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Sample records for adult alcohol dependence

  1. Alcohol Dependence in Adult Children of Alcoholics: Longitudinal Evidence of Early Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennison, Karen M.; Johnson, Kenneth A.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates familial alcoholism effects and the comparative probability of risk that adult children of alcoholics have for alcohol dependence. Results, based on a national survey of 12,686 young adults over a five-year period, show that the risk for alcoholism is relatively greater for males than females. (MKA)

  2. Prevalence of Alcohol Dependence Among US Adult Drinkers, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Esser, Marissa B.; Hedden, Sarra L.; Brewer, Robert D.; Gfroerer, Joseph C.; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for 88,000 deaths annually and cost the United States $223.5 billion in 2006. It is often assumed that most excessive drinkers are alcohol dependent. However, few studies have examined the prevalence of alcohol dependence among excessive drinkers. The objective of this study was to update prior estimates of the prevalence of alcohol dependence among US adult drinkers. Methods Data were analyzed from the 138,100 adults who responded to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health in 2009, 2010, or 2011. Drinking patterns (ie, past-year drinking, excessive drinking, and binge drinking) were assessed by sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol dependence (assessed through self-reported survey responses and defined as meeting ≥3 of 7 criteria for dependence in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition). Results Excessive drinking, binge drinking, and alcohol dependence were most common among men and those aged 18 to 24. Binge drinking was most common among those with annual family incomes of $75,000 or more, whereas alcohol dependence was most common among those with annual family incomes of less than $25,000. The prevalence of alcohol dependence was 10.2% among excessive drinkers, 10.5% among binge drinkers, and 1.3% among non-binge drinkers. A positive relationship was found between alcohol dependence and binge drinking frequency. Conclusion Most excessive drinkers (90%) did not meet the criteria for alcohol dependence. A comprehensive approach to reducing excessive drinking that emphasizes evidence-based policy strategies and clinical preventive services could have an impact on reducing excessive drinking in addition to focusing on the implementation of addiction treatment services. PMID:25412029

  3. The roles of familial alcoholism and adolescent family harmony in young adults' substance dependence disorders: mediated and moderated relations.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; King, Kevin M; Chassin, Laurie

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the prospective relations among family history density of alcoholism (FHD), adolescent family harmony, and young adults' alcohol and drug dependence. Family harmony was rated by mothers and fathers in adolescence, and young adults' substance dependence diagnoses were obtained through structured interviews. Higher FHD predicted lower adolescent family harmony, which in turn increased young adults' odds of being diagnosed with drug dependence (with and without alcohol dependence) compared to no diagnoses or to alcohol dependence only. Family harmony also interacted with FHD such that the protective effect of family harmony on young adults' drug dependence with or without alcohol dependence decreased as FHD rose, and was nonsignificant at high levels of FHD. The findings suggest the importance of distinguishing among alcohol and drug dependence disorders and examining their differential etiological pathways, and also suggest that the protective effects of harmonious family environments on substance dependence may be limited at high levels of FHD.

  4. Further Analyses of Genetic Association Between GRM8 and Alcohol Dependence Symptoms Among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Long, Elizabeth C.; Aliev, Fazil; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Edenberg, Howard J.; Nurnberger, John; Hesselbrock, Victor; Porjesz, Bernice; Dick, Danielle M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The gene GRM8, a metabotropic glutamate receptor, has emerged as a gene of interest for its possible role in the development of alcohol dependence, with evidence of association with an electrophysiological endophenotype and level of response to alcohol as well as suggestive evidence of association with alcohol dependence. Method: The present study further investigated the association between GRM8 and alcohol dependence symptom counts among young adults using a new sample of individuals collected as part of the prospective sample (ages 18–26 years; N = 842) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). Results: Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with alcohol dependence in European Americans using the Nyholt corrected p value of .007: rs886003 (β = -.212, p = .0002) and rs17862325 (β = -.234, p < .0001), but not in African Americans, likely because of the lower power to detect association in this group. Conclusions: These results further implicate the role of glutamate receptor genes such as GRM8 in the development of alcohol dependence. PMID:25978827

  5. The association between insomnia and suicidal thoughts in adults treated for alcohol dependence in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Klimkiewicz, Anna; Bohnert, Amy S.B.; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Ilgen, Mark A.; Wojnar, Marcin; Brower, Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Background Suicidal ideation is elevated for individuals with alcohol use disorders. Sleep problems are associated with suicide risk and alcohol use, and sleep problems may be associated with suicide risk in those with alcohol use disorders. For the present study, we hypothesized that self-reported sleep problems are associated with suicidal thoughts in a sample of adults seeking treatment for alcohol dependence in Poland. Methods The sample included 304 patients in addiction treatment programs in Warsaw, Poland who met criteria for alcohol dependence. Measures included demographic characteristics, frequency of alcohol use, psychiatric symptoms, suicidal ideation and two measures of insomnia, which differed by time frame: the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS, past 1 month) and the Sleep Disorders Questionnaire (SDQ-7, past 6 months). Multivariable logistic regression models tested the association between insomnia and suicidal thoughts. Results In models that controlled for age, gender, and days of recent drinking, both measures of sleep problems were associated with suicidal ideation: AOR= 2.01 (95% CI: 1.50-2.70) [AIS] and 1.73 (95% CI: 1.29-2.31) [SDQ-7]. The association of sleep problems, as measured by the AIS, with suicide remained significant after adjusting for psychiatric symptoms, although the estimated effect size was smaller (AOR= 1.47; 95% CI: 1.05-2.06). Conclusions Among Polish adults with alcohol dependence, insomnia severity was associated with suicidal ideation. This finding highlights the need to assess for sleep problems, in addition to suicidal thoughts, in alcohol treatment settings and to further examine the potential consequences of poor sleep in this population. PMID:21996494

  6. Self-Efficacy for Refusal Mediated by Outcome Expectancies in the Prediction of Alcohol-Dependence amongst Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert J.; Connor, Jason P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the relative importance of outcome expectancies and self-efficacy in the production of alcohol dependence and alcohol consumption in a sample of young adult drinkers drawn from a milieu previously reported as supportive of risky drinking. Results suggest that heavy drinking women are particularly at risk of developing drinking-related…

  7. Relationship Between Emotional Processing, Drinking Severity and Relapse in Adults Treated for Alcohol Dependence in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Kopera, Maciej; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Suszek, Hubert; Glass, Jennifer M.; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Growing data reveals deficits in perception, understanding and regulation of emotions in alcohol dependence (AD). The study objective was to explore the relationships between emotional processing, drinking history and relapse in a clinical sample of alcohol-dependent patients. Methods: A group of 80 inpatients entering an alcohol treatment program in Warsaw, Poland was recruited and assessed at baseline and follow-up after 12 months. Baseline information about demographics, psychopathological symptoms, personality and severity of alcohol problems was obtained. The Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (EI) Test and Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) were utilized for emotional processing assessment. Follow-up information contained data on drinking alcohol during the last month. Results: At baseline assessment, the duration of alcohol drinking was associated with lower ability to utilize emotions. Patients reporting more difficulties with describing feelings drank more during their last episode of heavy drinking, and had a longer duration of intensive alcohol use. A longer duration of the last episode of heavy drinking was associated with more problems identifying and regulating emotions. Poor utilization of emotions and high severity of depressive symptoms contributed to higher rates of drinking at follow-up. Conclusions: These results underline the importance of systematic identification of discrete emotional problems and dynamics related to AD. This knowledge has implications for treatment. Psychotherapeutic interventions to improve emotional skills could be utilized in treatment of alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:25543129

  8. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  9. Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents analysis of adult children of alcoholics, their experience and adjustment in relation to the severity and type of alcoholism, age considerations and perceptions as a child, and existence and nature of significant others. Discusses alcoholics' and others' family issues, focusing on roles taken, and personality characteristics. Emphasizes…

  10. Gender Differences in Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Treatment-Seeking Sample of Alcohol-Dependent Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott E.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined early maladaptive schemas among alcohol-dependent men and women and sought to determine whether men and women differed in their early maladaptive schemas. Using preexisting patient records of adults diagnosed with alcohol dependence from a residential treatment center in the Southeastern United States, from 2005 to 2010 (N = 854), results showed that women scored significantly higher than men on 14 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas assessed. Both women and men endorsed having a number of early maladaptive schemas, with four schemas being particularly prevalent across gender. Study limitations are noted and implications of these findings for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:22060801

  11. Life stress in adolescence predicts early adult reward-related brain function and alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Musselman, Samuel C.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2015-01-01

    Stressful life events increase vulnerability to problematic alcohol use, and they may do this by disrupting reward-related neural circuitry. This is particularly relevant for adolescents because alcohol use rises sharply after mid-adolescence and alcohol abuse peaks at age 20. Adolescents also report more stressors compared with children, and neural reward circuitry may be especially vulnerable to stressors during adolescence because of prefrontal cortex remodeling. Using a large sample of male participants in a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study (N = 157), we evaluated whether cumulative stressful life events between the ages of 15 and 18 were associated with reward-related brain function and problematic alcohol use at age 20 years. Higher cumulative stressful life events during adolescence were associated with decreased response in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during monetary reward anticipation and following the receipt of monetary rewards. Stress-related decreases in mPFC response during reward anticipation and following rewarding outcomes were associated with the severity of alcohol dependence. Furthermore, mPFC response mediated the association between stressful life events and later symptoms of alcohol dependence. These data are consistent with neurobiological models of addiction that propose that stressors during adolescence increase risk for problematic alcohol use by disrupting reward circuit function. PMID:24795442

  12. Life stress in adolescence predicts early adult reward-related brain function and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Casement, Melynda D; Shaw, Daniel S; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Musselman, Samuel C; Forbes, Erika E

    2015-03-01

    Stressful life events increase vulnerability to problematic alcohol use, and they may do this by disrupting reward-related neural circuitry. This is particularly relevant for adolescents because alcohol use rises sharply after mid-adolescence and alcohol abuse peaks at age 20. Adolescents also report more stressors compared with children, and neural reward circuitry may be especially vulnerable to stressors during adolescence because of prefrontal cortex remodeling. Using a large sample of male participants in a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study (N = 157), we evaluated whether cumulative stressful life events between the ages of 15 and 18 were associated with reward-related brain function and problematic alcohol use at age 20 years. Higher cumulative stressful life events during adolescence were associated with decreased response in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during monetary reward anticipation and following the receipt of monetary rewards. Stress-related decreases in mPFC response during reward anticipation and following rewarding outcomes were associated with the severity of alcohol dependence. Furthermore, mPFC response mediated the association between stressful life events and later symptoms of alcohol dependence. These data are consistent with neurobiological models of addiction that propose that stressors during adolescence increase risk for problematic alcohol use by disrupting reward circuit function.

  13. Tianeptine and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Favre, J D; Guelfi-Sozzi, C; Delalleau, B; Lôo, H

    1997-10-01

    Several arguments are in favour of the use of antidepressant drugs in alcohol-dependent patients, especially those acting on the serotoninergic system: (1) neurochemical data indicate the interaction between alcohol and 5-HT metabolism, (2) pharmacological studies show an improvement in the behaviour of alcoholized animals treated with antidepressants, (3) depression is a frequent disease in alcoholic patients. Tianeptine has been shown to be active in the treatment of depression in patients with history of alcohol abuse or dependence. In a first double-blind study performed versus amitryptiline, depression after withdrawal was improved by tianeptine, and biological abnormalities usually related to chronic alcohol intake tended to decrease. Similar results were found in an open study carried out on 277 alcoholic patients treated for 1 year. As these patients were depressed, no definite conclusion could be drawn from these results in respect of a specific action of tianeptine on alcohol dependence. Thus, a multicentre double-blind study has been performed which compared tianeptine (12.5 mg t.i.d) and placebo in 342 non-depressed patients fulfilling DSM-III-R criteria for Psychoactive Substance Dependence (alcohol). Other inclusion criteria were: daily alcohol intake higher than 80 g, minimum score of 3 on the Short-Mast Questionnaire, mean corpuscular volume above 98 fl and/or gamma Gt more than twice the upper limit of normal. The patients were treated for 9 months. The intention-to-treat population and the per protocol population were made up of 327 patients and 111 patients, respectively. The main efficacy criterion was the absence of alcoholic relapse (abstinence) defined by the patient's statements, the investigators clinical judgement and some biological parameters: alcohol blood levels, gamma Gt levels. Secondary criteria were the evolution of the alcohol consumption in the patients who relapsed, cumulative abstinence duration, a visual analogue scale for the

  14. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  15. Estimating Risk of Alcohol Dependence Using Alcohol Screening Scores*

    PubMed Central

    Rubinsky, Anna D.; Kivlahan, Daniel R.; Volk, Robert J.; Maynard, Charles; Bradley, Katharine A.

    2010-01-01

    Brief alcohol counseling interventions can reduce alcohol consumption and related morbidity among non-dependent risky drinkers, but more intensive alcohol treatment is recommended for persons with alcohol dependence. This study evaluated whether scores on common alcohol screening tests could identify patients likely to have current alcohol dependence so that more appropriate follow-up assessment and/or intervention could be offered. This cross-sectional study used secondary data from 392 male and 927 female adult family medicine outpatients (1993–1994). Likelihood ratios were used to empirically identify and evaluate ranges of scores of the AUDIT, the AUDIT-C, two single-item questions about frequency of binge drinking, and the CAGE questionnaire for detecting DSM-IV past-year alcohol dependence. Based on the prevalence of past-year alcohol dependence in this sample (men: 12.2%; women: 5.8%), zones of the AUDIT and AUDIT-C identified wide variability in the post-screening risk of alcohol dependence in men and women, even among those who screened positive for alcohol misuse. Among men, AUDIT zones 5–10, 11–14 and 15–40 were associated with post-screening probabilities of past-year alcohol dependence ranging from 18–87%, and AUDIT-C zones 5–6, 7–9 and 10–12 were associated with probabilities ranging from 22–75%. Among women, AUDIT zones 3–4, 5–8, 9–12 and 13–40 were associated with post-screening probabilities of past-year alcohol dependence ranging from 6–94%, and AUDIT-C zones 3, 4–6, 7–9 and 10–12 were associated with probabilities ranging from 9–88%. AUDIT or AUDIT-C scores could be used to estimate the probability of past-year alcohol dependence among patients who screen positive for alcohol misuse and inform clinical decision-making. PMID:20042299

  16. Thought suppression, impaired regulation of urges, and Addiction-Stroop predict affect-modulated cue-reactivity among alcohol dependent adults.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Carter, Kristin; Ropes, Katie; Howard, Matthew O

    2012-01-01

    Abstinent alcohol dependent individuals commonly employ thought suppression to cope with stress and intrusive cognitions about alcohol. This strategy may inadvertently bias attention towards alcohol-related stimuli while depleting neurocognitive resources needed to regulate urges, manifested as decreased heart rate variability (HRV) responsivity to alcohol cues. The present study tested the hypothesis that trait and state thought suppression, impaired regulation of urges, and alcohol attentional bias as measured by the Addiction-Stroop would have significant effects on the HRV responsivity of 58 adults in residential treatment for alcohol dependence (mean age=39.6 ± 9.4, 81% female) who participated in an affect-modulated cue-reactivity protocol. Regression analyses controlling for age, level of pre-treatment alcohol consumption, and baseline HRV indicated that higher levels of trait thought suppression, impaired regulation of alcohol urges, and attentional fixation on alcohol cues were associated with lower HRV responsivity during stress-primed alcohol cue-exposure. Moreover, there was a significant state × trait suppression interaction on HRV cue-responsivity, such that alcohol dependent persons reporting high levels of state and trait suppression exhibited less HRV during cue-exposure than persons reporting low levels of state and trait suppression. Results suggest that chronic thought suppression taxes regulatory resources reflected in reduced HRV responsivity, an effect that is particularly evident when high trait suppressors engage in intensive suppression of drinking-related thoughts under conditions of stress. Treatment approaches that offer effective alternatives to the maladaptive strategy of suppressing alcohol urges may be crucial for relapse prevention.

  17. Alcohol dependence--classificatory considerations.

    PubMed

    Lesch, O M; Ades, J; Badawy, A; Pelc, I; Sasz, H

    1993-01-01

    The term alcoholism or alcohol dependence has acquired a broad range of meanings. The Plinius Maior Society herewith presents new classificatory considerations and suggests additional recording of special dimensions according to the individual hypothesis and design of a study.

  18. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones ...

  19. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism and its implication in executive functions in adult offspring of alcohol-dependent probands.

    PubMed

    Benzerouk, Farid; Gierski, Fabien; Gorwood, Philip; Ramoz, Nicolas; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Hübsch, Bérengère; Kaladjian, Arthur; Limosin, Frédéric

    2013-06-01

    Impairment of executive functions (EFs) mediated by the prefrontal lobe is regarded as a cognitive endophenotype of alcohol dependence, being observed both in probands and in healthy offspring. Given its impact on the anatomy of the prefrontal cortex, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism may well be involved in this specific endophenotype. Forty-six healthy adult children of alcoholics (HACA) and 82 healthy controls (HC) took part in the study. All the participants were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies, and their family histories of alcohol and substance use were assessed with the Family Informant Schedule and Criteria. The Trail Making Test, Arithmetic Switching Task, Stroop Color-Word Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test were administered to assess EFs. An overall executive factor score was calculated using factorial analyses. Genotyping of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was performed using the TaqMan® allelic discrimination assay. HACA had significantly lower EFs performance than HC. Genetic analysis showed that BDNF genotype distributions were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the HACA and HC. Genotype and allele distributions did not differ significantly between the two groups. Participants with the Met allele performed significantly more poorly than participants with the Val allele, and a group by allele interaction was observed, the BDNF Met allele being associated with a poorer executive factor score in the HACA group. These results suggest that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism may contribute to alcohol dependence vulnerability via lower EFs performance.

  20. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism and its implication in executive functions in adult offspring of alcohol-dependent probands.

    PubMed

    Benzerouk, Farid; Gierski, Fabien; Gorwood, Philip; Ramoz, Nicolas; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Hübsch, Bérengère; Kaladjian, Arthur; Limosin, Frédéric

    2013-06-01

    Impairment of executive functions (EFs) mediated by the prefrontal lobe is regarded as a cognitive endophenotype of alcohol dependence, being observed both in probands and in healthy offspring. Given its impact on the anatomy of the prefrontal cortex, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism may well be involved in this specific endophenotype. Forty-six healthy adult children of alcoholics (HACA) and 82 healthy controls (HC) took part in the study. All the participants were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies, and their family histories of alcohol and substance use were assessed with the Family Informant Schedule and Criteria. The Trail Making Test, Arithmetic Switching Task, Stroop Color-Word Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test were administered to assess EFs. An overall executive factor score was calculated using factorial analyses. Genotyping of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was performed using the TaqMan® allelic discrimination assay. HACA had significantly lower EFs performance than HC. Genetic analysis showed that BDNF genotype distributions were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the HACA and HC. Genotype and allele distributions did not differ significantly between the two groups. Participants with the Met allele performed significantly more poorly than participants with the Val allele, and a group by allele interaction was observed, the BDNF Met allele being associated with a poorer executive factor score in the HACA group. These results suggest that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism may contribute to alcohol dependence vulnerability via lower EFs performance. PMID:23582695

  1. Prevalence of Childhood Physical Abuse in Adult Male Veteran Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Melodie R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study of 100 adult male alcoholics found that about one-third reported they had been physically abused as children. Abused alcoholics reported having more severe psychological symptoms and distress than nonabused counterparts, though they did not differ in the onset, severity, or treatment history for alcohol dependency. (Author/DB)

  2. Genetic factors influencing alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Mayfield, R D; Harris, R A; Schuckit, M A

    2008-01-01

    Plentiful data from both animal and human studies support the importance of genetic influences in substance abuse and dependence (Bierut et al., 1998; Tsuang et al., 1998; Kendler et al., 2003). This review summarizes the evidence supporting such genetic influences, places them into perspective regarding animal and human studies, discusses the importance of both genes and environment, and highlights some specific genes of interest regarding the vulnerabilities for problems associated with alcohol use disorders. A long history of repetitive heavy use of alcohol exists across generations as well as the high prevalence of alcohol-related problems in Western societies. Moreover, the information offered here addresses the importance of more general issues regarding genetics and gene expression related to alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:18362899

  3. Nalmefene. Alcohol dependence: no advance.

    PubMed

    2014-06-01

    Alcohol dependence is a chronic, severe and sometimes fatal disease. Psychological and social support is a crucial element of patient management. Acamprosate and naltrexone are the drugs of choice to help patients remain abstinent, but they are only moderately effective. Nalmefene, an opioid receptor antagonist related to naltrexone, has been authorised in the European Union to help alcohol-dependent patients reduce their alcohol consumption. Nalmefene has not been compared with naltrexone or acamprosate in clinical trials. Clinical evaluation is mainly based on two double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trials in which nalmefene was taken "on demand" at a dose of one tablet per day. The trials lasted 6 months and included a total of 1322 patients. During an initial two-week period in which all patients received medical and psychosocial support, about one-third of patients in both trials reduced their alcohol consumption without medication. Depending on the subgroup and the trial, about one-third to one-half of patients discontinued medical treatment before the end of the study period. In both trials, patients taking nalmefene had two fewer "heavy drinking days" per month than patients in the placebo groups. However, at the end of the study, they continued to drink heavily at least one week per month on average. Daily alcohol consumption was 5 to 9 grams lower with nalmefene than with placebo. The most frequent adverse effects observed in clinical trials were insomnia, dizziness, headache and nausea, which were severe in more than 10% of patients. Other serious but less frequent adverse effects included confusion, hallucinations and dissociation, usually at the beginning of treatment. These adverse effects affected about 3% of patients treated with nalmefene, a proportion three times higher than in the placebo groups. The consequences of mixing nalmefene with large amounts of alcohol are not known. In practice, the effects of nalmefene in alcohol-dependent

  4. Adult Children of Alcoholics: An Adlerian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kershaw-Bellemare, Robyne; Mosak, Harold H.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that children of alcoholics use common maladaptively successful methods to achieve their survival-oriented fictive goals and carry these behaviors with them into adulthood. Discusses insidious and enduring effects of alcoholism on lifestyle of adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs). Describes developmental legacy of alcoholism as legacy of…

  5. Interpersonal dependency in alcoholic and obese men.

    PubMed

    Mills, J K

    1995-06-01

    While psychological conflict about dependency needs of alcoholic and obese persons has been widely observed, few studies have examined differences in dependency characteristics between these clinical groups. The Interpersonal Dependency Inventory was administered to 22 alcoholic and 8 morbidly obese men in intensive treatment for alcohol and obesity. The original hypothesis that alcoholic and obese men would show similar dependency needs was supported. Dependency correlates of personality may serve as useful predictor variables in the clinical treatment of alcoholic and obese persons.

  6. Theory of Mind Among Young Adult Children From Alcoholic Families

    PubMed Central

    Kopera, Maciej; Glass, Jennifer M; Heitzeg, Mary M; Wojnar, Marcin; Puttler, Leon I; Zucker, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Given the evidence that several cognitive and emotional functions are impaired in adult alcohol-dependent patients and the possibility that some of these deficits are transmitted to their children, the objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the perception of complex mental states would be reduced in young adults from families with a positive family history of alcohol dependence. It was also anticipated that social-perceptual deficits would confer unique predictive ability beyond that shared with other cognitive risk factors for alcohol dependence and/or substance use risk. Method: Data from 301 youth ages 18–21 years, recruited from an ongoing community longitudinal study of alcoholic and matched control families, were analyzed. Family history of alcohol dependence as well as alcohol-dependence diagnosis in the youth was based on diagnostic criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. A substance use risk factor measured early problem alcohol/other drug use. The perception of mental states was measured with the computerized version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). Results: Children of alcohol-dependent parents did not show impairment in the mental states perception task, nor did social perception skills predict alcohol dependence in the youth. Correlational analysis performed between RMET and the substance use risk factor showed no significant association between the variables. Conclusions: The study results do not confirm the hypothesis that behaviorally measured social perception impairment is more prevalent in the children of alcohol-dependent parents. In addition, social-perceptual deficits were not a unique marker of either alcohol dependence or high risk for alcohol dependence in this young adult sample. PMID:25208207

  7. Career Indecision in Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skorupa, Jessica; Agresti, Albert A.

    1998-01-01

    Utilizes a sample of community college students to investigate differences in career indecision of adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and adult children of non-alcoholics. Although both groups were similar in their overall levels of career indecision, there were significant relationships among irrational thinking, trait anxiety, and career…

  8. Adult Children of Alcoholics: An Annotated Bibliography. History, Philosophy and Practice of Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Burton A.

    This document presents an annotated bibliography of 18 books on the adult children on alcoholics. The books cited in this bibliography focus on such areas as co-dependency, the roles played by children in alcoholic homes, the impact of the parent-child relationship, anger, guilt, love, intimacy, interventions for chemically dependent persons,…

  9. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Persistently Impacts Adult Neurobiology and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret A.; Robinson, Donita L.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative–motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increased lifetime risks for the development of alcohol dependence, violence, and injuries. Brain synapses, myelination, and neural circuits mature in adolescence to adult levels in parallel with increased reflection on the consequence of actions and reduced impulsivity and thrill seeking. Alcohol binge drinking could alter human development, but variations in genetics, peer groups, family structure, early life experiences, and the emergence of psychopathology in humans confound studies. As adolescence is common to mammalian species, preclinical models of binge drinking provide insight into the direct impact of alcohol on adolescent development. This review relates human findings to basic science studies, particularly the preclinical studies of the Neurobiology of Adolescent Drinking in Adulthood (NADIA) Consortium. These studies focus on persistent adult changes in neurobiology and behavior following adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE), a model of underage drinking. NADIA studies and others find that AIE results in the following: increases in adult alcohol drinking, disinhibition, and social anxiety; altered adult synapses, cognition, and sleep; reduced adult neurogenesis, cholinergic, and serotonergic neurons; and increased neuroimmune gene expression and epigenetic modifiers of gene expression. Many of these effects are specific to adolescents and not found in parallel adult studies. AIE can cause a persistence of adolescent-like synaptic physiology, behavior, and sensitivity

  10. Alcoholism, Field Dependency and Organic Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafferty, Patricia; Kahn, Marvin W.

    Although research has suggested that field dependency is a relatively stable characteristic of alcoholics, the results have been confounded by the use of different measures and different time intervals. To investigate the degree of organic brain impairment and its association with measured field dependency amongst alcoholics, 41 male alcoholics,…

  11. Deconstructing the architecture of alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms in a community sample of late adolescent and emerging adult women: an item response approach.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Alexis E; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Sartor, Carolyn E; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the underlying factorial architecture of lifetime DSM-IV alcohol use disorder (AUD) criteria in a population-based sample of adolescent and emerging adult female twins who had ever used alcohol (n=2832; aged 18-25 years), and to determine whether thresholds and factor loadings differed by age. Item response modeling was applied to DSM-IV AUD criteria. Compound criteria (e.g., persistent desire or unsuccessful attempts to quit or cut down) were included as separate items. Of the remaining 16 items, tolerance and use despite physical problems were the most and least commonly endorsed items, respectively. Underlying the items was a single factor representing liability to AUDs. Factor loadings ranged from 0.67 for blackouts to 0.90 for time spent using/recovering from effects. Some items assessing different DSM-IV criteria had very similar measurement characteristics, while others assessing the same criterion showed markedly different thresholds and factor loadings. Compared to that of women aged 21-25 years, the threshold for hazardous use was higher in women aged 18-20 years, but lower for used longer than intended and persistent desire to cut down. After accounting for threshold differences, no variations in discrimination across age groups were observed. In agreement with the extant literature, our findings indicate that the factorial structure of AUD is unidimensional, with no support for the abuse/dependence distinction. Individual components of compound criteria may differ in measurement properties; therefore pooling information from such divergent items will reduce information about the AUD construct. PMID:21306836

  12. Cigarette smoking and risk of alcohol use relapse among adults in recovery from alcohol use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Weinberger, Andrea H.; Platt, Jonathan; Jiang, Bianca; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals in recovery from alcohol use disorders (AUDs) frequently continue to smoke cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between cigarette smoking status and risk of AUD relapse in adults with remitted AUDs among adults in the United States. Methods Data were drawn from Wave 1 (2001–2002) and Wave 2 (2004–2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Analyses included the subsample of respondents who completed both waves of data collection reported a history of alcohol abuse and/or dependence prior to Wave 1 (N=9,134). Relationships between Wave 1 cigarette smoking status (non-smoker, daily cigarette smoker, non-daily cigarette smoker) and Wave 2 alcohol use, abuse, and dependence were examined using logistic regression analyses. Analyses were adjusted for Wave 1 demographics; mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders; nicotine dependence; and AUD severity. Results Both daily and non-daily cigarette smoking at Wave 1 were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of alcohol use and a greater likelihood of alcohol abuse and dependence at Wave 2 compared to Wave 1 non-smoking. These relationships remained significant after adjusting for demographics, psychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, AUD severity, and nicotine dependence. Conclusions Among adults with remitted AUDs, daily and non-daily use of cigarettes was associated with significantly decreased likelihood of alcohol use and increased likelihood of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence three years later. Concurrent treatment of cigarette smoking when treating AUDs may help improve long-term alcohol outcomes and reduce the negative consequences of both substances. PMID:26365044

  13. Personality Characteristics of Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jean; Blocher, Linda

    1990-01-01

    Investigated personality characteristics of adult children of alcoholics (ACAs) by using the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test and the Personal Orientation Inventory with undergraduate and graduate college students (N=41). Results indicated there were no significant differences between the ACAs and nonACAs in identifying feelings, expressing…

  14. Risk Factors among Adult Children of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Cathy W.; Webster, Raymond E.

    2007-01-01

    Family patterns of dysfunction that often reinforce maladaptive behaviors and cognitions of children growing up in an alcoholic home environment are often difficult to overcome. Adjustment issues associated with being an adult child of an alcoholic (ACOA) are presented along with factors that have been identified as being important in developing…

  15. Communication Apprehension among Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredricks, Randi; And Others

    Noting that children of alcoholic parents come from home settings similar to those identified as potential sources of communication apprehension, a study compared communication apprehension scores of adult children of alcoholics (ACoA) with those of non-ACoAs. Subjects, 85 men and 109 women, were drawn from a local church, undergraduate and…

  16. Between and within-family association test of the dopamine receptor D2 TaqIA polymorphism and alcohol abuse and dependence in a general population sample of adults

    PubMed Central

    Haberstick, B.C.; Timberlake, D.; Smolen, A.; Sakai, J.T.; Hopfer, C.J.; Corley, R.P.; Young, S.E.; Stallings, M.C.; Huizinga, D.; Menard, S.; Hartman, C.; Grotpeter, J.; Hewitt, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Dopaminergic dysfunction has been hypothesized to play an important role in the etiology of alcohol use disorders. A restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the DRD2 gene affects gene expression and has been implicated as a risk factor for alcohol dependence. This polymorphism (TaqIA) has been reported as positively associated with alcohol use disorders in case-control samples, but these results have not been replicated in family-based association studies. These mixed results of association between the DRD2 TaqIA polymorphism and alcohol use disorders may be due to differences in sample size, phenotype definition, heterogeneity of the samples and genetic admixture. Method We conducted tests of association in a sample of 838 adults participating in the National Youth Survey Family Study (NYSFS). We examined whether the DRD2 TaqIA polymorphism was associated with a symptom counts measure of alcohol abuse and dependence derived from the DSM-IV and Craving Withdrawal models. Results Tests of association were non-significant across each classification system examined. Power calculations suggested these results were despite the ability to detect an effect size of 1%. Conclusions This study supports other family-based association tests that have reported no association between the DRD2 TaqIA polymorphism and alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:17446975

  17. The adult children of alcoholics trauma inventory.

    PubMed

    Mackrill, Thomas; Hesse, Morten

    2011-01-01

    The Adult Children of Alcoholics Trauma Inventory (ACATI) registers variations in the recalled experience of growing up with problem drinkers. The ACATI includes measures of the duration and severity of parental alcohol-use-related problems, the drinking parents' behavior when intoxicated and sober, physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, and environmental factors. The ACATI correlated well with the Family Tree Questionnaire and showed excellent 14-day test-retest reliability for most variables. The test-retest was carried out in 2009 at a counseling service for young adults from families with alcohol-use-related problems in Denmark (N = 49). PMID:21391809

  18. ▼Nalmefene for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    The burden of morbidity and mortality resulting from alcohol dependence is high. World Health Organization (WHO) figures suggest that in the UK the prevalence of alcohol use disorders in those aged 15 years and older is around 6.4% for men and 1.5% for women.1 Reduction of harm resulting from alcohol dependence remains a high priority in all four devolved health services in the UK.2-5 Several medicines are licensed for the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients. However, until recently no drug was licensed for the management of alcohol dependence in people who are still drinking. ▼Nalmefene (Selincro, Lundbeck), an opioid modulator licensed for the reduction of alcohol consumption, was launched in the UK in May 2013.6,7 Here we discuss the evidence for its effectiveness and safety and consider its place in therapy.

  19. [Nicotine abusing in adult children of alcoholics].

    PubMed

    Suwała, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACA) are people who were raised in families abusing alcohol where one of the parents (or both) was addicted to alcohol and where alcohol was the main problem affecting all areas of life. It is estimated that in Poland adult population consists of ACA in 35-40%. Those people represent higher risk of addiction to psychoactive substances, most of all alcohol, but also nicotine. Higher addiction propensity among ACA is a result of their personality's features consisting so called "ACA syndrome". The goal of the study was to determine nicotine addiction frequency and assessment of self-propensity to addiction in chosen ACA group, gathered in three abstinent clubs for alcoholics in Warsaw. Nicotine addiction frequency among the study group members was 58.4% and alcohol addiction frequency was 21.2%. Strong nicotine addiction represented 49.2% of smokers. Men more often than women were addicted to nicotine (0.67 vs. 0.52), on the other hand women were more often than men alcohol addicts (0.18 vs. 0.15). All smokers and nicotine addicts (assessment by HIS test) were aware of their addiction. In relation to initial addiction diagnosis by CAGE test regarded higher percentage of people than it resulted from study group self-assessment (21.2% vs. 16.8). Professional psychotherapy for ACA did not influence substantially the nicotine addiction frequency in the study group. PMID:21360917

  20. Adult Children of Alcoholics: Implications for Career Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Bernadette; Halbrook, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Two characteristics of adult children of alcoholics are external orientation and disruption of ego boundaries, which inhibit the development of a sense of self. The dependent attitudes and behaviors associated with these traits affect work habits, career selection, and work relationships. (SK)

  1. Short-Term Group Treatment for Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Alvin; McCormack, WIlliam A.

    1992-01-01

    Adult children of alcoholics (n=24) were tested on measures of loneliness, anxiety, hostility, depression, and interpersonal dependency before and after participation in short-term group therapy. Highly significant test score changes supported effectiveness of individual therapy in short-term groups. (Author/NB)

  2. Brain pathways to recovery from alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Cui, Changhai; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth R; Koob, George F; Sinha, Rajita; Thakkar, Mahesh; Matochik, John; Crews, Fulton T; Chandler, L Judson; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Becker, Howard C; Lovinger, David; Everitt, Barry J; Egli, Mark; Mandyam, Chitra D; Fein, George; Potenza, Marc N; Harris, R Adron; Grant, Kathleen A; Roberto, Marisa; Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Sullivan, Edith V

    2015-08-01

    This article highlights the research presentations at the satellite symposium on "Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence" held at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting. The purpose of this symposium was to provide an up to date overview of research efforts focusing on understanding brain mechanisms that contribute to recovery from alcohol dependence. A panel of scientists from the alcohol and addiction research field presented their insights and perspectives on brain mechanisms that may underlie both recovery and lack of recovery from alcohol dependence. The four sessions of the symposium encompassed multilevel studies exploring mechanisms underlying relapse and craving associated with sustained alcohol abstinence, cognitive function deficit and recovery, and translational studies on preventing relapse and promoting recovery. Gaps in our knowledge and research opportunities were also discussed.

  3. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Fein, George

    2015-12-01

    We review our clinical studies of psychiatric comorbidity in short-term and long-term abstinent and in treatment naïve alcoholics (STAA, LTAA and TNA). TNA ypically have less severe alcoholism than treated abstinent samples and evidence less severe psychiatric disturbance. Lifetime psychiatric diagnoses are the norm for STAA and LTAA but not for TNA. Individuals with alcohol and drug use disorders show greater antisocial personality disturbance, but do not show differences in the mood or anxiety domains or in borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. The studies show that alcoholics can achieve and maintain abstinence in the face of ongoing mood, anxiety, or BPD problems. By contrast, for ASPD, LTAA essentially stop current antisocial behaviors in all seven domains of antisocial behaviors. We believe that ongoing antisocial behavior is not consistent with maintaining abstinence, and that LTAA modify their antisocial behavior despite continued elevated social deviance proneness and antisocial dispositionality. Abstinent individuals without lifetime psychiatric disorders and TNA show more (subdiagnostic threshold) psychiatric symptoms and abnormal psychological measures than non-alcoholic controls in the mood, anxiety, BPD, and antisocial domains. In summary, our studies show that although LTAA have achieved multi-year abstinence, they still report significant psychological distress compared to NAC. We believe this distress may negatively affect their quality of life. This suggests the importance of developing effective care models to address comorbid mental health problems in LTAA. We also show that antisocial personality disorder symptoms decline to the levels seen in normal controls, and that excluding individuals from research with a psychiatric diagnosis does not control for subdiagnostic psychiatric differences between alcoholics and controls. PMID:26590836

  4. Alcohol use dependence in fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo-Arellano, María J; Lozano, Reymundo; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi J; Saldarriaga, Wilmar

    2016-01-01

    Summary Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been reported in a limited number of individuals with cognitive impairment but rarely in those with fragile X syndrome (FXS). However, in Colombia, culturally, alcohol consumption is very common. Here, we report eight cases of patients with FXS who have frequent alcohol consumption in Ricaurte, Colombia. Some of these patients have also used tobacco and illegal substances, including cocaine, which use has not been previously reported in those with FXS. Alcohol and substance use dependence is associated with exacerbation of their behavioral problems, such as increased impulsivity and aggression, as well as of medical problems such as an increased frequency of seizures. PMID:27672544

  5. Alcohol use dependence in fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Arellano, María J; Lozano, Reymundo; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi J; Saldarriaga, Wilmar

    2016-08-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been reported in a limited number of individuals with cognitive impairment but rarely in those with fragile X syndrome (FXS). However, in Colombia, culturally, alcohol consumption is very common. Here, we report eight cases of patients with FXS who have frequent alcohol consumption in Ricaurte, Colombia. Some of these patients have also used tobacco and illegal substances, including cocaine, which use has not been previously reported in those with FXS. Alcohol and substance use dependence is associated with exacerbation of their behavioral problems, such as increased impulsivity and aggression, as well as of medical problems such as an increased frequency of seizures. PMID:27672544

  6. Alcohol use dependence in fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo-Arellano, María J; Lozano, Reymundo; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi J; Saldarriaga, Wilmar

    2016-01-01

    Summary Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been reported in a limited number of individuals with cognitive impairment but rarely in those with fragile X syndrome (FXS). However, in Colombia, culturally, alcohol consumption is very common. Here, we report eight cases of patients with FXS who have frequent alcohol consumption in Ricaurte, Colombia. Some of these patients have also used tobacco and illegal substances, including cocaine, which use has not been previously reported in those with FXS. Alcohol and substance use dependence is associated with exacerbation of their behavioral problems, such as increased impulsivity and aggression, as well as of medical problems such as an increased frequency of seizures.

  7. ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE--NEUROBIOLOGY AND TREATMENT.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Agnieszka; Biała, Grazyna

    2016-01-01

    The consequences of alcohol dependence concern serious health care, social and economic problems. The scope of many studies is to better understand mechanisms underlying alcohol addiction in order to work out new, more effective treatment strategies. Alcohol affects many neurotransmission systems within the brain. In general, acute alcohol enhances inhibitory transmission, up-regulating the GABAergic system and impairing glutamatergic function, therefore interfering the balance between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. Chronic alcohol consumption, meanwhile, in order to restore equilibrium leads to neuroadaptive changes caus- ing both decreased GABAergic and increased glutamatergic activity. Also function of other neurotransmitters and modulators is modified by the presence of alcohol, including glycine, adenosine, serotonin and dopamine. Moreover, a significant impact of alcohol on the endogenous opioid system, nicotinic cholinergic transmission and the endocannabinoids system has been also established. At present, only four medications are approved for the treatment of alcohol dependence in Europe, that is naltrexone, acamprosate, disulfiram and the most recent nalmefene. Among other promising strategies the following drugs are mentioned: baclofen, topiramate, ondansetron, aripiprazole, rimonabant and varenicline. Additionally, the role of appetite-regulating hormones, neuroimmune modulators or the body's stress-response system modulators in reducing alcohol consumption is currently of great interest, however, further investigations are needed. PMID:27008795

  8. Alcohol dependence as a chronic pain disorder

    PubMed Central

    Egli, Mark; Koob, George F.; Edwards, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulation of pain neurocircuitry and neurochemistry has been increasingly recognized as playing a critical role in a diverse spectrum of diseases including migraine, fibromyalgia, depression, and PTSD. Evidence presented here supports the hypothesis that alcohol dependence is among the pathologies arising from aberrant neurobiological substrates of pain. In this review, we explore the possible influence of alcohol analgesia and hyperalgesia in promoting alcohol misuse and dependence. We examine evidence that neuroanatomical sites involved in the negative emotional states of alcohol dependence also play an important role in pain transmission and may be functionally altered under chronic pain conditions. We also consider possible genetic links between pain transmission and alcohol dependence. We propose an allostatic load model in which episodes of alcohol intoxication and withdrawal, traumatic stressors, and injury are each capable of dysregulating an overlapping set of neural substrates to engender sensory and affective pain states that are integral to alcohol dependence and comorbid conditions such as anxiety, depression, and chronic pain. PMID:22975446

  9. National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016 A new study finds the number of young children and teens hospitalized … NCADD Joins the Global #GIVINGTUESDAY Mo… 3 November, 2016 The National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (NCADD) has joi… State Votes ...

  10. Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Changhai; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth; Koob, George F.; Sinha, Rajita; Thakkar, Mahesh; Matochik, John; Crews, Fulton T.; Chandler, L. Judson; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Becker, Howard C.; Lovinger, David; Everitt, Barry; Egli, Mark; Mandyam, Chitra; Fein, George; Potenza, Marc N.; Harris, R. Adron; Grant, Kathleen A.; Roberto, Marisa; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the research presentations at the satellite symposium on “Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence” held at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting. The purpose of this symposium was to provide an up to date overview of research efforts focusing on understanding brain mechanisms that contribute to recovery from alcohol dependence. A panel of scientists from the alcohol and addiction research field presented their insights and perspectives on brain mechanisms that may underlie both recovery and lack of recovery from alcohol dependence. The four sessions of the symposium encompassed multilevel studies exploring mechanisms underlying relapse and craving associated with sustained alcohol abstinence, cognitive function deficit and recovery, and translational studies on preventing relapse and promoting recovery. Gaps in our knowledge and research opportunities were also discussed. PMID:26074423

  11. Personality Characteristics of Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Richard W.; Lyon, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    Conducted study to validate characteristics of Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs) as presented by Woititz (1983). Findings from college students self-reported to be ACOAs, non-ACOAs, or individuals who had participated in ACOA treatment group were compared on 12 of Woititz's 13 characteristics using objective personality measures. No significant…

  12. Adult Children of Alcoholics: A Counseling Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Robert L.; Phyfer, Ann Quinn

    1988-01-01

    Notes that adult children of alcoholics attending college present unique problems and opportunities to the college counselor. Presents a treatment model for serving such students which identifies four survivor roles and their manifestations, and suggests counseling techniques for each role. (Author/NB)

  13. Molecular and genetic determinants of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Awofala, Awoyemi A

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a complex disorder affecting all social and ethnic groups. Although the scientific understanding of the mechanism governing this multifactorial disease is still in its infancy, understanding its biological bases, including the potential contribution of genetic factors, is key to characterizing individual's risk and developing efficacious therapeutic target to combat the disease. This review provides an overview of different approaches that are being increasingly integrated to extend our knowledge of the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence.

  14. Alcohol exposure in utero perturbs retinoid homeostasis in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youn-Kyung; Zuccaro, Michael V.; Zhang, Changqing; Sarkar, Dipak

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal alcohol exposure and adult alcohol intake have been shown to perturb the metabolism of various micro- and macro-nutrients, including vitamin A and its derivatives (retinoids). Therefore, it has been hypothesized that the well-known detrimental consequences of alcohol consumption may be due to deregulations of the metabolism of such nutrients rather than to a direct effect of alcohol. Alcohol exposure in utero also has long-term harmful consequences on the health of the offspring with mechanisms that have not been fully clarified. Disruption of tissue retinoid homeostasis has been linked not only to abnormal embryonic development, but also to various adult pathological conditions, including cancer, metabolic disorders and abnormal lung function. We hypothesized that prenatal alcohol exposure may permanently perturb tissue retinoid metabolism, predisposing the offspring to adult chronic diseases. Methods Serum and tissues (liver, lung and prostate from males; liver and lung from females) were collected from 60-75 day-old sprague dawley rats born from dams that were: (I) fed a liquid diet containing 6.7% alcohol between gestational day 7 and 21; or (II) pair-fed with isocaloric liquid diet during the same gestational window; or (III) fed ad libitum with regular rat chow diet throughout pregnancy. Serum and tissue retinoid levels were analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Serum retinol-binding protein (RBP) levels were measured by western blot analysis, and liver, lung and prostate mRNA levels of lecithin-retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) were measured by qPCR. Results Retinyl ester levels were significantly reduced in the lung of both males and females, as well as in the liver and ventral prostate of males born from alcohol-fed dams. Tissue LRAT mRNA levels remained unchanged upon maternal alcohol treatment. Conclusions Prenatal alcohol exposure in rats affects retinoid metabolism in adult life, in a tissue- and sex-dependent

  15. A Comparison of African-American and Caucasian Women Adult Children of Alcoholics and Non Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedigo, Shiela; McDermott, Diane

    Alcoholism is a disease that has been shown to affect not only the alcoholic but also the family of the alcoholic. The research on Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOA) reveals that the effects of parental alcoholism are not something that is eradicated once the child leaves home. This study examined the empirical evidence for characteristics of…

  16. [The Amygdala in mechanisms of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Akhmadeev, A V; Kalimullina, L B

    2016-01-01

    In the present review for the first time systematized literature data about reactive changes, of neurons in the basolateral and medial nuclei of the Amygdala which occur in response to acute and chronic exposure of ethanol. Summarized information about the mechanisms of disturbances in glutamatergic-and GABAergic systems of the basolateral nucleus that determining an increased level of anxiety, which is seen as a main motivating factor of desire for alcohol, thus involved to the manifestation of alcohol dependence. Reviewed molecular and genetic aspects of rsearchs involvement of medial nucleus in the mechanisms of alcoholism. PMID:27530042

  17. Applying the new genomics to alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Farris, Sean P; Pietrzykowski, Andrzej Z; Miles, Michael F; O'Brien, Megan A; Sanna, Pietro P; Zakhari, Samir; Mayfield, R Dayne; Harris, R Adron

    2015-12-01

    This review summarizes the proceedings of a symposium presented at the "Alcoholism and Stress: A Framework for Future Treatment Strategies" conference held in Volterra, Italy on May 6-9, 2014. The overall goal of the symposium titled "Applying the New Genomics to Alcohol Dependence", chaired by Dr. Adron Harris, was to highlight recent genomic discoveries and applications for profiling alcohol use disorder (AUD). Dr. Sean Farris discussed the gene expression networks related to lifetime consumption of alcohol within human prefrontal cortex. Dr. Andrzej Pietrzykowski presented the effects of alcohol on microRNAs in humans and animal models. Alcohol-induced alterations in the synaptic transcriptome were discussed by Dr. Michael Miles. Dr. Pietro Sanna examined methods to probe the gene regulatory networks that drive excessive alcohol drinking, and Dr. Samir Zakhari served as a panel discussant and summarized the proceedings. Collectively, the presentations emphasized the power of integrating multiple levels of genetics and transcriptomics with convergent biological processes and phenotypic behaviors to determine causal factors of AUD. The combined use of diverse data types demonstrates how unique approaches and applications can help categorize genetic complexities into relevant biological networks using a systems-level model of disease.

  18. Nalmefene and its use in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Gual, A; Bruguera, P; López-Pelayo, H

    2014-05-01

    Nalmefene is the first available drug approved in the E.U. to reduce alcohol use in alcohol-dependent patients. Reduction in alcohol use in heavy drinkers diminishes mortality risk and socio-economic burden. Nalmefene has shown efficacy at 6 months in alcohol-dependent patients with high or very high drinking risk levels in reducing total alcohol consumption (-7.6 g/day [95% confidence interval (CI): -11.6 to -3.5]; P = 0.0003), heavy drinking days (-2.00 days/month [95% CI: -3.00 to -1.00]; P ⟨ 0.00001) and other secondary outcome measures such as γ-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, drinking risk level and Clinical Global Impression. It is generally well tolerated and has limited contraindications and interactions. As-needed dosage is a novel concept in the addictions field, which may overcome limitations of traditional regimens. In the pivotal trials, nalmefene was taken 52% of the days and compliance with the as-needed treatment regimen was good (above 80% of the days) in 68% of the nalmefene-treated patients. A new pharmacological approach combined with a brief psychosocial intervention for alcoholism is available and appears to be feasible, safe and efficacious.

  19. Nalmefene and its use in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Gual, A; Bruguera, P; López-Pelayo, H

    2014-05-01

    Nalmefene is the first available drug approved in the E.U. to reduce alcohol use in alcohol-dependent patients. Reduction in alcohol use in heavy drinkers diminishes mortality risk and socio-economic burden. Nalmefene has shown efficacy at 6 months in alcohol-dependent patients with high or very high drinking risk levels in reducing total alcohol consumption (-7.6 g/day [95% confidence interval (CI): -11.6 to -3.5]; P = 0.0003), heavy drinking days (-2.00 days/month [95% CI: -3.00 to -1.00]; P ⟨ 0.00001) and other secondary outcome measures such as γ-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, drinking risk level and Clinical Global Impression. It is generally well tolerated and has limited contraindications and interactions. As-needed dosage is a novel concept in the addictions field, which may overcome limitations of traditional regimens. In the pivotal trials, nalmefene was taken 52% of the days and compliance with the as-needed treatment regimen was good (above 80% of the days) in 68% of the nalmefene-treated patients. A new pharmacological approach combined with a brief psychosocial intervention for alcoholism is available and appears to be feasible, safe and efficacious. PMID:24918835

  20. Risks and Benefits of Nalmefene in the Treatment of Adult Alcohol Dependence: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis of Published and Unpublished Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Palpacuer, Clément; Laviolle, Bruno; Boussageon, Rémy; Reymann, Jean Michel; Bellissant, Eric; Naudet, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Background Nalmefene is a recent option in alcohol dependence treatment. Its approval was controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the aggregated data (registered as PROSPERO 2014:CRD42014014853) to compare the harm/benefit of nalmefene versus placebo or active comparator in this indication. Methods and Findings Three reviewers searched for published and unpublished studies in Medline, the Cochrane Library, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials, and bibliographies and by mailing pharmaceutical companies, the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and the US Food and Drug Administration. Double-blind randomized clinical trials evaluating nalmefene to treat adult alcohol dependence, irrespective of the comparator, were included if they reported (1) health outcomes (mortality, accidents/injuries, quality of life, somatic complications), (2) alcohol consumption outcomes, (3) biological outcomes, or (4) treatment safety outcomes, at 6 mo and/or 1 y. Three authors independently screened the titles and abstracts of the trials identified. Relevant trials were evaluated in full text. The reviewers independently assessed the included trials for methodological quality using the Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias. On the basis of the I2 index or the Cochrane’s Q test, fixed or random effect models were used to estimate risk ratios (RRs), mean differences (MDs), or standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% CIs. In sensitivity analyses, outcomes for participants who were lost to follow-up were included using baseline observation carried forward (BOCF); for binary measures, patients lost to follow-up were considered equal to failures (i.e., non-assessed patients were recorded as not having responded in both groups). Five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) versus placebo, with a total of 2,567 randomized participants, were included in the main analysis. None of these studies was performed in the specific population

  1. Incubation of alcohol craving during abstinence in patients with alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Wu, Ping; Xin, Xue; Fan, Yun-Li; Wang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Fan; Ma, Meng-Ying; Xue, Ming-Ming; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Yang, Fu-De; Bao, Yan-Ping; Shi, Jie; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Lu, Lin

    2015-05-01

    Time-dependent increases in cue-induced nicotine and methamphetamine craving during abstinence were recently reported in human drug-dependent individuals. In the present study, we sought to determine whether this 'incubation of craving' phenomenon also occurs in alcoholics. Four groups of 80 inpatient adult male alcoholics were assessed in a single session (between-group design) for cue-induced alcohol craving at 7, 14, 30 and 60 days of abstinence. Another group that included 19 patients was repeatedly tested for cue-induced alcohol craving at the same abstinence days as above. Other psychological and physiological measures were assessed at the four abstinence timepoints. Cue-induced alcohol craving measured with visual analogue scales was the highest at 60 days of abstinence both between and within groups. However, heart rate, blood pressure and skin conductance responses did not differ between abstinent groups. These results provide evidence of the incubation of alcohol craving in humans, extending previous reports with smokers and methamphetamine addicts. PMID:24698092

  2. Incubation of alcohol craving during abstinence in patients with alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Wu, Ping; Xin, Xue; Fan, Yun-Li; Wang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Fan; Ma, Meng-Ying; Xue, Ming-Ming; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Yang, Fu-De; Bao, Yan-Ping; Shi, Jie; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Lu, Lin

    2015-05-01

    Time-dependent increases in cue-induced nicotine and methamphetamine craving during abstinence were recently reported in human drug-dependent individuals. In the present study, we sought to determine whether this 'incubation of craving' phenomenon also occurs in alcoholics. Four groups of 80 inpatient adult male alcoholics were assessed in a single session (between-group design) for cue-induced alcohol craving at 7, 14, 30 and 60 days of abstinence. Another group that included 19 patients was repeatedly tested for cue-induced alcohol craving at the same abstinence days as above. Other psychological and physiological measures were assessed at the four abstinence timepoints. Cue-induced alcohol craving measured with visual analogue scales was the highest at 60 days of abstinence both between and within groups. However, heart rate, blood pressure and skin conductance responses did not differ between abstinent groups. These results provide evidence of the incubation of alcohol craving in humans, extending previous reports with smokers and methamphetamine addicts.

  3. DISABILITY ASSOCIATED WITH ALCOHOL ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Samokhvalov, Andriy V.; Popova, Svetlana; Room, Robin; Ramonas, Milita; Rehm, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Alcohol use disorders (AUD), i.e., alcohol dependence and abuse are major contributors to burden of disease. A large part of this burden is due to disability. However, there is still controversy about the best disability weighting for alcohol use disorders. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of alcohol-related disabilities. METHODS Systematic literature review and expert interviews. RESULTS There is heterogeneity in experts’ descriptions of disabilities related to AUD. The major core attributes of disability related to AUD are changes of emotional state, social relationships, memory and thinking. The most important supplementary attributes are anxiety, impairments of speech and hearing. CONCLUSIONS This review identified the main patterns of disability associated with alcohol use disorders. However, there was considerable variability, and data on less prominent patterns were fragmented. Further and systematic research is required for increasing the knowledge on disability related to alcohol use disorders and for application of interventions for reducing the associated burden. OBJECTIVE To provide an overview of disabilities associated with AUD. PMID:20662803

  4. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  5. Pharmacotherapeutic Treatment of Alcohol Dependence: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Erin; Goodwin, Lloyd R., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy medications can reduce the likelihood of relapse, decrease craving intensity and severity of withdrawal symptoms, and bolster the likelihood of achieving and maintaining recovery goals for many individuals seeking recovery from alcohol dependence. An overview of the benefits and concerns of integrating pharmacotherapeutic…

  6. Correlates of Baclofen Effectiveness in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Lekhansh; Shukla, Tulika; Bokka, Spandana; Kandasamy, Arun; Benegal, Vivek; Murthy, Pratima; Chand, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a global concern. Baclofen has shown promise as an anti-craving agent but its efficiency remains to be settled. We reviewed 549 male cases diagnosed with alcohol dependence who received Acamprosate (201) or Baclofen (348). ‘Time to first drink’ was compared between two groups and multiple regression analysis was done in baclofen group to identify correlates of effectiveness. There was a significant difference in outcome measure between Baclofen (M = 4.44, SD = 3.75) and Acamprosate group (M = 3.73, SD = 2.19); t (547) = 2.45, P = 0.01. Initial regression analysis with six predictor variables (average daily alcohol units, current age, age at onset of dependence, family history, duration of dependence and dose of baclofen in mg/day) showed significant correlation of outcome variable with only two predictor variables — dose of baclofen and average daily intake. Using the hierarchical method it was found that ‘dose of baclofen’ and ‘average alcohol intake’ explain a significant amount of variance in ‘time to first drink’. [F (1, 345) = 182.8, P < 0.001, R2 = 0.52, R2adjusted = 0.51]. This information can be used to select patients in long term longitudinal studies and may explain variable results seen in clinical trials of baclofen done earlier. PMID:26664095

  7. Converging action of alcohol consumption and cannabinoid receptor activation on adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Alén, Francisco; Mouret, Aurélie; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Llorente, Ricardo; Lepousez, Gabriel; Lledo, Pierre-Marie; López-Moreno, José Antonio

    2010-03-01

    Alcoholism is characterized by successive periods of abstinence and relapse, resulting from long-lasting changes in various circuits of the central nervous system. Accumulating evidence points to the endocannabinoid system as one of the most relevant biochemical systems mediating alcohol addiction. The endocannabinoid system regulates adult neurogenesis, a form of long-lasting adult plasticity that occurs in a few areas of the brain, including the dentate gyrus. Because exposure to psychotropic drugs regulates adult neurogenesis, it is possible that neurogenesis might be implicated in the pathophysiology, and hence treatment, of neurobiological illnesses related to drugs of abuse. Here, we investigated the sensitivity of adult hippocampal neurogenesis to alcohol and the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN). Specifically, we analysed the potential link between alcohol relapse, cannabinoid receptor activation, and adult neurogenesis. Adult rats were exposed to subchronic alcohol binge intoxication and received the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN. Another group of rats were subjected to an alcohol operant self-administration task. Half of these latter animals had continuous access to alcohol, while the other half were subjected to alcohol deprivation, with or without WIN administration. WIN treatment, when administered during alcohol deprivation, resulted in the greatest increase in alcohol consumption during relapse. Together, forced alcohol binge intoxication and WIN administration dramatically reduced hippocampal neurogenesis. Furthermore, adult neurogenesis inversely correlated with voluntary consumption of alcohol. These findings suggest that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a key factor involved in drug abuse and that it may provide a new strategy for the treatment of alcohol addiction and dependence.

  8. Alcohol and adult hippocampal neurogenesis: promiscuous drug, wanton effects.

    PubMed

    Geil, Chelsea R; Hayes, Dayna M; McClain, Justin A; Liput, Daniel J; Marshall, S Alex; Chen, Kevin Y; Nixon, Kimberly

    2014-10-01

    Adult neurogenesis is now widely accepted as an important contributor to hippocampal integrity and function but also dysfunction when adult neurogenesis is affected in neuropsychiatric diseases such as alcohol use disorders. Excessive alcohol consumption, the defining characteristic of alcohol use disorders, results in a variety of cognitive and behavioral impairments related wholly or in part to hippocampal structure and function. Recent preclinical work has shown that adult neurogenesis may be one route by which alcohol produces hippocampal neuropathology. Alcohol is a pharmacologically promiscuous drug capable of interfering with adult neurogenesis through multiple mechanisms. This review will discuss the primary mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis including alcohol's effects on neurotransmitters, CREB and its downstream effectors, and the neurogenic niche.

  9. Adult Children of Alcoholics: Theory and Research. Pamphlet Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeannette L.; Bennett, Linda A.

    The concept of adult children of alcoholics (ACoA) has received wide public recognition and acceptance. An ACoA is defined as any adult who, as a child, was reared by one or two alcoholic parents. To date research has not sufficiently addressed the many questions generated by the grass roots movement, such as whether or not adult children of…

  10. Socio-Emotional Factors in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Tikka, Deyashini Lahiri; Ram, Daya; Dubey, Indu; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alcohol-dependent patients are traditionally believed to have insecure attachment styles, higher anger expression, and lower self-esteem. There is a need to study them together. Aim: To understand the relationships amongst various of the socio-emotional factors. Materials and Methods: Forty male patients with Alcohol dependence syndrome and 40 matched healthy controls (General Health Questionnaire-12 score <3) were compared on attachment styles (on Relationship Scale Questionnaire), anger domains (on State Trait Anger Expression Inventory), and self-esteem (on Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale). Statistics and Analysis: Comparison using independent samples t test and chi square test; correlation using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Patients had significantly higher anger expression, ‘anger in’ and ‘anger out,’ and lower self-esteem than healthy controls. Severity of alcohol dependence had significant correlation with ‘anger out,’ and self-esteem had significant negative correlation with anger expression. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the socio-emotional factors studied are developmentally linked to each other. PMID:24860216

  11. Daily patterns of ethanol drinking in peri-adolescent and adult alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Bell, Richard L; Rodd, Zachary A; Sable, Helen J K; Schultz, Jonathon A; Hsu, Cathleen C; Lumeng, Lawrence; Murphy, James M; McBride, William J

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol abuse among adolescents continues to be a major health problem for our society. Our laboratory has used the peri-adolescent alcohol-preferring, P, rat as an animal model of adolescent alcohol abuse. Even though peri-adolescent P rats consume more alcohol (g/kg/day) than their adult counterparts, it is uncertain whether their drinking is sufficiently aggregated to result in measurable blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). The objectives of this study were to examine daily alcohol drinking patterns of adolescent and adult, male and female P rats, and to determine whether alcohol drinking episodes were sufficiently aggregated to result in meaningful BECs. Male and female P rats were given 30 days of 24 h free-choice access to alcohol (15%, v/v) and water, with ad lib access to food, starting at the beginning of adolescence (PND 30) or adulthood (PND 90). Water and alcohol drinking patterns were monitored 22 h/day with a "lickometer" set-up. The results indicated that (a) peri-adolescent P rats consumed more water and total fluids than adult P rats, (b) female P rats consumed more water and total fluids than male P rats, (c) there were differences in alcohol, and water, licking patterns between peri-adolescent and adult and female and male P rats, (d) individual licking patterns revealed that alcohol was consumed in bouts often exceeding the amount required to self-administer 1 g/kg of alcohol, and (e) BECs at the end of the dark cycle, on the 30th day of alcohol access, averaged 50 mg%, with alcohol intakes during the last 1 to 2 h averaging 1.2 g/kg. Overall, these findings indicate that alcohol drinking patterns differ across the age and sex of P rats. This suggests that the effectiveness of treatments for reducing excessive alcohol intake may vary depending upon the age and/or sex of the subjects being tested.

  12. Parent's alcoholism severity and family topic avoidance about alcohol as predictors of perceived stigma among adult children of alcoholics: Implications for emotional and psychological resilience.

    PubMed

    Haverfield, Marie C; Theiss, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholism is a highly stigmatized condition, with both alcohol-dependent individuals and family members of the afflicted experiencing stigmatization. This study examined the severity of a parent's alcoholism and family topic avoidance about alcohol as two factors that are associated with family members' perceptions of stigma. Three dimensions of stigma were considered: discrimination stigma, disclosure stigma, and positive aspect stigma. In addition, this study assessed associations between perceived stigmatization and individuals' experiences of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience. Adult children of alcoholics (N = 622) were surveyed about family conditions, perceived stigma, and their emotional and psychological well-being. Regression analyses revealed that the severity of a parent's alcoholism predicted all three types of stigma for females, but not for males. In addition, family topic avoidance about alcohol predicted all types of stigma for males and discrimination stigma and positive aspect stigma for females. With few exceptions, the three types of stigma predicted depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience for both male and female adult children of alcoholics. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for promoting a family environment that mitigates stigma and encourages emotional and psychological well-being. In 2012, approximately 3.3 million deaths worldwide were due to the harmful use of alcohol (World Health Organization [WHO], 2014). Individuals who abuse alcohol are susceptible to a variety of negative health outcomes (Rehm et al., 2009) and display inappropriate social behaviors (Klingemann, 2001; Schomerus et al., 2011a). General societal perceptions tend to characterize alcohol-dependent individuals as irresponsible and lacking in self-control (Schomerus et al., 2011b). Research in the United Kingdom found that 54% of the population believes alcohol-dependent individuals are personally to blame for their own

  13. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Selectively Enhances Young Adult Perceived Pleasantness of Alcohol Odors

    PubMed Central

    Hannigan, John H.; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Sokol, Robert J.; Janisse, James; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (PAE) can lead to life-long neurobehavioral and social problems that can include a greater likelihood of early use and/or abuse of alcohol compared to older teens and young adults without PAE. Basic research in animals demonstrates that PAE influences later postnatal responses to chemosensory cues (i.e., odor & taste) associated with alcohol. We hypothesized that PAE would be related to poorer abilities to identify odors of alcohol-containing beverages, and would alter perceived alcohol odor intensity and pleasantness. To address this hypothesis we examined responses to alcohol and other odors in a small sample of young adults with detailed prenatal histories of exposure to alcohol and other drugs. The key finding from our controlled analyses is that higher levels of PAE were related to higher relative ratings of pleasantness for alcohol odors. As far as we are aware, this is the first published study to report the influence of PAE on responses to alcohol beverage odors in young adults. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that positive associations (i.e., “pleasantness”) to the chemosensory properties of alcohol (i.e., odor) are acquired prenatally and are retained for many years despite myriad interceding postnatal experiences. Alternate hypotheses may also be supported by the results. There are potential implications of altered alcohol odor responses for understanding individual differences in initiation of drinking, and alcohol seeking and high-risk alcohol-related behaviors in young adults. PMID:25600468

  14. Prenatal alcohol exposure selectively enhances young adult perceived pleasantness of alcohol odors.

    PubMed

    Hannigan, John H; Chiodo, Lisa M; Sokol, Robert J; Janisse, James; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can lead to life-long neurobehavioral and social problems that can include a greater likelihood of early use and/or abuse of alcohol compared to older teens and young adults without PAE. Basic research in animals demonstrates that PAE influences later postnatal responses to chemosensory cues (i.e., odor & taste) associated with alcohol. We hypothesized that PAE would be related to poorer abilities to identify odors of alcohol-containing beverages, and would alter perceived alcohol odor intensity and pleasantness. To address this hypothesis we examined responses to alcohol and other odors in a small sample of young adults with detailed prenatal histories of exposure to alcohol and other drugs. The key finding from our controlled analyses is that higher levels of PAE were related to higher relative ratings of pleasantness for alcohol odors. As far as we are aware, this is the first published study to report the influence of PAE on responses to alcohol beverage odors in young adults. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that positive associations (i.e., "pleasantness") to the chemosensory properties of alcohol (i.e., odor) are acquired prenatally and are retained for many years despite myriad interceding postnatal experiences. Alternate hypotheses may also be supported by the results. There are potential implications of altered alcohol odor responses for understanding individual differences in initiation of drinking, and alcohol seeking and high-risk alcohol-related behaviors in young adults. PMID:25600468

  15. Group Therapy for Adult Children of Alcoholics: Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corazzini, John G.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses survival roles adopted by children growing up in families where alcohol is abused, relating them to birth order, and emphasizing their maladaptivity for later adult interactions. Presents case studies of two common roles of adult children of alcoholics (ACAs), those of hero and scapegoat, and demonstrates how ACAs interact in a mixed,…

  16. Traumatic Symptomatology Characteristics of Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Cathy W.; Webster, Raymond E.

    2002-01-01

    Assesses traumatic experience symptomatology, resiliency factors, and stress among young adults who had experienced alcohol within their family of origin. Results indicated adult children of alcoholics had more self-reported stress, more difficulty initiating the use of mediating factors in response to life events, and more symptoms of personal…

  17. Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents: Their Roles and Learning Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mucowski, Richard; Hayden, Robert R.

    When children are raised in an environment where alcoholism is prominent, certain dysfunctional responses are learned as a way to cope with the challenge of that environment. This study was conducted to examine the learning styles of adult children of alcoholics. Subjects were college freshmen and self-identified adult children of alcoholics…

  18. Significant long-term, but not short-term, hippocampal-dependent memory impairment in adult rats exposed to alcohol in early postnatal life.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, Molly J; Lindquist, Derick H

    2014-09-01

    In rodents, ethanol exposure in early postnatal life is known to induce structural and functional impairments throughout the brain, including the hippocampus. Herein, rat pups were administered one of three ethanol doses over postnatal days (PD) 4-9, a period of brain development comparable to the third trimester of human pregnancy. As adults, control and ethanol rats were trained and tested in a variant of hippocampal-dependent one-trial context fear conditioning. In Experiment 1, subjects were placed into a novel context and presented with an immediate footshock (i.e., within ∼8 sec). When re-exposed to the same context 24 hr later low levels of conditioned freezing were observed. Context pre-exposure 24 hr prior to the immediate shock reversed the deficit in sham-intubated and unintubated control rats, enhancing freezing behavior during the context retention test. Even with context pre-exposure, however, significant dose-dependent reductions in contextual freezing were seen in ethanol rats. In Experiment 2, the interval between context pre-exposure and the immediate shock was shortened to 2 hr, in addition to the standard 24 hr. Ethanol rats trained with the 2 hr, but not 24 hr, interval displayed retention test freezing levels roughly equal to controls. Results suggest the ethanol rats can encode a short-term context memory and associate it with the aversive footshock 2 hr later. In the 24 hr ethanol rats the short-term context memory is poorly transferred or consolidated into long-term memory, we propose, impeding the memory's subsequent retrieval and association with shock.

  19. Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Problems in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship among alcohol problems and alcohol consumption variables in 410 college students. Total alcohol-related problems, drinking and driving problems, and school problems increased significantly when subjects drank moderately. Physical illness problems increased during light drinking, while interpersonal and legal problems…

  20. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis in university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Jaramillo, Luis; Vega-Perera, Paulo; Ramírez-Lugo, Leticia; Reyes-López, Julián V; Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Herrera-Morales, Wendy V

    2015-07-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption is a pattern of consumption that leads to a higher risk of harmful consequences either for the user or for others. This pattern of alcohol consumption has been linked to risky behaviors, accidents, and injuries. Individuals with hazardous alcohol consumption do not necessarily present alcohol dependence; thus, a study of particular neurophysiological correlates of this alcohol consumption pattern needs to be carried out in nondependent individuals. Here, we carried out a quantitative electroencephalography analysis in health sciences university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence (HAC), and control participants without hazardous alcohol consumption or alcohol dependence (NHAC). We analyzed Absolute Power (AP), Relative Power (RP), and Mean Frequency (MF) for beta and theta frequency bands under both eyes closed and eyes open conditions. We found that participants in the HAC group presented higher beta AP at centroparietal region, as well as lower beta MF at frontal and centroparietal regions in the eyes closed condition. Interestingly, participants did not present any change in theta activity (AP, RP, or MF), whereas previous reports indicate an increase in theta AP in alcohol-dependent individuals. Our results partially resemble those found in alcohol-dependent individuals, although are not completely identical, suggesting a possible difference in the underlying neuronal mechanism behind alcohol dependence and hazardous alcohol consumption. Similarities could be explained considering that both hazardous alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence are manifestations of behavioral disinhibition. PMID:26035281

  1. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis in university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Jaramillo, Luis; Vega-Perera, Paulo; Ramírez-Lugo, Leticia; Reyes-López, Julián V; Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Herrera-Morales, Wendy V

    2015-07-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption is a pattern of consumption that leads to a higher risk of harmful consequences either for the user or for others. This pattern of alcohol consumption has been linked to risky behaviors, accidents, and injuries. Individuals with hazardous alcohol consumption do not necessarily present alcohol dependence; thus, a study of particular neurophysiological correlates of this alcohol consumption pattern needs to be carried out in nondependent individuals. Here, we carried out a quantitative electroencephalography analysis in health sciences university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence (HAC), and control participants without hazardous alcohol consumption or alcohol dependence (NHAC). We analyzed Absolute Power (AP), Relative Power (RP), and Mean Frequency (MF) for beta and theta frequency bands under both eyes closed and eyes open conditions. We found that participants in the HAC group presented higher beta AP at centroparietal region, as well as lower beta MF at frontal and centroparietal regions in the eyes closed condition. Interestingly, participants did not present any change in theta activity (AP, RP, or MF), whereas previous reports indicate an increase in theta AP in alcohol-dependent individuals. Our results partially resemble those found in alcohol-dependent individuals, although are not completely identical, suggesting a possible difference in the underlying neuronal mechanism behind alcohol dependence and hazardous alcohol consumption. Similarities could be explained considering that both hazardous alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence are manifestations of behavioral disinhibition.

  2. Mothers' versus Fathers' Alcohol Abuse and Attachment in Adult Daughters of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Schroeder, Valarie M.; Cooke, Cathy G.; Gumienny, Leslie; Platter, Amanda Jeffrey; Fals-Stewart, William

    2010-01-01

    Gender of the alcohol-abusing parent was examined in relation to general and romantic attachment (as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised and the Relationship Scales Questionnaire) in female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs; as indicated by the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test) as compared to non-ACOAs. As compared to…

  3. Syndrome Analysis: Chronic Alcoholism in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendorf, James E.

    1990-01-01

    Provides outline narrative of most possible outcomes of regular heavy alcohol use, regular alcohol abuse, or chronic alcoholism. A systems analysis approach is used to expose conditions that may result when a human organism is subjected to excessive and chronic alcohol consumption. Such an approach illustrates the detrimental effects which alcohol…

  4. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dependence and related harms in Spain, and the effect of treatment-based interventions on alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Jürgen; Rehm, Maximilien X; Shield, Kevin D; Gmel, Gerrit; Gual, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in Spain has traditionally followed the Mediterranean drinking pattern, featuring daily drinking with meals, beer as the preferred beverage, and comparatively little drinking to intoxication. Alcohol dependence (AD), one of the most detrimental disorders caused by alcohol, was prevalent in 0.2% of women and 1.2% of men, corresponding to 31,200 women and 186,000 men in Spain with AD in 2005 in the age group of 15 to 64 year. These prevalence estimates of alcohol dependence are likely underestimated due to limitations in the World Mental Health Survey which cannot be fully corrected for; however, the estimates of AD for Spain represent the most accurate and up to date estimates available. Alcohol creates a significant health burden in Spain with 11.3 premature deaths in women per 100,000 aged 15 to 64 years, and 40.9 premature deaths in men per 100,000 in the same age group were due to alcohol consumption (data for 2004). This amounts to 8.4% of all female deaths and 12.3% of all the male deaths in this age group being attributable to alcohol consumption. A large percentage of these harms were due to heavy alcohol consumption and AD. AD is undertreated in Spain, with less than 10% of all people with AD treated. For those who are treated, psychotherapy is the most utilized form of treatment to avoid relapse. If 40% of AD patients in Spain were treated with pharmacological treatment (the most effective treatment method), 2.2% of female and 6.2% of male deaths due to AD would be prevented within one year. Thus by increasing treatment rates is an important means of reducing the alcohol-attributable mortality and health burden in Spain.

  5. Continuing Education in Chemical Dependency Focuses on Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devens, Don L.

    1977-01-01

    In 1974, a private junior college initiated a continuing education program in chemical dependency (alcohol and drug abuse). The program is based on the concept that adult learners are responsible to plan, develop, implement, and evaluate their own learning activities in consultation with the instructor. (Author)

  6. Childhood ADHD and Conduct Disorder as Independent Predictors of Male Alcohol Dependence at Age 40*

    PubMed Central

    Knop, Joachim; Penick, Elizabeth C.; Nickel, Elizabeth J.; Mortensen, Erik L.; Sullivan, Margaret A.; Murtaza, Syed; Jensen, Per; Manzardo, Ann M.; Gabrielli, William F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The Danish Longitudinal Study on Alcoholism was designed to identify antecedent predictors of adult male alcoholism. The influence of premorbid behaviors consistent with childhood conduct disorder (CD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the development of alcohol misuse was examined. Method: Subjects were selected from a Danish birth cohort (9,125), which included 223 sons of alcoholic fathers (high risk) and 106 matched sons of nonalcoholic fathers (low risk). These subjects have been studied systematically over the past 40 years. They were evaluated in their teens (n = 238), later as adults at age 30 (n = 241), and more recently at age 40 (n = 202). At 19-year/20-year follow-ups, an ADHD scale was derived from teacher ratings and a CD scale was derived from a social worker interview. At 30-year and 40-year follow-ups, a psychiatrist used structured interviews and criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised, to quantify lifetime alcoholism severity and to diagnose alcohol-use disorder. Of the original subjects, 110 had complete data for the two childhood measures and the adult alcoholism outcomes. Results: In this smaller subsample, paternal risk did not predict adult alcohol dependence. Subjects who were above a median split on both the ADHD and the CD scales were more than six times more likely to develop alcohol dependence than subjects who scored below the median on both. Although the two childhood measures were correlated, a multiple regression showed that each independently predicted a measure of lifetime alcoholism severity. Conclusions: ADHD comorbid with CD was the strongest predictor of later alcohol dependence. PMID:19261228

  7. Is alcohol dependence best viewed as a chronic relapsing disorder?

    PubMed

    Cunningham, John A; McCambridge, Jim

    2012-01-01

    This 'For Debate' paper starts by recognizing the growing trend towards considering alcohol dependence as a chronic relapsing disorder. We argue that the adoption of this model results from focusing on those in treatment for alcohol dependence rather than considering the larger number of people in the general population who meet criteria for alcohol dependence at some point in their lives. The majority of the general population who ever experience alcohol dependence do not behave as though they have a chronic relapsing disorder: they do not seek treatment, resolve their dependence themselves and do not relapse repeatedly. We suggest that caution is therefore needed in using the chronic relapsing disorder label. Our primary concerns are that this formulation privileges biological aspects of dependence to the detriment of psychological and social contributions, it inhibits much-needed developments in understanding alcohol dependence and leads to inefficient distributions of public health and clinical care resources for alcohol dependence. We invite debate on this issue.

  8. Diagnosing alcohol abuse in alcohol dependent individuals: diagnostic and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Lara A.; Hutchison, Kent E.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Miranda, Robert; Francione, Caren; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane; Zimmerman, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In DMS-IV, the diagnosis of alcohol abuse is precluded by the diagnosis of alcohol dependence. The goal of this study was to examine the diagnostic and clinical implications of diagnosing alcohol abuse among alcohol dependent individuals. Treatment-seeking psychiatric outpatients with a lifetime history of alcohol dependence (n = 544), some of whom (n = 45) did not meet lifetime criteria for alcohol abuse completed in-depth, face-to-face, semi-structured clinical assessments of DSM-IV axis I and axis II psychopathology. Alcohol dependent patients who did not meet criteria for alcohol abuse were significantly more likely to be female, have a later age of onset for alcohol dependence, have fewer dependence symptoms, and have a lower rate of positive family history for alcoholism, and were less likely to report a lifetime history of DSM-IV drug use disorders and PTSD. These findings suggest that diagnosing alcohol abuse among alcohol dependent patients may be clinically useful as an index of severity and higher likelihood of comorbid drug abuse and dependence. Future studies are needed to establish whether these differences are clinically significant in terms of the course of the disorder and response to treatment. PMID:19362427

  9. Age of Alcohol-Dependence Onset: Associations with Severity of Dependence and Seeking Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hingson, Ralph W.; Heeren, Timothy; Winter, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We explored whether people who become alcohol dependent at younger ages are more likely to seek alcohol-related help or treatment or experience chronic relapsing dependence. Methods: In 2001-2002 the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism completed a face-to-face interview survey with a multistage probability sample of 43…

  10. Memory and Brain Volume in Adults Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire D.; Goldstein, Felicia C.; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Chen, Xiangchuan; Kable, Julie A.; Johnson, Katrina C.; Hu, Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    The impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on memory and brain development was investigated in 92 African-American, young adults who were first identified in the prenatal period. Three groups (Control, n = 26; Alcohol-related Neurodevelopmental Disorder, n = 36; and Dysmorphic, n = 30) were imaged using structural MRI with brain volume calculated for…

  11. Use of the MMPI with Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey-Jones, Kelly

    This article provides a review of several studies, which used the Minnesota Multiphasis Personality Inventory (MMPI) to attempt to differentiate adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs). The studies focused on either non-clinical ACOAs or alcoholic ACOAs. Overall, the MMPI differentiated ACOAs, but the degree and patterns of elevations varied…

  12. Neuroimaging in Alcohol and Drug Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Niciu, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging, including PET, MRI, and MRS, is a powerful approach to the study of brain function. This article reviews neuroimaging findings related to alcohol and other drugs of abuse that have been published since 2011. Uses of neuroimaging are to characterize patients to determine who will fare better in treatment and to investigate the reasons underlying the effect on outcomes. Neuroimaging is also used to characterize the acute and chronic effects of substances on the brain and how those effects are related to dependence, relapse, and other drug effects. The data can be used to provide encouraging information for patients, as several studies have shown that long-term abstinence is associated with at least partial normalization of neurological abnormalities. PMID:24678450

  13. Distal and Proximal Religiosity as Protective Factors for Adolescent and Emerging Adult Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Porche, Michelle V.; Fortuna, Lisa R.; Wachholtz, Amy; Stone, Rosalie Torres

    2015-01-01

    Data from emerging adults (ages 18–29, N = 900) in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Study was used to examine the influence of childhood and emerging adult religiosity and religious-based decision-making, and childhood adversity, on alcohol use. Childhood religiosity was protective against early alcohol use and progression to later abuse or dependence, but did not significantly offset the influence of childhood adversity on early patterns of heavy drinking in adjusted logistic regression models. Religiosity in emerging adulthood was negatively associated with alcohol use disorders. Protective associations for religiosity varied by gender, ethnicity and childhood adversity histories. Higher religiosity may be protective against early onset alcohol use and later development of alcohol problems, thus, should be considered in prevention programming for youth, particularly in faith-based settings. Mental health providers should allow for integration of clients’ religiosity and spirituality beliefs and practices in treatment settings if clients indicate such interest. PMID:26146565

  14. [Treatment processes of pre-alcoholism and alcohol dependence targeted towards drinking reduction].

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Atsushi; Maesato, Hitoshi; Hisatomi, Nobuko; Higuchi, Susumu

    2013-02-01

    Since the 1990s, we have suggested the concept of pre-alcoholism which encompasses patients who have drunk a great deal of alcohol leading to alcohol related problems such as health issues, domestic violence, drunken driving and black-outs. Pre-alcoholism excludes alcohol-dependent patients who have experienced continuous drinking or withdrawal symptoms. We have treated many outpatients with pre-alcoholism for several years. Our regimen demands that the patients must be abstinent for half a year at the beginning of their treatment. After half a year they can choose whether they will continue to be abstinent or they will resume drinking with the aim of reducing their total alcohol consumption. The study clarified the character of pre-alcoholism by investigation of the patients' background and re-diagnosis of the patients based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10). A remarkable ratio of pre-alcoholic patients was diagnosed with alcohol dependence under ICD-10. We classified pre-alcoholic patients into two groups, one diagnosed as having ICD-10-classed alcohol dependence and the other which did not fulfill the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria of alcohol dependence, and examined the therapeutic processes of the two groups. It was shown that most pre-alcoholic patients could finally take required courses of treatment by themselves without regard to diagnosis under ICD-10, even if they chose any treatment and made alcohol related mistakes on the way. Our findings suggested that pre-alcoholic patients, a portion of whom may have exhibited mild alcohol dependence, could select drinking reduction as a primary goal of treatment after a certain period of abstinence.

  15. Psychosocial predictors of impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients

    PubMed Central

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Mika, Katarzyna; Bugaj, Marcin; Konopa, Aleksandra; Podgórska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2012-01-01

    Impulsivity is an important risk factor of severe course of alcohol dependence. However, the significance of environmental determinants of impulsivity has been underestimated. The aim of the study was to identify psychosocial factors increasing the level of impulsivity in alcoholics. Levels of impulsivity were measured in 304 alcohol-dependent patients. Stop-signal task was used to assess behavioral impulsivity, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale to measure global and cognitive impulsivity. Correlations between impulsivity and psychosocial variables were examined. A significant association between level of impulsivity and severity of psychopathological symptoms were observed. Patients who reported childhood sexual or physical abuse, lower social support, more severe course of alcohol dependence were more impulsive, especially in cognitive domain. When entered into a linear regression analysis model, severity of alcohol dependence, psychopathology and childhood physical abuse remained significant. These results suggest that psychosocial variables are important factors associated with high levels of impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:23274294

  16. Psychosocial predictors of impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Mika, Katarzyna; Bugaj, Marcin; Konopa, Aleksandra; Podgórska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity is an important risk factor of severe course of alcohol dependence. However, the significance of environmental determinants of impulsivity has been underestimated. The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors increasing the level of impulsivity in alcoholics. Levels of impulsivity were measured in 304 alcohol-dependent patients. The stop-signal task was used to assess behavioral impulsivity, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, to measure global and cognitive impulsivity. Correlations between impulsivity and psychosocial variables were examined. A significant association between level of impulsivity and severity of psychopathological symptoms was observed. Patients who reported childhood sexual or physical abuse, lower social support, and more severe course of alcohol dependence were more impulsive, especially in the cognitive domain. When entered into a linear regression analysis model, severity of alcohol dependence, psychopathology, and childhood physical abuse remained significant. These results suggest that psychosocial variables are important factors associated with high levels of impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients.

  17. Psychosocial predictors of impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Mika, Katarzyna; Bugaj, Marcin; Konopa, Aleksandra; Podgórska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity is an important risk factor of severe course of alcohol dependence. However, the significance of environmental determinants of impulsivity has been underestimated. The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors increasing the level of impulsivity in alcoholics. Levels of impulsivity were measured in 304 alcohol-dependent patients. The stop-signal task was used to assess behavioral impulsivity, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, to measure global and cognitive impulsivity. Correlations between impulsivity and psychosocial variables were examined. A significant association between level of impulsivity and severity of psychopathological symptoms was observed. Patients who reported childhood sexual or physical abuse, lower social support, and more severe course of alcohol dependence were more impulsive, especially in the cognitive domain. When entered into a linear regression analysis model, severity of alcohol dependence, psychopathology, and childhood physical abuse remained significant. These results suggest that psychosocial variables are important factors associated with high levels of impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:23274294

  18. Adult Children of Alcoholics and Their Family Roles: A Comparison of Incarcerated and Non-Incarcerated Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jennifer Fay; And Others

    This study was conducted to empirically investigate the specific suggestion that, without help, children who play the scapegoat role in the alcoholic family may later end up in prison. Family roles assumed by incarcerated and non-incarcerated male and female Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs) were compared. The incarcerated subjects were drawn…

  19. Management of Alcohol Dependence in Patients with Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Addolorato, Giovanni; Mirijello, Antonio; Leggio, Lorenzo; Ferrulli, Anna; Landolfi, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence represents a chronic and relapsing disease affecting nearly 10% of the general population both in the United States and in Europe, with a widespread burden of morbidity and mortality. Alcohol dependence represents the most common cause of liver damage in the Western Countries. Although alcoholic liver disease is associated primarily with heavy drinking, continued alcohol consumption, even in low doses after the onset of liver disease, increases the risk of severe consequences, including mortality. Consequently the ideal treatment of patients affected by alcohol dependence and alcoholic liver disease should aim at achieving long-term total alcohol abstinence and preventing relapse. The aim of the present review is to provide an update on the management of alcohol dependence in patients with alcoholic liver disease. Increasing evidences suggests the usefulness of psychosocial interventions and medications combined in order to reduce alcohol intake, promote abstinence and prevent relapse in alcohol dependent patients. Disulfiram, naltrexone and acamprosate have been approved for this indication; gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is approved in Italy and Austria. However, these drugs have not been tested in patients with advanced liver disease. Amongst other emerging pharmacotherapies for alcoholism, topiramate, ondansetron, and baclofen seem the most promising ones. Both topiramate and ondansetron hold a safe profile in alcoholic patients; however, none of them has been tested in alcoholic patients with advanced liver disease. To date, baclofen represents the only anti-craving medication formally tested in a randomized clinical trial in alcoholic patients affected by liver cirrhosis, although additional confirmatory studies are warranted. PMID:23456576

  20. Impulsivity, risky behaviors and accidents in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Mika, Katarzyna; Bugaj, Marcin; Podgórska, Anna; Barry, Kristen; Blow, Frederic C; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin

    2013-03-01

    Impulsivity and alcohol drinking are both considered as important predictors of unintentional as well as intentional injuries. However, relationships of impulsivity with risky behaviors and a history of accidents have not been investigated in alcohol dependence. The aim of this study was to analyze relationships between the frequency of risky behaviors and level of behavioral as well as cognitive impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients. By means of Barratt's Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and stop-signal task, the levels of cognitive and behavioral impulsivity among 304 alcohol-dependent patients were measured. Also, patients were asked to answer questions from the Short Inventory of Problems applying to risky behaviors and accidents after alcohol drinking. In addition participants completed a questionnaire to assess frequency of other behaviors from the analyzed spectrum (use of other drugs, driving or aggressive behavior after alcohol drinking). The statistical analysis revealed a significant association between impulsivity and frequency of risky behaviors in alcohol-dependent patients. Individuals with higher scores in BIS behaved more frequently in a risky way and had significantly more accidents after alcohol drinking. The association with risky behaviors was strongest for non-planning and attentional impulsivity subscales, whereas frequency of accidents was particularly associated with motor impulsivity. A multivariate analysis revealed that impulsivity was the most important predictor of risky behaviors, but did not significantly predict a history of accidents. Our study confirms that impulsivity is an important correlate of risky behaviors in alcohol-dependent individuals, along with global psychopathology and severity of alcohol dependence.

  1. Alcohol and Drug Use among College Student Adult Children of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braitman, Abby L.; Kelley, Michelle L.; Ladage, Jessica; Schroeder, Valarie; Gumienny, Leslie A.; Morrow, Jennifer A.; Klostermann, Keith

    2009-01-01

    The present paper compared drinking and drug use in Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs), compared to non-ACOAs, among college students. Participants were 572 undergraduates. ACOAs were more likely to be current drug users than non-ACOAs. ACOAs reported initiating alcohol use earlier than non-ACOAs; however, ACOAs did not drink more often or more…

  2. Adult Children of Alcoholics and Psychological Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashubeck, Susan

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation of relationship between parental alcoholism and psychological distress and mediating effects of social support and hardiness among undergraduates. Suggests parental alcoholism is positively related to psychological distress and higher levels of social support and hardiness are associated with lower levels of psychological…

  3. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adolescents and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bert, Cynthia R. Greene; Bert, Minnie

    Persons with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) may be diagnosed at birth based on specific symptoms and anomalies. These are history of prenatal alcohol exposure, mental retardation, central nervous system dysfunctions, growth deficiency, particular physical anomalies, and speech and language anomalies. With aging, cranial and skeletal anomalies become…

  4. The psychosocial work environment and alcohol dependence: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Head, J; Stansfeld, S; Siegrist, J

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To examine whether a stressful psychosocial work environment predicts alcohol dependence. Methods: Alcohol dependence of participants in the Whitehall II occupational cohort of London based civil servants (1985–88) was measured in 1991–93 using the CAGE questionnaire. The psychosocial work environment was measured by self report questions on the job demand-support-control model and on the model of effort-reward imbalance. Potential mediators including physical illness and poor mental health (GHQ) were measured at follow up in 1989. Results: Effort-reward imbalance at work was associated with alcohol dependence in men after adjustment for employment grade and other baseline factors related to alcohol dependence. Although effort-reward imbalance predicted future longstanding illness, poor mental health and negative aspects of close relationships, the association between effort-reward imbalance and alcohol dependence in men was only partially mediated through these health and social support measures. In women, low decision latitude was related to alcohol dependence to some extent, but alcohol dependence among women was more prevalent in higher occupational grades. Men with high job demands or with low work social supports had a slightly reduced risk of alcohol dependence. No association was found between objectively assessed demands, job control, and alcohol dependence in either men or women. Conclusion: A stressful psychosocial work environment in terms of effort-reward imbalance was found to be a risk factor for alcohol dependence in men. In view of the public health importance of alcohol dependence in working populations these findings call for more emphasis on psychosocial factors in occupational health research and prevention. PMID:14985516

  5. Nalmefene: a review of its use in the treatment of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2013-09-01

    The opioid system modulator nalmefene (Selincro®) is approved in the EU for as-needed use to reduce alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent adults with a high drinking risk level. This article reviews the efficacy and tolerability of as-needed oral nalmefene in the treatment of alcohol dependence, as well as summarizing its pharmacological properties. In two randomized, double-blind, multinational trials (ESENSE 1 and ESENSE 2), as-needed nalmefene significantly reduced the number of heavy drinking days (in both trials) and total alcohol consumption (in ESENSE 1) at month 6. In the randomized, double-blind, multinational SENSE trial, as-needed nalmefene significantly improved both of these endpoints at month 13, but not at month 6. As-needed nalmefene had a greater beneficial effect in the target population (i.e. alcohol-dependent patients with at least a high drinking risk level at screening and randomization), with post hoc analyses revealing significant reductions in both the number of heavy drinking days and total alcohol consumption at month 6 (in ESENSE 1 and ESENSE 2) and at month 13 (in SENSE). Oral nalmefene was generally well tolerated in patients with alcohol dependence, with the most commonly occurring adverse events including nausea, insomnia and dizziness. In conclusion, as-needed nalmefene provides an important new option for use in the treatment of alcohol dependence.

  6. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), the forerunner of alcohol dependence: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Abhishek; Malhotra, Savita; Basu, Debasish

    2014-10-01

    There are common genetic, neurobiological and psycho-social substrates for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and substance dependence. ODD can be regarded as the mildest and earliest form of disruptive behavioral disorder and also represents the threshold of vulnerability for substance dependence. But it is a less researched area. The aim of this research was to study any possible association between childhood ODD and adult alcohol dependence. Data are presented from a non probability sample of 100 adult alcohol dependent subjects and equal number of biologically unrelated control subjects. Assessment was conducted by the instrument Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism for both the assessment of ODD and alcohol dependence. The results of this study demonstrated significant association between childhood ODD and adult alcohol dependence. The association remained significant even after the exclusion of the possible confounding effects of the presence of conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Our study should encourage further research in this area and is expected to open up an opportunity for preventive research.

  7. Alcohol and Memory: Storage and State Dependency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Elizabeth S.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Effects of acute alcohol intoxication on the storage phase of memory were evaluated with two tasks that minimized response retrieval: unpaced paired-associate learning with highly available responses and forced-choice picture recognition. It was concluded that storage processes are sensitive to disruption by alcohol. (CHK)

  8. Dependency conflict, marital threat, and alcohol consumption in a middle-aged sample.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, J C; Wheeler, D S

    1992-09-01

    The hypothesis that dependency conflict is associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption when dependency needs are threatened or thwarted was tested with a sample of 672 middle-aged, married adults with college-age children. The subjects' current level of alcohol consumption was predicted based on the present level of threat to the marital relationship (assessed by reports from several family members) and on indices of dependency need and inhibition of dependent behavior estimated from sibship size, sibship density, and sibling position. A multiple regression analysis yielded a significant two-way interaction (p less than .05) between marital threat and subject sex, and a significant three-way interaction of dependency need, inhibition of dependent behavior, and marital threat. High marital threat was associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption in men and slightly lower levels of alcohol consumption in women. Additionally, when dependency need was high, alcohol consumption was generally low, except when both inhibition of dependent behavior and marital threat were high. However, when dependency need was low, the highest alcohol consumption score occurred when marital threat was low and inhibition was high.

  9. Adult Social Roles and Alcohol Use among American Indians

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Kaylin M.; Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David

    2014-01-01

    American Indians are disproportionately burdened by alcohol-related problems. Yet, research exploring predictors of alcohol use among American Indians has been limited by cross-sectional designs and reservation-based samples. Guided by a life course developmental perspective, the current study used a subsample of American Indians (n=927) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use (current drinking, usual number of drinks, and binge drinking) among this population. We examined whether adult social roles (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, college enrollment, full-time work) were linked to the rise and fall of alcohol use. Multi-level models demonstrated that adult social roles were linked to alcohol use at the within- and between-person levels. Becoming a parent was linked to a lower likelihood of being a current drinker, fewer alcoholic drinks, and less frequent binge drinking. Transitioning to full-time work was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current drinker and more frequent binge drinking. Results point to the importance of exploring within-group trajectories of alcohol use and highlight the protective and risky nature of adult social roles among American Indians. PMID:24857795

  10. [What is known about the outcome as adults for children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)/fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD)?].

    PubMed

    Walloch, J E; Burger, P H; Kornhuber, J

    2012-06-01

    In the field of adult psychiatry in German-speaking countries, little attention is as yet paid to the psychic defects that a fetus can sustain as a result of prenatal exposure to alcohol. Although children of alcohol-dependent mothers do present to psychiatric institutions as adults with manifold symptoms, e. g., attention deficit disorders, affective disorders or intellectual disability, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are rarely diagnosed as an underlying cause. Appropriate therapy guidelines do not exist. Current review papers within the German-speaking countries usually stem from paediatric and adolescent psychiatry or medicine. Based on a selected review of the literature, the following paper addresses and discusses the disease entity of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and fetal alcohol syndrome and their significance for adult psychiatry and also identifies open questions and research requirements, e. g., the development of diagnostic instruments or the establishment of diagnostic categories.

  11. [What is known about the outcome as adults for children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)/fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD)?].

    PubMed

    Walloch, J E; Burger, P H; Kornhuber, J

    2012-06-01

    In the field of adult psychiatry in German-speaking countries, little attention is as yet paid to the psychic defects that a fetus can sustain as a result of prenatal exposure to alcohol. Although children of alcohol-dependent mothers do present to psychiatric institutions as adults with manifold symptoms, e. g., attention deficit disorders, affective disorders or intellectual disability, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are rarely diagnosed as an underlying cause. Appropriate therapy guidelines do not exist. Current review papers within the German-speaking countries usually stem from paediatric and adolescent psychiatry or medicine. Based on a selected review of the literature, the following paper addresses and discusses the disease entity of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and fetal alcohol syndrome and their significance for adult psychiatry and also identifies open questions and research requirements, e. g., the development of diagnostic instruments or the establishment of diagnostic categories. PMID:22173965

  12. Self-Concept, Anxiety, and Knowledge Exhibited by Adult Children of Alcoholics and Adult Children of Non Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Wanda; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared 59 adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and 175 adult children of nonalcoholics (non-ACOAs) on self-concept, anxiety, and their knowledge of ACOA issues. Found no significant differences on self-concept and knowledge of ACOA issues. Significant differences were found on levels of anxiety, such that ACOAs had higher anxiety levels than did…

  13. Alcohol-Impaired Driving Among Adults - United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    Jewett, Amy; Shults, Ruth A; Banerjee, Tanima; Bergen, Gwen

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol-impaired driving crashes account for approximately one third of all crash fatalities in the United States. In 2013, 10,076 persons died in crashes in which at least one driver had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) ≥0.08 grams per deciliter (g/dL), the legal limit for adult drivers in the United States. To estimate the prevalence, number of episodes, and annual rate of alcohol-impaired driving, CDC analyzed self-reported data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. An estimated 4.2 million adults reported at least one alcohol-impaired driving episode in the preceding 30 days, resulting in an estimated 121 million episodes and a national rate of 505 episodes per 1,000 population annually. Alcohol-impaired driving rates varied by more than fourfold among states, and were highest in the Midwest U.S. Census region. Men accounted for 80% of episodes, with young men aged 21-34 years accounting for 32% of all episodes. Additionally, 85% of alcohol-impaired driving episodes were reported by persons who also reported binge drinking, and the 4% of the adult population who reported binge drinking at least four times per month accounted for 61% of all alcohol-impaired driving episodes. Effective strategies to reduce alcohol-impaired driving include publicized sobriety checkpoints, enforcement of 0.08 g/dL BAC laws, requiring alcohol ignition interlocks for everyone convicted of driving while intoxicated, and increasing alcohol taxes.

  14. The effects of acute alcohol on motor impairments in adolescent, adult, and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ornelas, Laura C; Novier, Adelle; Van Skike, Candice E; Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Matthews, Douglas B

    2015-03-01

    Acute alcohol exposure has been shown to produce differential motor impairments between aged and adult rats and between adolescent and adult rats. However, the effects of acute alcohol exposure among adolescent, adult, and aged rats have yet to be systematically investigated within the same project using a dose-dependent analysis. We sought to determine the age- and dose-dependent effects of acute alcohol exposure on gross and coordinated motor performance across the rodent lifespan. Adolescent (PD 30), adult (PD 70), and aged (approximately 18 months) male Sprague-Dawley rats were tested on 3 separate motor tasks: aerial righting reflex (ARR), accelerating rotarod (RR), and loss of righting reflex (LORR). In a separate group of animals, blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) were determined at multiple time points following a 3.0 g/kg ethanol injection. Behavioral tests were conducted with a Latin square repeated-measures design in which all animals received the following doses: 1.0 g/kg or 2.0 g/kg alcohol or saline over 3 separate sessions via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. During testing, motor impairments were assessed on the RR 10 min post-injection and on ARR 20 min post-injection. Aged animals spent significantly less time on the RR when administered 1.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adult rats. In addition, motor performance impairments significantly increased with age after 2.0 g/kg alcohol administration. On the ARR test, aged rats were more sensitive to the effects of 1.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adolescents and adults. Seven days after the last testing session, animals were given 3.0 g/kg alcohol and LORR was examined. During LORR, aged animals slept longer compared to adult and adolescent rats. This effect cannot be explained solely by BEC levels in aged rats. The present study suggests that acute alcohol exposure produces greater motor impairments in older rats when compared to adolescent and adult rats and begins to establish a

  15. Craving and Physiological Reactivity to Trauma and Alcohol Cues in PTSD and Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Scott F.; Schumacher, Julie A.; Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Henslee, Amber M.; Baillie, Lauren E.; Landy, Noah

    2013-01-01

    The high comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) has been firmly established. Although laboratory studies have examined self-reported craving in response to trauma and alcohol cues, no studies have reported on alcohol-related physiological responding in response to trauma cues in PTSD-AD individuals. Using a cue reactivity paradigm, this study examined the impact of personalized trauma-image cues and in vivo alcohol cues on alcohol-related responding (e.g., salivation, craving) in individuals with PTSD and AD (n=40). Participants displayed reactivity to both trauma and alcohol cues when compared to neutral cues, including increased self-reported craving and distress, as well as, greater salivation. These findings suggest that through repeated pairings of trauma memories and alcohol consumption, salivation may become classically conditioned to trauma cues. Moreover, the fact that the trauma-alcohol cue combination elicited greater alcohol craving, salivary responding, distress, and arousal than either the trauma-neutral or neutral-alcohol cue combinations, suggests that effects of the trauma and alcohol cues were additive in nature. Evidence that AD individuals with PTSD report increased alcohol craving and display greater salivation in response to trauma memories, supplements prior research indicating that PTSD-related negative emotion and trauma-related alcohol craving may play an important role in the maintenance of AD. PMID:20695690

  16. Alcohol-Induced Developmental Origins of Adult-Onset Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lunde, Emilie R; Washburn, Shannon E; Golding, Michael C; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C; Ramadoss, Jayanth

    2016-07-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure may impair growth, development, and function of multiple organ systems and is encompassed by the term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Research has so far focused on the mechanisms, prevention, and diagnosis of FASD, while the risk for adult-onset chronic diseases in individuals exposed to alcohol in utero is not well explored. David Barker's hypothesis on Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) suggests that insults to the milieu of the developing fetus program it for adult development of chronic diseases. In the 25 years since the introduction of this hypothesis, epidemiological and animal model studies have made significant advancements in identifying in utero developmental origins of chronic adult-onset diseases affecting cardiovascular, endocrine, musculoskeletal, and psychobehavioral systems. Teratogen exposure is an established programming agent for adult diseases, and recent studies suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure correlates with adult onset of neurobehavioral deficits, cardiovascular disease, endocrine dysfunction, and nutrient homeostasis instability, warranting additional investigation of alcohol-induced DOHaD, as well as patient follow-up well into adulthood for affected individuals. In utero epigenetic alterations during critical periods of methylation are a key potential mechanism for programming and susceptibility of adult-onset chronic diseases, with imprinted genes affecting metabolism being critical targets. Additional studies in epidemiology, phenotypic characterization in response to timing, dose, and duration of exposure, as well as elucidation of mechanisms underlying FASD-DOHaD inter relation, are thus needed to clinically define chronic disease associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. These studies are critical to establish interventional strategies that decrease incidence of these adult-onset diseases and promote healthier aging among individuals affected with FASD. PMID:27254466

  17. Alcohol-Induced Developmental Origins of Adult-Onset Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lunde, Emilie R; Washburn, Shannon E; Golding, Michael C; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C; Ramadoss, Jayanth

    2016-07-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure may impair growth, development, and function of multiple organ systems and is encompassed by the term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Research has so far focused on the mechanisms, prevention, and diagnosis of FASD, while the risk for adult-onset chronic diseases in individuals exposed to alcohol in utero is not well explored. David Barker's hypothesis on Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) suggests that insults to the milieu of the developing fetus program it for adult development of chronic diseases. In the 25 years since the introduction of this hypothesis, epidemiological and animal model studies have made significant advancements in identifying in utero developmental origins of chronic adult-onset diseases affecting cardiovascular, endocrine, musculoskeletal, and psychobehavioral systems. Teratogen exposure is an established programming agent for adult diseases, and recent studies suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure correlates with adult onset of neurobehavioral deficits, cardiovascular disease, endocrine dysfunction, and nutrient homeostasis instability, warranting additional investigation of alcohol-induced DOHaD, as well as patient follow-up well into adulthood for affected individuals. In utero epigenetic alterations during critical periods of methylation are a key potential mechanism for programming and susceptibility of adult-onset chronic diseases, with imprinted genes affecting metabolism being critical targets. Additional studies in epidemiology, phenotypic characterization in response to timing, dose, and duration of exposure, as well as elucidation of mechanisms underlying FASD-DOHaD inter relation, are thus needed to clinically define chronic disease associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. These studies are critical to establish interventional strategies that decrease incidence of these adult-onset diseases and promote healthier aging among individuals affected with FASD.

  18. Alcohol-Induced Changes in Opioid Peptide Levels in Adolescent Rats Are Dependent on Housing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Sara; Nylander, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Background Endogenous opioids are implicated in the mechanism of action of alcohol and alcohol affects opioids in a number of brain areas, although little is known about alcohol's effects on opioids in the adolescent brain. One concern, in particular when studying young animals, is that alcohol intake models often are based on single housing that may result in alcohol effects confounded by the lack of social interactions. The aim of this study was to investigate short- and long-term alcohol effects on opioids and the influence of housing conditions on these effects. Methods In the first part, opioid peptide levels were measured after one 24-hour session of single housing and 2-hour voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent and adult rats. In the second part, a model with a cage divider inserted during 2-hour drinking sessions was tested and the effects on opioids were examined after 6 weeks of adolescent voluntary intake in single-and pair-housed rats, respectively. Results The effects of single housing were age specific and affected Met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 (MEAP) in particular. In adolescent rats, it was difficult to distinguish between effects induced by alcohol and single housing, whereas alcohol-specific effects were seen in dynorphin B (DYNB), beta-endorphin (BEND), and MEAP levels in adults. Voluntary drinking affected several brain areas and the majority of alcohol-induced effects were not dependent on housing. However, alcohol effects on DYNB and BEND in the amygdala were dependent on housing. Housing alone affected MEAP in the cingulate cortex. Conclusions Age-specific housing- and alcohol-induced effects on opioids were found. In addition, prolonged voluntary alcohol intake under different housing conditions produced several alcohol-induced effects independent of housing. However, housing-dependent effects were found in areas implicated in stress, emotionality, and alcohol use disorder. Housing condition and age may therefore affect the reasons and

  19. The role of neurotransmitters in alcohol dependence: animal research.

    PubMed

    De Witte, P

    1996-03-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated that alcohol changes neurotransmitter concentrations in the brain. These changes in levels of dopamine, serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), endogenous opioid peptides, and noradrenaline are associated with activation of reward centres in the brain. It is this property of alcohol that is believed to be responsible for the reinforcing effect of alcohol consumption in rats. One class of neurotransmitters, the endogenous opioid peptides, are believed to play an important role in alcohol reinforcement. This view is supported by the reduced preference for alcohol consumption found in rats given an opiate agonist. The widely distributed inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA is also believed to play a fundamental role in mediating the effects of alcohol. A better understanding of the mechanisms that support alcohol dependence in animals offers hope for the development of pharmacological interventions to block these mechanisms, an approach that is now being explored in humans.

  20. A preliminary, randomized trial of aerobic exercise for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard A; Abrantes, Ana M; Minami, Haruka; Read, Jennifer P; Marcus, Bess H; Jakicic, John M; Strong, David R; Dubreuil, Mary Ella; Gordon, Alan A; Ramsey, Susan E; Kahler, Christopher W; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-07-01

    Interventions targeting physical activity may be valuable as an adjunct to alcohol treatment, but have been relatively untested. In the current study, alcohol dependent, physically sedentary patients were randomized to: a 12-week moderate-intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention (AE; n=25) or a brief advice to exercise intervention (BA-E; n=23). Results showed that individuals in AE reported significantly fewer drinking and heavy drinking days, relative to BA-E during treatment. Furthermore adherence to AE strengthened the beneficial effect of intervention on alcohol use outcomes. While high levels of moderate-intensity exercise appeared to facilitate alcohol recovery regardless of intervention arm, attending the group-based AE intervention seemed to further enhance the positive effects of exercise on alcohol use. Study findings indicate that a moderate intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention is an efficacious adjunct to alcohol treatment. Improving adherence to the intervention may enhance its beneficial effects on alcohol use.

  1. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are important targets for alcohol reward and dependence.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Gao, Ming; Taylor, Devin H

    2014-03-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are important targets for alcohol reward and dependence. Alcoholism is a serious public health problem and has been identified as the third major cause of preventable mortality in the world. Worldwide, about 2 billion people consume alcohol, with 76.3 million having diagnosable alcohol use disorders. Alcohol is currently responsible for the death of 4% of adults worldwide (about 2.5 million deaths each year), and this number will be significantly increased by 2020 unless effective action is taken. Alcohol is the most commonly abused substance by humans. Ethanol (EtOH) is the intoxicating agent in alcoholic drinks that can lead to abuse and dependence. Although it has been extensively studied, the mechanisms of alcohol reward and dependence are still poorly understood. The major reason is that, unlike other addictive drugs (eg, morphine, cocaine or nicotine) that have specific molecular targets, EtOH affects much wider neuronal functions. These functions include phospholipid membranes, various ion channels and receptors, synaptic and network functions, and intracellular signaling molecules. The major targets in the brain that mediate EtOH's effects remain unclear. This knowledge gap results in a therapeutic barrier in the treatment of alcoholism. Interestingly, alcohol and nicotine are often co-abused, which suggests that neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), the molecular targets for nicotine, may also contribute to alcohol's abusive properties. Here, we briefly summarize recent lines of evidence showing how EtOH modulates nAChRs in the mesolimbic pathway, which provides a perspective that nAChRs are important targets mediating alcohol abuse.

  2. Parent's alcoholism severity and family topic avoidance about alcohol as predictors of perceived stigma among adult children of alcoholics: Implications for emotional and psychological resilience.

    PubMed

    Haverfield, Marie C; Theiss, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholism is a highly stigmatized condition, with both alcohol-dependent individuals and family members of the afflicted experiencing stigmatization. This study examined the severity of a parent's alcoholism and family topic avoidance about alcohol as two factors that are associated with family members' perceptions of stigma. Three dimensions of stigma were considered: discrimination stigma, disclosure stigma, and positive aspect stigma. In addition, this study assessed associations between perceived stigmatization and individuals' experiences of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience. Adult children of alcoholics (N = 622) were surveyed about family conditions, perceived stigma, and their emotional and psychological well-being. Regression analyses revealed that the severity of a parent's alcoholism predicted all three types of stigma for females, but not for males. In addition, family topic avoidance about alcohol predicted all types of stigma for males and discrimination stigma and positive aspect stigma for females. With few exceptions, the three types of stigma predicted depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience for both male and female adult children of alcoholics. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for promoting a family environment that mitigates stigma and encourages emotional and psychological well-being. In 2012, approximately 3.3 million deaths worldwide were due to the harmful use of alcohol (World Health Organization [WHO], 2014). Individuals who abuse alcohol are susceptible to a variety of negative health outcomes (Rehm et al., 2009) and display inappropriate social behaviors (Klingemann, 2001; Schomerus et al., 2011a). General societal perceptions tend to characterize alcohol-dependent individuals as irresponsible and lacking in self-control (Schomerus et al., 2011b). Research in the United Kingdom found that 54% of the population believes alcohol-dependent individuals are personally to blame for their own

  3. Non-daily Smoking and Alcohol Use, Hazardous Drinking, and Alcohol Diagnoses among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Emily L.R.; Desai, Rani A.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Non-daily smoking and heavy alcohol use are prevalent behaviors among young adults, with non-daily smoking occurring primarily in the context of alcohol use. Although the relationship between drinking and daily smoking has been well characterized in young adults, few epidemiological investigations have investigated the association between non-daily smoking and drinking behavior. Methods We examined Wave 1 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; Grant et al., 2003; n=43,093). Young adults (age 18-25; n=5,838) were stratified on current smoking behavior (daily, non-daily, and non-smokers in the past 12 months) and differences in weekly quantity of alcohol use, frequency of alcohol use, frequency of binge drinking behavior, rates of NIAAA-defined hazardous drinking, and rates of DSM-IV alcohol diagnoses were investigated. College student status was examined. Results 25% were current smokers and 7% were smoking on a non-daily basis. 71% were current drinkers, 39% reported binge drinking at least once a month, 41% met criteria for hazardous drinking, and 18% had alcohol use disorders. Across all measures of alcohol use there was a significant effect of smoking status, with daily smokers having greater alcohol use patterns, compared to non-daily smokers, with non-smokers consuming the least. Non-daily smokers were more likely to report any binge drinking in the past 12 months. However, daily smokers were more likely to report daily binge drinking. With regard to hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorders, non-daily smoking conferred the greatest risk, followed by daily smoking with non-smoking as the reference group. Multinomial logistic regression demonstrated the odds of being a hazardous drinker were 16 times greater (95% CI 9.46 — 26.48) in a non-daily smoker compared to a non-smoker, whereas the odds for a daily smoker were increased by 7-fold (95% CI 5.54 — 9.36). A similar pattern of results was demonstrated

  4. Positive Affect and Stress Reactivity in Alcohol-Dependent Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Kaufman, Julia S.; Frost, Katherine H.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Weiss, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Reactivity to stress is a common feature of alcohol dependence and is associated with poorer treatment outcome among alcohol-dependent patients. Despite the importance of stress reactivity in alcohol dependence, little is known about markers of resilience to stress in this population. The current study examined whether positive affect buffered the effect of stress on negative affect and alcohol craving in an alcohol-dependent sample. Method: Outpatients (N = 1,375) enrolled in a large, randomized controlled trial for alcohol dependence (the Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions for Alcohol Dependence [COMBINE] Study) completed measures of stress, positive affect, negative affect, and alcohol craving. In this secondary analysis, we hypothesized that positive affect would moderate the association between stress and negative affect and that positive affect would be negatively associated with craving. Results: Results supported these hypotheses, such that patients with higher levels of positive affect exhibited a weaker relationship between stress and negative affect relative to those with low positive affect. Positive affect was negatively associated with craving but did not moderate the association between stress and craving. Conclusions: These results replicate studies suggesting a protective effect of positive affect on stress reactivity and extend this effect to an alcohol-dependent sample. If positive affect can aid in resilience to stress, the utilization of interventions that enhance positive affect may be of particular utility for alcohol-dependent patients. Future experimental studies testing the causality of this association as well as studies examining the effect of interventions to enhance positive affect are needed. PMID:23200161

  5. Combined alcohol and energy drink use: hedonistic motives, adenosine, and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2014-07-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short- and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2014; 38:2087-2095) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers choose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence. PMID:25040590

  6. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theaters affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between-participant design was used, in which 184 young adults (age: 16-28 years) were exposed to a movie that was preceded by either alcohol commercials or nonalcohol commercials. Participants' actual alcohol consumption while watching the movie ("Watchmen") was examined. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to examine the effects of the commercial condition on alcohol consumption. An interaction effect was found between commercial condition and weekly alcohol consumption (p < .001). Alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol drinkers was higher in the alcohol commercial condition than in the nonalcohol commercial condition, whereas no differences were found in alcohol consumption between commercial conditions among low weekly alcohol drinkers. No gender differences were found in the association between exposure to alcohol commercials, weekly drinking, and alcohol use. Thus, exposure to alcohol commercials prior to a movie in a movie theater can directly influence alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol consumers. PMID:21477057

  7. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theaters affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between-participant design was used, in which 184 young adults (age: 16-28 years) were exposed to a movie that was preceded by either alcohol commercials or nonalcohol commercials. Participants' actual alcohol consumption while watching the movie ("Watchmen") was examined. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to examine the effects of the commercial condition on alcohol consumption. An interaction effect was found between commercial condition and weekly alcohol consumption (p < .001). Alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol drinkers was higher in the alcohol commercial condition than in the nonalcohol commercial condition, whereas no differences were found in alcohol consumption between commercial conditions among low weekly alcohol drinkers. No gender differences were found in the association between exposure to alcohol commercials, weekly drinking, and alcohol use. Thus, exposure to alcohol commercials prior to a movie in a movie theater can directly influence alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol consumers.

  8. Differential effects of ghrelin antagonists on alcohol drinking and reinforcement in mouse and rat models of alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Juan L.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Finn, Deborah A.; Young, Emily A.; Helpenstell, Lily K.; Schuette, Lindsey M.; Fidler, Tara L.; Kosten, Therese A.; Ryabinin, Andrey E.

    2015-01-01

    An effort has been mounted to understand the mechanisms of alcohol dependence in a way that may allow for greater efficacy in treatment. It has long been suggested that drugs of abuse seize fundamental reward pathways and disrupt homeostasis to produce compulsive drug seeking behaviors. Ghrelin, an endogenous hormone that affects hunger state and release of growth hormone, has been shown to increased alcohol intake following administration, while antagonists decrease intake. Using rodent models of dependence, the current study examined the effects of two ghrelin receptor antagonists, [DLys3]-GHRP-6 (DLys) and JMV2959, on dependence-induced alcohol self-administration. In two experiments adult male C57BL/6J mice and Wistar rats were made dependent via intermittent ethanol vapor exposure. In another experiment, adult male C57BL/6J mice were made dependent using the intragastric alcohol consumption (IGAC) procedure. Ghrelin receptor antagonists were given prior to voluntary ethanol drinking. Ghrelin antagonists reduced ethanol intake, preference, and operant self-administration of ethanol and sucrose across these models, but did not decrease food consumption in mice. In experiments 1 and 2, voluntary drinking was reduced by ghrelin receptor antagonists, however this reduction did not persist across days. Despite the transient effects to ghrelin antagonists, the drugs had renewed effectiveness following a break in administration as seen in experiment 1. The results show the ghrelin system as a potential target for studies of alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to determine the central mechanisms of these drugs and their influence on addiction in order to design effective pharmacotherapies. PMID:26051399

  9. Differential effects of ghrelin antagonists on alcohol drinking and reinforcement in mouse and rat models of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Juan L; Cunningham, Christopher L; Finn, Deborah A; Young, Emily A; Helpenstell, Lily K; Schuette, Lindsey M; Fidler, Tara L; Kosten, Therese A; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2015-10-01

    An effort has been mounted to understand the mechanisms of alcohol dependence in a way that may allow for greater efficacy in treatment. It has long been suggested that drugs of abuse seize fundamental reward pathways and disrupt homeostasis to produce compulsive drug seeking behaviors. Ghrelin, an endogenous hormone that affects hunger state and release of growth hormone, has been shown to increase alcohol intake following administration, while antagonists decrease intake. Using rodent models of dependence, the current study examined the effects of two ghrelin receptor antagonists, [DLys3]-GHRP-6 (DLys) and JMV2959, on dependence-induced alcohol self-administration. In two experiments adult male C57BL/6J mice and Wistar rats were made dependent via intermittent ethanol vapor exposure. In another experiment, adult male C57BL/6J mice were made dependent using the intragastric alcohol consumption (IGAC) procedure. Ghrelin receptor antagonists were given prior to voluntary ethanol drinking. Ghrelin antagonists reduced ethanol intake, preference, and operant self-administration of ethanol and sucrose across these models, but did not decrease food consumption in mice. In experiments 1 and 2, voluntary drinking was reduced by ghrelin receptor antagonists, however this reduction did not persist across days. Despite the transient effects of ghrelin antagonists, the drugs had renewed effectiveness following a break in administration as seen in experiment 1. The results show the ghrelin system as a potential target for studies of alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to determine the central mechanisms of these drugs and their influence on addiction in order to design effective pharmacotherapies.

  10. The Expected Personality Characteristics of Alcohol-Dependent Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John M.; Schutte, Nicola S.

    2002-01-01

    Uses the Big Five personality factors as a framework for examining the expected personality characteristics of individuals who are alcohol-dependent. Results help explain prior findings about the social handicap of problem drinking with regard to making friends, dating, marriage, and working. Findings have potential use in alcohol-problem…

  11. Impulsivity, risky behaviors and accidents in alcohol-dependent patients

    PubMed Central

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Mika, Katarzyna; Bugaj, Marcin; Podgórska, Anna; Barry, Kristen; Blow, Frederic C.; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity and alcohol drinking are both considered as important predictors of unintentional as well as intentional injuries. However, relationships of impulsivity with risky behaviors and a history of accidents have not been investigated in alcohol dependence. The aim of this study was to analyze relationships between the frequency of risky behaviors and level of behavioral as well as cognitive impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients. By means of Barratt’s Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and stop-signal task, the levels of cognitive and behavioral impulsivity among 304 alcohol-dependent patients were measured. Also, patients were asked to answer questions from the Short Inventory of Problems applying to risky behaviors and accidents after alcohol drinking. In addition participants completed a questionnaire to assess frequency of other behaviors from the analyzed spectrum (use of other drugs, driving or aggressive behavior after alcohol drinking). The statistical analysis revealed a significant association between impulsivity and frequency of risky behaviors in alcohol-dependent patients. Individuals with higher scores in BIS behaved more frequently in a risky way and had significantly more accidents after alcohol drinking. The association with risky behaviors was strongest for non-planning and attentional impulsivity subscales, whereas frequency of accidents was particularly associated with motor impulsivity. A multivariate analysis revealed that impulsivity was the most important predictor of risky behaviors, but did not significantly predict a history of accidents. Our study confirms that impulsivity is an important correlate of risky behaviors in alcohol-dependent individuals, along with global psychopathology and severity of alcohol dependence. PMID:23246707

  12. Daily Physical Activity and Alcohol Use Across the Adult Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, David E.; Ram, Nilam; Pincus, Aaron L.; Coffman, Donna L.; Lorek, Amy E.; Rebar, Amanda L.; Roche, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In contrast to proposals that physical activity (PA) can be a substitute for alcohol use, people who engage in greater overall PA generally consume more alcohol on average than less-active peers. Acknowledging that both PA and alcohol use vary considerably from day-to-day, this study evaluated whether established associations reflect daily behavioral coupling within-person, are an artifact of procedures that aggregate behavior over time, or both. Methods A lifespan sample of 150 adults (aged 19–89 years) completed three 21-day measurement bursts of a daily diary study. At the end of each day, they reported on their PA and alcohol consumption. Data were analyzed in a negative binomial multilevel regression. Results As expected, both behaviors exhibited limited between-person variation. After controlling for age, sex, and seasonal and social calendar influences, daily deviations in PA were significantly associated with daily total alcohol use. Once the within-person process linking PA and alcohol use was controlled, usual PA and total alcohol use were not associated. Conclusions The established between-person association linking PA and alcohol use reflects the aggregation of a daily process that unfolds within-people over time. Further work is needed to identify mediators of this daily association and to evaluate causality, as well as to investigate these relations in high-risk samples. PMID:25222084

  13. Dose-dependent effects of alcohol administration on behavioral profiles in the MCSF test.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Oskar; Roman, Erika

    2016-02-01

    The acute effects of alcohol administration are age-, dose-, time- and task-dependent. Although generally considered to be a sedative drug, alcohol has both stimulatory and depressant effects on behavior, depending on dose and time. Alcohol-induced motor activating effects are consistently shown in mice but rarely demonstrated in adult, outbred rats using conventional behavioral tests. The aim of the present experiment was to study acute alcohol-induced effects on behavioral profiles in a more complex environment using the novel multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test, designed for assessing different behaviors in the same trial including locomotor activity. Adult male Wistar rats (Sca:WI) were administered one intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of alcohol (0.0 g/kg, 0.5 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg, or 1.5 g/kg) 5 min prior to the 30-min MCSF test. The two highest doses induced marked motor-suppressing effects. A significant interaction between group and time was found in general activity when comparing rats exposed to alcohol at 0.0 g/kg and 0.5 g/kg. In contrast to the 0.0 g/kg dose that increased the activity over time, animals administered the low dose (0.5 g/kg) demonstrated an initial high activity followed by a decline over time. No indications for acute alcohol-induced anxiolytic-like effects were found. The multivariate setting in the MCSF test appears to be sensitive for detecting motor-activating effects of low doses of alcohol as well as reduced locomotion at doses lower than in other behavioral tasks. The detection of subtle changes in behavior across time and dose is important for understanding alcohol-induced effects. This approach may be useful in evaluating alcohol doses that correspond to different degrees of intoxication in humans. PMID:26695588

  14. Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Donald E.; Carlton, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected. PMID:685264

  15. Physical Pain in Alcohol-Dependent Patients Entering Treatment in Poland—Prevalence and Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Ilgen, Mark A.; Bohnert, Amy S. B.; Kopera, Maciej; Krasowska, Aleksandra; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Blow, Frederic C.; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Chronic pain and problematic alcohol use commonly co-exist, as the use of alcohol is commonly considered a useful pain self-management strategy. The purpose of this study was to characterize pain and pain-related problems in a group of primary alcohol-dependent individuals entering treatment facilities. Method: A sample of 366 (73.5% men and 26.5% women) alcohol-dependent (according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria) subjects was recruited in alcohol treatment centers in Warsaw, Poland. Information was obtained about demographics, social functioning, sexual and physical abuse during childhood, and severity of alcohol and sleep problems as well as level of impulsivity and general psychopathology. The study group was divided into a “mild or no pain” group and a “moderate or greater pain” group. Results: Among the study group, 34.4% of individuals reported moderate or greater physical pain during the last 4 weeks. The statistical analysis revealed that the experience of physical pain was significantly associated with lower level of education, unemployment, experience of sexual abuse before 18 years of age, and severity of alcohol dependence as well as other potential predictors of relapse (impulsivity, sleep problems, general psychopathology). When entered into logistic regression analysis with other dependent variables, the level of general psychopathology, severity of sleep problems, age, and education were all significantly associated with pain severity. Conclusions: Physical pain is a prevalent and potentially impairing experience in adults seeking treatment for alcohol dependence. Therapeutic interventions aimed at reducing pain in alcohol-dependent individuals should be studied to evaluate their impact on improving overall treatment outcomes. PMID:26098037

  16. Nalmefene for the treatment of alcohol dependence: a current update.

    PubMed

    Soyka, Michael

    2014-04-01

    To date, few pharmacotherapies have been established for the treatment of alcoholism. There is a plethora of research concerning the involvement of the opioid-endorphin system in mediating the reinforcing effects of alcohol. The opioid antagonist naltrexone has been found to be effective in alcohol treatment. In addition, the mu-opioid antagonist and partial kappa agonist nalmefene was recently approved by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of alcoholism. The relevant studies followed a harm-reduction, 'as needed' approach and showed a reduction in alcohol consumption with nalmefene 20 mg rather than increased abstinence rates, (which was not the primary goal of the relevant studies). The available literature is reviewed and discussed. Nalmefene appears to be a safe and effective treatment for alcohol dependence.

  17. Nicotine Dependence and Alcohol Problems from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Dierker, Lisa; Selya, Arielle; Rose, Jennifer; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the highly replicated relationship between symptoms associated with both alcohol and nicotine, little is known about this association across time and exposure to both drinking and smoking. In the present study, we evaluate if problems associated with alcohol use are related to emerging nicotine dependence symptoms and whether this relationship varies from adolescence to young adulthood, after accounting for both alcohol and nicotine exposure. Methods The sample was drawn from the Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns Study which measured smoking, nicotine dependence, alcohol use and alcohol related problems over 6 assessment waves spanning 6 years. Analyses were based on repeated assessment of 864 participants reporting some smoking and drinking 30 days prior to individual assessment waves. Mixed-effects regression models were estimated to examine potential time, smoking and/or alcohol varying effects in the association between alcohol problems and nicotine dependence. Findings Inter-individual differences in mean levels of alcohol problems and within subject changes in alcohol problems from adolescence to young adulthood were each significantly associated with nicotine dependence symptoms over and above levels of smoking and drinking behaviour. This association was consistent across both time and increasing levels of smoking and drinking. Conclusions Alcohol related problems are a consistent risk factor for nicotine dependence over and above measures of drinking and smoking and this association can be demonstrated from the earliest experiences with smoking in adolescents, through the establishment of more regular smoking patterns across the transition to young adulthood. These findings add to accumulating evidence suggesting that smoking and drinking may be related through a mechanism that cannot be wholly accounted for by exposure to either substance. PMID:27610424

  18. Intertemporal Choice Behavior in Emerging Adults and Adults: Effects of Age Interact with Alcohol Use and Family History Status

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christopher T.; Steel, Eleanor A.; Parrish, Michael H.; Kelm, Mary K.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.

    2015-01-01

    Adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) show marked immediate reward selection (or “Now”) bias in intertemporal choice tasks. This Now bias persists long into abstinence, suggesting an irreversible consequence of chronic alcohol abuse or a pre-existing AUD intermediate phenotype. However, some data show substantial Now bias among emerging adults (18–25), regardless of drinking behavior, suggesting age-dependent effects on Now bias. The objectives of the present study were to determine (1) whether Now bias is greater among emerging adults relative to adults, (2) whether any such age effect on Now bias is diminished in sub-clinical heavy alcohol users, and (3) whether having a problem drinking first degree relative is independently associated with elevated Now bias. To achieve these objectives, we used an intertemporal choice task to quantify Now bias in n = 237 healthy participants (ages 18–40; 50% female), and a wide range of non-zero alcohol use, based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). We found that among non-heavy drinkers, Now bias inversely correlated with age; this relationship was not present among heavy drinkers. We found no significant relationship between AUDIT score and Now bias among emerging adults, but AUDIT scores and Now bias were positively correlated among 26–40 year olds. Additionally, non-heavy drinking adults who reported a problem drinking first degree relative showed greater Now bias compared to those not reporting familial problem drinking. While not definitive, these findings lend support for elevated Now bias in adulthood as an intermediate phenotype for AUDs. Moreover, non-additive effects of age and heavy drinking on Now bias suggest perturbations in largely common neural circuits in both groups. PMID:26635580

  19. A dysbiotic subpopulation of alcohol-dependent subjects.

    PubMed

    de Timary, Philippe; Leclercq, Sophie; Stärkel, Peter; Delzenne, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of studies that assessed the importance of biological factors for the development of psychiatric disorders focused on processes occurring at the brain level. Alcohol-dependence is a very frequent psychiatric disorder where psycho-pharmacological interventions are only of moderate efficacy. Our laboratory has recently described that a subpopulation of alcohol-dependent subjects, that accounted for approximately 40% of individuals tested, presented with an increased intestinal permeability, with a dysbiosis, with alterations in the metabolomic content of faeces--that could play a role in the increased permeability--and finally with a more severe profile of alcohol-dependence than the other non-dysbiotic subpopulation. In this addendum, we discuss the implications of our observations for the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence where we try to discriminate which addiction dimensions are likely related to the gut microbiota alterations and whether these alterations are the cause or the consequence of drinking habits. PMID:26727422

  20. NEURAL PLASTICITY, HUMAN GENETICS, AND RISK FOR ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Shirley Y.

    2013-01-01

    Opportunities for advances in the neurobiology of alcohol dependence have been facilitated by the development of sophisticated neurophysiological and neuroimaging techniques that allow us to have a window on developmental changes in brain structure and function. The search for genes that may increase susceptibility to alcohol dependence has been greatly facilitated by the recognition that intermediate phenotypes, sometimes referred to as endophenotypes. may be closer to the genetic variation than is the more complex alcohol dependence phenotype. This chapter will review the evidence that the brain is highly plastic, exhibiting major postnatal changes, especially during adolescence, in neural circuits that appear to influence addiction susceptibility. This chapter will suggest that heritable aspects of brain structure and function that are seen developmentally may be an important endophenotypic characteristic associated with familial risk for developing alcohol dependence. Finally, a review of studies showing associations between brain structural and functional characteristics and specific genes will be offered. PMID:20813240

  1. Thinking after Drinking: Impaired Hippocampal-Dependent Cognition in Human Alcoholics and Animal Models of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Staples, Miranda C.; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder currently affects approximately 18 million Americans, with at least half of these individuals having significant cognitive impairments subsequent to their chronic alcohol use. This is most widely apparent as frontal cortex-dependent cognitive dysfunction, where executive function and decision-making are severely compromised, as well as hippocampus-dependent cognitive dysfunction, where contextual and temporal reasoning are negatively impacted. This review discusses the relevant clinical literature to support the theory that cognitive recovery in tasks dependent on the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus is temporally different across extended periods of abstinence from alcohol. Additional studies from preclinical models are discussed to support clinical findings. Finally, the unique cellular composition of the hippocampus and cognitive impairment dependent on the hippocampus is highlighted in the context of alcohol dependence. PMID:27746746

  2. Parentification, Parental Alcoholism, and Academic Status among Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Nancy D.; Wells, Marolyn C.; Deming, Mary P.

    1998-01-01

    Examines young adults (N=360) in terms of their perceptions of having assumed a parentified role in their family of origin as a function of academic status and classification as children of alcoholics or nonalcoholics. Low academic status participants reported having greater caretaking responsibilities and worries in their families. Children of…

  3. Fetal Alcohol Exposure Reduces Adult Brain Plasticity. Science Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This Brief summarizes the findings and implications of "Moderate Fetal Alcohol Exposure Impairs the Neurogenic Response to an Enriched Environment in Adult Mice" (I. Y. Choi; A. M. Allan; and L. A. Cunningham). Observations of mice…

  4. Postsecondary Educational Experiences of Adults with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duquette, Cheryll; Orders, Shari

    2013-01-01

    The postsecondary experiences of adults diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) were examined in this qualitative research. Tinto's Student Integration Model (SIM) (1975, 1997) provided the theoretical framework that guided the study. Tinto posits that the interplay of background characteristics, academic integration, and social…

  5. Adult Children of Alcoholics: Adjustment to a College Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Heather A.; Radford, Amy

    1999-01-01

    Provides a literature review of family-of-origin issues related to adult children of alcoholics (ACOA) and their adjustment to college. Implications for college personnel are presented, as is a case study to illustrate the many issues an ACOA college student may face in his or her transition. (Author/GCP)

  6. A Psychoeducational Group for Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Nancy E.; Walker, Margaret E.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a campus-based psychoeducational support group for adult children of alcoholics. Outlines group goals; identifies recruitment procedures; and describes and evaluates sessions. Asserts that this successful group format could be easily adapted to other setting and age groups. (Author/ABB)

  7. Adult Children of Alcoholics in the Classroom: Implications for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Jack L.; Oliver, Peter V.

    This study examined the impact of being an adult child of an alcoholic family (COA) on one's personal and interpersonal adjustment. First, it was predicted that because of difficulties with interpersonal trust, COAs would express less of a need for social approval compared with non-COAs. A related prediction was that COAs would report being…

  8. Differences in Distress among Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashubeck, Susan; Christensen, Sue A.

    1992-01-01

    Investigated psychological distress, social support, and hardiness among 79 adult children of alcoholics (ACAs) compared to 67 ACAs not involved in support groups. Group members reported higher levels of psychological distress, lower levels of hardiness, and less satisfaction with perceived social support than did nonmembers. For both groups,…

  9. Personality Characteristics of Adult Children of Alcoholics: Fact or Fiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Richard W.; Lyon, Mark A.

    This study attempted to validate the characteristics of adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) as presented by Woititz (1983). Male (N=52) and female (N=94) college students completed the Personality Research Form, a 352-item measure of personality variables; the Responsibility and Social Adroitness Scales of the Jackson Personality Inventory; the…

  10. Tracking Specialized Book Selection: Books for Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degnan, Darrah

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of the book review process focuses on a study that evaluated the efficacy of major journal reviews as a selection tool for books for adult children of alcoholics. Highlights include selection strategies for books not reviewed by major media; multiple reviews; small press books; and recommendations for strengthening review media. (12…

  11. A Profile of Collegiate Black Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodney, H. Elaine

    1995-01-01

    This study sought to identify differences between 100 randomly selected Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOA) and nonACOAs attending a black university. The ACOAs reported significantly more drinking problems and less healthy family environments and social support than nonACOAs, but no difference in mastery of developmental tasks like autonomy,…

  12. Adult Children of Alcoholics: An Examination of the Category.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shemwell, G. Henry, Jr.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of 89 graduate students using criteria taken from popular literature describing the adult children of alcoholics (ACOA) category. No empirical support is found for the ACOA category as defined in popular literature (no significant differences in how ACOA students and non-ACOA students responded to items that are…

  13. Cognitive Deficits in Nonretarded Adults with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Kimberley A.; Don, Audrey; Mateer, Catherine A.; Streissguth, Ann P.

    1997-01-01

    Sixteen nonretarded young adults with fetal alcohol syndrome were divided into two groups, one with average to above average IQ and one with borderline to low average IQ. Subjects in both groups manifested clear deficits on neuropsychological measures sensitive to complex attention, verbal learning, and executive function at a frequency and…

  14. Prospective Developmental Subtypes of Alcohol Dependence from Age 18 to 32 Years: Implications for Nosology, Etiology, and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Madeline H.; Caspi, Avshalom; Houts, Renate; Slutske, Wendy S.; Harrington, HonaLee; Jackson, Kristina M.; Belsky, Daniel W.; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify child and adult correlates that differentiate (a) individuals with persistent alcohol dependence from individuals with developmentally-limited alcohol dependence and (b) individuals with adult-onset alcohol dependence from individuals who never diagnose. Participants are 1,037 members of the Dunedin longitudinal study, a birth cohort followed prospectively from birth until age 32. Past-year DSM-IV alcohol dependence diagnoses were ascertained with structured diagnostic interviews at ages 18, 21, 26, and 32. Individuals were classified as developmentally-limited, persistent, or adult-onset subtypes based on their time-ordered pattern of diagnoses. The persistent subtype generally exhibited the worst scores on all correlates, including family psychiatric history, adolescent and adult externalizing and internalizing problems, adolescent and adult substance use, adult quality of life, and coping strategies. The prospective predictors that distinguished them from the developmentally-limited subtype involved family liability, adolescent negative affectivity, daily alcohol use, and frequent marijuana use. Furthermore, young people who developed the persistent subtype of alcohol dependence were distinguished from the developmentally-limited subtype by an inability to reduce drinking and by continued use despite problems, already by age 18. The adult-onset group members were virtually indistinguishable from ordinary cohort members as children or adolescents, but, in adulthood, adult-onset cases were distinguished by problems with depression, substance use, stress, and strategies for coping with stress. Information about age-of-onset and developmental course is fundamental for identifying subtypes of alcohol dependence. Subtype-specific etiologies point to targeted prevention and intervention efforts based on characteristics of each subtype. PMID:23880392

  15. Cognitive Impairments in Alcohol-Dependent Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bernardin, Florent; Maheut-Bosser, Anne; Paille, François

    2014-01-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol consumption induces cognitive impairments mainly affecting executive functions, episodic memory, and visuospatial capacities related to multiple brain lesions. These cognitive impairments not only determine everyday management of these patients, but also impact on the efficacy of management and may compromise the abstinence prognosis. Maintenance of lasting abstinence is associated with cognitive recovery in these patients, but some impairments may persist and interfere with the good conduct and the efficacy of management. It therefore appears essential to clearly define neuropsychological management designed to identify and evaluate the type and severity of alcohol-related cognitive impairments. It is also essential to develop cognitive remediation therapy so that the patient can fully benefit from the management proposed in addiction medicine units. PMID:25076914

  16. ASTN1 and alcohol dependence: family-based association analysis in multiplex alcohol dependence families.

    PubMed

    Hill, Shirley Y; Weeks, Daniel E; Jones, Bobby L; Zezza, Nicholas; Stiffler, Scott

    2012-06-01

    A previous genome-wide linkage study of alcohol dependence (AD) in multiplex families found a suggestive linkage result for a region on Chromosome 1 near microsatellite markers D1S196 and D1S2878. The ASTN1 gene is in this region, a gene previously reported to be associated with substance abuse, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Using the same family data consisting of 330 individuals with phenotypic data and DNA, finer mapping of a 26 cM region centered on D1S196 was undertaken using SNPs with minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥ 0.15 and pair-wise linkage disequilibrium (LD) of r(2) < 0.8 using the HapMap CEU population. Significant FBAT P-values for SNPs within the ASTN1 gene were observed for four SNPs (rs465066, rs228008, rs6668092, and rs172917), the most significant, rs228008, within intron 8 had a P-value of 0.001. Using MQLS, which allows for inclusion of all families, we find three of these SNPs with MQLS P-values < 0.003. In addition, two additional neighboring SNPs (rs10798496 and rs6667588) showed significance at P = 0.002 and 0.03, respectively. Haplotype analysis was performed using the haplotype-based test function of FBAT for a block that included rs228008, rs6668092, and rs172917. This analysis found one block (GCG) over-transmitted and another (ATA) under-transmitted to affected offspring. Linkage analysis identified a region consistent with the association results. Family-based association analysis shows the ASTN1 gene significantly associated with alcohol dependence. The potential importance of the ASTN1 gene for AD risk may be related its role in glial-guided neuronal migration.

  17. Preventive Effects of Forced Exercise against Alcohol-induced Physical Dependency and Reduction of Pain Perception Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Ghaleni, Majid Asadi; Motaghinejad, Ozra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Treatment of postabstinence syndrome of alcohol is one of the major strategies of alcoholism treatment. Exercise can be modulated major brain pathways such as a reward system and pain perception centers. The aim of this study was to evaluation the effects of forced exercise in the management of alcohol dependence and pain perception alteration which induced by alcoholism. Methods: 72 adult male rats were divided into 2 major groups: (1) 40 of them was divided into groups of positive control (alcohol dependent) negative control and alcohol dependent groups under treatment by forced exercise, diazepam (0.4 mg/kg) and forced exercise in combination with diazepam and alcohol withdrawal signs, and blood cortisols, were measured in this groups. (2) 32 rats were divided into control, alcohol dependent (without treatment), and alcohol-dependent groups under treatment by forced exercise or indometacin (5 mg/kg) and then pain perception was assessed by using writhing test, tail-flick and hot plate test. Results: Forced exercise, diazepam, and their combinations significantly attenuates withdrawal syndrome to 20 ± 2, 22 ± 1.3 and 16 ± 2 and blood cortisol level to 6.8 ± 1.3,7.9 ± 1.2 and 5.8 ± 1.1, respectively, in comparison with the positive control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001). In alcohol dependent animal under treatment by forced exercise, pain response significantly inhibited with 37%, 57% and 38% decreases in writhing test, hot plate, and tail-flick test, respectively, in comparison with alcohol dependent (without treatment) group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study suggested that forced exercise can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism patient and also can be effective in modulation of pain threshold reduction that was induced by alcohol dependency. PMID:25400889

  18. Scheduled access alcohol drinking by alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats: modeling adolescent and adult binge-like drinking.

    PubMed

    Bell, Richard L; Rodd, Zachary A; Engleman, Eric A; Toalston, Jamie E; McBride, William J

    2014-05-01

    Binge alcohol drinking continues to be a public health concern among today's youth and young adults. Moreover, an early onset of alcohol use, which usually takes the form of binge drinking, is associated with a greater risk for developing alcohol use disorders. Given this, it is important to examine this behavior in rat models of alcohol abuse and dependence. Toward that end, the objective of this article is to review findings on binge-like drinking by selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) lines of rats. As reviewed elsewhere in this special issue, the P line meets all, and the HAD line meets most, of the proposed criteria for an animal model of alcoholism. One model of binge drinking is scheduled ethanol access during the dark cycle, which has been used by our laboratory for over 20 years. Our laboratory has also adopted a protocol involving the concurrent presentation of multiple ethanol concentrations. When this protocol is combined with limited access, ethanol intake is maximized yielding blood ethanol levels (BELs) in excess, sometimes greatly in excess, of 80 mg%. By extending these procedures to include multiple scheduled ethanol access sessions during the dark cycle for 5 consecutive days/week, P and HAD rats consume in 3 or 4 h as much as, if not more than, the amount usually consumed in a 24 h period. Under certain conditions, using the multiple scheduled access procedure, BELs exceeding 200 mg% can be achieved on a daily basis. An overview of findings from studies with other selectively bred, inbred, and outbred rats places these findings in the context of the existing literature. Overall, the findings support the use of P and HAD rats as animal models to study binge-like alcohol drinking and reveal that scheduled access procedures will significantly increase ethanol intake by other rat lines and strains as well.

  19. Alcohol and Drug Use, Abuse, and Dependence in Urban Areas and Colonias of the Texas-Mexico Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallisch, Lynn S.; Spence, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of alcohol and drug use, abuse, and dependence among adults on the Texas-Mexico border in 2002-2003. The findings are based on survey responses from a random sample of 1,200 adults living in households in three communities: El Paso, a densely populated city in west Texas; the less dense urbanized areas of the…

  20. Pharmacological treatment of alcohol abuse/dependence with psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Le Fauve, Charlene E; Litten, Raye Z; Randall, Carrie L; Moak, Darlene H; Salloum, Ihsan M; Green, Alan I

    2004-02-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2003 annual meeting RSA in Fort Lauderdale, FL. It was organized and cochaired by Charlene E. Le Fauve and Carrie L. Randall. The presentations were (1) Introduction, by Charlene E. Le Fauve and Raye Z. Litten; (2) Treatment of co-occurring alcohol use and anxiety disorders, by Carrie L. Randall and Sarah W. Book; (3) Pharmacological treatment of alcohol dependent patients with comorbid depression, by Darlene H. Moak; (4) Efficacy of valproate in bipolar alcoholics: a double blind, placebo-controlled study, by Ihsan M. Salloum, Jack R. Cornelius, Dennis C. Daley, Levent Kirisci, Johnathan Himmelhoch, and Michael E. Thase; (5) Alcoholism and schizophrenia: effects of antipsychotics, by Alan I. Green, Robert E. Drake, Suzannah V. Zimmet, Rael D. Strous, Melinda Salomon, and Mark Brenner; and (6) Conclusions, by Charlene E. Le Fauve; discussant, Raye Z. Litten. Alcohol-dependent individuals have exceptionally high rates of co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Although this population is more likely to seek alcoholism treatment than noncomorbid alcoholics, the prognosis for treatment is often poor, particularly among patients with more severe psychiatric illnesses. Development of effective interventions to treat this population is in the early stages of research. Although the interaction between the psychiatric condition and alcoholism is complex, progress has been made. The NIAAA has supported a number of state-of-the-art pharmacological and behavioral trials in a variety of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Some of these trials have been completed and are presented here. The symposium presented some new research findings from clinical studies with the aim of facilitating the development of treatments that improve alcohol and psychiatric outcomes among individuals with alcohol-use disorders and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. The panel focused on social anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and

  1. Alcohol dependence and driving: knowledge of DVLA regulations

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Andrew; Watts, Maggie; Ghosh, Sujoy; Rice, Peter; Dewhurst, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Methods The UK’s Driver Vehicle Licensing Authority (DVLA) requires individuals to report if they have a medical condition such as alcohol dependence. General Medical Council guidance indicates that medical practitioners should ensure patients are aware of their impairment and requirement to notify the DVLA. Results In a survey of 246 people with known alcohol dependence, none were aware of advice on driving given by medical practitioners and none had self-reported. In addition, 362 doctors, either attending a college symposium or visiting a college website, were asked about their knowledge of DVLA regulations regarding alcohol dependence: 73% of those attending the symposium and 63% of those visiting the website answered incorrectly. In Scotland, over 20 000 people have alcohol dependence (over 1 million people with alcohol abuse), yet only 2548 people with alcohol problems self-reported to the DVLA in 2011. Clinical implications If the DVLA regulations were implemented, it could make an enormous difference to the behaviours of the driving public. PMID:26191423

  2. Coping Styles and Alcohol Dependence among Homeless People

    PubMed Central

    Opalach, Cezary; Romaszko, Jerzy; Jaracz, Marcin; Kuchta, Robert; Borkowska, Alina; Buciński, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The ways in which homeless individuals cope with stress may differ from those relied upon by the members of the general population and these differences may either be the result or the cause of their living conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the preferred coping style among the homeless and its relationship with alcohol dependence. Methods The study included 78 homeless individuals and involved the collection of demographic, sociological, psychological and medical data from each participant. Coping styles relied upon when dealing with stressful situations were assessed using a Polish adaptation of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Alcohol dependence was assessed using the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and a quantitative analysis of alcohol consumption. Results Men accounted for 91.93% of the study population. Nearly 75% of the subjects met the alcohol dependence criterion. Significant relationships were observed between the individual's age, preferred coping style and alcohol consumption level. As an individual’s age increased, the use of emotion-oriented coping styles decreased, while an increase in alcohol consumption was associated with a more frequent use of emotion- and avoidance-oriented strategies. Conclusions The findings of this study, similarly to those of many other studies of homeless individuals but investigating other areas (e.g. epidemiology of tuberculosis and traumatic injuries), are an exaggerated representation of associations observed in the general population. The results describe a group of people living on the margins of the society, often suffering from extremely advanced alcoholism, with clear evident psychodegradation. The presence of specific ways of coping with stress related to excessive alcohol consumption in this group of individuals may interfere with active participation in support programmes provided for the homeless and may further exacerbate their problems. PMID

  3. Genetic variability in tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene in alcohol dependence and alcohol-related psychopathological symptoms.

    PubMed

    Plemenitaš, Anja; Kores Plesničar, Blanka; Kastelic, Matej; Porcelli, Stefano; Serretti, Alessandro; Dolžan, Vita

    2015-09-14

    Heritability plays an important role in the development and expression of alcohol dependence. The present genetic association study explored the role of TPH2 polymorphisms and their haplotypes to investigate its role in alcohol dependence and comorbid psychopathological symptoms. The sample included 101 subjects currently diagnosed as alcohol abusers, 100 abstinent alcohol-dependent subjects and 97 healthy controls. Subjects were genotyped for TPH2 rs4570625, rs1843809, rs7305115, rs4290270. TPH2 genotypes were not associated with alcohol dependence, but GGAA haplotype was less common (p=0.038) and GTAA and GGGT were more common (p=0.011 and p=0.021, respectively), in currently dependent patients compared to controls. Exploratory analysis of genotypes in currently dependent patients showed that rs1843809 was associated with depressive and aggressive traits (p=0.045 and p=0.001, respectively), rs4290270 with depressive and anxiety traits (p=0.040 and p=0.025, respectively) and rs4570625 with aggressive traits (p=0.011). In abstinent subjects rs1843809 genotype was associated with traits of social anxiety (p=0.003). Only association between rs1843809 and the BDHI score (p=0.001) and associations between GTAA haplotype and Zung Anxiety Scale and BDHI score (p=0.001 and p<0.001, respectively), in currently dependent patients remained significant after applying the Bonferroni's correction. Our findings support a potential role of TPH2 in alcohol dependence. TPH2 genetic variability may be also associated with anxiety and aggression traits in alcohol dependent subjects. PMID:26232682

  4. Prevalence and Correlates of Alcohol Dependence Disorder among TB and HIV Infected Patients in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Rebecca; Chishinga, Nathaniel; Kinyanda, Eugene; Patel, Vikram; Ayles, Helen; Weiss, Helen A.; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence and correlates of alcohol dependence disorders in persons receiving treatment for HIV and Tuberculosis (TB) at 16 Primary Health Care centres (PHC) across Zambia. Methods 649 adult patients receiving treatment for HIV and/or TB at PHCs in Zambia (363 males, 286 females) were recruited between 1st December 2009 and 31st January 2010. Data on socio-demographic variables, clinical disease features (TB and HIV), and psychopathological status were collected. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to diagnose alcohol dependence disorder. Correlates of alcohol dependence were analyzed for men only, due to low prevalence in women. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using general estimating equations to allow for within-PHC clustering. Results The prevalence of alcohol dependence was 27.2% (95%CI: 17.7-39.5%) for men and 3.9% (95%CI: 1.4-0.1%) for women. Factors associated with alcohol dependence disorder in men included being single, divorced or widowed compared with married (adjusted OR = 1.47, 95%CI: 1.00-2.14) and being unemployed (adjusted OR=1.30, 95%CI: 1.01-1.67). The highest prevalence of alcohol dependence was among HIV-test unknown TB patients (34.7%), and lowest was among HIV positive patients on treatment but without TB (14.1%), although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.38). Conclusions Male TB/HIV patients in this population have high prevalence of alcohol dependence disorder, and prevalence differs by HIV/TB status. Further work is needed to explore interventions to reduce harmful drinking in this population. PMID:24069309

  5. Dihydrocodeine/Agonists for Alcohol Dependents

    PubMed Central

    Ulmer, Albrecht; Müller, Markus; Frietsch, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol addiction too often remains insufficiently treated. It shows the same profile as severe chronic diseases, but no comparable, effective basic treatment has been established up to now. Especially patients with repeated relapses, despite all therapeutic approaches, and patients who are not able to attain an essential abstinence to alcohol, need a basic medication. It seems necessary to acknowledge that parts of them need any agonistic substance, for years, possibly lifelong. For >14 years, we have prescribed such substances with own addictive character for these patients. Methods: We present a documented best possible practice, no designed study. Since 1997, we prescribed Dihydrocodeine (DHC) to 102 heavily alcohol addicted patients, later, also Buprenorphine, Clomethiazole (>6 weeks), Baclofen, and in one case Amphetamine, each on individual indication. This paper focuses on the data with DHC, especially. The Clomethiazole-data has been submitted to a German journal. The number of treatments with the other substances is still low. Results: The 102 patients with the DHC treatment had 1367 medically assisted detoxifications and specialized therapies before! The 4 years-retention rate was 26.4%, including 2.8% successfully terminated treatments. In our 12-steps scale on clinical impression, we noticed a significant improvement from mean 3.7 to 8.4 after 2 years. The demand for medically assisted detoxifications in the 2 years remaining patients was reduced by 65.5%. Mean GGT improved from 206.6 U/l at baseline to 66.8 U/l after 2 years. Experiences with the other substances are similar but different in details. Conclusion: Similar to the Italian studies with GHB and Baclofen, we present a new approach, not only with new substances, but also with a new setting and much more trusting attitude. We observe a huge improvement, reaching an almost optimal, stable, long term status in around 1/4 of the patients already. Many further

  6. Molecular and behavioral aspects of the actions of alcohol on the adult and developing brain.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-Loeches, Silvia; Guerri, Consuelo

    2011-01-01

    The brain is one of the major target organs of alcohol actions. Alcohol abuse can lead to alterations in brain structure and functions and, in some cases, to neurodegeneration. Cognitive deficits and alcohol dependence are highly damaging consequences of alcohol abuse. Clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that the developing brain is particularly vulnerable to alcohol, and that drinking during gestation can lead to a range of physical, learning and behavioral defects (fetal alcohol spectrum disorders), with the most dramatic presentation corresponding to fetal alcohol syndrome. Recent findings also indicate that adolescence is a stage of brain maturation and that heavy drinking at this stage can have a negative impact on brain structure and functions causing important short- and long-term cognitive and behavioral consequences. The effects of alcohol on the brain are not uniform; some brain areas or cell populations are more vulnerable than others. The prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus, the cerebellum, the white matter and glial cells are particularly susceptible to the effects of ethanol. The molecular actions of alcohol on the brain are complex and involve numerous mechanisms and signaling pathways. Some of the mechanisms involved are common for the adult brain and for the developing brain, while others depend on the developmental stage. During brain ontogeny, alcohol causes irreversible alterations to the brain structure. It also impairs several molecular, neurochemical and cellular events taking place during normal brain development, including alterations in both gene expression regulation and the molecules involved in cell-cell interactions, interference with the mitogenic and growth factor response, enhancement of free radical formation and derangements of glial cell functions. However, in both adult and adolescent brains, alcohol damages specific brain areas through mechanisms involving excitotoxicity, free radical formation and

  7. Interaction between the DRD4 VNTR Polymorphism and Proximal and Distal Environments in Alcohol Dependence during Emerging and Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Park, Aesoon; Sher, Kenneth J.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    The manifestation of alcohol dependence at different developmental stages may be associated with different genetic and environmental factors. Taking a developmental approach, the current study characterized interaction between the dopamine receptor 4 variable number tandem repeat (DRD4 VNTR) polymorphism and developmentally specific environmental factors (childhood adversity, college/Greek involvement, and delayed adult role transition) on alcohol dependence during emerging and young adulthood. Prospective data were obtained from a cohort of 234 Caucasian individuals (56% female) followed up at ages 18 through 34. A longitudinal hierarchical factor model was estimated to model a trait-like persistent alcohol dependence factor throughout emerging and young adulthood and two residual state-like alcohol dependence factors limited to emerging adulthood and young adulthood, respectively. To account for those alcohol dependence factors, three two-way interaction effects between the DRD4 VNTR polymorphism and the three developmentally specific environment factors were modeled. Carriers of the DRD4 long allele showed greater susceptibility to environmental effects; they showed more persistent alcohol dependence symptoms as childhood adversity increased and more alcohol dependence symptoms limited to emerging adulthood as college/Greek involvement increased. Alcohol dependence among non-carriers of the long allele, however, did not differ as a function of those environments. Although replication is necessary, these findings highlight the importance of repeated phenotypic assessments across development and modeling both distal and proximal environments and their interaction with genetic susceptibility at specific developmental stages. PMID:21381802

  8. Mindfulness training modifies cognitive, affective, and physiological mechanisms implicated in alcohol dependence: results of a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Gaylord, Susan A; Boettiger, Charlotte A; Howard, Matthew O

    2010-06-01

    Mindfulness training may disrupt the risk chain of stress-precipitated alcohol relapse. In 2008, 53 alcohol-dependent adults (mean age = 40.3) recruited from a therapeutic community located in the urban southeastern U.S. were randomized to mindfulness training or a support group. Most participants were male (79.2%), African American (60.4%), and earned less than $20,000 annually (52.8%). Self-report measures, psychophysiological cue-reactivity, and alcohol attentional bias were analyzed via repeated measures ANOVA. Thirty-seven participants completed the interventions. Mindfulness training significantly reduced stress and thought suppression, increased physiological recovery from alcohol cues, and modulated alcohol attentional bias. Hence, mindfulness training appears to target key mechanisms implicated in alcohol dependence, and therefore may hold promise as an alternative treatment for stress-precipitated relapse among vulnerable members of society.

  9. Nalmefene: a new approach to the treatment of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Paille, François; Martini, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of alcohol consumption is not yet a widely accepted treatment objective for alcohol-dependent patients, as abstinence is often considered to be the only possible objective in this situation. However, various studies have demonstrated the value of proposing these two options to such patients. Firstly, reduction of alcohol consumption very significantly reduces the risk of alcohol-related damage, and also modifies the patient's and the doctor's perception of the disease, resulting in improved access to care and better patient adherence with the proposed treatment objective and consequently better clinical results. Recent studies have shown that some medicinal products can help patients reduce their alcohol consumption. One such product, nalmefene, has been granted European marketing authorization and is now being released onto the market in various countries. The ESENSE 1 and 2 studies in alcohol-dependent patients showed that, in combination with BRENDA, a psychosocial intervention focusing on reinforcement of motivation and treatment adherence, nalmefene significantly reduced the number of heavy drinking days and mean daily total alcohol consumption versus placebo. This reduction was more marked in the marketing authorization target population, ie, patients with a high or very high drinking risk level according to World Health Organization criteria. Another original feature of this molecule is that it can be used as needed if the patient perceives a risk of drinking, which is a more flexible approach and more likely to ensure the patient's active involvement in the treatment of his/her disease. This molecule opens up interesting and original therapeutic prospects in the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:25187751

  10. Nalmefene: a new approach to the treatment of alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Paille, François; Martini, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of alcohol consumption is not yet a widely accepted treatment objective for alcohol-dependent patients, as abstinence is often considered to be the only possible objective in this situation. However, various studies have demonstrated the value of proposing these two options to such patients. Firstly, reduction of alcohol consumption very significantly reduces the risk of alcohol-related damage, and also modifies the patient’s and the doctor’s perception of the disease, resulting in improved access to care and better patient adherence with the proposed treatment objective and consequently better clinical results. Recent studies have shown that some medicinal products can help patients reduce their alcohol consumption. One such product, nalmefene, has been granted European marketing authorization and is now being released onto the market in various countries. The ESENSE 1 and 2 studies in alcohol-dependent patients showed that, in combination with BRENDA, a psychosocial intervention focusing on reinforcement of motivation and treatment adherence, nalmefene significantly reduced the number of heavy drinking days and mean daily total alcohol consumption versus placebo. This reduction was more marked in the marketing authorization target population, ie, patients with a high or very high drinking risk level according to World Health Organization criteria. Another original feature of this molecule is that it can be used as needed if the patient perceives a risk of drinking, which is a more flexible approach and more likely to ensure the patient’s active involvement in the treatment of his/her disease. This molecule opens up interesting and original therapeutic prospects in the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:25187751

  11. Nalmefene: a new approach to the treatment of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Paille, François; Martini, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of alcohol consumption is not yet a widely accepted treatment objective for alcohol-dependent patients, as abstinence is often considered to be the only possible objective in this situation. However, various studies have demonstrated the value of proposing these two options to such patients. Firstly, reduction of alcohol consumption very significantly reduces the risk of alcohol-related damage, and also modifies the patient's and the doctor's perception of the disease, resulting in improved access to care and better patient adherence with the proposed treatment objective and consequently better clinical results. Recent studies have shown that some medicinal products can help patients reduce their alcohol consumption. One such product, nalmefene, has been granted European marketing authorization and is now being released onto the market in various countries. The ESENSE 1 and 2 studies in alcohol-dependent patients showed that, in combination with BRENDA, a psychosocial intervention focusing on reinforcement of motivation and treatment adherence, nalmefene significantly reduced the number of heavy drinking days and mean daily total alcohol consumption versus placebo. This reduction was more marked in the marketing authorization target population, ie, patients with a high or very high drinking risk level according to World Health Organization criteria. Another original feature of this molecule is that it can be used as needed if the patient perceives a risk of drinking, which is a more flexible approach and more likely to ensure the patient's active involvement in the treatment of his/her disease. This molecule opens up interesting and original therapeutic prospects in the treatment of alcohol dependence.

  12. Alcohol-drinking history and fatal injury in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sorock, Gary S; Chen, Li-Hui; Gonzalgo, Sheila R; Baker, Susan P

    2006-11-01

    Although most clinical guidelines for older adults allow for one drink a day in persons without a history of alcoholism, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease, alcohol may contribute to fatal injury in the elderly. Using two national surveys, this case-control study determined the associations between drinking history and fatal injuries from falls, motor vehicle crashes and suicides. We performed a case-control study using 1,735 cases who died of falls, motor vehicle crashes, or suicides selected from the 1993 National Mortality Follow-Back Survey; controls (n=13,381) were a representative sample of the U.S. population from the 1992 National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. Cases and controls were restricted to ages 55 years and older. Having 12 or more drinks in the year before death or interview for the controls was used to assess alcohol-drinking history. The unadjusted relative odds for drinkers versus nondrinkers for falls, motor vehicle crashes, and suicides were 1.7, 1.7, and 1.6, respectively. Adjustment for age, gender, marital status, education, and working in the last year did not change these effect estimates, which all excluded the null value. Drinking increased the risk of suicide more for women than for men. Drinking history in older adults is associated about equally with an increased risk of fatal injury from falls, motor vehicle crashes, and suicides.

  13. Childhood Mental Ability and Adult Alcohol Intake and Alcohol Problems: The 1970 British Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Deary, Ian J.; Schoon, Ingrid; Emslie, Carol; Hunt, Kate; Gale, Catharine R.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the potential relation of mental ability test scores at age 10 years with alcohol problems and alcohol intake at age 30 years. Methods. We used data from a prospective observational study involving 8170 members of a birth cohort from Great Britain born in 1970. Data included mental ability scores at age 10 years and responses to inquiries about alcohol intake and problems at age 30 years. Results. After adjustment for potential mediating and confounding factors, cohort members with higher childhood mental ability scores had an increased prevalence of problem drinking in adulthood. This association was stronger among women (odds ratio [OR]1 SD increase in ability = 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16, 1.64) than men (OR1 SD increase in ability = 1.17; CI = 1.04, 1.28; P for interaction = .004). Childhood mental ability was also related to a higher average intake of alcohol and to drinking more frequently. Again, these gradients were stronger among women than among men. Conclusions. In this large-scale cohort study, higher childhood mental ability was related to alcohol problems and higher alcohol intake in adult life. These unexpected results warrant examination in other studies. PMID:18235070

  14. Discovering genes involved in alcohol dependence and other alcohol responses: role of animal models.

    PubMed

    Buck, Kari J; Milner, Lauren C; Denmark, Deaunne L; Grant, Seth G N; Kozell, Laura B

    2012-01-01

    The genetic determinants of alcoholism still are largely unknown, hindering effective treatment and prevention. Systematic approaches to gene discovery are critical if novel genes and mechanisms involved in alcohol dependence are to be identified. Although no animal model can duplicate all aspects of alcoholism in humans, robust animal models for specific alcohol-related traits, including physiological alcohol dependence and associated withdrawal, have been invaluable resources. Using a variety of genetic animal models, the identification of regions of chromosomal DNA that contain a gene or genes which affect a complex phenotype (i.e., quantitative trait loci [QTLs]) has allowed unbiased searches for candidate genes. Several QTLs with large effects on alcohol withdrawal severity in mice have been detected, and fine mapping of these QTLs has placed them in small intervals on mouse chromosomes 1 and 4 (which correspond to certain regions on human chromosomes 1 and 9). Subsequent work led to the identification of underlying quantitative trait genes (QTGs) (e.g., Mpdz) and high-quality QTG candidates (e.g., Kcnj9 and genes involved in mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress) and their plausible mechanisms of action. Human association studies provide supporting evidence that these QTLs and QTGs may be directly relevant to alcohol risk factors in clinical populations.

  15. [Personality variables, psychopathological alterations and personality disorders in alcohol-dependent patients according to Cloninger's typology of alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; Bravo de Medina, Ricardo; Aizpiri, Javier

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, an evaluation of Cloninger's typology of alcohol abuse in personality, psychopathology and personality disorders is carried out. The sample consisted of 158 alcoholics in treatment (56 Type I alcohol-dependent patients and 102 Type II alcohol-dependent patients). All subjects were assessed with diverse assessment tools related to personality (Impulsiveness Scale, Sensation Seeking Scale and STAI), psychopathology (SCL-90-R, BDI and Inadaptation Scale) and personality disorders (IPDE). The main findings were that Type II alcohol-dependent patients were more impulsive and sensation-seeking and they displayed more hostility and emotional distress than Type I alcohol-dependent patients. Personality disorders were not so prevalent in the case of Type I alcohol-dependent patients. The most specific personality disorders for Type II alcohol-dependent patients were narcissistic and paranoid. The implications of this study for further research are commented on.

  16. Nicotinic receptor modulation to treat alcohol and drug dependence

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shafiqur; Engleman, Eric A.; Bell, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol and drug dependence are serious public health problems worldwide. The prevalence of alcohol and drug dependence in the United States and other parts of the world is significant. Given the limitations in the efficacy of current pharmacotherapies to treat these disorders, research in developing alternative pharmacotherapies continues. Preclinical and clinical evidence thus far has indicated that brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are important pharmacological targets for the development of medications to treat alcohol and drug dependence. The nAChRs are a super family of ligand gated ion channels, and are expressed throughout the brain with twelve neuronal nAChR subunits (α2–α10 and β2–β4) identified. Here, we review preclinical and clinical evidence involving a number of nAChR ligands that target different nAChR subtypes in alcohol and nicotine addiction. The important ligands include cytisine, lobeline, mecamylamine, varenicline, sazetidine A and others that target α4β2* nAChR subtypes as small molecule modulators of the brain nicotinic cholinergic system are also discussed. Taken together, both preclinical and clinical data exist that support nAChR–based ligands as promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of alcohol and drug dependence. PMID:25642160

  17. Alcohol binge drinking during adolescence or dependence during adulthood reduces prefrontal myelin in male rats.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Wanette M; Bengston, Lynn; Gilpin, Nicholas W; Whitcomb, Brian W; Richardson, Heather N

    2014-10-29

    Teen binge drinking is associated with low frontal white matter integrity and increased risk of alcoholism in adulthood. This neuropathology may result from alcohol exposure or reflect a pre-existing condition in people prone to addiction. Here we used rodent models with documented clinical relevance to adolescent binge drinking and alcoholism in humans to test whether alcohol damages myelinated axons of the prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 1, outbred male Wistar rats self-administered sweetened alcohol or sweetened water intermittently for 2 weeks during early adolescence. In adulthood, drinking behavior was tested under nondependent conditions or after dependence induced by 1 month of alcohol vapor intoxication/withdrawal cycles, and prefrontal myelin was examined 1 month into abstinence. Adolescent binge drinking or adult dependence induction reduced the size of the anterior branches of the corpus callosum, i.e., forceps minor (CCFM), and this neuropathology correlated with higher relapse-like drinking in adulthood. Degraded myelin basic protein in the gray matter medial to the CCFM of binge rats indicated myelin was damaged on axons in the mPFC. In follow-up studies we found that binge drinking reduced myelin density in the mPFC in adolescent rats (Experiment 2) and heavier drinking predicted worse performance on the T-maze working memory task in adulthood (Experiment 3). These findings establish a causal role of voluntary alcohol on myelin and give insight into specific prefrontal axons that are both sensitive to alcohol and could contribute to the behavioral and cognitive impairments associated with early onset drinking and alcoholism.

  18. [Degrees of alcoholic dependency in patient's self evaluation].

    PubMed

    Bidzan, L; Debski, L

    The study involved a group of 33 males with diagnosed alcohol abuse. A degree of the disease was determined according to Standard Anamnesis Sheet and Auxilliary Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (Woronowicz's Questionnaire). The patient's results were compared with their wives' results in order to determine trustworthiness. The goal of this study was to determine the factors influencing patient's critical assessment of their disease. The results reveal a relationship between patient's assessment and clinical manifestations of their dependence tend to underestimate the degree of their disease. PMID:8146056

  19. Central pontine myelinolysis in a case of alcohol dependence syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Kaushik; Fernandes, Austin B.; Goyal, Sunil; Shanker, Sunitha

    2015-01-01

    Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome includes Central Pontine Myelinolysis and Extrapontine Myelinolysis. This condition has been described in cases of chronic Alcohol Dependence Syndrome and in rapid correction of hyponatremia. Though we frequently see patients with Alcohol Dependence Syndrome presenting with complicated withdrawal, Central Pontine Myelinolysis remains largely undetected and under-reported in literature. We present here a case of protracted Delirium Tremens where MRI brain revealed Central Pontine Myelinolysis. Subsequently cognitive assessment revealed significant dysfunction and brain SPECT showed hypo-perfusion of the frontal lobes. Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome should be suspected in protracted Delirium Tremens. PMID:27212829

  20. Salivary alcohol dehydrogenase in non-smoking and smoking alcohol-dependent persons.

    PubMed

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Jelski, Wojciech; Zalewska, Anna; Szulc, Agata; Szmitkowski, Maciej; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2014-09-01

    Increasing attention to the importance of saliva testing is not surprising because smoking and alcohol drinking act synergistically on oral tissues, and their metabolite levels, e.g., acetaldehyde, are much higher in saliva than in blood. The activity of salivary alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) comes from oral microbiota, mucosa, and salivary glands. The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of ADH in the oral health pathology of smoking (AS) and non-smoking (ANS) alcohol-dependent males. The results indicated that the AS group had a more significant and longer duration (until the 30th day of alcohol abstinence) decrease in ADH activity and output than the ANS group (until the 15th day of alcohol abstinence) compared to controls (social drinkers; C). The decreased salivary flow (SF) in alcoholics was observed longer in the ANS group (until the 30th day of alcohol abstinence), whereas in the AS group SF normalized at the 15th day, probably due to the irritating effect of tobacco smoke on the oral mucosa. Because saliva was centrifuged to remove cells and debris (including microbial cells), the detected salivary ADH activity was derived from salivary glands and/or oral mucosa. A more profound and longer decrease in ADH activity/output in smoking than non-smoking alcoholics was likely due to the damaged salivary glands and/or oral mucosa, caused by the synergistic effect of alcohol drinking and smoking. The lower values of salivary ADH in smoking than non-smoking alcoholics might also be partly due to the reversed/inhibited ADH reaction by high levels of accumulated acetaldehyde.

  1. Positive Selection on Loci Associated with Drug and Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Brooke; Haller, Gabe; Edenberg, Howard; Tischfield, Jay; Brooks, Andy; Kramer, John; Schuckit, Marc; Nurnberger, John; Goate, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Much of the evolution of human behavior remains a mystery, including how certain disadvantageous behaviors are so prevalent. Nicotine addiction is one such phenotype. Several loci have been implicated in nicotine related phenotypes including the nicotinic receptor gene clusters (CHRNs) on chromosomes 8 and 15. Here we use 1000 Genomes sequence data from 3 populations (Africans, Asians and Europeans) to examine whether natural selection has occurred at these loci. We used Tajima’s D and the integrated haplotype score (iHS) to test for evidence of natural selection. Our results provide evidence for strong selection in the nicotinic receptor gene cluster on chromosome 8, previously found to be significantly associated with both nicotine and cocaine dependence, as well as evidence selection acting on the region containing the CHRNA5 nicotinic receptor gene on chromosome 15, that is genome wide significant for risk for nicotine dependence. To examine the possibility that this selection is related to memory and learning, we utilized genetic data from the Collaborative Studies on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) to test variants within these regions with three tests of memory and learning, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Block Design, WAIS Digit Symbol and WAIS Information tests. Of the 17 SNPs genotyped in COGA in this region, we find one significantly associated with WAIS digit symbol test results. This test captures aspects of reaction time and memory, suggesting that a phenotype relating to memory and learning may have been the driving force behind selection at these loci. This study could begin to explain why these seemingly deleterious SNPs are present at their current frequencies. PMID:26270548

  2. Adult Children of Alcoholics: Security, Avoidance and Ambivalence in Attachment to Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Mary E.

    Children of alcoholics are at risk for socioemotional and behavioral problems. Adult children of alcoholic parents (ACAs) are at risk for problems in interpersonal relationships. ACAs have been found to have decreased self-esteem and self-acceptance in comparison to adults whose parents are not alcoholic (NACAs). College students who were young…

  3. Personality traits and psychiatric comorbidities in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Donadon, M.F.; Osório, F.L.

    2015-01-01

    Non-adaptive personality traits may constitute risk factors for development of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. We aim to evaluate associations and the predictive value of personality traits among alcohol-dependent individuals, with or without psychiatric comorbidities. The convenience sample comprised two groups of males over 18 years of age: one with subjects who had an alcohol dependence diagnosis (AG, n=110), and a control group without abuse and/or alcohol dependence diagnosis (CG, n=110). The groups were assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview DSM-IV (SCID-IV). AG participants were recruited among outpatients from the university hospital, whereas CG participants were recruited from a primary healthcare program. Data collection was done individually with self-assessment instruments. Parametric statistics were performed, and a significance level of P=0.05 was adopted. A positive correlation was observed between openness and the length of time that alcohol has been consumed, as were significant and negative correlations between conscientiousness and both the length of time alcohol has been consumed and the number of doses. For alcoholics, extraversion emerged as a protective factor against depression development (P=0.008) and tobacco abuse (P=0.007), whereas openness worked as a protective factor against anxiety (P=0.02). The findings point to specific deficits presented by alcoholics in relation to personality traits with or without psychiatric comorbidities and to the understanding that therapeutic approaches should favor procedures and/or preventive measures that allow more refined awareness about the disorder. PMID:26628399

  4. Personality traits and psychiatric comorbidities in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Donadon, M F; Osório, F L

    2016-01-01

    Non-adaptive personality traits may constitute risk factors for development of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. We aim to evaluate associations and the predictive value of personality traits among alcohol-dependent individuals, with or without psychiatric comorbidities. The convenience sample comprised two groups of males over 18 years of age: one with subjects who had an alcohol dependence diagnosis (AG, n=110), and a control group without abuse and/or alcohol dependence diagnosis (CG, n=110). The groups were assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview DSM-IV (SCID-IV). AG participants were recruited among outpatients from the university hospital, whereas CG participants were recruited from a primary healthcare program. Data collection was done individually with self-assessment instruments. Parametric statistics were performed, and a significance level of P=0.05 was adopted. A positive correlation was observed between openness and the length of time that alcohol has been consumed, as were significant and negative correlations between conscientiousness and both the length of time alcohol has been consumed and the number of doses. For alcoholics, extraversion emerged as a protective factor against depression development (P=0.008) and tobacco abuse (P=0.007), whereas openness worked as a protective factor against anxiety (P=0.02). The findings point to specific deficits presented by alcoholics in relation to personality traits with or without psychiatric comorbidities and to the understanding that therapeutic approaches should favor procedures and/or preventive measures that allow more refined awareness about the disorder. PMID:26628399

  5. Rare ADH Variant Constellations are Specific for Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Lingjun; Zhang, Heping; Malison, Robert T.; Li, Chiang-Shan R.; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Fei; Lu, Lingeng; Lu, Lin; Wang, Xiaoping; Krystal, John H.; Zhang, Fengyu; Deng, Hong-Wen; Luo, Xingguang

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Some of the well-known functional alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene variants (e.g. ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3 and ADH1C*2) that significantly affect the risk of alcohol dependence are rare variants in most populations. In the present study, we comprehensively examined the associations between rare ADH variants [minor allele frequency (MAF) <0.05] and alcohol dependence, with several other neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders as reference. Methods: A total of 49,358 subjects in 22 independent cohorts with 11 different neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders were analyzed, including 3 cohorts with alcohol dependence. The entire ADH gene cluster (ADH7–ADH1C–ADH1B–ADH1A–ADH6–ADH4–ADH5 at Chr4) was imputed in all samples using the same reference panels that included whole-genome sequencing data. We stringently cleaned the phenotype and genotype data to obtain a total of 870 single nucleotide polymorphisms with 0< MAF <0.05 for association analysis. Results: We found that a rare variant constellation across the entire ADH gene cluster was significantly associated with alcohol dependence in European-Americans (Fp1: simulated global P = 0.045), European-Australians (Fp5: global P = 0.027; collapsing: P = 0.038) and African-Americans (Fp5: global P = 0.050; collapsing: P = 0.038), but not with any other neuropsychiatric disease. Association signals in this region came principally from ADH6, ADH7, ADH1B and ADH1C. In particular, a rare ADH6 variant constellation showed a replicable association with alcohol dependence across these three independent cohorts. No individual rare variants were statistically significantly associated with any disease examined after group- and region-wide correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusion: We conclude that rare ADH variants are specific for alcohol dependence. The ADH gene cluster may harbor a causal variant(s) for alcohol dependence. PMID:23019235

  6. Pharmacoprophylaxis of alcohol dependence: Review and update Part I: Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Bhateja, Gaurav; Basu, Debasish

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a major problem in India. The pharmacological armamentarium for relapse prevention of alcohol has widened with the addition of new drugs. In this article, we review the pharmacology and efficacy of the four most important such drugs: disulfiram, naltrexone, acamprosate and topiramate. The first part of this two-part review series concerns the comparative pharmacology and the second part concerns the efficacy studies. Overall, all four of these drugs have modest but clinically significant usefulness as pharmacoprophylactic agents for relapse prevention or minimization of alcohol dependence. Combinations might be helpful, especially for naltrexone and acamprosate. The issue of supervision and compliance remains important, especially for such drugs as disulfiram and naltrexone. Topiramate is a promising new agent and requires further study. Disulfiram, while very effective in compliant patients, presents challenges in terms of patient selection and side effects. For patients with hepatic impairment, acamprosate is a good choice. PMID:20640061

  7. Baclofen for alcohol dependence: Relationships between baclofen and alcohol dosing and the occurrence of major sedation.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Benjamin; Labreuche, Julien; Duhamel, Alain; Deheul, Sylvie; Gautier, Sophie; Auffret, Marine; Pignon, Baptiste; Valin, Thomas; Bordet, Régis; Cottencin, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    High-dose baclofen, i.e., 300 mg/d or more, has recently emerged as a strategy for treating alcohol dependence. The impact that the co-exposure of large amounts of alcohol and baclofen has on sedation is unclear. In a prospective cohort of 253 subjects with alcohol dependence, we collected daily alcohol and baclofen doses across the first year of baclofen treatment and the monthly maximum subjective sedation experienced by each patient (0-10 visual analog scale). For each patient-month, we determined the average weekly alcohol consumption (AWAC; standard-drinks/week) and the maximum daily dose of baclofen (DDB; mg/d). The occurrence of an episode of major sedation (EMS) during a patient-month was defined as a sedation score ≥7. The relationship between the EMS occurrence and the concurrent AWAC and DDB was investigated using a generalized estimating equation model. In total, 1528 patient-months were compiled (70 with an EMS). Univariate analyses demonstrated that the rate of patient-month to EMS increased gradually with AWAC (p<0.001), from 0.9% for AWAC=0 to 9.4% for AWAC >35. There was also a significant gradual risk for EMS associated with DDB (<0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant interaction between DDB and AWAC on EMS risk (p=0.047). Each 20mg/d increase in DDB was associated with an OR of EMS in AWAC >35 of 1.22 (95%CI, 1.08-1.38) versus 1.11 (95%CI, 0.96-1.29) in AWAC=1-35, and 0.95 (95%CI, 0.76-1.19) in AWAC=0. The level of sedation observed in patients using baclofen for alcohol dependence appears to directly depend on the immediate doses of both the baclofen and the alcohol.

  8. IMPULSIVE SUICIDE ATTEMPTS PREDICT POST-TREATMENT RELAPSE IN ALCOHOL DEPENDENT PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Wojnar, Marcin; Ilgen, Mark A.; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Wnorowska, Anna; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Brower, Kirk J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to examine the influence of suicidality on relapse in alcohol-dependent patients. Specifically, a lifetime suicide attempt at baseline was used to predict relapse in the year after treatment. Also, the unique contribution of impulsive suicide attempts was examined. Methods A total of 154 patients with alcohol dependence, consecutively admitted to four addiction treatment facilities in Warsaw, Poland participated in the study. Of the 154 eligible patients, 118 (76.6%) completed a standardized follow-up assessment at 12 months. Results Previous suicide attempts were common in adults treated for alcohol dependence with 43% patients in the present sample reporting an attempt at some point during their lifetime. Additionally, more than 62% of those with a lifetime suicide attempt reported making an impulsive attempt. Lifetime suicide attempts were not associated with post-treatment relapse (chi-square=2.37, df=1, p=0.124). However, impulsive suicide attempts strongly predicted relapse (OR=2.81, 95%C.I. = 1.13–6.95, p=0.026) and time to relapse (OR=2.10, 95% C.I. = 1.18–3.74, p=0.012) even after adjusting for other measures of baseline psychopathology, depression, impulsivity, hopelessness and alcohol use severity. Conclusions This study is the first to document the relationship between pre-treatment impulsive suicide attempts and higher likelihood of post-treatment relapse in alcohol-dependent patents. Clinicians should routinely conduct an assessment for previous suicide attempts in patients with alcohol use disorders, and when impulsive suicidality is reported, they should recognize the increased risk for relapse and formulate their patients' treatment plans accordingly with the goals of reducing both alcoholic relapse and suicide rates. PMID:18556146

  9. Characteristics of heart rate variability in alcohol-dependent subjects and nondependent chronic alcohol users.

    PubMed

    Karpyak, Victor M; Romanowicz, Magdalena; Schmidt, John E; Lewis, Kriste A; Bostwick, John M

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is an objective and sensitive measure of integrated physiological functioning reflective of heart rhythm responsivity to internal and external demands. Reduced HRV is associated with vulnerability to stress and deterioration of medical and/or psychiatric conditions, while increased HRV is associated with a favorable treatment response and recovery from various medical and/or psychiatric conditions. Our previous review found that acute alcohol consumption caused decreased parasympathetic and increased sympathetic HRV effects in both nonalcoholic and chronic alcohol users. This review investigates the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on HRV in alcohol-dependent subjects and nondependent users. MEDLINE, Scopus, and PubMed were searched for human experimental and clinical trials that measured the effects of chronic alcohol use on HRV. Only publications that included a description of their study designs and clearly stated methodologies for data collections, and outcome measures were reviewed. We have reviewed a total of 24 articles. In nondependent users, low dose (approximating the recommended daily amount of 1 standard drink in women and 2 in men) use is associated with increased HRV parameters compared to those who drink less frequently or abstain altogether. A further increase in consumption is associated with decreased HRV compared to both abstainers and more moderate drinkers. HRV changes during withdrawal generally follow the same negative direction but are more complex and less understood. In dependent subjects, an improvement in HRV was seen following abstinence but remained reduced compared to nonalcoholic controls. This review demonstrates that HRV changes associated with chronic use follow a J-shaped curve. It supports recommendations that limit daily alcohol intake to no more than 2 drinks for men and 1 drink for women. Future studies should investigate HRV as a biomarker of alcoholism development and treatment response as

  10. Neuropeptide Y Opposes Alcohol Effects on GABA Release in Amygdala and Blocks the Transition to Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Misra, Kaushik; Herman, Melissa A.; Cruz, Maureen T.; Koob, George F.; Roberto, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    Background During the transition to alcohol and drug addiction, neuromodulator systems in the extended amygdala are recruited to mediate aspects of withdrawal and relapse via convergence on inhibitory GABA neurons in central amygdala (CeA). Methods This study investigated the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in excessive alcohol drinking by making rats dependent on alcohol via alcohol vapor inhalation. This study also utilized intracellular and whole-cell recording techniques to determine the effects of NPY on GABAergic inhibitory transmission in CeA, synaptic mechanisms involved in these NPY effects, and NPY interactions with alcohol in the CeA of alcohol-naïve and alcohol-dependent rats. Results Chronic NPY treatment blocked excessive operant alcohol-reinforced responding associated with alcohol dependence, as well as gradual increases in alcohol responding by intermittently tested non-dependent controls. NPY decreased baseline GABAergic transmission and reversed alcohol-induced enhancement of inhibitory transmission in CeA by suppressing GABA release via actions at presynaptic Y2 receptors. Conclusions These results highlight NPY modulation of GABAergic signaling in central amygdala as a promising pharmacotheraputic target for the treatment of alcoholism. GABA neurons in the CeA likely constitute a major point of convergence for neuromodulator systems recruited during the transition to alcohol dependence. PMID:21459365

  11. Depression, Alcohol Dependence and Abuse, and Drinking and Driving Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ye; Sloan, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence/abuse and depression are positively related. Prior studies focused on relationships between drinking and driving and alcohol dependence/abuse, drinking and driving and problem drinking, or drinking and driving and depression separately. No study has addressed how depression is linked to drinking and driving through various underlying channels in the same study. Methods This study investigated relationships between depression, alcohol dependence/abuse, and the number of self-reported drinking and driving episodes. We also explored underlying behavioral channels between depression and alcohol dependence/abuse and binge drinking, reducing drinking amounts when planning to drive, and use of designated drivers. Data on 1,634 drinkers came from a survey fielded in eight U.S. cities. We employed ordinary least squares regression (OLS) and path analysis to assess drinking and driving and underlying channels. Results With OLS, being depressed increased the number of drinking and driving episodes during the past year by 0.572. This increase decreased to 0.411 episodes/year increase after adding socio-demographic characteristics and household income and lost statistical significance after controlling for alcohol dependence/abuse. The path analysis showed that depression is positively associated with drinking and driving, indirectly operating through not using a designated driver, but is not directly associated with drinking and driving. Alcohol dependence/abuse is directly associated with drinking and driving, and indirectly with drinking and driving through binge drinking. Conclusion Our results suggest that treatment should focus on helping individuals with depression to obtain assistance from others, such as obtaining a designated driver. Since self-control of drinking in anticipation of driving did not significantly reduce drinking and driving episodes, this study finds no empirical support for emphasizing improved self-control when the

  12. Alcohol-Specific Coping Styles of Adult Children of Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders and Associations with Psychosocial Functioning.

    PubMed

    Drapkin, Michelle L; Eddie, David; Buffington, Angela J; McCrady, Barbara S

    2015-07-01

    Parental alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been conceptualized as a chronic stressor that can lead to deleterious long-term outcomes in children of individuals with AUDs. Yet, while many individuals are detrimentally affected by their parents' problematic alcohol use, and go on to manifest psychological problems, others do not. How individuals cope with the stress of having a parent with an AUD is believed to be an important moderator of this differential outcome. This study assessed whether individuals' alcohol-specific coping styles predicted alcohol use, positive or negative life events, and depression, using a sample of 465 college students, of whom 20% were adult children of individuals with alcohol use disorders, colloquially known as adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs), and a battery of well-validated, self-report measures. Participant ACOAs reported less 'engaged' and 'total' alcohol-specific coping strategies and more 'withdrawal' alcohol-specific coping strategies than their non adult children of alcoholics (NACOAs) counterparts. Across participants, women reported more 'engaged', 'tolerant/inactive', and 'total' coping than men. Although ACOAs reported significantly more negative life events, which predicted more passive coping styles, they did not differ significantly from NACOAs on measures of problematic alcohol use or depression, supporting theories of resilience in ACOAs regardless of their alcohol-specific coping styles. For NACOAs, 'tolerant' coping predicted greater depression and alcohol-related problems; 'engaged' coping predicted fewer alcohol problems. Results suggest that ACOAs cope differently with problematic alcohol use among relatives and friends compared with NACOAs and are more likely to experience negative life events. Additionally, alcohol-related coping strategies have more predictive utility in NACOAs than ACOAs. PMID:25802055

  13. A History of Alcohol Dependence Augments HIV-associated Neurocognitive Deficits in Persons Aged 60 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Gongvatana, Assawin; Morgan, Erin E.; Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Letendre, Scott L.; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol use is common among people living with HIV. Given the growing prevalence of older HIV+ adults, and observations indicating higher risk for neurocognitive impairment in older adults with either HIV infection or alcoholism, an increased understanding of their combined impact in the context of this increasingly aged population is crucial. Methods We conducted comprehensive neurocognitive assessment in 112 older HIV+ individuals aged 50 to 69 years. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the interaction between age and the presence of lifetime alcohol dependence on neurocognitive measures, controlling for years of education, hepatitis C serostatus, and lifetime non-alcohol substance use disorder. Results Significant interactions of age and alcohol dependence history were found for global neurocognitive function, which was driven by the domains of executive function, processing speed, and semantic memory. Follow-up analyses indicated adverse effects of alcohol use history on neurocognitive measures that were evident only in HIV+ individuals 60 years and older. Conclusions While mounting evidence in younger cohorts indicates adverse synergistic HIV/alcohol effects on neurocognitive function, our novel preliminary findings in this elderly HIV+ cohort demonstrated the importance of even a relatively distant alcohol use history on the expression of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders that may not become apparent until much later in life. PMID:25201556

  14. Examination of genetic variation in GABRA2 with conduct disorder and alcohol abuse and dependence in a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Melroy, Whitney E.; Stephens, Sarah H.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Kamens, Helen M.; McQueen, Matthew B.; Corley, Robin P.; Stallings, Michael C.; Hopfer, Christian J.; Krauter, Kenneth S.; Brown, Sandra A.; Hewitt, John K.; Ehringer, Marissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown associations between SNPs in GABRA2 and adolescent conduct disorder (CD) and alcohol dependence in adulthood, but not adolescent alcohol dependence. The present study was intended as a replication and extension of this work, focusing on adolescent CD, adolescent alcohol abuse and dependence (AAD), and adult AAD. Family based association tests were run using Hispanics and non-Hispanic European American subjects from two independent longitudinal samples. Although the analysis provided nominal support for an association with rs9291283 and AAD in adulthood and CD in adolescence, the current study failed to replicate previous associations between two well replicated GABRA2 NPs and CD and alcohol dependence. Overall, these results emphasize the utility of including an independent replication sample in the study design, so that the results from an individual sample can be weighted in the context of its reproducibility. PMID:24687270

  15. Sexual Dysfunction in Patients with Alcohol and Opioid Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Mattoo, Surendra K.; Pendharkar, Shreyas; Kandappan, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    There are limited numbers of studies which have evaluated the sexual dysfunction (SD) in patients with alcohol and opioids dependence. This article reviews the existing literature. Electronic searches were carried out using the PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect to locate the relevant literature. Subjects addicted to heroin or on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) or buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT) show higher rates of SD in comparison to the general population. SD rates have ranged 34-85% for heroin addicts, 14-81% for MMT, 36-83% for BMT, and 90% for naltrexone maintenance. The rates of SD in alcohol-dependent population have ranged 40-95.2%, with rates being consistently much higher in alcohol-dependent population than in the healthy controls or social drinkers. The common SDs reported have been erectile dysfunction followed by premature ejaculation, retarded ejaculation and decreased sexual desire among men, and dyspareunia and vaginal dryness among women. This review suggests that long-term use of alcohol and opioids are associated with SD in almost all domains of sexual functioning. There is a need to increase the awareness of clinicians about this association as many times SD in patients with substance abuse lead to poor treatment compliance and relapse. Further, there is a need to carry out more number of studies to understand the relationship in a better way. PMID:25336765

  16. The contribution of emotional maltreatment to alcohol dependence in a treatment-seeking sample.

    PubMed

    Potthast, Nadine; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    Studies reporting a link between child maltreatment and addiction have typically focused on physical and sexual abuse. In contrast, emotional maltreatment has rarely been studied in substance-abusing samples although it is associated with a wide range of dysfunction. The current study aimed to determine the specific impact of different types of maltreatment and peer victimization on alcohol dependence and to examine the potentially mediating role of psychopathology. A sample of treatment seeking adults with alcohol dependence (N=72) underwent an extensive clinical examination including both a standardized interview and self-report measures. Child maltreatment, peer victimization, severity of alcohol dependence, and general psychopathology were assessed. Regression analyses revealed that emotional maltreatment was the strongest predictor of alcohol dependence severity whereas a unique contribution of peer victimization was not found. Our findings suggest that emotional maltreatment might have a major role in the etiology of AD that seems to exceed the contribution of other abuse and victimization experiences. Thereby, the study underscores the need for considering child maltreatment experiences in the prevention and treatment of AD. PMID:24561015

  17. [Cognitive impairments in alcohol dependence: From screening to treatment improvements].

    PubMed

    Cabé, N; Laniepce, A; Ritz, L; Lannuzel, C; Boudehent, C; Vabret, F; Eustache, F; Beaunieux, H; Pitel, A-L

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol-related cognitive impairments are largely underestimated in clinical practice, even though they could limit the benefit of alcohol treatment and hamper the patient's ability to remain abstinent or to respect his/her therapeutic contract. These neuropsychological deficits can impact the management of patients well before the development of the well-known Korsakoff's syndrome. Indeed, even in the absence of ostensible neurological complications, excessive and chronic alcohol consumption results in damage of brain structure and function. The frontocerebellar circuit and the circuit of Papez, respectively involved in motor and executive abilities and episodic memory, are mainly affected. Those brain dysfunctions are associated with neuropsychological deficits, including deficits of executive functions, episodic memory, social cognition, as well as visuospatial and motor abilities. Such cognitive disorders can interfere with the motivation process to abandon maladjusted drinking behavior in favor of a healthier lifestyle (such as abstinence or controlled alcohol consumption). They can also limit the patient's capacity to fully benefit from treatment (notably psychoeducation and cognitive-behavioural treatments) currently widely proposed in French Addiction departments. In addition, they may contribute to relapse which is multi-determinated. A neuropsychological assessment appears therefore crucial to take relevant clinical decisions. However, very few addiction departments have the human and financial resources to conduct an extensive neuropsychological examination of all patients with alcohol dependence. Some brief screening tools can be used, notably the MOntreal Cognitive Assessment and the Brief Evaluation of Alcohol-Related Neuropsychological Impairments, which has been especially designed to assess cognitive and motor deficits in alcoholism. These tools can be used by non-psychologist clinicians to detect alcohol-related cognitive deficits, which require

  18. Deconstructing the Alcohol Harm Paradox: A Population Based Survey of Adults in England

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Emma; Brown, Jamie; West, Robert; Angus, Colin; Brennan, Alan; Holmes, John; Kaner, Eileen; Meier, Petra; Michie, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background The Alcohol Harm Paradox refers to observations that lower socioeconomic status (SES) groups consume less alcohol but experience more alcohol-related problems. However, SES is a complex concept and its observed relationship to social problems often depends on how it is measured and the demographic groups studied. Thus this study assessed socioeconomic patterning of alcohol consumption and related harm using multiple measures of SES and examined moderation of this patterning by gender and age. Method Data were used from the Alcohol Toolkit Study between March and September 2015 on 31,878 adults (16+) living in England. Participants completed the AUDIT which includes alcohol consumption, harm and dependence modules. SES was measured via qualifications, employment, home and car ownership, income and social-grade, plus a composite of these measures. The composite score was coded such that higher scores reflected greater social-disadvantage. Results We observed the Alcohol Harm Paradox for the composite SES measure, with a linear negative relationship between SES and AUDIT-Consumption scores (β = -0.036, p<0.001) and a positive relationship between lower SES and AUDIT-Harm (β = 0.022, p<0.001) and AUDIT-Dependence (β = 0.024, p<0.001) scores. Individual measures of SES displayed different, and non-linear, relationships with AUDIT modules. For example, social-grade and income had a u-shaped relationship with AUDIT-Consumption scores while education had an inverse u-shaped relationship. Almost all measures displayed an exponential relationship with AUDIT-Dependence and AUDIT-Harm scores. We identified moderating effects from age and gender, with AUDIT-Dependence scores increasing more steeply with lower SES in men and both AUDIT-Harm and AUDIT-Dependence scores increasing more steeply with lower SES in younger age groups. Conclusion Different SES measures appear to influence whether the Alcohol Harm Paradox is observed as a linear trend across SES groups or

  19. Operant alcohol self-administration in dependent rats: focus on the vapor model.

    PubMed

    Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Roberts, Amanda J

    2014-05-01

    Alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is characterized by a compulsion to seek and ingest alcohol (ethanol), loss of control over intake, and the emergence of a negative emotional state during withdrawal. Animal models are critical in promoting our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying alcohol dependence. Here, we review the studies involving operant alcohol self-administration in rat models of alcohol dependence and withdrawal with the focus on the alcohol vapor model. In 1996, the first articles were published reporting that rats made dependent on alcohol by exposure to alcohol vapors displayed increased operant alcohol self-administration during acute withdrawal compared with nondependent rats (i.e., not exposed to alcohol vapors). Since then, it has been repeatedly demonstrated that this model reliably produces physical and motivational symptoms of alcohol dependence. The functional roles of various systems implicated in stress and reward, including opioids, dopamine, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), glucocorticoids, neuropeptide Y (NPY), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), norepinephrine, and cannabinoids, have been investigated in the context of alcohol dependence. The combination of models of alcohol withdrawal and dependence with operant self-administration constitutes an excellent tool to investigate the neurobiology of alcoholism. In fact, this work has helped lay the groundwork for several ongoing clinical trials for alcohol dependence. Advantages and limitations of this model are discussed, with an emphasis on what future directions of great importance could be. PMID:24290310

  20. Beer promotes high levels of alcohol intake in adolescent and adult alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Garth A; Wang, Emyo Y J; Lawrence, Andrew J; McGregor, Iain S

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that high levels of alcohol consumption can be obtained in laboratory rats by using beer as a test solution. The present study extended these observations to examine the intake of beer and equivalent dilute ethanol solutions with an inbred line of alcohol-preferring P rats. In Experiment 1, male adolescent P rats and age-matched Wistar rats had access to either beer or equivalent ethanol solutions for 1h daily in a custom-built lickometer apparatus. In subsequent experiments, adolescent (Experiment 2) and adult (Experiment 3) male P rats were given continuous 24-h home cage access to beer or dilute ethanol solutions, with concomitant access to lab chow and water. In each experiment, the alcohol content of the beer and dilute ethanol solutions was gradually increased from 0.4, 1.4, 2.4, 3.4, 4.4, 5 to 10% EtOH (vol/vol). All three experiments showed a major augmentation of alcohol intake when rats were given beer compared with equivalent ethanol solutions. In Experiment 1, the overall intake of beer was higher in P rats compared with Wistar rats, but no strain difference was found during the 1-h sessions with plain ethanol consumption. Experiment 1 also showed that an alcohol deprivation effect was more readily obtained in rats with a history of consuming beer rather than plain ethanol solutions. In Experiments 2 and 3, voluntary beer intake in P rats represented ethanol intake of 10-15 g/kg/day, among the highest reported in any study with rats. This excessive consumption was most apparent in adolescent rats. Beer consumption markedly exceeded plain ethanol intake in these experiments except at the highest alcohol concentration (10%) tested. The advantage of using beer rather than dilute ethanol solutions in both selected and nonselected rat strains is therefore confirmed. Our findings encourage the use of beer with alcohol-preferring rats in future research that seeks to obtain high levels of alcohol self-administration.

  1. Alcohol and drug misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans.

    PubMed

    Hoggatt, Katherine J; Jamison, Andrea L; Lehavot, Keren; Cucciare, Michael A; Timko, Christine; Simpson, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug misuse or diagnosed alcohol or drug use disorders. Rates ranged from 4% to 37% for alcohol misuse and from 7% to 25% for binge drinking; among Veterans Health Administration (VA) health-care system outpatients, rates ranged from 3% to 16% for substance use disorder. Studies comparing women veterans and civilians reported no clear differences in binge or heavy drinking. Substance misuse rates were generally lower among women veterans than men veterans. Substance misuse was associated with higher rates of trauma, psychiatric and medical conditions, and increased mortality and suicide rates. Most studies included only VA patients, and many used only VA medical record data; therefore, the reported substance misuse rates likely do not reflect true prevalence. Rates also varied by assessment method, source of data, and the subgroups studied. Further efforts to develop epidemiologically valid prevalence estimates are needed to capture the true health burden of substance misuse in women veterans, particularly those not using VA care.

  2. Alcohol and drug misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans.

    PubMed

    Hoggatt, Katherine J; Jamison, Andrea L; Lehavot, Keren; Cucciare, Michael A; Timko, Christine; Simpson, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug misuse or diagnosed alcohol or drug use disorders. Rates ranged from 4% to 37% for alcohol misuse and from 7% to 25% for binge drinking; among Veterans Health Administration (VA) health-care system outpatients, rates ranged from 3% to 16% for substance use disorder. Studies comparing women veterans and civilians reported no clear differences in binge or heavy drinking. Substance misuse rates were generally lower among women veterans than men veterans. Substance misuse was associated with higher rates of trauma, psychiatric and medical conditions, and increased mortality and suicide rates. Most studies included only VA patients, and many used only VA medical record data; therefore, the reported substance misuse rates likely do not reflect true prevalence. Rates also varied by assessment method, source of data, and the subgroups studied. Further efforts to develop epidemiologically valid prevalence estimates are needed to capture the true health burden of substance misuse in women veterans, particularly those not using VA care. PMID:25608962

  3. Literacy-Based Supports for Young Adults with FAS/FAE [Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Margaret; Belanger, Joe

    During a 1-year period, a study investigated the contributions made by 3 literacy-based supports (support circles, cognitive compensatory tools, and cognitive enhancement tools) to the lives of 5 young adults, aged 16-34, with FAS/FAE (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects). Four of the five subjects had IQs (intelligence quotients) above…

  4. Coping behavior and depressive symptoms in adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Klostermann, Keith; Chen, Rui; Kelley, Michelle L; Schroeder, Valarie M; Braitman, Abby L; Mignone, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined whether adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) would report more depressive mood symptoms as compared to non-ACOAs, whether coping behaviors differed as a function of ACOA status, and whether specific coping behaviors were related to depressive mood symptoms in ACOAs. Participants were 136 college students categorized as ACOAs and 436 college students categorized as non-ACOAs as determined by scores on the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST; J.W.Jones, 1983 The children of alcoholics screening test: test manual. Chicago: Camelot). As compared to non-ACOAs, ACOAs reported significantly more symptoms of depressive mood as measured by the Profile of Mood States (POMS; McNair, Lorr, and Droppleman, 1992 POMS manual: profile of mood states. San Diego, CA: Edits). On the COPE Inventory (Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub, 1989 Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56:267-283), ACOAs reported higher use of the following coping strategies: Behavior Disengagement, Denial, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Humor, and Substance Use. For both the ACOA and non-ACOA groups, the use of Positive Reinterpretation and Growth and the use of Planning were significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms, whereas Mental Disengagement, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Denial, Behavior Disengagement, Substance Use, and Suppression of Competing Activities were associated with higher depressive mood scores. PMID:21449712

  5. Testing Hypothesized Differences between Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs) and Non-ACOAs in a College Student Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Amy L.; Perera-Diltz, Dilani M.; Salyers, Kathleen M.; Laux, John M.; Cochrane, Wendy S.

    2007-01-01

    The authors compared college adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and non-ACOAs using the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 (F.G. Miller, 1999).The results failed to support the hypothesis that ACOAs have higher rates of substance dependence, defensiveness, and codependency than do non-ACOAs. Practical implications are offered for…

  6. Patterns of alcohol dependence in Thai drinkers: a differential item functioning analysis of gender and age bias.

    PubMed

    Srisurapanont, Manit; Kittiratanapaiboon, Phunnapa; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Kongsuk, Thoranin; Suttajit, Sirijit; Junsirimongkol, Boonsiri

    2012-02-01

    In Caucasians, the patterns of alcohol use disorders in women and adolescents are likely to be different from those in men and adults, respectively. The authors examined these differences in a Southeast Asian sample of Thai people living in communities. A two-parameter logistic model of the IRT log-likelihood-ratio (IRTLR) test for differential item functioning (DIF) procedure was used. Participants were a subsample of 3718 current drinkers participating in the 2008 Thai National Mental Health Survey (n=17,140). The 1-year prevalence rates of alcohol dependence were 1.4% in women and 13.7% in men. Based on the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), alcohol dependence and abuse module, all current drinkers were interviewed for a yes/no response to each of seven alcohol dependence criteria. Confirmatory factor analysis suggested a single-factor model of alcohol dependence criteria (χ2=211.51, RMSEA=0.06, SRMR=0.03 and CFI=0.96). Compared with 3174 men, 544 women had a significantly higher threshold estimate for quit/control problems and a lower threshold value for drinking despite physical/mental problems (b parameter difference of 0.25 and -0.30, respectively). Thai adolescents (n=272) and Thai adults (n=3446) had no statistically significant DIF on any criterion. The criterion of time spent drinking had significantly high discrimination estimates in women, men, adolescent and adults (a parameters of 2.50, 2.08, 2.33 and 2.16, respectively). Gender bias on alcohol dependence criteria can be found in Thai drinkers. Time spent drinking may be the most useful criterion for discriminating the severity of alcohol dependence across age and gender groups of Thai drinkers.

  7. Alcohol-dependence syndrome: Postural challenge on heart rate variability

    PubMed Central

    Sucharita, S.; Pradeep, Johnson; Vincent, Anoop; Vaz, M.; Srinivasan, K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cardiac autonomic involvement in Alcohol-Dependence Syndrome (ADS) patients has been demonstrated using conventional autonomic tests. Resting heart rate variability (HRV) without normalization has also been reported. Aims: To evaluate cardiac autonomic changes with postural challenge using HRV in ADS and controls while controlling for confounding factors. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study involving 27 male subjects with ADS and age-matched healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Clinical assessments included Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry and Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire. Spectral measures of HRV while lying and with active standing were assessed. Results: There was an attenuated response in delta high-frequency (P=0.06) and delta low-frequency (P=0.04) power to standing in ADS subjects compared with controls. Conclusion: Patients with ADS appear to have attenuated cardiac vagal and sympathetic responses to standing. HRV with postural challenge may help earlier recognition of autonomic dysfunction in ADS. PMID:23226850

  8. Medicaid coverage of medications to treat alcohol and opioid dependence.

    PubMed

    Mark, Tami L; Lubran, Robert; McCance-Katz, Elinore F; Chalk, Mady; Richardson, John

    2015-08-01

    Substance use disorders affect 12% of Medicaid beneficiaries. The prescription drug epidemic and growing need for treatment of alcohol and opioid dependence have refocused states' attention on their provision of substance use disorder treatment services, including medications. This study characterized how Medicaid programs cover these treatment medications. Data were from 2013 Medicaid pharmacy documents, 2011 and 2012 Medicaid state drug utilization records, and a 2013 American Society of Addiction Medicine survey. Results showed that only 13 state Medicaid programs included all medications approved for alcohol and opioid dependence on their preferred drug lists. The most commonly excluded were extended-release naltrexone (19 programs), acamprosate (19 programs), and methadone (20 programs). For combined buprenorphine-naloxone, 48 Medicaid programs required prior authorization, and 11 programs used 1- to 3-year lifetime treatment limits. Given the chronic nature of substance use disorders and the overwhelming evidence supporting ongoing coverage for many of these medications, states may want to reexamine substance use disorder benefits.

  9. Relationships of impulsiveness and depressive symptoms in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Topolewska-Wochowska, Aleksandra; Serafin, Piotr; Sadowska-Mazuryk, Joanna; Pupek-Pyzioł, Julia; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    Background Depressive symptoms as well as high levels of impulsivity are subjects of special interest in alcohol dependence, as these factors are considered to influence the course of this disorder. However, until now mutual relationships between impulsivity and depression have not been investigated thoroughly in alcohol-dependent patients. Methods By means of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and stop-signal task, levels of impulsivity among 304 alcohol-dependent patients were measured. The stop-signal task was used as a manipulation-free method of estimating the level of behavioral impulsiveness, and the BIS-11 is a self report measure of global as well as cognitive impulsivity. Patients were also asked to complete the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hopelessness Scale (BHS). The results were analyzed in order to examine relationships between impulsiveness and depressive symptoms. Results Statistical analyses revealed significant associations between impulsiveness and severity of depressive symptoms. Individuals with higher scores on the BDI were more impulsive on the BIS-11, whereas patients with higher scores on the BHS were more impulsive on both the stop-signal task and BIS-11. The strongest correlations were found with the attention impulsivity subscale of BIS-11. Adjusting for other variables, a linear regression analysis revealed that cognitive impulsivity was the strongest predictor of depression severity. Limitations The main limitation of the study is a not fully representative sample, with exclusion of patients with active mood disorders Conclusions The results indicate a strong association between depressive symptoms and impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients, and suggest an important distinction between hopelessness and other depressive symptoms. PMID:22030134

  10. Parental alcoholism as a risk factor for DSM-IV-defined alcohol abuse and dependence in American women: the protective benefits of dyadic cohesion in marital communication.

    PubMed

    Jennison, K M; Johnson, K A

    2001-05-01

    Important trends in research over the past decade indicate that women are as greatly affected by familial alcoholism as are men. Although it is increasingly recognized that the adverse drinking outcomes predicted for adult children of alcoholics (COAs) are not inevitable, and only a small percentage develop alcohol dependence or grow up to be alcoholic, relatively little knowledge exists regarding moderating factors that reduce their vulnerability. This study identifies a multiple mediator latent structural model of the intergenerational transmission of risk for DSM-IV-assessed alcohol abuse and dependence among women COAs in adulthood. The effects of both parental alcoholism and family environment are estimated at three time points spanning 10 years across 5-year intervals (1984, 1989, and 1994) using data from a subsample of 4,449 women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Dyadic cohesion in marital communication (greater marital cohesion, harmony, and less verbal disagreement, discord, and conflict) is a proposed moderating factor that may operate in adulthood to lower the risk of female COAs developing alcohol abuse and dependence. Maximum likelihood standardized estimates of the effects of alcohol mediators measured over time indicate that direct parental effects for adverse outcomes decline when COAs are in their late 20s and early 30s. Indirect parental effects through environmental influences dramatically increase the risk of abuse and dependence among COAs at this time if they have one or more alcoholic siblings, especially an alcoholic sister. Dyadic cohesion and positive interpersonal communication patterns were found to moderate effectively the relationship that existed among parental alcoholism, environmental influences, and adverse alcohol consequences. COAs with satisfactory marital communication also evidenced higher levels of intimacy with their partners, perceived the division of housework to be fairer, shared more responsibilities

  11. The effects of US state income inequality and alcohol policies on symptoms of depression and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Claire; Liu, Xinhua; Diez Roux, Ana V; Link, Bruce G; Hasin, Deborah

    2004-02-01

    Mental health is likely to be influenced by contextual variables that emerge only at the level of the group. We studied the effect of two such group-level variables, within-state income inequality and alcohol tax policy, on symptoms of current depression and alcohol dependence in a US national sample, controlling for state-level and individual characteristics. A cross-sectional US national probability sample provided the individual-level data. State income data were obtained from the 1990 US census. The Gini coefficient (raw and adjusted) indicated income inequality. Outcome measures included current symptoms of depression and alcohol dependence. Controlling for individual-level variables and state median income, the odds of depressive symptoms was not positively associated with state income inequality. Controlling for individual-level variables, state median income and alcohol distribution method, a weak negative association between Gini and alcohol dependence was observed in women, but this association disappeared after additional adjustment for beer tax. No association was observed in men. Higher state beer tax was significantly associated with lower prevalence of alcohol dependence symptoms for both men and women. The results suggest that state income inequality does not increase the experience of alcohol dependence or depression symptoms. However, evidence was found for a protective effect of increased beer taxation against alcohol dependence symptoms, suggesting the need to further consider the impact of alcohol policies on alcohol use disorders.

  12. Gender differences in interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Sandra E; Degen, Bigna; Petitjean, Sylvie; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Walter, Marc

    2009-12-01

    Alcohol dependence is a heavy burden on patients, their families, and society. Epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol dependence will affect many individuals at some time in their lives, with men affected more frequently than women. Since alcohol-dependent patients often exhibit a lack of social skills and suffer from interpersonal problems, the aim of this study is to elucidate whether men and women experience the same interpersonal problems. Eighty-five alcohol-dependent patients (48 men; 37 women) after detoxification and 62 healthy controls (35 men; 27 women) were recruited. Interpersonal problems were measured with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64). Additionally, alcohol-dependent patients were interviewed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and were subtyped according to Lesch's Alcohol Typology (LAT). There were no significant gender differences in the AUDIT and LAT between alcohol-dependent men and women. Interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent men differed significantly in one out of eight dimensions from controls; alcohol-dependent men perceive themselves as colder than male controls. Alcohol-dependent women differed in four out of eight interpersonal dimensions from female controls. Alcohol-dependent women rated themselves as significantly more vindictive, more introverted, more overly accommodating and more intrusive than female controls. Results suggest that alcohol-dependent men and women suffer from different interpersonal problems and furthermore alcohol-dependent women perceive more interpersonal problems, whereas the severity of alcohol dependence did not differ between the groups. Our findings indicate that alcohol-dependent women may profit more from a gender-specific treatment approach aimed at improving treatment outcome than alcohol-dependent men.

  13. Attitudinal and Normative Predictors of Alcohol Use by Older Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuther, Tara L.; Higgins-D'Alessandro, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Examines a model of alcohol use based on the theory of planned behavior, and expectancy theory on the influence of parents and peers with older adolescents and young adults. Results suggest that, during adolescence, decisions to consume alcohol are rational, based on the consideration of the positive consequences of alcohol use; however, the…

  14. Identification and Evaluation of Communicator Style in Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harriman, Susan G.

    Noting that children growing up with an alcoholic parent often suffer from underdeveloped perceptual skills, unhealthy self-concepts, and low self-esteem, a study examined the impact of an alcoholic family environment on the ability of adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) to communicate interpersonally. The Communicator Style Measure (CSM) was…

  15. Incidental and Reflective Learning in the Workplace: An Action Science Study of Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Karen E.; And Others

    There are over 28 million children of alcoholics in the United States, 22 million of whom have now reached adulthood yet continue to experience emotional, mental, and physical effects of life in an alcoholic family. In the workplace, adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) have recently become acknowledged as a group who face special challenges. The…

  16. The Rise and Development of the Adult Children of Alcoholics Movement: Merging Three Theoretical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, David R.; Reeves, Edward B.

    Drinking behavior, from abstinence to alcoholism, has been explored from a wide range of intellectual positions, academic disciplines, and ideological stances. The Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs) movement is probably the most rapidly expanding enterprise in the alcoholism arena. Social movement theory seeks to describe, explain, and…

  17. PER3 Polymorphism and Insomnia Severity in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin; Sliwerska, Elzbieta; Armitage, Roseanne; Burmeister, Margit

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Insomnia is common, persistent, and associated with relapse in alcohol-dependent (AD) patients. Although the underlying mechanisms are mostly unstudied, AD patients have impaired circadian rhythms and sleep drive, which may be genetically influenced. A polymorphism in the PER3 gene (PER34/4, PER34/5, PER35/5) has previously been associated with circadian preference and sleep homeostasis, and the PER34/4genotype has been characterized by evening preference and decreased sleep drive. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of this polymorphism on insomnia severity in AD patients. We hypothesized that the PER3 polymorphism would be an independent predictor of insomnia severity with greatest severity observed in those with the PER34/4genotype. Design: Cross-sectional association of patient characteristics, genotype, and insomnia severity. Significant (P < 0.05) bivariate correlates were further analyzed by hierarchical, forced entry multiple linear regression. Setting: Alcohol treatment programs in Warsaw, Poland. Patients: Diagnosed with alcohol dependence (n = 285), according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition. Measurements and Results: Drinking frequency, mental and physical health status, childhood abuse, and PER3 genotype were independent predictors of insomnia severity, as measured by a 7-item subscale of the Sleep Disorders Questionnaire, explaining 28.9% of the variance. Addition of the genotype in the final step significantly increased the amount of variance explained by 1.1% (P = 0.027). Those with the PER34/4genotype had the greatest severity of insomnia symptoms. Conclusions: PER3 genotype contributed unique variance in predicting insomnia severity in AD patients. These results are consistent with genetically influenced impairment in sleep regulation mechanisms in AD patients with insomnia. Citation: Brower KJ; Wojnar M; Sliwerska E; Armitage R; Burmeister M. PER3 polymorphism and

  18. Spatial Learning Deficits in Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schandler, Steven L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated whether visuospatial deficits displayed by chronic alcoholics are present in persons at risk for alcoholism. Compared 17 social drinkers who were children of alcoholics and 17 who had no family alcoholism history. Visuospatial learning of children of alcoholics was significantly poorer than that of subjects with no family alcoholism…

  19. SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling regulates alcohol response behaviors in Caenorhabditis elegans and is associated with alcohol dependence in humans.

    PubMed

    Mathies, Laura D; Blackwell, GinaMari G; Austin, Makeda K; Edwards, Alexis C; Riley, Brien P; Davies, Andrew G; Bettinger, Jill C

    2015-03-10

    Alcohol abuse is a widespread and serious problem. Understanding the factors that influence the likelihood of abuse is important for the development of effective therapies. There are both genetic and environmental influences on the development of abuse, but it has been difficult to identify specific liability factors, in part because of both the complex genetic architecture of liability and the influences of environmental stimuli on the expression of that genetic liability. Epigenetic modification of gene expression can underlie both genetic and environmentally sensitive variation in expression, and epigenetic regulation has been implicated in the progression to addiction. Here, we identify a role for the switching defective/sucrose nonfermenting (SWI/SNF) chromatin-remodeling complex in regulating the behavioral response to alcohol in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that SWI/SNF components are required in adults for the normal behavioral response to ethanol and that different SWI/SNF complexes regulate different aspects of the acute response to ethanol. We showed that the SWI/SNF subunits SWSN-9 and SWSN-7 are required in neurons and muscle for the development of acute functional tolerance to ethanol. Examination of the members of the SWI/SNF complex for association with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence in a human population identified allelic variation in a member of the SWI/SNF complex, suggesting that variation in the regulation of SWI/SNF targets may influence the propensity to develop abuse disorders. Together, these data strongly implicate the chromatin remodeling associated with SWI/SNF complex members in the behavioral responses to alcohol across phyla.

  20. Examining a Brief Suicide Screening Tool in Older Adults Engaging in Risky Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Jessica D.; Braithwaite, Scott R.; Pfaff, Jon J.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol misuse increases risk of suicidal behavior in older adults. The Depressive Symptom Inventory-Suicidality Subscale (DSI-SS; Metalsky & Joiner, 1997) and its relation to suicide attempt history was examined to see if it differed for older adults as a function of their alcohol use. Structural equation modeling was used in a sample (N = 1,061)…

  1. Communications Strategies on Alcohol and Highway Safety. Volume I. Adults 18-55. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey Advertising, Inc., New York, NY.

    The first part of a two-part, two volume study deals with adults aged 18-55 and identifies target populations and communications strategies for encouraging personal action steps to prevent drunk driving. Fully 54% of adult Americans participate once a month in social or business situations where alcohol is served. They are termed Alcohol Related…

  2. Psychological Adjustment among Hispanic Adult Children of Alcoholics: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Marsha J.; Arbona, Consuelo

    1991-01-01

    Compares Hispanic adult children of alcoholics with Hispanic adult children of nonalcoholics on Diagnostic Inventory of Personality and Symptoms. Finds significantly higher scores in Somatoform Disorders and Psychological Factors Affecting Physical Conditions scales among children of alcoholics. Women displayed higher scores than men on Affective…

  3. Conditioned learning in alcohol dependence: implications for cue exposure treatment.

    PubMed

    Drummond, D C; Cooper, T; Glautier, S P

    1990-06-01

    A review of the literature pertinent to cue exposure treatment in alcohol dependence is presented. Psychological models of relapse, based on conditioning and social learning theories, are critically evaluated. In particular, attention is drawn to the potential implications for cue exposure research and treatment of an interaction between Pavlovian and operant conditioning, problems with the application of the concepts of arousal and craving and the importance of a systems model to understand physiological responses. It is concluded that no study has so far demonstrated a link between conditioned responses to alcohol-related cues and relapse, an assumption on which cue exposure treatment is based. Further, the evidence for the effectiveness of cue exposure as a treatment is lacking. Promising research directions are identified.

  4. Vitamin-Dependent Methionine Metabolism and Alcoholic Liver Disease1

    PubMed Central

    Halsted, Charles H.; Medici, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that ethanol-induced alterations in hepatic methionine metabolism play a central role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Because malnutrition is a universal clinical finding in this disease and hepatic methionine metabolism is dependent upon dietary folate and vitamins B-6 and B-12, ALD can be considered an induced nutritional disorder that is conditioned by alcohol abuse. The present review describes the etiologies of these 3 vitamin deficiencies in ALD and how they interact with chronic ethanol exposure to alter hepatic methionine metabolism. Subsequent sections focus on molecular mechanisms for the interactions of aberrant methionine metabolism with ethanol in the pathogenesis of ALD, in particular the role of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in regulating the epigenetic expressions of genes relevant to pathways of liver injury. The review will conclude with descriptions of studies on the efficacy of SAM in the treatment of ALD and with discussion of potentially fruitful future avenues of research. PMID:22332083

  5. Sex differences in alcohol consumption and alterations in nucleus accumbens endocannabinoid mRNA in alcohol-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Henricks, Angela M; Berger, Anthony L; Lugo, Janelle M; Baxter-Potter, Lydia N; Bieniasz, Kennedy V; Craft, Rebecca M; McLaughlin, Ryan J

    2016-10-29

    Chronic intermittent alcohol (CIA) exposure produces altered motivational states characterized by anxiety and escalated alcohol consumption during withdrawal. The endocannabinoid (ECB) system contributes to these symptoms, and sex differences in alcohol dependence, as well as bidirectional interactions between ECBs and gonadal hormones have been documented. Thus, we evaluated sex differences in alcohol consumption, anxiety-like behavior, and ECB mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of alcohol-dependent rats during acute withdrawal. Male rats exposed to six weeks of CIA showed escalated alcohol consumption during acute withdrawal and reductions in NAc N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPEPLD), DAG lipase alpha (DAGLα), and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) mRNA. Intact alcohol-dependent female rats also escalated their consumption, but notably, this effect was also present in non-dependent females. No differences in NAc ECB mRNA were observed between CIA- and air-exposed females during acute withdrawal. However, when these data were analyzed according to estrous stage, significant differences in NAPEPLD and MAGL mRNA expression emerged in the NAc of air-exposed control rats, which were absent in alcohol-dependent females. We subsequently measured alcohol consumption and NAc ECB mRNA in ovariectomized (OVX) females with or without estradiol (E2) replacement during withdrawal. Neither E2 nor CIA altered alcohol consumption in OVX females. However, E2 reduced both DAGLα and MAGL mRNA, suggesting that E2 may influence the biosynthesis and degradation of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the NAc. Collectively, these studies indicate sexual dimorphism in alcohol consumption in non-dependent rats and suggest that E2-mediated alterations in NAc ECB mRNA expression during withdrawal may be a mechanism by which sex differences in alcohol dependence emerge. PMID:27578612

  6. Hookah and Alcohol Use among Young Adult Hookah Smokers: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Soule, Eric K.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Curbow, Barbara A.; Moorhouse, Michael D.; Weiler, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Hookah tobacco smoking has grown steadily in popularity among young adults in the United States. Little attention has been given to the relationship between hookah smoking and another behavior that is common among young adultsalcohol use. The purpose of this study was to examine hookah and alcohol use among young adults. Methods Forty young adult hookah smokers (55% female) participated in focus group sessions on hookah use beliefs and a brief survey examining hookah and alcohol use including drinking alcohol before, during, or after smoking hookah. Results Quotes from the focus groups indicated that alcohol use may promote hookah use among individuals who have little or no hookah smoking experience. Alcohol use, binge drinking, and alcohol use before, during, and after hookah use were common among the participants regardless of legal drinking age status. Nearly half of the participants preferred to drink alcohol while smoking hookah due to the improved physical and social effects they associated with combining the 2 behaviors. Conclusions For some young adult hookah smokers, alcohol appears to enhance the hookah smoking experience and may play a role in hookah smoking initiation. Future research and interventions should address the association between hookah and alcohol use. PMID:26248176

  7. Alcohol consumption in older adults and Medicare costs.

    PubMed

    Mukamal, Kenneth J; Lumley, Thomas; Luepker, Russell V; Lapin, Pauline; Mittleman, Murray A; McBean, A Marshall; Crum, Rosa M; Siscovick, David S

    2006-01-01

    We determined the relationship of alcohol consumption and Medicare costs among 4,392 participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a longitudinal, population-based cohort study of adults age 65 or over in four U.S. communities. We assessed 5-year Parts A and B costs and self-reported intake of beer, wine, and liquor at baseline. Among both sexes, total costs were approximately $2,000 lower among consumers of > 1-6 drinks per week than abstainers. The lower costs associated with moderate drinking were most apparent among participants with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and for hospitalization costs for CVD among healthy participants. Former drinkers had the highest costs. PMID:17290648

  8. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): the association between birthplace, acculturation and alcohol abuse and dependence across Hispanic national groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Rodriguez, Lori A

    2009-01-01

    Hispanics are heterogeneous in national origin, evidenced by wide ranges of alcohol abuse and dependence rates across different Hispanic national groups. This paper examines associations between 12-month rates of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence with birthplace and acculturation. The 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey, using a multistage cluster sample design, interviewed 5224 adults (18+ years) in five selected U.S. metropolitan areas: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. Comprehensive data on drinking behavior were collected and the analyses include bivariate and multivariate regression techniques. Alcohol abuse and dependence rates were higher among U.S.-born Puerto Ricans and South/Central Americans compared to their foreign-born counterparts, while no such differences were found for Cuban and Mexican Americans. Overall, those with higher acculturation report higher rates of abuse and dependence (statistically significant only for abuse among Puerto Ricans). Risk factors for abuse include being male and being in the high acculturation group. Risk factors for dependence include being male, being Puerto Rican or Mexican American, having less than a college education, and being U.S.-born. Hispanics were found to share several common risk factors with the larger U.S. population for abuse and dependence, such as male gender, lower education, and lower income.

  9. Determination of the effects of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) 1B and ADH1C polymorphisms on alcohol dependence in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Ekin Ozgur; Kocak, Aytaç; Senol, Ender; Celik, Handan Ak; Coskunol, Hakan; Berdeli, Afig; Aydin, Hikmet Hakan

    2012-03-01

    Alcoholism is a complex genetically influenced disorder which refers to alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. There are controversial results on the role of gene polymorphisms in alcohol dependence in the literature. Differences in population groups and selective inclusion criteria for alcohol dependence may affect results. In this study, we investigated the role of ADH1B Arg48His (rs1229984) and, ADH1C Ile350Val (rs698) gene polymorphisms in Turkish population. 100 healthy volunteers and 75 patients who were admitted to Ege University Alcohol Dependence Unit enrolled in the study. We found significant increase both in ADH1B (Arg48His) polymorphism Arg allele and Arg/Arg genotype frequency in patients. No profound connection between alcohol dependence and ADH1C Ile350Val gene polymorphism was detected. Alcohol dependence is an important health problem that depends on many genetic and environmental factors but we think that it is possible to interpret genetic risk for developing early diagnostic methods and treatment strategies by comprehensive linkage and association studies.

  10. The community reinforcement approach with homeless alcohol-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Smith, J E; Meyers, R J; Delaney, H D

    1998-06-01

    Homeless alcohol-dependent individuals were randomly assigned to receive either a behavioral intervention (i.e., the Community Reinforcement Approach [CRA]) or the standard treatment (STD) at a large day shelter. Ninety-one men and 15 women participated. The majority of participants were White (64%), but both Hispanic (19%) and Native American (13%) individuals were represented as well. Overall, the decline in drinking levels from intake through follow-ups was significant. As predicted, CRA participants significantly outperformed STD group members on drinking measures across the 5 follow-ups, which ranged from 2 months to 1 year after intake. Both conditions showed marked improvement in employment and housing stability.

  11. Association of gene polymorphisms encoding dopaminergic system components and platelet MAO-B activity with alcohol dependence and alcohol dependence-related phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Nedic Erjavec, Gordana; Nenadic Sviglin, Korona; Nikolac Perkovic, Matea; Muck-Seler, Dorotea; Jovanovic, Tanja; Pivac, Nela

    2014-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the association of alcohol dependence and alcohol dependence-related phenotypes with platelet monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) activity, Val108/158Met of catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in the third exon of dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene, VNTR in the 3'-untranslated region of dopamine transporter (DAT) gene, -1021C/T of dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) and MAO-B intron 13 polymorphisms. The study included 1270 Caucasian men and women of Croatian origin: 690 patients with alcohol dependence and 580 healthy controls. Patients with alcohol dependence were subdivided according to the presence or absence of withdrawal symptoms, aggressive behavior, severity of alcohol dependence, delirium tremens, comorbid depression, suicidal behavior, lifetime suicide attempt and early/late onset of alcohol abuse. The results, corrected for multiple testing, revealed increased platelet MAO-B activity in patients with alcohol dependence, subdivided into those with or without alcohol-related liver diseases, compared to control subjects (P<0.001). In addition, we found an increased frequency of the COMT Met/Met genotype among suicidal (P=0.002) and patients who attempted suicide (P<0.001) and an increased frequency of COMT Val/Val genotype in patients with an early onset of alcohol dependence (P=0.004). This study provides data from a sample of ethnically homogeneous unrelated Caucasian subjects for future meta-analyses and suggests that the increased platelet MAO-B activity might be used as independent peripheral indicator of alcohol dependence, while COMT Val108/158Met polymorphism is associated with increased suicidality and early onset of alcohol dependence. PMID:25035107

  12. Medicaid coverage of medications to treat alcohol and opioid dependence.

    PubMed

    Mark, Tami L; Lubran, Robert; McCance-Katz, Elinore F; Chalk, Mady; Richardson, John

    2015-08-01

    Substance use disorders affect 12% of Medicaid beneficiaries. The prescription drug epidemic and growing need for treatment of alcohol and opioid dependence have refocused states' attention on their provision of substance use disorder treatment services, including medications. This study characterized how Medicaid programs cover these treatment medications. Data were from 2013 Medicaid pharmacy documents, 2011 and 2012 Medicaid state drug utilization records, and a 2013 American Society of Addiction Medicine survey. Results showed that only 13 state Medicaid programs included all medications approved for alcohol and opioid dependence on their preferred drug lists. The most commonly excluded were extended-release naltrexone (19 programs), acamprosate (19 programs), and methadone (20 programs). For combined buprenorphine-naloxone, 48 Medicaid programs required prior authorization, and 11 programs used 1- to 3-year lifetime treatment limits. Given the chronic nature of substance use disorders and the overwhelming evidence supporting ongoing coverage for many of these medications, states may want to reexamine substance use disorder benefits. PMID:25921475

  13. Cognitive functions in abstinent alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Kopera, Maciej; Wojnar, Marcin; Brower, Kirk; Glass, Jennifer; Nowosad, Izabela; Gmaj, Bartłomiej; Szelenberger, Waldemar

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare cognitive functioning of abstaining alcohol-dependent (AD) male patients and healthy controls as well as to investigate whether their cognitive performance varied by abstinence length. Forty-two maintaining abstinent (AD) patients and 34 healthy controls were examined. Tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess cognitive functions. Differences in cognitive performance were found between AD patients and healthy controls. Nonverbal tasks in cognitive domains such as attention, visual memory and working memory were impaired in AD patients who presented deficits in visual episodic memory, had slower reaction time and reduced working memory span. Patients who were abstinent for less than one year made more errors in both attentional set shifting and working memory tests than healthy controls and patients with longer durations of abstinence. Impairments identified in multiple cognitive domains in abstinent alcohol-dependent subjects suggest functional deficits in extensive brain networks connecting interrelated brain structures. Attentional control and spatial working memory were less impaired in those AD patients who maintained abstinence for at least one year.

  14. Assessment and treatment of insomnia in adult patients with alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Brower, Kirk J

    2015-06-01

    Insomnia in patients with alcohol dependence has increasingly become a target of treatment due to its prevalence, persistence, and associations with relapse and suicidal thoughts, as well as randomized controlled studies demonstrating efficacy with behavior therapies and non-addictive medications. This article focuses on assessing and treating insomnia that persists despite 4 or more weeks of sobriety in alcohol-dependent adults. Selecting among the various options for treatment follows a comprehensive assessment of insomnia and its multifactorial causes. In addition to chronic, heavy alcohol consumption and its effects on sleep regulatory systems, contributing factors include premorbid insomnia; co-occurring medical, psychiatric, and other sleep disorders; use of other substances and medications; stress; environmental factors; and inadequate sleep hygiene. The assessment makes use of history, rating scales, and sleep diaries as well as physical, mental status, and laboratory examinations to rule out these factors. Polysomnography is indicated when another sleep disorder is suspected, such as sleep apnea or periodic limb movement disorder, or when insomnia is resistant to treatment. Sobriety remains a necessary, first-line treatment for insomnia, and most patients will have some improvement. If insomnia-specific treatment is needed, then brief behavioral therapies are the treatment of choice, because they have shown long-lasting benefit without worsening of drinking outcomes. Medications work faster, but they generally work only as long as they are taken. Melatonin agonists; sedating antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and antipsychotics; and benzodiazepine receptor agonists each have their benefits and risks, which must be weighed and monitored to optimize outcomes. Some relapse prevention medications may also have sleep-promoting activity. Although it is assumed that treatment for insomnia will help prevent relapse, this has not been firmly established. Therefore

  15. Assessment and treatment of insomnia in adult patients with alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Brower, Kirk J

    2015-06-01

    Insomnia in patients with alcohol dependence has increasingly become a target of treatment due to its prevalence, persistence, and associations with relapse and suicidal thoughts, as well as randomized controlled studies demonstrating efficacy with behavior therapies and non-addictive medications. This article focuses on assessing and treating insomnia that persists despite 4 or more weeks of sobriety in alcohol-dependent adults. Selecting among the various options for treatment follows a comprehensive assessment of insomnia and its multifactorial causes. In addition to chronic, heavy alcohol consumption and its effects on sleep regulatory systems, contributing factors include premorbid insomnia; co-occurring medical, psychiatric, and other sleep disorders; use of other substances and medications; stress; environmental factors; and inadequate sleep hygiene. The assessment makes use of history, rating scales, and sleep diaries as well as physical, mental status, and laboratory examinations to rule out these factors. Polysomnography is indicated when another sleep disorder is suspected, such as sleep apnea or periodic limb movement disorder, or when insomnia is resistant to treatment. Sobriety remains a necessary, first-line treatment for insomnia, and most patients will have some improvement. If insomnia-specific treatment is needed, then brief behavioral therapies are the treatment of choice, because they have shown long-lasting benefit without worsening of drinking outcomes. Medications work faster, but they generally work only as long as they are taken. Melatonin agonists; sedating antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and antipsychotics; and benzodiazepine receptor agonists each have their benefits and risks, which must be weighed and monitored to optimize outcomes. Some relapse prevention medications may also have sleep-promoting activity. Although it is assumed that treatment for insomnia will help prevent relapse, this has not been firmly established. Therefore

  16. Alcohol-Dependent Liver Cell Necrosis in vitro: A New Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanne, Francis A. X.; Zucker, Amy H.; Farber, John L.; Rubin, Emanuel

    1981-04-01

    In alcoholic liver injury, necrosis is involved in the progression from benign fatty liver to alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis. However, there is no practical model of alcohol-dependent liver cell necrosis. The calcium-dependent killing of cultured rat hepatocytes by two different membrane-active hepatotoxins, galactosamine and phalloidin, is potentiated by ethyl alcohol. This indicates that some general physical effect of alcohol on cellular membranes renders cells susceptible to otherwise nonlethal injuries. The in vitro model described in this report may thus be used to search for a general mechanism underlying alcohol-related tissue injury.

  17. Investigating biases of attention and memory for alcohol-related and negative words in alcohol-dependents with and without major depression after day-clinic treatment.

    PubMed

    Fridrici, Christina; Driessen, Martin; Wingenfeld, Katja; Kremer, Georg; Kissler, Johanna; Beblo, Thomas

    2014-08-30

    This study aimed to investigate attentional and memory biases in alcohol-dependents with and without major depression compared to healthy controls. We assumed that both groups of alcohol-dependents would show attentional and memory biases for alcohol-related words. For the alcohol-dependents with depression, we additionally expected both types of biases for negative words. Alcohol-dependents without co-morbidity (Alc) and alcohol-dependents with major depression (D-Alc) as well as control participants with a moderate consumption of alcohol (Con) completed an alcohol Stroop task and a directed forgetting paradigm using word stimuli from three categories: neutral, negative, and alcohol-related. Stroop effects showed that not only alcohol-dependents but also control participants were more distracted by alcohol-related than by negative words. In the directed forgetting procedure, all participants showed a significant effect for each word-category, including alcohol-related and negative words. The D-Alc-group memorized more alcohol-related than negative to-be-remembered words. The results do not corroborate the hypothesis of more pronounced attentional and memory biases in alcohol-dependents. However, in alcohol-dependents with depression a memory bias for alcohol-related material was found, suggesting that this group may be more pre-occupied with alcohol than patients without such co-morbidity.

  18. EFFECT OF NALTREXONE AND ONDANSETRON ON ALCOHOL CUE-INDUCED ACTIVATION OF THE VENTRAL STRIATUM IN ALCOHOL-DEPENDENT PEOPLE

    PubMed Central

    Myrick, Hugh; Anton, Raymond F.; Li, Xingbao; Henderson, Scott; Randall, Patrick K.; Voronin, Konstantin

    2008-01-01

    Context Medication treatment of alcoholism is presently not particularly robust. Neuroimaging techniques might predict which medications could be useful in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Objective To explore the effect of naltrexone, ondansetron, or the combination of these medications on cue-induced craving and ventral striatum activation. Design, Setting, Participants Functional brain imaging (Phillips 1.5T scanner) was conducted during alcohol cue presentation in 90 non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent (by DSM-IV criteria) and 17 social drinking (less than 14 drinks per week) paid volunteers recruited through advertisements at an academic center. Interventions A taste of alcohol and a series of alcohol related pictures, neutral beverage pictures and visual control images were provided to volunteers after seven days of double blind randomly assigned daily dosing with 50mg naltrexone (n=23), 0.50mg ondansetron (n=23), the combination of the two medications (n=20), or matching placebos (n=24). Main Outcome Measures Difference in brain blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance when viewing alcohol pictures versus neutral beverage pictures with a particular focus on ventral striatum activity comparison across medication groups. Self-ratings of alcohol craving. Results The combination treatment decreased craving for alcohol. Naltrexone with (p=0.02) or without (p=0.049) ondansetron decreased alcohol cue-induced activation of the ventral striatum. Ondansetron by itself was similar to naltrexone and the combination in the overall analysis but intermediate in a regions specific analysis. Conclusions Consistent with animal data suggesting that both naltrexone and ondansetron reduce alcohol-stimulated dopamine output in the ventral striatum, the current study found evidence that these medications, alone or in combination, could decrease alcohol cue-induced activation of the ventral striatum, consistent with their putative treatment efficacy. PMID

  19. Deficits in Emotion-Regulation Skills Predict Alcohol Use during and after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Alcohol Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berking, Matthias; Margraf, Matthias; Ebert, David; Wupperman, Peggilee; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Junghanns, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Objective: As emotion regulation is widely considered to be a primary motive in the misuse of alcohol, our aim in the study was to investigate whether deficits in adaptive emotion-regulation skills maintain alcohol dependence (AD). Method: A prospective study investigated whether emotion-regulation skills were associated with AD and whether these…

  20. [Creation of a scale for evaluating attitudes of partners toward alcohol dependency].

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Tazuko; Morita, Noriaki; Nakatani, Youji

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a scale to evaluate characteristics of how alcohol-dependent people perceive the attitudes of their partners toward alcohol dependency. Based on previous research, we created the "Attitudes of partners toward alcohol dependency" scale, from the perspective of the alcohol dependent individual. Using the new scale, 71 alcohol-dependent people (52 men, 19 women) were surveyed after obtaining their consent, and the reliability and validity of the scale were tested. The results identified 3 factors, "indifference", "acceptance" and "hypersensitivity", and factorial validity was verified. Relatively high reliability was obtained on each sub-scale (alpha = .60-.82). Furthermore, correlations were obtained with the alcohol-dependency "Denial and Awareness Scale (for alcohol-dependent people)" and with the 13-item "Usefulness of heterosexual love relations for recovery from alcohol dependency" questionnaire, which includes content on "beneficial" or "obstructive" to recovery, and with the satisfaction and the importance of relations. This demonstrates that the "Attitudes of partners toward alcohol dependency" scale has reliability and criterion-related validity. The scale facilitates evaluation of types of attitudes of partners toward alcohol dependency, and may thus be useful as one tool for investigating the influence of partners in heterosexual love relationships for recovery, and for providing advice.

  1. The metabolic syndrome in patients with alcohol dependency: Current research and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Kai G; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between alcohol dependency and disorders such as liver disease and cancer has been thoroughly researched. However, the effects of alcohol on cardiometabolic health remain controversial. Several reports found low to moderate alcohol consumption to be associated with a lower risk for cardiometabolic disorders. In contrast, excessive alcohol consumption has been related to an increased risk. Most of these studies were performed in non-clinical populations, therefore limiting the explanatory power to non-dependent patients. Only a few studies examined cardiovascular disorders and cardiovascular risk factors, in particular the metabolic syndrome (MetS), in alcohol dependent patients. We here present a narrative review of studies performed so far on the MetS in alcohol dependency, and provide current hypotheses on the association of alcohol dependency, appetite regulation and the development of the MetS.

  2. Memantine reduces alcohol drinking but not relapse in alcohol-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Alaux-Cantin, Stéphanie; Buttolo, Romain; Houchi, Hakim; Jeanblanc, Jérôme; Naassila, Mickaël

    2015-09-01

    Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder with consequences on health and that requires more effective treatments. Among alternative therapies, the therapeutic potential of the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine has been suggested. Despite promising results, its efficiency in the treatment of alcoholism remains controversial. Currently, there is no pre-clinical data regarding its effects on the motivation for ethanol in post-dependent (PD) animals exposed to intermittent ethanol vapor, a validated model of alcoholism. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of acute injections of memantine (0, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) on operant ethanol self-administration in non-dependent (ND) and PD rats tested either during acute withdrawal or relapse after protracted abstinence. Our results showed that memantine (25 mg/kg) abolished ethanol self-administration in ND rats and reduced by half the one of PD rats during acute withdrawal. While this effect was observed only 6 hours after treatment in ND rats, it was long lasting in PD rats (at least 30 hours after injection). Furthermore, our results indicated that memantine did not modify the breaking point for ethanol. This suggests that memantine probably act by potentiating the pharmacological effect of ethanol but not by reducing motivation for ethanol. Finally, memantine was also ineffective in reducing relapse after protracted abstinence. Altogether, our pre-clinical results highlighted a potential therapeutic use of memantine that may be used as a replacement therapy drug but not as relapse-preventing drug.

  3. Genetic and neurophysiological correlates of the age of onset of alcohol use disorders in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Chorlian, David B.; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Dick, Danielle; Almasy, Laura; Bauer, Lance; Bucholz, Kathleen; Foroud, Tatiana; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kang, Sun J.; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Sam; Nurnberger, John; Rice, John; Schuckit, Marc; Tischfield, Jay; Edenberg, Howard J.; Goate, Alison; Bierut, Laura; Porjesz, Bernice

    2013-01-01

    Discrete time survival analysis (DTSA) was used to assess the age-specific association of event related oscillations (EROs) and CHRM2 gene variants on the onset of regular alcohol use and alcohol dependence. The subjects were 2938 adolescents and young adults ages 12 to 25. Results showed that the CHRM2 gene variants and ERO risk factors had hazards which varied considerably with age. The bulk of the significant age-specific associations occurred in those whose age of onset was under 16. These associations were concentrated in those subjects who at some time took an illicit drug. These results are consistent with studies which associate greater rates of alcohol dependence among those who begin drinking at an early age. The age specificity of the genetic and neurophysiological factors is consistent with recent studies of adolescent brain development, which locate an interval of heightened vulnerability to substance use disorders in the early to mid teens. PMID:23963516

  4. Genetic and neurophysiological correlates of the age of onset of alcohol use disorders in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Chorlian, David B; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Dick, Danielle; Almasy, Laura; Bauer, Lance; Bucholz, Kathleen; Foroud, Tatiana; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kang, Sun J; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Sam; Nurnberger, John; Rice, John; Schuckit, Marc; Tischfield, Jay; Edenberg, Howard J; Goate, Alison; Bierut, Laura; Porjesz, Bernice

    2013-09-01

    Discrete time survival analysis was used to assess the age-specific association of event-related oscillations (EROs) and CHRM2 gene variants on the onset of regular alcohol use and alcohol dependence. The subjects were 2,938 adolescents and young adults ages 12-25. Results showed that the CHRM2 gene variants and ERO risk factors had hazards which varied considerably with age. The bulk of the significant age-specific associations occurred in those whose age of onset was under 16. These associations were concentrated in those subjects who at some time took an illicit drug. These results are consistent with studies which associate greater rates of alcohol dependence among those who begin drinking at an early age. The age specificity of the genetic and neurophysiological factors is consistent with recent studies of adolescent brain development, which locate an interval of heightened vulnerability to substance use disorders in the early to mid teens.

  5. Methods for inducing alcohol craving in individuals with comorbid alcohol dependence and posttraumatic stress disorder: Behavioral and physiological outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kwako, L. E.; Schwandt, M. L.; Sells, J. R.; Ramchandani, V. A.; George, D. T.; Sinha, R.; Heilig, M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that presents a substantial public health problem, and is frequently comorbid with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Craving for alcohol is a predictor of relapse to alcohol use, and is triggered by cues associated with alcohol and trauma. Identification of reliable and valid laboratory methods for craving induction is an important objective for alcoholism and PTSD research. Objectives The present study compares two methods for induction of craving via stress and alcohol cues in individuals with comorbid alcohol dependence (AD) and PTSD: the combined Trier Social Stress Test and cue reactivity paradigm (Trier/CR), and a guided imagery (Scripts) paradigm. Outcomes include self-reported measures of craving, stress, and anxiety as well as endocrine measures. Methods Subjects were 52 individuals diagnosed with comorbid AD and PTSD seeking treatment at the NIAAA inpatient research facility. They participated in a four week inpatient study of the efficacy of a NK1 antagonist to treat comorbid AD and PTSD, and which included the two challenge procedures. Results Both the Trier/CR and Scripts induced craving for alcohol, as well as elevated levels of subjective distress and anxiety. The Trier/CR yielded significant increases in ACTH and cortisol, while the Scripts did not. Conclusions Both paradigms are effective laboratory means of inducing craving for alcohol. Further research is warranted to better understand the mechanisms behind craving induced by stress vs. alcohol cues, as well as to understand the impact of comorbid PTSD and AD on craving. PMID:24806358

  6. Women's alcohol dependence and abuse: the relation to social network and leisure time.

    PubMed

    Thundal, K L; Granbom, S; Allebeck, P

    1999-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the occurrence of alcohol dependence and abuse in relation to variables reflecting social network and leisure time, social class, education, occupation and family conditions. The study was based on the second wave of interviews performed within the longitudinal study of Women and Alcohol in Göteborg. In this present study we analysed 416 face-to-face interviews performed in 1995 96. Women with only one or no friends for support had higher rates of alcohol dependence and abuse than did women with more friends. Women with high rates of alcohol dependence or abuse did not take part in cultural events as much as women with low rates of alcohol dependence and abuse. Women with homemaking skills and gardening as leisure time interests had lower prevalences of alcohol dependence and abuse. In general, women with diagnoses of alcohol dependence and abuse in this population-based sample were not alone and without a social network. However, their pattern of activity differed slightly from those without such diagnoses. The association between women with alcohol dependence and abuse and leisure time activities is probably circular: a poor social network and low participation in social activities increase the risk of alcohol dependence and abuse, and alcohol dependence and abuse lead to low participation in social activities.

  7. From genetic studies to precision medicine in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Fan; Sun, Yankun; Shi, Jie; Lu, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Genetic factors contribute to more than 50% of the variation in the vulnerability to alcohol dependence (AD). Although significant advances have been made in medications for AD, these medications do not work for all people. Precise tailoring of medicinal strategies for individual alcoholic patients is needed to achieve optimal outcomes. This review updates the most promising information on genetic variants in AD, which may be useful for improving diagnostic, therapeutic, and monitoring strategies. We describe genetic candidates of various neurotransmitter and enzyme systems. In addition to biological and allelic associations with AD, genetic effects on AD-related phenotypes and treatment responses have also been described. Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions have been considered. Potential applications of genomewide and epigenetic approaches for identifying genetic biomarkers of AD have been discussed. Overall, the application of genetic findings in precision medicine for AD will likely involve an integrated approach that distinguishes effect sizes of specific genetic predictors with regard to sex, pharmacotherapy, ethnicity, and AD-related aspects and considers gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Our work may pave the way toward more precise treatment for AD that could ultimately improve clinical management and interventions. PMID:26580132

  8. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure: Burden of Epigenetic Reprogramming, Synaptic Remodeling, and Adult Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Kyzar, Evan J; Floreani, Christina; Teppen, Tara L; Pandey, Subhash C

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence represents a crucial phase of synaptic maturation characterized by molecular changes in the developing brain that shape normal behavioral patterns. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in these neuromaturation processes. Perturbations of normal epigenetic programming during adolescence by ethanol can disrupt these molecular events, leading to synaptic remodeling and abnormal adult behaviors. Repeated exposure to binge levels of alcohol increases the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid psychopathology including anxiety in adulthood. Recent studies in the field clearly suggest that adolescent alcohol exposure causes widespread and persistent changes in epigenetic, neurotrophic, and neuroimmune pathways in the brain. These changes are manifested by altered synaptic remodeling and neurogenesis in key brain regions leading to adult psychopathology such as anxiety and alcoholism. This review details the molecular mechanisms underlying adolescent alcohol exposure-induced changes in synaptic plasticity and the development of alcohol addiction-related phenotypes in adulthood. PMID:27303256

  9. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure: Burden of Epigenetic Reprogramming, Synaptic Remodeling, and Adult Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Kyzar, Evan J.; Floreani, Christina; Teppen, Tara L.; Pandey, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence represents a crucial phase of synaptic maturation characterized by molecular changes in the developing brain that shape normal behavioral patterns. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in these neuromaturation processes. Perturbations of normal epigenetic programming during adolescence by ethanol can disrupt these molecular events, leading to synaptic remodeling and abnormal adult behaviors. Repeated exposure to binge levels of alcohol increases the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid psychopathology including anxiety in adulthood. Recent studies in the field clearly suggest that adolescent alcohol exposure causes widespread and persistent changes in epigenetic, neurotrophic, and neuroimmune pathways in the brain. These changes are manifested by altered synaptic remodeling and neurogenesis in key brain regions leading to adult psychopathology such as anxiety and alcoholism. This review details the molecular mechanisms underlying adolescent alcohol exposure-induced changes in synaptic plasticity and the development of alcohol addiction-related phenotypes in adulthood. PMID:27303256

  10. Alcohol-Adapted Anger Management Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Therapy for Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Walitzer, Kimberly S; Deffenbacher, Jerry L; Shyhalla, Kathleen

    2015-12-01

    A randomized controlled trial for an innovative alcohol-adapted anger management treatment (AM) for outpatient alcohol dependent individuals scoring moderate or above on anger is described. AM treatment outcomes were compared to those of an empirically-supported intervention, Alcoholics Anonymous Facilitation treatment (AAF). Clients in AM, relative to clients in AAF, were hypothesized to have greater improvement in anger and anger-related cognitions and lesser AA involvement during the 6-month follow-up. Anger-related variables were hypothesized to be stronger predictors of improved alcohol outcomes in the AM treatment condition and AA involvement was hypothesized to be a stronger predictor of alcohol outcomes in the AAF treatment group. Seventy-six alcohol dependent men and women were randomly assigned to treatment condition and followed for 6 months after treatment end. Both AM and AAF treatments were followed by significant reductions in heavy drinking days, alcohol consequences, anger, and maladaptive anger-related thoughts and increases in abstinence and self-confidence regarding not drinking to anger-related triggers. Treatment with AAF was associated with greater AA involvement relative to treatment with AM. Changes in anger and AA involvement were predictive of posttreatment alcohol outcomes for both treatments. Change in trait anger was a stronger predictor of posttreatment alcohol consequences for AM than for AAF clients; during-treatment AA meeting attendance was a stronger predictor of posttreatment heavy drinking and alcohol consequences for AAF than for AM clients. Anger-related constructs and drinking triggers should be foci in treatment of alcohol dependence for anger-involved clients.

  11. Anticipatory 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations are associated with escalated alcohol intake in dependent rats

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Cara L.; Malavar, Jordan C.; George, Olivier; Koob, George F.; Vendruscolo, Leandro F.

    2014-01-01

    Rats emit 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in situations of increased motivation, such as during the anticipation of palatable food or drugs of abuse. Whether the same holds true for the anticipation of alcohol intake remains unknown. Alcohol drinking in a nondependent state is thought to be mediated by its rewarding effects (positive reinforcement), whereas drinking in the dependent state is motivated by alcohol’s stress-relieving effects (negative reinforcement). Here, we measured context-elicited 50 kHz USVs in alcohol-dependent (alcohol vapor-exposed) and nondependent rats immediately before operant alcohol self-administration sessions. Dependent rats showed escalated levels of alcohol intake compared with nondependent rats. Overall, dependent and nondependent rats showed similar levels of anticipatory 50 kHz USVs. However, the number of anticipatory USVs was positively correlated with alcohol intake in dependent rats but not nondependent rats. Additionally, dependent rats with higher alcohol intake displayed increased anticipatory 50 kHz USVs compared with rats that had lower alcohol intake, whereas no difference was observed between rats with high and low alcohol intake in the nondependent group. Increased 50 kHz USVs were specific for the anticipation of alcohol self-administration and did not generalize to a novel environment. These findings suggest that anticipatory 50 kHz USVs may be an indicator of context-elicited negative reinforcement learning. PMID:24914463

  12. Nicotine Modulates Alcohol-Seeking and Relapse by Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats in a Time Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Sheketha R.; Getachew, Bruk; Oster, Scott M.; Dhaher, Ronnie; Ding, Zheng-Ming; Bell, Richard L.; McBride, William J.; Rodd, Zachary A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol is frequently co-abused with smoking. In humans, nicotine use can increase alcohol craving and consumption. The objectives of the current study were to assess the acute effects of nicotine on alcohol seeking and relapse at two different time points. Method Adult female alcohol-preferring (P) rats were trained in 2-lever operant chambers to self-administer 15% EtOH (v/v) and water on a concurrent fixed-ratio 5 – fixed-ratio 1 (FR5-FR1) schedule of reinforcement in daily 1-hr sessions. Following 10 weeks of daily 1-hr sessions, rats underwent 7 extinction sessions, followed by 2 weeks in their home cages. Rats were then returned to the operant chambers without EtOH or water being present for 4 sessions (Pavlovian Spontaneous Recovery [PSR]). Rats were then given a week in their home cage before being returned to the operant chambers with access to EtOH and water (relapse). Nicotine (0, 0.1, 0.3, or 1.0 mg/kg) was injected s.c. immediately or 4-hr prior to PSR or relapse testing. Results Injections of nicotine immediately prior to testing reduced (5–10 responses PSR; 50–60 responses relapse), whereas injections of nicotine 4-hr prior to testing increased (up to 150 responses for PSR; up to 400 responses for relapse with 1.0 mg/kg dose) responses on the EtOH lever during PSR and relapse tests. Discussion The results of this study demonstrate that acute effects of nicotine on EtOH-seeking and relapse behaviors may be time-dependent, with the immediate effects being a result of nicotine possibly acting as a substitute for EtOH whereas, with a delay of 4-hr, priming effects of nicotine alterations in nicotinic receptors, and/or the effects of nicotine’s metabolites (i.e., cotinine, nornicotine) may enhance the expression of EtOH-seeking and relapse behaviors. PMID:21689122

  13. Adult Children of Alcoholics: Characteristics of Students in a University Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Judith P.; Kinnick, Bernard C.

    1995-01-01

    Characteristics of adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) among traditional-age college students were investigated. Personality characteristics were examined based on birth order, gender of alcoholic parent, and honor society membership. Differences between ACOAs and non-ACOAs are discussed. (Author)

  14. Young Adult Male Satisfaction with Drug & Alcohol Rehabilitation Facilities: Interior Design Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potthoff, Joy K.

    1991-01-01

    Examined young adult male patient (n=18) satisfaction with interior environments of three different in-patient drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities: renovated Elk's Club; hospital wing; and facility built for drug and alcohol treatment. Findings indicated satisfaction declined over four-week treatment period; familiar objects were missed;…

  15. Dimensions of Adolescent Alcohol Involvement as Predictors of Young-Adult Major Depression*

    PubMed Central

    Mason, W. Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Hawkins, J. David; Redmond, Cleve; Spoth, Richard L.; Shin, Chungyeol

    2010-01-01

    Objective Adolescent alcohol involvement may increase risk for young-adult depression; however, findings are mixed and important questions remain unanswered. Because alcohol involvement among teens is multidimensional, this study examined the extent to which four different adolescent alcohol dimensions (i.e., frequency of alcohol use, quantity of consumption, frequency of heavy episodic drinking, and frequency of problem use) were predictive of young-adult major depressive disorder (MDD). Method Participants in this prospective longitudinal study, which extended from age 11 to age 22, were 429 rural teens (including 222 girls) and their families. Self-reports of each dimension of adolescent alcohol involvement were obtained at ages 16 and 18. Depression diagnoses were obtained at age 22, using a structured interview. Analyses included adolescent depressed mood, measured via self-report at ages 16 and 18. Data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Results The multidimensional nature of adolescent alcohol involvement was best represented by a first-order problem-use factor and a second-order alcohol-intake factor comprised of quantity, frequency, and heavy drinking. After controlling for gender and depressed mood, adolescent problem use, but not alcohol intake, was a significant positive predictor of young-adult MDD. Conclusions Findings help clarify the link between alcohol involvement and depression and suggest that harm-reduction strategies may help prevent later mood disorders. PMID:18299769

  16. [Effect of comorbid depression on the development and course of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Rybakova, K V; Rybakova, T G; Neznanov, N G; Eryshev, O F

    2013-01-01

    It was compared 72 patients with alcohol dependence (AD) and endogenous depression (ED) and 30 patients with AD without comorbid affective pathology. It has been shown that the development of alcohol dependence in individuals with ED is slower than in patients without ED. A lack of a family history of addictive pathology was noted to be a predictor of a more favorable course of alcohol dependence in patients with ED.

  17. Emerging Adult Identity Development, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-related Problems During the Transition out of College

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Jonathan R.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use generally peaks during the early twenties and declines with age. These declines, referred to as “maturing out,” are presumed to result from the acquisition of adult roles (e.g. marriage, employment) incompatible with alcohol use. Recent empirical evidence suggests that variables other than role transitions (e.g. personality) may also be important in understanding this process. Changes in identity that occur during emerging adulthood may also be linked to the process of maturing out of heavy drinking, though no studies have yet addressed this possibility. Utilizing data from a large sample of graduating college students (N = 907) during senior year (wave 1) and the two following years (waves 2-3), the current study examined relations between aspects of emerging adult identity and drinking outcomes (alcohol use and problems). Using time varying covariate growth models, results indicated that several facets of emerging adult identity conferred risk for the failure to mature out of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. Experimentation/possibilities emerged as a significant risk factor for both heavy drinking and alcohol problems, but these effects diminished considerably when accounting for personality risk. In contrast, although small in magnitude, effects of self-focus on heavy drinking and negativity/instability on alcohol-related problems were relatively independent of effects of other established predictors. The effect for negativity/instability was evident only at the final wave. The findings have important implications for theories of “maturing out” and may ultimately inform tailoring or refinement of prevention/intervention approaches for emerging adults. PMID:27077443

  18. Prazosin + naltrexone decreases alcohol drinking more effectively than does either drug alone in P rats with a protracted history of extensive voluntary alcohol drinking, dependence and multiple withdrawals

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Dennis D; Kincaid, Carrie L; Froehlich, Janice C

    2015-01-01

    Background Prazosin (PRZ, an α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist) and naltrexone (NTX, a non-specific opioid receptor antagonist) each decrease alcohol drinking when administered to rats selectively-bred for high voluntary alcohol drinking (alcohol-preferring, or “P”), and the combination of PRZ+NTX decreases alcohol drinking more effectively than does either drug alone. Since drug responsiveness can depend on history of alcohol drinking and dependence, we investigated whether various schedules of PRZ and NTX administration, alone or in combination, are effective in decreasing alcohol drinking in male P rats with a history of protracted voluntary alcohol drinking, dependence and repeated withdrawals closely resembling human alcoholism. Methods Male P rats became alcohol-dependent during 1 year of ad libitum 24 h/day access to food, water and 20% alcohol with repetitive temporary alcohol withdrawals. Four sequential studies then addressed effects of oral PRZ (2 mg/kg) and NTX (10 mg/kg), alone or together, on alcohol drinking during: 1) daily alcohol access with daily drug treatment, 2) intermittent alcohol access with daily drug treatment, 3) intermittent alcohol access with occasional drug treatment, and 4) post-deprivation reinstatement of alcohol access. Results The combination of PRZ+NTX consistently suppressed alcohol drinking during daily or intermittent alcohol access conditions and when drug treatment was either daily or occasional. PRZ+NTX was consistently more effective than either drug alone. The reduction in alcohol drinking was not due to sedation, motor effects or malaise. Conclusions Both daily and “as-needed” treatment with PRZ+NTX are highly effective in suppressing daily, intermittent and post-deprivation alcohol drinking in male P rats with a protracted history of alcohol dependence and repeated withdrawals. This drug combination may be especially effective for treating individuals with long histories of heavy alcohol abuse, dependence and

  19. Impulsive-aggressive traits and suicidal adolescents and young adults with alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Carballo, Juan J; Oquendo, Maria A; Giner, Lucas; Zalsman, Gil; Roche, Ansley M; Sher, Leo

    2006-01-01

    Suicidal behavior and alcohol use disorders among adolescents and young adults are serious public health problems. In the study of suicidal behavior among young people with alcoholism, it has been shown that aggression and impulsivity are higher among those who attempted suicide. Impulsivity has been related to suicidal and self-destructive behaviors within different psychiatric conditions, i.e. alcohol and substance use disorders, mood disorders, conduct disorder, impulse control disorders, antisocial personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder. The term impulsivity has been used to define different constructs such as (1) personality trait or cognitive style in which disinhibition is the core characteristic, (2) a tendency to act immediately in response to external or internal stimuli, and (3) a group of psychiatric disorders with behavioral dyscontrol. Among adolescents suicidal behavior is transmitted in families independently of psychiatric conditions, but not independently of impulsivity/aggression. Two causal links between impulsiveness and alcoholism have been proposed: (1) adolescents who develop alcoholism possess higher premorbid levels of impulsiveness than those who do not develop alcoholism, and (2) levels of impulsiveness differentiate both populations only after the development of alcoholism, with higher levels of impulsiveness among those adolescents who developed alcoholism. Cognitive behavioral techniques have shown promising results in the treatment of adolescents with alcohol and substance use disorder and suicidality. The relative frequency of suicidal behavior among adolescents and young adults suffering from alcoholism and its subsequent devastating effects on individuals, families and society merits further research and development of prevention strategies.

  20. Drinking to Distraction: Does Alcohol Increase Attentional Bias in Adults with ADHD?

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Walter; Fillmore, Mark T.; Milich, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that social drinkers continue to show attentional bias towards alcohol-related stimuli even after consuming a moderate dose of alcohol. In contrast, little is known about how alcohol acutely affects attentional bias in groups at risk to develop alcohol-related problems, such as adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Such individuals may show increased attentional bias following alcohol relative to nonclinical controls. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining acute alcohol effects on attentional bias in 20 social drinkers with ADHD and 20 social drinkers with no history of ADHD. Participants performed a visual-probe task after receiving the following doses of alcohol: 0.64 g/kg, 0.32 g/kg, and 0.0 g/kg (placebo). Those in the ADHD group showed increased attentional bias under active alcohol doses, whereas attentional bias was similar across doses in the control group. Attentional bias predicted ad libitum alcohol consumption during a taste-rating session. This relation was observed only in the ADHD group. These findings indicate that an acute alcohol dose increases attentional bias in adults with ADHD. Further, attentional bias appears to be a predictor of ad libitum consumption in this group. PMID:22121850

  1. Drinking to distraction: does alcohol increase attentional bias in adults with ADHD?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Walter; Fillmore, Mark T; Milich, Richard

    2012-04-01

    Previous research has shown that social drinkers continue to show attentional bias toward alcohol-related stimuli even after consuming a moderate dose of alcohol. In contrast, little is known about how alcohol acutely affects attentional bias in groups at risk to develop alcohol-related problems, such as adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Such individuals may show increased attentional bias following alcohol relative to nonclinical controls. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining acute alcohol effects on attentional bias in 20 social drinkers with ADHD and 20 social drinkers with no history of ADHD. Participants performed a visual-probe task after receiving the following doses of alcohol: 0.64 g/kg, 0.32 g/kg, and 0.0 g/kg (placebo). Those in the ADHD group showed increased attentional bias under active alcohol doses, whereas attentional bias was similar across doses in the control group. Attentional bias predicted ad libitum alcohol consumption during a taste-rating session. This relation was observed only in the ADHD group. These findings indicate that an acute alcohol dose increases attentional bias in adults with ADHD. Further, attentional bias appears to be a predictor of ad libitum consumption in this group.

  2. Estimates of US children exposed to alcohol abuse and dependence in the family.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, B F

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to provide direct estimates of the number of US children younger than 18 years who are exposed to alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence in the family. METHODS: Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. RESULTS: Approximately 1 in 4 children younger than 18 years in the United States is exposed to alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence in the family. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for approaches that integrate systems of services to enhance the lives of these children. PMID:10630147

  3. Industrialization Stresses, Alcohol Abuse & Substance Dependence: Differential Gender Effects in a Kenyan Rural Farming Community

    PubMed Central

    Walt, Lisa C.; Kinoti, Elias; Jason, Leonard A.

    2014-01-01

    Developing countries’ industrialization and urbanization attempts have been linked to psychological distress and alcohol abuse. We used Hobfoll’s COR theory to examine the relationship between gender, perceived resource loss (an indicator of industrialization stress), and alcohol abuse and dependence in a sample of Kenyan rural village men and women (N = 186). Regression analyses indicated that both gender and COR loss predicted alcohol abuse and dependence. Additionally, results suggested that gender moderated the relationship between COR loss and alcohol dependence; such that higher COR loss scores predicted higher alcohol dependence for men, but COR loss scores did not predict alcohol dependence for women. Thus, we suggest that gender differences in substance abuse may be due less to actual differences in resource loss, but rather to gender differences in the response to resource loss. Limitations and opportunities for future research are discussed. PMID:24489525

  4. [Comorbidity of alcohol dependence with other psychiatric disorders. Part I. Epidemiology of dual diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Klimkiewicz, Anna; Klimkiewicz, Jakub; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Kieres-Salomoński, Ilona; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    The paper is a review of the literature on the comorbidity of alcohol dependence with other psychiatric disorders. A condition when alcohol dependence is accompanied by another mental disorder is much more common than it is commonly believed. It is estimated that more than one third of people diagnosed with mental disorders, abuses or is dependent on psychoactive substances, especially alcohol; among alcohol-dependent patients 37% suffer from other mental disorders. Alcohol dependence is associated with increased risk of mood disorders - more than three times higher, depression - almost four times higher, bipolar disorder - more than six times higher, anxiety disorders in general - more than twice, generalized anxiety disorder - more than four times higher, panic disorders - almost double, posttraumatic stress disorder - more than twice. Underestimating of comorbidity is an important problem during treatment of such population of patients. Social skills training can improve a stress management and decrease alcohol and drug use among dual diagnosed patients.

  5. Industrialization Stresses, Alcohol Abuse & Substance Dependence: Differential Gender Effects in a Kenyan Rural Farming Community.

    PubMed

    Walt, Lisa C; Kinoti, Elias; Jason, Leonard A

    2013-06-01

    Developing countries' industrialization and urbanization attempts have been linked to psychological distress and alcohol abuse. We used Hobfoll's COR theory to examine the relationship between gender, perceived resource loss (an indicator of industrialization stress), and alcohol abuse and dependence in a sample of Kenyan rural village men and women (N = 186). Regression analyses indicated that both gender and COR loss predicted alcohol abuse and dependence. Additionally, results suggested that gender moderated the relationship between COR loss and alcohol dependence; such that higher COR loss scores predicted higher alcohol dependence for men, but COR loss scores did not predict alcohol dependence for women. Thus, we suggest that gender differences in substance abuse may be due less to actual differences in resource loss, but rather to gender differences in the response to resource loss. Limitations and opportunities for future research are discussed.

  6. Differential Effects of Acute Alcohol on EEG and Sedative Responses in Adolescent and Adult Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pian, Jerry P.; Criado, Jose R.; Walker, Brendan M.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2008-01-01

    Age-related developmental differences in sensitivity to the acute effects of alcohol may play an important role in the development of alcoholism. The present study was designed to evaluate the acute effects of alcohol on cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) in adolescent (P36) and adult (P78) Wistar rats. Five minutes of EEG was recorded after administration of 0, 0.75 or 1.5 g/kg alcohol. The righting reflex was performed to measure the sedative effects of alcohol (3.5 g/kg) and total sleeping time for each rat. Our results showed that alcohol (1.5 g/kg) increased power in the 1–2 Hz band and decreased the power in the 32–50 Hz band in the parietal cortical region of adolescent rats. Alcohol (1.5 g/kg) also increased stability of the EEG power in the slow-wave frequency bands (2–4 Hz, 4–6 Hz, and 6–8 Hz) of adolescent rats. In the frontal cortex of adult rats, but not in adolescent rats, alcohol (1.5 or 0.75 g/kg) decreased the power in the 16–32 Hz frequency band. Alcohol (1.5 g/kg) differentially increased power in a multiple of slow-wave frequency bands (2–4 Hz and 4–6 Hz) in the parietal cortex of adult rats as compared to adolescent rats. Adolescent rats were shown significantly shorter sleeping time and higher blood alcohol levels after regaining reflex than adult rats. Our results provide additional evidence of age-related differences in the effects of acute alcohol on cortical EEG, sedation and tolerance. PMID:18191821

  7. Structural brain differences in alcohol-dependent individuals with and without comorbid substance dependence

    PubMed Central

    Mon, Anderson; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Abe, Christoph; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Pennington, David; Schmidt, Thomas; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Over 50% of individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD) also use other substances. Therefore, brain structural abnormalities observed in alcohol dependent individuals may not be entirely related to alcohol consumption. This MRI study assessed differences in brain regional tissue volumes between short-term abstinent alcohol dependent individuals without (ALC) and with current substance use dependence (polysubstance users, PSU). Methods Nineteen, one-month-abstinent PSU and 40 ALC as well as 27 light-drinkers (LD) were studied on a 1.5 Tesla MR system. Whole brain T1-weighted images were segmented automatically into regional gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes. MANOVA assessed group differences of intracranial volume-normalized tissue volumes of the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes as well as regional subcortical GM volumes. The volumetric measures were correlated with neurocognitive measures to assess their functional relevance. Results Despite similar lifetime drinking and smoking histories, PSU had significantly larger normalized WM volumes than ALC in all lobes. PSU also had larger frontal and parietal WM volumes than LD, but smaller temporal GM volumes as well as smaller lenticular and thalamic nuclei than LD. By contrast, ALC had smaller frontal, parietal, and temporal GM, thalamic GM and cerebellar volumes than LD. ALC also had more sulcal CSF volumes than both PSU and LD. Conclusion One-month-abstinent ALC and PSU exhibited different patterns of gross brain structural abnormalities. The larger lobar WM volumes in PSU in the absence of widespread GM volume loss contrast with widespread GM atrophy in ALC. These structural differences between ALC and PSU may demand different treatment approaches to mitigate specific functionally relevant brain abnormalities. PMID:25263262

  8. Quantifying alcohol-related emergency admissions in a UK tertiary referral hospital: a cross-sectional study of chronic alcohol dependency and acute alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Vardy, J; Keliher, T; Fisher, J; Ritchie, F; Bell, C; Chekroud, M; Clarey, F; Blackwood, L; Barry, L; Paton, E; Clark, A; Connelly, R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol is responsible for a proportion of emergency admissions to hospital, with acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol dependency (CAD) implicated. This study aims to quantify the proportion of hospital admissions through our emergency department (ED) which were thought by the admitting doctor to be (largely or partially) a result of alcohol consumption. Setting ED of a UK tertiary referral hospital. Participants All ED admissions occurring over 14 weeks from 1 September to 8 December 2012. Data obtained for 5497 of 5746 admissions (95.67%). Primary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions related to alcohol as defined by the admitting ED clinician. Secondary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions due to alcohol diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication or CAD according to ICD-10 criteria. Results 1152 (21.0%, 95% CI 19.9% to 22.0%) of emergency admissions were thought to be due to alcohol. 74.6% of patients admitted due to alcohol had CAD, and significantly greater than the 26.4% with ‘Severe’ or ‘Very Severe’ acute alcohol intoxication (p<0.001). Admissions due to alcohol differed to admissions not due to alcohol being on average younger (45 vs 56 years, p<0.001) more often male (73.4% vs 45.1% males, p<0.001) and more likely to have a diagnosis synonymous with alcohol or related to recreational drug use, pancreatitis, deliberate self-harm, head injury, gastritis, suicidal ideation, upper gastrointestinal bleeds or seizures (p<0.001). An increase in admissions due to alcohol on Saturdays reflects a surge in admissions with acute alcohol intoxication above the weekly average (p=0.003). Conclusions Alcohol was thought to be implicated in 21% of emergency admissions in this cohort. CAD is responsible for a significantly greater proportion of admissions due to alcohol than acute intoxication. Interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related admissions must incorporate measures to tackle CAD. PMID:27324707

  9. Effects of alcohol consumption on cognition and regional brain volumes among older adults.

    PubMed

    Downer, Brian; Jiang, Yang; Zanjani, Faika; Fardo, David

    2015-06-01

    This study utilized data from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort to examine the relationship between midlife and late-life alcohol consumption, cognitive functioning, and regional brain volumes among older adults without dementia or a history of abusing alcohol. The results from multiple linear regression models indicate that late life, but not midlife, alcohol consumption status is associated with episodic memory and hippocampal volume. Compared to late life abstainers, moderate consumers had larger hippocampal volume, and light consumers had higher episodic memory. The differences in episodic memory according to late life alcohol consumption status were no longer significant when hippocampal volume was included in the regression model. The findings from this study provide new evidence that hippocampal volume may contribute to the observed differences in episodic memory among older adults and late life alcohol consumption status.

  10. [Effect of alcohol in combination with stress in the prenatal period on adult mice behaviour].

    PubMed

    Morozova, M V; Popova, N K

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the prenatal alcohol and stress on behaviour of adult CBA/LacJ male mice. Pregnant mice were given ethanol 11% from to 21 days of the gestation and were exposed to restraint stress for two hours daily from 15 to 21 days gestation. At 3 months of age, the offspring were tested for behaviour. Alcohol and stress-exposed animals buried more marbles in the marble-burying test, which models obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). In addition, the alcohol and stress-exposed males showed increased social activity. No significant effects of the prenatal alcohol and stress exposure on locomotor activity, anxiety, exploring activity of the adult male mice were revealed. Conclusion was made that exposure to the alcohol and stress combination in prenatal period produces predisposition to OCD.

  11. Adult mouse model of early hepatocellular carcinoma promoted by alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Ambade, Aditya; Satishchandran, Abhishek; Gyongyosi, Benedek; Lowe, Patrick; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To establish a mouse model of alcohol-driven hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that develops in livers with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). METHODS: Adult C57BL/6 male mice received multiple doses of chemical carcinogen diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) followed by 7 wk of 4% Lieber-DeCarli diet. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and liver Cyp2e1 were assessed. Expression of F4/80, CD68 for macrophages and Ly6G, MPO, E-selectin for neutrophils was measured. Macrophage polarization was determined by IL-1β/iNOS (M1) and Arg-1/IL-10/CD163/CD206 (M2) expression. Liver steatosis and fibrosis were measured by oil-red-O and Sirius red staining respectively. HCC development was monitored by magnetic resonance imaging, confirmed by histology. Cellular proliferation was assessed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). RESULTS: Alcohol-DEN mice showed higher ALTs than pair fed-DEN mice throughout the alcohol feeding without weight gain. Alcohol feeding resulted in increased ALT, liver steatosis and inflammation compared to pair-fed controls. Alcohol-DEN mice had reduced steatosis and increased fibrosis indicating advanced liver disease. Molecular characterization showed highest levels of both neutrophil and macrophage markers in alcohol-DEN livers. Importantly, M2 macrophages were predominantly higher in alcohol-DEN livers. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed increased numbers of intrahepatic cysts and liver histology confirmed the presence of early HCC in alcohol-DEN mice compared to all other groups. This correlated with increased serum alpha-fetoprotein, a marker of HCC, in alcohol-DEN mice. PCNA immunostaining revealed significantly increased hepatocyte proliferation in livers from alcohol-DEN compared to pair fed-DEN or alcohol-fed mice. CONCLUSION: We describe a new 12-wk HCC model in adult mice that develops in livers with alcoholic hepatitis and defines ALD as co-factor in HCC. PMID:27122661

  12. Young Adult's Immediate Reaction to a Personal Alcohol Overdose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet; Harned, Ilene; Riley, William

    2004-01-01

    Following an emergency medical transport for alcohol overdose, first-year college students were asked to complete a survey assessing their reactions to the transport experience, their assessment of why they required this emergency response, and plans for future personal alcohol consumption. Transported students who responded to a baseline survey…

  13. Translating the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism in the Western Pacific: Rationale, Study Design and Reliability of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Amity E.; Rosen, Rochelle K.; McGeary, John E.; Amoa, Francine; Kranzler, Henry R.; Francazio, Sarah; McGarvey, Stephen T.; Swift, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study were to develop a bilingual version of the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism (SSADDA) in English and Samoan and determine the reliability of assessments of alcohol dependence in American Samoa. Methods: The study consisted of development and reliability-testing phases. In the development phase, the SSADDA alcohol module was translated and the translation was evaluated through cognitive interviews. In the reliability-testing phase, the bilingual SSADDA was administered to 40 ethnic Samoans, including a sub-sample of 26 individuals who were retested. Results: Cognitive interviews indicated the initial translation was culturally and linguistically appropriate except items pertaining to alcohol tolerance, which were modified to reflect Samoan concepts. SSADDA reliability testing indicated diagnoses of DSM-III-R and DSM-IV alcohol dependence were reliable. Reliability varied by language of administration. Conclusion: The English/Samoan version of the SSADDA is appropriate for the diagnosis of DSM-III-R alcohol dependence, which may be useful in advancing research and public health efforts to address alcohol problems in American Samoa and the Western Pacific. The translation methods may inform researchers translating diagnostic and assessment tools into different languages and cultures. PMID:24936588

  14. General Practitioners Recognizing Alcohol Dependence: A Large Cross-Sectional Study in 6 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Jürgen; Allamani, Allaman; Vedova, Roberto Della; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Landsmane, Inga; Manthey, Jakob; Moreno-España, José; Pieper, Lars; Probst, Charlotte; Snikere, Sigita; Struzzo, Pierluigi; Voller, Fabio; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Gual, Antoni; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Although alcohol dependence causes marked mortality and disease burden in Europe, the treatment rate is low. Primary care could play a key role in reducing alcohol-attributable harm by screening, brief interventions, and initiating or referral to treatment. This study investigates identification of alcohol dependence in European primary care settings. METHODS Assessments from 13,003 general practitioners, and 9,098 interviews (8,476 joint number of interviewed patients with a physician’s assessment) were collected in 6 European countries. Alcohol dependence, comorbidities, and health service utilization were assessed by the general practitioner and independently using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and other structured interviews. Weighted regression analyses were used to compare the impact of influencing variables on both types of diagnoses. RESULTS The rate of patients being identified as alcohol dependent by the CIDI or a general practitioner was about equally high, but there was not a lot of overlap between cases identified. Alcohol-dependent patients identified by a physician were older, had higher rates of physicial comorbidity (liver disease, hypertension), and were socially more marginalized, whereas average consumption of alcohol and mental comorbidity were equally high in both groups. CONCLUSION General practitioners were able to identify alcohol dependence, but the cases they identified differed from cases identified using the CIDI. The role of the CIDI as the reference standard should be reexamined, as older alcohol-dependent patients with severe comorbidities seemed to be missed in this assessment. PMID:25583889

  15. Pharmacological aversion treatment of alcohol dependence. I. Production and prediction of conditioned alcohol aversion.

    PubMed

    Howard, M O

    2001-08-01

    Eighty-two hospitalized alcoholics receiving pharmacological aversion therapy (PAT) over a 10-day treatment interval completed cognitive, behavioral, and psychophysiological measures evaluating conditioned aversion to alcohol. Pre-post assessments provided convergent support for the efficacy of PAT vis-à-vis production of conditioned aversion to alcohol. Positive alcohol-related outcome expectancies were significantly reduced, whereas confidence that drinking could be avoided in various high-risk situations for consumption was increased following PAT. Behavioral and cardiac rate assessments revealed significant changes following PAT that were specific to alcoholic beverages and potentially reflective of conditioned alcohol aversion. Patients with more extensive pretreatment experiences with alcohol-associated nausea and greater involvement in antisocial conduct appeared to be less susceptible to the PAT conditioning protocol.

  16. Acute effects of nicotine on alcohol cue-reactivity in nondependent and dependent smokers.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Daniel S; Peloquin, Marcel P; Ferdinand, Justin C; Barrett, Sean P

    2015-02-01

    Evidence from alcohol self-administration studies suggests that nicotine replacement therapy may influence subjective and behavioral responses to alcohol. However, its effect on alcohol cue-reactivity is unknown. The present study examined the impact of acutely administered nicotine on subjective responses to alcohol-focused pictorial stimuli. In a mixed within/between-subjects design, nondependent smokers (n = 51) and dependent smokers (n = 45) who socially drink were assigned to either a nicotine (4 mg) or placebo lozenge condition following overnight tobacco abstinence. Following lozenge absorption, participants viewed neutral images followed by alcohol-focused pictures. Craving measures for alcohol and tobacco were completed at baseline, following lozenge absorption, following neutral cues, and following alcohol cues. The presentation of alcohol cues increased alcohol-related craving relative to neutral cues, especially among men, but the administration of nicotine did not influence the magnitude of these effects. Nicotine lozenges were found to decrease intentions to smoke and withdrawal-related craving in dependent but not in nondependent smokers. Finally, the presentation of alcohol cues was found to increase intentions to smoke relative to neutral cues across participants regardless of lozenge condition. Findings suggest that although the presentation of alcohol cues can increase alcohol- and tobacco-related cravings in smokers, such effects do not appear to be affected by acute nicotine administration. PMID:25643027

  17. Gene co-expression networks in human brain identify epigenetic modifications in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Ponomarev, Igor; Wang, Shi; Zhang, Lingling; Harris, R Adron; Mayfield, R Dayne

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse causes widespread changes in gene expression in human brain, some of which contribute to alcohol dependence. Previous microarray studies identified individual genes as candidates for alcohol phenotypes, but efforts to generate an integrated view of molecular and cellular changes underlying alcohol addiction are lacking. Here, we applied a novel systems approach to transcriptome profiling in postmortem human brains and generated a systemic view of brain alterations associated with alcohol abuse. We identified critical cellular components and previously unrecognized epigenetic determinants of gene co-expression relationships and discovered novel markers of chromatin modifications in alcoholic brain. Higher expression levels of endogenous retroviruses and genes with high GC content in alcoholics were associated with DNA hypomethylation and increased histone H3K4 tri-methylation, suggesting a critical role of epigenetic mechanisms in alcohol addiction. Analysis of cell type – specific transcriptomes revealed remarkable consistency between molecular profiles and cellular abnormalities in alcoholic brain. Based on evidence from this study and others, we generated a systems hypothesis for the central role of chromatin modifications in alcohol dependence that integrates epigenetic regulation of gene expression with pathophysiological and neuroadaptive changes in alcoholic brain. Our results offer implications for epigenetic therapeutics in alcohol and drug addiction. PMID:22302827

  18. DSM-IV alcohol dependence and drug abuse/dependence in a treatment sample of whites, blacks and Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Caetano, R; Schafer, J

    1996-12-01

    This paper examines the association between DSM-IV alcohol dependence, drug use and DSM-IV drug/abuse dependence in a sample of White (n = 256), Black (n = 263) and Mexican American (n = 212) men consecutively admitted to five alcohol treatment programs in a Northern California county. Results show that drug use is higher among Blacks and Mexican Americans than among Whites. About 35% of the Whites 43% of the Blacks and 35% of the Mexican Americans are both alcohol and drug dependent. Among alcohol dependent individuals, about 44% of the Whites, 72% of the blacks and 52% of the Mexican Americans report using at least one drug other than alcohol once a week or more in the 12 months previous to the interview. The drug most frequently used by Whites is marijuana, followed by cocaine and amphetamines. The drug most frequently used by Blacks and Mexican Americans is cocaine, followed by marijuana. Severity of drug dependence is inversely related to severity of alcohol dependence among Whites. Alcohol treatment programs for Whites, Blacks and Mexican Americans must offer assessment, treatment matching and relapse prevention that takes into consideration this high prevalence of drug use and dependence.

  19. Caregiver Perceptions of the Community Integration of Adults with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Erica; Minnes, Patricia; Lutke, Jan; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene

    2008-01-01

    Background: Adults with foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) require support to be part of the community; however, most have few supports other than family and friends. The purpose of this study was to assess caregiver perceptions of community integration of adults with FASD living in British Columbia. Method: The Assimilation, Integration,…

  20. Control, Attachment Style, and Relationship Satisfaction among Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beesley, Denise; Stoltenberg, Cal D.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates possible differences in need for control, attachment style, and relationship satisfaction between a sample of adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and adult children of nonalcoholics. Analyses reveals that ACOAs reported a significantly higher need for control and significantly lower relationship satisfaction. Includes a discussion of…

  1. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption among Male Adults at a Slum in Kolkata, India

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Amrita; Mukherjee, Shuvankar

    2012-01-01

    Globally, alcohol-abuse is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Consumption of alcohol has increased in India in the recent decades. It is imperative to know the patterns of alcohol consumption among different types of consumers to launch a well-planned nationwide programme for the prevention and control of this devastating social pathology. This community-based, cross-sectional study was undertaken to identify the patterns of alcohol intake among different types of alcohol consumers and to assess the clinical signs of chronic harmful alcohol-use. A predesigned, pretested, semi-structured alcohol-use disorders identification test (AUDIT) questionnaire was used for interviewing males, aged >18 years, selected by random sampling from an updated household list of a randomly-selected sector of the service area of the Urban Health Centre in Chetla, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Written informed consents were obtained from all the respondents. Relevant clinical examination for chronic harmful alcohol-use was done according to the AUDIT clinical screening procedures. The results revealed that 65.8% (150/228) were current consumers of alcohol; 14% were alcohol-dependents; 8% were hazardous or harmful consumers, and 78% were non-hazardous non-harmful consumers. The mean age of the respondents at the initiation of drinking alcohol was 20.8+5.9 years. Eighty-six percent of dependents (n=21) took both Indian-made foreign liquor and locally-made alcoholic beverages. The proportions of alcohol consumers who drank alone among alcohol-dependents, hazardous or harmful consumers, and non-hazardous non-harmful consumers were 71.4%, 50%, and 7.7% respectively, and the difference was significant (p<0.01). Forty-one percent of the consumers drank at public places and workplaces, which may be socially harmful. About 38% of the dependents purchased alcohol from unlicensed liquor shops. Only 16% expressed concerns for their drinking habit mainly to the past illness. The proportion of

  2. An ongoing process: A qualitative study of how the alcohol-dependent free themselves of addiction through progressive abstinence

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Most people being treated for alcoholism are unable to successfully quit drinking within their treatment programs. In few cases do we know the full picture of how abstinence is achieved in Taiwan. We tracked processes of abstinence in alcohol-dependency disorders, based on study evidence and results. This research explores the process of recovery from the viewpoint of the alcohol-dependent. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two different settings, using purpose sampling, during 2003-2004. The data were analyzed using content analysis. Participants were 32 adults, purposefully selected from an Alcoholics Anonymous group and a psychiatric hospital in North Taiwan. Results We found that the abstinence process is an ongoing process, in which the alcohol-dependent free themselves of addiction progressively. This process never ends or resolves in complete recovery. We have identified three stages in the struggle against alcoholism: the Indulgence, Ambivalence and Attempt (IAA) cycle, in which the sufferer is trapped in a cycle of attempting to give up and failing; the Turning Point, in which a Personal Nadir is reached, and the Ongoing Process of abstinence, in which a constant effort is made to remain sober through willpower and with the help of support groups. We also discuss Influencing Factors that can derail abstinence attempts, pushing the sufferer back into the IAA cycle. Conclusion This study provides important points of reference for alcohol and drug service workers and community healthcare professionals in Taiwan, casting light on the abstinence process and providing a basis for intervention or rehabilitation services. PMID:19930698

  3. Parental problem drinking predicts implicit alcohol expectancy in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Belles, Stefan; Budde, Axel; Moesgen, Diana; Klein, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the influence of parental problem drinking on implicit and explicit alcohol expectancy of adolescents and young adults (12-24 years). The study was conducted via the Internet, employing a between-subjects design. We measured alcohol expectancy by means of an Implicit Association Test (IAT) and a self-report questionnaire. A short version of the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST) was used to measure alcohol-related parental problem behavior. Our results showed that increased CAST-scores were correlated with a stronger implicit association between the concepts alcohol and arousal. In contrast, no such relationship was observed between parental problem drinking and self-reported expectancy of alcohol arousal. These findings provide tentative evidence that an implicit cognitive processing bias is implicated in the intergenerational transmission of addictive behaviors. PMID:21802213

  4. Correlates of alcohol use among methadone-maintained adults.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Cohen, Allan; Marfisee, Mary; Shoptaw, Steven; Greengold, Barbara; de Castro, Viviane; George, Daniel; Leake, Barbara

    2009-04-01

    This prospective study (n=190) examined correlates of alcohol use from baseline data of a longitudinal trial conducted among moderate and heavy alcohol users receiving methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). The sample included MMT clients who were 18-55 years of age, and were receiving MMT from five large methadone maintenance clinics in the Los Angeles area. Half of the sample was heavy drinkers and nearly half (46%) reported heroin use. Using a structured questionnaire, correlates of heavy alcohol use included White and Hispanic ethnicity, and fair or poor physical health combined with older age (> or =50 years). We also found that MMT clients who were younger than 50 years, regardless of health status, were more likely to be heavy drinkers. Compared with moderate alcohol consumers, a greater number of heavy alcohol users also experienced recent victimization. To optimize MMT, alcohol screening should be part of routine assessment and alcohol treatment should be made available within MMT programs. Moreover, special consideration should be provided to the most vulnerable clients, such as the younger user, those with a long-term and current history of heavy drug use, and those victimized and reporting fair or poor health. In addition, promoting attention to general physical and mental health problems within MMT programs may be beneficial in enhancing health outcomes of this population.

  5. Allelic variants of ADH, ALDH and the five factor model of personality in alcohol dependence syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Salujha, S. K.; Chaudhury, S.; Menon, P. K.; Srivastava, K.; Gupta, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The etiology of alcohol dependence is a complex interplay of biopsychosocial factors. The genes for alcohol-metabolizing enzymes: Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2 and ADH3) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) exhibit functional polymorphisms. Vulnerability of alcohol dependence may also be in part due to heritable personality traits. Aim: To determine whether any association exists between polymorphisms of ADH2, ADH3 and ALDH2 and alcohol dependence syndrome in a group of Asian Indians. In addition, the personality of these patients was assessed to identify traits predisposing to alcoholism. Materials and Methods: In this study, 100 consecutive males with alcohol dependence syndrome attending the psychiatric outpatient department of a tertiary care service hospital and an equal number of matched healthy controls were included with their consent. Blood samples of all the study cases and controls were collected and genotyped for the ADH2, ADH3 and ALDH2 loci. Personality was evaluated using the neuroticism, extraversion, openness (NEO) personality inventory and sensation seeking scale. Results: Allele frequencies of ADH2*2 (0.50), ADH3*1 (0.67) and ALSH2*2 (0.09) were significantly low in the alcohol dependent subjects. Personality traits of NEO personality inventory and sensation seeking were significantly higher when compared to controls. Conclusions: The functional polymorphisms of genes coding for alcohol metabolizing enzymes and personality traits of NEO and sensation seeking may affect the propensity to develop dependence. PMID:25535445

  6. Alcohol and Masculinity: A Review and Reformulaton of the Sex Role, Dependency, and Power Theories of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemle, Russell

    This review examines three theories of alcohol abuse by American males: (1) the sex role theory which states that men drink heavily because American culture accepts and encourages that activity in males; (2) the dependency theory, which interprets drinking as a means by which men secretly gratify their dependency needs while manifesting an…

  7. Boarding and Public Schools: Navajo Educational Attainment, Conduct Disorder, and Alcohol Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Eric; Kunitz, Stephen J.; Gabriel, K. Ruben; McCright, Aaron; Levy, Jerrold E.

    1998-01-01

    Interviews with over 1,000 Navajos aged 21-67 in 1992-95 found that alcohol dependency was less common among high school graduates than dropouts but was also disproportionately low among older men with no schooling. Despite abusive conditions that prevailed in some Indian boarding schools, alcohol dependency rates did not differ by type of school…

  8. The Role of Therapeutic Alliance in Treatment for People with Mild to Moderate Alcohol Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Deirdre F.; Adamson, Simon J.; Deering, Daryle E. A.

    2012-01-01

    In an exploratory study of Therapeutic Alliance (TA) in brief outpatient treatment for alcohol dependence the relationship was investigated between TA and treatment outcome (measured at 6 weeks and 6 months) for 69 alcohol dependent clients participating in a randomised control trial between Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Non Directive…

  9. Meta-Analyses of ALDH2 and ADH1B with Alcohol Dependence in Asians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luczak, Susan E.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Wall, Tamara J.

    2006-01-01

    Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the magnitude of relationships between polymorphisms in 2 genes, ALDH2 and ADH1B, with alcohol dependence in Asians. For each gene, possession of 1 variant [asterisk]2 allele was protective against alcohol dependence, and possession of a 2nd [asterisk]2 allele did not offer significant additional…

  10. Cladistic association analysis of Y chromosome effects on alcohol dependence and related personality traits.

    PubMed

    Kittles, R A; Long, J C; Bergen, A W; Eggert, M; Virkkunen, M; Linnoila, M; Goldman, D

    1999-03-30

    Association between Y chromosome haplotype variation and alcohol dependence and related personality traits was investigated in a large sample of psychiatrically diagnosed Finnish males. Haplotypes were constructed for 359 individuals using alleles at eight loci (seven microsatellite loci and a nucleotide substitution in the DYZ3 alphoid satellite locus). A cladogram linking the 102 observed haplotype configurations was constructed by using parsimony with a single-step mutation model. Then, a series of contingency tables nested according to the cladogram hierarchy were used to test for association between Y haplotype and alcohol dependence. Finally, using only alcohol-dependent subjects, we tested for association between Y haplotype and personality variables postulated to define subtypes of alcoholism-antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence. Significant association with alcohol dependence was observed at three Y haplotype clades, with significance levels of P = 0.002, P = 0.020, and P = 0.010. Within alcohol-dependent subjects, no relationship was revealed between Y haplotype and antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, or reward dependence. These results demonstrate, by using a fully objective association design, that differences among Y chromosomes contribute to variation in vulnerability to alcohol dependence. However, they do not demonstrate an association between Y haplotype and the personality variables thought to underlie the subtypes of alcoholism.

  11. Negative Mood and Alcohol Problems are Related to Respiratory Dynamics in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, Paul; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Mun, Eun-Young; Vaschillo, Evgeny G.; Vaschillo, Bronya; Udo, Tomoko; Nguyen, Tam; Bates, Marsha E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of negative affect and alcohol use behaviors to baseline respiration and respiratory response to emotional challenge in young adults (N = 138, 48% women). Thoracic-to-abdominal ratio, respiratory frequency and variability, and minute volume ventilation (MVV) were measured during a low-demand baseline task, and emotional challenge (viewing emotionally-valenced, emotionally-neutral, and alcohol-related pictures). Negative Mood and Alcohol Problems principal components were generated from self-report measures of negative affect and mood, alcohol use, and use-related problems. The Negative Mood component was positively related to a thoracic bias when measured throughout the study (including baseline and picture exposure). There was generally greater respiratory activity in response to the picture cues, although not specifically in response to the content (emotional or alcohol-related) of the picture cues. The Alcohol Problems component was positively associated with respiratory reactivity to picture cues, when baseline breathing patterns were controlled. Self-report arousal data indicated that higher levels of negative mood, but not alcohol problems, were associated with greater arousal ratings overall. However, those with alcohol problems reported greater arousal to alcohol cues, compared to emotionally neutral cues. These results are consistent with theories relating negative affect and mood to breathing patterns as well as the relationship between alcohol problems and negative emotions, suggesting that the use of respiratory interventions may hold promise for treating problems involving negative affect and mood, as well as drinking problems. PMID:23975541

  12. Differences in Alcohol Brand Consumption between Underage Youth and Adults – United States, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Michael; Chen, Kelsey; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Ostroff, Joshua; Ross, Craig S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Background The alcohol brand preferences of U.S. underage drinkers have recently been identified, but it is not known whether youth are simply mimicking adult brand choices or whether other factors are impacting their preferences. This study is the first to compare the alcohol brand preferences of underage drinkers and adults. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional assessment of youth and adult alcohol brand preferences. A 2012 internet-based survey of a nationally representative sample of 1,032 underage drinkers, ages 13–20, was used to determine the prevalence of past 30-day consumption for each of 898 alcohol brands, and each brand’s youth market share, based on the total number of standard drinks consumed. Data on the brand-specific prevalence of past 30-day or past 7-day consumption among older youth (ages 18–20), adults (ages 21+), and young adults (ages 21–34) was obtained from Gfk MRI’s Survey of the Adult Consumer for the years 2010–12. Overall market shares for each brand, also measured by the total number of standard drinks consumed, were estimated from national data compiled by Impact Databank for the year 2010. Results Although most alcohol brands popular among underage drinkers were also popular among adult drinkers, there were several brands that appeared to be disproportionately consumed by youth. Conclusions This paper provides preliminary evidence that youth do not merely mimic the alcohol brand choices of adults. Further research using data derived from fully comparable data sources is necessary to confirm this finding. PMID:24483601

  13. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  14. Time-dependent effects of alcohol on the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-testicular function in the rat.

    PubMed

    Esquifino, A I; Mateos, A; Agrasal, C; Martin, I; Canovas, J M; Fermoso, J

    1989-04-01

    Adult male rats were followed throughout ethanol administration, in order to examine the time-dependent effects of ethanol on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The results indicate that there is an increase in plasma prolactin levels together with a reduction in basal plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, which are evident from the beginning of the intoxication period. An exaggerated response of LH to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone was also evident from 2nd week on, in ethanol-treated rats. Basal and human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated plasma testosterone levels were decreased in alcohol-treated as compared to control rats, at all time points studied. In addition, plasma estradiol levels were increased in ethanol-fed rats. These data suggest a direct suppressive effect of ethanol on LH release in the beginning of the intoxication period. Subsequent elevations of plasma estradiol and prolactin levels may have contributed to the maintenance of hypogonadism at the end of the intoxication period.

  15. Different Phenotypic and Genotypic Presentations in Alcohol Dependence: Age at Onset Matters*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Chu; Prescott, Carol A.; Walsh, Dermot; Patterson, Diana G.; Riley, Brien P.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kuo, Po-Hsiu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Several theoretical typology models have been proposed to classify alcoholism into more homogeneous subtypes using various criteria, for which age at onset of alcohol dependence is shared across many models. We investigated the evidence for the distinction between early- versus late-onset alcoholism by examining relevant phenotypic and genotypic variables. Method: Data are from 1,248 individuals with alcohol dependence, who were interviewed to collect detailed clinical information. Early versus late onset of alcohol dependence was defined by the age at onset of 22 years. Odds ratio (OR) and Cohen's d were calculated as effect size for comparisons of clinical features between the two groups. We adjusted interviewed age and gender in logistic regression models. Case-control genetic analyses were conducted for the association between HTR1B, SLC6A4, DRD2, and OPRμ1 genes and subgroups of alcohol dependence using a sample of 530 controls screened for alcohol problems. Results: Early-onset alcoholism exhibited significantly (p < .01) different clinical characteristics from late-onset alcoholism, including higher severity in alcohol dependence symptoms (d = 0.22) and maximum drinking quantity within 24 hours (d = 0.40), more rapid progression from regular drinking to meet alcohol dependence diagnosis (d = 1.73), higher expectancies for alcohol (d = 0.22−0.47), more comorbidity with externalizing disorders (ORs = 2.8−2.9), and greater prevalence of family alcohol use problems (d = 0.26−0.43). In addition, markers in the HTR1B and OPRμ1 genes showed genetic associations with subgroups of alcohol dependence (ORs = 1.5−2.4). Conclusions: Our findings support that subgroups of alcohol dependence defined by onset age have phenotypic and genetic differences. The early-onset subgroup had more severe features for almost every aspect we examined. Coupled with genetic association findings, age at onset of alcohol dependence may serve as a simple but important

  16. Alcohol Use and Suicidal Behaviors among Adults: A Synthesis and Theoretical Model

    PubMed Central

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.

    2012-01-01

    Suicidal behavior and alcohol use are major public health concerns in the United States; however the association between these behaviors has received relatively little empirical attention. The relative lack of research in this area may be due in part to the absence of theory explaining the alcohol use-suicidality link in the general adult population. The present article expands upon Conner, McCloskey, and Duberstein’s (2008) model of suicide in individuals with alcoholism and proposes a theoretical framework that can be used to explain why a range of adult alcohol users may engage in suicidal behaviors. Guided by this model, we review and evaluate the evidence on the associations among several constructs that may contribute to suicidal behaviors in adult alcohol consumers. The current framework should inform future research and facilitate further empirical analyses on the interactive effects among risk factors that may contribute to suicidal behaviors. Once the nature of these associations is better understood among alcohol using adults, more effective suicide prevention programs may be designed and implemented. PMID:23243500

  17. Intestinal permeability, gut-bacterial dysbiosis, and behavioral markers of alcohol-dependence severity

    PubMed Central

    Leclercq, Sophie; Matamoros, Sébastien; Cani, Patrice D.; Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Jamar, François; Stärkel, Peter; Windey, Karen; Tremaroli, Valentina; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Verbeke, Kristin; de Timary, Philippe; Delzenne, Nathalie M.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol dependence has traditionally been considered a brain disorder. Alteration in the composition of the gut microbiota has recently been shown to be present in psychiatric disorders, which suggests the possibility of gut-to-brain interactions in the development of alcohol dependence. The aim of the present study was to explore whether changes in gut permeability are linked to gut-microbiota composition and activity in alcohol-dependent subjects. We also investigated whether gut dysfunction is associated with the psychological symptoms of alcohol dependence. Finally, we tested the reversibility of the biological and behavioral parameters after a short-term detoxification program. We found that some, but not all, alcohol-dependent subjects developed gut leakiness, which was associated with higher scores of depression, anxiety, and alcohol craving after 3 wk of abstinence, which may be important psychological factors of relapse. Moreover, subjects with increased gut permeability also had altered composition and activity of the gut microbiota. These results suggest the existence of a gut–brain axis in alcohol dependence, which implicates the gut microbiota as an actor in the gut barrier and in behavioral disorders. Thus, the gut microbiota seems to be a previously unidentified target in the management of alcohol dependence. PMID:25288760

  18. Subgroup-dependent effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Roman, Erika

    2014-12-15

    Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the genetic, environmental and neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorders. Limited studies investigate alcohol-induced effects on behavior using free-choice paradigms. The aims of the present experiment were to study voluntary alcohol intake using a modified intermittent access paradigm, investigate the effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in water- and alcohol-drinking rats, and select extreme low- and high-drinking animals for a more detailed behavioral characterization. Sixty outbred male Wistar rats were randomized into water and alcohol groups. Behavioral profiles in the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test were assessed prior to and after voluntary alcohol intake. The animals had intermittent access to 20% alcohol and water for three consecutive days per week for seven weeks. The results revealed increased alcohol intake over time. No major alcohol-induced differences on behavior profiles were found when comparing water- and alcohol-drinking animals. The high-drinking animals displayed an alcohol deprivation effect, which was not found in the low-drinking animals. High-drinking rats had lower risk-taking behavior prior to alcohol access and lower anxiety-like behavior after voluntary alcohol intake compared to low-drinking rats. In conclusion, the modified intermittent access paradigm may be useful for pharmacological manipulation of alcohol intake. With regard to behavior, the present findings highlights the importance of studying subgroup-dependent differences and add to the complexity of individual differences in behavioral traits of relevance to the vulnerability for excessive alcohol intake. PMID:25200519

  19. Subgroup-dependent effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Roman, Erika

    2014-12-15

    Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the genetic, environmental and neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorders. Limited studies investigate alcohol-induced effects on behavior using free-choice paradigms. The aims of the present experiment were to study voluntary alcohol intake using a modified intermittent access paradigm, investigate the effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in water- and alcohol-drinking rats, and select extreme low- and high-drinking animals for a more detailed behavioral characterization. Sixty outbred male Wistar rats were randomized into water and alcohol groups. Behavioral profiles in the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test were assessed prior to and after voluntary alcohol intake. The animals had intermittent access to 20% alcohol and water for three consecutive days per week for seven weeks. The results revealed increased alcohol intake over time. No major alcohol-induced differences on behavior profiles were found when comparing water- and alcohol-drinking animals. The high-drinking animals displayed an alcohol deprivation effect, which was not found in the low-drinking animals. High-drinking rats had lower risk-taking behavior prior to alcohol access and lower anxiety-like behavior after voluntary alcohol intake compared to low-drinking rats. In conclusion, the modified intermittent access paradigm may be useful for pharmacological manipulation of alcohol intake. With regard to behavior, the present findings highlights the importance of studying subgroup-dependent differences and add to the complexity of individual differences in behavioral traits of relevance to the vulnerability for excessive alcohol intake.

  20. Gender, intoxication and the developing brain: Problematisations of drinking among young adults in Australian alcohol policy.

    PubMed

    Manton, Elizabeth; Moore, David

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we draw on recent scholarly work in the poststructuralist analysis of policy to consider how policy itself functions as a key site in the constitution of alcohol 'problems', and the political implications of these problematisations. We do this by examining Australian alcohol policy as it relates to young adults (18-24 years old). Our critical analysis focuses on three national alcohol policies (1990, 2001 and 2006) and two Victorian state alcohol policies (2008 and 2013), which together span a 25-year period. We argue that Australian alcohol policies have conspicuously ignored young adult men, despite their ongoing over-representation in the statistical 'evidence base' on alcohol-related harm, while increasingly problematising alcohol consumption amongst other population subgroups. We also identify the development of a new problem representation in Australian alcohol policy, that of 'intoxication' as the leading cause of alcohol-related harm and rising hospital admissions, and argue that changes in the classification and diagnosis of intoxication may have contributed to its prioritisation and problematisation in alcohol policy at the expense of other forms of harm. Finally, we draw attention to how preliminary and inconclusive research on the purported association between binge drinking and brain development in those under 25 years old has been mobilised prematurely to support calls to increase the legal purchasing age from 18 to 21 years. Our critical analysis of the treatment of these three issues - gender, intoxication, and brain development - is intended to highlight the ways in which policy functions as a key site in the constitution of alcohol 'problems'.

  1. Genetic and Environmental Predictors of Alcohol Use in Asian American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bujarski, Spencer; Lau, Anna S.; Lee, Steve S.; Ray, Lara A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Among Asian American young adults, variations in alcohol-metabolizing genes (i.e., aldehyde dehydrogenase [ALDH2] and alcohol dehydrogenase [ADH1B]) are protective, whereas Korean ethnicity, family history of alcohol problems (FH), and acculturation represent risk factors for alcohol misuse. This study aims to integrate these genetic and environmental factors in a sample of Asian Americans expressing a wide range of alcohol use behaviors and problems. Method: Participants were 97 Asian American young adults (42% female) recruited as heavy and light drinkers (n = 49 and 48, respectively). Participants completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Timeline Followback, Vancouver Acculturation Index, and Family Tree Questionnaire. All participants provided buccal cell samples for DNA analysis. Results: Family history–positive (FH+) subjects reported greater alcohol use than family history–negative (FH–) subjects. A FH × ALDH2 interaction was observed such that FH– subjects demonstrated no ALDH2 effect, yet in FH+ subjects, the ALDH2*2 genotype was associated with increased alcohol use. A significant main effect of acculturation was also moderated by FH such that the positive association between acculturation and alcohol use was greater among FH+ subjects and, in particular, among FH+ men. Conclusions: Although preliminary, these results suggest that the potential protective effects conferred by ALDH2 and ADH1B are moderated by FH, such that a positive FH appeared to abolish the protective effect of these genes. Further, acculturation was associated with greater alcohol use in FH+ subjects only. If replicated in larger samples, these data suggest that alcohol-metabolism genes may not be protective in the context of high environmental risk. PMID:26402349

  2. Comparison of direct and indirect alcohol markers with PEth in blood and urine in alcohol dependent inpatients during detoxication.

    PubMed

    Winkler, M; Skopp, G; Alt, A; Miltner, E; Jochum, Th; Daenhardt, C; Sporkert, F; Gnann, H; Weinmann, W; Thierauf, A

    2013-07-01

    The importance of direct and indirect alcohol markers to evaluate alcohol consumption in clinical and forensic settings is increasingly recognized. While some markers are used to prove abstinence from ethanol, other markers are suitable for detection of alcohol misuse. Phosphatidyl ethanol (PEth) is ranked among the latter. There is only little information about the correlation between PEth and other currently used markers (ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, carbohydrate deficient transferrin, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and methanol) and about their decline during detoxification. To get more information, 18 alcohol-dependent patients in withdrawal therapy were monitored for these parameters in blood and urine for up to 19 days. There was no correlation between the different markers. PEth showed a rapid decrease at the beginning of the intervention, a slow decline after the first few days, and could still be detected after 19 days of abstinence from ethanol. PMID:23274938

  3. DOUBLE-BLIND, RANDOMIZED PLACEBO-CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL OF BENFOTIAMINE FOR SEVERE ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Manzardo, Ann M.; He, Jianghua; Poje, Albert; Penick, Elizabeth C.; Campbell, Jan; Butler, Merlin G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence is associated with severe nutritional and vitamin deficiency. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency erodes neurological pathways that may influence the ability to drink in moderation. The present study examines tolerability of supplementation using the high-potency thiamine analogue, benfotiamine (BF), and BF’s effects on alcohol consumption in severely affected, self-identified, alcohol dependent subjects. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 120 non-treatment seeking, actively drinking, alcohol dependent men and women volunteers (mean age=47 years) from the Kansas City area who met DSM-IV-TR criteria current alcohol dependence. Subjects were randomized to receive 600 mg benfotiamine or placebo (PL) once daily by mouth for 24 weeks with 6 follow-up assessments scheduled at 4 week intervals. Side effects and daily alcohol consumption were recorded. Results Seventy (58%) subjects completed 24 weeks of study (N=21 women; N=49 men) with overall completion rates of 55% (N=33) for PL and 63% (N=37) for BF groups. No significant adverse events were noted and alcohol consumption decreased significantly for both treatment groups. Alcohol consumption decreased from baseline levels for 9 of 10 BF treated women after 1 month of treatment compared with 2 of 11 on PL. Reductions in total alcohol consumption over 6 months were significantly greater for BF treated women (BF: N=10, −611±380 Std Dev; PL: N=11, −159±562 Std Dev, p-value=0.02). Conclusions BF supplementation of actively drinking alcohol dependent men and women was well-tolerated and may discourage alcohol consumption among women. The results do support expanded studies of BF treatment in alcoholism. PMID:23992649

  4. Revictimization of Violence Suffered by Those Diagnosed with Alcohol Dependence in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, M. I.; Bressan, R. A.; Mello, M. F.; Andreoli, S. B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To verify the association between violence and alcohol dependence syndrome in sample populations. Method. Population-wide survey with multistage probabilistic sample. 3,744 individuals of both genders, aged from 15 to 75 years, were interviewed from the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1). Results. In both cities, alcohol dependence was associated with the male gender, having suffered violence related to criminality, and having suffered familial violence. In both cities, urban violence, in more than 50% of cases, and familial violence, in more than 90% of cases, preceded alcohol dependence. The reoccurrence of traumatic events occurred in more than half of individuals dependent on alcohol. In São Paulo, having been diagnosed with PTSD is associated with violence revictimization (P = 0.014; Odds = 3.33). Conclusion. Alcohol dependence syndrome is complexly related to urban and familial violence in the general population. Violence frequently precedes alcoholism, but this relationship is dependent on residence and traumatic events. This vicious cycle contributes to perpetuating the high rates of alcoholism and violence in the cities. Politicians ordering the reduction of violence in the large metropolises can, potentially, reduce alcoholism and contribute to the break of this cycle. PMID:26000304

  5. Neurocognitive deficits, craving, and abstinence among alcohol-dependent individuals following detoxification.

    PubMed

    Naim-Feil, Jodie; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Bradshaw, John L; Lubman, Dan I; Sheppard, Dianne

    2014-02-01

    Alcohol dependence, a chronic relapsing disorder, is characterized by an impaired ability to regulate compulsive urges to consume alcohol. Very few empirical studies have examined the presence of these executive deficits, how they relate to craving, and the enduring nature of these deficits during abstinence. As such, the current study aimed to characterize these cognitive deficits within a sample of 24 alcohol-dependent participants post-detoxification and 23 non-alcohol-dependent participants. Participants were administered the Sustained Attention to Response Task to measure response inhibition and sustained attention and the Random Number Generation Task to examine executive deficits. Correlations between cognitive performance and clinical measures of alcohol dependence were examined. As predicted, the alcohol-dependent group exhibited poorer performance across the domains of response inhibition, executive function, and attentional control. Cognitive performance was related to clinical measures of craving and years of alcohol consumption, whereas the duration of abstinence was not associated with improved cognitive performance. These findings highlight the need for therapeutic strategies to target these enduring neurocognitive deficits in improving the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:24334264

  6. Genome-wide polygenic scores for age at onset of alcohol dependence and association with alcohol-related measures

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, M; Chou, Y-L; Edenberg, H J; Foroud, T; Martin, N G; Madden, P A F; Wang, J C; Bertelsen, S; Wetherill, L; Brooks, A; Chan, G; Hesselbrock, V; Kuperman, S; Medland, S E; Montgomery, G; Tischfield, J; Whitfield, J B; Bierut, L J; Heath, A C; Bucholz, K K; Goate, A M; Agrawal, A

    2016-01-01

    Age at onset of alcohol dependence (AO-AD) is a defining feature of multiple drinking typologies. AO-AD is heritable and likely shares genetic liability with other aspects of alcohol consumption. We examine whether polygenic variation in AO-AD, based on a genome-wide association study (GWAS), was associated with AO-AD and other aspects of alcohol consumption in two independent samples. Genetic risk scores (GRS) were created based on AO-AD GWAS results from a discovery sample of 1788 regular drinkers from extended pedigrees from the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). GRS were used to predict AO-AD, AD and Alcohol dependence symptom count (AD-SX), age at onset of intoxication (AO-I), as well as maxdrinks in regular drinking participants from two independent samples—the Study of Addictions: Genes and Environment (SAGE; n=2336) and an Australian sample (OZ-ALC; n=5816). GRS for AO-AD from COGA explained a modest but significant proportion of the variance in all alcohol-related phenotypes in SAGE. Despite including effect sizes associated with large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; >110 000), GRS explained, at most, 0.7% of the variance in these alcohol measures in this independent sample. In OZ-ALC, significant but even more modest associations were noted with variance estimates ranging from 0.03 to 0.16%. In conclusion, there is modest evidence that genetic variation in AO-AD is associated with liability to other aspects of alcohol involvement. PMID:27003187

  7. Observing nurses has improved my alcohol dependency care.

    PubMed

    Jaques, Ellise

    2016-09-21

    My first placement in my first year of nursing training was on a gastrointestinal/hepatology ward. Alongside my mentor, I was caring for a patient who had been withdrawing from alcohol since admission to hospital the previous evening.

  8. Retrospective reports of parenting received in their families of origin: relationships to adult attachment in adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Nair, Veena; Rawlings, Tanaya; Cash, Thomas F; Steer, Kate; Fals-Stewart, William

    2005-09-01

    The present study examined general and romantic attachment and parenting students received in their families of origin among 401 college students who resided with an alcohol-abusing parent prior to age 16 years as compared to those who did not reside with alcohol-abusing parents. Participants completed the Children's Report of Parent Behavior Instrument [Schludermann, E. and Schludermann, S. (1970). Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory (CRPBI). Canada: University of Manitoba], Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised [Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., and Brennan, K. G. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365], Relationship Scale Questionnaire [Griffin, D. W. and Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445], and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test [Jones, J. W. (1983). The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test: Test manual. Chicago: Camelot]. Young adults who met criteria for ACOAs reported more anxious and avoidant behavior in romantic relationships and a more fearful style of general adult attachment. Parenting behavior in one's family of origin predicted anxious behavior in romantic relationships and a fearful overall style of attachment, whereas being an ACOA and parenting in one's family of origin predicted avoidant behavior in romantic relationships. PMID:15896922

  9. Retrospective reports of parenting received in their families of origin: relationships to adult attachment in adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Nair, Veena; Rawlings, Tanaya; Cash, Thomas F; Steer, Kate; Fals-Stewart, William

    2005-09-01

    The present study examined general and romantic attachment and parenting students received in their families of origin among 401 college students who resided with an alcohol-abusing parent prior to age 16 years as compared to those who did not reside with alcohol-abusing parents. Participants completed the Children's Report of Parent Behavior Instrument [Schludermann, E. and Schludermann, S. (1970). Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory (CRPBI). Canada: University of Manitoba], Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised [Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., and Brennan, K. G. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365], Relationship Scale Questionnaire [Griffin, D. W. and Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445], and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test [Jones, J. W. (1983). The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test: Test manual. Chicago: Camelot]. Young adults who met criteria for ACOAs reported more anxious and avoidant behavior in romantic relationships and a more fearful style of general adult attachment. Parenting behavior in one's family of origin predicted anxious behavior in romantic relationships and a fearful overall style of attachment, whereas being an ACOA and parenting in one's family of origin predicted avoidant behavior in romantic relationships.

  10. Cladistic association analysis of Y chromosome effects on alcohol dependence and related personality traits

    PubMed Central

    Kittles, Rick A.; Long, Jeffrey C.; Bergen, Andrew W.; Eggert, Monica; Virkkunen, Matti; Linnoila, Markku; Goldman, David

    1999-01-01

    Association between Y chromosome haplotype variation and alcohol dependence and related personality traits was investigated in a large sample of psychiatrically diagnosed Finnish males. Haplotypes were constructed for 359 individuals using alleles at eight loci (seven microsatellite loci and a nucleotide substitution in the DYZ3 alphoid satellite locus). A cladogram linking the 102 observed haplotype configurations was constructed by using parsimony with a single-step mutation model. Then, a series of contingency tables nested according to the cladogram hierarchy were used to test for association between Y haplotype and alcohol dependence. Finally, using only alcohol-dependent subjects, we tested for association between Y haplotype and personality variables postulated to define subtypes of alcoholism—antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence. Significant association with alcohol dependence was observed at three Y haplotype clades, with significance levels of P = 0.002, P = 0.020, and P = 0.010. Within alcohol-dependent subjects, no relationship was revealed between Y haplotype and antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, or reward dependence. These results demonstrate, by using a fully objective association design, that differences among Y chromosomes contribute to variation in vulnerability to alcohol dependence. However, they do not demonstrate an association between Y haplotype and the personality variables thought to underlie the subtypes of alcoholism. PMID:10097188

  11. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Alcohol Dependence in Young Women*

    PubMed Central

    Sartor, Carolyn E.; Mccutcheon, Vivia V.; Pommer, Nicole E.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Duncan, Alexis E.; Waldron, Mary; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study is to characterize the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) in women, distinguishing PTSD-specific influences on AD from the contribution of co-occurring psychiatric conditions and from the influences of trauma more generally. Method: Trauma histories and DSM-IV lifetime diagnoses, including PTSD and AD, were obtained via telephone interview from 3,768 female twins. Based on PTSD status and trauma history, participants were categorized as no trauma (43.7%), trauma without PTSD (52.6%), or trauma with PTSD (3.7%). Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted using trauma/PTSD status to predict AD, first adjusting only for ethnicity and parental problem drinking, then including conduct disorder, major depressive disorder, regular smoking, and cannabis abuse. Results: Before accounting for psychiatric covariates, elevated rates of AD were evident in both trauma-exposed groups, but those with PTSD were at significantly greater risk for AD than those without PTSD. This distinction was no longer statistically significant when psychiatric covariates were included in the model, but both trauma-exposed groups continued to show elevated odds of developing AD compared with the no trauma group. Conclusions: The elevated rates of AD in women who have experienced trauma are not accounted for in full by psychiatric conditions that commonly co-occur with AD and trauma exposure. The greater likelihood of developing AD in the subset of trauma-exposed individuals who develop PTSD may reflect higher levels of distress and/ or higher rates of psychopathology associated with traumas that lead to PTSD rather than PTSD-specific influences. PMID:20946737

  12. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure, Adaptive Function, and Entry into Adult Roles in a Prospective Study of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Mary Ellen; Kable, Julie A.; Coles, Claire D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although many studies have demonstrated effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on physical, cognitive, and behavioral development in children, few have focused on the long term effects on adults. In this study, data are presented on adaptive function and entry into adult roles in a community sample of young adults with PAE. The expectation was that prenatally exposed adults would show lower adaptive functioning and more difficulty with entry into adult roles than the non-exposed control group and that these effects would be related to the severity of PAE effects. Method The predominantly African-American, low income sample included adults with a wide range of prenatal exposure (n = 123) as well as control groups for socioeconomic (SES) (n = 59) and disability (n = 54) status. The mothers of the alcohol-exposed and SES-control group participants were recruited before birth and offspring have been followed up periodically. The disability control group was recruited in adolescence. The adults were interviewed about adaptive function in day-to-day life and adult role entry. Collateral adults who were well-acquainted with each participant were interviewed concerning adaptive function. Results Results showed that adults who were dysmorphic and/or cognitively affected by PAE had difficulty with adaptive function and entry into adult roles. Males showing cognitive effects with no physical effects were the most severely affected. Results for exposed adults not showing physical or cognitive effects were similar to or more positive than those of the control group for most outcomes. Conclusion PAE has long-term effects on adaptive outcomes in early adulthood. Additional research should focus on possible interventions at this transition and on factors contributing to the adjustment of the exposed, but unaffected participants. PMID:26247662

  13. What Happens When Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Become Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Eileen M.; Riley, Edward P.

    2015-01-01

    The range of structural abnormalities and functional deficits caused by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) are referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). The disabilities associated with FASDs are said to be lifelong, but we know relatively little regarding outcomes beyond childhood and adolescence. Many of physical, brain, and neurobehavioral features that are present in children with FASDs will endure to adulthood. However, some features may diminish or change over time. Furthermore, secondary disabilities, such as school drop outs, trouble with the law, and substance/alcohol abuse problems are common in young adults with FASDs. The health consequences associated with PAE in the human adult are unknown, but animal models suggest that they may be more susceptible to chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, immune dysfunction, and cancer. More research is needed to understand the lasting effects of PAE on adults and the developmental trajectories of FASDs. PMID:26543794

  14. Brief Alcohol Interventions for Adolescents and Young Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports findings from a meta-analysis summarizing the effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions for adolescents (age 11-18) and young adults (age 19-30). We identified 185 eligible study samples using a comprehensive literature search and synthesized findings using random-effects meta-analyses with robust standard errors. Overall, brief alcohol interventions led to significant reductions in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems among adolescents (ḡ = 0.27 and ḡ = 0.19) and young adults (ḡ = 0.17 and ḡ = 0.11). These effects persisted for up to one year after intervention and did not vary across participant demographics, intervention length, or intervention format. However, certain intervention modalities (e.g., motivational interviewing) and components (e.g., decisional balance, goal-setting exercises) were associated with larger effects. We conclude that brief alcohol interventions yield beneficial effects on alcohol-related outcomes for adolescents and young adults that are modest but potentially worthwhile given their brevity and low cost. PMID:25300577

  15. Correlates of Concurrent Energy Drink and Alcohol Use among Socially Active Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Brooke E.; Kelly, Brian C.; Pawson, Mark; LeClair, Amy; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Golub, Sarit A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Research indicates that energy drink consumption and the combined use of energy drinks and alcohol are popular among young adults, although this research has typically focused on college students. Because of the potential for harms associated with this combination, it is critical to understand use among adults in nightlife scenes who may be most at risk for harms associated with combined energy drink and alcohol consumption. Objectives By focusing our sample on individuals in a range of nightlife scenes, we aim to gain a deeper understanding of the demographic factors associated with energy drink use and combined energy drink and alcohol consumption to benefit the targeting of intervention and prevention efforts beyond college campuses. Methods Using a field-based survey in New York City to survey adults active in various nightlife scenes, this study reports on the survey results of 1476 venue patrons at venues in five nightlife scenes in addition to college bar scenes Results Men, younger individuals, Latinos, and sexual minority individuals reported higher prevalence of recent energy drink consumption. Younger individuals, men, and those recruited in gay venues reported higher prevalence of combining alcohol and energy drinks. Conclusion These findings provide information useful to target education and prevention efforts. They also suggest the need for additional research to understand differences in motivations for use and in the behavioral and alcohol-related outcomes associated with consuming energy drinks and combining them with alcohol. PMID:23030475

  16. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the extended amygdala is recruited during the transition to alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Nicholas W

    2012-12-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is abundant in the extended amygdala, a conceptual macrostructure in the basal forebrain important for regulation of negative affective states. NPY has been attributed a central role in anxiety-like behavior, fear, nociception, and reward in rodents. Deletion of the NPY gene in mice produces a high-anxiety high-alcohol-drinking phenotype. NPY infused into the brains of rats selectively bred to consume high quantities of alcohol suppresses alcohol drinking by those animals, an effect that is mediated by central amygdala (CeA). Likewise, alcohol-preferring rats exhibit basal NPY deficits in CeA. NPY infused into the brains of alcohol-dependent rats blocks excessive alcohol drinking by those animals, an effect that also has been localized to the CeA. NPY in CeA may rescue dependence-induced increases in anxiety and alcohol drinking via inhibition of downstream effector regions that receive GABAergic inputs from CeA. It is hypothesized here that NPY modulates anxiety-like behavior via Y2R regulation of NPY release, whereas NPY modulation of alcohol-drinking behavior in alcohol-dependent animals occurs via Y2R regulation of GABA release.

  17. Disrupted Regulation of Social Exclusion in Alcohol-Dependence: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Maurage, Pierre; Joassin, Frédéric; Philippot, Pierre; Heeren, Alexandre; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Mahau, Pierre; Delperdange, Christel; Corneille, Olivier; Luminet, Olivier; de Timary, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol-dependence is associated with cognitive and biological alterations, and also with interpersonal impairments. Although overwhelming in clinical settings and involved in relapse, these social impairments have received little attention from researchers. Particularly, brain alterations related to social exclusion have not been explored in alcohol-dependence. Our primary purpose was to determine the neural correlates of social exclusion feelings in this population. In all, 44 participants (22 abstinent alcohol-dependent patients and 22 paired controls) played a virtual game (‘cyberball') during fMRI recording. They were first included by other players, then excluded, and finally re-included. Brain areas involved in social exclusion were identified and the functional connectivity between these areas was explored using psycho-physiological interactions (PPI). Results showed that while both groups presented dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activations during social exclusion, alcohol-dependent participants exhibited increased insula and reduced frontal activations (in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex) as compared with controls. Alcohol-dependence was also associated with persistent dACC and parahippocampal gyrus activations in re-inclusion. PPI analyses showed reduced frontocingulate connectivity during social exclusion in alcohol-dependence. Alcohol-dependence is thus linked with increased activation in areas eliciting social exclusion feelings (dACC–insula), and with impaired ability to inhibit these feelings (indexed by reduced frontal activations). Altered frontal regulation thus appears implied in the interpersonal alterations observed in alcohol-dependence, which seem reinforced by impaired frontocingulate connectivity. This first exploration of the neural correlates of interpersonal problems in alcohol-dependence could initiate the development of a social neuroscience of addictive states. PMID:22510722

  18. Smoking, Alcohol, Drug Use, Abuse and Dependence in Narcolepsy and Idiopathic Hypersomnia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Barateau, Lucie; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lopez, Régis; Boutrel, Benjamin; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Basic experiments support the impact of hypocretin on hyperarousal and motivated state required for increasing drug craving. Our aim was to assess the frequencies of smoking, alcohol and drug use, abuse and dependence in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, hypocretin-deficient), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2), idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) (non-hypocretin-deficient conditions), in comparison to controls. We hypothesized that NT1 patients would be less vulnerable to drug abuse and addiction compared to other hypersomniac patients and controls from general population. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in French reference centres for rare hypersomnia diseases and included 450 adult patients (median age 35 years; 41.3% men) with NT1 (n = 243), NT2 (n = 116), IH (n = 91), and 710 adult controls. All participants were evaluated for alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and substance (alcohol and illicit drug) abuse and dependence diagnosis during the past year using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results: An increased proportion of both tobacco and heavy tobacco smokers was found in NT1 compared to controls and other hypersomniacs, despite adjustments for potential confounders. We reported an increased regular and frequent alcohol drinking habit in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs in adjusted models. In contrast, heavy drinkers were significantly reduced in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs. The proportion of patients with excessive drug use (codeine, cocaine, and cannabis), substance dependence, or abuse was low in all subgroups, without significant differences between either hypersomnia disorder categories or compared with controls. Conclusions: We first described a low frequency of illicit drug use, dependence, or abuse in patients with central hypersomnia, whether Hcrt-deficient or not, and whether drug-free or medicated, in the same range as in controls. Conversely, heavy drinkers were

  19. Talking With Your College-Bound Young Adult About Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... 97,000 students are victims of alcohol-related sexual assault or date rape. 400,000 students have unprotected sex. 100,000+ ... March 16, 2015, Rockville, MD. View the companion video, The Sound of Your Voice , and download this ...

  20. Children of Alcoholics: Patterns of Dysfunction in Adult Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Barbara L.

    Children of alcoholic parents often defend against family instability by adopting roles (hero, scapegoat, lost child, mascot) which bring a semblance of stability to the family. While one role may seem to dominate the character of an individual child, all four roles may be seen in the same child; at times conditions may cause an exchange of roles.…

  1. Sub-populations of alcohol-dependent patients: differences in psychological functioning between high- and low-frequency alcohol consumers.

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, A J; Koechling, U M; Voltaire-Carlsson, A; Borg, S

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the processes underlying relapse to drinking using objective biological validation of self-reported recent alcohol consumption, using the ratio of 5-hydroxytryptophol to 5-hydroxyindol-3-ylacetic acid (5-HTOL/5-HIAA), a new biological marker to detect single episodes of drinking, in a sample of 38 male alcohol-dependent patients (DSM-III-R) who were assessed prospectively in terms of their clinical symptomatology over a 6-month treatment period. Results showed that nearly all patients obtained positive 5-HTOL/5-HIAA samples during the course of treatment. However, upon closer inspection, results revealed a bimodal distribution for alcohol intake with high and low frequency of consumption episodes. Results showed that high frequency consumers obtained higher ratings of clinical symptoms as measured by the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS) and by the St Göran's Semi-structured Interview (SGSI) compared to low frequency alcohol consumers on symptoms of inner tension, lack of initiative, risk of relapse (as rated by therapists and as rated by patients themselves), dysphoria, negative craving for alcohol, and positive craving for alcohol. The present results provided evidence for the existence of two sub-populations of alcoholics, those who have frequent lapses and those who have low frequency of sporadic lapses. Further, these two sub-populations were shown to differ with respect to overall psychological functioning, and craving for alcohol. In conclusion, the present findings have important treatment implications in that reliable identification of patients' consumption patterns using biological markers would allow for the design of individually tailored treatment needs. PMID:8879293

  2. An Update on CRF Mechanisms Underlying Alcohol Use Disorders and Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Quadros, Isabel Marian Hartmann; Macedo, Giovana Camila; Domingues, Liz Paola; Favoretto, Cristiane Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly used and abused substance worldwide. The emergence of alcohol use disorders, and alcohol dependence in particular, is accompanied by functional changes in brain reward and stress systems, which contribute to escalated alcohol drinking and seeking. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems have been critically implied in the transition toward problematic alcohol drinking and alcohol dependence. This review will discuss how dysregulation of CRF function contributes to the vulnerability for escalated alcohol drinking and other consequences of alcohol consumption, based on preclinical evidence. CRF signaling, mostly via CRF1 receptors, seems to be particularly important in conditions of excessive alcohol taking and seeking, including during early and protracted withdrawal, relapse, as well as during withdrawal-induced anxiety and escalated aggression promoted by alcohol. Modulation of CRF1 function seems to exert a less prominent role over low to moderate alcohol intake, or to species-typical behaviors. While CRF mechanisms in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis have some contribution to the neurobiology of alcohol abuse and dependence, a pivotal role for extra-hypothalamic CRF pathways, particularly in the extended amygdala, is well characterized. More recent studies further suggest a direct modulation of brain reward function by CRF signaling in the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, and the prefrontal cortex, among other structures. This review will further discuss a putative role for other components of the CRF system that contribute for the overall balance of CRF function in reward and stress pathways, including CRF2 receptors, CRF-binding protein, and urocortins, a family of CRF-related peptides.

  3. The Use of Gestalt Interventions in the Treatment of the Resistant Alcohol-Dependent Client.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Luellen

    1998-01-01

    Reviews ethical and practical dilemmas associated with clients who have hidden alcohol dependencies, and proposes an approach rooted in Gestalt counseling theory which confronts these issues and is compatible with a current emerging alcohol-treatment model. Suggests specific activities for addressing client resistance to revealing a hidden alcohol…

  4. Industrialization Stresses, Alcohol Abuse & Substance Dependence: Differential Gender Effects in a Kenyan Rural Farming Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walt, Lisa C.; Kinoti, Elias; Jason, Leonard A.

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries' industrialization and urbanization attempts have been linked to psychological distress and alcohol abuse. We used Hobfoll's COR theory to examine the relationship between gender, perceived resource loss (an indicator of industrialization stress), and alcohol abuse and dependence in a sample of Kenyan rural village men and…

  5. Alcohol and Marijuana Use in the Context of Tobacco Dependence Treatment: Impact on Outcome and Mediation of Effect

    PubMed Central

    Delucchi, Kevin L.; Humfleet, Gary L.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Alcohol and marijuana are among the most commonly used substances together with tobacco worldwide, but their relationship to smoking cessation is unclear. Although alcohol use decreases the likelihood of abstinence from tobacco, mechanisms of this effect have not been identified. Moreover, a small literature has yielded inconsistent findings regarding the effect of marijuana use on tobacco dependence treatment outcome. The aims of this study were to test increased positive-reinforcement smoking urge as a mediator of the relationship between alcohol and cigarette use and evaluate the impact of marijuana use on abstinence from tobacco. Methods: Participants were adult cigarette smokers (N = 739) from 3 randomized clinical trials of smoking cessation treatment. Alcohol consumption and marijuana use were assessed at pretreatment and postcessation. Biochemically verified, 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence was determined at Weeks 12, 24, 36, and 52, as were urges to smoke as measured by the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges. Results: Increased positive-reinforcement urge mediated the effect of postcessation alcohol use on smoking abstinence. Although pretreatment alcohol use was associated with a decreased likelihood of abstinence from tobacco, increased positive-reinforcement urge did not account for this relationship. Marijuana use was not associated with abstinence from tobacco. Conclusions: Smoking cessation treatments should provide those who drink during a quit attempt techniques designed to mitigate positive-reinforcement urge to smoke. Additional research is needed to determine how pretreatment alcohol consumption exerts its effect on cigarette use. Modifying the use of marijuana might not be critical to the success of tobacco interventions. PMID:22259148

  6. Alcohol drinking in young adults: the predictive value of personality when peers come around.

    PubMed

    van Schoor, Guido; Bot, Sander M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether personality traits and peer drinking affect alcohol consumption in young adults. Data were analyzed from a study that was conducted in a 'bar laboratory' in which ad-lib drinking of peer groups was observed. The findings indicate that extroversion is moderately associated with self-reported daily drinking, while low emotional stability is modestly associated with alcohol-related problems. With regard to drinking in the observational drinking setting, personality is not associated with young adults' actual alcohol consumption. Further, peer drinking levels were strongly related to young adults' drinking. Besides, agreeableness interacted with the effects of peer drinking on young adults' drinking in such a way that agreeable individuals adapted their actual alcohol consumption more easily than others when socializing in a high- or a low-drinking peer group. We concluded that drinking in a peer context, irrespective of personality, played a major role in forming young adults' drinking. However, personality (i.e. agreeableness) definitely played a role to the extent of the individuals' adaptation to peer drinking norms.

  7. Safety and tolerability of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in the treatment of alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Beghè, F; Carpanini, M T

    2000-04-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has been in clinical use in Italy since 1991 for treatment of alcohol dependence. Results of phase III and phase IV studies have shown that the drug is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and in reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol craving. Pharmacosurveillance indicates that abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid is a limited phenomenon in clinical settings when the drug is dispensed under strict medical surveillance and entrusted to a referring familiar member of the patient.

  8. Anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance in relation to coping and conformity motives for alcohol use and alcohol use problems among young adult drinkers.

    PubMed

    Howell, Ashley N; Leyro, Teresa M; Hogan, Julianna; Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance have been identified as important factors related to alcohol use motives and alcohol-related problems. Yet, these variables are highly correlated and little work has delineated whether these psychological vulnerability factors are differentially related to alcohol use motives and problems. To fill this gap in the existing literature, the present study evaluated whether anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance were differentially related to high-risk alcohol use motives (i.e., coping and conformity motives) and alcohol use problems among 224 young adult, current drinkers (52.3% women; M(age)=21.18, SD=7.08). Results indicated that distress tolerance, but not anxiety sensitivity or discomfort intolerance, was significantly related to coping motives for alcohol use. Additionally, anxiety sensitivity, but not distress tolerance or discomfort intolerance, was significantly related to conformity motives for drinking. For both sets of analyses, the observed significant effects were evident above and beyond the variance accounted for by alcohol consumption level, smoking rate, negative affectivity, and non-criterion alcohol use motives. Additionally, discomfort intolerance and anxiety sensitivity each predicted alcohol use problems; effects were not attributable to negative affectivity, cigarettes smoked per day, or shared variance with distress tolerance. Findings are discussed in relation to the role of emotional sensitivity and intolerance in terms of the motivational bases for alcohol use and alcohol use problems among young adult drinkers.

  9. Childhood maltreatment, stressful life events, and alcohol craving in adult drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, June H.; Martins, Silvia S.; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Santaella, Julian; Wall, Melanie M.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Eaton, Nicholas R.; Krueger, Robert; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the relationship of stressful life events and alcohol craving in the general population, and whether a history of childhood maltreatment sensitizes individuals to crave alcohol after adult stressors. Methods Participants were 22,147 past-year drinkers from Wave 2 (2004-2006) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. A structured, face-to-face interview assessed past-year stressful life events, alcohol craving, and history of childhood maltreatment. Logistic regression was used to generate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) to evaluate the relationship between stressful life events and craving, adjusting for demographic characteristics and parental history of alcoholism. Interaction between stressful life events and childhood maltreatment was also assessed. Results Compared to participants with no stressful life events, those with ≥3 events had increased odds of moderate alcohol craving (aOR=3.15 [95% CI=2.30-4.33]) and severe craving (aOR=8.47 [95% CI=4.78-15.01]). Stressful life events and childhood maltreatment interacted in predicting severe craving (p=0.017); those with ≥3 events were at higher risk for craving if they had been exposed to childhood maltreatment. Conclusion A direct relationship between stressful life events and risk for alcohol craving was observed. Further, history of childhood maltreatment increased the salience of stressful life events in adulthood. Future studies should examine the role of psychiatric comorbidity in more complex models of stress sensitization and alcohol craving. PMID:24961735

  10. Moderate, Regular Alcohol Consumption is Associated with Higher Cognitive Function in Older Community-Dwelling Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reas, E.T.; Laughlin, G.A.; Kritz-Silverstein, D.; Barrett-Connor, E.; McEvoy, L.K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Evidence suggests that moderate alcohol consumption may protect against cognitive decline and dementia. However, uncertainty remains over the patterns of drinking that are most beneficial. OBJECTIVE To examine associations between amount and frequency of alcohol consumption with multiple domains of cognitive function in a well-characterized cohort of older community-dwelling adults in southern California. DESIGN Observational, cross-sectional cohort study. SETTING A research visit between 1988–1992 in Rancho Bernardo, California. PARTICIPANTS 1624 participants of the Rancho Bernardo Study (mean age ± SD = 73.2 ± 9.3 years). Measurements Participants completed a neuropsychological test battery, self-administered questionnaires on alcohol consumption and lifestyle, and a clinical health evaluation. We classified participants according to average amount of alcohol intake into never, former, moderate, heavy and excessive drinkers, and according to frequency of alcohol intake, into non-drinkers, rare, infrequent, frequent and daily drinkers. We examined the association between alcohol intake and cognitive function, controlling for age, sex, education, exercise, smoking, waist-hip ratio, hypertension and self-assessed health. RESULTS Amount and frequency of alcohol intake were significantly associated with cognitive function, even after controlling for potentially related health and lifestyle variables. Global and executive function showed positive linear associations with amount and frequency of alcohol intake, whereas visual memory showed an inverted U-shaped association with alcohol intake, with better performance for moderate and infrequent drinkers than for non-drinkers, excessive drinkers or daily drinkers. CONCLUSIONS In several cognitive domains, moderate, regular alcohol intake was associated with better cognitive function relative to not drinking or drinking less frequently. This suggests that beneficial cognitive effects of alcohol intake may be

  11. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  12. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  13. Repeated seizures in an elderly patient with alcohol dependence and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Terao, Takeshi; Araki, Yasuo; Hatano, Koji

    2013-11-22

    A 69-year-old man with alcohol dependence and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) suffered from repeated tonic-clonic seizures. The seizures typically occurred several hours after his last alcohol intake at home (early withdrawal seizure) and 22 days after his last intake of alcohol (14 days after the last dose of diazepam substituting for alcohol: late withdrawal seizure) on the ward. Psychiatrists in charge of this patient found it difficult to attribute his seizures to alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) because of the atypical onset. The patient responded to diazepam resumption and valproate combination. This case highlights the need to always consider AWS as a possible cause of seizures and to gradually decrease diazepam as a substitute for alcohol. Moreover, in this patient, MCI may have induced vulnerability in the brain for AWS and the patients' older age might have decreased liver function leading to delayed onset of the seizures after diazepam withdrawal.

  14. Acute Alcohol Use and Injury Patterns in Young Adult Prehospital Patients.

    PubMed

    Barton, David J; Tift, Frank W; Cournoyer, Lauren E; Vieth, Julie T; Hudson, Korin B

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine if acute alcohol consumption is associated with differences in injury pattern among young adult patients with traumatic injuries presenting to emergency medical services (EMS). A cross-sectional, retrospective review of prehospital patient care reports (PCRs) was conducted evaluating injured patients who presented to a collegiate EMS agency from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2012. Included patients were age 18-24 y and sustained an injury within the previous 24 h. PCRs were reviewed independently by two abstractors to determine if the patient was documented to have acutely consumed alcohol proximate to his/her injury. Primary and secondary sites of regional body injury were recorded. Injury severity was recorded using the Revised Trauma Score (RTS). The association between primary injury site and acute alcohol use was assessed using a chi-square test. Multiple logistic regression was used to control for sex in predicting injury type. Of 440 injured patients, 135 (30.6%) had documented alcohol use prior to injury. Acute alcohol consumption altered the overall pattern of regional injury (p < 0.001). Alcohol users were more likely to present with injury secondary to assault, fall/trip, and unknown mechanism of injury (p < 0.001, all comparisons). RTS scores were statistically lower in the alcohol group (p < 0.001), although the clinical significance of this is unclear. Controlling for sex, acute alcohol consumption predicted increased risk of head/neck injury 5.59-fold (p < 0.001). Acute alcohol use in collegiate EMS patients appears to alter injury patterns in young adults and increases risk of head/neck injury. EMS providers in similar agencies should consider these trends when assessing and treating injured college-aged patients. PMID:27002348

  15. Alcohol and Opioid Use Disorder in Older Adults: Neglected and Treatable Illnesses.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Christoffel; Tang, Yilang; Drexler, Karen

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and opioid use disorder (OUD) in older adults for general psychiatrists. The rapid growth of the geriatric population in the USA has wide-ranging implications as the baby boomer generation ages. Various types of substance use disorders (SUDs) are common in older adults, and they often take a greater toll on affected older adults than on younger adults. Due to multiple reasons, SUDs in older adults are often under-reported, under-detected, and under-treated. Older adults often use substances, which leads to various clinical problems. Space limitations prevents a comprehensive review; therefore, we primarily focus on alcohol use disorder and the problem of opioid use disorder, with more emphasis given to the latter, because the opioid use epidemic in the USA has gained much attention. We reviewed the literature on the topics, integrated across geriatric psychiatry, addiction psychiatry, research, and national trends. We discuss unique vulnerabilities of older adults to SUDs with regard to management of SUDs in older adults, medication-assisted treatment (MAT), and psychosocial treatments. We encourage general psychiatrists to raise their awareness of SUDs in older adults and to provide brief intervention or referral for further assessment. PMID:27488204

  16. Alcohol and Opioid Use Disorder in Older Adults: Neglected and Treatable Illnesses.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Christoffel; Tang, Yilang; Drexler, Karen

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and opioid use disorder (OUD) in older adults for general psychiatrists. The rapid growth of the geriatric population in the USA has wide-ranging implications as the baby boomer generation ages. Various types of substance use disorders (SUDs) are common in older adults, and they often take a greater toll on affected older adults than on younger adults. Due to multiple reasons, SUDs in older adults are often under-reported, under-detected, and under-treated. Older adults often use substances, which leads to various clinical problems. Space limitations prevents a comprehensive review; therefore, we primarily focus on alcohol use disorder and the problem of opioid use disorder, with more emphasis given to the latter, because the opioid use epidemic in the USA has gained much attention. We reviewed the literature on the topics, integrated across geriatric psychiatry, addiction psychiatry, research, and national trends. We discuss unique vulnerabilities of older adults to SUDs with regard to management of SUDs in older adults, medication-assisted treatment (MAT), and psychosocial treatments. We encourage general psychiatrists to raise their awareness of SUDs in older adults and to provide brief intervention or referral for further assessment.

  17. Observing nurses has improved my alcohol dependency care.

    PubMed

    Jaques, Ellise

    2016-09-21

    My first placement in my first year of nursing training was on a gastrointestinal/hepatology ward. Alongside my mentor, I was caring for a patient who had been withdrawing from alcohol since admission to hospital the previous evening. PMID:27654556

  18. The association between DSM-III-R alcohol dependence, psychological distress and drug use.

    PubMed

    Caetano, R; Weisner, C

    1995-03-01

    This paper examines the association between DSM-III-R alcohol dependence, psychological distress and the frequency of drug use in a sample of 219 men and 162 women consecutively admitted to nine alcohol treatment programs in a Northern California county. Results show that psychological distress is higher among men who are more severely dependent on alcohol and among those who have lower education; women who are less alcohol dependent and women who are younger have higher scores in psychological distress than other women. With regard to drug use, about 65% of the men and 64% of the women report using a drug other than alcohol at least once a week during the 12 months prior to admission into treatment. Among both men and women, the drugs most frequently used are crack/cocaine, marijuana and methamphetamine. Among men, regression analysis shows that drug use is associated with being younger. Among women results show that the predictors of drug use are being younger, being unemployed, having a higher income, being a heavier drinker and having fewer symptoms of alcohol dependence. These results show a complex pattern of association across alcohol dependence, drug use and psychological distress. Knowledge of this pattern is necessary for tailoring effective clinical interventions to clients with different kinds of comorbidity.

  19. Caffeine and alcohol intakes and overall nutrient adequacy are associated with longitudinal cognitive performance among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Beydoun, May A; Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Beydoun, Hind A; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tucker, Katherine L; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B

    2014-06-01

    Among modifiable lifestyle factors, diet may affect cognitive health. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations may exist between dietary exposures [e.g., caffeine (mg/d), alcohol (g/d), and nutrient adequacy] and cognitive performance and change over time. This was a prospective cohort study, the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (n = 628-1305 persons depending on the cognitive outcome; ∼2 visits/person). Outcomes included 10 cognitive scores, spanning various domains of cognition. Caffeine and alcohol intakes and a nutrient adequacy score (NAS) were estimated from 7-d food diaries. Among key findings, caffeine intake was associated with better baseline global cognition among participants with a baseline age (Agebase) of ≥70 y. A higher NAS was associated with better baseline global cognition performance (overall, women, Agebase <70 y), better baseline verbal memory (immediate and delayed recall, Agebase ≥70 y), and slower rate of decline or faster improvement in the attention domain (women). For an Agebase of <70 y, alcohol consumption was associated with slower improvement on letter fluency and global cognition over time. Conversely, for an Agebase of ≥70 y and among women, alcohol intake was related to better baseline attention and working memory. In sum, patterns of diet and cognition associations indicate stratum-specific associations by sex and baseline age. The general observed trend was that of putative beneficial effects of caffeine intake and nutrient adequacy on domains of global cognition, verbal memory, and attention, and mixed effects of alcohol on domains of letter fluency, attention, and working memory. Further longitudinal studies conducted on larger samples of adults are needed to determine whether dietary factors individually or in combination are modifiers of cognitive trajectories among adults. PMID:24744319

  20. Crystal structure of quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Pseudogluconobacter saccharoketogenes. A versatile dehydrogenase oxidizing alcohols and carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Rozeboom, Henriëtte J; Yu, Shukun; Mikkelsen, Rene; Nikolaev, Igor; Mulder, Harm J; Dijkstra, Bauke W

    2015-12-01

    The quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (PQQ-ADH, E.C. 1.1.5.2) from the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudogluconobacter saccharoketogenes IFO 14464 oxidizes primary alcohols (e.g. ethanol, butanol), secondary alcohols (monosaccharides), as well as aldehydes, polysaccharides, and cyclodextrins. The recombinant protein, expressed in Pichia pastoris, was crystallized, and three-dimensional (3D) structures of the native form, with PQQ and a Ca(2+) ion, and of the enzyme in complex with a Zn(2+) ion and a bound substrate mimic were determined at 1.72 Å and 1.84 Å resolution, respectively. PQQ-ADH displays an eight-bladed β-propeller fold, characteristic of Type I quinone-dependent methanol dehydrogenases. However, three of the four ligands of the Ca(2+) ion differ from those of related dehydrogenases and they come from different parts of the polypeptide chain. These differences result in a more open, easily accessible active site, which explains why PQQ-ADH can oxidize a broad range of substrates. The bound substrate mimic suggests Asp333 as the catalytic base. Remarkably, no vicinal disulfide bridge is present near the PQQ, which in other PQQ-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases has been proposed to be necessary for electron transfer. Instead an associated cytochrome c can approach the PQQ for direct electron transfer.

  1. Are schools and alcohol a good mix? A qualitative study of school principals' experiences of adults' alcohol use in Australian secondary schools

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Bernadette M; Buykx, Penny; Munro, Geoffrey; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective Parents, schools and the broader community influence children's socialisation to alcohol. In Australia, the UK and the USA, there have been media reports of adults consuming alcohol at family-focused school events such as fairs and graduations. The aim of this qualitative study was to describe school principals' experiences of adults' use of alcohol at school events, when children are present. Design/setting/participants A qualitative study was undertaken. Publicly available lists were used to invite 60 principals from government and Catholic secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. In-depth interviews were conducted and analysed thematically and reported using the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research guidelines. Results 14 principals (5 female, 9 male) participated. Most (10) of the participating principals reported adults' use of alcohol at events when students were present. Regarding these events, most principals reported concerns regarding potential harms and responsibility for decision-making about alcohol availability in schools. Some (4) principals believed alcohol should not be present at such events and this was their practice. Half of the participating schools had recently made changes to reduce the availability or management of alcohol at school functions. Conclusions The findings confirm the common use of alcohol by adults at school events, the challenges this poses for school principals and suggests consideration needs to be given to identifying strategies for supporting schools and school principals in decision-making regarding the conduct of such events. PMID:27481620

  2. Dissociating Motivational From Physiological Withdrawal in Alcohol Dependence: Role of Central Amygdala κ-Opioid Receptors.

    PubMed

    Kissler, Jessica L; Walker, Brendan M

    2016-01-01

    Chronic intermittent alcohol vapor exposure leads to increased dynorphin (DYN) A-like peptide expression and heightened kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) signaling in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and these neuroadaptive responses differentiate alcohol-dependent from non-dependent phenotypes. Important for therapeutic development efforts is understanding the nature of the stimulus that drives dependence-like phenotypes such as escalated alcohol self-administration. Accordingly, the present study examined the impact of intra-CeA KOR antagonism on escalated operant alcohol self-administration and physiological withdrawal symptoms during acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence in rats previously exposed to chronic intermittent alcohol vapor. Following operant training, rats were implanted with intra-CeA guide cannula and exposed to long-term intermittent alcohol vapor exposure that resulted in escalated alcohol self-administration and elevated physiological withdrawal signs during acute withdrawal. Animals received intra-CeA infusions of the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI; 0, 2, 4, or 6 μg) prior to operant alcohol self-administration sessions and physiological withdrawal assessment during acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence. The results indicated that site-specific KOR antagonism in the CeA ameliorated escalated alcohol self-administration during both acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence test sessions, whereas KOR antagonism had no effect on physiological withdrawal scores at either time point. These results dissociate escalated alcohol self-administration from physiological withdrawal symptoms in relation to KOR signaling in the CeA and help clarify the nature of the stimulus that drives escalated alcohol self-administration during acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence.

  3. [Comorbidity of alcohol dependence with other psychiatric disorders. Part II. Pathogenesis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Klimkiewicz, Anna; Klimkiewicz, Jakub; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Kieres-Salomoński, Ilona; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Co-occurrence of alcohol dependence with other mental disorders is very common, being important cause of diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. There is a lack of systemic solutions in mental health care dedicated to the patients with dual diagnosis. The literature on the topic of treatment of patients with dual diagnosis is limited. While comorbidity of alcohol dependence with mental disorders is prevalent, there is rising interest among researchers on that issue. In this paper we present current hypotheses on pathogenesis of dual diagnosis as well as recommendations for its treatment. The role of disturbances in functioning of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in pathogenesis of co-occurrence of alcohol dependence with anxiety and affective disorders is presented. Researchers studying dual diagnosis underline the fact that simultaneous treatment of alcohol dependence and co-occurring psychiatric disorders increases the chance to improve patients` functioning. Inappropriate treatment without complete management of all existing problems may make full recovery impossible.

  4. Self-mutilation among male patients with alcohol dependency: the role of dissociation.

    PubMed

    Evren, Cuneyt; Sar, Vedat; Evren, Bilge; Dalbudak, Ercan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of self-mutilative behavior with dissociative experiences among men who are alcohol dependent. Participants were 176 inpatients consecutively admitted to an alcohol dependency treatment center. Dissociative Experiences Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Symptom Checklist-Revised, and Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test were conducted to all participants. A sizable proportion of patients (29.0%) reported self-mutilation (SM). Childhood abuse, younger age, early onset of alcoholism, and dissociative taxon membership predicted SM. The overall severity of clinical condition and the frequency of suicide attempts among those who reported SM were higher than those of the remaining patients. The Dissociative Experiences Scale-Taxon item "auditory verbal hallucinations" and the Symptom Checklist-Revised dimension "hostility" were predictors of SM. There is a complex relationship between dissociation, alcohol use, and SM. Increased awareness among clinicians on this relationship may increase the effectiveness of treatment interventions.

  5. Short sleep duration is associated with greater alcohol consumption in adults.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; McNeil, Jessica; Després, Jean-Pierre; Bouchard, Claude; Tremblay, Angelo

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between sleep duration and alcohol consumption in adults (301 men and 402 women aged 18-64years) from the greater Quebec City area. Sleep duration (self-reported), alcohol consumption (3-day food record and questions on drinking habits), and disinhibition eating behavior trait (score ≥ 6 on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) were assessed. Participants were categorized as short- ( ≤ 6h), average- (7-8h) or long- ( ≥ 9h) duration sleepers. Overall, short-duration sleepers consumed significantly more alcohol than the two other sleep-duration groups. After adjusting for relevant covariates, short sleep duration was associated with an increase in the odds of exceeding the recommendations for sensible weekly alcohol intake of 14 drinks for men and 7 drinks for women compared to those sleeping between 7 and 8h (OR 1.87, 95%CI 1.03-3.54, both sexes combined). In both men and women, daily alcohol intake was significantly higher in short-duration sleepers having a high disinhibition eating behavior trait. However, the prevalence of a binge drinking occasion (i.e. ≥5 drinks on one occasion) was more common in men than women. Men sleeping less than 6h per night with a disinhibited eating behavior were more likely to report binge drinking (41% of them). In summary, the combination of short sleep duration with disinhibited eating behavior is associated with greater alcohol intake in adults.

  6. Validation of Brief Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire (B-YAACQ): Portuguese version.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Joaquim A; Martins, Jorge S; Coelho, Mariana S; Kahler, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    Extant literature suggests that Portuguese college students frequently drinking alcohol and experience a variety of alcohol-related negative consequences. However, to our knowledge, there is no validated measure to assess negative consequences of drinking alcohol for college students in Portugal. This article describes a validation of the Portuguese version of the Brief Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire. Originally developed by Kahler, Strong, and Read (2005), this 24-item questionnaire is a widely used self-report measure with strong psychometric properties and validity for the evaluation of the negative consequences of drinking in college students. We collected data from 620 students at the University of Coimbra (Portugal). Participants completed (a) a background questionnaire, (b) the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), (c) the Daily Drinking Questionnaire - Revised (DDQ-R), and (d) the Brief Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire (B-YAACQ) translated into Portuguese as part of this study. Analyses showed that items fit a unidimensional Rasch model well with items infit statistics raging from .82 to 1.27, supporting using all items to create a total sum score of the Portuguese version of the B-YAACQ. The Portuguese version of the B-YAACQ showed adequate internal reliability (α = .87) and concurrent validity. Results support its use and integration in research on interventions targeted to reduce adverse effects associated with excessive drinking among Portuguese college students.

  7. Risk of All-Cause Mortality in Alcohol-Dependent Individuals: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis☆

    PubMed Central

    Laramée, Philippe; Leonard, Saoirse; Buchanan-Hughes, Amy; Warnakula, Samantha; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence (AD) carries a high mortality burden, which may be mitigated by reduced alcohol consumption. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis investigating the risk of all-cause mortality in alcohol-dependent subjects. Methods MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, Embase and PsycINFO were searched from database conception through 26th June 2014. Eligible studies reported all-cause mortality in both alcohol-dependent subjects and a comparator population of interest. Two individuals independently reviewed studies. Of 4540 records identified, 39 observational studies were included in meta-analyses. Findings We identified a significant increase in mortality for alcohol-dependent subjects compared with the general population (27 studies; relative risk [RR] = 3.45; 95% CI [2.96, 4.02]; p < 0.0001). The mortality increase was also significant compared to subjects qualifying for a diagnosis of alcohol abuse or subjects without alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Alcohol-dependent subjects continuing to drink heavily had significantly greater mortality than alcohol-dependent subjects who reduced alcohol intake, even if abstainers were excluded (p < 0.05). Interpretation AD was found to significantly increase an individual's risk of all-cause mortality. While abstinence in alcohol-dependent subjects led to greater mortality reduction than non-abstinence, this study suggests that alcohol-dependent subjects can significantly reduce their mortality risk by reducing alcohol consumption. PMID:26629534

  8. Using Alcohol to Sell Cigarettes to Young Adults: A Content Analysis of Cigarette Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belstock, Sarah A.; Connolly, Gregory N.; Carpenter, Carrie M.; Tucker, Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Advertising influences the health-related behaviors of college-aged individuals. Cigarette manufacturers aggressively market to young adults and may exploit their affinity for alcohol when creating advertisements designed to increase cigarettes' appeal. Internal tobacco industry documents reveal that cigarette manufacturers understood…

  9. Childhood Risk Factors for Alcohol Abuse and Psychological Distress among Adult Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Tonda L.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Szalacha, Laura A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationships between childhood and family background variables, including sexual and physical abuse, and subsequent alcohol abuse and psychological distress in adult lesbians. Methodology: Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate relationships between childhood sexual and physical abuse and parenting…

  10. Do Negative Emotions Predict Alcohol Consumption, Saturated Fat Intake, and Physical Activity in Older Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Stephen D.; Miller, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined anger, depression, and stress as related to alcohol consumption, saturated fat intake, and physical activity. Participants were 23 older adults enrolled in either an outpatient or in-residence executive health program. Participants completed (a) a health-risk appraisal assessing medical history and current health habits, (b)…

  11. A Model of Depression in Adult Children of Alcoholics and Nonalcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lease, Suzanne H.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the relationships between levels of depression in a sample of adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and non-ACOAs and patterns of parental drinking behaviors, intergenerational family interactions, attachment behaviors, and self-esteem. Drinking behaviors directly influenced family processes and indirectly influenced self-esteem but…

  12. Attributional Style, Depressive Features, and Self-Esteem: Adult Children of Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Stephanie I.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Undergraduate adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) (n=57) were compared with children of nonalcoholic parents (n=100) on depression, self-esteem, and attributional style. ACOAs were found to have higher depression scores and lower self-esteem and were more likely to have a depressive attributional style. (SLD)

  13. "Scripting" the Inner Child in Adult Children of Alcoholics: An Approach for Rehearsing Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Carol L.

    Performance terminology can be applied as a form of analysis to evoke unique understandings of the identity of adult children of alcoholics (ACoA). By observing ACoA meetings, one can see members relying on positive reinforcement, validation perceptions, rewriting and visualizing healthy parenting skills, and rehearsing more functional alternative…

  14. The Relationship of Self-Perception and Stress in Adult Children of Alcoholics and Their Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Michael J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Woititz identified 13 generalizations about adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs). Her work was based on clinical populations and may not be generalizable to a nonclinical population. Using 442 undergraduates, a study of students' perceptions of the applicability of Woititz's variables to them was conducted. No significant effects were found, even…

  15. Personality subtypes in adolescent and adult children of alcoholics: a two-part study.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, Jonathan; Defife, Jared; Westen, Drew

    2011-07-01

    The authors conducted two studies to identify and to validate potential personality subtypes in the adolescent and adult children of alcoholics. As part of a broader NIMH-funded study, randomly selected psychologists and psychiatrists provided personality data on adolescent (n = 208) or adult (n = 349) children of alcoholics using a Q-sort procedure (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure [SWAP]-II-A for adolescents and SWAP-II for adults), which were subjected to a cluster-analytic procedure, Q-factor analysis. Q-factor analysis yielded five personality subtypes in both groups. Despite the different samples and age groups, four of the personality subtypes were highly similar, including externalizing, inhibited, emotionally dysregulated, and high-functioning. Providing initial data on their validity, the subtypes differed on axis I and II pathology, adaptive functioning, and developmental and family history variables. These findings show heterogeneity among children of alcoholics and suggest the importance of addressing personality subtypes for research and practice in treating adolescent and adult children of alcoholics. PMID:21716063

  16. The Family-of-Origin Scale: Discriminant Validity with Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Steven C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined discriminant validity of Family-of-Origin Scale (FOS) with 60 self-defined adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and 64 college students. ACOAs obtained significantly lower scores on 10 FOS subscales, 2 larger dimensions of Autonomy and Intimacy, and global score. Discriminant function correctly classified nearly 88% of sample. Findings…

  17. Inconsistencies in the Literature on Collegiate Adult Children of Alcoholics: Factors to Consider for African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodney, H. Elaine

    1996-01-01

    Several inconsistencies in literature on adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) were found. This paper emphasizes that clinicians and those developing prevention programs should stop believing that certain characteristics are typical of all ACOAs. It makes recommendations for factors to be considered in programs for African American collegiate…

  18. Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Functioning among Middle-Aged Female Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenico, Donna; Windle, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Examined differences among middle-aged, middle-class female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and female non-ACOAs with regard to interpersonal and intrapersonal functioning. ACOAs report higher levels of depression, marital conflict, and parental role distress; lower levels of self-esteem, perceived social support, family cohesion, marital…

  19. The Influence of Family Factors on the Executive Functioning of Adult Children of Alcoholics in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Valarie M.; Kelley, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined executive functioning in college aged adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs; n = 84) and non-ACOAs (188). We examined whether characteristics of the family environment and family responsibility in one's family of origin were associated with executive functioning above the contribution of ACOA status. ACOAs reported more…

  20. Serving Alcohol at Home: What Do Most People Do? Findings from a 2001 Ontario Adult Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anglin, Lise; Giesbrecht, Norman; Ialomiteanu, Anca; Grand, Larry; Mann, Robert; McAllister, Janet

    2004-01-01

    In Ontario, some court cases have involved attempts to sue social hosts for damage caused by the behaviour of drunken guests. Such legal actions give rise to the question of risks and responsibilities accruing to social hosts who serve alcohol. Using a sample of 1395 male and female adult residents of Ontario, the authors present self-report…

  1. Feasibility and Utility of Experience Sampling to Assess Alcohol Consumption Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, Paul; Smith, Cristan A.; Harrington, Donna; Svoboda, Deborah V.; Resnick, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    In the literature on alcohol use and aging, drinking has often been conceptualized as a means of coping with negative feelings, such as stress, yet much of the literature on older adults and drinking has utilized cross-sectional or other data ill-suited for exploring dynamic processes. Experience sampling methods have the ability to measure and analyze dynamic processes in real time, such as relations between alcohol use and mood states. Nonetheless, these approaches are intensive and may burden respondents. Therefore, this study evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, and validity of a modified daily diary to measure alcohol use and explored alternate methods of collecting diary data. Findings suggest that a modified diary was acceptable and not burdensome. Respondents were reluctant to consider technology (e.g., cellphone)-based means of data collection. Measures of alcohol use showed little within-person variation suggesting that for those who drink at all, drinking is a daily habit. PMID:24652928

  2. Alcohol dependence, family history, and D2 dopamine receptor function as neuroendocrinologically assessed with apomorphine.

    PubMed

    Wiesbeck, G A; Mauerer, C; Thome, J; Jakob, F; Boening, J

    1995-11-01

    Fifteen alcohol dependent men with an alcohol dependent first degree relative (i.e. family history positive or FHP), 15 well matched alcohol dependent men without a family history for alcohol dependence (i.e. family history negative or FHN), and 15 healthy controls (CONTR) participated in this study. The three groups were compared according to their postsynaptic D2 dopamine receptor function as assessed by growth hormone release after stimulation with the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine. Statistical evaluation was done by planned comparisons within a one-way ANOVA. Alcohol dependent subjects significantly differed from CONTRs as long as family history was not taken into account (t(42) = 2.38; P = 0.022*). When differentiating according to family history, both FHPs and FHNs maintained a blunted growth hormone response. However, the difference between FHNs and CONTRs, though present, dropped out of statistical significance (t(42) = 1.65; P = 0.105); at the same time, the difference between FHPs and CONTRs became slightly stronger (t(42) = 2.47; p = 0.017*). In conclusion, our data give neuroendocrinological support to the assumption that a reduced D2 dopamine receptor function in alcohol dependent men is not only a state marker of residual heavy drinking but also a genetically determined trait marker.

  3. Identifying Two Potential Mechanisms for Changes in Alcohol Use Among College-attending and Non-attending Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    White, Helene R.; Fleming, Charles B.; Kim, Min Jung; Catalano, Richard F.; McMorris, Barbara J.

    2008-01-01

    This study tests whether pro-alcohol peer influences and prosocial involvement account for increases in drinking during the transition into emerging adulthood and whether these mechanisms differ depending on college attendance and/or moving away from home. We use structural equation modeling of prospective data from 825 young men and women. For four groups defined by college and residential status, more drinking in the spring of 12th grade predicts more pro-alcohol peer influences the following fall, and more pro-alcohol peer influences in the fall predict increases in drinking the following spring. Going to college while living at home is a protective factor for increases in drinking and selection of pro-alcohol peer involvements. Prosocial involvement (measured by involvement in religious activities and volunteer work) is not significantly related to post-high school drinking except among college students living away from home. Prevention efforts should focus on reducing opportunities for heavy drinking for college and noncollege emerging adults as they leave home and increasing prosocial involvement among college students not living at home. PMID:18999326

  4. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  5. Influence of Social Media on Alcohol Use in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Megan A; Whitehill, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Participation in online social media Web sites (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) has skyrocketed in recent years and created a new environment in which adolescents and young adults may be exposed to and influenced by alcohol-related content. Thus, young people are exposed to and display pro-alcohol messages and images through online portrayals of drinking on personal pages as well as unregulated alcohol marketing on social media sites that may reach underage people. Such online displays of alcohol behavior have been correlated with offline alcohol behavior and risky drinking. Health behavior theories have been used to describe the influence of social media sites, including Social Learning Theory, the Media Practice Model, and a more recent conceptual approach called the Facebook Influence Model. Researchers are beginning to assess the potential of social media sites in identifying high-risk drinkers through online display patterns as well as delivering prevention messages and interventions. Future studies need to further expand existing observational work to better understand the role of social media in shaping alcohol-related behaviors and fully exploit the potential of these media for alcohol-related interventions.

  6. Novel Approaches to Individual Alcohol Interventions for Heavy Drinking College Students and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    DeMartini, Kelly S.; Fucito, Lisa M.; O'Malley, Stephanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Efficacious alcohol interventions for college students and young adults have been developed but produce small effects of limited duration. This paper provides a review and critique of novel (e.g., a significant deviation from a traditional, brief, and motivational intervention) interventions published between 2009 and 2014 to reduce alcohol use in this population and covers intervention format/components and efficacy on alcohol outcomes. We reviewed 12 randomized controlled trials of novel, individual-level alcohol interventions that reported alcohol outcomes. Four domains of novel interventions are discussed: content (e.g., pharmaco-therapy and automatic action tendency retraining), setting (e.g., health centers and ED), modality (e.g., mobile technology), and treatment integration. Findings were mixed for intervention efficacy to reduce amount and frequency of alcohol consumption. Few studies assessed impact on alcohol-related problems. Despite the prevalence of efficacious interventions, there is still an urgent need for novel treatment approaches and delivery mechanisms for this difficult-to-treat population. PMID:26258001

  7. Influence of Social Media on Alcohol Use in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Megan A.; Whitehill, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Participation in online social media Web sites (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) has skyrocketed in recent years and created a new environment in which adolescents and young adults may be exposed to and influenced by alcohol-related content. Thus, young people are exposed to and display pro-alcohol messages and images through online portrayals of drinking on personal pages as well as unregulated alcohol marketing on social media sites that may reach underage people. Such online displays of alcohol behavior have been correlated with offline alcohol behavior and risky drinking. Health behavior theories have been used to describe the influence of social media sites, including Social Learning Theory, the Media Practice Model, and a more recent conceptual approach called the Facebook Influence Model. Researchers are beginning to assess the potential of social media sites in identifying high-risk drinkers through online display patterns as well as delivering prevention messages and interventions. Future studies need to further expand existing observational work to better understand the role of social media in shaping alcohol-related behaviors and fully exploit the potential of these media for alcohol-related interventions. PMID:26259003

  8. Influence of Social Media on Alcohol Use in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Megan A; Whitehill, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Participation in online social media Web sites (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) has skyrocketed in recent years and created a new environment in which adolescents and young adults may be exposed to and influenced by alcohol-related content. Thus, young people are exposed to and display pro-alcohol messages and images through online portrayals of drinking on personal pages as well as unregulated alcohol marketing on social media sites that may reach underage people. Such online displays of alcohol behavior have been correlated with offline alcohol behavior and risky drinking. Health behavior theories have been used to describe the influence of social media sites, including Social Learning Theory, the Media Practice Model, and a more recent conceptual approach called the Facebook Influence Model. Researchers are beginning to assess the potential of social media sites in identifying high-risk drinkers through online display patterns as well as delivering prevention messages and interventions. Future studies need to further expand existing observational work to better understand the role of social media in shaping alcohol-related behaviors and fully exploit the potential of these media for alcohol-related interventions. PMID:26259003

  9. Targeting adults who provide alcohol to underage youth: results from a national survey of local law enforcement agencies.

    PubMed

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L; Lenk, Kathleen M; Nelson, Toben F; Erickson, Darin J

    2015-06-01

    We investigated what local enforcement agencies are doing to target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth; what types of enforcement activities are being conducted to target adult providers; and factors that encourage enforcement activities that target adult providers. We surveyed 1,056 local law enforcement agencies in the US and measured whether or not the agency conducted enforcement activities that target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. We also measured whether certain agency and jurisdiction characteristics were associated with enforcement activities that target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. Less than half (42%) of local enforcement agencies conducted enforcement efforts targeting adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. Agencies that conducted the enforcement activities targeting adult providers were significantly more likely to have a full time officer specific to alcohol enforcement, a division specific to alcohol enforcement, a social host law, and to perceive underage drinking was very common. Results suggest that targeting social providers (i.e., adults over 21 years of age) will require greater law enforcement resources, implementation of underage drinking laws (e.g., social host policies), and changing perceptions among law enforcement regarding underage drinking. Future studies are needed to identify the most effective enforcement efforts and to examine how enforcement efforts are prospectively linked to alcohol consumption.

  10. Frontal White Matter Integrity Predictors of Adult Alcohol Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Sorg, Scott F.; Taylor, Michael J.; Alhassoon, Omar M.; Gongvatana, Assawin; Theilmann, Rebecca J.; Frank, Lawrence R.; Grant, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research has associated abnormalities in frontal lobe functioning with alcohol relapse. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate whether frontal white matter integrity measured at the start of treatment differs between persons with alcohol use disorders (AUD) who sustain treatment gains and those who return to heavy use after treatment. Methods Forty-five treatment-seeking AUD inpatients and 30 healthy control subjects were included in the study. Six months after completing treatment, 16 of the AUD participants had resumed heavy use (RHU) and 29 others remained abstinent or drank minimally (treatment sustainers [TS]). Voxel-wise group comparisons (TS vs. RHU) were performed on fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity maps generated from each subject’s diffusion tensor imaging scan at the start of treatment. Results We found significantly lower FA and significantly higher RD in the frontal lobes of the RHU group, relative to the TS group. The RHU group data are consistent with previous reports of abnormal frontal white matter tract abnormalities in persons with AUD. Conclusions It is possible that the lower FA and higher RD in the RHU group reflect microstructural injury to frontal circuitries, and these may underlie the reduced cognitive control amid heightened reward sensitivity associated with resumption of heavy drinking. PMID:22047719

  11. The Alcohol-Affected Student: Co-Dependency in the College Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Theodore J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs), indicating that they are an increasing part of the college campus population. Discusses nine steps that instructors may take to assist the academic success of ACOAs. Indicates that college staff must recognize the syndrome and provide a therapeutic environment for students. (14…

  12. Sweet preference, sugar addiction and the familial history of alcohol dependence: shared neural pathways and genes.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Jeffrey L

    2010-06-01

    Contemporary research has shown that a high number of alcohol-dependent and other drug-dependent individuals have a sweet preference, specifically for foods with a high sucrose concentration. Moreover, both human and animal studies have demonstrated that in some brains the consumption of sugar-rich foods or drinks primes the release of euphoric endorphins and dopamine within the nucleus accumbens, in a manner similar to some drugs of abuse. The neurobiological pathways of drug and "sugar addiction" involve similar neural receptors, neurotransmitters, and hedonic regions in the brain. Craving, tolerance, withdrawal and sensitization have been documented in both human and animal studies. In addition, there appears to be cross sensitization between sugar addiction and narcotic dependence in some individuals. It has also been observed that the biological children of alcoholic parents, particularly alcoholic fathers, are at greater risk to have a strong sweet preference, and this may manifest in some with an eating disorder. In the last two decades research has noted that specific genes may underlie the sweet preference in alcohol- and drug-dependent individuals, as well as in biological children of paternal alcoholics. There also appears to be some common genetic markers between alcohol dependence, bulimia, and obesity, such as the A1 allele gene and the dopamine 2 receptor gene.

  13. Children of men with alcohol dependence: Psychopathology, neurodevelopment and family environment

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Vijaya; Prasad, Suveera; Appaya, M. Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children of people with alcohol dependence (COAs) are at high risk for behavioral and cognitive problems. Aim: Aim of this study was to compare the nature and extent of these problems in children of men with and without alcohol dependence. Materials and Methods: 32 children (17 in study group and 15 controls) were evaluated for psychopathology, neurodevelopment, cognitive functioning and family environment. Tools used were: Socio-demographic data sheet, Malin’s Intelligence Scale for Indian Children (MISIC), Child Behavior Checklist, Trail Making Test, Neurodevelopment Scale and the Family Environment Scale. Results: Children of men with alcohol dependence had higher externalizing than internalizing scores. Children of alcohol-dependent fathers had higher scores on the neurodevelopment scale and lower scores on the performance scale of the MISIC than the children in control group. These children also made more errors on the Trail Making Test. The family environment of COAs was characterized by lack of independence for its members, greater perceived control and lack of adequate cultural and intellectual activities. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that children of men with alcohol dependence have difficulties with frontal lobe functions and neurodevelopmental tasks. There are also difficulties in the family, which are related to alcohol consumption by the father. PMID:21267372

  14. [Alcohol dependence mediated by monoamine neurotransmitters in the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Huafeng; Lai, Jianghua

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol dependence, a chronic relapsing brain disease with the characteristics of drinking alcohol out of control, has become a serious social problem. Monoamine neurotransmitters, mainly including dopamine and 5-hydroxytryp¬tamine, play important roles in the occurrence, development and neural dysfunction of alcohol dependence syndrome. In this review, the roles of key factors of the monoamine system (dopamine receptor genes, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor genes, transporter genes, tyrosine hydroxylase gene, tryptophanhydroxylase gene and monoamine oxidase gene) in alcohol dependence were discussed, and strategies for further studies of molecular mechanisms were proposed based on gene knockout mice models generated in our laboratory. Then, combining with studies on tyrosine hydroxylase activator CaMKII in our lab, therapeutic targets were discussed. Besides, epigenetic strategies for prevention and treatment of alcohol dependence syndrome were proposed. Furthermore, manipulating methylation levels in gene regulatory regions and alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs might also have clinical implications. Finally, based on new findings on genetic polymorphism, it is of great potential to carry out individual prevention and treatment for patients suffering from alcohol dependence.

  15. Cognitive control moderates the association between emotional instability and alcohol dependence symptoms.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Brittany L; Dvorak, Robert D; Kuvaas, Nicholas J; Williams, Thomas J; Spaeth, Destini T

    2015-06-01

    Previous research has linked emotional instability with problematic alcohol use. This may be a function of increased "hot" information processing (which is relatively automatic in nature and highly influenced by emotional states) for individuals with more emotional instability. According to dual-process models, cognitive control may attenuate the impact of emotional instability by preventing an overreliance on hot information processing. It was hypothesized that emotional instability would be positively associated with alcohol-related consequences, but that cognitive control would moderate this association. Participants were undergraduate students (n = 80) who endorsed drinking at moderate levels. Participants completed laboratory assessments of emotional instability, alcohol use and its consequences, and cognitive control. An observed variable path model examined the association between emotional instability and alcohol problems. Consistent with hypotheses, emotional instability was positively associated with alcohol consequences, and this relationship was moderated by cognitive control, at least for dependence symptoms. At low levels of cognitive control, there was a positive association between emotional instability and dependence symptoms (β = 0.514, p < .001), however, this association was attenuated and no longer significant at high levels of cognitive control (β = 0.095, p = .302). Emotional instability may promote alcohol dependence via an overreliance on hot information processing. Consistent with dual-process theory, this relationship is diminished among individuals with more cognitive control. Interventions focusing on increasing cognitive control may be effective in reducing alcohol pathology associated with emotional instability. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Alterations in Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity in Alcohol Dependent Patients and Possible Association with Impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yue; Ma, Mengying; Ma, Yi; Dong, Yuru; Niu, Yajuan; Jiang, Yin; Wang, Hong; Wang, Zhiyan; Wu, Liuzhen; Sun, Hongqiang; Cui, Cailian

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have documented that heightened impulsivity likely contributes to the development and maintenance of alcohol use disorders. However, there is still a lack of studies that comprehensively detected the brain changes associated with abnormal impulsivity in alcohol addicts. This study was designed to investigate the alterations in brain structure and functional connectivity associated with abnormal impulsivity in alcohol dependent patients. Methods Brain structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data as well as impulsive behavior data were collected from 20 alcohol dependent patients and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls respectively. Voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate the differences of grey matter volume, and tract-based spatial statistics was used to detect abnormal white matter regions between alcohol dependent patients and healthy controls. The alterations in resting-state functional connectivity in alcohol dependent patients were examined using selected brain areas with gray matter deficits as seed regions. Results Compared with healthy controls, alcohol dependent patients had significantly reduced gray matter volume in the mesocorticolimbic system including the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, the medial prefrontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex and the putamen, decreased fractional anisotropy in the regions connecting the damaged grey matter areas driven by higher radial diffusivity value in the same areas and decreased resting-state functional connectivity within the reward network. Moreover, the gray matter volume of the left medial prefrontal cortex exhibited negative correlations with various impulse indices. Conclusions These findings suggest that chronic alcohol dependence could cause a complex neural changes linked to abnormal impulsivity. PMID:27575491

  17. The Ratio of 2nd to 4th Digit Length in Korean Alcohol-dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Changwoo; Bae, Hwallip; Lee, Yu-Sang; Won, Sung-Doo; Kim, Dai Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have a relatively shorter second digit than fourth digit. This ratio is thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone level or greater sensitivity to androgen. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between alcohol dependence and 2D:4D in a Korean sample and whether 2D:4D can be a biologic marker in alcohol dependence. Methods In this study, we recruited 87 male patients with alcohol dependence from the alcohol center of one psychiatric hospital and 52 healthy male volunteers who were all employees in the same hospital as controls. We captured images of the right and left hands of patients and controls using a scanner and extracted data with a graphics program. We measured the 2D:4D of each hand and compared the alcohol dependence group with the control group. We analyzed these ratios using an independent-samples t-test. Results The mean 2D:4D of patients was 0.934 (right hand) and 0.942 (left hand), while the mean 2D:4D of controls was 0.956 (right hand) and 0.958 (left hand). Values for both hands were significantly lower for patients than controls (p<0.001, right hand; p=0.004, left hand). Conclusion Patients who are alcohol dependent have a significantly lower 2D:4D than controls, similar to the results of previous studies, which suggest that a higher prenatal testosterone level in the gonadal period is related to alcoholism. Furthermore, 2D:4D is a possible predictive marker of alcohol dependence. PMID:27121425

  18. Social and Behavioral Characteristics of Young Adult Drink/Drivers Adjusted for Level of Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Elliott, Michael R.; Shope, Jean T.

    2007-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption and drink/driving are positively correlated and many predictors of alcohol use also predict drink/driving. Past research has not fully distinguished the contributions of personal risk factors from the level of alcohol use in the prediction of drink/driving. As a result, the extent to which predictors are specific to drink/driving, versus due to a mutual association to alcohol use, is unclear. Methods This study examined the unique and shared risk factors for drink/driving and alcohol use, and examined the attributable risk (AR) associated with predictors of drink/driving while adjusting for alcohol use. Study data were from a telephone survey of 3,480 Michigan-licensed young adults who were drinkers. Four groups of drink/drivers were formed based on the prior 12-month maximum severity of drink/driving: (1) never drink/driving; (2) driving at least once within an hour of 1 or 2 drinks; (3) driving within an hour of 3 or more drinks or while feeling the effects of alcohol; and (4) drinking while driving. Results Lower perceived risk of drink/driving, greater social support for drinking and drink/driving, greater aggression and delinquency, more cigarette smoking, and more risky driving behaviors uniquely predicted drink/driving severity in models adjusted for alcohol use. The largest ARs were associated with social support for drinking and drink/driving and perceived risk of drink/driving. Conclusions These results confirm that alcohol use and drink/driving share risk factors, but also indicate that part of the variation in these factors is specific to drink/driving. Implications for interventions to reduce drink/driving are discussed. PMID:17374045

  19. Marital Histories and Heavy Alcohol Use among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Reczek, Corinne; Pudrovska, Tetyana; Carr, Deborah; Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Umberson, Debra

    2016-03-01

    We develop a gendered marital biography approach-which emphasizes the accumulating gendered experiences of singlehood, marriage, marital dissolution, and remarriage-to examine the relationship between marital statuses and transitions and heavy alcohol use. We test this approach using individual-level (n = 10,457) and couple-level (n = 2,170) longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, and individual-level (n = 46) and couple-level (n = 42) in-depth interview data. Quantitative results show that marriage, including remarriage, reduces men's but increases women's drinking relative to being never married and previously married, whereas divorce increases men's but decrease women's drinking, with some variation by age. Our qualitative findings reveal that social control and convergence processes underlie quantitative results. We call attention to how men's and women's heavy drinking trajectories stop, start, and change direction as individuals move through their distinctive marital biography. PMID:26957135

  20. Experience-dependent plasticity of mature adult-born neurons.

    PubMed

    Livneh, Yoav; Mizrahi, Adi

    2012-01-01

    The adult olfactory bulb and hippocampus are continuously supplied with newborn neurons that are thought to possess a capacity for plasticity only at a young neuronal age, mainly during the early stages of integration into the network. We find that the two main types of adult-born neurons in the mouse olfactory bulb undergo experience-dependent plasticity long after maturation and integration, as evidenced by stabilization of synaptic turnover rates. Thus, the potential time window for plasticity of adult-born neurons extends well into maturity. PMID:22081159

  1. Alcohol and Drug Use Among Young Adults Driving to a Drinking Location

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Johnson, Mark B.; Miller, Brenda A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clubs that feature electronic music dance events (EMDEs) draw young adults aged 18 to 34 who are at high-risk for alcohol-related crashes to locations where alcohol sales are the principal source of revenue. Up to 30% of these attendees may also use drugs. This provides an important context in which to study driving arrangements that reflect concern with impaired driving. We explored whether drivers were using less alcohol and fewer drugs at exit than their passengers were and whether a driver for the group ever changed after consuming too much during the evening. Methods Using biological measures of alcohol consumption (breath tests) and drug use (oral fluid tests), 175 drivers and 272 passengers were surveyed among young adults arriving at and departing from EMDEs in San Francisco. Results Upon exit from the drinking locations, only 20% of the drivers, compared to 47% of the passengers, had a high breath alcohol concentration (defined as a BrAC of .05 g/dL or greater). Further, there was evidence that drivers with high BrACs switched to passenger status on exit and former passengers with lower BrACs replaced those drivers. However, there were no differences in the prevalence of drug use among drivers and passengers. Conclusions These findings suggest that the effort by young adult drivers to avoid alcohol-impaired driving appears to be reducing the number of drivers with high BrACs returning from drinking locations, such as EMDEs, by about one third. However, there is no similar pattern for drugged driving. PMID:23415848

  2. ADH and ALDH polymorphisms and alcohol dependence in Mexican and Native Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Liang, Tiebing; Gizer, Ian R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethanol is primarily metabolized in the liver by 2 rate-limiting reactions: conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and subsequent conversion of acetaldehyde to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). ADH and ALDH exist in multiple isozymes that differ in their kinetic properties. Notably, polymorphisms within the genes that encode for these isozymes vary in their allele frequencies between ethnic groups, and thus, they have been considered as candidate genes that may differentially influence risk for the development of alcohol dependence across ethnic groups. Objectives and Methods Associations between alcohol dependence and polymorphisms in ADH1B, ADH1C, and ALDH2, were compared in a community sample of Native Americans living on reservations (n=791) and Mexican Americans (n=391) living within the same county. Results Two Mexican Americans and no Native Americans possessed one ALDH2*2 allele. Presence of at least one ADH1B*2 allele was found in 7% of the Native Americans and 13% of the Mexican Americans, but was only associated with protection against alcohol dependence in the Mexican Americans. Presence of at least one ADH1B*3 allele was found in 4% if the Native Americans and 2% of the Mexican Americans, but was associated with protection against alcohol dependence only in the Native Americans. No associations between alcohol dependence and polymorphisms in ADH1C were found. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Polymorphisms in ADH1B are protective against alcoholism in these two populations; however, these findings do not explain the high prevalence of alcoholism in these populations. PMID:22931071

  3. ADH and ALDH polymorphisms and alcohol dependence in Mexican and Native Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Liang, Tiebing; Gizer, Ian R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethanol is primarily metabolized in the liver by 2 rate-limiting reactions: conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and subsequent conversion of acetaldehyde to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). ADH and ALDH exist in multiple isozymes that differ in their kinetic properties. Notably, polymorphisms within the genes that encode for these isozymes vary in their allele frequencies between ethnic groups, and thus, they have been considered as candidate genes that may differentially influence risk for the development of alcohol dependence across ethnic groups. Objectives and Methods Associations between alcohol dependence and polymorphisms in ADH1B, ADH1C, and ALDH2, were compared in a community sample of Native Americans living on reservations (n=791) and Mexican Americans (n=391) living within the same county. Results Two Mexican Americans and no Native Americans possessed one ALDH2*2 allele. Presence of at least one ADH1B*2 allele was found in 7% of the Native Americans and 13% of the Mexican Americans, but was only associated with protection against alcohol dependence in the Mexican Americans. Presence of at least one ADH1B*3 allele was found in 4% if the Native Americans and 2% of the Mexican Americans, but was associated with protection against alcohol dependence only in the Native Americans. No associations between alcohol dependence and polymorphisms in ADH1C were found. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Polymorphisms in ADH1B are protective against alcoholism in these two populations; however, these findings do not explain the high prevalence of alcoholism in these populations. PMID:22931071

  4. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Deep Brain Stimulation in the treatment of alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Alba-Ferrara, L.; Fernandez, F.; Salas, R.; de Erausquin, G. A.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a major social, economic, and public health problem. Alcoholism can lead to damage of the gastrointestinal, nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems and it can be lethal, costing hundreds of billions to the health care system. Despite the existence of cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychosocial interventions, and spiritually integrated treatment to treat it, alcohol dependence has a high relapse rate and poor prognosis, albeit with high interindividual variability. In this review, we discuss the use of two neuromodulation techniques, namely repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and deep brain stimulation (DBS), and their advantages and disadvantages compared to first-line pharmacological treatment for alcohol dependence. We also discuss rTMS and DBS targets for alcohol dependence treatment, considering experimental animal and human evidence, with careful consideration of methodological issues preventing the identification of feasible targets for neuromodulation treatments, as well as inter-individual variability factors influencing alcoholism prognosis. Lastly, we anticipate future research aiming to tailor the treatment to each individual patient by combining neurofunctional, neuroanatomical and neurodisruptive techniques optimizing the outcome. PMID:25598743

  5. Impaired decision-making under risk in individuals with alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Brevers, Damien; Bechara, Antoine; Cleeremans, Axel; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Noël, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence is associated with poor decision-making under ambiguity, that is, when decisions are to be made in the absence of known probabilities of reward and loss. However, little is known regarding decisions made by individuals with alcohol dependence in the context of known probabilities (decision under risk). In this study, we investigated the relative contribution of these distinct aspects of decision making to alcohol dependence. Methods Thirty recently detoxified and sober asymptomatic alcohol-dependent individuals, and thirty healthy control participants were tested for decision-making under ambiguity (using the Iowa Gambling Task), and decision-making under-risk (using the Cups Task and Coin Flipping Task). We also tested their capacities for working memory storage (Digit-span Forward), and dual-tasking (Operation-span Task). Results Compared to healthy control participants, alcohol-dependent individuals made disadvantageous decisions on the Iowa Gambling Task, reflecting poor decisions under ambiguity. They also made more risky choices on the Cups and Coin Flipping Tasks reflecting poor decision-making under risk. In addition, alcohol-dependent participants showed some working memory impairments, as measured by the dual tasking, and the degree of this impairment correlated with high-risk decision-making, thus suggesting a relationship between processes sub-serving working memory and risky decisions. Conclusion These results suggest that alcohol dependent individuals are impaired in their ability to decide optimally in multiple facets of uncertainty (i.e., both risk and ambiguity), and that at least some aspects of these deficits are linked to poor working memory processes. PMID:24948198

  6. Prevalence and Correlates of Insomnia in a Polish Sample of Alcohol-Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhabenko, Nataliya; Wojnar, Marcin; Brower, Kirk J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Insomnia is an important symptom in alcohol-dependent patients because it may persist despite abstinence and predispose to relapse to drinking. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical correlates of insomnia in a sample of 302 alcohol-dependent patients admitted to treatment programs in Poland. Methods Participants were mostly men (73.8%) with a mean (SD) age of 43.5 (9.7) years. Insomnia in the past 1 month was assessed using a total score of 6 or higher on the Athens Insomnia Scale. Results Insomnia affected 62.9% of patients, and delayed sleep induction was the most common subtype. Insomnia was associated in bivariate analyses with less education, inadequate finances, problem drinking at an earlier age of onset, drinking frequency and quantity, drinking-related consequences, severity of alcohol and nicotine dependence, psychiatric and physical severity, and a childhood history of sexual or physical abuse (p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that mental and physical health status, severity of alcohol dependence, number of drinking days in the past 3 months, and childhood abuse were independent predictors of insomnia, explaining approximately 30 to 40% of the variance. Conclusions More than 60% of alcohol-dependent patients in a Polish sample screened positive for insomnia using a validated scale, a rate similar to those assessed with other scales in other countries. The study also showed that insomnia in alcohol-dependent patients is associated with poor physical health and childhood abuse, similar to the general population. The multifactorial nature of insomnia in alcohol-dependent patients has treatment implications. PMID:22471339

  7. Social Support and Treatment Outcome in Alcohol Dependence Syndrome in Armed Forces

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vinay Singh; Azad, Sudip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Social factors play vital role in unfolding of alcohol use disorders in any given population. Several factors beyond the confines of treatment settings influence treatment outcome in alcohol dependence syndrome. Social support has positive effect in treatment outcome of alcohol dependence syndrome. This has not been much studied in India in past. Therefore we decided to study the perception of social support in cases of alcohol dependence syndrome admitted in a busy hospital in armed forces. Aim The aim was to study the perception of social support across relapsed and abstinent group and see if it reached any statistical proportion and also to see if any socio-demographic variables also affected perception of social support. Materials and Methods Fifty five consecutive male patients of alcohol dependent syndrome without a co-morbid neurological/psychiatric diagnosis were assessed for their perception of social support after taking informed consent. They were explained the procedure and their alcoholic milestones were recorded in specially designed pro-forma. Subjects were then divided in abstinent and relapsed group. Subsequently they were assessed for their perception of social support by administering Social provision scale and Social support questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Data were tabulated and statistically analysed by using chi square test, Mann Whitney U-Test and Rank ANOVA test where applicable p-value <.05 was taken as significant. Results Results indicated that perception of social support across abstinent (n=18) and relapsed (n= 37) group reached significant statistical proportion as measured by social provision scale and social support questionnaire. Duration of use, dependence and family history of alcoholism did not influence perception of social support across patient population. There was inverse relationship between patients with alcohol related problem and their perception of social support. Professional and qualified soldiers

  8. The Influence of Gene–Environment Interactions on the Development of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholism and drug dependence are common psychiatric disorders with a heritability of about 50%; therefore genetic and environmental influences are equally important. Early-life stress is a predictor of adolescent problem drinking/drug use and alcohol/drug dependence in adulthood, but moderating factors governing the availability of alcohol/drug are important. The risk–resilience balance for addiction may be due in part to the interaction between genetic variation and environment stressors (G×E); this has been confirmed by twin studies of inferred genetic risk. Measured genotype studies to detect G×E effects have used a range of alcohol consumption and diagnostic phenotypes and stressors ranging from early-life to adulthood past year life events. In this article, the current state of the field is critically reviewed and suggestions are put forth for future research. PMID:22367454

  9. Declining estimated prevalence of alcohol drinking and smoking among young adults nationally: artifacts of sample undercoverage?

    PubMed

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Gundersen, Daniel A; Hagman, Brett T

    2008-01-01

    A growing concern in public health surveillance surveys that rely on random digit dialing for sampling is the exclusion of adults in cell-phone-only households. The purpose of this study was to examine whether recent increases in wireless substitution have affected estimates of tobacco and alcohol use in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in a subpopulation with notable cell-phone usage (i.e., young adults). BRFSS data from 2001-2005 were examined. Analyses were limited to participants aged 18-24 years, and the sample contained approximately 18,500 persons in each year. Prevalence estimates were generated with SUDAAN software for three health behaviors: cigarette smoking, binge drinking, and heavy alcohol consumption. In addition, the authors examined sample completeness for young adults relative to US Census estimates. Overall, prevalences of all three health behaviors among young adults were fairly stable between 2001 and 2003 but significantly decreased between 2003 and 2005. These trends are not replicated in national surveys that use area probability samples. The authors found a declining trend in the sample completeness ratio for young adults; it declined from 0.32 in 2001 to 0.15 in 2005. Given the high prevalence of wireless substitution among young adults and the declining sample completeness ratio, the authors suspect that the observed decreases in prevalence are artifacts of undercoverage.

  10. Declining estimated prevalence of alcohol drinking and smoking among young adults nationally: artifacts of sample undercoverage?

    PubMed

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Gundersen, Daniel A; Hagman, Brett T

    2008-01-01

    A growing concern in public health surveillance surveys that rely on random digit dialing for sampling is the exclusion of adults in cell-phone-only households. The purpose of this study was to examine whether recent increases in wireless substitution have affected estimates of tobacco and alcohol use in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in a subpopulation with notable cell-phone usage (i.e., young adults). BRFSS data from 2001-2005 were examined. Analyses were limited to participants aged 18-24 years, and the sample contained approximately 18,500 persons in each year. Prevalence estimates were generated with SUDAAN software for three health behaviors: cigarette smoking, binge drinking, and heavy alcohol consumption. In addition, the authors examined sample completeness for young adults relative to US Census estimates. Overall, prevalences of all three health behaviors among young adults were fairly stable between 2001 and 2003 but significantly decreased between 2003 and 2005. These trends are not replicated in national surveys that use area probability samples. The authors found a declining trend in the sample completeness ratio for young adults; it declined from 0.32 in 2001 to 0.15 in 2005. Given the high prevalence of wireless substitution among young adults and the declining sample completeness ratio, the authors suspect that the observed decreases in prevalence are artifacts of undercoverage. PMID:17977896

  11. Marital Histories and Heavy Alcohol Use Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reczek, Corinne; Pudrovska, Tetyana; Carr, Deborah; Umberson, Debra; Thomeer, Mieke Beth

    2015-01-01

    We develop a gendered marital biography approach—which emphasizes the accumulating gendered experiences of singlehood, marriage, marital dissolution, and remarriage—to examine the relationship between marital statuses and transitions and heavy alcohol use. We test this approach using individual-level (N=10,457) and couple-level (N=2,170) longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), and individual-level (N=46) and couple-level (N=42) in-depth interview data. Quantitative results show that marriage, including remarriage, reduces men’s but increases women’s drinking relative to being never-married and previously married, whereas divorce increases men’s but decrease women’s drinking, with some variation by age. Our qualitative findings reveal that social control and convergence processes underlie quantitative results. We call attention to how men’s and women’s heavy drinking trajectories stop, start, and change direction as individuals move through their distinctive marital biography. PMID:26957135

  12. Alcohol Use and Abuse among Rural Zimbabwean Adults: A Test of a Community-Level Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Cubbins, Lisa A.; Kasprzyk, Danuta; Montano, Daniel; Jordan, Lucy P.; Woelk, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding what factors contribute to alcohol abuse in resource-poor countries is important given its adverse health consequences. Past research shows that social peers influence substance abuse, suggesting that the social environment may be an effective target for reducing alcohol abuse across a population. This study investigates the determinants of alcohol use and abuse in rural Zimbabwe and tests a Community Popular Opinion Leader (CPOL) community-based intervention partly directed at reducing alcohol abuse. Methods Tests were conducted on the impact of the CPOL intervention on alcohol use patterns across communities in rural Zimbabwe over three waves from 2003 to 2007, including community- and individual-level tests using data based on in-person interviews of adult men and women (ages 18 to 30; N = 5,543). Data were analyzed using paired-sample t-tests, as well as logistic and ordinary least-squares regression with random effects. Results Higher drinking (any use, more frequent use, greater quantity, and/or frequent drunkenness) was generally associated with being male, older, not married, more highly educated, of Shona ethnicity, away from home frequently, employed, having no religious affiliation, or living in areas with a higher crude death rate or lower population density. Over the study period, significant declines in alcohol use and abuse were found in intervention and control sites at relatively equal levels. Conclusions Although no support was found for the effectiveness of the CPOL study in reducing alcohol abuse, Zimbabwe is similar to other countries in the impact of socio-demographic and cultural factors on alcohol use and abuse. PMID:22386686

  13. Cue reactivity and its relation to craving and relapse in alcohol dependence: a combined laboratory and field study.

    PubMed

    Witteman, Jurriaan; Post, Hans; Tarvainen, Mika; de Bruijn, Avalon; Perna, Elizabeth De Sousa Fernandes; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Wiers, Reinout W

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the nature of physiological cue reactivity and craving in response to alcohol cues among alcohol-dependent patients (N = 80) who were enrolled in detoxification treatment. Further, the predictive value with regard to future drinking of both the magnitude of the physiological and craving response to alcohol cues while in treatment and the degree of alcohol-cue exposure in patients' natural environment was assessed. Physiological reactivity and craving in response to experimental exposure to alcohol and soft drink advertisements were measured during detoxification treatment using heart rate variability and subjective rating of craving. Following discharge, patients monitored exposure to alcohol advertisements for five consecutive weeks with a diary and were followed up with an assessment of relapse at 5 weeks and 3 months post-discharge. The results indicated that the presence of alcohol cues such as the portrayal of the drug and drinking behaviour induced physiological cue reactivity and craving. Additionally, cue reactivity and craving were positively correlated, and cue reactivity was larger for patients with shorter histories of alcohol dependence. Further, patients reported a substantial daily exposure to alcohol cues. The magnitude of cue reactivity and the craving response to alcohol cues at baseline and degree of exposure to alcohol cues in patients' natural environment did not predict relapse. It is concluded that the presence of alcohol cues such as portrayal of alcoholic beverages and drinking behaviour induces cue reactivity and craving in alcohol dependence through a conditioned appetitive response.

  14. COMT Val158Met modulates the effect of childhood adverse experiences on the risk of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, Arnt F A; Franke, Barbara; Ellenbroek, Bart; Cools, Alexander; de Jong, Cor A J; Buitelaar, Jan K; Verkes, Robbert-Jan

    2013-03-01

    Genetic factors and childhood adverse experiences contribute to the vulnerability to alcohol dependence. However, empirical data on the interplay between specific genes and adverse experiences are few. The COMT Val158Met and DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A genotypes have been suggested to affect both stress sensitivity and the risk for alcohol dependence. This study tested the hypothesis that genetic variation in COMT Val158Met and DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A interacts with childhood adverse experiences to predict alcohol dependence. Male abstinent alcohol-dependent patients (n = 110) and age-matched healthy male controls (n = 99) were genotyped for the COMT Val158Met and the DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A genotypes. Childhood adverse events were measured using three self-report questionnaires. Alcohol dependence severity, age of onset and duration of alcohol dependence were analyzed as secondary outcome measures. Statistical analysis involved logistic regression analysis and analysis of variance. Alcohol-dependent patients reported increased childhood adversity. The interaction between childhood adversity and the COMT Val158Met genotype added significantly to the prediction model. This gene-environment interaction was confirmed in the analysis of the secondary outcome measures, i.e. alcohol dependence severity, age of onset and duration of alcohol dependence. The DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A genotype was not related to alcohol dependence, nor did it interact with childhood adversity in predicting alcohol dependence. This study provides evidence for a gene-environment interaction in alcohol dependence, in which an individual's sensitivity to childhood adverse experience is moderated by the COMT genotype. Exposed carriers of a low-activity Met allele have a higher risk to develop severe alcohol dependence than individuals homozygous for the Val allele.

  15. [Geographic Altitude of Residence and Alcohol Dependence in a Peruvian Population].

    PubMed

    Quiñones-Laveriano, Dante Manuel; Espinoza-Chiong, César; Scarsi-Mejia, Ottavia; Rojas-Camayo, José; Mejia, Christian Richard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between alcohol dependence and altitude of residence in 11 villages in two high altitude areas of Peru. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed using a survey conducted by physicians in primary health care in 11 villages until 2013, that were divided into low altitude (≤2500m asl (above sea level)), and high altitude (>2500m asl) areas. The CAGE test for alcoholism (cut point, ≥2) was applied to those who responded positively when asked if they consumed alcohol. Statistical associations were obtained with generalised linear models Of the 737 participants, 51% were women and the median age was 36 years [interquartile range, 25-50], 334 (45%) lived at low altitude, and 113 (15%) had alcohol dependence. The highest frequency of alcoholism was positively associated with being a village considered extremely poor (Likelihood Ratio (LP)=2.42; 95%CI, 1.40-4.19), while being female (LP=0.44; 95%CI, 0.23-0.89) and residing at high altitude (LP=0.15; 95%CI, 0.07-0.31) were negatively associated. These were adjusted for nine socio-occupational and pathological variables. According to these data, there is a higher frequency of alcohol dependence in being, male, extremely poor, and residing at low altitude. These results should be taken into account by professionals who work in primary care and those involved in mental health care, because of their implications in society. PMID:27569012

  16. Research opportunities for medications to treat alcohol dependence: addressing stakeholders' needs.

    PubMed

    Litten, Raye Z; Falk, Daniel; Ryan, Megan; Fertig, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, significant advances have been made in the development of medications to treat alcohol dependence. Four medications have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating alcohol dependence-naltrexone, injectable naltrexone, acamprosate, and disulfiram-and several others show promise. The fact remains, however, that because of the heterogeneity of alcohol dependence, these medications will not work for all people, in all circumstances. Moreover, clinicians are not routinely prescribing these medications for alcohol treatment. This commentary poses a number of issues that must be addressed in order to advance the alcohol research field and to make medications a mainstream treatment for problematic drinking. These issues are framed from the perspective of the various stakeholders involved, including clinicians, patients, regulatory agencies, the pharmaceutical industry, and third-party payers. Addressing these issues will not only help to improve treatment but, as further described, will also open up many new research opportunities for alcohol investigators in the coming decade.

  17. Clinical relevance of as-needed treatment with nalmefene in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Aubin, Henri-Jean; Reimer, Jens; Nutt, David J; Bladström, Anna; Torup, Lars; François, Clément; Chick, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Nalmefene is the first drug approved for reduction of alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical relevance of treatment with nalmefene in alcohol-dependent patients with a high drinking risk level from two randomised placebo-controlled 6-month studies (NCT00811720 and NCT00812461). Response criteria were based on alcohol consumption, Clinical Global Impression, and Short Form Health Survey mental component summary scores at month 6, analysed using logistic regression. The proportion of responders was higher in the nalmefene group than in the placebo group with odds ratios significantly in favour of nalmefene for all responder criteria; numbers-needed-to-treat ranged from 6 to 10. Significant differences from placebo in clinician-rated and patient-reported outcomes, and liver enzymes further supported the clinical relevance of the treatment effect. In conclusion, this study supports the clinical relevance of nalmefene treatment in patients with alcohol dependence. Nalmefene may help to reduce the alcohol-related burden and the large treatment gap, with currently less than 10% of alcohol-dependent patients in Europe receiving treatment.

  18. [Geographic Altitude of Residence and Alcohol Dependence in a Peruvian Population].

    PubMed

    Quiñones-Laveriano, Dante Manuel; Espinoza-Chiong, César; Scarsi-Mejia, Ottavia; Rojas-Camayo, José; Mejia, Christian Richard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between alcohol dependence and altitude of residence in 11 villages in two high altitude areas of Peru. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed using a survey conducted by physicians in primary health care in 11 villages until 2013, that were divided into low altitude (≤2500m asl (above sea level)), and high altitude (>2500m asl) areas. The CAGE test for alcoholism (cut point, ≥2) was applied to those who responded positively when asked if they consumed alcohol. Statistical associations were obtained with generalised linear models Of the 737 participants, 51% were women and the median age was 36 years [interquartile range, 25-50], 334 (45%) lived at low altitude, and 113 (15%) had alcohol dependence. The highest frequency of alcoholism was positively associated with being a village considered extremely poor (Likelihood Ratio (LP)=2.42; 95%CI, 1.40-4.19), while being female (LP=0.44; 95%CI, 0.23-0.89) and residing at high altitude (LP=0.15; 95%CI, 0.07-0.31) were negatively associated. These were adjusted for nine socio-occupational and pathological variables. According to these data, there is a higher frequency of alcohol dependence in being, male, extremely poor, and residing at low altitude. These results should be taken into account by professionals who work in primary care and those involved in mental health care, because of their implications in society.

  19. Dissociated Accumbens and Hippocampal Structural Abnormalities across Obesity and Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Elijah; Chien, Yee; Voon, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Processing of food and drug rewards involves specific neurocircuitry, and emerging evidence implicates subcortical abnormalities, particularly the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus. We specifically hypothesized that these 2 established regions in addiction neurocircuitry are associated with distinctive in vivo structural abnormalities in obesity and alcohol dependence. Methods: To specifically investigate anatomically discrete volumetric changes associated with overconsumption of different rewards, we acquired T1 MRI data from 118 subjects in 3 groups comprising obesity (n=42), alcohol dependence (n=32), and healthy volunteer controls (n=44). To exploit novel methods of automated hippocampal subfield segmentation, we used Freesurfer software to generate volumetric data in subject groups for the hippocampal subiculum and its major striatal efferent target, the nucleus accumbens. Hypothesis-led, selective group difference comparisons were analyzed. Results: We found markedly greater accumbens volumes (P=.002) and relatively preserved hippocampal subfield volumes in obesity. Conversely, in alcohol dependence, we found preserved accumbens volumes but atrophy of specific ventral hippocampal subfields, the subiculum and presubiculum. Smaller global subcortical gray-matter volume was found in the alcohol dependence group only. Conclusions: Reward neurocircuitry including the accumbens and ventral hippocampus may show key structural abnormalities in disorders involving processing of both food and drug rewards, although the foci of disruption may vary as a function of reward modality. Structural differences may subserve altered reward and motivational processes in obesity and alcohol dependence and represent a potential biomarker for therapeutic targeting in key public health disorders. PMID:27207916

  20. Evaluation of chronic alcohol self-administration by a 3-bottle choice paradigm in adult male rats. Effects on behavioural reactivity, spatial learning and reference memory.

    PubMed

    Cacace, Silvana; Plescia, Fulvio; La Barbera, Marco; Cannizzaro, Carla

    2011-06-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption is able to modify emotional behaviour and cognition in humans. In particular, the effects exerted by alcohol may depend on doses, time and modalities of administration. In this study we investigated, in adult male rats, ethanol self-administration and preference patterns using a 3-bottle choice paradigm with water, 10% ethanol solution, and white wine (10%, v/v), along a four-week period. The influence of alcohol free-access on novelty-induced explorative behaviour in the open field, and on spatial learning and reference memory in the Morris water maze was also evaluated. Our results indicate that: (i) rats show a higher preference for alcohol, in the first two weeks of the paradigm, displaying a higher consumption of 10% ethanol solution than white wine; in the last two weeks, they reduce their alcoholic preference, drinking the same moderate amounts of the two alcoholic beverages; (ii) at the fourth week of the free-access paradigm rats show a high explorative behaviour in the central squares of the open field and an improvement in spatial information processing in the new-place learning task of the Morris water maze. In conclusion our data suggest that, interestingly, rats exposed to the free-access paradigm were able to self-regulate their alcoholic intake, and indicated that a moderate alcohol consumption was able to induce an increase in behavioural reactivity and an enhancement in spatial learning flexibility.

  1. Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure and quantification of social behavior in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Derek A; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Bird, Clark W; Rodriguez, Carlos I; Fink, Brandi C; Pellis, Sergio M; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in social behavior are among the major negative consequences observed in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). Several independent laboratories have demonstrated robust alterations in the social behavior of rodents exposed to alcohol during brain development across a wide range of exposure durations, timing, doses, and ages at the time of behavioral quantification. Prior work from this laboratory has identified reliable alterations in specific forms of social interaction following moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat that persist well into adulthood, including increased wrestling and decreased investigation. These behavioral alterations have been useful in identifying neural circuits altered by moderate PAE(1), and may hold importance for progressing toward a more complete understanding of the neural bases of PAE-related alterations in social behavior. This paper describes procedures for performing moderate PAE in which rat dams voluntarily consume ethanol or saccharin (control) throughout gestation, and measurement of social behaviors in adult offspring. PMID:25549080

  2. Operating characteristics of carbohydrate–deficient transferrin (CDT) for identifying unhealthy alcohol use in adults with HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Ireland, Julia; Cheng, Debbie M.; Samet, Jeffrey H.; Bridden, Carly; Quinn, Emily; Saitz, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Unhealthy alcohol use (the spectrum of risky use through dependence) is common in HIV-infected persons, yet it can interfere with HIV medication adherence, may lower CD4 cell count, and can cause hepatic injury. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), often measured as %CDT, can detect heavy drinking but whether it does in people with HIV is not well established. We evaluated the operating characteristics of %CDT in HIV-infected adults using cross-sectional data from 300 HIV-infected adults with current or past alcohol problems. Past 30-day alcohol consumption was determined using the Timeline Followback, a validated structured recall questionnaire, as the reference standard. Sensitivity and specificity of %CDT (at manufacturer's cutoff point of 2.6%) for detecting both “at-risk” (≥four drinks per occasion or >seven drinks per week for women, ≥five drinks per occasion or >14 per week for men) and “heavy” drinking (≥ four drinks per day for women, ≥ five drinks per day for men on at least seven days) were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were estimated to summarize the diagnostic ability of %CDT for distinguishing “at risk” and “heavy” levels of drinking. Exploratory analyses that stratified by gender and viral hepatitis infection were performed. Of 300 subjects, 103 reported current consumption at “at-risk” amounts, and 47 reported “heavy” amounts. For “at-risk” drinking, sensitivity of %CDT was 28% (95% confidence interval (CI) 19%, 37%), specificity 90% (95% CI 86%, 94%); area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.59. For “heavy” drinking, sensitivity was 36% (95% CI 22%, 50%), specificity 88% (95% CI 84%, 92%); AUC was 0.60. Sensitivity appeared lower among women and those with viral hepatitis; specificity was similar across subgroups. Among HIV-infected adults, %CDT testing yielded good specificity, but poor sensitivity for detecting “at-risk” and “heavy” alcohol consumption, limiting its

  3. History of sexual abuse and suicide attempts in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, A; Klimkiewicz, A; Krasowska, A; Kopera, M; Sławińska-Ceran, A; Brower, K J; Wojnar, M

    2014-09-01

    History of child abuse is considered one of the important risk factors of suicide attempt in general population. At the same time it has been shown that suicide attempts appear significantly more frequently in alcoholics than in healthy individuals. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between history of childhood sexual abuse and suicide attempts in a sample of Polish alcohol dependent patients. A sample of 364 alcohol-dependent subjects was recruited in alcohol treatment centers in Warsaw, Poland. Information was obtained about demographics, family history of psychiatric problems, history of suicide attempts, sexual and physical abuse during childhood and adulthood and severity of alcohol problems. When analyzed by gender, 7.4% of male and 39.2% of female patients had a lifetime history of sexual abuse; 31.9% of the study group reported at least one suicide attempt during their lifetime. Patients who reported suicide attempts were significantly younger (p=0.0008), had greater severity of alcohol dependence (p=0.0002), lower social support (p=0.003), and worse economic status (p=0.002). Moreover, there was a significant association between history of suicide attempts and family history of psychiatric problems (p=0.00025), suicide attempts in the family (p=0.0073), childhood history of sexual abuse (p=0.009) as well as childhood history of physical abuse (p=0.002). When entered into linear regression analysis with other dependent variables history of childhood sexual abuse remained a significant predictor of suicide attempt (OR=2.52; p=0.035). Lifetime experience of sexual abuse is a significant and independent risk factor of suicide attempts in alcohol-dependent individuals.

  4. History of sexual abuse and suicide attempts in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, A; Klimkiewicz, A; Krasowska, A; Kopera, M; Sławińska-Ceran, A; Brower, K J; Wojnar, M

    2014-09-01

    History of child abuse is considered one of the important risk factors of suicide attempt in general population. At the same time it has been shown that suicide attempts appear significantly more frequently in alcoholics than in healthy individuals. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between history of childhood sexual abuse and suicide attempts in a sample of Polish alcohol dependent patients. A sample of 364 alcohol-dependent subjects was recruited in alcohol treatment centers in Warsaw, Poland. Information was obtained about demographics, family history of psychiatric problems, history of suicide attempts, sexual and physical abuse during childhood and adulthood and severity of alcohol problems. When analyzed by gender, 7.4% of male and 39.2% of female patients had a lifetime history of sexual abuse; 31.9% of the study group reported at least one suicide attempt during their lifetime. Patients who reported suicide attempts were significantly younger (p=0.0008), had greater severity of alcohol dependence (p=0.0002), lower social support (p=0.003), and worse economic status (p=0.002). Moreover, there was a significant association between history of suicide attempts and family history of psychiatric problems (p=0.00025), suicide attempts in the family (p=0.0073), childhood history of sexual abuse (p=0.009) as well as childhood history of physical abuse (p=0.002). When entered into linear regression analysis with other dependent variables history of childhood sexual abuse remained a significant predictor of suicide attempt (OR=2.52; p=0.035). Lifetime experience of sexual abuse is a significant and independent risk factor of suicide attempts in alcohol-dependent individuals. PMID:24997776

  5. Sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation in older adults depends on task demands.

    PubMed

    Gudberg, Christel; Wulff, Katharina; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2015-03-01

    It is often suggested that sleep-dependent consolidation of motor learning is impaired in older adults. The current study challenges this view and suggests that the degree of motor consolidation seen with sleep in older age groups depends on the kinematic demands of the task. We show that, when tested with a classic sequence learning task, requiring individuated finger movements, older adults did not show sleep-dependent consolidation. By contrast, when tested with an adapted sequence learning task, in which movements were performed with the whole hand, sleep-dependent motor improvement was observed in older adults. We suggest that age-related decline in fine motor dexterity may in part be responsible for the previously described deficit in sleep-dependent motor consolidation with aging. PMID:25618616

  6. TNF-α and IL-6 serum levels: neurobiological markers of alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent patients?

    PubMed

    Heberlein, Annemarie; Käser, Marius; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Rhein, Mathias; Lenz, Bernd; Kornhuber, Johannes; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in 30 male alcohol-dependent patients during withdrawal (day 1, 7, and 14) and compared them with the levels obtained from 18 healthy male controls. IL-6 (day 1: T = 2,593, p = 0.013; day 7: T = 2,315, p = 0.037; day 14: T = 1,650, p = 0.112) serum levels were significantly increased at the beginning of alcohol withdrawal. TNF-α (T = 3,202, p = 0.03) serum levels were significantly elevated in the patients' group during the whole period of withdrawal. IL-6 serum levels decreased significantly during withdrawal (F = 16.507, p < 0.001), whereas TNF-α levels did not change significantly (day 1-14). IL-6 serum levels were directly associated with alcohol consumption (r = 0.392, p = 0.047) on day 1. Moreover, the IL-6 serum levels were associated with alcohol craving (PACS total score day 1: r = -0.417, p = 0.022, the score of the obsessive subscale of the OCDS on day 14 [r = -0.549, p = 0.022]), depression (r = -0.507, p = 0.005), and trait anxiety (r = -0.674, p < 0.001) on day 1. We found an association with the duration of active drinking following the last period of abstinence and the TNF-α serum levels (day 1:r = 0.354, p = 0.009; day 7: r = 0.323, p = 0.022; day 14: r = 0.303, p = 0.034) as well as an association with the severity of alcohol dependence measured by the SESA scale (r = 0.454, p = 0.015). Moreover, we found a significant association between the BDNF serum levels and the TNF-α serum levels (r = -0.426, p = 0.021). Our results support an association between alterations in TNF-α and IL-6 serum levels and alcohol consumption. PMID:25262503

  7. [Plasma lipid concentration in smoking and nonsmoking male adults treated from alcohol addiction].

    PubMed

    Słodczyk, Ewa; Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela; Kozar-Konieczna, Aleksandra; Goniewicz, Jerzy; Ptak, Małgorzata; Olszowy, Zofia; Kośmider, Leon; Goniewicz, Maciej Łukasz; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking affect plasma lipid levels and are both independent risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Alcohol and nicotine addictions are more common among man than women in Poland. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in plasma lipid levels after cessation of heavy drinking in smoking and nonsmoking Polish male adults. Subjects were recruited from individuals who participated in an inpatient addiction program following alcohol detoxification. We recruited 119 male adults: 48 non-smokers in age between 31 and 60 years (mean 48.7 +/- 8.8) and 71 smokers in age between 30 and 60 years (mean 46.1 +/- 7.8). Each subjects provided three blood samples: at baseline, after 3 weeks, and after 6 weeks of treatment. Plasma samples were analyzed for lipids by manual precipitation and automatic enzymatic methods. Changes in plasma lipid concentrations were analyzed using two-way analysis of variances with repeated measures with smoking status as between subjects factor and time post alcohol cessation as within-subject factors. All analyses were adjusted for age, and BMI. We found that plasma levels of HDL decreased in smoking and nonsmoking subjects by 30% and 24%, respectively (p < 0.001). In smoking subjects, plasma levels of triglycerides and LDL increased significantly after 6 weeks post cessation of heavy drinking cessation by 17% and 16%, respectively (p = 0.001). We also found that total cholesterol levels remained high in smoking subjects, but decreased significantly by 7% (p = 0.022) in nonsmoking subjects after 6 weeks post cessation of heavy drinking. We concluded that cigarette smoking increased LDL and inhibited the decline in plasma cholesterol among subjects addicted to alcohol following cessation of heavy drinking. Alcohol addiction therapy should be complemented with smoking cessation to prevent increase in cardiovascular risk.

  8. Association of ADH and ALDH Genes With Alcohol Dependence in the Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of Alcohol Dependence (IASPSAD) Sample

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Kalsi, Gursharan; Prescott, Carol A.; Hodgkinson, Colin A.; Goldman, David; van den Oord, Edwin J.; Alexander, Jeffry; Jiang, Cizhong; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Patterson, Diana G.; Walsh, Dermot; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Riley, Brien P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The genes coding for ethanol metabolism enzymes [alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)] have been widely studied for their influence on the risk to develop alcohol dependence (AD). However, the relation between polymorphisms of these metabolism genes and AD in Caucasian subjects has not been clearly established. The present study examined evidence for the association of alcohol metabolism genes with AD in the Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of alcohol dependence. Methods: We conducted a case–control association study with 575 independent subjects who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, AD diagnosis and 530 controls. A total of 77 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the seven ADH (ADH1-7) and two ALDH genes (ALDH1A1 and ALDH2) were genotyped using the Illumina GoldenGate protocols. Several statistical procedures were implemented to control for false discoveries. Results: All markers with minor allele frequency greater than 0.01 were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. Numerous SNPs in ADH genes showed association with AD, including one marker in the coding region of ADH1C (rs1693482 in exon6, Ile271Gln). Haplotypic association was observed in the ADH5 and ADH1C genes, and in a long haplotype block formed by the ADH1A and ADH1B loci. We detected two significant interactions between pairs of markers in intron 6 of ADH6 and intron 12 of ALDH2 (p = 5 × 10−5), and 5′ of both ADH4 and ADH1A (p = 2 × 10−4). Conclusion: We found evidence for the association of several ADH genes with AD in a sample of Western European origin. The significant interaction effects between markers in ADH and ALDH genes suggest possible epistatic roles between alcohol metabolic enzymes in the risk for AD. PMID:18331377

  9. Oxidoreductive homeostasis in alcohol-dependent male patients and the risk of alcohol drinking relapse in a 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Budzyński, Jacek; Ziółkowski, Marcin; Kłopocka, Maria; Czarnecki, Damian

    2016-02-01

    Disturbances in the central signaling of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to energy intake are recognized as taking part in appetitive and consummative phases of eating disorders. This study aimed to verify the hypothesis that blood oxidoreductive balance can also affect demand for energy substances, such as alcoholic beverages in alcohol-dependent individuals, as well as the severity of their alcohol dependence and risk of drinking relapse. The following values were determined in the blood of 54 alcohol-dependent male patients after alcohol withdrawal, again after 4 weeks and after 6 months: the aldehyde products of lipid peroxidation (malonyl dialdehyde [MDA] and 4-hydroxynonenal [4-HNE]), nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, total antioxidant status (TAS), the blood activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GSHred), blood glucose, and lipids. Alcoholics who relapsed during 6 months of observation (n = 31, 57%) compared with patients who maintained alcohol abstinence for 6 months (n = 23, 43%) differed only in relation to initial and final NO metabolite serum concentrations. The risk of alcohol drinking relapse was lower in patients with an above-median initial blood concentration of NO metabolites and TAS. The oxidative stress parameters correlated with alcohol-dependence severity markers. No significant correlations between the studied antioxidant balance parameters and markers of nutritional status, including blood glucose and lipids, were found. Although the results of our study have some limitations and require further investigation, they suggest the role of oxidoreductive balance in the pathomechanisms of alcohol dependence and drinking relapse. In addition, due to a lack of association found between blood oxidative stress parameters and BMI, blood glucose, and lipid concentrations, they show the presence of disturbances in systemic ROS signaling in response to energy availability in alcoholics after

  10. Adolescent Mice, Unlike Adults, Consume More Alcohol in the Presence of Peers than Alone

    PubMed Central

    Logue, Sheree; Chein, Jason; Gould, Thomas; Holliday, Erica; Steinberg, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    One hallmark of adolescent risk taking is that it typically occurs when adolescents are with peers. It has been hypothesized that the presence of peers primes a reward-sensitive motivational state that overwhelms adolescents’ immature capacity for inhibitory control. We examined this hypothesis using a rodent model. A sample of mice were raised in same-sex triads and were tested for alcohol consumption either as juveniles or as adults, with half in each age group tested alone and half tested with their cagemates. The presence of “peers” increased alcohol consumption among adolescent mice, but not adults. The peer effect on human adolescent reward-seeking may reflect a hard-wired, evolutionarily conserved process through which the presence of agemates increases individuals’ sensitivity to potential rewards in their immediate environment. PMID:24341974

  11. Impaired emotional facial expression recognition in alcoholics, opiate dependence subjects, methadone maintained subjects and mixed alcohol-opiate antecedents subjects compared with normal controls.

    PubMed

    Kornreich, Charles; Foisy, Marie-Line; Philippot, Pierre; Dan, Bernard; Tecco, Juan; Noël, Xavier; Hess, Ursula; Pelc, Isidore; Verbanck, Paul

    2003-08-01

    The present study aims to explore whether an impairment in emotional facial expressions (EFE) decoding is specific to alcoholism compared with opiate dependence. An EFE decoding test consisting of 16 photographs of EFE portraying happiness, anger, sadness and disgust was administered to five different groups of 30 subjects each: recently detoxified alcoholics (RA); opiate addicts under methadone maintenance treatment (OM); detoxified opiate addicts (OA); detoxified subjects with both alcohol and opiate dependence antecedents (DAO); and normal controls (NC). Repeated measures analysis of variance using a multivariate approach was conducted on EFE decoding accuracy scores with group as the between-subjects factor. Accuracy scores were significantly lower in RA and DAO than in OM and OA, which had significantly lower scores than NC. Low accuracy scores in RA and DAO confirm previous results indicating that alcoholism is associated with impaired EFE recognition. Results in OM and OA indicate that opiate dependence is also associated with an impaired EFE decoding but less than in alcoholism. Alcohol and opiate chronic consumption could both exercise a deleterious effect on EFE-decoding brain function, alcohol having the most severe impact. Alternatively, EFE-decoding problems could be present before the development of alcohol and opiate dependence, with an additional effect of chronic alcohol consumption on EFE decoding. In this context, EFE-decoding impairment could reflect a more general emotional intelligence deficit in addicted populations.

  12. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese older adults: do living arrangements matter?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaan; Wu, Liyun

    2015-02-23

    This study used five waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine the relationship between living arrangements, smoking, and drinking among older adults in China from 1998-2008. We found that living arrangements had strong implications for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among the elderly. First, the likelihood of smoking was lower among older men living with children, and older women living either with a spouse, or with both a spouse and children; and the likelihood of drinking was lower among both older men, and women living with both a spouse and children, compared with those living alone. Second, among dual consumers (i.e., being a drinker and a smoker), the amount of alcohol consumption was lower among male dual consumers living with children, while the number of cigarettes smoked was higher among female dual consumers living with others, compared with those living alone. Third, among non-smoking drinkers, the alcohol consumption was lower among non-smoking male drinkers in all types of co-residential arrangements (i.e., living with a spouse, living with children, living with both a spouse and children, or living with others), and non-smoking female drinkers living with others, compared with those living alone. Results highlighted the importance of living arrangements to cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese elderly. Co-residential arrangements provided constraints on Chinese older adults' health-risk behaviors, and had differential effects for men and women.

  13. Real-time assessment of alcohol drinking and drug use in opioid-dependent polydrug users.

    PubMed

    Preston, Kenzie L; Jobes, Michelle L; Phillips, Karran A; Epstein, David H

    2016-10-01

    We investigated relationships between drinking, other drug use, and drug craving, using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), in a sample of polydrug users who were not heavy drinkers. In a prospective longitudinal cohort study, 114 heroin and cocaine users on methadone-maintenance treatment carried handheld electronic diaries during waking hours and were screened for drug and alcohol use for up to 25 weeks. Individuals who fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence were excluded. Participants responded to 2-5 random prompts per day to report on their moods, cravings, and activities and initiated entries when they used or acutely craved heroin or cocaine. Drinking alcohol was assessed in both types of entries. Breath alcohol was measured three times weekly. Participants reported drinking alcohol in 1.6% of random-prompt entries, 3.7% of event-contingent entries when craving cocaine and/or heroin, and 11.6% of event-contingent entries when using cocaine and/or heroin. Alcohol drinking was also associated with higher craving ratings and prestudy alcohol use. More drinking was detected by ambulatory self-report than by in-clinic breath testing. Even though we had screened out heavy drinkers from our sample of polydrug users, drinking was associated with heroin and cocaine craving and actual use. PMID:27579810

  14. Baclofen for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence and Possible Role of Comorbid Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Morley, K.C.; Baillie, A.; Leung, S.; Addolorato, G.; Leggio, L.; Haber, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To conduct a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of baclofen in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Methods: Out of 69 participants consecutively screened, 42 alcohol-dependent patients were randomized to receive placebo, baclofen 30 mg/day or baclofen 60 mg/day for 12 weeks. All subjects were offered BRENDA, a structured psychosocial therapy for alcohol dependence that seeks to improve motivation for change, enhance strategies to prevent relapse and encourage compliance with treatment. Results: Intention-to-treat analyses revealed that alcohol consumption (heavy drinking days, drinks per drinking day) significantly reduced across all three groups during the treatment period. There were no statistically significant advantages to treatment on time to first heavy drinking day (relapse) (P = 0.08), nor time to first drink (lapse) (P = 0.18). A post hoc analysis stratifying according to whether there had been a comorbid anxiety disorder, revealed a beneficial effect of baclofen 30 mg/day versus placebo on time to lapse and relapse (P < 0.05). There was also a beneficial effect for baclofen 60 mg/day relative to placebo on time to relapse in this comorbid group (P < 0.05). Both doses of baclofen were well tolerated. There were no serious adverse events. Conclusions: In spite of the small sample for a 3-arm clinical trial, this study suggests a specific role of baclofen in alcohol-dependent individuals with comorbid anxiety. Replication in larger, fully-powered studies is required. PMID:25246489

  15. Impulsive and non-impulsive suicide attempts in patients treated for alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Wojnar, Marcin; Ilgen, Mark A.; Czyz, Ewa; Strobbe, Stephen; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Glass, Jennifer; Brower, Kirk J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Suicidal behavior has been recognized as an increasing problem among alcohol-dependent subjects. The aim of the study was to identify correlates of impulsive and non-impulsive suicide attempts among a treated population of alcohol-dependent patients. Methods A total of 154 patients with alcohol dependence consecutively admitted for addiction treatment participated in the study. Suicidal behavior was assessed together with severity of alcohol dependence, childhood abuse, impulsivity, and family history. A stop-signal procedure was used as a behavioral measure of impulsivity. Results and conclusions Lifetime suicide attempts were reported by 43% of patients in alcohol treatment; of which 62% were impulsive. Compared to patients without a suicide attempt, those with a non-impulsive attempt were more likely to have a history of sexual abuse (OR = 7.17), a family history of suicide (OR = 4.09), and higher scores on a personality measure of impulsiveness (OR = 2.27). The only significant factor that distinguished patients with impulsive suicide attempts from patients without a suicide attempt and from patients with a non-impulsive suicide attempt was a higher level of behavioral impulsivity (OR = 1.84 – 2.42). Limitations Retrospective self-report of suicide attempts and family history. Lack of diagnostic measure. PMID:18835498

  16. Differential Effects of Acute Alcohol on Prepulse Inhibition and Event-Related Potentials in Adolescent and Adult Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pian, Jerry P.; Criado, Jose R.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that adolescent and adult rats show differential sensitivity to many of the acute effects of alcohol. We recently reported evidence of developmental differences in the effects of acute alcohol on the cortical electroencephalogram (EEG). However, it is unclear whether developmental differences are also observed in other neurophysiological and neurobehavioral measurements known to be sensitive to alcohol exposure. The present study determined the age-related effects of acute alcohol on behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) responses to acoustic startle (AS) and prepulse inhibition (PPI). Methods Male adolescent and adult Wistar rats were implanted with cortical recording electrodes. The effects of acute alcohol (0.0, 0.75, and 1.5 g/kg) on behavioral and ERP responses to AS and PPI were assessed. Results Acute alcohol (0.75 and 1.5 g/kg) significantly reduced the behavioral and electrophysiological response to AS in adolescent and adult rats. Both 0.75 and 1.5 g/kg alcohol significantly enhanced the behavioral response to PPI in adolescent, but not in adult rats. During prepulse+pulse trials, 1.5 g/kg alcohol significantly increased the N10 pulse response in the adolescent frontal cortex. Acute alcohol (0.75 and 1.5 g/kg) also increased the N1 ERP pulse response to prepulse stimuli in frontal and parietal cortices in adult rats, but not in adolescent rats. Conclusions These data suggest that alcohol’s effect on behavioral and electrophysiological indices of AS do not differ between adults and adolescents whereas developmental stage does appear to significantly modify alcohol influenced response to PPI. PMID:18828807

  17. Are the effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) treatment partly physiological in alcohol dependence?

    PubMed

    Ameisen, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the therapeutic effects of Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in alcohol dependence could be related to ethanol-mimicking action of the drug and that GHB could reduce alcohol craving, intake and withdrawal by acting as a "substitute" of the alcohol in the central nervous system. Nevertheless, alcohol being the strongest trigger of craving and intake, it is difficult to ascribe reduction of craving and intake to ethanol-mimicking activity of GHB. I have recently proposed that alcohol/substance dependence could result from a GHB-deficiency-related dysphoric syndrome in which alcohol/substances would be sought to "substitute" for insufficient GHB effect. GHB is the sole identified naturally occurring gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABA (B)) receptor agonist. Here, I propose that exogenous GHB might in fact "substitute" for deficient endogeneous GHB and represent true substitutive treatment for GHB-deficiency. And that baclofen and GHB could both compensate for deficient effect of the physiological GABA (B) receptor agonist(s).

  18. ADDITIONAL DEMOGRAPHIC AND CLINICAL EVIDENCES ON THE RELEVANCE OF THE SYSTEMIC THERAPY IN ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE.

    PubMed

    Alexinschi, Ovidiu; Chirita, Roxana; Manuela, Padurariu; Ciobica, Alin; Dobrin, Romeo; Petrariu, F D; Timofte, Daniel; Chirita, Vasile

    2015-01-01

    The modern treatment for alcohol dependence is still problematic, in many cases with the costs exceeding benefits. In these conditions a new management approach was developed lately, known as the systemic therapy. In this way, the crystallization and practical transposition of this new treatment approach is represented by the Clubs of Alcoholics in Treatment. These clubs are in fact a form of psycho-social intervention consisting of multi-family communities in order to maintain long-term abstinence from alcohol and to change their lifestyle and behavior. Thus, in the present paper we were interested in understanding the demographics of this systemic theory and how these aspects are influencing the final results of the therapy, as well as studying/confirming how relevant is this systemic approach on the management of alcohol dependence. Our results presented in this report bring additional evidences for the superiority of the systemic, multi-family approach of alcohol-related problems, as complemented to the standard medicinal therapy. Moreover, the data collected from patients in this study might suggest that patients with a higher educational level and therefore better capacity of understanding the information, with family support, and also with a better occupational insertion, have accepted to follow The Clubs of Alcoholics in Treatment program, with a subsequently better evolution. PMID:26793858

  19. Sleep abnormalities during abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients. Aetiology and management.

    PubMed

    Landolt, H P; Gillin, J C

    2001-01-01

    Virtually every type of sleep problem occurs in alcohol-dependent patients. Typically, these individuals take a longer time to fall asleep and show decreased sleep efficiency, shorter sleep duration and reduced amounts of slow wave sleep when compared with healthy controls. Their sleep patterns are fragmented, and the typical time course of electroencephalogram (EEG) delta wave activity is severely disrupted. The amount of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep may be reduced or increased. Sleep changes can persist during months or years of abstinence, and recent studies indicate that certain alterations in sleep architecture, as well as subjective sleep complaints, predict relapse to alcoholism. The mechanisms of action of short and long term alcohol administration on sleep are incompletely understood. They may arise from an interaction with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT), adenosine or other neurotransmitter systems. While only a few pharmacological and nonpharmacological strategies to improve or normalise disturbed sleep in individuals who have recovered from alcoholism have been studied, the use of benzodiazepines, other hypnosedatives or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors is not recommended. Therapies include sleep hygiene, bright light therapy, meditation, relaxation methods, and other nonpharmacological approaches. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between sleep, sleep abnormalities and alcoholism, and to establish new approaches to improve sleep in alcohol-dependent patients and to prevent withdrawal reactions that affect sleep during abstinence.

  20. Disease recognition is related to specific autobiographical memory deficits in alcohol-dependence.

    PubMed

    Poncin, Marie; Neumann, Aurore; Luminet, Olivier; Vande Weghe, Noémie; Philippot, Pierre; de Timary, Philippe

    2015-12-15

    The particularly high treatment gap in alcohol-dependence suggests the existence of important barriers to treatment decision and in particular difficulties in problem recognition. This study tested the relation between problem recognition and self-related memories. Forty-one recently detoxified alcohol-dependent individuals (AD) were compared to twenty alcoholic subjects that were abstinent for 6 months or more (recruited among alcoholics-anonymous (AA)), and to twenty controls on autobiographical memories elicited by pictures depicting or not alcohol using the autobiographical memory test. Autonoetic consciousness was measured with the Remember/Know paradigm. We tested whether memories performances were related with data obtained on the readiness to change questionnaire (RCQ) or with consciousness of the severity of drinking. AD subjects provided less specific memories than control and AA subjects, and fewer Remember responses than controls. The deficits in AD subjects were not specific for memories elicited by pictures depicting alcohol, suggesting a global deficit. Autobiographical memories specificity was negatively correlated to scores of consciousness of the severity of drinking but not to RCQ. Our results support potential recovery of autobiographical memory with abstinence. AD's deficits in autobiographical memory were related to capacities to recognize the severity and therefore may be a barrier to treatment decision. PMID:26365688

  1. Alcohol abuse and dependence among U.S.-Mexico border and non-border Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul; Caetano Vaeth, Patrice A.; Mills, Britain A.; Rodriguez, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND This paper examines the prevalence, the symptom profile, and the drinking and sociodemographic predictors of current (past 12 month) DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence among Mexican Americans living along the U.S.-Mexico border and those living in metropolitan areas away from the border. METHODS Respondents in the non-border areas (primarily Houston and Los Angeles) constitute a multistage probability sample (N=1,288) of these areas, interviewed as part of the 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS). Respondents in the border area (N=1,307) constitute a household probability sample of Mexican Americans living on the border. In both surveys, data were collected during computer assisted interviews conducted in respondents’ homes. The HABLAS and the border sample response rates were 76% and 67%, respectively. RESULTS Although bivariate analyses revealed no overall differences between border and non-border locations, (negative) age trends were more pronounced on the border for male abuse and for dependence among both genders. Among females aged 18–29, border residence was linked to significantly higher rates of dependence. In multivariable analyses, the prevalence of male abuse declined more rapidly with age on the border than off the border. Other unique predictors of male abuse were Jewish/other religion and weekly volume of alcohol consumption. Being married or out of the workforce, attaining a higher education, no religious preference, and weekly volume uniquely predicted female dependence. Age and weekly volume uniquely predicted male dependence. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of alcohol use disorders among Mexican Americans on and off the U.S.-Mexico border largely mirrors previously documented patterns of alcohol consumption in these areas. For young Mexican-American women in particular, border residence is linked to heightened vulnerability to alcohol dependence. PMID:23278433

  2. Age of First Use as a Predictor of Current Alcohol and Marijuana Use among College-Bound Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen-Cico, Dessa K.; Lape, Megan E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alcohol and marijuana are the most commonly used psychoactive substances; however, the sequencing and relationship between age of first use and continued current problematic use among college-bound emerging adults is not well understood. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of current and historical alcohol and marijuana use among…

  3. The Impact of Kin and Fictive Kin Relationships on the Mental Health of Black Adult Children of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Camille J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how kin and fictive kinship relationships help to ameliorate or buffer responses to parental alcoholism and the breakdown in parenting. This qualitative study investigated coping responses developed by college students, who self-identified as adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) who lived with…

  4. Trajectories and Determinants of Alcohol Use among LGB Young Adults and Their Heterosexual Peers: Results from a Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Lesbians, gays, and bisexuals (LGBs) are at increased risk for alcohol use during young adulthood, but the mechanisms remain inadequately understood. The aim of the present study was to examine the trajectories and determinants of alcohol use among LGB young adults who were sampled prospectively. The sample included 111 LGB individuals (47 women…

  5. A Pilot Study of Alcohol and Cigarette Consumption among Adolescent and Young Adult Females Attending Health Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Dunn, Michael; Woods, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Examines the alcohol and cigarette use patterns of adolescent and young adult female patients (N=246). Results indicate that smoking differences between Whites and Blacks was inversely related to education: less-educated Whites and more-educated Blacks had a greater smoking risk. Conclusions show females' differential needs regarding alcohol and…

  6. 38 CFR 17.82 - Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements of the “Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR part 2) and the... Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR part 2) and the “Confidentiality of Certain Medical... services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse disabilities. 17.82 Section 17.82...

  7. Relationships between the emotional and cognitive components of alexithymia and dependency in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Loas, G; Otmani, O; Lecercle, C; Jouvent, R

    2000-09-25

    Several authors have shown that alexithymia, emotional and perceptual dependency characterize patients suffering from substance abuse. The aim of the study is to test the hypothesis that the emotional and cognitive components of alexithymia are associated with dependency in alcoholics. Three groups were investigated: 60 inpatients meeting the DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence, 57 healthy subjects, 144 university students. All subjects completed the following rating scales: The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Interpersonal Dependency Inventory (IDI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Embedded Figures Test (EFT). Partial correlations, using the BDI score as constant, were calculated. In normal subjects, the 'Emotion' subscale of the TAS-20 correlated with the 'Lack of social self-confidence' subscale of the IDI and the 'Cognitive' subscale of the TAS-20 did not correlate with the EFT score. In alcoholics, the 'Cognitive' subscale of the TAS-20 correlated with the 'Lack of social self-confidence' subscale, with the EFT score and with the 'Affirmation of autonomy' subscale. A particular cognitive style characterized by externally oriented thinking, affirmation of autonomy as denial of emotional dependency and field dependence could characterize alcoholics.

  8. The activity of lysosomal exoglycosidases in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Zaniewska, Agnieszka; Borzym-Kluczyk, Malgorzata; Szajda, Slawomir D; Romatowski, Jacek; Gil, Andrzej; Knas, Malgorzata; Dobryniewski, Jacek; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the activity of the lysosomal exoglycosidases: alpha-mannosidase (MAN), alpha-fucosidase (FUC), and beta-glucuronidase (GLUCUR) in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented and not supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E. Serum was collected from eight social drinkers and 16 alcohol-dependent men after a drinking period. The activity of exoglycosidases and the concentration of protein in serum were determined. The increase in specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR was significant in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with the specific activity in serum of social drinkers. In serum of alcohol-dependent men treated with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR fluctuated in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Specific activity of FUC in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E showed a tendency to increase, in comparison with social drinkers. Specific activity of FUC had a tendency to decrease in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Thus, supplementation of alcohol-dependent men after a long-lasting drinking period with borage oil and vitamin E did not change the rate of catabolism of the oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates, as evaluated by serum activity of exoglycosidases. PMID:19735195

  9. The activity of lysosomal exoglycosidases in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Zaniewska, Agnieszka; Borzym-Kluczyk, Malgorzata; Szajda, Slawomir D; Romatowski, Jacek; Gil, Andrzej; Knas, Malgorzata; Dobryniewski, Jacek; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the activity of the lysosomal exoglycosidases: alpha-mannosidase (MAN), alpha-fucosidase (FUC), and beta-glucuronidase (GLUCUR) in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented and not supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E. Serum was collected from eight social drinkers and 16 alcohol-dependent men after a drinking period. The activity of exoglycosidases and the concentration of protein in serum were determined. The increase in specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR was significant in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with the specific activity in serum of social drinkers. In serum of alcohol-dependent men treated with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR fluctuated in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Specific activity of FUC in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E showed a tendency to increase, in comparison with social drinkers. Specific activity of FUC had a tendency to decrease in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Thus, supplementation of alcohol-dependent men after a long-lasting drinking period with borage oil and vitamin E did not change the rate of catabolism of the oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates, as evaluated by serum activity of exoglycosidases.

  10. The outcome of patients sustaining a proximal femur fracture who suffer from alcohol dependency.

    PubMed

    Faroug, R; Amanat, S; Ockendon, M; Shah, S V; Gregory, J J

    2014-07-01

    There are many negative health consequences associated with alcohol dependency. Fractures of the proximal femur carry significant morbidity and mortality. This study examines the outcomes in patients with alcohol dependency, who sustain a fracture of the proximal femur. Twenty-eight consecutive alcohol dependent patients who suffered a fracture of the proximal femur were identified over a three year period. Data were collected on demographics, co-morbidity, surgical factors, mobility and mortality. The median age of patients was 61 years. The median weekly alcohol intake was 158 units. Thirteen patients sustained an extra-capsular fracture and 15 an intra-capsular proximal femoral fracture. Twenty-two fractures were treated with internal fixation and six with arthroplasty. The overall mortality rate was 29% at a median of 15 months post fracture. The failure rate of intra-capsular fractures fixed with cannulated screws was 56% at a median time of 43 days. All patients had a reduction in mobility compared to their pre-operative function. The reduction in mobility was greatest in patients with intra-capsular fractures treated with cannulated screw fixation. Alcohol dependent patients sustaining a fracture of the proximal femur are significantly younger than non-alcohol dependent patients sustaining the same injury. Despite the younger age at presentation the one year mortality rate of this group was high (29%). The high rate of complications with fracture fixation and high one year mortality suggest that hemiarthroplasty may be the best treatment option for intra-capsular fractures in this patient group.

  11. Treatment in hospital for alcohol-dependent patients decreases attentional bias

    PubMed Central

    Flaudias, Valentin; Brousse, Georges; de Chazeron, Ingrid; Planche, François; Brun, Julien; Llorca, Pierre-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: Previous studies in alcohol-dependent patients have shown an attentional bias (AB) under related substance cues, which can lead to relapse. This AB can be evaluated by the alcohol Stroop test (AST). The AST is a modified Stroop task in which participants have to name the color of an alcohol-related word or a neutral word. AB is the response-time difference between these two types of words. The goal of the current study was to examine modification of AB during specialized hospitalization for alcohol dependence, with the suppression of a training bias that could be present in within-subject design. Methods: Individuals with alcohol-dependence disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition) and admitted for withdrawal in the addiction unit of the University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand (test group, n = 42) and persons with no alcohol or psychiatric disorder (control group, n = 16), recruited among colleagues and friends of the staff, performed the AST. A subgroup of the test group performed the AST in admission (admission group, n = 19), and another subgroup undertook the test immediately before discharge (discharge group, n = 23). Results: Results showed an AB only for patients seen at admission (F[1,55] = 3.283, P = 0.075). Moreover, we observed that the AB in the admission group (mean = 34 ms, standard deviation [SD] = 70.06) was greater than the AB in the control group (mean = 23 ms, SD = 93.42), itself greater than the AB in the discharge group (mean = −12 ms, SD = 93.55) (t[55] = −1.71; P = 0.09). Conclusion: Although the results are preliminary, the present study provides evidence for changes in the AB during alcohol-addiction treatment and for the value of these methods to diminish AB during detoxification. PMID:23785237

  12. Neuropeptide YY(2)R blockade in the central amygdala reduces anxiety-like behavior but not alcohol drinking in alcohol-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Kallupi, Marsida; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Carmichael, Casey Y; George, Olivier; Koob, George F; Gilpin, Nicholas W

    2014-09-01

    Electrophysiological data suggest a dual role of Y2 receptors (Y2 Rs) as autoreceptors regulating neuropeptide Y release and heteroceptors regulating gamma-aminobutyric acid release in the central amygdala (CeA). Here, we report that neither systemic (JNJ-31020028) nor intra-CeA (BIIE0246) Y2 R antagonism altered operant alcohol responding by alcohol-dependent or non-dependent rats. Conversely, BIIE0246 in the CeA reduced anxiety-like behavior in alcohol-dependent and alcohol-naïve rats. The finding that Y2 R antagonism reduces anxiety-like behavior but not alcohol drinking suggests that these two effects may occur via different functions of the Y2 R (e.g. autoreceptor versus heteroceptor function).

  13. Use of Pharmacotherapies in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorders and Opioid Dependence in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinhee; Kresina, Thomas F.; Campopiano, Melinda; Lubran, Robert; Clark, H. Westley

    2015-01-01

    Substance-related and addictive disorders are chronic relapsing conditions that substantially impact public health. Effective treatments for these disorders require addressing substance use/dependence comprehensively as well as other associated comorbidities. Comprehensive addressing of substance use in a medical setting involves screening for substance use, addressing substance use directly with the patient, and formulating an appropriate intervention. For alcohol dependence and opioid dependence, pharmacotherapies are available that are safe and effective when utilized in a comprehensive treatment paradigm, such as medication assisted treatment. In primary care, substance use disorders involving alcohol, illicit opioids, and prescription opioid abuse are common among patients who seek primary care services. Primary care providers report low levels of preparedness and confidence in identifying substance-related and addictive disorders and providing appropriate care and treatment. However, new models of service delivery in primary care for individuals with substance-related and addictive disorders are being developed to promote screening, care and treatment, and relapse prevention. The education and training of primary care providers utilizing approved medications for the treatment of alcohol use disorders and opioid dependence in a primary care setting would have important public health impact and reduce the burden of alcohol abuse and opioid dependence. PMID:25629034

  14. Integrating alcohol response feedback in a brief intervention for young adult heavy drinkers who smoke: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Fridberg, Daniel J.; Cao, Dingcai; King, Andrea C.

    2015-01-01

    Background More effective approaches are needed to enhance drinking and other health behavior (e.g., smoking) outcomes of alcohol brief intervention (BI). Young adult heavy drinkers often engage in other health risk behaviors and show sensitivity to alcohol’s stimulating and rewarding effects, which predicts future alcohol-related problems. However, standard alcohol BIs do not address these issues. The current pilot study tested the utility of including feedback on alcohol response phenotype to improve BI outcomes among young adult heavy drinkers who smoke (HDS). Methods Thirty-three young adult (M ± SD age = 23.8 ± 2.1 years) HDS (8.7 ± 4.3 binge episodes/month; 23.6 ± 6.3 smoking days/month) were randomly assigned to standard alcohol BI (BI-S; n = 11), standard alcohol BI with personalized alcohol response feedback (BI-ARF; n = 10), or a health behavior attention control BI (AC; n = 11). Alcohol responses (stimulation, sedation, reward, and smoking urge) for the BI-ARF were recorded during a separate alcohol challenge session (0.8 g/kg). Outcomes were past-month drinking and smoking behavior assessed at 1- and 6-months post-intervention. Results At 6-month follow-up, the BI-ARF produced significant reductions in binge drinking, alcohol-smoking co-use, drinking quantity and frequency, and smoking frequency, but not maximum drinks per occasion, relative to baseline. Overall, the BI-ARF produced larger reductions in drinking/smoking behaviors at follow-up than did the BI-S or AC. Conclusions Including personalized feedback on alcohol response phenotype may improve BI outcomes for young adult HDS. Additional research is warranted to enhance and refine this approach in a broader sample. PMID:26341847

  15. [Psychometric properties of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS) in a sample of smokers treated for their alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Becoña, Elisardo; Nogueiras, Luis; Flórez, Gerardo; Alvarez, Sandra; Vázquez, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of nicotine dependence with brief instruments is of great relevance for the better detection of this disorder. Here we present the results with the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS) by Shiffman, Waters and Hickcox (2004) in a sample of 183 patients treated at an Alcohol Dependence Unit who were also cigarette smokers. The results indicate that the general factor which evaluates nicotine dependence (NDSS-T) has good reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.80). Factor analysis identifies four of the five factors proposed in the original version, those of drive, priority, continuity and stereotypy. Reliability of the scales derived ranges from very good (0.80) to moderate (0.63). The NDSS-T correlates significantly with the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire (FTQ), with the DSM-IV criteria for nicotine dependence assessed through the SCID, and with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. The ROC curves indicate an NDSS-T score of 0.80 under the curve (0.70 for the FTND), showing that it adequately predicts nicotine dependence. This study confirms the utility of this new instrument for assessing nicotine dependence in smokers who also abuse or depend upon alcohol.

  16. Laboratory alcohol self-administration experiments do not increase subsequent real-life drinking in young adult social drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Christian; Seipt, Christian; Spreer, Maik; Blümke, Toni; Markovic, Alexandra; Jünger, Elisabeth; Plawecki, Martin H.; Zimmermann, Ulrich S.

    2015-01-01

    Background While the utility of experimental free-access alcohol self-administration paradigms is well-established, little data exist addressing the question of whether study participation influences subsequent natural alcohol consumption. We here present drinking reports of young adults before and after participation in intravenous alcohol self-administration studies. Methods Timeline Follow-back (TLFB) drinking reports for the 6 weeks immediately preceding the first, and the 6 weeks after the last experimental alcohol challenge were examined from subjects completing one of two similar alcohol self-administration paradigms. In study 1, eighteen social drinkers (9 females, mean age 24.1 years) participated in 3 alcohol self-infusion sessions up to a maximum blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 160 mg%. Study 2 involved 60 participants (30 females, mean age 18.3 years) of the Dresden Longitudinal Study on Alcohol Use in Young Adults (D-LAYA), who participated in 2 sessions of alcohol self-infusion up to a maximum BAC of 120 mg%, and a non-exposed age- matched control group of 42 (28 females, mean age 18.4 years) subjects. Results In study 1, participants reported (3.7%) fewer heavy drinking days as well as a decrease of 2.5 drinks per drinking day after study participation compared to pre-study levels (p<.05 respectively).. In study 2, alcohol-exposed participants reported 7.1% and non- alcohol-exposed controls 6.5% fewer drinking days at post-study measurement (p<.001), while percent heavy drinking days and drinks per drinking day did not differ. Conclusion These data suggest that participation in intravenous alcohol self-administration experiments does not increase subsequent real-life drinking of young adults. PMID:25903217

  17. Supplier-dependent differences in intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Shima; Segerström, Lova; Roman, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a worldwide public health problem and a polygenetic disorder displaying substantial individual variation. This work aimed to study individual differences in behavior and its association to voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone in a seamless heterogenic group of animals. Thus, by this approach the aim was to more accurately recapitulate the existing heterogeneity within the human population. Male Wistar rats from three different suppliers (Harlan Laboratories B.V., RccHan™:WI; Taconic Farms A/S, HanTac:WH; and Charles River GmbH, Crl:WI) were used to create a heterogenic group for studies of individual differences in behavior, associations to intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone. The rats were tested in the open field prior to the Y-maze and then given voluntary intermittent access to alcohol or water in the home cage for 6 weeks, where after, naltrexone in three different doses or saline was administered in a Latin square design over 4 weeks and alcohol intake and preference was measured. However, supplier-dependent differences and concomitant skew subgroup formations, primarily in open field behavior and intermittent alcohol intake, resulted in a shifted focus to instead study voluntary alcohol intake and preference, and the ensuing response to naltrexone in Wistar rats from three different suppliers. The results showed that outbred Wistar rats are diverse with regard to voluntary alcohol intake and preference in a supplier-dependent manner; higher in RccHan™:WI relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI. The results also revealed supplier-dependent differences in the effect of naltrexone that were dose- and time-dependent; evident differences in high-drinking RccHan™:WI rats relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI rats. Overall these findings render RccHan™:WI rats more suitable for studies of individual differences in voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone and

  18. Alcohol abuse-duration dependent decrease in plasma testosterone and antioxidants in males.

    PubMed

    Maneesh, M; Dutta, Sanjiba; Chakrabarti, Amit; Vasudevan, D M

    2006-01-01

    Ethanol is a testicular toxin and it causes fertility abnormalities with low sperm count and impaired sperm motility in men. The present study was designed to investigate plasma testosterone level and hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis function in alcoholic men and also effect of ethanol on systemic oxidative stress. Forty six male alcohol abusers in the age group 20-40 years were selected. Fifty five, males in the same age group served as control. Alcohol abusers had significantly low plasma testosterone with low luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone. In addition they had significantly high thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase, and low glutathione, ascorbic acid, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase. Moreover, serum testosterone level in alcoholics negatively correlated with duration of alcohol abuse, and TBARS. Duration dependent decreased serum testosterone level in alcohol abusers might be due to 1) increased oxidative stress which can damage Leydig and supporting Sertoli cells and 2) impaired HPG axis.

  19. A follow up study on the efficacy of metadoxine in the treatment of alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Guerrini, Irene; Gentili, Claudio; Nelli, Gloria; Guazzelli, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Background We carried out a three months follow-up study on the efficacy of metadoxine in a cohort of alcoholics admitted to the Alcohol misuse Long-term Treatment (ALT) Unit – University of Pisa (Italy). We analyzed the clinical data, psychometric tests and blood tests of 160 alcoholics on admission and after 3 months of treatment. We compared 58 pts treated with metadoxine (MET) with 102 pts who did not receive (NULL) any drug as an adjunct to the psycho-educational interventions provided by the ALT Unit. Results At follow-up, the patients in treatment with metadoxine showed a significant improvement in the rate of complete abstinence (44.8% vs. 21.6%; chi square: 8.45, df = 1, p < 0.0037). Furthermore, the number of drop-outs at three months of treatment was also significantly lower in the MET than in the NULL group (17% vs. 57%; chi square of 23.22, df = 1, p < 0.001). Conclusion Our findings support the use of metadoxine in the management of alcohol dependence. However, randomized clinical trials are necessary to confirm and replicate them. This study raises the importance of identifying new pharmacological compounds effective on the outcome of alcoholism in order to help patients to best adhere to treatment programs and to prevent the development of mental and physical complications due to chronic and heavy use of alcohol. PMID:17176456

  20. The Adults in the Making Program: Long-Term Protective Stabilizing Effects on Alcohol Use and Substance Use Problems for Rural African American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This report addresses the long-term efficacy of the Adults in the Making (AIM) prevention program on deterring the escalation of alcohol use and development of substance use problems, particularly among rural African American emerging adults confronting high levels of contextual risk. Method: African American youths (M age, pretest =…

  1. The influence of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on adult offspring risk of lifetime suicide attempt in the United States.

    PubMed

    Alonzo, Dana; Thompson, Ronald G; Stohl, Mahlki; Hasin, Deborah

    2014-05-01

    The influences of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt have not been examined in national data. This study analyzed data from the 2001-2002 NESARC to estimate main and interaction effects of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on lifetime suicide attempt. Adjusted for controls, parental divorce and parental alcohol abuse independently increased odds of lifetime suicide attempt. The effect of parental divorce was not significantly moderated by parental alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to examine whether additional parental and offspring psychiatric and substance use covariates attenuate the association between parental divorce and lifetime suicide attempt.

  2. Assessing the Usability of Web-Based Alcohol Education for Older Adults: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Lorna; Osterweil, Dan; Van Draanen, Jenna; Cooke, Alexis; Beck, John C

    2016-01-01

    Background Older adults can experience unfavorable health effects from drinking at relatively low consumption levels because of age-related physiological changes and alcohol’s potentially adverse interactions with declining health, increased medication-use and diminishing functional status. At the same time, alcohol use in older adults may be protective against heart disease, stroke, and other disorders associated with aging. We developed “A Toast to Health in Later Life! Wise Drinking as We Age,” a web-based educational intervention to teach older adults to balance drinking risks and benefits. Objective To examine the intervention’s feasibility in a sample of community-dwelling current drinkers ≥55 years of age and examine its effects on their quantity and frequency of alcohol use, adherence to standard drinking guidelines, and alcohol-related risks. Methods Participants were recruited in person, by mail and by telephone between September and October 2014 from a community-based social services organization serving Los Angeles County. Once enrolled, participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or to a control group. The conceptual frameworks for the intervention were the Health Belief Model, models of adult learning, and the US Department of Health and Human Services guidelines for designing easy-to-use websites. The intervention’s content focuses on the relationship between drinking and its effects on older adults’ medical conditions, use of medications, and ability to perform daily activities. It also addresses quantity and frequency of alcohol use, drinking and driving and binge drinking. The control group did not receive any special intervention. Data on alcohol use and risks for both groups came from the online version of the Alcohol-Related Problems Survey and were collected at baseline and four weeks later. Data on usability were collected online from the intervention group immediately after it completed its review of the website

  3. Suppression of Alcohol Dependence Using Baclofen: A 2-Year Observational Study of 100 Patients

    PubMed Central

    de Beaurepaire, Renaud

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of baclofen in a large cohort of alcohol-dependent patients compliant to baclofen treatment. Methods: A hundred patients with alcohol dependence, resistant to usual treatments, were treated with escalating doses of baclofen (no superior limit). Alcohol consumption (in grams) and craving for alcohol were assessed before treatment and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Assessments were simply based on patients’ statements. The outcome measure was the consumption of alcohol, rated according to the World Health Organization criteria for risk of chronic harm. Results: While all patients were rated “at high risk” at baseline, approximately half of them were rated “at low risk” at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The sum of patients who were at “low risk” and at “moderate risk” (improved patients) was 84% at 3 months, 70% at 6 months, 63% at 1 year, and 62% at 2 years. The constancy of improvement over the 2-years was remarkable. The average maximal dose of baclofen taken was 147 mg/day. Ninety-two percentage of patients reported that they experienced the craving-suppressing effect of baclofen. Significant relationships were found between the amount in grams of alcohol taken before treatment and the maximal dose of baclofen required, and between the existence of a mental disorder and a lesser effect of baclofen. Conclusion: Baclofen produces an effortless decrease or suppression of alcohol craving when it is prescribed with no superior limit of dose. Potential limitations in the effectiveness of baclofen include the coexistence of a mental disorder, the concomitant use of other psychotropic drugs, a lack of real motivation in patients to stop drinking, and the impossibility to reach the optimal dose of baclofen because of unbearable side-effects (sometimes possibly related to too sharp a protocol of dose escalation). PMID:23316172

  4. Transcription-Factor-Dependent Control of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Beckervordersandforth, Ruth; Zhang, Chun-Li; Lie, Dieter Chichung

    2015-10-01

    Adult-generated dentate granule neurons have emerged as major contributors to hippocampal plasticity. New neurons are generated from neural stem cells through a complex sequence of proliferation, differentiation, and maturation steps. Development of the new neuron is dependent on the precise temporal activity of transcription factors, which coordinate the expression of stage-specific genetic programs. Here, we review current knowledge in transcription factor-mediated regulation of mammalian neural stem cells and neurogenesis and will discuss potential mechanisms of how transcription factor networks, on one hand, allow for precise execution of the developmental sequence and, on the other hand, allow for adaptation of the rate and timing of adult neurogenesis in response to complex stimuli. Understanding transcription factor-mediated control of neuronal development will provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying neurogenesis-dependent plasticity in health and disease.

  5. Field Dependency, n Power and Locus of Control Variables in Alcohol Aversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Query, William T.

    1983-01-01

    Compared individual differences and treatment effectiveness in male volunteer alcoholics (N=47) in a 10-day electroconditioning aversion program. Follow-up showed combination therapy was more successful. Internals and hard liquor drinkers tended to be abstinent as predicted. Field dependency was a more unstable variable for outcome. (Author/JAC)

  6. [Psychopathological symptoms and personality traits in alcohol-dependent patients: a comparative study].

    PubMed

    Bravo de Medina, Ricardo; Echeburúa, Enrique; Aizpiri, Javier

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe the psychopathological and personality profile associated with alcohol dependence and to compare it with those of non-addictive disorders and the normal population. The sample consisted of 158 alcohol-dependent participants attending a psychiatric outpatient clinic, 120 psychiatric patients with non-addictive disorders and 103 participants from the general population chosen to match the patient samples for age, gender and socioeconomic level. All participants were assessed with different instruments related to personality (Impulsiveness Scale, Sensation-Seeking Scale and STAI), psychopathology (SCL-90-R, BDI and Maladjustment Scale) and personality disorders (MCMI-II). Patients from the clinical groups presented more symptoms of anxiety and depression than the healthy participants and had more problems adjusting to everyday life, but there were no differences between the two clinical groups. Alcohol-dependent patients were more impulsive and sensation-seeking than the other two groups. Histrionic, narcissistic and antisocial personality disorders were specific to the alcohol-dependent patients. The implications of this study for further research are discussed.

  7. Neuropsychological Impairment and Relapse Following Inpatient Detoxification in Severe Alcohol Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Fraser

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between neuropsychological impairment in severe alcohol dependence and relapse. This was assessed following inpatient detoxification over a period of three months. Participants were tested on measures of neuropsychological functioning at the end of a seven to ten day stay in an inpatient alcohol…

  8. Continuum beliefs and stigmatizing attitudes towards persons with schizophrenia, depression and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Schomerus, Georg; Matschinger, Herbert; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2013-10-30

    Separation is a central step in the process of stigmatizing persons with mental disorders. We examine whether belief in a continuum of symptoms from mental health to mental illness is associated with less stigmatizing attitudes. In a representative population survey in Germany (n=3642), using case-vignettes of persons suffering from schizophrenia, depression or alcohol dependence, we measured belief in a continuity of symptoms, emotional reactions and desire for social distance related to the person described in the vignette. While 42% of respondents agreed in symptom continuity for depression, this percentage was 26% for schizophrenia and 27% for alcohol dependence. Continuum beliefs were associated in general with more positive emotional reactions and less desire for social distance. This relationship was strongest for schizophrenia, followed by alcohol dependence. Continuum beliefs thus seem to be associated with less stigmatizing attitudes, particularly regarding schizophrenia and alcohol dependence. Educational information on the continuous nature of most psychopathological phenomena could usefully be integrated in anti-stigma messages.

  9. Integrated Psychosocial and Opioid-Antagonist Treatment for Alcohol Dependence: A Systematic Review of Controlled Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Michael G.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2004-01-01

    Methodological characteristics and outcomes of 14 controlled clinical investigations of integrated psychosocial and opioid-antagonist alcohol dependence treatment were evaluated. The 14 studies were identified through computerized bibliographic and manual literature searches. Clients receiving integrated psychosocial and opioid-antagonist…

  10. Empirically defined subtypes of alcohol dependence in an Irish family sample.

    PubMed

    Sintov, Nicole D; Kendler, Kenneth S; Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Walsh, Dermot; Patterson, Diana G; Prescott, Carol A

    2010-03-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is clinically and etiologically heterogeneous. The goal of this study was to explore AD subtypes among a sample of 1221 participants in the Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of Alcohol Dependence, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for AD. Variables used to identify the subtypes included major depressive disorder, antisocial personality disorder, illicit drug dependence (cannabis, sedatives, stimulants, cocaine, opioids, and hallucinogens), nicotine dependence, the personality traits of neuroticism and novelty seeking, and early alcohol use. Using latent class analysis, a 3-class solution was identified as the most parsimonious description of the data. Individuals in a Mild class were least likely to have comorbid psychopathology, whereas a severe class had highest probabilities of all comorbid psychopathology. The third class was characterized by high probabilities of major depression and higher neuroticism scores, but lower likelihood of other comorbid disorders than seen in the severe class. Overall, sibling pair resemblance for class was stronger within than between classes, and was greatest for siblings within the severe class, suggesting a stronger familial etiology for this class. These findings are consistent with the affective regulation and behavioral disinhibition subtypes of alcoholism, and are in line with prior work suggesting familial influences on subtype etiology.

  11. Stress system changes associated with marijuana dependence may increase craving for alcohol and cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Helen C.; Tuit, Keri L.; Sinha, Rajita

    2013-01-01

    Objective To date, little research exists defining bio-behavioral adaptations associated with both marijuana abuse and risk of craving and relapse to other drugs of abuse during early abstinence. Method Fifty-nine treatment-seeking individuals dependent on alcohol and cocaine were recruited. Thirty of these individuals were also marijuana (MJ) dependent; 29 were not. Twenty-six socially drinking healthy controls were also recruited. All participants were exposed to three 5-min guided imagery conditions (stress, alcohol/cocaine cue and relaxing), presented randomly, one per day across three consecutive days. Measures of craving, anxiety, heart rate, blood pressure, plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol were collected at baseline and subsequent recovery time points. Results The MJ-dependent group showed increased basal anxiety ratings and cardiovascular output alongside enhanced alcohol craving and cocaine craving, and dampened cardiovascular response to stress and cue. They also demonstrated elevated cue-induced anxiety and stress-induced cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone levels, which were not observed in the non-MJ-dependent group or controls. Cue-related alcohol craving and anxiety were both predictive of a shorter number of days to marijuana relapse following discharge from inpatient treatment. Conclusions Findings provide some support for drug cross-sensitization in terms of motivational processes associated with stress-related and cue-related craving and relapse. PMID:23280514

  12. Emotional Intelligence: An Untapped Resource for Alcohol and Other Drug Related Prevention among Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Ken Russell

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol and Other Drug abuse in adolescents and adults continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. Care in intervention programs aimed at high risk populations identified occurs after the maladaptive behavioral delinquency has occurred, and only then is an individual afforded the opportunity to join an intervention program. The focus of this paper is to illustrate and highlight the value of prevention programs which emphasize altering maladaptive behavior before the behavior becomes problematic. Emotional Intelligence is not only an indicator of alcohol and other drug abuse, but is linked to emotional competence, social and emotional learning, the development of healthy and life promoting behavior, and has been proven to reduce some of the risk factors associated with alcohol and other drug abuse in adolescents and adults. This paper seeks to recognize the significance of Emotional Intelligence as a desirable health promoting attribute and to establish the importance of its conceptual use in a prevention based model for reducing associated high risk behaviors. PMID:22570777

  13. Prevalence of alcohol and drug dependence in rural and slum population of Chandigarh: A community survey

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, B. S.; Arun, Priti; Bhargava, Rachna; Singh, Gurvinder Pal

    2007-01-01

    The present epidemiological survey was conducted by the department of psychiatry, Govt. Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh to estimate the pattern of alcohol and other substance dependence in rural and slum dwellers population of Chandigarh. In this survey 6.88% individuals of the total population surveyed (2992) fulfilled dependence criteria of ICD-10. Alcohol was the primary substance of dependence for majority of urban slum substance users and rural areas users. Age at first drug use was 20.89 ± 5.31 years (mean ± S.D) among rural population and 19.75 ± 5.4 years (mean ± SD) in urban slums. Majority of them reported having health related complications (85.71%) followed by family problems (77.31%) due to drug dependence. This survey reflects the need to intensify efforts at the community level to reach the unreached. PMID:20640064

  14. Alcohol Use Severity among Hispanic Emerging Adults in Higher Education: Understanding the Effect of Cultural Congruity

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Vaughan, Ellen L.; de Dios, Marcel A.; Castro, Yessenia; Roncancio, Angelica M.; Ojeda, Lizette

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying and understanding determinants of alcohol use behavior among Hispanic college students is an increasingly important public health issue, particularly during emerging adulthood. Studies examining ethnocultural determinants of alcohol use behavior among Hispanic college students have focused on direct associations with cultural orientation (e.g., acculturation and enculturation); yet there is a need for research that accounts for the complex interplay of other culturally relevant sociocultural factors. Objectives This study examined associations of behavioral acculturation, behavioral enculturation, and cultural congruity (perception of cultural fit between the values of the academic environment and the student's personal values) with alcohol use severity (AUS); and tested if gender moderated those associations. Methods A hierarchical linear regression and moderation analysis were conducted on a sample of 167 Hispanic emerging adults (ages 18 to 25) enrolled in college. Results All predictor variables entered in the regression model accounted for 20.9% of the variance in AUS. After controlling for demographic variables and depressive symptoms, behavioral acculturation and enculturation did not have a statistically significant association with AUS. Further, gender did not moderate either of these associations. Conversely, greater cultural congruity was associated with lower reports of AUS. A moderation analysis suggested that cultural congruity predicted lower reports of AUS among men, but not among women. Conclusions This was the first known study to examine the association of cultural congruity with alcohol use. Findings highlight the value of examining contextual factors of culture and moving beyond reductive measures of cultural orientation. PMID:26574656

  15. Gender role orientations and alcohol use among Moscow and Toronto adults.

    PubMed

    Van Gundy, Karen; Schieman, Scott; Kelley, Margaret S; Rebellon, Cesar J

    2005-12-01

    Using self-report data from representative community samples of Moscow and Toronto adults, we examine the effects of sex, masculinity, and femininity on alcohol use. Consistent with prior research, our results show that men in Moscow and Toronto drink significantly more than women; women in both samples tend more toward conventional femininity than men; and masculinity levels are greater among Toronto men relative to Toronto women. Moscow men and women, however, show comparable masculinity levels. Neither masculinity nor femininity explains the sex gap in alcohol use in either sample. However, sex- and sample-specific effects are identified. In Toronto, femininity is associated with higher alcohol use among women. In Moscow, masculinity is associated with lower use among men and higher use among women. The findings provide preliminary support for our assertion that the characteristics of national contexts, such as drinking norms and "Soviet-style socialism" [Cockerham, Snead, and Dewaal (2002). Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 43, 42-55] interact with traditional gender role orientations to influence alcohol use patterns. We suggest that a movement toward culturally sensitive policies that consider sex-specific social expectations and responses may contribute to improved health outcomes across nations.

  16. Age- and Sex-Dependent Effects of Footshock Stress on Subsequent Alcohol Drinking and Acoustic Startle Behavior in Mice Selectively Bred for High-Alcohol Preference

    PubMed Central

    Chester, Julia A.; Barrenha, Gustavo D.; Hughes, Matthew L.; Keuneke, Kelly J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to stress during adolescence is known to be a risk factor for alcohol-use and anxiety disorders. This study examined the effects of footshock stress during adolescence on subsequent alcohol drinking in male and female mice selectively bred for high-alcohol preference (HAP1 lines). Acoustic startle responses and prepulse inhibition (PPI) were also assessed in the absence of, and immediately following, subsequent footshock stress exposures to determine whether a prior history of footshock stress during adolescence would produce enduring effects on anxiety-related behavior and sensorimotor gating. Methods Alcohol-nav̈ve, adolescent (male, n = 27; female, n = 23) and adult (male, n = 30; female, n = 30) HAP1 mice were randomly assigned to a stress or no stress group. The study consisted of 5 phases: (1) 10 consecutive days of exposure to a 30-minute footshock session, (2) 1 startle test, (3) one 30-minute footshock session immediately followed by 1 startle test, (4) 30 days of free-choice alcohol consumption, and (5) one 30-minute footshock session immediately followed by 1 startle test. Results Footshock stress exposure during adolescence, but not adulthood, robustly increased alcohol drinking behavior in both male and female HAP1 mice. Before alcohol drinking, females in both the adolescent and adult stress groups showed greater startle in phases 2 and 3; whereas males in the adolescent stress group showed greater startle only in phase 3. After alcohol drinking, in phase 5, enhanced startle was no longer apparent in any stress group. Males in the adult stress group showed reduced startle in phases 2 and 5. PPI was generally unchanged, except that males in the adolescent stress group showed increased PPI in phase 3 and females in the adolescent stress group showed decreased PPI in phase 5. Conclusions Adolescent HAP1 mice appear to be more vulnerable to the effects of footshock stress than adult mice, as manifested by increased alcohol drinking

  17. Comparison of the deleterious effects of binge drinking-like alcohol exposure in adolescent and adult mice.

    PubMed

    Lacaille, Hélène; Duterte-Boucher, Dominique; Liot, Donovan; Vaudry, Hubert; Naassila, Mickael; Vaudry, David

    2015-03-01

    A major cause of alcohol toxicity is the production of reactive oxygen species generated during ethanol metabolism. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of binge drinking-like alcohol exposure on a panel of genes implicated in oxidative mechanisms in adolescent and adult mice. In adolescent animals, alcohol decreased the expression of genes involved in the repair and protection of oxidative DNA damage such as atr, gpx7, or nudt15 and increased the expression of proapoptotic genes such as casp3. In contrast, in the adult brain, genes activated by alcohol were mainly associated with protective mechanisms that prevent cells from oxidative damage. Whatever the age, iterative binge-like episodes provoked the same deleterious effects as those observed after a single binge episode. In adolescent mice, multiple binge ethanol exposure substantially reduced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and impaired short-term memory in the novel object and passive avoidance tests. Taken together, our results indicate that alcohol causes deleterious effects in the adolescent brain which are distinct from those observed in adults. These data contribute to explain the greater sensitivity of the adolescent brain to alcohol toxicity. The effects of alcohol exposure were investigated on genes involved in oxidative mechanisms. In adolescent animals, alcohol decreased the expression of genes involved in DNA repair, a potential cause of the observed decrease of neurogenesis. In contrast, in the adult brain, alcohol increased the expression of genes associated with antioxidant mechanisms. Apoptosis was increase in all groups and converged with other biochemical alterations to enhance short-term memory impairment in the adolescent brain. These data contribute to explain the greater sensitivity of the adolescent brain to alcohol toxicity. PMID:25556946

  18. Alcohol Consumption, Craving, and Craving Control Efforts Assessed Daily in the Context of Readiness to Change Among Individuals with Alcohol Dependence and PTSD.

    PubMed

    Browne, Kendall C; Wray, Tyler B; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Krenek, Marketa; Simpson, Tracy L

    2016-02-01

    Research has demonstrated the positive association between alcohol craving and alcohol use and has identified craving as a central component of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Despite potential clinical implications, few studies have examined the relationship between craving and alcohol use in individuals with AUD and common psychiatric comorbidities or explored possible moderators of the craving-alcohol use relationship. The current study used daily monitoring data to: 1) replicate previous findings detecting a positive relationship between craving and alcohol use in individuals with AUD and co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 2) extend these findings by examining the influence of initial change motivation on the craving-use relationship and within-day associations among craving, efforts to control craving, and alcohol consumption. Participants were 84 individuals with alcohol dependence and PTSD enrolled in an intervention study. Generalized estimating equations using pre-treatment baseline daily data revealed significant main effects for craving, craving control, and motivation to change alcohol use. Daily craving was positively related to alcohol use. Greater change motivation and craving control (i.e., efforts to resist craving, avoidance of thoughts and feelings related to craving) were negatively related to alcohol use. A significant interaction was detected between baseline change motivation and daily craving indicating that the association between craving and alcohol use was significantly stronger for those with low baseline change motivation. A significant interaction was also detected between craving control and daily craving, suggesting that participants were more likely to consume alcohol when experiencing high levels of craving if they reported low levels of craving control. Findings bolster the idea that efforts to prevent or ameliorate craving are critical to treatment success for individuals with AUD and PTSD who are seeking to

  19. Personality disorders among alcohol-dependent patients manifesting or not manifesting cocaine abuse: a comparative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; De Medina, Ricardo Bravo; Aizpiri, Javier

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed personality disorders (PDs) in 158 alcohol-dependent outpatients (62 manifesting cocaine abuse and 96 without cocaine abuse) with the International Personality Disorders Examination interview between 2003 and 2006. Thirty-nine alcohol-dependent/cocaine abusers (62.9% of this group) and 51 only alcohol-dependent patients (53.1% of this group) manifested at least one PD. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in the overall prevalence rate of PDs. The most prevalent PDs, among the alcohol-dependent/cocaine abusers, were antisocial (21%), narcissistic (14.5%), and borderline (11.3%) PDs. The most frequently diagnosed PDs among the only alcohol-dependent patients were obsessive-compulsive (20.8%), paranoid (10.4%), and dependent (9.4%) PDs. There were significant differences between the groups. The study limitations are discussed.

  20. Predicting the future relapse of alcohol-dependent patients from structural and functional brain images.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sambu; Mohr, Johannes; Beck, Anne; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Heinz, Andreas; Obermayer, Klaus

    2015-11-01

    In alcohol dependence, individual prediction of treatment outcome based on neuroimaging endophenotypes can help to tailor individual therapeutic offers to patients depending on their relapse risk. We built a prediction model for prospective relapse of alcohol-dependent patients that combines structural and functional brain images derived from an experiment in which 46 subjects were exposed to alcohol-related cues. The patient group had been subdivided post hoc regarding relapse behavior defined as a consumption of more than 60 g alcohol for male or more than 40 g alcohol for female patients on one occasion during the 3-month assessment period (16 abstainers and 30 relapsers). Naïve Bayes, support vector machines and learning vector quantization were used to infer prediction models for relapse based on the mean and maximum values of gray matter volume and brain responses on alcohol-related cues within a priori defined regions of interest. Model performance was estimated by leave-one-out cross-validation. Learning vector quantization yielded the model with the highest balanced accuracy (79.4 percent, p < 0.0001; 90 percent sensitivity, 68.8 percent specificity). The most informative individual predictors were functional brain activation features in the right and left ventral tegmental areas and the right ventral striatum, as well as gray matter volume features in left orbitofrontal cortex and right medial prefrontal cortex. In contrast, the best pure clinical model reached only chance-level accuracy (61.3 percent). Our results indicate that an individual prediction of future relapse from imaging measurement outperforms prediction from clinical measurements. The approach may help to target specific interventions at different risk groups.

  1. Genetic markers associated with abstinence length in alcohol-dependent subjects treated with acamprosate

    PubMed Central

    Karpyak, V M; Biernacka, J M; Geske, J R; Jenkins, G D; Cunningham, J M; Rüegg, J; Kononenko, O; Leontovich, A A; Abulseoud, O A; Hall-Flavin, D K; Loukianova, L L; Schneekloth, T D; Skime, M K; Frank, J; Nöthen, M M; Rietschel, M; Kiefer, F; Mann, K F; Weinshilboum, R M; Frye, M A; Choi, D S

    2014-01-01

    Acamprosate supports abstinence in some alcohol-dependent subjects, yet predictors of response are unknown. To identify response biomarkers, we investigated associations of abstinence length with polymorphisms in candidate genes in glycine and glutamate neurotransmission pathways and genes previously implicated in acamprosate response. Association analyses were conducted in the discovery sample of 225 alcohol-dependent subjects treated with acamprosate for 3 months in community-based treatment programs in the United States. Data from 110 alcohol-dependent males treated with acamprosate in the study PREDICT were used for replication of the top association findings. Statistical models were adjusted for relevant covariates, including recruitment site and baseline clinical variables associated with response. In the discovery sample, shorter abstinence was associated with increased intensity of alcohol craving and lower number of days between the last drink and initiation of acamprosate treatment. After adjustment for covariates, length of abstinence was associated with the GRIN2B rs2058878 (P=4.6 × 10−5). In the replication sample, shorter abstinence was associated with increased craving, increased depressive mood score and higher alcohol consumption. Association of abstinence length with GRIN2B rs2058878 was marginally significant (P=0.0675); as in the discovery sample, the minor A allele was associated with longer abstinence. Furthermore, rs2300272, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs2058878, was also associated with abstinence length (P=0.049). This is the first report of a replicated association of genetic markers with the length of abstinence in acamprosate-treated alcoholics. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms of this association and its usefulness for individualized treatment selection should follow. PMID:25290263

  2. Neurodevelopmental alcohol exposure elicits long-term changes to gene expression that alter distinct molecular pathways dependent on timing of exposure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal alcohol consumption is known to adversely affect fetal neurodevelopment. While it is known that alcohol dose and timing play a role in the cognitive and behavioral changes associated with prenatal alcohol exposure, it is unclear what developmental processes are disrupted that may lead to these phenotypes. Methods Mice (n=6 per treatment per developmental time) were exposed to two acute doses of alcohol (5 g/kg) at neurodevelopmental times representing the human first, second, or third trimester equivalent. Mice were reared to adulthood and changes to their adult brain transcriptome were assessed using expression arrays. These were then categorized based on Gene Ontology annotations, canonical pathway associations, and relationships to interacting molecules. Results The results suggest that ethanol disrupts biological processes that are actively occurring at the time of exposure. These include cell proliferation during trimester one, cell migration and differentiation during trimester two, and cellular communication and neurotransmission during trimester three. Further, although ethanol altered a distinct set of genes depending on developmental timing, many of these show interrelatedness and can be associated with one another via ‘hub’ molecules and pathways such as those related to huntingtin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Conclusions These changes to brain gene expression represent a ‘molecular footprint’ of neurodevelopmental alcohol exposure that is long-lasting and correlates with active processes disrupted at the time of exposure. This study provides further support that there is no neurodevelopmental time when alcohol cannot adversely affect the developing brain. PMID:23497526

  3. Effects of acute administration of ethanol on cerebral glucose utilization in adult alcohol-preferring and alcohol-nonpreferring rats.

    PubMed

    Strother, Wendy N; McBride, William J; Lumeng, Lawrence; Li, Ting-Kai

    2005-02-01

    Local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) rates, as determined by the [(14)C]-2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) technique, were examined after acute ethanol administration within selected brain regions of alcohol-preferring (P) and alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats. Adult male P and NP rats were injected with saline, 0.25 g/kg, or 1.0 g/kg ethanol, intraperitoneally (ip), 10 min before an intravenous bolus of [(14)C]2-DG (125 microCi/kg). Timed arterial blood samples were collected over 45 min and assayed for plasma glucose, ethanol, and [(14)C]2-DG levels. Image densities were determined using quantitative autoradiography and LCGU values calculated. Data were collected from several key limbic, basal ganglionic, cortical, and subcortical structures. Low-dose ethanol (0.25 g/kg) significantly decreased LCGU rates in several brain regions including the medial prefrontal cortex, olfactory tubercles, and the CA1 subregion of the hippocampus of P rats. Low-dose ethanol had no significant effects on LCGU rates in the NP rats. Moderate-dose ethanol (1.0 g/kg) also significantly lowered LCGU rates in many brain regions of P rats, including key limbic structures, such as the medial prefrontal cortex, olfactory tubercles, ventral tegmental area, basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, lateral septum, and ventral pallidum. Moderate-dose ethanol also significantly lowered LCGU rates in the medial prefrontal cortex as well as in the habenula of NP rats. All other regions were unaffected in the NP rats. These findings support the suggestion that certain central nervous system regions of P rats may be more sensitive than those of NP rats to the effects of low to intermediate doses of ethanol.

  4. Loss in connectivity among regions of the brain reward system in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Kuceyeski, Amy; Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Durazzo, Timothy C; Raj, Ashish

    2013-12-01

    A recently developed measure of structural brain connectivity disruption, the loss in connectivity (LoCo), is adapted for studies in alcohol dependence. LoCo uses independent tractography information from young healthy controls to project the location of white matter (WM) microstructure abnormalities in alcohol-dependent versus nondependent individuals onto connected gray matter (GM) regions. LoCo scores are computed from WM abnormality masks derived at two levels: (1) groupwise differences of alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC) versus light-drinking (LD) controls and (2) differences of each ALC individual versus the LD control group. LoCo scores based on groupwise WM differences show that GM regions belonging to the extended brain reward system (BRS) network have significantly higher LoCo (i.e., disconnectivity) than those not in this network (t = 2.18, P = 0.016). LoCo scores based on individuals' WM differences are also higher in BRS versus non-BRS (t = 5.26, P = 3.92 × 10(-6) ) of ALC. These results suggest that WM alterations in alcohol dependence, although subtle and spatially heterogeneous across the population, are nonetheless preferentially localized to the BRS. LoCo is shown to provide a more sensitive estimate of GM involvement than conventional volumetric GM measures by better differentiating between brains of ALC and LD controls (rates of 89.3% vs. 69.6%). However, just as volumetric measures, LoCo is not significantly correlated with standard metrics of drinking severity. LoCo is a sensitive WM measure of regional cortical disconnectivity that uniquely characterizes anatomical network disruptions in alcohol dependence.

  5. The Gender Gap in Alcohol Consumption during Late Adolescence and Young Adulthood: Gendered Attitudes and Adult Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Peralta, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    We utilize data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth young adult sample (N = 1,488) to investigate whether gender role attitudes and the occupation of and transition to three adult roles (i.e., employment, marriage, and parenthood) contribute to the maintenance of the gender gap in the frequency and quantity of alcohol use. Our results…

  6. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  7. Gender Differences in Predictors of Treatment Attrition with High Dose Naltrexone in Cocaine and Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Jesse J.; Pettinati, Helen M.; Kampman, Kyle M.; O’Brien, Charles P.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, we reported that naltrexone at 150mg/day significantly decreased cocaine and alcohol use for men, but not women with co-occurring cocaine and alcohol dependence. The present study is an exploratory investigation of predictors that explain the different gender response to naltrexone, with a particular focus on differential predictors of treatment attrition. No significant predictors were associated with treatment discontinuation in men. Women, however, were more likely to discontinue treatment when reporting severe pre-treatment psychiatric problems, or nausea while in treatment. Further research on the impact of pre-treatment and in-treatment gender differences with naltrexone is warranted. PMID:19034737

  8. "Everyone can loosen up and get a bit of a buzz on": young adults, alcohol and friendship practices.

    PubMed

    Niland, Patricia; Lyons, Antonia C; Goodwin, Ian; Hutton, Fiona

    2013-11-01

    In countries with liberalised alcohol policies, alcohol harm reduction strategies predominantly focus on young adults' excessive drinking harms and risks. However, research shows such risks are largely irrelevant for young adults, who emphasise the sociability, release, pleasure and fun of drinking. Friendship is a central part of their lives and an integral part of their drinking experiences. This study aimed to explore everyday friendship practices, drinking, and pleasure in young people's routine and shared social lives. Twelve friendship discussion groups were conducted in urban and non-urban New Zealand, with 26 women and 25 men aged 18-25 years. Our Foucauldian discursive analysis enabled us to identify how the young adults drew on drinking as 'friendship fun' and 'friends with a buzz' discourses to construct drinking as a pleasurable and socially embodied friendship practice. Yet the young adults also drew on 'good always outweighs bad experiences' and friendship 'caring and protection' discourses to smooth over disruptive negative drinking experiences. Together these discourses function to justify young adults' drinking as friendship pleasure, minimising alcohol harms, and setting up powerful resistances to individualised risk-based alcohol-harm reduction campaigns. These findings are discussed in terms of new insights and implications for alcohol harm reduction strategies that target young adults.

  9. Does psychiatric comorbidity in alcohol-dependent patients affect treatment outcome?

    PubMed

    Mann, Karl; Hintz, Thomas; Jung, Martin

    2004-06-01

    Comorbidity in alcohol research refers to the presence of alcohol dependency and another major psychiatric disorder. The existence of additional disorders may have consequences for treatment planning and success. The aims of this paper are therefore: 1) to give an overview on prevalence rates in studies with representative cohorts and hospital-based samples; 2) to report results on gender differences and 3) to determine the impact of comorbidity on treatment outcome. Comorbidity was examined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) in N = 118 (61 male and 57 female) alcohol-dependent patients who were socially well integrated. Results show that 65% of the female patients but only 28% of the male patients had a lifetime history of additional psychiatric disorders. Significantly more phobic/anxiety disorders, mood disorders occur in female patients. One year after inpatient treatment, overall 39% had suffered a relapse. More detailed analysis revealed that 55% of the non-comorbid but only 28% of the comorbid women suffered a relapse, thus contradicting our initial hypothesis that comorbid patients have a poorer prognosis with regard to their alcohol dependence. Male comorbid (40.9%) and non-comorbid (35.3%) patients showed no significant differences regarding relapse rates.

  10. Use of genetic analyses to refine phenotypes related to alcohol tolerance and dependence.

    PubMed

    Crabbe, J C

    2001-02-01

    Various explanations for the dependence on alcohol are attributed to the development of tolerance to some of alcohol's effects, alterations in sensitivity to its rewarding effects, and unknown pathologic consequences of repeated exposure. All these aspects of dependence have been modeled in laboratory rodents, and these studies have consistently shown a significant influence of genetics. Genetic mapping studies have identified the genomic location of the specific genes for some of these contributing phenotypes. In addition, studies have shown that some genes in mice seem to affect both alcohol self-administration and alcohol withdrawal severity: genetic predisposition to high levels of drinking covaries with genetic predisposition to low withdrawal severity, and vice versa. Finally, the role of genetic background on which genes are expressed is important, as are the specifics of the environment in which genetically defined animals are tested. Understanding dependence will require disentangling the multiple interactions of many contributing phenotypes, and genetic analyses are proving very helpful. However, rigorous understanding of both gene-gene and gene-environment interactions will be required to interpret genetic experiments clearly.

  11. Development of an acceptance-based coping intervention for alcohol dependence relapse prevention.

    PubMed

    Vieten, Cassandra; Astin, John A; Buscemi, Raymond; Galloway, Gantt P

    2010-04-01

    Both psychological and neurobiological findings lend support to the long-standing clinical observation that negative affect is involved in the development and maintenance of alcohol dependence, and difficulty coping with negative affect is a common precipitant of relapse after treatment. Although many current approaches to relapse prevention emphasize change-based strategies for managing negative cognitions and affect, acceptance-based strategies for preventing relapse to alcohol use are intended to provide methods for coping with distress that are fundamentally different from, though in theory complementary to, approaches that emphasize control and change. This paper describes the development of Acceptance-Based Coping for Relapse Prevention (ABCRP), a new intervention for alcohol-dependent individuals who are within 6 months of having quit drinking. Results of preliminary testing indicate that the intervention is feasible with this population; and a small uncontrolled pilot study (N = 23) showed significant (P < .01) improvements in self-reported negative affect, emotional reactivity, perceived stress, positive affect, psychological well-being, and mindfulness level, as well as a trend (P = .06) toward reduction in craving severity between pre- and postintervention assessments. The authors conclude that this acceptance-based intervention seems feasible and holds promise for improving affect and reducing relapse in alcohol-dependent individuals, warranting further research.

  12. Metacognitive and Meta-Emotional Styles in Patients With Alcohol and the Other Substance Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Ipek, Okan Ufuk; Yavuz, Kaasim Fatih; Ulusoy, Sevinc; Sahin, Oktay; Kurt, Erhan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Both alcohol and other substances are utilized for emotional and cognitive regulation. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to compare metacognitive styles and distress intolerance in patients with alcohol and other substance dependence. Patients and Methods: According to DSM-IV TR criteria, 45 patients with alcohol dependence (AD), 44 patients with substance dependence (SD), and 43 volunteers without AD or SD (control group) were enrolled. Socio-demographic information form, Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS), and metacognitive questionaire-30 (MCQ-30) were used to evaluate the participants. Results: Patients with AD had significantly lower “tolerance” subscale and total DTS scores than those with SD and control group (P = 0.008 for SD sample and P = 0.004 for control group). Patients with SD had significantly higher scores in “appraisal” subscale DTS than control group (P = 0.005). Patients of both AD and SD groups had significantly higher scores in “positive beliefs” subscale of MCQ-30 than control group (P = 0.012 for AD group and P = 0. 001 for SD group). There was no significant difference between AD and SD groups in any MCQ-30 subscale and total scores (P = 0.440). Conclusions: Metacognitive regulation strategies are more considerable prediction than emotional regulation strategies in SD group than in AD group. Individuals with AD use alcohol as a means of both cognitive and emotional regulation strategy. PMID:26495260

  13. Predicting Vocational Rehabilitation Outcomes for People with Alcohol Abuse/Dependence: An Application of Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickham, Dana M.

    2012-01-01

    People with alcohol abuse/dependence disabilities are often faced with a complex recovery process due to the exacerbating and chronic aspects of their condition. Vocational rehabilitation for people with alcohol abuse/dependence can help individuals access and maintain employment, and through employment can enhance physical and psychological…

  14. 38 CFR 17.80 - Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Services of Other Federal Agencies § 17.80 Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract....

  15. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment...

  16. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment...

  17. Alcohol Use, Depression, and High-Risk Occupations Among Young Adults in the Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Polshkova, Svitlana; Chaban, Oleg; Walton, Maureen A

    2016-06-01

    This study examined alcohol consumption in relation to anxiety, depression, and involvement with high risk occupations (HRO; e.g., coal miners), among young adults in the Ukraine (aged 18-25) (N = 192; 60.9% male; 100% Caucasian). Participants were grouped on the basis of drinking status: (1) current drinkers (CDs; n = 132) or (2) nondrinkers (NDs; n = 60). Questionnaires assessed frequency of alcohol use, motives for drinking, problem identification, as well as anxiety and depression (i.e., Hamilton scales). Bivariate analyses showed that CDs were more likely than NDs to be single, have a HRO, and have greater anxiety and depression; for example, 91.7% of CDs had a HRO as compared to 56.7% of NDs. Drinking status was not significantly related to age or gender. Among CDs, common motives for use included: to reduce anxiety and fears (60.6%), because my friends use alcohol (75.0%), to fight stress (78.8%), and to increase self-esteem (64.4%). Among CDs, past month drinking days were: 25% 1-2 days, 37.9% 3-7 days, 25% 8-21 days, and 12.1% 22-30 days. Regarding problem identification, 29.5% reported not having a problem, 34.8% reported possibly having a problem, 21.9% reported having a problem but not needing help, and 13.6% reported having a problem/needing help. Young adults involved in HRO may be a particularly high risk population given increased likelihood of alcohol use, anxiety, and depression. Early intervention strategies that incorporate motivational interviewing approaches to address coping and social motives for use may be beneficial to address substance use and mental health problems. PMID:27144438

  18. National Survey of Oral/Dental Conditions Related to Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Mexican Adults

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Oral diseases are a major burden on individuals and health systems. The aim of this study was to determine whether consumption of tobacco and alcohol were associated with the prevalence of oral/dental problems in Mexican adults. Using data from the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2003, a cross-sectional study part of the World Health Survey, dental information from a representative sample of Mexico (n = 22,229, N = 51,155,740) was used to document self-reported oral/dental problems in the 12 months prior to the survey. Questionnaires were used to collect information related to sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and other risk factors. Three models were generated for each age group (18–30, 31–45 and 46–98 years). The prevalence of oral/dental conditions was 25.7%. Adjusting for sex, schooling, socioeconomic position, diabetes, and self-reported health, those who used tobacco (sometimes or daily) (OR = 1.15, p = 0.070; OR = 1.24, p < 0.01; and OR = 1.16, p < 0.05, for each age group respectively) or alcohol (moderate or high) (OR = 1.26, p < 0.001; OR = 1.18, p < 0.01 and OR = 1.30, p < 0.001, for each age group respectively) had a higher risk of reporting oral/dental problems. Because tobacco and alcohol use were associated with self-reported oral/dental problems in one out of four adults, it appears advisable to ascertain how direct is such link; more direct effects would lend greater weight to adopting measures to reduce consumption of tobacco and alcohol for the specific purpose of improving oral health. PMID:24642844

  19. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  20. An empirical description of phases of maintenance following treatment for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Murphy, S A; Hoffman, A L

    1993-01-01

    This article reports two longitudinal prospective studies conducted sequentially to describe participants' maintenance of abstinence experiences up to 36 months posttreatment. Study 1 reports responses of 102 subjects who maintained alcohol abstinence following treatment and who were assessed for duration and intensity of symptoms associated with postacute withdrawal at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. A decreasing linear trend of symptoms was found as time of alcohol abstinence increased. Study 2 obtained interview and survey data from 23 successful abstainers from Study 1 at 12, 18, and 36 months posttreatment to describe coping strategies, perceptions of relapse risk, extent and duration of "aftercare," and substitute addictions as these phenomena developed and changed over time. Multiple occasions of data collection supported the description of three phases of maintenance: symptom stabilization/management accompanied by a cognitive paradigm shift, distancing self from alcohol-dependent behavior, and normalization of life processes.

  1. Neurophysiological endophenotypes, CNS disinhibition, and risk for alcohol dependence and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Porjesz, Bernice; Rangaswamy, Madhavi

    2007-01-01

    Biological endophenotypes are more proximal to gene function than psychiatric diagnosis, providing a powerful strategy in searching for genes in psychiatric disorders. These intermediate phenotypes identify both affected and unaffected members of an affected family, including offspring at risk, providing a more direct connection with underlying biological vulnerability. The Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) has employed heritable neurophysiological features (i.e., brain oscillations) as endophenotypes, making it possible to identify susceptibility genes that may be difficult to detect with diagnosis alone. We found significant linkage and association between brain oscillations and genes involved with inhibitory neural networks (e.g., GABRA2, CHRM2), including frontal networks that are deficient in individuals with alcohol dependence, impulsivity, and related disinhibitory disorders. We reported significant linkage and linkage disequilibrium for the beta frequency of the EEG and GABRA2, a GABAA receptor gene on chromosome 4, which we found is also associated with diagnosis of alcohol dependence and related disorders. More recently, we found significant linkage and association with GABRA2 and interhemispheric theta coherence. We also reported significant linkage and linkage disequilibrium between the theta and delta event-related oscillations underlying P3 to target stimuli and CHRM2, a cholinergic muscarinic receptor gene on chromosome 7, which we found is also associated with diagnosis of alcohol dependence and related disorders. Thus, the identification of genes important for the expression of the endophenotypes (brain oscillations) helps when identifying genes that increase the susceptibility for risk of alcohol dependence and related disorders. These findings underscore the utility of quantitative neurophysiological endophenotypes in the study of the genetics of complex disorders. We will present our recent genetic findings related to

  2. Serum Insulin Levels Are Reduced by Intravenous Ghrelin Administration but Do Not Correlate with Alcohol Craving in Alcohol-Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Giovenco, Danielle E.; Lee, Mary R.; Zywiak, William H.; de la Monte, Suzanne M.; Kenna, George A.; Swift, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence supports a role for appetite-regulating pathways like ghrelin, insulin, and leptin in alcoholism. We previously reported that intravenous (i.v.) exogenous ghrelin increases alcohol craving. We also reported i.v. ghrelin reduces endogenous serum leptin, whose levels, in turn, negatively correlated with alcohol craving. Exogenous ghrelin administration decre