areas of origin.

  16. Early identification of alcohol abuse: 1. Critical issues and psychosocial indicators for a composite index.

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, H A; Holt, S; Israel, Y

    1981-01-01

    Traditional approaches to the medical management of alcohol-related disorders have met with limited success in altering the prevalence of alcohol abuse. Evidence suggests that identifying early those who drink to excess and intervening with low-cost educational and motivational programs could significantly reduce the prevalence of alcohol-related disabilities. However, physicians must take systematic steps to detect alcohol abuse. Part 1 of this two-part series discusses the need for early identification of individuals who drink to excess and the factors that may either facilitate or hinder the development of effective programs for detecting alcohol abuse. A profile is given of important psychosocial indicators of alcohol abuse, including the classic signs of alcohol abuse, the early manifestations of heavy drinking, the predisposing or high-risk factors for alcohol abuse, and the precipitating events and correlated habits of excessive drinking. PMID:7016292

  17. Sexual abuse history, alcohol intoxication, and women's sexual risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Schacht, Rebecca L; George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A; Kajumulo, Kelly F

    2010-08-01

    We examined potential differences in women's likelihood of sexual risk taking in a laboratory setting based on alcohol intoxication and sexual abuse history. Participants (n = 64) were classified as non-sexually abused (NSA) or as having experienced sexual abuse in childhood only (CSA) or adulthood only (ASA) and randomly assigned to consume alcoholic (.06, .08, or .10% target blood alcohol content) or non-alcoholic drinks, after which participants read and responded to a risky sex vignette. Dependent measures included vaginal pulse amplitude, self-reported sexual arousal, likelihood of engaging in condom use and risky sexual behaviors described in the vignette, and mood. NSA and ASA women did not differ significantly on any dependent measures. CSA women reported significantly lower likelihood of condom use and unprotected intercourse relative to NSA and ASA women. Intoxicated women reported significantly greater sexual arousal, positive mood, and likelihood of risky sex relative to sober women. Intoxicated CSA women reported significantly more likelihood of unprotected oral sex and less likelihood of condom use relative to intoxicated NSA and ASA and sober CSA women. CSA women's increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may be driven by non-condom use and behavioral changes while intoxicated. These findings provide preliminary insight into situational influences affecting CSA women's increased STI risk.

  18. Teenage Use and Abuse of Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stary, Monica

    1981-01-01

    Outlines what help is available and how it can be provided for Ontario teenagers with alcohol-related problems through community agencies and programs, services of professional social workers and counselors, group support, residential treatment, therapeutic goals, and family involvement. (NEC)

  19. Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse, Addiction, and Relapse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0126 TITLE: Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse , Addiction, and Relapse...DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2013 - 29 Sep 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse , Addiction...address stress and PTSD mechanisms as targets for pharmacotherapy of PTSD and alcohol abuse are proceeding on schedule . 15. SUBJECT TERMS PTSD, alcohol

  20. An Examination of Problems and Solutions Related to the Chronic "Revolving Door" Alcohol Abuser. DHSS Planning Guideline #1, Task Assignment #1.11. Long-Term Support, Chronic Alcoholism and Other Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, John W.; Houden, Dorothy

    This report contains recommendations of a Wisconsin Task Assignment Steering Committee created to explore solutions to some significant problems facing adult chronic "revolving-detox-door" alcohol abusers (CRA's), persons with repeated admissions for detoxification services; and to examine the system that serves and funds them. This…

  1. Substance Abuse by Youth and Young Adults in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, David; Gale, John A.; Hartley, David

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25…

  2. Just say know: an examination of substance use disorders among older adults in gerontological and substance abuse journals.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Daniel; Engel, Rafael J; Hunsaker, Amanda E; Engel, Yael; Detlefsen, Ellen Gay; Reynolds, Charles F

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which studies of alcohol abuse, illicit drug use, and prescription drug abuse among older adults appear in the leading gerontological and substance abuse journals. The authors reviewed articles published in the 10 social science gerontological journals and the 10 social science substance abuse journals with the highest 5-year impact factors in PubMed from 2000 to 2010. Articles were selected that presented original research on alcohol, substance, or prescription abuse with older adults aged 50 and older; and were identified through aging and substance abuse-related Medical Subject Headings and word searches of titles and abstracts (N = 634). Full text of each article was reviewed by the authors, and consensus determined inclusion in the final sample. Of the 19,953 articles published respectively in the top 10 gerontological and substance abuse journals, 181 articles met the inclusion criteria of reporting findings related to substance use disorders among older adults. Specifically, 0.9% (102 of 11,700) of articles from the top 10 gerontology journals and 1.0% (79 of 8,253) of articles from the top 10 substance abuse journals met the criteria. Most published articles addressed alcohol misuse/abuse or polysubstance abuse with few articles addressing illicit drug use or the misuse of prescription medications. Less than 1% of articles published in the 10 gerontology journals and the 10 substance abuse journals with the highest 5-year impact scores addressed substance abuse in older adults. Practitioners treating health and/or mental health problems are at a disadvantage in accurately identifying and treating these conditions in older adult populations without a proper understanding of the role of comorbid substance use disorders.

  3. Parental substance abuse, reports of chronic pain and coping in adult patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Christopher; Whitfield, Keith; Sudhakar, Shiv; Pearce, Michele; Byrd, Goldie; Wood, Mary; Feliu, Miriam; Leach-Beale, Brittani; DeCastro, Laura; Whitworth, Elaine; Abrams, Mary; Jonassaint, Jude; Harrison, M. Ojinga; Mathis, Markece; Scott, Lydia; Johnson, Stephanie; Durant, Lauren; Holmes, Anita; Presnell, Katherine; Bennett, Gary; Shelby, Rebecca; Robinson, Elwood

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing interest from a social learning perspective in understanding the role of parental factors on adult health behaviors and health outcomes. Our review revealed no studies, to date, that have evaluated the effects of parental substance abuse on reports of chronic pain and coping in adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). We explored the effects of parental substance (alcohol or drug) abuse on reports of the sensory, affective and summary indices of pain in 67 adult patients, mean age 38.9 (13.5), with SCD. We also explored the effects of parental substance abuse on psychopathology associated with pain and active coping. Twenty-four percent of patients reported that their parent(s) abused substances. Patients whose parent(s) were characterized as substance abusers reported greater sensory (p=0.02), affective (p=0.01) and summary (VAS; p=0.02) indices of pain as compared to their counterparts, whose parent(s) were not characterized as substance abusers. Patients did not differ in average age, education or the propensity to respond in a socially acceptable manner. There was a significant trend towards patients who characterized their parents as abusers scoring higher than their counterparts on active coping. We propose a Social Learning Theory to explain the current findings and suggest a need for additional prospective research to simultaneously explore biological (genetic) and social factors that influence the interpretation, experience and reporting of chronic pain in adult patients with chronic disease. PMID:16573309

  4. 49 CFR 242.115 - Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... CONDUCTORS Program and Eligibility Requirements § 242.115 Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... evaluated as not currently affected by a substance abuse disorder or that the person has been evaluated...

  5. 49 CFR 242.115 - Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... CONDUCTORS Program and Eligibility Requirements § 242.115 Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... evaluated as not currently affected by a substance abuse disorder or that the person has been evaluated...

  6. 49 CFR 242.115 - Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... CONDUCTORS Program and Eligibility Requirements § 242.115 Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... evaluated as not currently affected by a substance abuse disorder or that the person has been evaluated...

  7. Understanding Alcohol Abuse among College Students: Contributing Factors and Strategies for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iconis, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol abuse among college students has become a major public health concern. Individual, environmental, and demographic factors have each been associated with alcohol abuse in that population. In response to the enormous physical, emotional, and legal consequences that occur as a result of the abuse, colleges and universities are developing…

  8. Neighborhood alcohol outlet density and rates of child abuse and neglect: moderating effects of access to substance abuse services.

    PubMed

    Morton, Cory M; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed.

  9. Alcohol Use: If You Drink, Keep It Moderate

    MedlinePlus

    ... occurring-disorders/older-adults. Accessed July 14, 2016. Alcohol's effects on the body. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse ... Alcoholism. https://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/alcohols-effects-body. Accessed July 14, 2016. Klatsky AL. Alcohol ...

  10. Motivating Treatment Seeking and Behavior Change by Untreated Military Personnel Abusing Alcohol or Drugs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    ABSTRACT Conducting the efficacy trial to evaluate the utility of a Motivational Enhancement Therapy intervention to attract untreated active duty...SUBJECT TERMS Alcohol abuse, substance abuse, early intervention , motivational enhancement therapy 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...enhancement intervention (MET) for substance abusing military personnel who are not currently in substance abuse treatment . The intervention is

  11. Career Indecision in Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skorupa, Jessica; Agresti, Albert A.

    1998-01-01

    Utilizes a sample of community college students to investigate differences in career indecision of adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and adult children of non-alcoholics. Although both groups were similar in their overall levels of career indecision, there were significant relationships among irrational thinking, trait anxiety, and career…

  12. Alcohol Increases Impulsivity and Abuse Liability in Heavy Drinking Women

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Stephanie Collins; Levin, Frances R.; Evans, Suzette M.

    2013-01-01

    Heavy drinking has increased in recent years and has been linked to numerous health-related risks, particularly in women. A number of factors may play a role in exacerbating the risks linked to heavy drinking, such as impulsivity, which itself is related to a number of risky behaviors. The present study investigated the effects of alcohol (0, 0.5, 0.75 g/kg) on impulsivity in female heavy drinkers (n = 23) and female light drinkers (n = 23) using a double-blind, placebo-controlled outpatient design; all women were tested during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Each session, participants completed a range of tasks including subjective measures of abuse liability, cognitive performance tasks, three behavioral impulsivity tasks, and a risk-taking task. Alcohol increased impulsivity on the Immediate and Delayed Memory Task (IMT and DMT) and Delay Discounting task. Heavy drinkers scored higher on impulsivity self-reports and were more impulsive on the IMT and the GoStop task than light drinkers. The high dose of alcohol further increased impulsive performance on the IMT and DMT in heavy drinkers. There were no group differences or alcohol effects on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task. Alcohol increased sedative-like effects more in light drinkers and increased stimulant-like effects and alcohol liking more in heavy drinkers. In summary, female heavy drinkers are less sensitive to the negative effects of alcohol, report more positive effects of alcohol, and are more impulsive than female light drinkers. Moreover, impulsive responding was exacerbated by alcohol drinking among female heavy drinkers, indicating that women who drink at this level are at increased risk for developing alcohol use disorders and engaging in other risky behaviors, particularly after drinking. PMID:23066857

  13. Adult Adjustment of Survivors of Institutional Child Abuse in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Alan; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzpatrick, Mark; Flanagan, Edel; Flanagan-Howard, Roisin; Tierney, Kevin; White, Megan; Daly, Margaret; Egan, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To document the adult adjustment of survivors of childhood institutional abuse. Method: Two hundred and forty-seven adult survivors of institutional abuse with a mean age of 60 were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, modules from the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I Disorders of DSM IV…

  14. Traumatic Brain Injury: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet examines alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with traumatic brain injury. The characteristics and incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are noted. The implications of alcohol and other drug use are discussed, emphasizing that TBI is often related to lifestyles where alcohol and other drug abuse and risk taking…

  15. Harm Reduction as "Continuum Care" in Alcohol Abuse Disorder.

    PubMed

    Maremmani, Icro; Cibin, Mauro; Pani, Pier Paolo; Rossi, Alessandro; Turchetti, Giuseppe

    2015-11-19

    Alcohol abuse is one of the most important risk factors for health and is a major cause of death and morbidity. Despite this, only about one-tenth of individuals with alcohol abuse disorders receive therapeutic intervention and specific rehabilitation. Among the various dichotomies that limit an effective approach to the problem of alcohol use disorder treatment, one of the most prominent is integrated treatment versus harm reduction. For years, these two divergent strategies have been considered to be opposite poles of different philosophies of intervention. One is bound to the search for methods that aim to lead the subject to complete abstinence; the other prioritizes a progressive decline in substance use, with maximum reduction in the damage that is correlated with curtailing that use. Reduction of alcohol intake does not require any particular setting, but does require close collaboration between the general practitioner, specialized services for addiction, alcohology services and psychiatry. In patients who reach that target, significant savings in terms of health and social costs can be achieved. Harm reduction is a desirable target, even from an economic point of view. At the present state of neuroscientific knowledge, it is possible to go one step further in the logic that led to the integration of psychosocial and pharmacological approaches, by attempting to remove the shadows of social judgment that, at present, are aiming for a course of treatment that is directed towards absolute abstention.

  16. Alcohol and drug misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans.

    PubMed

    Hoggatt, Katherine J; Jamison, Andrea L; Lehavot, Keren; Cucciare, Michael A; Timko, Christine; Simpson, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug misuse or diagnosed alcohol or drug use disorders. Rates ranged from 4% to 37% for alcohol misuse and from 7% to 25% for binge drinking; among Veterans Health Administration (VA) health-care system outpatients, rates ranged from 3% to 16% for substance use disorder. Studies comparing women veterans and civilians reported no clear differences in binge or heavy drinking. Substance misuse rates were generally lower among women veterans than men veterans. Substance misuse was associated with higher rates of trauma, psychiatric and medical conditions, and increased mortality and suicide rates. Most studies included only VA patients, and many used only VA medical record data; therefore, the reported substance misuse rates likely do not reflect true prevalence. Rates also varied by assessment method, source of data, and the subgroups studied. Further efforts to develop epidemiologically valid prevalence estimates are needed to capture the true health burden of substance misuse in women veterans, particularly those not using VA care.

  17. Contributions of Child Sexual Abuse, Self-Blame, Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Alcohol Use to Women's Risk for Forcible and Substance-Facilitated Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Mokma, Taylor R; Eshelman, Lee R; Messman-Moore, Terri L

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault have been linked to increased self-blame, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and alcohol use. The current study aims to examine (a) whether these constructs explain women's risk for later adult sexual assault and revictimization, (b) whether such factors differentially confer risk for specific types of adult sexual assault (i.e., substance-facilitated and forcible), and (c) if self-blame confers risk indirectly through other risk factors. Multiple types of self-blame, posttraumatic stress, and alcohol use were examined among 929 female college students as serial mediators of the relationship between child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault and as risk factors for sexual revictimization among child sexual abuse survivors. In the model predicting risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse indirectly predicted greater risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault mediated through two separate paths: global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress and global blame-to-alcohol use. In the model predicting risk for forcible adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse directly predicted greater risk for forcible adult sexual assault, and this relation was mediated by the global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress path. Among child sexual abuse survivors, child sexual abuse specific characterological and behavioral self-blame directly predicted greater risk for forcible and substance-facilitated revictimization, but the pathways were not mediated by posttraumatic stress or alcohol use. Results emphasize the importance of assessing different types of self-blame in predicting posttraumatic stress symptoms as well as examining risk for sexual victimization and revictimization. Findings did not support hypotheses that increased posttraumatic stress would predict increased alcohol use but did indicate that heightened self-blame is consistently associated with heightened posttraumatic stress and that heightened global self

  18. Childhood emotional abuse, negative emotion-driven impulsivity, and alcohol use in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sunny H; Lee, Sungkyu; Jeon, Sae-Mi; Wills, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    Childhood emotional abuse has been linked to problematic alcohol use in later life but there is a paucity of empirically based knowledge about the developmental pathways linking emotional abuse and alcohol use in young adulthood. Using a community sample of young individuals aged 18-25 (N=268; female 52%), we performed structural equation modeling to investigate whether emotional abuse influences alcohol use through urgent personality trait and to determine pathways for these effects in a multivariate context. We also examined variations in these pathways by four different alcohol use outcomes including frequency of alcohol use, binge drinking, alcohol-related problems, and alcohol use disorders (AUD). The present study found that emotional abuse was related to urgency, which in turn influenced four types of alcohol use. Urgency may play a significant role in linking childhood maltreatment to alcohol use in young adulthood.

  19. Alcohol and Substance Abuse in Parentally Bereaved Youth

    PubMed Central

    Hamdan, Sami; Melhem, Nadine M.; Porta, Giovanna; Song, Myung Soon; Brent, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the role of parental bereavement regarding alcohol and substance abuse. Our aim was to examine whether the incidence of alcohol and substance abuse is higher in parentally bereaved youth and, if so, what might explain this increased incidence. Method In a longitudinal population-based study conducted between November 2002 and December 2012, the incidence of alcohol and substance abuse or dependence (ASAD) during a period of 5 years was examined (using DSM-IV criteria) in 235 youth whose parents died of suicide, accident, or sudden natural death and 178 demographically similar nonbereaved youth. Results In a period that covered 5 years subsequent to the death, bereaved youth had an increased incidence and earlier time to onset of ASAD relative to nonbereaved controls (incident rate ratio = 2.44; 95% CI, 1.17–5.56). Additionally, youth over the age of 13 years (hazard ratio [HR] = 6.68; 95% CI, 3.22–13.89; P < .001), those who developed a disruptive behavior disorder (HR = 7.55; 95% CI, 1.83–31.22; P = .005), and those who had greater functional impairment (HR = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90–0.95; P < .001) were at increased risk for ASAD. However, after adjusting for the above-noted variables, the relationship between parental bereavement and pathological youth alcohol and substance use was not statistically significant (HR = 1.73; 95% CI, 0.79–3.81; P = .17). Conclusions Bereaved youth are at greater risk for ASAD than their nonbereaved counterparts, especially adolescent boys with disruptive behavior disorders. The effect of bereavement was explained by its overall impact on greater functional impairment in bereaved offspring. Interventions that help to improve offspring functioning and that prevent or attenuate the development of disruptive behavior disorders have the potential to prevent ASAD in bereaved youth. PMID:24021502

  20. Group treatment of adult male inpatients abused as children.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, L Y

    1994-10-01

    Recent research indicates that childhood abuse experiences characterize a large subset of psychiatric inpatients. This paper presents a time-limited pilot group developed for adult male abuse survivors in an inpatient setting using: (1) techniques adapted from the existing literature on treatment of abuse survivors; and (2) approaches deriving from the interface of theory and current manifestations of distress. The eclectic therapeutic approach incorporated psychoeducational, cognitive, behavioral, and art therapy techniques presented below in a session-by-session format.

  1. Patterns of Childhood Sexual Abuse Characteristics and Their Relationships to Other Childhood Abuse and Adult Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, Polly A.; Agrawal, Sangeeta

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to cluster women who experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) according to their shared patterns of CSA characteristics and (b) to examine differences across clusters on measures of other childhood abuse and adult health. Seven CSA characteristic variables were used for cluster analysis. The seven-cluster…

  2. Communication Apprehension among Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredricks, Randi; And Others

    Noting that children of alcoholic parents come from home settings similar to those identified as potential sources of communication apprehension, a study compared communication apprehension scores of adult children of alcoholics (ACoA) with those of non-ACoAs. Subjects, 85 men and 109 women, were drawn from a local church, undergraduate and…

  3. Characteristics of posttraumatic stress disorder-alcohol abuse comorbidity in women.

    PubMed

    Ouimette, P C; Wolfe, J; Chrestman, K R

    1996-01-01

    Trauma characteristics and symptoms were examined in 12 women diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol abuse (AA), 13 women with PTSD only, and 22 controls. Participants served during the Vietnam era. Women completed diagnostic interviews and a questionnaire battery. Results showed that PTSD-AA women reported more childhood sexual abuse and sexual victimization during wartime service than the other two groups. Groups did not differ on other childhood trauma variables, nor on adult physical assault and traditional wartime stressor exposure. PTSD-AA women reported more PTSD, dissociation, and borderline personality traits than the other two groups. These results suggest that trauma type, specifically sexual victimization across the life span, is an important factor in dual diagnosis in women, and that women with PTSD-AA have a particularly severe level of symptoms relative to women with only PTSD and controls.

  4. The development of a sexual abuse severity score: characteristics of childhood sexual abuse associated with trauma symptomatology, somatization, and alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with self-reported trauma, somatization, and alcohol use. Characteristics included age of first sexual abuse, more than one perpetrator, degree of coercion, severity of abuse (i.e., attempted intercourse is more severe than fondling), and the number of occurrences. This is one of the few reports to develop a risk summary that quantifies the severity of CSA.

  5. Service Patterns of Adult Survivors of Childhood versus Adult Sexual Assault/Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Susan F.; Lundy, Marta; Bertrand, Cathy; Ortiz, Cynthia; Tomas-Tolentino, Grace; Ritzema, Kim; Matson, Julia

    2009-01-01

    This analysis compared the characteristics and service patterns of adult survivors of childhood sexual assault/abuse and adult survivors of adult sexual assault/abuse. Utilizing data from sexual assault crisis centers serving survivors in a Midwestern state over a six year period and controlling for revictimization, we describe and compare the…

  6. Industrialization Stresses, Alcohol Abuse & Substance Dependence: Differential Gender Effects in a Kenyan Rural Farming Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walt, Lisa C.; Kinoti, Elias; Jason, Leonard A.

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries' industrialization and urbanization attempts have been linked to psychological distress and alcohol abuse. We used Hobfoll's COR theory to examine the relationship between gender, perceived resource loss (an indicator of industrialization stress), and alcohol abuse and dependence in a sample of Kenyan rural village men and…

  7. Considerations in the Development of a Research to Practice Curriculum for Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalisove, Daniel L.

    2004-01-01

    Most current substance abuse counselor certification education curricula do not include a systematic introduction to alcohol and substance abuse research. I believe that such an introduction would enhance counselor cooperation in research to practice efforts that are currently underway. In this paper I give a brief history of alcoholism and…

  8. Hidden Disabilities: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet discusses alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with hidden disabilities such as cancer, epilepsy, diabetes, kidney failure, hemophilia, hypertension, early stages of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), or heart disease. Their increased risk for alcohol and other drug abuse and reasons for increased risk are…

  9. Socio-Demographic Factors Associated with Alcohol Abuse among Egerton University Students in Njoro-Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boitt, Richard Kimuge; Boitt, Monicah Lydia; Othieno, Caleb; Obondo, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of higher institutions of learning in Kenya is to provide education and growth experiences for its students but alcohol abuse has continued to be a problem in the university campuses that is slowing down their progress and the Kenya vision 2030 that envisages a healthy population free from the impact of alcohol abuse through the…

  10. The Prevalence of Alcohol Abuse among Egerton University Students in Njoro-Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boitt, Richard Kimuge

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of higher institutions of learning in Kenya is to provide education and growth experiences for its students but alcohol abuse has continued to be a problem in the university campuses that is slowing down their progress and the Kenya vision 2030 that envisages a healthy population free from the impact of alcohol abuse through the…

  11. Attitudes Toward Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Among a Group of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Larry

    1975-01-01

    High school students (N=81) were surveyed regarding their attitudes on nine factors regarding the alcoholic and his alcoholism, and the drug abuser and his drug abuse. Analysis of the data indicated that on eight of the nine factors the students tended to view the two pathologies in essentially the same way. (Author)

  12. Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse, Addiction, and Relapse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    alcohol and other drug abuse , b) the results of this investigation will facilitate translating prazosin treatment to clinical implementation in the...Exp Res 36:594-603. Koob GF, Le Moal M. (1997) Drug abuse : hedonic homeostatic dys- regulation. Science 278:52-8. Krystal JH, Webb E, Grill on C et al...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0126 TITLE: Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse , Addiction, and Relapse

  13. The Relationship Between Childhood Abuse and Adult Personality Disorder Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Kelly E.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Price, Lawrence H.; Gagne, Gerard G.; Mello, Andrea F.; Mello, Marcelo F.; Tyrka, Audrey R.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed personality disorder symptomatology in a community sample of healthy adults without diagnosable DSM-IV-TR Axis I psychiatric disorders who reported a history of childhood abuse. Twenty-eight subjects with a history of moderate to severe physical, sexual, and/or emotional abuse according to the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were compared to 33 subjects without an abuse history on symptoms of personality disorders. Subjects in the Abuse group were more likely to report subclinical symptoms of paranoid, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial, obsessive compulsive, passive-aggressive, and depressive personality disorders. These findings link reports of childhood abuse with symptoms of personality disorders in the absence of Axis I psychiatric disorders in a community sample of healthy adults. PMID:17685839

  14. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  15. 38 CFR 17.82 - Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse disabilities. 17.82 Section 17.82 Pensions... Agencies § 17.82 Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse... requirements of the “Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR part 2) and...

  16. 38 CFR 17.82 - Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse disabilities. 17.82 Section 17.82 Pensions... Agencies § 17.82 Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse... requirements of the “Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR part 2) and...

  17. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Prevention regulations? 86.1 Section 86.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22...

  18. Industrialization Stresses, Alcohol Abuse & Substance Dependence: Differential Gender Effects in a Kenyan Rural Farming Community

    PubMed Central

    Walt, Lisa C.; Kinoti, Elias; Jason, Leonard A.

    2014-01-01

    Developing countries’ industrialization and urbanization attempts have been linked to psychological distress and alcohol abuse. We used Hobfoll’s COR theory to examine the relationship between gender, perceived resource loss (an indicator of industrialization stress), and alcohol abuse and dependence in a sample of Kenyan rural village men and women (N = 186). Regression analyses indicated that both gender and COR loss predicted alcohol abuse and dependence. Additionally, results suggested that gender moderated the relationship between COR loss and alcohol dependence; such that higher COR loss scores predicted higher alcohol dependence for men, but COR loss scores did not predict alcohol dependence for women. Thus, we suggest that gender differences in substance abuse may be due less to actual differences in resource loss, but rather to gender differences in the response to resource loss. Limitations and opportunities for future research are discussed. PMID:24489525

  19. Parentification and family responsibility in the family of origin of adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; French, Alexis; Bountress, Kaitlin; Keefe, Heather A; Schroeder, Valarie; Steer, Kate; Fals-Stewart, William; Gumienny, Leslie

    2007-04-01

    The present study examined parentification and family responsibility in the families of origin of 103 female college students who met criteria for being Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs) as compared to 233 women who did not. The gender of the parent with an alcohol problem (mother only, father only, both parents, neither) was also examined in relation to family roles. Participants completed the Parentification Questionnaire-Adult (PQ-A; Sessions, M. W., and Jurkovic, G. J. (1986). Parentification Questionnaire-Adult (PQ-A). Unpublished document. Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA), the Filial Responsibility Scale-Adult (FRS-A; Jurkovic, G. J., and Thirkield, A. (1999). Filial Responsibility Scale-Adult (FRS-A). Unpublished document. Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA), the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST; Jones, J. W. (1983). The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test: Test manual. Chicago: Camelot), and indicated whether they suspected their mother/father of a drinking problem. ACOAs reported more parentification, instrumental caregiving, emotional caregiving, and past unfairness in their families of origin as compared to non-ACOAs. However, as compared to ACOAs who indicated that their father was the alcohol-abusing parent or non-ACOAs, respondents who thought their mothers had an alcohol problem reported greater past unfairness. In addition, ACOAs who thought their mothers had a problem with alcohol abuse reported more parentification and emotional caretaking than did non-ACOAs.

  20. Relationship Functioning Among Adult Children of Alcoholics*

    PubMed Central

    Kearns-Bodkin, Jill N.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current research was to examine the impact of both maternal and paternal alcoholism on the relationship functioning of husbands and wives over the early years of marriage. Method: Couples (N = 634) were assessed at the time of marriage, and again at their first, second, and fourth anniversaries. Husbands and wives completed separate, self-administered questionnaires at home. Results: Results of separate repeated measures analyses of covariance revealed that, for both husbands and wives, the appraisal of their marital relationship was associated with alcoholism in the opposite gender parent. That is, for husbands, alcoholism in the mother was associated with lower marital satisfaction across the 4 years of marriage. For wives, alcoholism in the father was related to lower marital intimacy. Husbands' physical aggression was influenced by mother's and father's alcoholism; high levels of physical aggression were present among men with alcoholic mothers and nonalcoholic fathers. Interestingly, wives' experience of husband's aggression was also highest among women with alcoholic mothers and nonalcoholic fathers. Wives also reported engaging in high levels of physical aggression when they had an alcoholic mother and a nonalcoholic father, but this effect was restricted to the early part of the marriage. Finally, parental alcoholism was associated with both husbands' and wives' attachment representations. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that children raised in alcoholic families may carry the problematic effects of their early family environment into their adult romantic relationships. PMID:18925353

  1. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  2. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity: the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Heilig, Markus; Warren, Kenneth R; Kunos, George; Silverman, Peter B; Hewitt, Brenda G

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a concise account of the history, mission, structure and some recent achievements of the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Created by the US Congress 40 years ago, the NIAAA has evolved from an entity charged mainly with building a national system of alcoholism treatment services to one with responsibility for developing, nurturing and supporting the biomedical and behavioral science foundation necessary to reduce the significant domestic and global public health impact of alcohol use disorders. The NIAAA is unique in that it functions both as a funding agency, supporting research at universities and other external, or 'extramural' research institutions, and is also a research institution itself, where alcohol research is carried out in-house, or 'intramurally'. Of a $450.2 million 2009 Congressional Appropriation, approximately 90% was devoted toward the former and approximately 10% towards the latter objective. The current NIAAA Strategic Plan builds on a new organizing principle for long-range research planning, based on a life-span perspective that recognizes that human biology and behavior continue to change throughout life and changes occurring throughout the life-span affect individuals' drinking patterns as well as the decisions they may make to change their drinking habits or to seek help for alcohol use problems. Within this framework, major efforts are currently being devoted to educating practitioners on clinically useful, science-based assessment and treatment methods that exist today, and development of personalized new treatments for tomorrow.

  3. Inhalation injury associated with smoking, alcohol and drug abuse: an increasing problem.

    PubMed

    Bennett, S P H; Trickett, R W; Potokar, T S

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated the association of inhalation injury (IHI) with smoking, alcohol and drug abuse in patients admitted to the Welsh Centre for Burns between 1995 and 2006. Common characteristics of these individuals were identified and contrasted with inhalation injury not associated with these social factors. Two hundred and fourteen patients were identified with inhalation injury. Ninety-two of these were associated with smoking, alcohol abuse and/or drug abuse. The proportion of IHI cases associated with smoking remained stable but IHI associated with alcohol and drug abuse increased dramatically over the course of the study and if current trends continue will increase further in future years. This study also showed that IHI associated with smoking alcohol and drug abuse were found to be largely caused by housefires and deliberate self-harm, and occurred between 22:00 and 05:59 h. These results were in sharp contrast with IHI not associated with these factors.

  4. Long-term correlates of childhood abuse among adults with severe mental illness: adult victimization, substance abuse, and HIV sexual risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Meade, Christina S; Kershaw, Trace S; Hansen, Nathan B; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2009-04-01

    The prevalence of childhood sexual and physical abuse among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is disproportionately high. Adults with SMI also engage in high rates of HIV risk behaviors. This study examined the association between childhood abuse and adult victimization, substance abuse, and lifetime HIV sexual risk in a sample of 152 adults with SMI receiving community mental health services. Structured interviews assessed psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Seventy percent reported childhood physical and/or sexual abuse, and 32% reported both types of abuse. Participants with childhood abuse were more likely to report adult victimization and greater HIV risk. A structural equation model found that childhood abuse was directly and indirectly associated with HIV risk through drug abuse and adult vicitimization. Integrated treatment approaches that address interpersonal violence and substance abuse may be necessary for HIV risk reduction in this population.

  5. Effects on alcohol related fatal crashes of a community based initiative to increase substance abuse treatment and reduce alcohol availability

    PubMed Central

    Hingson, R; Zakocs, R; Heeren, T; Winter, M; Rosenbloom, D; DeJong, W

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This analysis tested whether comprehensive community interventions that focus on reducing alcohol availability and increasing substance abuse treatment can reduce alcohol related fatal traffic crashes. Intervention: Five of 14 communities awarded Fighting Back grants by The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to reduce substance abuse and related problems attempted to reduce availability of alcohol and expand substance abuse treatment programs (FBAT communities). Program implementation began on 1 January 1992. Design: A quasi-experimental design matched each program community to two or three other communities of similar demographic composition in the same state. Main outcome measures: The ratio of fatal crashes involving a driver or pedestrian with a blood alcohol concentration of 0.01% or higher, 0.08% or higher, or 0.15% or higher were examined relative to fatal crashes where no alcohol was involved for 10 years preceding and 10 years following program initiation. Results: Relative to their comparison communities, the five FBAT communities experienced significant declines of 22% in alcohol related fatal crashes at 0.01% BAC or higher, 20% at 0.08% or higher, and 17% at 0.15% or higher relative to fatal crashes not involving alcohol. Conclusions: Community interventions to reduce alcohol availability and increase substance abuse treatment can reduce alcohol related fatal traffic crashes. PMID:15805436

  6. Smoking, Alcohol, Drug Use, Abuse and Dependence in Narcolepsy and Idiopathic Hypersomnia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Barateau, Lucie; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lopez, Régis; Boutrel, Benjamin; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Basic experiments support the impact of hypocretin on hyperarousal and motivated state required for increasing drug craving. Our aim was to assess the frequencies of smoking, alcohol and drug use, abuse and dependence in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, hypocretin-deficient), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2), idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) (non-hypocretin-deficient conditions), in comparison to controls. We hypothesized that NT1 patients would be less vulnerable to drug abuse and addiction compared to other hypersomniac patients and controls from general population. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in French reference centres for rare hypersomnia diseases and included 450 adult patients (median age 35 years; 41.3% men) with NT1 (n = 243), NT2 (n = 116), IH (n = 91), and 710 adult controls. All participants were evaluated for alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and substance (alcohol and illicit drug) abuse and dependence diagnosis during the past year using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results: An increased proportion of both tobacco and heavy tobacco smokers was found in NT1 compared to controls and other hypersomniacs, despite adjustments for potential confounders. We reported an increased regular and frequent alcohol drinking habit in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs in adjusted models. In contrast, heavy drinkers were significantly reduced in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs. The proportion of patients with excessive drug use (codeine, cocaine, and cannabis), substance dependence, or abuse was low in all subgroups, without significant differences between either hypersomnia disorder categories or compared with controls. Conclusions: We first described a low frequency of illicit drug use, dependence, or abuse in patients with central hypersomnia, whether Hcrt-deficient or not, and whether drug-free or medicated, in the same range as in controls. Conversely, heavy drinkers were

  7. Correlates of Sexual Abuse and Smoking among French Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gary; Guilbert, Philippe; Ward, D. Gant; Arwidson, Pierre; Noubary, Farzad

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to examine the association between sexual abuse (SA) and initiation, cessation, and current cigarette smoking among a large representative adult population in France. Method: A random sample size of 12,256 adults (18-75 years of age) was interviewed by telephone concerning demographic variables, health…

  8. Self-Report Measure of Psychological Abuse of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kendon J.; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W.; Langley, Kate; Anetzberger, Georgia J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested key psychometric properties of the Older Adult Psychological Abuse Measure (OAPAM), one self-report scale of the Older Adult Mistreatment Assessment (OAMA). Design and Methods: Items and theory were developed in a prior concept mapping study. Subsequently, the measures were administered to 226 substantiated clients by 22…

  9. Group Work as Facilitation of Spiritual Development for Drug and Alcohol Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; Berkow, Daniel N.

    1998-01-01

    Describes group work designed to promote spiritual development with drug and alcohol abusers. Provides a definition of spirituality. Discusses research that relates to the spiritual development of members of drug and alcohol groups. Compares the ways that group work and Alcoholics Anonymous promote spiritual development. (Author/MKA)

  10. Psychological hardiness and coping style as risk/resilience factors for alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Bartone, Paul T; Hystad, Sigurd W; Eid, Jarle; Brevik, John I

    2012-05-01

    Alcohol abuse is a growing problem in the military, and a costly one. The present study evaluates the potential role of psychological hardiness, an individual resilience resource, to stress-related problem drinking in a military population. We assess the association of psychological hardiness and avoidance coping style with alcohol use patterns in a large national sample of Norwegian military defense personnel. Results show that low hardiness and high avoidance coping are significant predictors of alcohol abuse. Also, the challenge facet of hardiness predicts risk of alcohol abuse among respondents with recent deployment experience, and this effect is greater for those with harsh deployment experiences. Older defense workers are also at higher risk, suggesting cumulative occupational stress may take a toll. This research indicates that hardiness and avoidance coping measures may serve as useful adjunct screening tools for alcohol abuse in the military.

  11. Alcohol Abuse/Dependence Symptoms Among Hospital Employees Exposed to a SARS Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ping; Liu, Xinhua; Fang, Yunyun; Fan, Bin; Fuller, Cordelia J.; Guan, Zhiqiang; Yao, Zhongling; Kong, Junhui; Lu, Jin; Litvak, Iva J.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to examine alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms among hospital employees exposed to a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak, and the relationship between types of exposure to the SARS outbreak and subsequent alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms. Methods: A survey was conducted among 549 randomly selected hospital employees in Beijing, China, concerning the psychological impact of the 2003 SARS outbreak. Subjects were assessed on sociodemographic factors and types of exposure to the outbreak, and on symptoms of post-traumatic stress (PTS), alcohol abuse/dependence and depression. Results: Current alcohol abuse/dependence symptom counts 3 years after the outbreak were positively associated with having been quarantined, or worked in high-risk locations such as SARS wards, during the outbreak. However, having had family members or friends contract, SARS was not related to alcohol abuse/dependence symptom count. Symptoms of PTS and of depression, and having used drinking as a coping method, were also significantly associated with increased alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms. The relationship between outbreak exposure and alcohol abuse/dependence symptom count remained significant even when sociodemographic and other factors were controlled for. When the intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal PTS symptom clusters were entered into the model, hyperarousal was found to be significantly associated with alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms. Conclusions: Exposure to an outbreak of a severe infectious disease can, like other disaster exposures, lead not only to PTSD but also to other psychiatric conditions, such as alcohol abuse/dependence. The findings will help policy makers and health professionals to better prepare for potential outbreaks of diseases such as SARS or avian flu. PMID:18790829

  12. Screening and brief intervention for alcohol and other abuse.

    PubMed

    Harris, Sion Kim; Louis-Jacques, Jennifer; Knight, John R

    2014-04-01

    needing RT because of a lack of studies. Other areas needing additional research are the effect of BI on adolescent drug use, particularly on use of drugs other than cannabis; the mediators and moderators of BI effects; ways to reinforce and sustain effects over time; and how best to increase SBI implementation in general medical settings and to effectively train physicians. The effect of efforts such as the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration-funded physician residency SBIRT training programs remain to be determined. There has been increasing investigation into the potential of interactive computer technologies to aid SBIRT delivery to adolescents and young adults. A more detailed review of this area of research is beyond the scope of this article, but computer technology is proving to be an acceptable and effective tool in the delivery of BIs to young people, both as physician "extenders" in clinical settings and in the form of stand-alone self-guided programs. Computer technologies likely will play a critical role in promoting the expansion of SBIRT implementation for youth in general medical settings.

  13. Child sexual abuse, coping responses, self-blame, posttraumatic stress disorder, and adult sexual revictimization.

    PubMed

    Filipas, Henrietta H; Ullman, Sarah E

    2006-05-01

    The present study examined the psychological sequelae of child sexual abuse (CSA) and the factors that contributed to revictimization in the form of adult sexual assault (ASA) using a survey of 577 female college students. CSA characteristics, maladaptive coping in response to CSA, degree of self-blame at the time of the abuse and currently, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were examined as predictors of revictimization. Results indicated that individuals who reported both CSA and ASA had more PTSD symptoms, were more likely to use drugs or alcohol to cope, act out sexually, withdraw from people, and seek therapy services. In addition, the revictimized group reported more self-blame at the time of the abuse and currently. The only factor that predicted revictimization in this study was the number of maladaptive coping strategies used. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Critical Needs in Drug Discovery for Cessation of Alcohol and Nicotine Polysubstance Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Van Skike, C.E.; Maggio, S.E.; Reynolds, A.R.; Casey, E.M.; Bardo, M.T.; Dwoskin, L.P.; Prendergast, M.A.; Nixon, K.

    2015-01-01

    Polysubstance abuse of alcohol and nicotine has been overlooked in our understanding of the neurobiology of addiction and especially in the development of novel therapeutics for its treatment. Estimates show that as many as 92% of people with alcohol use disorders also smoke tobacco. The health risks associated with both excessive alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking create an urgent biomedical need for the discovery of effective cessation treatments, as opposed to current approaches that attempt to independently treat each abused agent. The lack of treatment approaches for alcohol and nicotine abuse/dependence mirrors a similar lack of research in the neurobiology of polysubstance abuse. This review discusses three critical needs in medications development for alcohol and nicotine co-abuse: (1) the need for a better understanding of the clinical condition (i.e. alcohol and nicotine polysubstance abuse) (2) the need to better understand how these drugs interact in order to identify new targets for therapeutic development and (3) the need for animal models that better mimic this human condition. Current and emerging treatments available for the cessation of each drug and their mechanisms of action are discussed within this context followed by what is known about the pharmacological interactions of alcohol and nicotine. Much has been and will continue to be gained from studying comorbid alcohol and nicotine exposure. PMID:26582145

  15. Effects of Childhood Sexual Abuse on the Psychosocial Functioning of Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strean, Herbert S.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews research on effects of childhood sexual abuse in adulthood. Describes individualizing assessment of adults who have been abused and aspects of treatment illustrated by case studies. Concludes social workers need to expand definition of childhood sexual abuse. (ABL)

  16. Informal Control by Family and Risk Markers for Alcohol Abuse/Dependence in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Emery, Clifton R; Wu, Shali; Yang, Hyerin; Lee, Hotaek; Kim, Junpyo; Chan, Ko Ling

    2016-05-08

    Although previous research documents a reliable relationship between physical intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and alcoholism, relatively little research has examined new theoretical constructs in IPV research that may increase risk for or help buffer women from alcohol abuse/dependence. The purpose of the present study was to examine informal social control of IPV by family members as a protective factor against and coercive control as a risk factor for alcohol abuse/dependence in a small population sample of married women in Seoul, South Korea. We hypothesized that (a) informal social control by family members would be negatively associated with victim alcohol abuse/dependence and (b) husband's coercive control would be positively associated with victim alcohol abuse/dependence. We measured alcohol abuse/dependence (CAGE scale), IPV and coercive control by husbands, and informal social control of IPV (ISC_IPV) by extended family members in a three-stage random cluster sample of 462 married women in Seoul, South Korea. Both random effects regression and zero-inflated Poisson regression models found that ISC_IPV by extended family members was associated with a significantly lower CAGE scores, and coercive control was associated with significantly higher CAGE scores. Interventions to boost ISC_IPV by extended family members may mitigate some of the risk of alcohol abuse/dependence by victims.

  17. Criminal homicide in northern Sweden 1970-1981: alcohol intoxication, alcohol abuse and mental disease.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, P

    1986-01-01

    All cases of criminal homicide in northern Sweden between 1970-81 were studied, 71 cases altogether (64 offenders). Homicide was a rare event and more infrequent compared with Sweden as a whole. The offenders were predominantly males, ages 20 to 40. Half of the victims were females. Mutual intoxication was a feature in 44% of the cases and in 34% both participants were sober. The majority of the victims were related by blood or marriage to the offender. Sharp instruments, blunt instruments and use of firearms were, in this order, the most common methods of killing. Almost one-third of the offenders had no former conviction, minor trespasses excluded. Sixty-three percent of the offenders had previously been subjected to psychiatric care, 31% were considered mentally diseased at the trial and another 22% had also a coexisting abuse or personality disorder. Three-quarters of the offenders were transferred to closed psychiatric care. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism were prevalent among 30% of the offenders and another 27% were also mentally diseased or had a personality disorder. The shares of mentally diseased and abusers/alcoholics outnumbered the prevalence of these conditions in the general population as well as in many international studies. Ten subjects committed suicide before trial; these persons were relatively more often sober at the act and fewer were alcoholics. Eight had previously received psychiatric treatment. They were more prone to kill a member of their nuclear family. Only two subjects had a previous criminal record; both concerned convictions of manslaughter. Nineteen offenders were sober at the act; 15 of these were mentally diseased. The sober offenders hardly ever attacked a person outside their family. Their motives were frequently premeditated. The killings were usually by quick, certain methods, such as firearms. No sober offender attacked an intoxicated person. The sober offenders usually had no criminal records and the homicides were often

  18. Alcohol Use and Abuse: Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults tend to drink less than other age groups. But as people live longer, that may be changing. Seniors' greater use of prescription drugs also may put them at a higher risk for interaction with alcohol. Winter 2013 Issue: Volume 7 Number ...

  19. Inheritance of alcohol abuse. Cross-fostering analysis of adopted men.

    PubMed

    Cloninger, C R; Bohman, M; Sigvardsson, S

    1981-08-01

    The inheritance of alcoholism was studied in 862 Swedish men adopted by nonrelatives at an early age. Both the congenital and postnatal backgrounds of the adoptees modify their risk for alcohol abuse. We distinguish two forms of alcoholism that have distinct genetic and environmental causes and differ in their association with criminality, severity of alcohol abuse, and the frequency of expression in biological mothers. Postnatal milieu determines the frequency and severity of expression of the common type of susceptibility in both men and women. In contrast, the less common type is highly heritable in men but is seldom expressed in mothers of affected men.

  20. Family History of Alcohol Abuse Moderates Effectiveness of a Group Motivational Enhancement Intervention in College Women

    PubMed Central

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Feres, Nashla; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether a self-reported family history of alcohol abuse (FH+) moderated the effects of a female-specific group motivational enhancement intervention with first-year college women. First-year college women (N= 287) completed an initial questionnaire and attended an intervention (n=161) or control (n=126) group session, of which 118 reported FH+. Repeated measures ANCOVA models were estimated to investigate whether the effectiveness of the intervention varied as a function of one’s reported family history of alcohol abuse. Results revealed that family history of alcohol abuse moderated intervention efficacy. Although the intervention was effective in producing less risky drinking relative to controls, among those participants who received the intervention, FH+ women drank less across five weeks of follow-up than FH− women. The current findings provide preliminary support for the differential effectiveness of motivational enhancement interventions with FH+ women. Keywords: college women, intervention, alcohol abuse, family history, motivational interviewing PMID:19162406

  1. Nonhuman primate model of alcohol abuse: effects of early experience, personality, and stress on alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Higley, J D; Hasert, M F; Suomi, S J; Linnoila, M

    1991-08-15

    Twenty-two 50-month-old rhesus monkeys were provided concurrent free access to an aspartame-sweetened 7% ethanol solution and an aspartame-sweetened vehicle before, during, and after social separation. Subjects had been reared for their first 6 months of life either without access to adults but with constant access to age mates (peer reared), a condition producing reduced exploration and increased fear-related behaviors, or as controls with their mothers; thereafter, all subjects received identical treatment. During home-cage periods, for 1 hr each day, 4 days a week, when the ethanol solution and vehicle were freely available, peer-reared subjects consumed significantly more alcohol than mother-reared subjects. When stress was increased via social separation, mother-reared animals increased their alcohol consumption to a level nearly as high as that of peer-reared monkeys. Average individual differences in alcohol consumption were markedly stable over time. In addition, there were strong positive correlations between alcohol consumption and distress behaviors. Biological indices of increased stress, such as plasma cortisol and corticotropin, were higher in peer-reared subjects. Within the peer- and mother-reared groups, these indices were positively correlated with alcohol consumption. The results suggest that early rearing experiences that predispose monkeys to increased fear-related behaviors produce excessive alcohol consumption under normal living conditions. Furthermore, a major challenge such as social separation increases alcohol consumption to levels producing intoxication even in monkeys not particularly vulnerable to stress.

  2. Distal and Proximal Religiosity as Protective Factors for Adolescent and Emerging Adult Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Porche, Michelle V.; Fortuna, Lisa R.; Wachholtz, Amy; Stone, Rosalie Torres

    2015-01-01

    Data from emerging adults (ages 18–29, N = 900) in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Study was used to examine the influence of childhood and emerging adult religiosity and religious-based decision-making, and childhood adversity, on alcohol use. Childhood religiosity was protective against early alcohol use and progression to later abuse or dependence, but did not significantly offset the influence of childhood adversity on early patterns of heavy drinking in adjusted logistic regression models. Religiosity in emerging adulthood was negatively associated with alcohol use disorders. Protective associations for religiosity varied by gender, ethnicity and childhood adversity histories. Higher religiosity may be protective against early onset alcohol use and later development of alcohol problems, thus, should be considered in prevention programming for youth, particularly in faith-based settings. Mental health providers should allow for integration of clients’ religiosity and spirituality beliefs and practices in treatment settings if clients indicate such interest. PMID:26146565

  3. Alcohol abuse and liver enzymes (AALE): results of an intercompany study of mortality.

    PubMed

    Titcomb, C; Braun, R; Roudebush, B; Mast, J; Woodman, H

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of applicants for life insurance who have elevations of their liver function tests or an increased probability of alcohol abuse has always been difficult for underwriters. This paper reports the results of an intercompany study in which the pooled mortality experience of a group of insureds with evidence of alcohol abuse, an adverse driving record or elevations of the liver transaminases or gamma-glutamyl transferase is summarized.

  4. Alcohol Abuse Among U.S. Navy Recruits Who Were Maltreated in Childhood

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-28

    nhrc.navy.mil Hernandez (1992) also found that adolescents who had been sexually abused were more likely to abuse alcohol, and Ireland and Widom ...the likelihood of alcohol use among both males and females (Harrison et al ., 1997). However, while Widom et al . (1995) found a significant...women. In contrast to some previous studies ( Widom et al ., 1995; Cunradi et al ., 2005), we found that maltreated men demonstrated risk ratios that

  5. 42 CFR 2.2 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... abuse patient records. 2.2 Section 2.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 2.2 Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records. The restrictions of... section. (2) Whether or not the patient, with respect to whom any given record referred to in...

  6. 42 CFR 2.2 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... abuse patient records. 2.2 Section 2.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 2.2 Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records. The restrictions of... section. (2) Whether or not the patient, with respect to whom any given record referred to in...

  7. 42 CFR 2.2 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... abuse patient records. 2.2 Section 2.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 2.2 Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records. The restrictions of... section. (2) Whether or not the patient, with respect to whom any given record referred to in...

  8. Economic Costs of Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Texas: 1997 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Liang Y.

    This report provides an update of the costs of alcohol and drug abuse for 1997. The 1997 costs were estimated by multiplying the percent changes in various socioeconomic factors from 1989 to 1997 by the cost estimates. The adverse health and social consequences of substance abuse extensively increased costs to the state. The total economic costs…

  9. 42 CFR 2.2 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... abuse patient records. 2.2 Section 2.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 2.2 Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records. The restrictions of... section. (2) Whether or not the patient, with respect to whom any given record referred to in...

  10. 42 CFR 2.2 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... abuse patient records. 2.2 Section 2.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 2.2 Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records. The restrictions of... section. (2) Whether or not the patient, with respect to whom any given record referred to in...

  11. Assessment of Navy Alcohol and Drug Abuse Education and Training Curricula, Revision Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    include the following: Introduction to Psychology Adolescent Psychology Maslow’s Hierarchy Abnormal Psychology Defense Mechanisms Anxiety...basic mechanics of how the equipment detects drug usage from body fluids. (Note: Full lesson book is available with EMIT kit from SYVA Corporation...identification procedures, organization of assets for control of alchohol and drug abuse, supervisory role in alcohol and drug abuse programs, local

  12. Evaluating Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Knowledge in Medical Education: A Collaborative Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, John B., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Medical students performed less well on examinations about drug abuse problems and patient management than on traditional medical board examinations. The best knowledge was of pharmacology of drug abuse, Alcoholics Anonymous, and treatment of delirium tremens. Students knew less about metabolic and biochemical areas, emergency-room treatment, and…

  13. Alcohol Abuse in Urban Indian Adolescents and Women: A Longitudinal Study for Assessment and Risk Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, R. Dale; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A 10-year study identified risk factors and measured prevalence of alcohol abuse, drug abuse, and psychopathology in 523 urban American Indian adolescents and 276 urban Indian women. Describes study aims, research design, methods, sample characteristics, assessment instruments, substance use prevalence, and methodological issues related to…

  14. Motivating Treatment Seeking and Behavior Change by Untreated Military Personnel Abusing Alcohol or Drugs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    intervention , motivational enhancement therapy 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: U 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF...military personnel who are not currently in substance abuse treatment . The intervention is designed to prompt: (a) a willingness to participate voluntarily...Motivating Treatment Seeking and Behavior Change by Untreated Military Personnel Abusing Alcohol or Drugs PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Denise

  15. The impact of race, income, drug abuse and dependence on health insurance coverage among US adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nianyang; Xie, Xin

    2016-05-04

    Little is known about the impact of drug abuse/dependence on health insurance coverage, especially by race groups and income levels. In this study, we examine the disparities in health insurance predictors and investigate the impact of drug use (alcohol abuse/dependence, nicotine dependence, and illicit drug abuse/dependence) on lack of insurance across different race and income groups. To perform the analysis, we used insurance data (8057 uninsured and 28,590 insured individual adults) from the National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH 2011). To analyze the likelihood of being uninsured we performed weighted binomial logistic regression analyses. The results show that the overall prevalence of lacking insurance was 19.6 %. However, race differences in lack of insurance exist, especially for Hispanics who observe the highest probability of being uninsured (38.5 %). Furthermore, we observe that the lowest income level bracket (annual income <$20,000) is associated with the highest likelihood of being uninsured (37.3 %). As the result of this investigation, we observed the following relationship between drug use and lack of insurance: alcohol abuse/dependence and nicotine dependence tend to increase the risk of lack of insurance for African Americans and whites, respectively; illicit drug use increases such risk for whites; alcohol abuse/dependence increases the likelihood of lack of insurance for the group with incomes $20,000-$49,999, whereas nicotine dependence is associated with higher probability of lack of insurance for most income groups. These findings provide some useful insights for policy makers in making decisions regarding unmet health insurance coverage.

  16. Self and peer perceptions of childhood aggression, social withdrawal and likeability predict adult substance abuse and dependence in men and women: a 30-year prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Serbin, Lisa A; Stack, Dale M; Ledingham, Jane E; Schwartzman, Alex E

    2011-12-01

    While childhood behaviors such as aggression, social withdrawal and likeability have been linked to substance abuse outcomes in adolescence and adulthood, the mechanisms by which these variables relate are not yet well established. Self and peer perceptions of childhood behaviors in men and women were compared to assess the role of context in the prediction of drug and alcohol abuse and dependence. Participants (N=676) in an ongoing longitudinal project examining the relation between childhood behavior and adult mental health outcomes completed the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM IV regarding their histories of substance abuse in mid-adulthood (mean age=34, SD=2). In women, higher levels of both self and peer reported aggression were associated with drug and alcohol abuse and dependence, and higher levels of peer reported aggression were associated with higher levels of alcohol abuse and dependence. As well, higher levels of self-perceived likeability were protective regarding substance abuse and dependence outcomes. In men, higher levels of peer perceived social withdrawal were protective regarding substance abuse and dependence outcomes. Findings support the comparison of self and peer perceptions of childhood behavior as a method of assessing the mechanisms by which childhood behaviors impact adult outcomes, and suggest the importance of gender in the relation between childhood behaviors and adult substance abuse and dependence.

  17. Alcohol Use among Abused and Non-Abused Older Persons Aged 60-84 Years: An European Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tredal, Ingrid; Soares, Joaquim J. F.; Sundin, Orjan; Viitasara, Eija; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Describing alcohol use by abuse type (e.g. psychological) and considering other factors (e.g. depression). Methods: The respondents were 4467 (2559 women, 57.3%) randomly selected elders (60-84 years) from seven European cities. The cross-sectional data were collected with scales covering various areas and examined with…

  18. Alcohol and Drug Abuse Curriculum Guides for Pediatrics Faculty: Health Professions Education Curriculum Resources Series, Medicine 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milman, Doris H.; And Others

    This document provides two separate curriculum guides for pediatrics faculty to use in teaching medical students. The first section contains the alcohol abuse curriculum guide; the second section contains the drug abuse curriculum guide. The drug abuse guide concentrates on cannabis as a paradigm for all nonalcoholic drugs of abuse. Each guide…

  19. Do Trauma Symptoms Mediate the Relationship between Childhood Physical Abuse and Adult Child Abuse Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joel S.; Thomsen, Cynthia J.; Crouch, Julie L.; Rabenhorst, Mandy M.; Martens, Patricia M.; Dyslin, Christopher W.; Guimond, Jennifer M.; Stander, Valerie A.; Merrill, Lex L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although the intergenerational transmission of family violence has been well documented, the mechanisms responsible for this effect have not been fully determined. The present study examined whether trauma symptoms mediate the relationship between a childhood history of child physical abuse (CPA) and adult CPA risk, and whether any such…

  20. Alcohol advertising, consumption and abuse: a covariance-structural modelling look at Strickland's data.

    PubMed

    Adlaf, E M; Kohn, P M

    1989-07-01

    Re-analysis employing covariance-structural models was conducted on Strickland's (1983) survey data on 772 drinking students from Grades 7, 9 and 11. These data bear on the relations among alcohol consumption, alcohol abuse, association with drinking peers and exposure to televised alcohol advertising. Whereas Strickland used a just-identified model which, therefore, could not be tested for goodness of fit, our re-analysis tested several alternative models, which could be contradicted by the data. One model did fit his data particularly well. Its major implications are as follows: (1) Symptomatic consumption, negative consequences and self-rated severity of alcohol-related problems apparently reflect a common underlying factor, namely alcohol abuse. (2) Use of alcohol to relieve distress and frequency of intoxication, however, appear not to reflect abuse, although frequent intoxication contributes substantially to it. (3). Alcohol advertising affects consumption directly and abuse indirectly, although peer association has far greater impact on both consumption and abuse. These findings are interpreted as lending little support to further restrictions on advertising.

  1. [Natural recovery and treatment recovery from drug and alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Pérez Gómez, Augusto; Sierra Acuña, Diana Raquel

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the concept of natural recovery (without formal treatment) from problems associated with alcohol, marijuana, cocaine and heroin abuse, each one alone or in any combination. Two groups of males (40 Ss between 18 and 60 years of age) and two groups of females (19 Ss between 18 and 55 years of age) with at least one year of abstinence were studied. The main issues considered were: reason for attending treatment or ceasing the use of substances, factors related to maintenance of abstinence, and difficulties and threats associated with abstinence. Several significant differences were found between groups with and without treatment, as well as between males and females, particularly regarding factors related to the maintenance of abstinence. In both cases family and affective links appear as the most relevant factors in the decision to stop using substances. On the other hand, commitment to one's goals and life project are the principal motives for maintaining abstinence or moderate consumption. This reflects the progressive transition from cognitive and emotional processes with external referents to processes with internal referents, associated with personal achievement.

  2. Professionals' Perceptions of Drug and Alcohol Abuse among the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, B. Bradford

    1982-01-01

    Surveyed perceptions of the causes, severity, and treatment of elderly substance abuse as reported by 30 drug-abuse, health care, and social service practitioners. Perceptions differed as a function of both the basic type of services an agency provided and its specific response to older abusers. (Author)

  3. Are therapeutic vaccines an answer to the global problem of drug and alcohol abuse?

    PubMed Central

    Brashier, Dick B. S.; Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Akhoon, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Drug Abuse has become a major challenging problem for the society. It effects people of all countries economical strata's and all ages. According. Monetary loss all over the world regarding drug abuse is in million dollars, it not only has an impact on human productivity and healthcare cost but also on cost of crimes conducted by these drugs and alcohol abuse. Therapeutic vaccine has come as new approach to deal with this problem, after failures in search for a pharmaceutical agent to deal with drug of abuse and alcohol. Research in field of nicotine abuse has gone a way ahead with number of vaccines being tried clinically followed by cocaine, opioids, methamphetamine, phencyclidine and alcohol. All of them have a common mechanism of action by antibody production whereas alcohol acts by genetic intervention. None have being approved yet due to poor results in phase II trials, possibly due to not able to trigger an adequate immunological response. But still quest is on for cracking the ice by developing first successful vaccine against drug of abuse, that would follow for other drugs too. It would be great step in field of therapeutic vaccines for drug abuse after similar successful vaccines being approved for other diseases like cancer. PMID:27721531

  4. Pie Graph Data: Number of Americans Dependent on or Abusing Alcohol and Illicit Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Age 12 and Older Dependent on or Abusing Alcohol and Illicit Drugs Alcohol / 17,876 Marijuana / 4,476 Pain Relievers / 1,921 Sedatives / 162 Tranquilizers / 521 Stimulants / 357 Heroin / ... Health Services Administration, 2005 National Survey on Drug Use and Health

  5. Blue Bay: A Tribal Approach to Fighting Alcohol and Drug Abuse. Our Way of Healing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Native American Development Corp., Washington, DC.

    The best means for fighting alcohol abuse in a Native American community is one that has been developed by the community itself. The Blue Bay Healing Center of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (Flathead Indian Reservation, Montana) is an example of two tribes taking responsibility for alcoholism and its control. In designing and…

  6. Nearly Half of College Student Treatment Admissions Were for Primary Alcohol Abuse. Data Spotlight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Many students, and the public in general, believe that drinking alcohol is a normal part of the college experience. Unfortunately, students' efforts to "be sociable" or "fit in" can escalate into substance use behavior that puts their health and well-being at risk: One in four full-time college students have experienced past year alcohol abuse or…

  7. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strat- egies with a community's readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community's readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the implementation of…

  8. Retrospective reports of parenting received in their families of origin: relationships to adult attachment in adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Nair, Veena; Rawlings, Tanaya; Cash, Thomas F; Steer, Kate; Fals-Stewart, William

    2005-09-01

    The present study examined general and romantic attachment and parenting students received in their families of origin among 401 college students who resided with an alcohol-abusing parent prior to age 16 years as compared to those who did not reside with alcohol-abusing parents. Participants completed the Children's Report of Parent Behavior Instrument [Schludermann, E. and Schludermann, S. (1970). Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory (CRPBI). Canada: University of Manitoba], Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised [Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., and Brennan, K. G. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365], Relationship Scale Questionnaire [Griffin, D. W. and Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445], and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test [Jones, J. W. (1983). The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test: Test manual. Chicago: Camelot]. Young adults who met criteria for ACOAs reported more anxious and avoidant behavior in romantic relationships and a more fearful style of general adult attachment. Parenting behavior in one's family of origin predicted anxious behavior in romantic relationships and a fearful overall style of attachment, whereas being an ACOA and parenting in one's family of origin predicted avoidant behavior in romantic relationships.

  9. Drug and alcohol abuse: The pattern and magnitude of the problem

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, P.A.

    1996-12-31

    In the last 12 months, many more cases of alcohol and drug (substance) abuse in the workplace were seen in the Escravos operations of Chevron Nigeria Limited than in previous years. This called the attention to the rising prevalence of drug and alcohol abuse in contradistinction to reports from similar organizations in other parts of the world. Chevron Nigeria has a written Drug and Alcohol Policy which has been dormant for some time because of the apparent rarity of the problem of substance abuse in the workplace. This Policy is being reviewed to broaden its scope and make it more effective. A total of 30 employees were tested for drugs and alcohol .6 exceeded the legal limits of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) and 5 tested positive for drugs. Tests were mainly post-accident, reasonable cause and random. The common substances abused were alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and morphine in that order. The findings are compared with those of similar organizations in UK and USA. Efforts to control substance abuse in the workplace are being put into place.

  10. Iudicium: An Educational Intervention for addressing Risk Perception of Alcohol Abuse in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bajac, Héctor; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Meerhoff, Diana; Latorre, Laura; Elices, Matilde

    2016-03-02

    Negative consequences of alcohol abuse during adolescence have been extensively described. Consequently, different interventions have been developed to address this issue. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of Iudicium, an educational drama-based intervention designed to increase risk perception of alcohol abuse. In this activity, high school students judge a case in which alcohol consumption had negative consequences (e.g., fights, unwanted pregnancy, and car accident). A trial is simulated and after that, a debriefing takes place during which the activity is discussed and informational materials on the effects of alcohol is provided and commented. A total of 318 students (55.7% females and 44.3% males) from five high schools participated in the study. Data regarding risk perception of alcohol abuse and adequacy of the activity was collected before and after the intervention. Results suggest that Iudicium was effective in increasing risk perception of abusive drinking, reaching a 34% of increase regarding risk perception. Participants highlighted the experiential component of Iudicium as a strength. The intervention was well-accepted, easy to understand and apparently an effective tool for increasing risk perception of alcohol abuse amongst high school students.

  11. The Revictimization of Adult Women With Histories of Childhood Abuse

    PubMed Central

    CHU, JAMES A.

    1992-01-01

    Both clinical experience and recent research statistics support the observation that childhood abuse survivors are vulnerable to revictimization as adults. The responsibility for revictimization, such as physical or sexual assault, belongs to the perpetrators. However, the factors that make abuse survivors more vulnerable to exploitation need to be examined and understood in order to provide adequate treatment and protection. This discussion integrates an understanding of three powerful forces—the repetition compulsion, post-traumatic syndromes, and profound relational disturbances—that permit the process of revictimization to occur. PMID:22700102

  12. Associations between childhood abuse and interpersonal aggression and suicide attempt among U.S. adults in a national study.

    PubMed

    Harford, Thomas C; Yi, Hsiao-ye; Grant, Bridget F

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to examine associations among childhood physical, emotional, or sexual abuse and violence toward self (suicide attempts [SA]) and others (interpersonal aggression [IA]). Data were obtained from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Waves 1 and 2 (n=34,653). Multinomial logistic regression examined associations between type of childhood abuse and violence categories, adjusting for demographic variables, other childhood adversity, and DSM-IV psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of reported childhood abuse was 4.60% for physical abuse, 7.83% for emotional abuse, and 10.20% for sexual abuse. Approximately 18% of adults reported some form of violent behavior, distributed as follows: IA, 13.37%; SA, 2.64%; and SA with IA, 1.85%. After adjusting for demographic variables, other childhood adversity, and psychiatric disorders, each type of childhood abuse was significantly related to increased risk for each violence category as compared with the no violence category. Furthermore, the odds ratio of childhood physical abuse was significantly higher for SA with IA when compared with IA, and the odds ratio of childhood sexual abuse was significantly higher for SA and SA with IA when compared with IA. Childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse is directly related to the risk for violent behaviors to self and others. Both internalizing and externalizing psychiatric disorders impact the association between childhood abuse and violence. The inclusion of suicidal behaviors and interpersonal aggression and internalizing/externalizing psychiatric disorders within an integrated conceptual framework will facilitate more effective interventions for long-lasting effects of child abuse.

  13. KCNJ6 is associated with adult alcohol dependence and involved in gene × early life stress interactions in adolescent alcohol drinking.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Toni-Kim; Laucht, Manfred; Ridinger, Monika; Wodarz, Norbert; Rietschel, Marcella; Maier, Wolfgang; Lathrop, Mark; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Schumann, Gunter

    2011-05-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence have proven to be complex genetic traits that are influenced by environmental factors. Primate and human studies have shown that early life stress increases the propensity for alcohol abuse in later life. The reinforcing properties of alcohol are mediated by dopaminergic signaling; however, there is little evidence to indicate how stress alters alcohol reinforcement. KCNJ6 (the gene encoding G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channel 2 (GIRK2)) is a brain expressed potassium channel with inhibitory effects on dopaminergic tone. The properties of GIRK2 have been shown to be enhanced by the stress peptide corticotrophin-releasing hormone. Therefore, we sought to examine the role of KCNJ6 polymorphisms in adult alcohol dependence and stress-related alcohol abuse in adolescents. We selected 11 SNPs in the promoter region of KCNJ6, which were genotyped in 1152 adult alcohol dependents and 1203 controls. One SNP, rs2836016, was found to be associated with alcohol dependence (p=0.01, false discovery rate). We then assessed rs2836016 in an adolescent sample of 261 subjects, which were characterized for early life stress and adolescent hazardous drinking, defined using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), to examine gene-environment interactions. In the adolescent sample, the risk genotype of rs2836016 was significantly associated with increased AUDIT scores, but only in those individuals exposed to high levels of psychosocial stress in early life (p=0.01). Our findings show that KCNJ6 is associated with alcohol dependence and may moderate the effect of early psychosocial stress on risky alcohol drinking in adolescents. We have identified a candidate gene for future studies investigating a possible functional link between the response to stress and alcohol reinforcement.

  14. Parent's alcoholism severity and family topic avoidance about alcohol as predictors of perceived stigma among adult children of alcoholics: Implications for emotional and psychological resilience.

    PubMed

    Haverfield, Marie C; Theiss, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholism is a highly stigmatized condition, with both alcohol-dependent individuals and family members of the afflicted experiencing stigmatization. This study examined the severity of a parent's alcoholism and family topic avoidance about alcohol as two factors that are associated with family members' perceptions of stigma. Three dimensions of stigma were considered: discrimination stigma, disclosure stigma, and positive aspect stigma. In addition, this study assessed associations between perceived stigmatization and individuals' experiences of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience. Adult children of alcoholics (N = 622) were surveyed about family conditions, perceived stigma, and their emotional and psychological well-being. Regression analyses revealed that the severity of a parent's alcoholism predicted all three types of stigma for females, but not for males. In addition, family topic avoidance about alcohol predicted all types of stigma for males and discrimination stigma and positive aspect stigma for females. With few exceptions, the three types of stigma predicted depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience for both male and female adult children of alcoholics. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for promoting a family environment that mitigates stigma and encourages emotional and psychological well-being. In 2012, approximately 3.3 million deaths worldwide were due to the harmful use of alcohol (World Health Organization [WHO], 2014). Individuals who abuse alcohol are susceptible to a variety of negative health outcomes (Rehm et al., 2009) and display inappropriate social behaviors (Klingemann, 2001; Schomerus et al., 2011a). General societal perceptions tend to characterize alcohol-dependent individuals as irresponsible and lacking in self-control (Schomerus et al., 2011b). Research in the United Kingdom found that 54% of the population believes alcohol-dependent individuals are personally to blame for their own

  15. Sexual Abuse History among Adult Sex Offenders and Non-Sex Offenders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jespersen, Ashley F.; Lalumiere, Martin L.; Seto, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The sexually abused-sexual abuser hypothesis states there is a specific relationship between sexual abuse history and sexual offending, such that individuals who experience sexual abuse are significantly more likely to later engage in sexual offenses. Therefore, samples of adult sex offenders should contain a disproportionate number of…

  16. What Happens When Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Become Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Eileen M.; Riley, Edward P.

    2015-01-01

    The range of structural abnormalities and functional deficits caused by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) are referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). The disabilities associated with FASDs are said to be lifelong, but we know relatively little regarding outcomes beyond childhood and adolescence. Many of physical, brain, and neurobehavioral features that are present in children with FASDs will endure to adulthood. However, some features may diminish or change over time. Furthermore, secondary disabilities, such as school drop outs, trouble with the law, and substance/alcohol abuse problems are common in young adults with FASDs. The health consequences associated with PAE in the human adult are unknown, but animal models suggest that they may be more susceptible to chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, immune dysfunction, and cancer. More research is needed to understand the lasting effects of PAE on adults and the developmental trajectories of FASDs. PMID:26543794

  17. Alcohol and drug abuse in men who sustain intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Hines, Denise A; Douglas, Emily M

    2012-01-01

    Extensive work has documented an association between sustaining intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol/drug abuse among women, yet little research has documented the same association in men, even though men comprise 25-50% of all IPV victims in a given year. This study investigates the associations among sustaining IPV and alcohol/drug abuse among both a clinical and community sample of men. The clinical sample is comprised of 302 men who sustained intimate terrorism-a form of IPV that is characterized by much violence and controlling behavior-from their female partners and sought help. The community sample is composed of 520 men, 16% of whom sustained common couple violence, a lower level of more minor reciprocal IPV. Analyses showed that among both groups of men who sustained IPV, the prevalence and frequency of alcohol/drug abuse was significantly higher than in men who did not sustain IPV. However, a dose-response relationship between sustaining IPV and alcohol/drug abuse was found only among men in the community sample. Path modeling showed that, for the community sample, the best fitting models were ones that showed that the alcohol/drug abuse predicted IPV victimization, an association that was fully mediated by their use of IPV.

  18. The interplay of trait anger, childhood physical abuse, and alcohol consumption in predicting intimate partner aggression.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined three well-established risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA) within Finkel and Eckhardt's I(3) model, including two impellance factors-trait anger and childhood physical abuse history-and the disinhibiting factor of alcohol consumption. Participants were 236 male and female college students in a committed heterosexual dating relationship who completed a battery of self-report measures assessing childhood physical abuse, trait anger, alcohol consumption, and IPA perpetration. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction showing that as the disinhibition factor alcohol consumption increased, the interaction of the two impelling factors, trait anger and childhood physical abuse, became increasingly more positive. Individuals who had high levels of childhood physical abuse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk of IPA perpetration when trait anger was high. Consistent with the I(3) model, these findings suggest that trait anger and a history of childhood physical abuse may increase tendencies to aggress against one's partner, whereas alcohol consumption may reduce individuals' abilities to manage these aggressive tendencies. The importance of interplay among these risk factors in elevating IPA risk is discussed, as are the implications for clinicians working with male and female IPA perpetrators.

  19. Sexual abuse in people with alcohol problems. A study of the prevalence of sexual abuse and its relationship to drinking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Moncrieff, J; Drummond, D C; Candy, B; Checinski, K; Farmer, R

    1996-09-01

    Several community-based studies have found significantly higher rates of alcohol and drug abuse among those with a history of child sexual abuse. This association was investigated further in a sample of 126 consecutive attendees (89 men and 37 women) at three alcohol treatment centers in London, England. 25 men (24%) and 21 women (54%) reported a sexual abuse history. 43 (69%) of the 62 perpetrators reported by respondents were not family members. The mean age at first occurrence of abuse was 12.6 years and 75% of victims were 15 years of age or younger at first incident. Victims of sexual abuse were younger at presentation for treatment and had significantly higher scores on the Severity of Dependence Questionnaire and the Alcohol Problem Questionnaire than their nonabused counterparts. They also developed drinking problems at an earlier age and were more likely to have other psychiatric problems. 53.4% of the variance in drinking was contributed by alcohol dependence, age, and sexual abuse. These findings suggest that sexual abuse is a common childhood experience among men and women who seek help for alcohol problems. However, the lack of a control group of non-drinkers limits assessment of a possible causal link between child sexual abuse and subsequent alcohol misuse.

  20. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  1. Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse: Multitype Maltreatment and Disclosure Characteristics Related to Subjective Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the impact of child sexual abuse and disclosure characteristics on adult psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Data on abuse characteristics, disclosure-related events, and subjective health were collected through semistructured interviews and questionnaires from 123 adult women reporting having been sexually abused in…

  2. Alcohol and Health. Fifth Special Report to the U.S. Congress from the Secretary of Health and Human Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report is divided into an overview of alcohol and health, and eight chapters which deal with various aspects of alcohol use and abuse. The epidemiology of alcohol abuse and alcoholism is discussed. Data are presented on self-reported consumption of alcohol among youths and adults; alcohol consumption during pregnancy; alcohol-related…

  3. Alcohol and adult hippocampal neurogenesis: promiscuous drug, wanton effects.

    PubMed

    Geil, Chelsea R; Hayes, Dayna M; McClain, Justin A; Liput, Daniel J; Marshall, S Alex; Chen, Kevin Y; Nixon, Kimberly

    2014-10-03

    Adult neurogenesis is now widely accepted as an important contributor to hippocampal integrity and function but also dysfunction when adult neurogenesis is affected in neuropsychiatric diseases such as alcohol use disorders. Excessive alcohol consumption, the defining characteristic of alcohol use disorders, results in a variety of cognitive and behavioral impairments related wholly or in part to hippocampal structure and function. Recent preclinical work has shown that adult neurogenesis may be one route by which alcohol produces hippocampal neuropathology. Alcohol is a pharmacologically promiscuous drug capable of interfering with adult neurogenesis through multiple mechanisms. This review will discuss the primary mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis including alcohol's effects on neurotransmitters, CREB and its downstream effectors, and the neurogenic niche.

  4. The effect of alcohol and nicotine abuse on gene expression in the brain.

    PubMed

    Flatscher-Bader, Traute; Wilce, Peter A

    2009-12-01

    Alcohol intake at levels posing an acute heath risk is common amongst teenagers. Alcohol abuse is the second most common mental disorder worldwide. The incidence of smoking is decreasing in the Western world but increasing in developing countries and is the leading cause of preventable death worldwide. Considering the longstanding history of alcohol and tobacco consumption in human societies, it might be surprising that the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol and smoking dependence are still incompletely understood. Effective treatments against the risk of relapse are lacking. Drugs of abuse exert their effect manipulating the dopaminergic mesocorticolimbic system. In this brain region, alcohol has many potential targets including membranes and several ion channels, while other drugs, for example nicotine, act via specific receptors or binding proteins. Repeated consumption of drugs of abuse mediates adaptive changes within this region, resulting in addiction. The high incidence of alcohol and nicotine co-abuse complicates analysis of the molecular basis of the disease. Gene expression profiling is a useful approach to explore novel drug targets in the brain. Several groups have utilised this technology to reveal drug-sensitive pathways in the mesocorticolimbic system of animal models and in human subjects. These studies are the focus of the present review.

  5. Introduction to the Special Issue “Pharmacotherapies for the Treatment of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence” and a Summary of Patents Targeting other Neurotransmitter Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Richard L.; Franklin, Kelle M.; Hauser, Sheketha R.; Zhou, Feng C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the Special Section: Pharmacotherapies for the Treatment of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence and provides a summary of patents targeting neurotransmitter systems not covered in the other four chapters. The World Health Organization notes that alcoholic-type drinking results in 2.5 million deaths per year, and these deaths occur to a disproportionately greater extent among adolescents and young adults. Developing a pharmacological treatment targeting alcohol abuse and dependence is complicated by (a) the heterogeneous nature of the disease(s), (b) alcohol affecting multiple neurotransmitter and neuromodulator systems, and (c) alcohol affecting multiple organ systems which in turn influence the function of the central nervous system. Presently, the USA Federal Drug Administration has approved three pharmacotherapies for alcoholism: disulfiram, naltrexone, and acamprosate. This chapter provides a summary of the following systems, which are not covered in the accompanying chapters; alcohol and acetaldehyde metabolism, opioid, glycinergic, GABA-A, neurosteroid, dopaminergic, serotonergic, and endocannabinoid, as well as patents targeting these systems for the treatment of alcoholism. Finally, an overview is presented on the use of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics in tailoring treatments for certain subpopulations of alcoholics, which is expected to continue in the future. PMID:22574678

  6. Adult Children of Alcoholics: Theory and Research. Pamphlet Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeannette L.; Bennett, Linda A.

    The concept of adult children of alcoholics (ACoA) has received wide public recognition and acceptance. An ACoA is defined as any adult who, as a child, was reared by one or two alcoholic parents. To date research has not sufficiently addressed the many questions generated by the grass roots movement, such as whether or not adult children of…

  7. Workplace Discrimination Is Associated With Alcohol Abuse Among Ethnically Diverse Hospital Staff.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, Angela D; Wells, Anita M; Spencer, S Melinda; Cofie, Leslie; Yen, Irene H

    2016-05-01

    Research suggests that workplace discrimination plays a role in absenteeism, productivity, and turnover. A link among workplace discrimination, mental health, and health disparities may also exist. The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-reported workplace discrimination is associated with alcohol abuse among hospital workers. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected from a prospective cohort study of workers in two healthcare institutions (n = 664) was conducted. Workplace discrimination in the previous 12 months was reported by 14% (n = 91) of participants who were four times more likely to score higher on likely alcohol abuse than their peers. White participants who reported any discrimination were more likely to score higher on likely alcohol abuse than racial/ethnic minority participants who reported any discrimination. Given a diversifying workforce, further research is needed on how workplace discrimination contributes to stress and maladaptive coping, and ultimately health disparities.

  8. Polysubstance abuse: alcohol, opioids and benzodiazepines require coordinated engagement by society, patients, and physicians.

    PubMed

    Ogbu, Uzor C; Lotfipour, Shahram; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has published significant data trends related to substance abuse involving opioid pain relievers (OPR), benzodiazepines and alcohol in the United States. The CDC describes opioid misuse and abuse as an epidemic, with the use of OPR surpassing that of illicit drugs. Alcohol has also been a persistent problem and is associated with a number of emergency department visits and deaths independent of other substances. The use of these drugs in combination creates an additive effect with increased central nervous system suppression and a heightened risk of an overdose. We present a summary of the findings from the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) with commentary on strategies to combat prescription drug and alcohol abuse.

  9. Polysubstance Abuse: Alcohol, Opioids and Benzodiazepines Require Coordinated Engagement by Society, Patients, and Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Ogbu, Uzor C.; Lotfipour, Shahram; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has published significant data trends related to substance abuse involving opioid pain relievers (OPR), benzodiazepines and alcohol in the United States. The CDC describes opioid misuse and abuse as an epidemic, with the use of OPR surpassing that of illicit drugs. Alcohol has also been a persistent problem and is associated with a number of emergency department visits and deaths independent of other substances. The use of these drugs in combination creates an additive effect with increased central nervous system suppression and a heightened risk of an overdose. We present a summary of the findings from the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) with commentary on strategies to combat prescription drug and alcohol abuse. PMID:25671013

  10. [The lipid composition of bloodserum in patients with salmonella infection and suffering of alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Makarov, V K; Leventsova, A E

    2012-10-01

    The impact of bacterial salmonella infection manifested in higher level of common lipids, increase of relative content of common phospholipids, free cholesterol, free fatty acids and phosphatidylcholine and decrease of content of cholesterol esters and total lysophospholipids. The patients with salmonella infection, suffering of alcohol abuse as opposed to non-abusing patients characterized by higher content of triglycerides, free cholesterol, total lysophospholipids, phosphatidylcholine and lower content of cholesterol esters and phosphatidylcholine.

  11. Testing Hypothesized Differences between Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs) and Non-ACOAs in a College Student Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Amy L.; Perera-Diltz, Dilani M.; Salyers, Kathleen M.; Laux, John M.; Cochrane, Wendy S.

    2007-01-01

    The authors compared college adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and non-ACOAs using the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 (F.G. Miller, 1999).The results failed to support the hypothesis that ACOAs have higher rates of substance dependence, defensiveness, and codependency than do non-ACOAs. Practical implications are offered for…

  12. Intermittent ethanol access schedule in rats as a preclinical model of alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Carnicella, Sebastien; Ron, Dorit; Barak, Segev

    2014-05-01

    One of the major challenges in preclinical studies of alcohol abuse and dependence remains the development of paradigms that will elicit high ethanol intake and mimic the progressive transition from low or moderate social drinking to excessive alcohol consumption. Exposure of outbred rats to repeated cycles of free-choice ethanol intake and withdrawal with the use of intermittent access to 20% ethanol in a 2-bottle choice procedure (IA2BC) has been shown to induce a gradual escalation of voluntary ethanol intake and preference, eventually reaching ethanol consumption levels of 5-6 g/kg/24 h, and inducing pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). This procedure has recently been gaining popularity due to its simplicity, high validity, and reliable outcomes. Here we review experimental and methodological data related to IA2BC, and discuss the usefulness and advantages of this procedure as a valuable pre-training method for initiating operant ethanol self-administration of high ethanol intake, as well as conditioned place preference (CPP). Despite some limitations, we provide evidence that IA2BC and related operant procedures provide the possibility to operationalize multiple aspects of alcohol abuse and addiction in a rat model, including transition from social-like drinking to excessive alcohol consumption, binge drinking, alcohol seeking, relapse, and neuroadaptations related to excessive alcohol intake. Hence, IA2BC appears to be a useful and relevant procedure for preclinical evaluation of potential therapeutic approaches against alcohol abuse disorders.

  13. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibition as a new potential therapeutic target for alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, P P; Kawamura, T; Chen, J; Koob, G F; Roberts, A J; Vendruscolo, L F; Repunte-Canonigo, V

    2016-01-01

    The identification of new and more effective treatments for alcohol abuse remains a priority. Alcohol intake activates glucocorticoids, which have a key role in alcohol's reinforcing properties. Glucocorticoid effects are modulated in part by the activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11β-HSD) acting as pre-receptors. Here, we tested the effects on alcohol intake of the 11β-HSD inhibitor carbenoxolone (CBX, 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid 3β-O-hemisuccinate), which has been extensively used in the clinic for the treatment of gastritis and peptic ulcer and is active on both 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 isoforms. We observed that CBX reduces both baseline and excessive drinking in rats and mice. The CBX diastereomer 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid 3β-O-hemisuccinate (αCBX), which we found to be selective for 11β-HSD2, was also effective in reducing alcohol drinking in mice. Thus, 11β-HSD inhibitors may be a promising new class of candidate alcohol abuse medications, and existing 11β-HSD inhibitor drugs may be potentially re-purposed for alcohol abuse treatment. PMID:26978742

  14. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment...

  15. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment...

  16. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment...

  17. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment...

  18. Paternal alcoholism and youth substance abuse: the indirect effects of negative affect, conduct problems, and risk taking.

    PubMed

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Hesselbrock, Victor M

    2008-02-01

    This longitudinal study followed 200 adolescents into early adulthood to explore the potential mediating roles that hostility, sadness, conduct problems, and risk-taking play in the relationship between paternal alcoholism and substance abuse. Results indicated that paternal alcoholism predicted hostility; in turn, hostility predicted risk taking, which predicted substance abuse.

  19. Predicting Vocational Rehabilitation Outcomes for People with Alcohol Abuse/Dependence: An Application of Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickham, Dana M.

    2012-01-01

    People with alcohol abuse/dependence disabilities are often faced with a complex recovery process due to the exacerbating and chronic aspects of their condition. Vocational rehabilitation for people with alcohol abuse/dependence can help individuals access and maintain employment, and through employment can enhance physical and psychological…

  20. Design and Evaluation of an Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention Program for High Risk Families with Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Stephen; And Others

    In fall, 1991, La Frontera Center, the Tucson Council for Alcohol and Drug Dependence, and the Community Organization for Drug Abuse Control were funded to carry out an educational program to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse in the Tucson, Arizona area. The resulting project, Pasos Adelante (Steps Forward), is an early intervention…

  1. 38 CFR 17.82 - Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse disabilities. 17.82 Section 17.82 Pensions... Agencies § 17.82 Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse disabilities. (a) Contracts for treatment services authorized under § 17.80 may be awarded in accordance...

  2. 24 CFR 982.553 - Denial of admission and termination of assistance for criminals and alcohol abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of assistance for criminals and alcohol abusers. 982.553 Section 982.553 Housing and Urban... Denial of admission and termination of assistance for criminals and alcohol abusers. (a) Denial of admission—(1) Prohibiting admission of drug criminals. (i) The PHA must prohibit admission to the program...

  3. 24 CFR 882.518 - Denial of admission and termination of assistance for criminals and alcohol abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of assistance for criminals and alcohol abusers. 882.518 Section 882.518 Housing and Urban... Operation § 882.518 Denial of admission and termination of assistance for criminals and alcohol abusers. (a) Requirement to deny admission—(1) Prohibiting admission of drug criminals. (i) The PHA must prohibit...

  4. 38 CFR 17.80 - Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. 17... of Services of Other Federal Agencies § 17.80 Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. (a) Alcohol and drug dependence or...

  5. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment...

  6. Rural Issues in Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Treatment: Award for Excellence Papers. Technical Assistance Publication Series No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This document consists of papers that received recognition in a competition sponsored by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment and the National Rural Institute on Alcohol and Drug Abuse. The competition sought to focus attention on problems in providing treatment and prevention services for drug and alcohol problems in rural areas. The papers…

  7. Should a psychiatrist report a bus driver's alcohol and drug abuse? An ethical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Leeman, C P; Cohen, M A; Parkas, V

    2001-01-01

    Denial of alcohol or drug abuse, and of its possible consequences, can complicate medical and psychiatric care. We present the case of an HIV-positive bus driver with substance abuse who initially denied ongoing use of alcohol and of other drugs, but later admitted to both. The psychiatrist's duty to protect the patient's confidentiality, coupled with concerns about public safety, created an ethical dilemma. In discussing this dilemma we stress the importance of preserving confidentiality, both to facilitate treatment and also to further the safety of others.

  8. 49 CFR 240.119 - Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Process § 240.119 Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules.... (b) Fitness requirement. (1) A person who has an active substance abuse disorder shall not be... certified engineer who is determined to have an active substance abuse disorder shall be suspended...

  9. 49 CFR 240.119 - Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Process § 240.119 Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules.... (b) Fitness requirement. (1) A person who has an active substance abuse disorder shall not be... certified engineer who is determined to have an active substance abuse disorder shall be suspended...

  10. 49 CFR 240.119 - Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Process § 240.119 Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules.... (b) Fitness requirement. (1) A person who has an active substance abuse disorder shall not be... certified engineer who is determined to have an active substance abuse disorder shall be suspended...

  11. 49 CFR 240.119 - Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Process § 240.119 Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules.... (b) Fitness requirement. (1) A person who has an active substance abuse disorder shall not be... certified engineer who is determined to have an active substance abuse disorder shall be suspended...

  12. Perceptions of Family Alcohol Use in a Young Adult Sample

    PubMed Central

    Serafini, Kelly A.; Stewart, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Perceptions of family alcohol use have been linked to adolescent alcohol use behaviors, yet there have been no studies that have assessed this relationship in young adults. This study examined perceptions of family alcohol use and their association with participants’ self-reported alcohol use. Participants included 171 undergraduate students (mean age = 21.67, 71.9 percent female, 75.4 percent Caucasian). Participants completed measures assessing quantity and frequency of alcohol use, negative consequences of use, and sibling relationship quality. They also reported their perceptions of alcohol use for siblings and parents during a typical week. Perceptions of siblings’ quantity of weekly alcohol use were significantly associated with participants’ quantity of alcohol use (r = .21, p = .006) and frequency of alcohol use (r = .23, p = .002). Perceptions of parental alcohol use were not related to the participants’ alcohol use patterns. PMID:26339202

  13. Family Therapy and Children of Alcoholics Implications for Continuing Education and Certification in Substance Abuse Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespi, Tony D.; Rueckert, Quentin H.

    2006-01-01

    Clinicians involved in family therapy are increasingly concerned with the impact of parental alcoholism on individual development and family functioning. With more than 20 million adults raised within an alcoholic family, and with widespread problems associated with parental alcoholism, clinicians providing family treatment have a potentially…

  14. Indian Juvenile Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Prevention. Hearings on H.R. 1156 To Coordinate and Expand Services for the Prevention, Identification, Treatment, and Follow-Up Care of Alcohol and Drug Abuse among Indian Youth and for Other Purposes and H.R. 2624 To Authorize Programs for the Treatment and Prevention of Drug and Alcohol Abuse among Indian Juveniles, before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First and Second Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs.

    Two hearings held on October 24, 1985, and April 29, 1986, produced testimony about two House bills on prevention and treatment of Indian juvenile alcoholism and drug abuse. These bills provide for (1) programs of instruction on alcohol and drug abuse in Indian schools in kindergarten through grade 12; (2) training about alcohol and drug abuse for…

  15. Abuse and Parental Characteristics, Attributions of Blame, and Psychological Adjustment in Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinzow, Heidi; Seth, Puja; Jackson, Joan; Niehaus, Ashley; Fitzgerald, Monica

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of abuse and parental characteristics on attributional content and determine the relative contribution of different attributions of blame in predicting psychological symptomatology among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. One hundred eighty-three female undergraduates with a history of…

  16. Understanding the role of impulsivity and externalizing psychopathology in alcohol abuse: application of the UPPS impulsive behavior scale.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Stephen P; Lynam, Donald R

    2003-08-01

    The present study explores the relation among 4 personality traits associated with impulsive behavior and alcohol abuse. Personality traits were measured using the 4 subscales of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS; S. P. Whiteside & D. R. Lynam, 2001). The UPPS and measures of psychopathology were administered to clinical samples of alcohol abusers high in antisocial personality traits (AAPD), alcohol abusers low in antisocial personality traits (AA), and a control group (total N = 60). Separate analyses of variance indicated that AAPDs had significant elevations on all 4 UPPS scales, whereas the AAs and controls differed only on the Urgency subscale. However, when controlling for psychopathology, group differences on the UPPS scales disappeared. The results suggest that personality traits related to impulsive behavior are not directly related to alcohol abuse but rather are associated with the elevated levels of psychopathology found in a subtype of alcohol abusers.

  17. Patterns of alcohol use and abuse among aging Civil War veterans, 1865-1920.

    PubMed Central

    Achenbaum, W. A.; Howell, J. D.; Parker, M.

    1993-01-01

    Given the extent of alcoholism among elderly people, it is remarkable how little is known about the biomedical and social dimensions of alcohol use and abuse in late life. In the absence of compelling longitudinal data drawn from contemporary sources, a historical perspective may help to illuminate the incidence and consequences of alcohol abuse among the elderly. Based on a study of 370 case histories drawn from the National Military Home in Dayton, Ohio, which around the turn of the century was the nation's largest old-age home, it appears that alcohol's social ramifications were more important than its pathological or physiological manifestations in late 19th-century America. Drinking habits among aging Civil War veterans varied considerably: moderate consumption was acceptable; too much of a good thing caused problems. PMID:8472039

  18. Pathological Gambling and Associated Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Emotion Regulation, and Anxious-Depressive Symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student's t, Pearson's r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders.

  19. Pathological Gambling and Associated Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Emotion Regulation, and Anxious-Depressive Symptomatology

    PubMed Central

    Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student’s t, Pearson’s r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders. PMID:27348555

  20. The risk for persistent adult alcohol and nicotine dependence: the role of childhood maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Jennifer C.; Stohl, Malka; Wall, Melanie M.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Goodwin, Renee D.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Krueger, Robert F.; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Alcohol and nicotine dependence are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, especially when cases are persistent. The risk for alcohol and nicotine dependence is increased by childhood maltreatment. However, the influence of childhood maltreatment on dependence course is unknown, and is evaluated in the current study. Design Physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, and physical and emotional neglect, were evaluated as predictors of persistent alcohol and nicotine dependence over three years of follow-up, with and without control for other childhood adversities. Setting National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Participants NESARC participants completing baseline and follow-up who met criteria at baseline for past-year alcohol dependence (n=1,172) and nicotine dependence (n=4,017). Measurements Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule (AUDADIS) measures of alcohol/nicotine dependence, childhood maltreatment, and other adverse childhood experiences (e.g., parental divorce). Findings Controlling for demographics only, physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, and physical neglect, predicted three-year persistence of alcohol dependence (adjusted odds ratios [AORs]: 1.50–2.99, 95% CIs 1.04–4.68) and nicotine dependence (AORs: 1.37–1.74, 95% CIs 1.13–2.11). With other childhood adversities also controlled, maltreatment types remained predictive for alcohol persistence (AORs: 1.53–3.02, 95% CIs 1.07–4.71) and nicotine persistence (AORs: 1.35–1.72, 95% CIs 1.11–2.09). Further, a greater number of maltreatment types incrementally influenced persistence risk (AORs: 1.19–1.36, 95% CIs 1.11–1.56). Conclusions A history of childhood maltreatment predicts persistent adult alcohol and nicotine dependence. This association, robust to control for other childhood adversities, suggests that maltreatment (rather than a generally difficult childhood) affects the course of

  1. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  2. Emotional Intelligence: An Untapped Resource for Alcohol and Other Drug Related Prevention among Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Ken Russell

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol and Other Drug abuse in adolescents and adults continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. Care in intervention programs aimed at high risk populations identified occurs after the maladaptive behavioral delinquency has occurred, and only then is an individual afforded the opportunity to join an intervention program. The focus of this paper is to illustrate and highlight the value of prevention programs which emphasize altering maladaptive behavior before the behavior becomes problematic. Emotional Intelligence is not only an indicator of alcohol and other drug abuse, but is linked to emotional competence, social and emotional learning, the development of healthy and life promoting behavior, and has been proven to reduce some of the risk factors associated with alcohol and other drug abuse in adolescents and adults. This paper seeks to recognize the significance of Emotional Intelligence as a desirable health promoting attribute and to establish the importance of its conceptual use in a prevention based model for reducing associated high risk behaviors. PMID:22570777

  3. Managing Opioid Abuse in Older Adults: Clinical Considerations and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Loreck, David; Brandt, Nicole J; DiPaula, Bethany

    2016-04-01

    Opioid use disorder is a public health epidemic. There is increasing attention being given to opioid abuse and overdose in the United States. The overall use of illicit substances by older adults is on the rise and in part can be attributed to the aging of Baby Boomers. Furthermore, much attention is being given to prescription opioid drug overdose, but it is important to note that heroin-related deaths have also increased sharply. Heroin use is part of a larger substance abuse problem, with more than nine in 10 individuals who use heroin also using at least one other drug (e.g., cocaine, prescription opioid medication). The current article highlights treatment approaches, namely buprenorphine, buprenorphine/naloxone, and naltrexone; insurance considerations; and resources to aid in understanding and managing this public health crisis.

  4. Caregiver Abuse of Chicago Chinese Older Adults in a Community-Dwelling Population

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xin Qi; Li, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine the prevalence and correlates of elder abuse reported by adult children among U.S Chinese populations. Method A community-based participatory research approach was implemented. A total of 548 Chinese adult children aged 21 years and over participated in this study. Elder abuse reported by adult children was assessed using Caregiver Abuse Screen (CASE). Results This study found a prevalence of 59.8%for elder abuse among 548 adult children. Younger age (r = −0.10, p < .05), higher level of education (r = 0.20, p < .001), higher income (r = 0.14, p < .01), more years in the U.S. (r = 0.12, p < .05), not born in Mainland China (r = −0.13, p < .01), and English-speaking (r = 0.16, p < .001) were positively correlated with elder abuse reported by adult children. Discussion Elder abuse by adult children is prevalent among U.S. Chinese populations. It is necessary for researchers, health care providers and policy makers to put more attention on elder abuse by adult children. Longitudinal research is needed to explore the risk factors associated with elder abuse by adult children. Health care providers should improve detection of elder abuse and support at-risk caregivers. Policy makers may consider cultural sensitive approaches to address elder abuse. PMID:27606358

  5. Accuracy of Adult Recollections of Childhood Victimization: Part 2. Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Morris, Suzanne

    1997-01-01

    Accuracy of adult recollections of sexual abuse were compared for adults known to have been abused about 20 years earlier and matched controls. Results from 1,196 adults indicate substantial under-reporting, gender differences in reporting and accuracy, good discriminant validity, and predictive efficiency of self-reports for women. (SLD)

  6. Alcohol Use and Abuse in a Rural School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnello-Linden, Mary Frances

    Student responses were elicited in classroom discussions about alcohol use in their own rural community. Teachers and parents responded to questionnaires and interviews concerning various aspects of alcohol consumption as part of the local lifestyle. Students gave reasons for drinking such as ethnic and religious acceptance in the local community,…

  7. Attitudes toward Alcohol Use and Abuse in a Rural School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linden, Mary Frances

    This study examined patterns of alcohol consumption by students in a rural Texas high school. Questionnaires and interviews were conducted with students, teachers, and parents. Discussions were conducted and taped during a planned "Alcohol Awareness Week." Teacher and parent responses were sought to questions directed at their feelings…

  8. Abuse of alcohol in sudden out-of-hospital deaths in Finland.

    PubMed

    Perola, M; Vuori, E; Penttilä, A

    1994-04-01

    Alcoholism is known to be greatly underdiagnosed in death certificates, a fact that biases in estimates of alcohol-related mortality. An autopsy series of 1658 cases (920 with natural cause of death and 738 nonnatural) was reviewed to evaluate the extent of this bias, and also to see how well different sources of information served as indicators of alcoholism when alcohol-related disease diagnosed at autopsy was considered as a gold standard. A stepwise logistic regression model adjusted by age and sex showed police reports of individual's alcohol usage and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of > 2.9/1000 at autopsy to be the two most significant predictors of chronic alcohol abuse (p < 0.0001). The specificities of these two parameters as predictors of chronic alcohol abuse were generally high and sensitivities low. The authors see high BAC (> 2.9/1000), due to its high specificity, as particularly suggestive of chronic heavy drinking. However, it is wise to use these parameters only as an aid in decision-making, not as sole indicators of alcoholism. Deaths associated with chronic heavy drinking were frequent, 50.5% of the total series (male 56.4%, female 37.1%). For all but one age-group (male 45-64 years), however, death certificates mentioned alcohol-related diseases in less than half of these cases. Especially evident underdiagnosis was found for female and males 65 years and older. These results indicate that alcoholism is frequent in such a highly selected population as a series of forensic autopsies and suggest that estimates of prevalence of alcoholism based only on review of death certificates are to be considered with great caution.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Alcohol Abuse and Suicide Attempt in Iran: A Case-Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Behrooz; Malakouti, Seyed Kazem; Nojomi, Marzieh; Leo, Diego De; Saeed, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use and its disorders are associated with increased risk of suicidal behaviors Research has shown that 6-8% of those who use alcohol have a history of suicide attempt. Given the prohibition of alcohol use legally, the increased alcohol consumption, and the lack of strong evidence in favor of its use associated with suicide in Iran, this study was conducted to determine the link between suicide attempt and alcohol abuse. The case-crossover method was used in this research. Out of 305 referrals to the emergency room due to a suicide attempt, 100 reported drinking alcohol up to six hours before their attempt. Paired Matching and Usual Frequency were employed to analyze the data with STATA 12.0. The probability of attempting suicide up to six hours after drinking alcohol appeared increased by 27 times (95% CI: 8.1-60.4). Separate analysis for each of these hours from the first to the sixth hour after alcohol use was also performed. Fifty percent of attempted suicides happened one hour after alcohol use. Relative risk for the first and second hour was 10% and 5% respectively. Alcohol use is a strong proximal risk factor for attempted suicide among Iranian subjects. Prevention of alcohol use should be considered in setting up of the national Suicide attempt prevention program. PMID:26925903

  10. Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents: Their Roles and Learning Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mucowski, Richard; Hayden, Robert R.

    When children are raised in an environment where alcoholism is prominent, certain dysfunctional responses are learned as a way to cope with the challenge of that environment. This study was conducted to examine the learning styles of adult children of alcoholics. Subjects were college freshmen and self-identified adult children of alcoholics…

  11. Traumatic Symptomatology Characteristics of Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Cathy W.; Webster, Raymond E.

    2002-01-01

    Assesses traumatic experience symptomatology, resiliency factors, and stress among young adults who had experienced alcohol within their family of origin. Results indicated adult children of alcoholics had more self-reported stress, more difficulty initiating the use of mediating factors in response to life events, and more symptoms of personal…

  12. Catalog of Selected Federal Publications on Illegal Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    A concise collection of federal publications in the area of illegal drug and alcohol abuse, this catalog begins with a listing of seven federal clearinghouse, with information on services, user audience, and a contact provided for each. The main part of the document provides briefly annotated information on federal publications organized into the…

  13. The Transtheoretical Model of Change for Mutli-Level Interventions for Alcohol Abuse on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochaska, Janice M.; Prochaska, James O.; Cohen, Frances C.; Gomes, Susan O.; Laforge, Robert G.; Eastwood, Andrea L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper brings together the pressing problem of alcohol abuse on college campuses on one of the most promising solution--stage-based interventions applied at multiple levels. The interventions fit the Transtheoretical Model, which construes behavior change as a process that unfolds over time and involves progress through a series of stages.…

  14. State Resources and Services for Alcohol and Drug Abuse Problems. Fiscal Year 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butynski, William; And Others

    This report presents and analyzes the results of the State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Profile data for the states' 1985 fiscal year (FY). Included is information from the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Highlights, an executive summary, an introduction, and a section on the study purpose and methodology…

  15. An Alternative Counseling Model for Alcohol Abuse in College: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, B. Grant; Curry, Jennifer; Freeman, Mark S.; Kuch, Tyson H.

    2010-01-01

    Abstinence education remains a prevailing approach for addressing college student alcohol abuse. This case study illustrates an alternative method of intervening that combines motivational interviewing, harm reduction, and a brief solution-focused model. The counseling approach illustrated emphasizes reduction in, rather than abstinence from,…

  16. Invisibility, Difference, and Disparity: Alcohol and Substance Abuse on Two-Year College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eren, Colleen; Keeton, André

    2015-01-01

    The impact of alcohol and substance abuse on college students' behavior has become a ripe area of focus and research. However, interest and research has primarily been focused on traditional four- year college students. Thus, the four-year college experience is taken as the default against which two-year colleges are compared. Nearly 12 million…

  17. Drug Abuse and Alcoholism Teaching in U.S. Medical and Osteopathic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokorny, Alex; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Findings from a national survey show that required teaching activities during all four years of medical school averaged 25.7 hours, with a range from 0 to 126. Schools differed widely in the number and type of electives offered in drug abuse and alcoholism, as well as in the number of clinical assignments available. (Author/LBH)

  18. College Alcohol Abuse: A Review of the Problems, Issues, and Prevention Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicary, Judith R.; Karshin, Christine M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the extent of underage drinking and alcohol abuse by college students currently and in an historical perspective. Profiles of those individuals and groups most at risk for problem drinking are suggested. Provides examples of efforts to prevent or reduce collegiate drinking, including campus-community coalitions, environmental management…

  19. The Vocational Rehabilitation of American Indians Who Have Alcohol and Other Substance Abuse Disorders. Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schacht, Robert M.; Gaseoma, Lee

    Vocational rehabilitation (VR) counselors in states where American Indians reside in large numbers were surveyed to determine the proportion of American Indian clients with alcohol or substance abuse problems in the counselors' caseloads and the kinds of specializes services provided to the clients A total of 124 VR counselors from 14 states…

  20. An Exploratory Study of the Nature of Family Resilience in Families Affected by Parental Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, James P.; Nochajski, Thomas; Maguin, Eugene; Safyer, Andrew; DeWit, David; Macdonald, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Resilient families are able to adapt to adversities, but the nature of family resilience is not well understood. This study examines patterns of family functioning that may protect families from the negative impact of alcohol abuse. Naturally occurring patterns of family functioning are identified and associations between these patterns and…

  1. Saginaw Drug and Alcohol Abuse Education and Training Program: Product Evaluation, 1990-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saginaw Public Schools, MI. Dept. of Evaluation Services.

    This report evaluates the Saginaw Drug and Alcohol Abuse Education Training Program conducted in 1990-1991, which provided in-depth training for 94 professionals including 63 teachers and 7 counselors through a workshop lasting 5 days and containing 6 hours of instruction per day. The workshops addressed the identification of both drug abuse…

  2. Quality Assurance for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Services: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towery, O. B.; And Others

    This is a comprehensive bibliography for all those in the alcohol, drug abuse and mental health fields who are developing and implementing programs for assuring quality in the services they provide. A major problem is the newness of the language and the unfamilarity with procedures required by the government and others seeking accountability from…

  3. Student Drug and Alcohol Abuse. How Schools Can Help Combat Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towers, Richard L.

    This book was written to help school personnel combat drug and alcohol abuse among students. It gives readers a basic understanding of drugs and their effects on the mind and body. The stages of chemical dependency and the vocabulary of the drug scene are reviewed and reasons that children and adolescents take drugs are discussed. Signs of student…

  4. Recurrent Disruptions of Rituals and Routines in Families with Paternal Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugland, Bente Storm Mowatt

    2005-01-01

    Changes in rituals and routines between drinking and sobriety were examined in families in treatment due to paternal alcohol abuse. Information was gathered through a semistructured family interview. Recurrent disruptions of rituals and routines were found between different phases in the drinking cycle. Disruptions were found typically with regard…

  5. Minimum Knowledge and Skills Objectives for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychiatric Association, Hartford, CT.

    This publication brings together statements concerning the minimum knowledge and skills objectives in alcohol and other drug abuse determined by the professional organizations of six medical specialties: pediatrics; emergency medicine; obstetrics and gynecology; psychiatry; general internal medicine; and family medicine for undergraduate,…

  6. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Males and Subsequent Risky Sexual Behavior: A Potential Alcohol-Use Pathway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among boys has been associated with a variety of subsequent maladaptive behaviors. This study explored a potential connection between CSA and an increased likelihood of risky sexual behavior in adulthood. Further, the study examined whether or not alcohol use may contribute to this relationship. Method: As…

  7. Alcohol Abuse and Truancy among Spanish Adolescents: A Count-Data Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, R.; Escario, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and truancy are two widespread problems among the adolescent Spanish population. Given the negative consequences of both behaviours for human capital acquiring and their origin in adolescence, our study lies in analysing the relationship between these risk behaviours. From a methodological point of view, our contribution consists of…

  8. Oregon Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Education (ADAPE) Infused Lesson Guide K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Dan; Holstedt, Peggy

    This resource manual and guide provides schools and communities with the most current research-based information available concerning alcohol and drug abuse prevention education. It also provides model lessons, written by Oregon teachers, to infuse into current programs. The document is organized into four sections. The first, an introduction,…

  9. New Technology Tools: Using Social Media for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…

  10. Handicapped Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Use/Abuse: Some Causes for Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Dennis

    The paper examines the literature concerning drug and alcohol abuse among handicapped adolescents. An introductory section noting the relative lack of research on this problem is followed by a review of adolescent drug research identifying longitudinal studies involving more than 70,000 subjects, studies of associated personality variables, and…

  11. Adolescent Alcohol and Substance Abuse: Parent and Peer Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halebsky, Mark A.

    1987-01-01

    Researched the effects of peer and parent drug usage on substance abuse by the adolescent. Found parent usage correlated with increased adolescent usage, as did parental attitude toward illicit substance use. Supports Kandel's theory of stages of substance use. Shows adolescent substance usage is learned, in part, by modeling and imitation.…

  12. The effects of housing costs on polydrug abuse patterns: a comparison of heroin, cocaine, and alcohol abusers.

    PubMed

    Petry, N M

    2001-02-01

    This study evaluated how price of housing affects hypothetical purchasing decisions. Participants (26 heroin, 28 cocaine, and 15 alcohol abusers, and 25 controls) were exposed to 4 conditions in which they "purchased" drugs, food, housing, and entertainment. Whereas income remained constant, housing prices varied across conditions. Except for 23% of heroin abusers, participants purchased housing regardless of cost, so that income increased as housing cost decreased. Demand for food was income inelastic, whereas demand for entertainment was income elastic. Each group showed income elastic demand for their drug of choice. Hypothetical choices were reliable; drug choices were correlated with urinalysis results, and willingness to forgo housing in the simulation was correlated with time spent homeless in real life. This study shows that changes in housing prices may affect choices for drug and nondrug reinforcers.

  13. Mental health, demographic, and risk behavior profiles of pregnant survivors of childhood and adult abuse.

    PubMed

    Seng, Julia S; Sperlich, Mickey; Low, Lisa Kane

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to address the gap in knowledge about the extent to which perinatal mental health and risk behaviors are associated with childhood and adult experiences of abuse that arises because of barriers to screening and disclosure about past and current abuse. Survey data from an ongoing study of the effects of posttraumatic stress on childbearing were used to describe four groups of nulliparous women: those with no abuse history, adult abuse only, childhood abuse only, and abuse that occurred during both periods. The rates of abuse history disclosure were higher in the research context than in the clinical settings. Mental health morbidity and risk behaviors occurred in a dose-response pattern with cumulative abuse exposure. Rates of current posttraumatic stress disorder ranged from 4.1% among those never abused to 11.4% (adult only), 16.0% (childhood only), and 39.2% (both periods). Women abused during both periods also were more likely to be using tobacco (21.5%) and drugs (16.5%) during pregnancy. We conclude that mental health and behavioral risk sequelae affect a significant portion of both childhood and adult abuse survivors in prenatal care. The integration into the maternity setting of existing evidence-based interventions for the mental health and behavioral sequelae of abuse is needed.

  14. Childhood Abuse and Neglect and Adult Intimate Relationships: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, R.A.; Widom, C.S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: The present study extends prior research on childhood maltreatment and social functioning by examining the impact of early childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect on rates of involvement in adult intimate relationships and relationship functioning. Method:: Substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971…

  15. The Prevalence of a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse in an Acute Adult Inpatient Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurr, Catherine J.; Partridge, Ian M.

    1996-01-01

    In a survey of 120 inpatients admitted to a United Kingdom acute psychiatric ward, 46% reported a history of childhood sexual abuse. Only 14%, however, had disclosed the abuse previously to psychiatrists. The patterns of abuse were found to correspond with those causing problems with adjustment in adult life. (CR)

  16. Prevention of adolescent reoccurring violence and alcohol abuse: a multiple site evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wodarski, John S

    2010-07-01

    "Prevention of Adolescent Reoccurring Violence and Alcohol Abuse: A Multiple Site Evaluation" is a multiple component alcohol abuse and violent behavior prevention strategy, targeted to adolescents ages 16-21 who have high levels of anger, or who are victims/perpetrators of violence, and their families. Three community centers located in upstate New York provided group participants (N = 210) known to have conduct disorder and substance abuse history. The centers were used as the intervention sites over a seven-week period with the youth assessment staff using objective screening measures. The participants were exposed to a two-pronged intervention, using a parental involvement cohort with approximately half of the study participants. The Teams, Games, and Tournaments strategy was the intervention method. Teams, Games, and Tournaments is a Social Learning Theory-based intervention with demonstrated empirical evidence of the model's effectiveness. A 2 x 3 factorial design with two follow-up points encompassed: anger control, alcohol/substance abuse, and family interactive education. The goals of the study were to help adolescents reduce their alcohol use, to increase productive family interaction, and ultimately to reduce the adolescents' aggression levels and subsequently reduce the possibility of their becoming victims or perpetrators of a violent crime. Consistent with Social Learning Theory, the Teams, Games, and Tournaments treatment intervention makes use of adolescents as peer counselors. The practical implications include that professionals or students in our public schools, juvenile courts, correctional institutions, and residential treatment centers can easily implement this program. A standardized treatment manual is available. It offers a complete, ready-to-use, and cost-effective tool for reducing adolescent violence and alcohol abuse. Further, the data provide support for a hypothesis of social learning theory, that is: interventions using multiple

  17. Serotonin-Related Gene Polymorphisms and Asymptomatic Neurocognitive Impairment in HIV-Infected Alcohol Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Karina; Dévieux, Jessy G.; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2016-01-01

    HIV-infected individuals continue to experience neurocognitive deterioration despite virologically successful treatments. While the cause remains unclear, evidence suggests that HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) may be associated with neurobehavioral dysfunction. Genetic variants have been explored to identify risk markers to determine neuropathogenesis of neurocognitive deterioration. Memory deficits and executive dysfunction are highly prevalent among HIV-infected adults. These conditions can affect their quality of life and HIV risk-taking behaviors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SLC6A4, TPH2, and GALM genes may affect the activity of serotonin and increase the risk of HAND. The present study explored the relationship between SLC6A4, TPH2, and GALM genes and neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected alcohol abusers. A total of 267 individuals were genotyped for polymorphisms in SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR, TPH2 rs4570625, and GALM rs6741892. To assess neurocognitive functions, the Short Category and the Auditory Verbal Learning Tests were used. TPH2 SNP rs4570625 showed a significant association with executive function in African American males (odds ratio 4.8, 95% CI, 1.5–14.8; P = 0.005). Similarly, GALM SNP rs6741892 showed an increased risk with African American males (odds ratio 2.4, 95% CI, 1.2–4.9; P = 0.02). This study suggests that TPH2 rs4570625 and GALM rs6741892 polymorphisms may be risk factors for HAND. PMID:27069689

  18. 38 CFR 17.80 - Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcohol and drug... of Services of Other Federal Agencies § 17.80 Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. (a) Alcohol and drug dependence or...

  19. 38 CFR 17.80 - Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcohol and drug... of Services of Other Federal Agencies § 17.80 Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. (a) Alcohol and drug dependence or...

  20. 38 CFR 17.80 - Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcohol and drug... of Services of Other Federal Agencies § 17.80 Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. (a) Alcohol and drug dependence or...

  1. 38 CFR 17.80 - Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcohol and drug... of Services of Other Federal Agencies § 17.80 Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. (a) Alcohol and drug dependence or...

  2. Alcohol abuse and dependence among U.S.-Mexico border and non-border Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul; Caetano Vaeth, Patrice A.; Mills, Britain A.; Rodriguez, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND This paper examines the prevalence, the symptom profile, and the drinking and sociodemographic predictors of current (past 12 month) DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence among Mexican Americans living along the U.S.-Mexico border and those living in metropolitan areas away from the border. METHODS Respondents in the non-border areas (primarily Houston and Los Angeles) constitute a multistage probability sample (N=1,288) of these areas, interviewed as part of the 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS). Respondents in the border area (N=1,307) constitute a household probability sample of Mexican Americans living on the border. In both surveys, data were collected during computer assisted interviews conducted in respondents’ homes. The HABLAS and the border sample response rates were 76% and 67%, respectively. RESULTS Although bivariate analyses revealed no overall differences between border and non-border locations, (negative) age trends were more pronounced on the border for male abuse and for dependence among both genders. Among females aged 18–29, border residence was linked to significantly higher rates of dependence. In multivariable analyses, the prevalence of male abuse declined more rapidly with age on the border than off the border. Other unique predictors of male abuse were Jewish/other religion and weekly volume of alcohol consumption. Being married or out of the workforce, attaining a higher education, no religious preference, and weekly volume uniquely predicted female dependence. Age and weekly volume uniquely predicted male dependence. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of alcohol use disorders among Mexican Americans on and off the U.S.-Mexico border largely mirrors previously documented patterns of alcohol consumption in these areas. For young Mexican-American women in particular, border residence is linked to heightened vulnerability to alcohol dependence. PMID:23278433

  3. Alcohol intoxications during adolescence increase motivation for alcohol in adult rats and induce neuroadaptations in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Alaux-Cantin, Stéphanie; Warnault, Vincent; Legastelois, Rémi; Botia, Béatrice; Pierrefiche, Olivier; Vilpoux, Catherine; Naassila, Mickaël

    2013-04-01

    Adolescent alcohol binge drinking constitutes a major vulnerability factor to develop alcoholism. However, mechanisms underlying this susceptibility remain unknown. We evaluated the effect of adolescent binge-like ethanol intoxication on vulnerability to alcohol abuse in Sprague-Dawley rats. To model binge-like ethanol intoxication, every 2 days, rats received an ethanol injection (3.0 g/kg) for 2 consecutive days across 14 days either from postnatal day 30 (PND30) to 43 (early adolescence) or from PND 45 to PND 58 (late adolescence). In young adult animals, we measured free ethanol consumption in the two-bottle choice paradigm, motivation for ethanol in the operant self-administration task and both ethanol's rewarding and aversive properties in the conditioned place preference (CPP) and taste aversion (CTA) paradigms. While intermittent ethanol intoxications (IEI) during late adolescence had no effect on free-choice 10% ethanol consumption, we found that IEI during early adolescence promoted free-choice 10% ethanol consumption, enhanced motivation for ethanol in the self-administration paradigm and induced a loss of both ethanol-induced CPP and CTA in young adults. No modification in either sucrose self-administration or amphetamine-induced CPP was observed. As the nucleus accumbens (Nac) is particularly involved in addictive behavior, we analyzed IEI-induced long-term neuroadaptations in the Nac using c-Fos immunohistochemistry and an array of neurotransmission-related genes. This vulnerability to ethanol abuse was associated with a lower c-Fos immunoreactivity in the Nac and enduring alterations of the expression of Penk and Slc6a4, 2 neurotransmission-related genes that have been shown to play critical roles in the behavioral effects of ethanol and alcoholism.

  4. Perceptions of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: Development and Initial Validation of a New Scale to Measure Stereotypes of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…

  5. The Great Recession, somatic symptomatology and alcohol use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Vijayasiri, Ganga; Richman, Judith A; Rospenda, Kathleen M

    2012-09-01

    While most research has examined the long-term effects of alcohol consumption on health, the current study examines how health status impacts on drinking behavior. Using data from a national study conducted between 2010 and 2011 to assess the impact of the recession on drinking behavior, this study examines how economic hardships linked to the recent economic recession affect physical health, and how physical health may in turn affect alcohol use. Structural equation models were used to test the predicted associations. The data demonstrate that many of the economic stressors linked to the recession are associated with increased somatic symptoms. Somatic symptoms are also associated with increased drinking for men, but not for women. These findings suggest that men may use alcohol to self medicate somatic symptomatology. The current findings are consistent with gender role-based explanations that account for gender disparities in the utilization of medical care.

  6. The Great Recession, Somatic Symptomatology and Alcohol Use and Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Vijayasiri, Ganga; Richman, Judith A.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    While most research has examined the long-term effects of alcohol consumption on health, the current study examines how health status impacts on drinking behavior. Using data from a national study conducted between 2010 and 2011 to assess the impact of the recession on drinking behavior, this study examines how economic hardships linked to the recent economic recession affect physical health, and how physical health may in turn affect alcohol use. Structural equation models were used to test the predicted associations. The data demonstrate that many of the economic stressors linked to the recession are associated with increased somatic symptoms. Somatic symptoms are also associated with increased drinking for men, but not for women. These findings suggest that men may use alcohol to self medicate somatic symptomatology. The current findings are consistent with gender role-based explanations that account for gender disparities in the utilization of medical care. PMID:22632797

  7. Rodent models of genetic contributions to motivation to abuse alcohol.

    PubMed

    Crabbe, John C

    2014-01-01

    In summary, there are remarkably few studies focused on the genetic contributions to alcohol's reinforcing values. Almost all such studies examine the two-bottle preference test. Despite the deficiencies I have raised in its interpretation, a rodent genotype's willingness to drink ethanol when water is freely available offers a reasonable aggregate estimate of alcohol's reinforcing value relative to other genotypes (Green and Grahame 2008). As indicated above, however, preference drinking studies will likely never avoid the confounding role of taste preferences and most often yield intake levels not sufficient to yield a pharmacologically significant BAL. Thus, the quest for improved measures of reinforcing value continues. Of the potential motivational factors considered by McClearn in his seminal review in this series, we can safely conclude that rodent alcohol drinking is not primarily directed at obtaining calories. The role of taste (and odor) remains a challenge. McClearn appears to have been correct that especially those genotypes that avoid alcohol are probably doing so based on preingestive sensory cues; however, postingestive consequences are also important. Cunningham's intragastric model shows the role of both preingestional and postingestional modulating factors for the best known examples, the usually nearly absolutely alcohol-avoiding DBA/2J and HAP-2 mice. Much subsequent data reinforce McClearn's earlier conclusion that C57BL/6J mice, at least, do not regulate their intake around a given self-administered dose of alcohol by adjusting their intake. This leaves us with the puzzle of why nearly all genotypes, even those directionally selectively bred for high voluntary intake for many generations, fail to self-administer intoxicating amounts of alcohol. Since McClearn's review, many ingenious assays to index alcohol's motivational effects have been used extensively, and new methods for inducing dependence have supplanted the older ones prevalent in

  8. Epigenetic modulation of brain gene networks for cocaine and alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Sean P.; Harris, Robert A.; Ponomarev, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine and alcohol are two substances of abuse that prominently affect the central nervous system (CNS). Repeated exposure to cocaine and alcohol leads to longstanding changes in gene expression, and subsequent functional CNS plasticity, throughout multiple brain regions. Epigenetic modifications of histones are one proposed mechanism guiding these enduring changes to the transcriptome. Characterizing the large number of available biological relationships as network models can reveal unexpected biochemical relationships. Clustering analysis of variation from whole-genome sequencing of gene expression (RNA-Seq) and histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) events (ChIP-Seq) revealed the underlying structure of the transcriptional and epigenomic landscape within hippocampal postmortem brain tissue of drug abusers and control cases. Distinct sets of interrelated networks for cocaine and alcohol abuse were determined for each abusive substance. The network approach identified subsets of functionally related genes that are regulated in agreement with H3K4me3 changes, suggesting cause and effect relationships between this epigenetic mark and gene expression. Gene expression networks consisted of recognized substrates for addiction, such as the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein PPP1R1B/DARPP-32 and the vesicular glutamate transporter SLC17A7/VGLUT1 as well as potentially novel molecular targets for substance abuse. Through a systems biology based approach our results illustrate the utility of integrating epigenetic and transcript expression to establish relevant biological networks in the human brain for addiction. Future work with laboratory models may clarify the functional relevance of these gene networks for cocaine and alcohol, and provide a framework for the development of medications for the treatment of addiction. PMID:26041984

  9. Community Perspectives on Communication Strategies for Alcohol Abuse Prevention in Rural Central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores community perspectives on alcohol abuse prevention strategies in rural Kenya. Data from focus group discussions with members of community organizations and in-depth interviews with a snowball sample of key informants revealed that rural communities view national alcohol abuse prevention interventions as ineffective and messages as unpersuasive in changing this high-risk behavior. The use of ethnic languages, stronger fear appeals, and visual aids were recommended for alcohol prevention messages aimed at communities with low literacy. Community members favored narratives and entertainment-education strategies, which are more engaging, and print media for their educational value. Health activism, although common, was viewed as less effective in motivating individuals to change drinking behavior but more effective in advocacy campaigns to pressure the government to enforce alcohol regulations. This study suggests further empirical research to inform evidence-based prevention campaigns and to understand how to communicate about alcohol-related health risks within communities that embrace alcohol consumption as a cultural norm.

  10. Amelioration of sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues in an adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse: a case study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jane E; Wilson, Keith M

    2008-12-01

    Although sexual dysfunction of childhood sexual abuse survivors has received considerable attention, other sexual difficulties experienced by survivors of CSA, such as sexual fantasies to cues of sexual abuse, have received less attention. In this A-B design case study, a young adult female survivor of childhood sexual abuse presented for treatment at a Midwest rape crisis center. After successful treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, she complained of unwanted sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues and concomitant guilt and shame. Following baseline data collection, treatment consisted of self-applied aversion therapy to unwanted sexual arousal to sexual abuse cues. Decrease in sexual arousal to these cues was concurrent with the introduction of treatment. A concomitant decrease in guilt and shame occurred while self-ratings of control increased.

  11. Animal models for medications development targeting alcohol abuse using selectively bred rat lines: neurobiological and pharmacological validity.

    PubMed

    Bell, Richard L; Sable, Helen J K; Colombo, Giancarlo; Hyytia, Petri; Rodd, Zachary A; Lumeng, Lawrence

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to present evidence that rat animal models of alcoholism provide an ideal platform for developing and screening medications that target alcohol abuse and dependence. The focus is on the 5 oldest international rat lines that have been selectively bred for a high alcohol-consumption phenotype. The behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes of these rat lines are reviewed and placed in the context of the clinical literature. The paper presents behavioral models for assessing the efficacy of pharmaceuticals for the treatment of alcohol abuse and dependence in rodents, with particular emphasis on rats. Drugs that have been tested for their effectiveness in reducing alcohol/ethanol consumption and/or self-administration by these rat lines and their putative site of action are summarized. The paper also presents some current and future directions for developing pharmacological treatments targeting alcohol abuse and dependence.

  12. Animal models for medications development targeting alcohol abuse using selectively bred rat lines: Neurobiological and pharmacological validity

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Richard L.; Sable, Helen J.K.; Colombo, Giancarlo; Hyytia, Petri; Rodd, Zachary A.; Lumeng, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to present evidence that rat animal models of alcoholism provide an ideal platform for developing and screening medications that target alcohol abuse and dependence. The focus is on the 5 oldest international rat lines that have been selectively bred for a high alcohol-consumption phenotype. The behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes of these rat lines are reviewed and placed in the context of the clinical literature. The paper presents behavioral models for assessing the efficacy of pharmaceuticals for the treatment of alcohol abuse and dependence in rodents, with particular emphasis on rats. Drugs that have been tested for their effectiveness in reducing alcohol/ethanol consumption and/or self-administration by these rat lines and their putative site of action are summarized. The paper also presents some current and future directions for developing pharmacological treatments targeting alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:22841890

  13. New perspectives on the similarities and differences of alcoholism and drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Keeley, K A; Solomon, J

    1981-01-01

    This article reviews the similarities and differences of alcoholism and drug abuse from a biopsychosocial perspective. Special emphasis is given to newer developments. In biology, the role of endorphins and isoquinolines is considered against the more traditionally recognized clinical differences between alcohol and drug disorders. Consideration is given to psychological themes such as the utility of the addictive personality concept, the impact of more sophisticated prevention strategies, and the combined treatment of alcoholics and drug abusers. Reports from social fields include a cross-cultural view of chemical dependence and an appraisal of legal and political trends which influence chemical use and the civil rights of chemical users. Recent developments in the biologic, psychologic and social sciences have solidified the impression that the chemical dependencies, for all their differences, share a number of important characteristics. The etiology of alcoholism and drug abuse has been attributed to biopsychosocial causes, currently a widely accepted hypothesis. From one perspective, this theory could be seen as a grab bag approach, since no specific universal cause has been discovered while many have been postulated. From another aspect, the hypothesis is a rational synthesis of present knowledge which finds no one etiological factor to be either preeminent or ubiquitous. This article presents in succession an overview of the biology, psychology and sociology of chemical dependence with emphasis on integrating newer developments with familiar knowledge.

  14. A Protective Factors Model for Alcohol Abuse and Suicide Prevention among Alaska Native Youth

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V.; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen at al., 2006; Mohatt, Hazel et al., 2004; Mohatt, Rasmus et al., 2004). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse. PMID:24952249

  15. Using Motivational Interviewing to Address College Client Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Mark B.; Schmitt, Dorothy M.

    2009-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI; W. R. Miller & S. Rollnick, 2002) is presented as a potentially effective counseling strategy for assisting traditionally aged college students in reducing their problematic, heavy alcohol use. MI's congruence with two developmental theories--Self-Determination Theory (R. M. Ryan & E. L. Deci, 2000) and…

  16. Symbolic Policy and Alcohol Abuse Prevention in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogenchuk, Marcella

    2009-01-01

    In Canada, the prevalence of alcohol use among school-age students has emerged as a leading public health issue. Though governments at all levels have called for inter-organizational collaboration to address the issue, the representation of youth interests by key community groups is critical to the efficacy of those initiatives. This article…

  17. Multimethod Personality Profile Assessment Methodology: Alcohol Abusers versus Nonalcoholic Controls.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    following: oral fixation with passive, dependent features; psychopathy ; low frustration tolerance; low perseverance; guilt and anxiety; egocentricity...research findings of elevated scale 4 with alcoholic samples, the psychopathy /sociopathy personality domain, as tapped by the MMPI/Pd items, warranted

  18. Adolescents, Alcohol, and Substance Abuse: Reaching Teens through Brief Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monti, Peter M., Ed.; Colby, Suzanne M., Ed.; O'Leary, Tracy A., Ed.

    This publication reviews a variety of empirically supported approaches to dealing with alcohol and drug problems in adolescents. Its focus is to provide motivationally based brief interventions that can be delivered in a variety of contexts address key developmental considerations and draw on the latest knowledge about the processes of addictive…

  19. Exploring the Psychosocial and Behavioral Adjustment Outcomes of Multi-Type Abuse among Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the psychosocial and behavioral adjustment outcomes associated with verbal, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse among homeless young adults as well as the associations among abuse types. Convenience sampling was used to select 28 homeless young adults (ages 18 to 24) from one drop-in center. Overall, subjects experienced…

  20. Using Personal Narratives for Curriculum Development about Substance Abuse and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bial, Martha C.; Gutheil, Irene A.; Hanson, Meredith; White-Ryan, Linda

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a project to sensitize graduate social work students taking courses in substance abuse to the needs of older adults. Graduate social work students at a major urban school of social work in the Northeast were recruited and trained to interview older adults with a history of substance abuse problems regarding their life…

  1. The Role of Adolescent Physical Abuse in Adult Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunday, Suzanne; Kline, Myriam; Labruna, Victor; Pelcovitz, David; Salzinger, Suzanne; Kaplan, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    This study's primary aims were to examine whether a sample of young adults, aged 23 to 31, who had been documented as physically abused by their parent(s) during adolescence would be more likely to aggress, both physically and verbally, against their intimate partners compared with nonabused young adults and whether abuse history was (along with…

  2. History of Child Abuse and Severity of Adult Depression: The Mediating Role of Cognitive Schema

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cukor, Daniel; McGinn, Lata K.

    2006-01-01

    The link between childhood abuse, adult depression, and anxiety has been well studied, but few studies have empirically explored the mechanism of that link. Using a clinical sample of women, this study examined the relationship between retrospectively measured childhood abuse and neglect and current adult symptoms of anxiety and depression, via…

  3. Scheduled access alcohol drinking by alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats: modeling adolescent and adult binge-like drinking.

    PubMed

    Bell, Richard L; Rodd, Zachary A; Engleman, Eric A; Toalston, Jamie E; McBride, William J

    2014-05-01

    Binge alcohol drinking continues to be a public health concern among today's youth and young adults. Moreover, an early onset of alcohol use, which usually takes the form of binge drinking, is associated with a greater risk for developing alcohol use disorders. Given this, it is important to examine this behavior in rat models of alcohol abuse and dependence. Toward that end, the objective of this article is to review findings on binge-like drinking by selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) lines of rats. As reviewed elsewhere in this special issue, the P line meets all, and the HAD line meets most, of the proposed criteria for an animal model of alcoholism. One model of binge drinking is scheduled ethanol access during the dark cycle, which has been used by our laboratory for over 20 years. Our laboratory has also adopted a protocol involving the concurrent presentation of multiple ethanol concentrations. When this protocol is combined with limited access, ethanol intake is maximized yielding blood ethanol levels (BELs) in excess, sometimes greatly in excess, of 80 mg%. By extending these procedures to include multiple scheduled ethanol access sessions during the dark cycle for 5 consecutive days/week, P and HAD rats consume in 3 or 4 h as much as, if not more than, the amount usually consumed in a 24 h period. Under certain conditions, using the multiple scheduled access procedure, BELs exceeding 200 mg% can be achieved on a daily basis. An overview of findings from studies with other selectively bred, inbred, and outbred rats places these findings in the context of the existing literature. Overall, the findings support the use of P and HAD rats as animal models to study binge-like alcohol drinking and reveal that scheduled access procedures will significantly increase ethanol intake by other rat lines and strains as well.

  4. Heterogeneity of interpersonal problems among depressed young adults: Associations with substance abuse and pathological personality traits

    PubMed Central

    Dawood, Sindes; Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    This study extended previous theory and research on interpersonal heterogeneity in depression by identifying groups of depressed young adults who differ in their type and degree of interpersonal problems, and by examining patterns of pathological personality traits and alcohol abuse among these groups. We examined the interpersonal problems, personality traits, and alcohol-related problems of 172 college students with at least moderate levels of self-reported depression on the Patient Health Questionnaire (Spitzer, Kroenke, & Williams, 1999). Scores from the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems – Short Circumplex (Soldz, Budman, Demby, & Merry, 1995) were subjected to latent profile analysis, which classified individuals into five distinct groups defined by the types of interpersonal problems they experience (dominant, warm, submissive, cold, and undifferentiated). As hypothesized, groups did not differ in depression severity, but did show predicted patterns of differences on normative and maladaptive personality traits, as well as alcohol-related problems. The presence of clinically meaningful interpersonal heterogeneity in depression may have important implications for designing more individualized treatments and prevention efforts for depression that target diverse associated interpersonal problems. PMID:23560433

  5. Long-Term Evaluation of a Life Skills Approach for Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brochu, Serge; Souliere, Michelle

    1988-01-01

    Three-day life skills re-education program, embedded in 10-week new employee basic training had no long-term effects on alcohol and drug knowledge and attitudes. Findings suggest that primary prevention program targeting adults may be too late to affect alcohol and drug habits, life skills approach may work best in secondary prevention efforts,…

  6. The Impact of Abuse Trauma on Alcohol and Drug Use: A Study of High-Risk Incarcerated Girls*

    PubMed Central

    Rich, S. Lynne; Wilson, Janet K.; Robertson, Angela A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the impact of abuse trauma (physical and sexual) on alcohol and drug use of high-risk girls (12–18 years of age) who were surveyed within the first two weeks of their incarceration. One-way ANOVA analyses and Tukey post-hoc tests indicate physical abuse with a weapon was associated with higher marijuana use and number of drugs used. Sexual abuse, especially within the past year increased marijuana use, alcohol use, number of drugs used, and alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems. Policy implications reflect the need for treatment protocols within substance abuse programs to address abuse trauma, particularly, forced sex which has occurred within the last year. PMID:27795662

  7. Mechanisms of Association between Paternal Alcoholism and Abuse of Alcohol and Other Illicit Drugs among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…

  8. The Moderating Effect of Substance Abuse Service Accessibility on the Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Neighborhood Alcohol Availability.

    PubMed

    Morton, Cory M

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates how the relationship between dense concentrations of alcohol retailers and high rates of child maltreatment may be moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. Using a cross-sectional design, the study utilized data from Bergen County, New Jersey on child maltreatment reports, alcohol-selling retailers, substance abuse service facilities, and the United States Census. Findings indicate child maltreatment rates were higher in neighborhoods with lower socioeconomic status and those with greater alcohol outlet density. Neighborhoods with easily accessed substance abuse service facilities had lower rates of child maltreatment. Additionally, the relationship between child maltreatment and alcohol outlet density was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. The study findings highlight the relevance of making primary prevention approaches readily available and using multi-sector collaboration to reduce child maltreatment.

  9. Histological analysis of parotid and submandibular glands in chronic alcohol abuse: a necropsy study.

    PubMed

    Scott, J; Burns, J; Flower, E A

    1988-08-01

    A quantitative histological analysis of the major salivary glands was carried out at necropsy in 28 alcoholics and in a series of age and sex matched controls. The findings were related to the different types of histologically diagnosed liver disease present. Significant quantitative changes of salivary gland structure were noted in cirrhosis but not in other forms of alcoholic liver disease. In cirrhotic subjects the parotid contained proportionally more adipose but less acinar tissues than in controls. The submandibular gland showed a proportional increase in adiposity and reduction in fibrovascular tissues but no noticeable reduction in its acinar proportional volume. Neither grossly detectable parotid enlargement nor acinar hypertrophy, a feature which has previously been noted as characteristic of alcoholic sialadenosis, were evident in this series. These findings provide little structural support for the reportedly increased secretory capacity of salivary glands in chronic alcohol abuse.

  10. Histological analysis of parotid and submandibular glands in chronic alcohol abuse: a necropsy study.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, J; Burns, J; Flower, E A

    1988-01-01

    A quantitative histological analysis of the major salivary glands was carried out at necropsy in 28 alcoholics and in a series of age and sex matched controls. The findings were related to the different types of histologically diagnosed liver disease present. Significant quantitative changes of salivary gland structure were noted in cirrhosis but not in other forms of alcoholic liver disease. In cirrhotic subjects the parotid contained proportionally more adipose but less acinar tissues than in controls. The submandibular gland showed a proportional increase in adiposity and reduction in fibrovascular tissues but no noticeable reduction in its acinar proportional volume. Neither grossly detectable parotid enlargement nor acinar hypertrophy, a feature which has previously been noted as characteristic of alcoholic sialadenosis, were evident in this series. These findings provide little structural support for the reportedly increased secretory capacity of salivary glands in chronic alcohol abuse. PMID:3170770

  11. Study of Personality Factors in Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    characterized as low self - esteem and anxious depression) are logical results of alcoholic life events, while the "antisocial" signs of impulsivity...impact on their self esteem . Other decision 23 functions, such as special counseling programs, will have different costs asso- ciated with them. Base...sustained outbreak in a large military population. American Journal of Epidemiology, 1975, 102, 545-552. Allen, L.R. Self esteem of male acoholics

  12. Adult Sexual Experiences as a Mediator Between Child Abuse and Current Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Jonathan C; Scarpa, Angela; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Coe, Christopher L

    2016-03-01

    The current study investigated whether a history of child abuse is a predictor of adult immune status, with unwanted adult sexual experiences as a proximal mediator. Participants included 89 young adult women (M(age) = 19.24) who were classified as having experienced no child abuse, child physical abuse, or child sexual abuse, based upon self-reported victimization history before 14 years of age. Participants also reported on unwanted sexual experiences in young adulthood and provided four saliva samples, which were collected over two consecutive days to determine secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Age and negative life events were considered as covariates. The results indicated that adult sexual victimization partially mediated the relationship between child abuse (physical and sexual) and sIgA. Specifically, child abuse experiences predicted more adult sexual victimization experiences, which in turn predicted lower sIgA levels. These findings support long-term health effects of victimization, and suggest that the influence of child abuse on sIgA may be perpetuated through adult victimization. Prevention efforts should aim to empower child maltreatment survivors with skills to prevent adult re-victimization. By thwarting future unwanted sexual experiences in adulthood, individuals will be better protected from the health impairments associated with early abuse experiences.

  13. Exploring family and community involvement to protect Thai youths from alcohol and illegal drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Wongtongkam, Nualnong; Ward, Paul Russell; Day, Andrew; Winefield, Anthony Harold

    2015-01-01

    Youth substance abuse is widely recognized as a major public health issue in Thailand. This study explores family and community risk and protective factors relevant to alcohol and illegal drug misuse in 1,778 Thai teenagers. Strong family attachment and a family history of antisocial behaviors were strongly associated with nearly all forms of substance abuse, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 5.05 to 8.45. Community disorganization was strongly associated with self-reported substance use, although involvement in prosocial activities acted as a protective factor. The findings suggest that interventions that promote family cohesion and encourage community involvement may have considerable benefits in reducing substance abuse in Thai adolescents.

  14. Oxytocin receptor genetic and epigenetic variation: association with child abuse and adult psychiatric symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Smearman, Erica L.; Almli, Lynn M.; Conneely, Karen N.; Brody, Gene H.; Sales, Jessica M.; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J.; Smith, Alicia K.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood abuse can alter biological systems and increase risk for adult psychopathology. Epigenetic mechanisms, alterations in DNA structure that regulate the gene expression, are a potential mechanism underlying this risk. While abuse associates with methylation of certain genes, particularly those in the stress response system, no study to date has evaluated abuse and methylation of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR). However, studies support a role for OXTR in the link between abuse and adverse adult outcomes, showing that abuse can confer greater risk for psychiatric symptoms in those with specific OXTR genotypes. Our study therefore sought to (1) assess the role of epigenetics in the link between abuse and psychopathology and (2) to begin to integrate the genetic and epigenetic literature by exploring associations between OXTR genotypes and DNA CpG methylation. Data on 18 OXTR CpG sites, 44 SNPs, childhood abuse, and adult depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed in 393 African American adults (age = 41±12.8). Overall, 68% of genotypes associated with methylation of nearby CpG sites, with a subset surviving multiple test correction. Child abuse associated with higher methylation of two CpG sites yet did not survive correction or serve as a mediator of psychopathology. However, abuse interacted with CpG methylation to predict psychopathology. These findings suggest a role for OXTR in understanding the influence of early environments on adult psychiatric symptoms. PMID:26822448

  15. Alcohol and Drug Abuse Teaching Methodology Guide for Medical Faculty. Medicine 1. Health Professions Education Curriculum Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostetler, Jeptha R.

    This guide, one of a series of publications written for medical faculty to use in designing substance abuse instruction, focuses on the teaching of alcohol and drug abuse intervention in medical and osteopathic schools. Following a brief introducton to the booklet, the career teacher program, which is supported by federal grants, is explained.…

  16. Prevention of alcohol and drug abuse: what works?

    PubMed

    Kumpfer, Karol L

    2002-09-01

    There is no single "best" prevention program, and no one program or approach will stop all drug use. There are many effective research-based programs; the best approach for any particular population requires selecting the best intervention for the target population on the basis of a knowledge of the risk and protective factors in that population. Unfortunately, the most highly marketed school or family programs are generally not those programs with the best outcomes. The best approach to prevention is to begin early to reduce emerging behavioral and emotional problems in youth. Longer-lasting effects should accrue from changing school, community, and family environmental conditions that promote and maintain drug problems in youth. More and more prevention specialists are considering moving from a focus on the individual to changes in total systems or the environmental contexts that promote or hinder drug use. On the basis of economic considerations, the "whole family" systems-change approach of family skills training classes is becoming popular even in the managed care environment. The greatest challenge facing the drug abuse prevention field is to get information out to practitioners and communities about the best prevention programs, approaches, and principles of effectiveness. Researchers and funding agencies must learn how to effectively market the most successful programs to bridge the gap between research and practice. We must become as effective at marketing drug prevention programs as drug dealers are at promoting and selling drugs. Communities need health care professionals who are knowledgeable about substance abuse prevention and who can advocate the implementation and ongoing improvement of prevention programs with known effectiveness.

  17. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Persistently Impacts Adult Neurobiology and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret A.; Robinson, Donita L.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative–motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increased lifetime risks for the development of alcohol dependence, violence, and injuries. Brain synapses, myelination, and neural circuits mature in adolescence to adult levels in parallel with increased reflection on the consequence of actions and reduced impulsivity and thrill seeking. Alcohol binge drinking could alter human development, but variations in genetics, peer groups, family structure, early life experiences, and the emergence of psychopathology in humans confound studies. As adolescence is common to mammalian species, preclinical models of binge drinking provide insight into the direct impact of alcohol on adolescent development. This review relates human findings to basic science studies, particularly the preclinical studies of the Neurobiology of Adolescent Drinking in Adulthood (NADIA) Consortium. These studies focus on persistent adult changes in neurobiology and behavior following adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE), a model of underage drinking. NADIA studies and others find that AIE results in the following: increases in adult alcohol drinking, disinhibition, and social anxiety; altered adult synapses, cognition, and sleep; reduced adult neurogenesis, cholinergic, and serotonergic neurons; and increased neuroimmune gene expression and epigenetic modifiers of gene expression. Many of these effects are specific to adolescents and not found in parallel adult studies. AIE can cause a persistence of adolescent-like synaptic physiology, behavior, and sensitivity

  18. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Persistently Impacts Adult Neurobiology and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Crews, Fulton T; Vetreno, Ryan P; Broadwater, Margaret A; Robinson, Donita L

    2016-10-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative-motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increased lifetime risks for the development of alcohol dependence, violence, and injuries. Brain synapses, myelination, and neural circuits mature in adolescence to adult levels in parallel with increased reflection on the consequence of actions and reduced impulsivity and thrill seeking. Alcohol binge drinking could alter human development, but variations in genetics, peer groups, family structure, early life experiences, and the emergence of psychopathology in humans confound studies. As adolescence is common to mammalian species, preclinical models of binge drinking provide insight into the direct impact of alcohol on adolescent development. This review relates human findings to basic science studies, particularly the preclinical studies of the Neurobiology of Adolescent Drinking in Adulthood (NADIA) Consortium. These studies focus on persistent adult changes in neurobiology and behavior following adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE), a model of underage drinking. NADIA studies and others find that AIE results in the following: increases in adult alcohol drinking, disinhibition, and social anxiety; altered adult synapses, cognition, and sleep; reduced adult neurogenesis, cholinergic, and serotonergic neurons; and increased neuroimmune gene expression and epigenetic modifiers of gene expression. Many of these effects are specific to adolescents and not found in parallel adult studies. AIE can cause a persistence of adolescent-like synaptic physiology, behavior, and sensitivity to

  19. Memory and Brain Volume in Adults Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire D.; Goldstein, Felicia C.; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Chen, Xiangchuan; Kable, Julie A.; Johnson, Katrina C.; Hu, Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    The impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on memory and brain development was investigated in 92 African-American, young adults who were first identified in the prenatal period. Three groups (Control, n = 26; Alcohol-related Neurodevelopmental Disorder, n = 36; and Dysmorphic, n = 30) were imaged using structural MRI with brain volume calculated for…

  20. Learning Disabilities in Alcohol-Dependent Adults: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Sharyn S.; Jasinski, Donald R.

    1990-01-01

    The study found that 40 percent of 25 adult alcoholics were found to have had special education, remedial services, or repeated grade failure concurrent with a familial history of alcoholism and current discrepancies indicative of learning disabilities. Results suggest that childhood learning disorders may be related to the development of…