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Sample records for adult american shad

  1. Diet of juvenile and adult American Shad in the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauter, Sally T.; Blubaugh, J, Timothy; Parsley, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The diet of juvenile and adult American shad Alosa sapidissima captured from various locations in the Columbia River was investigated during 2007 and 2008. Collection efforts in 2007 were restricted to fish collected from existing adult and juvenile fish collection facilities located at Bonneville Dam and to adult shad captured by angling downstream from Bonneville Dam. In 2008, we used gillnets, electrofishing, beach seining, or cast nets to collect juvenile and adult shad from the saline estuary near Astoria (approximately river km 24) to just upstream from McNary Dam (approximately river km 472). We examined the stomach contents of 436 American shad captured in 2007 and 1,272 captured in 2008. Fish caught within the river were much more likely to contain food items than fish removed from fish collection facilities.


    The diet of age-0 American shad varied spatially and temporally, but was comprised primarily of crustaceans and insects. Prey diversity of age-0 American shad, as assessed by the Shannon Diversity Index, increased with decreasing distance to the estuary. Pre- and partial-spawn American shad primarily consumed Corophium spp. throughout the Columbia River; however, post-spawn adults primarily consumed gastropods upstream of McNary Dam

  2. American shad in the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, J.H.; Hinrichsen, R.A.; Gadomski, D.M.; Feil, D.H.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima from the Hudson River, New York, were introduced into the Sacramento River, California, in 1871 and were first observed in the Columbia River in 1876. American shad returns to the Columbia River increased greatly between 1960 and 1990, and recently 2-4 million adults have been counted per year at Bonneville Dam, Oregon and Washington State (river kilometer 235). The total return of American shad is likely much higher than this dam count. Returning adults migrate as far as 600 km up the Columbia and Snake rivers, passing as many as eight large hydroelectric dams. Spawning occurs primarily in the lower river and in several large reservoirs. A small sample found returning adults were 2-6 years old and about one-third of adults were repeat spawners. Larval American shad are abundant in plankton and in the nearshore zone. Juvenile American shad occur throughout the water column during night, but school near the bottom or inshore during day. Juveniles consume a variety of zooplankton, but cyclopoid copepods were 86% of the diet by mass. Juveniles emigrate from the river from August through December. Annual exploitation of American shad by commercial and recreational fisheries combined is near 9% of the total count at Bonneville Dam. The success of American shad in the Columbia River is likely related to successful passage at dams, good spawning and rearing habitats, and low exploitation. The role of American shad within the aquatic community is poorly understood. We speculate that juveniles could alter the zooplankton community and may supplement the diet of resident predators. Data, however, are lacking or sparse in some areas, and more information is needed on the role of larval and juvenile American shad in the food web, factors limiting adult returns, ocean distribution of adults, and interactions between American shad and endangered or threatened salmonids throughout the river. ?? 2003 by the American Fisheries Society.

  3. Passage of American shad: paradigms and realities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haro, Alex; Castro-Santos, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Despite more than 250 years of development, the passage of American shad Alosa sapidissima at dams and other barriers frequently remains problematic. Few improvements in design based on knowledge of the swimming, schooling, and migratory behaviors of American shad have been incorporated into passage structures. Large-scale technical fishways designed for the passage of adult salmonids on the Columbia River have been presumed to have good performance for American shad but have never been rigorously evaluated for this species. Similar but smaller fishway designs on the East Coast frequently have poor performance. Provision of effective downstream passage for both juvenile and postspawning adult American shad has been given little consideration in most passage projects. Ways to attract and guide American shad to both fishway entrances and downstream bypasses remain marginally understood. The historical development of passage structures for American shad has resulted in assumptions and paradigms about American shad behavior and passage that are frequently unsubstantiated by supporting data or appropriate experimentation. We propose that many of these assumptions and paradigms are either unfounded or invalid and that significant improvements to American shad upstream and downstream passage can be made via a sequential program of behavioral experimentation, application of experimental results to the physical and hydraulic design of new structures, and controlled tests of large-scale prototype structures in the laboratory and field.

  4. Survival and behavioral effects of exposure to a hydrokinetic turbine on juvenile Atlantic salmon and adult American shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Haro, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a series of experiments designed to measure the effect of exposure to a full-scale, vertical axis hydrokinetic turbine on downstream migrating juvenile Atlantic salmon (N=75) and upstream migrating adult American shad (N=208). Controlled studies were performed in a large-scale, open-channel flume, and all individuals approached the turbine under volitional control. No injuries were observed, and there was no measurable increase in mortality associated with turbine passage. Exposure to the turbine elicited behavioral responses from both species, however, with salmon passing primarily over the downrunning blades. Shad movement was impeded by the device, as indicated by fewer attempts of shorter duration and reduced distance of ascent up the flume. More work should be performed in both laboratory and field conditions to determine to what extent these effects are likely to influence free-swimming fish.

  5. Overwintering Habitats of Migratory Juvenile American Shad in Chesapeake Bay

    EPA Science Inventory

    We describe overwintering habitats of age-0 American shad in the lower Chesapeake Bay estuary through analyses of multiple, complementary data sets, including bottom-trawls of the Virginia portion of Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries, stable isotope analysis of American shad a...

  6. Thiaminase activity and life history investigations in American Shad in the Columbia river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetzel, Lisa A.; Parsley, Michael J; van der Leeuw, Bjorn K.; Larsen, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima fry were successfully transplanted from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast in 1871 and have subsequently proliferated. The Columbia River population is in the millions, yet few investigations have been conducted to better understand their life history, population dynamics, or potential impacts on other species. In 2007 and 2008 we captured American shad from the Columbia River to assess levels of thiaminase activity and to characterize some aspects of American shad life history. Thiaminase levels in age-0 and adult fish were high and ranged from 4,113-20,874 pmol/g/min. Ages of spawning American shad ranged from 3-7 years and iteroparity was approximately 33-36% in the spawning population. Males were typically younger and smaller and had a higher degree of iteroparity than females

  7. Food habits of Juvenile American Shad and dynamics of zooplankton in the lower Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haskell, C.A.; Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    As many as 2.4 million adult American shad annually pass John Day Dam, Columbia River to spawn upriver, yet food web interactions of juvenile shad rearing in John Day Reservoir are unexplored. We collected zooplankton and conducted mid-water trawls in McNary (June-July) and John Day reservoirs (August-November) from 1994 through 1996 during the outmigration of subyearling American shad and Chinook salmon. Juvenile American shad were abundant and represented over 98% of the trawl catch in late summer. The five major taxa collected in zooplankton tows were Bosmina longirostris, Daphnia, cyclopoid cope-pods, rotifers, and calanoid copepods. We evaluated total crustacean zooplankton abundance and Daphnia biomass in relation to water temperature, flow, depth, diel period, and cross-sectional location using multiple regression. Differences in zooplankton abundance were largely due to differences in water temperature and flow. Spatial variation in total zooplankton abundance was observed in McNary Reservoir, but not in John Day Reservoir. Juvenile American shad generally fed on numerically abundant prey, despite being less preferred than larger bodied zooplankton. A decrease in cladoceran abundance and size in August coupled with large percentages of Daphnia in juvenile American shad stomachs indicated heavy planktivory. Smaller juvenile American shad primarily fed on Daphnia in August, but switched to more evasive copepods as the mean size of fish increased and Daphnia abundance declined. Because Daphnia are particularly important prey items for subyearling Chinook salmon in mainstem reservoirs in mid to late summer, alterations in the cladoceran food base is of concern for the management of outmigrating salmonids and other Columbia River fishes. ?? 2006 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Video evaluation of passage efficiency of American shad and sea lamprey in a modified Ice Harbor fishway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haro, A.; Kynard, B.

    1997-01-01

    Movement and behavior of adult American shad Alosa sapidissima and sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus were monitored by closed-circuit video at several locations within a modified Ice Harbor fishway. American shad ascended and descended the fishway exclusively by surface weirs, while sea lampreys used both surface weirs and submerged orifices. Upstream movement of American shad during the day was higher than at night at both lower and middle fishway observation sites. Peak downstream movement of American shad at both locations was associated with decreasing light levels in the evening. Sea lampreys moved primarily at night at the lower and middle fishway sites. Mean daily passage efficiency was low (1% for American shad, -2% for sea lamprey) at the lower fishway surface weir, but passage efficiency at the middle fishway surface weir was moderate (70% for American shad, 35% for sea lamprey). High water velocity, air entrainment, and turbulence of the modified Ice Harbor fishway design appeared to inhibit American shad and sea lamprey passage by disrupting upstream migratory motivation and visual and rheotactic orientation.

  9. Development of a bioenergetics model for age-0 American Shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauter, Sally T.

    2011-01-01

    Bioenergetics modeling can be used as a tool to investigate the impact of non-native age-0 American shad (Alosa sapidissima) on reservoir and estuary food webs. The model can increase our understanding of how these fish influence lower trophic levels as well as predatory fish populations that feed on juvenile salmonids. Bioenergetics modeling can be used to investigate ecological processes, evaluate alternative research hypotheses, provide decision support, and quantitative prediction. Bioenergetics modeling has proven to be extremely useful in fisheries research (Ney et al. 1993,Chips and Wahl 2008, Petersen et al. 2008). If growth and diet parameters are known, the bioenergetics model can be used to quantify the relative amount of zooplankton or insects consumed by age-0 American shad. When linked with spatial and temporal information on fish abundance, model output can guide inferential hypothesis development to demonstrate where the greatest impacts of age-0 American shad might occur.


    Bioenergetics modeling is particularly useful when research questions involve multiple species and trophic levels (e.g. plankton communities). Bioenergetics models are mass-balance equations where the energy acquired from food is partitioned between maintenance costs, waste products, and growth (Winberg 1956). Specifically, the Wisconsin bioenergetics model (Hanson et al. 1997) is widely used in fisheries science. Researchers have extensively tested, reviewed, and improved on this modeling approach for over 30 years (Petersen et al. 2008). Development of a bioenergetics model for any species requires three key components: 1) determine physiological parameters for the model through laboratory experiments or incorporate data from a closely related species, 2) corroboration of the model with growth and consumption estimates from independent research, and 3) error analysis of model parameters.


    Wisconsin bioenergetics models have been parameterized for

  10. The effects of juvenile American shad planktivory on zooplankton production in Columbia River food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haskell, Craig A.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2013-01-01

    Columbia River reservoirs support a large population of nonnative American Shad Alosa sapidissima that consume the zooplankton that native fishes also rely on. We hypothesized that the unprecedented biomass of juvenile American Shad in John Day Reservoir is capable of altering the zooplankton community if these fish consume a large portion of the zooplankton production. We derived taxon-specific estimates of zooplankton production using field data and a production model from the literature. Empirical daily ration was estimated for American Shad and expanded to population-level consumption using abundance and biomass data from hydroacoustic surveys. Daphnia spp. production was high in early summer but declined to near zero by September as shad abundance increased. American Shad sequentially consumed Daphnia spp., copepods, and Bosmina spp., which tracked the production trends of these taxa. American Shad evacuation rates ranged from 0.09 to 0.24/h, and daily rations ranged from 0.008 to 0.045 g·g−1·d−1 (dry weight) over all years. We observed peak American Shad biomass (45.2 kg/ha) in 1994, and daily consumption (1.6 kg/ha) approached 30% (5.3 kg/ha) of zooplankton production. On average, American Shad consumed 23.6% of the available zooplankton production (range, <1–83%). The changes in the zooplankton community are consistent with a top-down effect of planktivory by American Shad associated with their unprecedented biomass and consumption, but the effects are likely constrained by temperature, nutrient flux, and the seasonal production patterns of zooplankton in John Day Reservoir. American Shad add to the planktivory exerted by other species like Neomysis mercedis to reduce the capacity of the reservoir to support other planktivorous fishes. The introduction of American Shad and other nonnative species will continue to alter the food web in John Day Reservoir, potentially affecting native fishes, including Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp.

  11. Demographic population model for American shad: will access to additional habitat upstream of dams increase population sizes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima are in decline in their native range, and modeling possible management scenarios could help guide their restoration. We developed a density-dependent, deterministic, stage-based matrix model to predict the population-level results of transporting American shad to suitable spawning habitat upstream of dams on the Roanoke River, North Carolina and Virginia. We used data on sonic-tagged adult American shad and oxytetracycline-marked American shad fry both above and below dams on the Roanoke River with information from other systems to estimate a starting population size and vital rates. We modeled the adult female population over 30 years under plausible scenarios of adult transport, effective fecundity (egg production), and survival of adults (i.e., to return to spawn the next year) and juveniles (from spawned egg to age 1). We also evaluated the potential effects of increased survival for adults and juveniles. The adult female population size in the Roanoke River was estimated to be 5,224. With no transport, the model predicted a slow population increase over the next 30 years. Predicted population increases were highest when survival was improved during the first year of life. Transport was predicted to benefit the population only if high rates of effective fecundity and juvenile survival could be achieved. Currently, transported adults and young are less likely to successfully out-migrate than individuals below the dams, and the estimated adult population size is much smaller than either of two assumed values of carrying capacity for the lower river; therefore, transport is not predicted to help restore the stock under present conditions. Research on survival rates, density-dependent processes, and the impacts of structures to increase out-migration success would improve evaluation of the potential benefits of access to additional spawning habitat for American shad.

  12. Movement Patterns of American Shad Transported Upstream of Dams on The Roanoke River, North Carolina and Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima are in decline throughout much of their native range as a result of overfishing, pollution, and habitat alteration in coastal rivers where they spawn. One approach to restoration in regulated rivers is to provide access to historical spawning habitat above dams through a trap-and-transport program. We examined the initial survival, movement patterns, spawning, and downstream passage of sonic-tagged adult American shad transported to reservoir and riverine habitats upstream of hydroelectric dams on the Roanoke River, North Carolina and Virginia, during 2007–2009. Average survival to release in 2007–2008 was 85%, but survival decreased with increasing water temperature. Some tagged fish released in reservoirs migrated upstream to rivers; however, most meandered back and forth within the reservoir. A higher percentage of fish migrated through a smaller (8,215-ha) than a larger (20,234-ha) reservoir, suggesting that the population-level effects of transport may depend on upper basin characteristics. Transported American shad spent little time in upper basin rivers but were there when temperatures were appropriate for spawning. No American shad eggs were collected during weekly plankton sampling in upper basin rivers. The estimated initial survival of sonic-tagged American shad after downstream passage through each dam was 71–100%; however, only 1% of the detected fish migrated downstream through all three dams and many were relocated just upstream of a dam late in the season. Although adult American shad were successfully transported to upstream habitats in the Roanoke River basin, under present conditions transported individuals may have reduced effective fecundity and postspawning survival compared with nontransported fish that spawn in the lower Roanoke River.

  13. This Letter is a Non-Technical Annual Report of Activities on Project 2007-275-00, Impact of American Shad for the Period February 1, 2008 through January 31, 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Parsley, Michael J.

    2009-01-30

    This letter is a non-technical annual report of activities on Project 2007-275-00, Impact of American Shad for the period February 1, 2008 through January 31, 2009. A non-technical report is appropriate at this time since data collection is ongoing and results are preliminary. This report is intended to highlight accomplishments during this performance period. Progress on administrative work elements in the statement of work has been captured in the periodic status reports provided through Pisces. During this performance period the USGS accomplished the following tasks: (1) Co-chaired a symposium on American shad in the Columbia Basin at the annual meeting of the Western Division, American Fisheries Society. The USGS gave four presentations from work done during this project. Abstracts of the presentations were attached to the 2007 progress report. (2) Continued parameterization of a bioenergetics model for juvenile American shad. We performed a literature review to determine the applicability of the existing adult salmon bioenergetics parameters to juvenile fall Chinook salmon in support of our modeling investigation of diet overlap between juvenile American shad and fall Chinook salmon. We formulated testable hypotheses to investigate using bioenergetics models and conceptually developed model simulations. Held an in-house workshop to obtain feedback on the physiological parameters we selected for the American shad bioenergetics model and to solicit feedback on our modeling approach to address research questions. (3) Received a Section 10 ESA sampling permit based on the application submitted in the 2007 contract period. With the ESA permit in hand, we obtained scientific collection permits from the states of Washington and Oregon that allowed us to use a variety of fisheries sampling techniques to capture juvenile and adult American shad. (4) Conducted field sampling to meet project objectives. Gillnetting efforts to capture adult American shad near Astoria were

  14. Tracking Estuary Habitat use by Young American Shad Using Stable Isotopes

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed and evaluated a stable isotope turnover model to estimate the probable risidence time of young-of-year (YOY) American shad (Alosa sapidissima), an anadromous clupeid, in various estuarine habitats.

  15. Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: American Shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stier, David J.; Crance, Johnie H.

    1985-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The American shad, an anadromous species, is the largest member of the herring family (Clupeidae) and is native to North America (Talbot and Sykes 1958; Hildebrand 1963; Walburg and Nichols 1967). Historically, the commercial fishery for American shad on the Atlantic coast was widespread and intense; in 1896 the estimated catch was 22.7 million kg (50 million lb). By 1960, however, the estimated catch had dropped to slightly more than 3.6 million kg (8 million lb), according to Walburg and Nichols (1967). Pollution, overfishing, and dams constructed across streams that prevent shad from reaching their spawning grounds have caused partial or total depletion of stocks (Hildebrand 1963). Several programs aimed at restoring American shad to their former range have been initiated by Federal and State agencies.

  16. Metabolic rates in an anadromous clupeid, the American shad (Alosa sapidissima)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, J.B.K.; Norieka, J.F.; Kynard, B.; McCormick, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    To assess the energetics of migration in an anadromous fish, adult American shad (Alosa sapidissima) were swum in a large respirometer at a range of speeds (1.0-2.3 body lengths (BL) s-1, 13-24 ??C). Metabolic rate (M(O2)) was logarithmically related to swimming speed (Bl s-1; r2 = 0.41, slope = 0.23 ?? 0.037) and tailbeat frequency (beats x min-1; r2 = 0.52, slope = 0.003 ?? 0.0003). Temperature had a significant effect on metabolic rate (r2 = 0.41) with a Q10 of 2.2. Standard metabolic rate (SMR), determined directly after immobilization with the neuroblocker gallamine triethiodide, ranged from 2.2-6.2 mmolO2 kg-1 h-1 and scaled with mass (W) such that SMR = 4.0 (??0.03)W(0.695(??0.15)). Comparison of directly determined and extrapolated SMR suggests that swimming respirometry provides a good estimate of SMR in this species, given the differences in basal activity monitored by the two methods. Overall, American shad metabolic rates (M(O2) and SMR) were intermediate between salmonids and fast-swimming perciforms, including tunas, and may be a result of evolutionary adaptation to their active pelagic, schooling life history. This study demonstrates variability in metabolic strategy among anadromous fishes that may be important to understanding the relative success of different migratory species under varying environmental conditions.

  17. Chloride cells and impaired osmoregulation in juvenile American shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, J.; McCormick, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    In the laboratory, juvenile shad under a simulated natural temperature regime (SNT) in freshwater (FW) through the period of fall migration exhibited a 68% decline in plasma [Cl-] and a 3-fold increase in gill Na+K+-ATPase activity.

  18. Identification of American shad spawning sites and habitat use in the Pee Dee River, North Carolina and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined spawning site selection and habitat use by American shad Alosa sapidissima in the Pee Dee River, North Carolina and South Carolina, to inform future management in this flow-regulated river. American shad eggs were collected in plankton tows, and the origin (spawning site) of each egg was estimated; relocations of radio-tagged adults on spawning grounds illustrated habitat use and movement in relation to changes in water discharge rates. Most spawning was estimated to occur in the Piedmont physiographic region within a 25-river-kilometer (rkm) section just below the lowermost dam in the system; however, some spawning also occurred downstream in the Coastal Plain. The Piedmont region has a higher gradient and is predicted to have slightly higher current velocities and shallower depths, on average, than the Coastal Plain. The Piedmont region is dominated by large substrates (e.g., boulders and gravel), whereas the Coastal Plain is dominated by sand. Sampling at night (the primary spawning period) resulted in the collection of young eggs (≤1.5 h old) that more precisely identified the spawning sites. In the Piedmont region, most radio-tagged American shad remained in discrete areas (average linear range = 3.6 rkm) during the spawning season and generally occupied water velocities between 0.20 and 0.69 m/s, depths between 1.0 and 2.9 m, and substrates dominated by boulder or bedrock and gravel. Tagged adults made only small-scale movements with changes in water discharge rates. Our results demonstrate that the upstream extent of migration and an area of concentrated spawning occur just below the lowermost dam. If upstream areas have similar habitat, facilitating upstream access for American shad could increase the spawning habitat available and increase the population's size.

  19. Predator response to releases of American shad larvae in the Susquehanna River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Ringler, N.H.

    1998-01-01

    Predation on American shad (Alosa sapidissima) larvae within the first two hours of release was examined from 1989 to 1992 on 31 occasions at stocking sites in the Susquehanna River basin. Twenty-two fish species consumed shad larvae; the dominant predators were spotfin shiner (Cyprinella spiloptera), mimic shiner (Notropis volucellus) and juvenile smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu). The number of shad larvae found in predator stomachs ranged from 0 to 900. Mortality of shad larvae at the stocking site was usually less than 2%. The greatest mortality (9.6%) occurred at the highest stocking level (1.5 million larvae). Highly variable predation rates and release levels of shad insufficient to achieve predator satiation hindered the ability to determine a specific type of functional response of predators. Predator numbers increased with stocking density, indicating short-term aggregation at the release site. Because of practical problems associated with releasing the large numbers of larvae that would be required to satiate predators, routine stocking at these levels is probably unreasonable. Releases of 400,000 to 700,000 larvae may reduce predation by offsetting depensatory mechanisms that operate on small releases and the effects of increased predation due to predator aggregation on large releases. Night stocking may reduce predation on larval shad at the release site.

  20. Regional variation in muscle metabolic enzymes in individual American shad (Alosa sapidissima)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, J.B.K.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluation of the activity of metabolic enzymes is often used to asses metabolic capacity at the tissue level, but the amount of regional variability within a tissue in an individual fish of a given species is frequently unknown. The activities of four enzymes (citrate synthase (CS), phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and ??-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HOAD) were assayed in red and white muscle at 10 sites along the body of adult American shad (Alosa sapidissima). Red and white muscle HOAD and white muscle CS and LDH varied significantly, generally increasing posteriorly. Maximal variation occurs in red muscle HOAD (~450%) and white muscle LDH (~60%) activity. Differences between the sexes also vary with sampling location. This study suggests that the variability in enzyme activity may be linked to functional differences in the muscle at different locations, and also provides guidelines for sample collection in this species.

  1. Contribution of Allochthonous Carbon to American Shad Production in the Mattaponi River, Virginia, Using Stable Isotopes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to quantify the contribution of autochthonous, locally-produced phytoplankton, and allochthonous, terrestrial-derived organic matter (OM) to the production of young-of-year (YOY) American shad using stable isotopes...The results suggest an important link between...

  2. Population size and relative abundance of adult Alabama shad reaching jim woodruff lock and dam, Apalachicola River, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Patrick C.; Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    We estimated the population size of migrating Alabama shad Alosa alabamae below Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam in the Apalachicola River (located in the central panhandle of northwestern Florida) using mark-recapture and relative abundance techniques. After adjustment for tag loss, emigration, and mortality, the population size was estimated as 25,935 (95% confidence interval, 17,715-39,535) in 2005, 2,767 (838-5,031) in 2006, and 8,511 (5,211-14,674) in 2007. The cumulative catch rate from boat electrofishing averaged 20.47 Alabama shad per hour in 2005, 6.10 per hour in 2006, and 13.17 per hour in 2007. The relationship between population size (N) and electrofishing catch per unit effort (CPUE) was modeled by the equation N = -9008.2 + (electrofishing CPUE X 1616.4). Additionally, in 2007 the hook-and-line catch rate averaged 1.94 Alabama shad per rod hour. A predictive model relating the population size and hook-and-line CPUE of spawning American shad A. sapidissima was applied to Alabama shad hook-and-line CPUE and produced satisfactory results. Recent spawning populations of Alabama shad in the Apalachicola River are low relative to American shad populations in other southeastern U.S. rivers. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  3. A Bayesian spawning habitat suitability model for American shad in southeastern United States rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hightower, Joseph E.; Harris, Julianne E.; Raabe, Joshua K.; Brownell, Prescott; Drew, C. Ashton

    2012-01-01

    Habitat suitability index models for American shad Alosa sapidissima were developed by Stier and Crance in 1985. These models, which were based on a combination of published information and expert opinion, are often used to make decisions about hydropower dam operations and fish passage. The purpose of this study was to develop updated habitat suitability index models for spawning American shad in the southeastern United States, building on the many field and laboratory studies completed since 1985. We surveyed biologists who had knowledge about American shad spawning grounds, assembled a panel of experts to discuss important habitat variables, and used raw data from published and unpublished studies to develop new habitat suitability curves. The updated curves are based on resource selection functions, which can model habitat selectivity based on use and availability of particular habitats. Using field data collected in eight rivers from Virginia to Florida (Mattaponi, Pamunkey, Roanoke, Tar, Neuse, Cape Fear, Pee Dee, St. Johns), we obtained new curves for temperature, current velocity, and depth that were generally similar to the original models. Our new suitability function for substrate was also similar to the original pattern, except that sand (optimal in the original model) has a very low estimated suitability. The Bayesian approach that we used to develop habitat suitability curves provides an objective framework for updating the model as new studies are completed and for testing the model's applicability in other parts of the species' range.

  4. Multibeam sonar (DIDSON) assessment of American shad (Alosa sapidissima) approaching a hydroelectric dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grote, Ann B.; Bailey, Michael M.; Zydlewski, Joseph; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the fish community approaching the Veazie Dam on the Penobscot River, Maine, prior to implementation of a major dam removal and river restoration project. Multibeam sonar (dual-frequency identification sonar, DIDSON) surveys were conducted continuously at the fishway entrance from May to July in 2011. A 5% subsample of DIDSON data contained 43 793 fish targets, the majority of which were of Excellent (15.7%) or Good (73.01%) observation quality. Excellent quality DIDSON targets (n = 6876) were apportioned by species using a Bayesian mixture model based on four known fork length distributions (river herring (alewife,Alosa psuedoharengus, and blueback herring, Alosa aestivalis), American shad, Alosa sapidissima) and two size classes (one sea-winter and multi-sea-winter) of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). 76.2% of targets were assigned to the American shad distribution; Atlantic salmon accounted for 15.64%, and river herring 8.16% of observed targets. Shad-sized (99.0%) and salmon-sized (99.3%) targets approached the fishway almost exclusively during the day, whereas river herring-sized targets were observed both during the day (51.1%) and at night (48.9%). This approach demonstrates how multibeam sonar imaging can be used to evaluate community composition and species-specific movement patterns in systems where there is little overlap in the length distributions of target species.

  5. American shad migratory behavior, weight loss, survival, and abundance in a North Carolina River following dam removals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raabe, Joshua K.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive management and research, populations of American Shad Alosa sapidissima have experienced prolonged declines, and uncertainty about the underlying mechanisms causing these declines remains. In the springs of 2007 through 2010, we used a resistance board weir and PIT technology to capture, tag, and track American Shad in the Little River, North Carolina, a tributary to the Neuse River with complete and partial removals of low-head dams. Our objectives were to examine migratory behaviors and estimate weight loss, survival, and abundance during each spawning season. Males typically immigrated earlier than females and also used upstream habitat at a higher percentage, but otherwise exhibited relatively similar migratory patterns. Proportional weight loss displayed a strong positive relationship with both cumulative water temperature during residence time and number of days spent upstream, and to a lesser extent, minimum distance the fish traveled in the river. Surviving emigrating males lost up to 30% of their initial weight and females lost up to 50% of their initial weight, indicating there are potential survival thresholds. Survival for the spawning season was low and estimates ranged from 0.07 to 0.17; no distinct factors (e.g., sex, size, migration distance) that could contribute to survival were detected. Sampled and estimated American Shad abundance increased from 2007 through 2009, but was lower in 2010. Our study provides substantial new information about American Shad spawning that may aid restoration efforts.

  6. An integrative study of larval organogenesis of American shad Alosa sapidissima in histological aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaoqiang; Hong, Lei; Liu, Zhifeng; Guo, Zhenglong; Wang, Yaohui; Lei, Jilin

    2016-01-01

    We describe organogenesis at a histological level in American shad ( Alosa sapidissima) larvae from 0 until 45 days after hatching (DAH). Larval development was divided into four stages based on the feeding mode, external morphological features, and structural changes in the organs: stage 1 (0-2 DAH), stage 2 (3-5 DAH), stage 3 (6-26 DAH) and stage 4 (27-45 DAH). At early stage 2 (3 DAH), American shad larvae developed the initial digestive and absorptive tissues, including the mouth and anal opening, buccopharyngeal cavity, oesophagus, incipient stomach, anterior and posterior intestine, differentiated hepatocytes, and exocrine pancreas. The digestive and absorptive capacity developed further in stages 2 to 3, at which time the pharyngeal teeth, taste buds, gut mucosa folds, differentiated stomach, and gastric glands could be observed. Four defined compartments were discernible in the heart at 4 DAH. From 3 to 13 DAH, the excretory systems started to develop, accompanied by urinary bladder opening, the appearance and development of primordial pronephros, and the proliferation and convolution of renal tubules. Primordial gills were detected at 2 DAH, the pseudobranch was visible at 6 DAH, and the filaments and lamellae proliferated rapidly during stage 3. The primordial swim bladder was first observed at 2 DAH and started to inflate at 9 DAH; from then on, it expanded constantly. The spleen was first observed at 8 DAH and the thymus was evident at 12 DAH. From stage 4 onwards, most organs essentially manifested an increase in size, number, and complexity of tissue structure.

  7. Modeling migratory energetics of Connecticut River American shad (Alosa sapidissima): implications for the conservation of an iteroparous anadromous fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castro-Santos, Theodore; Letcher, Benjamin H.

    2010-01-01

    We present a simulation model in which individual adult migrant American shad (Alosa sapidissima) ascend the Connecticut River and spawn, and survivors return to the marine environment. Our approach synthesizes bioenergetics, reproductive biology, and behavior to estimate the effects of migratory distance and delays incurred at dams on spawning success and survival. We quantified both the magnitude of effects and the consequences of uncertainty in the estimates of input variables. Behavior, physiology, and energetics strongly affected both the distribution of spawning effort and survival to the marine environment. Delays to both upstream and downstream movements had dramatic effects on spawning success, determining total fecundity and spatial extent of spawning. Delays, combined with cues for migratory reversal, also determined the likelihood of survival. Spawning was concentrated in the immediate vicinity of dams and increased with greater migratory distance and delays to downstream migration. More research is needed on reproductive biology, behavior, energetics, and barrier effects to adequately understand the interplay of the various components of this model; it does provide a framework, however, that suggests that provision of upstream passage at dams in the absence of expeditious downstream passage may increase spawning success — but at the expense of reduced iteroparity. 

  8. Effect of low-head lock and dam structures on migration and spawning of American shad and striped bass in the Cape Fear River, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joseph A.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations within the Cape Fear River, North Carolina, have declined substantially since the late 1800s. Three low-head lock-and-dam (LD) structures on the river (LD-1–3) contributed to this decline by limiting access to upstream spawning habitat. We used egg sampling and sonic telemetry to examine the effects of the LD structures on migration and spawning activity of American shad Alosa sapidissima and striped bassMorone saxatilis. Egg distribution and stage of development suggested that most of the American shad spawning took place downstream from the lowermost structure, LD-1. The predicted mean density of stage-1 American shad eggs at a water temperature of 21°C was 895 eggs/1,000 m3 (95% credible interval [CI] = 800–994) below LD-1; 147 eggs/1,000 m3 (95% CI = 103–197) below LD-2; and 32 eggs/1,000 m3 (95% CI = 17–49) below the uppermost structure, LD-3. The probability of capturing a stage-1 American shad egg was strongly dependent on water temperature and hour of egg collection. Transmitter detections for 20 sonic-tagged American shad and 20 striped bass in 2008 showed that for both species, the majority of fish moved upstream of LD-1; 35% of American shad and 25% of striped bass migrated upstream of LD-3. Based on passage rates at the three LD structures, American shad would be expected to be most abundant downstream of LD-1 and upstream of LD-3. For striped bass, the river section between LD-2 and LD-3 had the highest egg collections and highest predicted proportion of the run. In combination, these results demonstrate that the locking program provides some access to historical spawning habitat, although further improvements in fish passage could benefit both species.

  9. Comparing historical catch rates of American shad in multifilament and monofilament nets: A step toward setting restoration targets for Virginia stocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maki, K.L.; Hoenig, J.M.; Olney, J.E.; Heisey, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Recreational and commercial harvest of American shad Alosa sapidissima in the Virginia waters of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries has been prohibited since 1994. The Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission Shad and River Herring Management Plan requires that Virginia develop restoration targets for its shad populations, but estimates of their sizes are not available and there is little information about historic population levels. Thus, establishing restoration targets based on population size is problematic. A current spawning stock monitoring program yields catch rate information that can be compared with historic catch rate information recorded in commercial fishery logbooks from the 1950s and the 1980s. However, multifilament gill nets were used in the 1950s and monofilament nets were used in the 1980s (as well as in the current monitoring program). A Latin square design was employed to test the differences in relative fishing power of the two gear types over 2 years of seasonal sampling on the York River, Virginia. Estimates are that the monofilament nets are roughly twice as efficient as the multifilament nets. Reported catch rates in the 1950s and 1980s are roughly equivalent. However, when adjustments are made for the differences in fishing gear, catch rates for the 1950s are twice as high as those during the 1980s. These results provide valuable information for setting restoration targets for Virginia stocks of American shad. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  10. Native American Adult Reader I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lovern Root, Ed.

    Aspects of Native American history and culture as well as issues and concerns of American Indians are presented in the twelve short articles in this reader for adults. Intended for use in an adult basic education/GED program, the reader features simply written stories (for grades 0-3), illustrations, vocabulary lists and student study questions.…

  11. Native American Adult Reader III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lovern Root, Ed.

    This reader, one of three designed to provide adults in basic education/GED programs with meaningful material based on Native American cultures, includes selections appropriate for advanced reading ability (grade 7 and above). The twelve readings focus on culture, history, and contemporary concerns of Native Americans. Each selection includes a…

  12. Native American Adult Reader II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lovern Root, Ed.

    This reader, one of three designed to provide adults in basic education/GED programs with meaningful materials based on Native American cultures, includes selections appropriate for intermediate reading ability (grades 4-6). The twelve readings focus on culture, history, and contemporary concerns of Native Americans. Each selection includes a…

  13. Freedom Road: Adult Education of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…

  14. Further investigations of the etiology of subcutaneous neoplasms in native gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum)

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, A.D.; Ostrander, G.K.

    1995-10-01

    Aspects of the etiology of subcutaneous spindle-cell neoplasms in feral gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) collected from Lake of the Arbuckles, Oklahoma, were investigated. Field collections of adult and juvenile gizzard shad were conducted to determine the prevalence and seasonality of neoplasms and site specificity of neoplasms-bearing fish. Overall neoplasm prevalence for adult gizzard shad was 22.1%; no juveniles exhibited neoplasms. Neoplasm occurrence did not appear seasonal. Neoplasm-bearing gizzard shad were found at all three sampling sites within Lake of the Arbuckles with similar neoplasm prevalence rates (Guy Sandy Creek 22.1%, Rock creek, 17.9%, and Buckhorn Creek 22.4%). No gizzard shad (juvenile or adult) collected from Lake Carl Blackwell, Oklahoma, the reference site, exhibited neoplasms. Water, sediment, and shad liver tissue from Lake of the Arbuckles and the reference site were analyzed for total recoverable metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, and lead, by graphite furnace atomic absorption). Chromium, copper, and nickel were found in the water samples at concentrations of >1 to 8.6 {micro}g/L. Low concentrations (>1 to 13.6 {micro}g/g wet weight) of all the metals were found in the sediment and liver tissue for both sites. Heavy metal contamination does not appear linked to neoplasm occurrence. To determine if a nonbacterial infectious agent was responsible for tumor formation, cell-free neoplasm homogenates were injected into healthy rainbow trout. Neoplasms were not transmitted into rainbow trout. Neoplasms were not transmitted into rainbow trout. The etiology of these neoplasms remains unknown.

  15. American Adults' Knowledge of Exercise Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Krzewinski-Malone, Jeanette A.; Jackson, Allen W.; Bungum, Timothy J.; FitzGerald, Shannon J.

    2004-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, and some cancers. Approximately 950,000 Americans die annually from cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine whether American adults know which traditional and lifestyle physical activities affect…

  16. Who Benefits Most from Shad Valley?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Tom

    The founder of the Shad Valley (Ontario, Canada) summer program for gifted teenagers in 1984 suggests that the current selection process may not be adequate and fails to encourage applications from some students who would profit from the program. The program is seen to provide direct benefits to the universities that host the program, the…

  17. Reading Activities of American Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharon, Amiel T.

    A reading activities survey as part of the Targeted Research and Development Reading Program was done by interviewing 3,504 adults, aged 16 years or older, selected by area probability sampling. Among the preliminary findings was that the most frequent type of reading is newspaper reading. Seven out of 10 people read or look at a newspaper during…

  18. Native American Adult Reader. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lovern Root, Ed.

    Behavioral objectives and supplemental student activities are featured in this teacher's guide for using the Native American Adult Readers in basic education/GED programs. The guide provides the rationale for developing the readers, which contain a variety of brief articles and essays and are designed to provide meaningful material based on Native…

  19. Frederick Douglass: An American Adult Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Jerry Paul

    2010-01-01

    Throughout his life, Frederick Douglass struggled to be something extraordinary. He rose from a life in slavery to become the most prominent African-American of his day and a leading figure in the abolitionist movement. Lost in the discussion of his life are the adult education roles that he played throughout his life and career. Beginning while…

  20. The Meaning of "Being Chinese" and "Being American." Variation among Chinese American Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ying, Yu-Wen; Lee, Peter A.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated how meanings of being Chinese and being American varied among young adults, examining orientations to Chinese and American cultures and noting cultural domains upon which being Chinese and being American were based. Surveys of Chinese American college students who were American-born or immigrants indicated that the meanings attached…

  1. Wintering ecology of adult North American ospreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Washburn, Brian E.; Martell, Mark S.; Bierregaard, Richard O., Jr.; Henny, Charles J.; Dorr, Brian S.; Olexa, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    North American Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) typically migrate long distances to their wintering grounds in the tropics. Beyond the general distribution of their wintering range (i.e., the Caribbean, South America, and Central America), very little is known about the wintering ecology of these birds. We used satellite telemetry to determine the duration of wintering period, to examine the characteristics of wintering areas used by Ospreys, and to quantify space use and activity patterns of wintering Ospreys. Adult Ospreys migrated to wintering sites and exhibited high wintering site fidelity among years. Overall, Ospreys wintered on river systems (50.6%) more than on lakes (19.0%), and use of coastal areas was (30.4%) intermediate. Ospreys remained on their wintering grounds for an average of 154 d for males and 167 d for females. Locations of wintering Ospreys obtained via GPS-capable satellite telemetry suggest these birds move infrequently and their movements are very localized (i.e., 2 and 1.4 km2, respectively. Overall, our findings suggest wintering adult North American Ospreys are very sedentary, demonstrating a pattern of limited daily movements and high fidelity to a few select locations (presumably roosts). We suggest this wintering strategy might be effective for reducing the risk of mortality and maximizing energy conservation.

  2. Life history of the gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum (Le Sueur), in western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodola, Anthony

    1966-01-01

    The rapid increase in the stocks of gizzard shad in Lake Erie since 1950 unquestionably had an important effect on the ecology of the lake. The present study, based on almost 24,000 fish collected by various means in 1952-55 in or near the island area of western Lake Erie was undertaken to provide information on the role of shad in the bionomics of the region. The annulus of the gizzard shad scale is a valid year-mark. It is laid down in May-July, a little later in the older than in the younger fish. The body-scale relation is linear with an intercept of 22.1 mm. on the axis of standard length. Age-groups 0, I, and II were abundantly represented in the samples. Age-group III was much less well represented, and older fish were extremely scarce. The oldest shad seen belonged to the VI-group. The seasonal growth was most rapid in July-August and growth was much reduced or nil in January-April. Males attained the following average standard lengths (in millimeters) at the end of the indicated years of life: 1-141; 2-273; 3-313; 4-343; 5-349. For females these values were 1-140; 2-285; 3-335; 4-364; 5-386. The weight of the gizzard shad increased as the 3.07053 power of the length. The length-weight relation varied seasonally, annually, and, near the spawning season, according to sex and state of gonads. Only a few precocious male and female gizzard shad attain sexual maturity as age-group I. Almost all males and a good percentage of females mature at age II and only rarely are III-group shad immature. Development of the egg and seasonal changes of the ovary are described. Egg production is highest in the II group-average of 378,900 per individual and 689 per gram of body weight. Spawning takes place from early June into July and is most intensive near mid-June. Heaviest spawning is at water temperatures of 67A?F. or more. Early development to the attainment of the adult shape is described; particular attention is given to the development of the alimentary tract. The

  3. Mexican American Adults in Higher Education: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosa, Janet Ann

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study used a narrative design to explore the perceptions, background and experiences of Mexican Americans who completed their bachelor's degree as adult learners. The study focuses in particular on their experiences of learning to be bicultural. A "Borderlands" framework whereby Mexican American adult learners negotiated…

  4. Interaction of African American Learners Online: An Adult Education Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…

  5. Adult Caregiving among American Indians: The Role of Cultural Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, R. Turner; Spencer, S. Melinda; McGuire, Lisa C.; Goldberg, Jack; Wen, Yang; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: With a sample of American Indian adults, we estimated the prevalence of adult caregiving, assessed the demographic and cultural profile of caregivers, and examined the association between cultural factors and being a caregiver. This is the first such study conducted with American Indians. Design and Methods: Data came from a…

  6. Correlates of Perceived Smoking Prevalence Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Cerrada, Christian J; Unger, Jennifer B; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    Perceived smoking prevalence, a strong predictor of actual smoking behavior, may be influenced by the ethnicity and gender of the reference group presented to Korean American emerging adults. Self-identifying Korean and Korean Americans aged 18-25 (N = 475), were invited to complete a 15-20 min online survey about their attitudes towards smoking. Predictors of perceived smoking prevalence were evaluated separately for four reference groups: Caucasian Americans, Korean Americans in general, Korean American men, and Korean American women. Respondents' smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for all reference groups except Caucasian Americans, even among light smokers. Father's smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for Korean American men, only among females respondents. Findings suggest that ethnicity and gender of both the reference group and respondents influence smoking rate estimates. Tailoring intervention content to the target population's gender and ethnicity may be a way to enhance smoking prevention strategies. PMID:27075031

  7. Clustering of Risk Behaviours among African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, M.; Addy, C. L.; Wilcox, S.; Dowda, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Individuals may engage in more than one risk behaviour at any given time. The extent to which risk behaviours cluster among African American adults has been largely unexplored. This study examined the prevalence and clustering of three risk behaviours among African American church members: smoking; low moderate-to-vigorous intensity…

  8. Exploration of the Lived Experiences of Illiterate African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, LaTonya Michell

    2009-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the stories of illiterate African American adults to determine the factors that led to their illiteracy. Narrative techniques were utilized to discern themes from narrative accounts of eight participants. The participants were enrolled in one of two adult basic education programs referred to as ABE I and ABE…

  9. LULAC: Mexican-American Adult Learning, Collectivism, and Social Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rook, Brian W.

    2013-01-01

    The development of the League of United Latino American Citizens (LULAC) is often viewed as a method of cultural assimilation through adult education. However, LULAC can be viewed through a collectivist's lens wherein the members established a shared philosophy, teaching adults to mobilize and expand their cause quickly and effectively. The…

  10. Depression and gender differences: focus on Taiwanese American older adults.

    PubMed

    Suen, Lee-jen W; Morris, Diana Lynn

    2006-04-01

    Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was used to examine gender differences and depression in elderly Taiwanese Americans. There is a paucity of health-related research focused on Asian Americans. This is especially true in the area of mental health. Depression, the most common psychiatric illness in older adults, is under-diagnosed in Asian Americans. A convenience sample of 100 elderly Taiwanese Americans, 47 women and 53 men, was used. Women were older, had higher depressions cores, more physical illness, poorer sleep scores, and less physical activity. Regression analysis indicated that 25% of the variance in depression scores was explained by sleep quality and physical activity. PMID:16615710

  11. The Mexican American Cultural Values scales for Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Knight, George P.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Saenz, Delia S.; Bonds, Darya D.; Germán, Miguelina; Deardorff, Julianna; Roosa, Mark W.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2009-01-01

    This research evaluates the properties of a measure of culturally linked values of Mexican Americans in early adolescence and adulthood. The items measure were derived from qualitative data provided by focus groups in which Mexican Americans’ (adolescents, mothers and fathers) perceptions of key values were discussed. The focus groups and a preliminary item refinement resulted in the fifty-item Mexican American Cultural Values Scales (identical for adolescents and adults) that includes nine value subscales. Analyses of data from two large previously published studies sampling Mexican American adolescents, mothers, and fathers provided evidence of the expected two correlated higher order factor structures, reliability, and construct validity of the subscales of the Mexican American Cultural Values Scales as indicators of values that are frequently associated with Mexican/Mexican American culture. The utility of this measure for use in longitudinal research, and in resolving some important theoretical questions regarding dual cultural adaptation, are discussed. PMID:20644653

  12. A method for trapping breeding adult American Oystercatchers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, C.P.; Simons, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    We present an efficient and effective method for trapping adult, breeding American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) that minimizes disturbance to nesting birds and the risk of trapping injuries. We used a remote controlled mechanical decoy to lure territorial adults to a leg-hold noose-mat trap. We trapped 25 birds over two seasons and were successful on 54% of our trapping attempts in 2003. We only trapped birds before the breeding season or between nesting attempts to reduce nest-site disturbance.

  13. Physical Activity Levels in American-Indian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Storti, Kristi L.; Arena, Vincent C.; Barmada, M. Michael; Bunker, Clareann H.; Hanson, Robert L.; Laston, Sandra L.; Yeh, Jeun-Liang; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Howard, Barbara V.; Kriska, Andrea M.

    2009-01-01

    Background A limited body of evidence, mostly based on self-report, is available regarding physical activity levels among American-Indian adults. Purpose This study aims to examine physical activity levels objectively by pedometer among a large cohort of American Indian adult participants in the Strong Heart Family Study. Methods Physical activity levels in 2604 American-Indian adults, aged 18–91 years, from 13 American-Indian communities were assessed using an Accusplit AE120 pedometer over a period of 7 days during 2001–2003. Anthropometric measurements were also assessed. All data analyses were conducted in 2008. Age-adjusted Pearson correlations were used to examine the relationship between average steps per day and age and anthropometric variables. Subjects were placed in age and BMI categories (according to NHLBI cutpoints) to examine trends in PA with increasing age and BMI. Results Daily pedometer steps ranged from 1001 to 38,755. Mean step counts by age group for men were: 5384 (18–29 years), 5120 (30–39 years), 5040 (40–49 years), 4561(50–59 years),4321 (60–69 years), and 3768 (≥70 years) and for women: 5038 (18–29 years), 5112 (30– 39 years), 5054 (40–49 years), 4582 (50–59 years), 3653 (60–69 years), and 3770 (>70 years). A significant linear trend in physical activity was noted with increasing age (P= 0.002 for men, P<0.0001 for women) and with increasing BMI (P = 0.05 for men, P = 0.04 for women). Conclusions Objectively measured data suggest that inactivity is a problem among American Indian adults and that a majority of American Indian adults in the SHFS may not be meeting the minimum physical activity public health recommendations. Efforts to increase physical activity levels in this population are warranted. PMID:19944912

  14. African Americans in Adult Education: The Harlem Renaissance Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Bailey, Juanita

    2006-01-01

    This study examined a 25-year period of African Americans in adult education by accessing the archival holdings of three major data centers: the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, the Moorland-Spingarn Archives, and the Hollis Burke Frissell Library. The sociopolitical context of the data was analyzed using a Black feminist…

  15. Adult Social Roles and Alcohol Use among American Indians

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Kaylin M.; Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David

    2014-01-01

    American Indians are disproportionately burdened by alcohol-related problems. Yet, research exploring predictors of alcohol use among American Indians has been limited by cross-sectional designs and reservation-based samples. Guided by a life course developmental perspective, the current study used a subsample of American Indians (n=927) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use (current drinking, usual number of drinks, and binge drinking) among this population. We examined whether adult social roles (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, college enrollment, full-time work) were linked to the rise and fall of alcohol use. Multi-level models demonstrated that adult social roles were linked to alcohol use at the within- and between-person levels. Becoming a parent was linked to a lower likelihood of being a current drinker, fewer alcoholic drinks, and less frequent binge drinking. Transitioning to full-time work was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current drinker and more frequent binge drinking. Results point to the importance of exploring within-group trajectories of alcohol use and highlight the protective and risky nature of adult social roles among American Indians. PMID:24857795

  16. Adult social roles and alcohol use among American Indians.

    PubMed

    Greene, Kaylin M; Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David

    2014-09-01

    American Indians are disproportionately burdened by alcohol-related problems. Yet, research exploring predictors of alcohol use among American Indians has been limited by cross-sectional designs and reservation-based samples. Guided by a life course developmental perspective, the current study used a subsample of American Indians (n=927) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use (current drinking, usual number of drinks, and binge drinking) among this population. We examined whether adult social roles (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, college enrollment, and full-time work) were linked to the rise and fall of alcohol use. Multi-level models demonstrated that adult social roles were linked to alcohol use at the within- and between-person levels. Becoming a parent was linked to a lower likelihood of being a current drinker, fewer alcoholic drinks, and less frequent binge drinking. Transitioning to full-time work was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current drinker and more frequent binge drinking. Results point to the importance of exploring within-group trajectories of alcohol use and highlight the protective and risky nature of adult social roles among American Indians. PMID:24857795

  17. Home Remedy Use Among African American and White Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Home remedy use is an often overlooked component of health self-management, with a rich tradition, particularly among African Americans and others who have experienced limited access to medical care or discrimination by the health care system. Home remedies can potentially interfere with biomedical treatments. This study documented the use of home remedies among older rural adults, and compared use by ethnicity (African American and white) and gender. A purposeful sample of 62 community-dwelling adults ages 65+ from rural North Carolina was selected. Each completed an in-depth interview, which probed current use of home remedies, including food and non-food remedies, and the symptoms or conditions for use. Systematic, computer-assisted analysis was used to identify usage patterns. Five food and five non-food remedies were used by a large proportion of older adults. African American elders reported greater use than white elders; women reported more use for a greater number of symptoms than men. Non-food remedies included long-available, over-the-counter remedies (e.g., Epsom salts) for which “off-label” uses were reported. Use focused on alleviating common digestive, respiratory, skin, and musculoskeletal symptoms. Some were used for chronic conditions in lieu of prescription medications. Home remedy use continues to be a common feature of the health self-management of older adults, particularly among African Americans, though at lower levels than previously reported. While some use is likely helpful or benign, other use has the potential to interfere with medical management of disease. Health care providers should be aware of the use of remedies by their patients. PMID:26543255

  18. Health literacy, smoking, and health indicators in African American adults

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Diana W.; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Shete, Sanjay; Spears, Claire A.; Cano, Miguel A.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Wetter, David W.; McNeill, Lorna H.

    2015-01-01

    We examined cross-sectional associations of health literacy (HL) with smoking and other established health indicators among 1,467 African American adults. Data emanated from a longitudinal cohort study designed to investigate cancer risk factors among church-going African American adults. We conducted linear and logistic regression analyses to assess associations between HL and health indicators. HL was assessed using an established single-item screening question. Outcomes included indicators of poor physical (cigarette smoking, self-rated general and physical health) and mental health (self-rated mental health, depressive symptoms, perceived stress). Nearly 19% of participants had low HL. Low HL was significantly associated with current smoking, poorer self-rated general and physical health, and higher perceived stress (ps < .05) even after controlling for demographic variables (i.e., age, gender, relationship status) and indicators of socioeconomic status (i.e., education, income, insurance status). Low HL appears to be an independent risk factor for smoking and other indicators of poor physical and mental health in a large sample of African American adults. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26513028

  19. Health Literacy, Smoking, and Health Indicators in African American Adults.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Diana Stewart; Vidrine, Jennifer I; Shete, Sanjay; Spears, Claire A; Cano, Miguel A; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Wetter, David W; McNeill, Lorna H

    2015-01-01

    We examined cross-sectional associations of health literacy (HL) with smoking and other established health indicators among 1,467 African American adults. Data emanated from a longitudinal cohort study designed to investigate cancer risk factors among church-going African American adults. We conducted linear and logistic regression analyses to assess associations between HL and health indicators. HL was assessed using an established single-item screening question. Outcomes included indicators of poor physical health (cigarette smoking, self-rated general and physical health) and mental health (self-rated mental health, depressive symptoms, perceived stress). Nearly 19% of participants had low HL. Low HL was significantly associated with current smoking, poorer self-rated general and physical health, and higher perceived stress (ps < .05) even after we controlled for demographic variables (i.e., age, gender, relationship status) and indicators of socioeconomic status (i.e., education, income, insurance status). Low HL appears to be an independent risk factor for smoking and other indicators of poor physical and mental health in a large sample of African American adults. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26513028

  20. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  1. Hatch Timing Variations Among Reservoir Gizzard Shad Populations: Implications for Stocked Sander spp. Fingerlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zweifela, Richard D.; Bunnell, David B.; Bremiganc, Mary T.; Hale, R. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Growth and survival of stocked Sander spp. fingerlings can be influenced by timing of stocking in relation to the peak in density of larval gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum. However, coordinating stockings to coincide with peaks in gizzard shad density is difficult due to temporal variation in spawn timing among reservoirs. We used weekly estimates of larval gizzard shad density and length distributions to identify dates of peak hatching and peak total density in Ohio reservoirs and to explore the influence of spring water temperature regimes on timing of peak larval density. Gizzard shad density peaked over 21–32 d among reservoirs but generally varied by 12 d or less among years for any given population. Density peaks were driven by hatching, as larvae smaller than 10 mm accounted for a majority of the gizzard shad collected on the peak date. Peaks in gizzard shad density corresponded to water temperatures of 17–22°C and occurred most frequently when water temperatures had been stable or rising. Reservoirs in the southern portion of the state were 2–5°C warmer than northern reservoirs throughout the spring; thus, gizzard shad spawning and date of peak larval density were earliest in southern reservoirs and became progressively later for populations in more northerly reservoirs. Historical stocking dates for fingerling walleyes S. vitreus and saugeyes (sauger S. canadensis × walleye) in Ohio reservoirs indicated that southern reservoirs were often stocked after the expected peak in gizzard shad density and northern reservoirs were stocked before the peak. A statewide approach to stocking that incorporates latitudinal variations in gizzard shad hatch timing whereby southern reservoirs are stocked earliest would better align stockings with peak gizzard shad density, potentially improving survival of fingerling walleyes and saugeyes.

  2. Functions of autobiographical memory in Taiwanese and American emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hsiao-Wen; Bluck, Susan; Alea, Nicole; Cheng, Ching-Ling

    2016-04-01

    The study addresses cultural and person-level factors contributing to emerging adult's use of memory to serve adaptive functions. The focus is on three functions: self-continuity, social-bonding and directing-behaviour. Taiwanese (N = 85, 52 women) and American (N = 95, 51 women) emerging adults completed the Thinking about Life Experiences scale, and measures of trait personality, self-concept clarity and future time perspective. Findings show that individuals from both cultures use memory to serve these three functions, but Taiwanese individuals use memory more frequently than Americans to maintain self-continuity. Culture also interacted with person-level factors: in Taiwan, but not America, memory is more frequently used to create self-continuity in individuals high in conscientiousness. Across cultures, having lower self-concept clarity was related to greater use of memory to create self-continuity. Findings are discussed in terms of how memory serves functions in context and specific aspects of the Taiwanese and American cultural context that may predict the functional use of memory in emerging adulthood. PMID:25738659

  3. African-American adults' perceptions of guns and violence.

    PubMed Central

    Price, J. H.; Kandakai, T. L.; Casler, S.; Everett, S.; Smith, D.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined African-American adults' perceptions of guns and violence. Through a mall intercept type study, 347 adults, ages 20 to 75, responded to a 54-item questionnaire. One third of the respondents claimed they owned one or more types of guns, three fourths had personally known someone who had been shot, more than one third had actually seen someone shot, and one third had a gun pulled on them. While the vast majority (84%) believed guns are too easy to obtain, the majority (62%) also believed that having a gun at home would help protect them. There were no significant differences in perceptions of guns based on age, gender, level of education, or socioeconomic status. The results of this study tend to substantiate the concern and fear of personal harm that African Americans have to contend with on a regular basis. The results also suggest the need for some form of educational intervention and gun safety training in order to help reduce the risk of death and injury among African Americans. PMID:8078079

  4. The Black Arts Movement and African American Young Adult Literature: An Evaluation of Narrative Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Laretta

    2005-01-01

    In this article I question whether or not African American young adult literature serves as a primer for, and a version of, African American adult literature. Using the Black Aesthetic as my literary theory and the Coretta Scott King Award as the young adult canon, I note that while the content of adolescent literature is consistent with the…

  5. Larval gizzard shad characteristics in Lake Oahe, South Dakota: A species at the northern edge of its range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fincel, Mark J.; Chipps, Steven R.; Graeb, Brian D. S.; Edwards, Kris R.

    2013-01-01

    Gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum, have generally been restricted to the lower Missouri River impoundments in South Dakota. In recent years, gizzard shad numbers have increased in Lake Oahe, marking the northern-most natural population. These increases could potentially affect recreational fishes. Specifically, questions arise about larval gizzard shad growth dynamics and if age-0 gizzard shad in Lake Oahe will exhibit fast or slow growth, both of which can have profound effects on piscivore populations in this reservoir. In this study, we evaluated larval gizzard shad hatch timing, growth, and density in Lake Oahe. We collected larval gizzard shad from six sites from May to July 2008 and used sagittal otoliths to estimate the growth and back-calculate the hatch date. We found that larval gizzard shad hatched earlier in the upper part of the reservoir compared to the lower portion and that hatch date appeared to correspond to warming water temperatures. The peak larval gizzard shad density ranged from 0.6 to 33.6 (#/100 m3) and varied significantly among reservoir sites. Larval gizzard shad growth ranged from 0.24 to 0.57 (mm/d) and differed spatially within the reservoir. We found no relationship between the larval gizzard shad growth or density and small- or large-bodied zooplankton density (p > 0.05). As this population exhibits slow growth and low densities, gizzard shad should remain a suitable forage option for recreational fishes in Lake Oahe.

  6. Stable isotope evidence of ontogenetic changes in the diet of gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum.

    PubMed

    De Brabandere, L; Catalano, M J; Frazer, T K; Allen, M S

    2009-01-01

    Stable sulphur isotopic composition (delta(34)S) of gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum was used to investigate the seasonal and ontogenetic variation in the diet of young and adult fish. This study evaluated fish from a hypereutrophic lake that had recently undergone a 40% reduction of large (>300 mm total length, L(T)) D. cepedianum biomass as part of a biomanipulation experiment, which aimed at reducing internal nutrient loading. Dorosoma cepedianum delta(34)S values showed evidence of ontogenetic changes with young fish (<200 mm L(T)) depending more on benthic food sources than adults (>200 mm L(T)). The delta(34)S composition of the adult fish suggested an increasing importance of zooplankton in the diet, although benthic food sources remained part of the diet of all D. cepedianum collected in this study. The results indicated that benthic feeding is used by D. cepedianum of all sizes, suggesting that biomanipulation efforts may need to target all sizes of fish to realize benefits. PMID:20735527

  7. Waiting to Exhale: African American Women and Adult Learning Through Movies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Elice E.

    Scholars have addressed adults and the impact of popular culture on adult learning, but little attention has been directed toward the relationship between adult learning and African Americans. Most specifically, minimal information is related to adult learning that evolves as a result of popular culture influences. Popular culture promotes…

  8. Asian-Americans in Better Health Than Other U.S. Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158938.html Asian-Americans in Better Health Than Other U.S. Adults Lifestyle ... 2016 THURSDAY, May 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Asian-Americans are healthier than other U.S. adults. So say ...

  9. Factors Influencing Dating Experiences Among African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Naomi M.; Lee, Anna K.; Witherspoon, Daphne D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined sociocultural factors that impact dating and sexual experiences of heterosexual African American undergraduate college students attending a historically Black institution in the Southeastern United States. Specifically, mate availability and relationship involvement were analyzed to document students’ experiences, and how these influences may be associated with sexual decision making and behavior. Data from nine focus groups (N = 57) were aggregated and four subthemes were identified: competition among women, acceptability of mates, high prevalence of casual relationships, and lowered expectations for commitment. Power dynamics emerged as a contributing factor to the types of relationship involvement, sexual decision-making, and behavior among participants. The importance of prevention programs focusing on situational and cultural variables is highlighted. Additionally, implications for professionals working with emerging adults to consider the impact of the gender ratio imbalance, and perceived power distributions on perceptions of dating relationships, and sexual decision making and behavior are addressed. PMID:25530924

  10. New notch weir system designed to pass shad through Potomac Dam

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This article discusses the design and functional characteristics of a notch and three-weir labyrinth fish passage facility at Little Falls Dam. Most effective at low-head hydroelectric power plants, the weir system will reduce flow velocities to a value thought to be low enough for healthy shad to swim against. It is felt that this system will re-establish the shad population in a 10-mile stretch of the Patomac River near Washington.

  11. The spring migration of adult North American Ospreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martell, Mark S.; Bierregaard, Richard O., Jr.; Washburn, Brian E.; Elliott, John E.; Henny, Charles J.; Kennedy, Robert S.; MacLeod, Iain

    2014-01-01

    Most North American Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) are migratory, breeding in northern latitudes and migrating long distances to and from their wintering grounds in the tropics. Although fall migration patterns of North American Ospreys have been described and studied, very little has been published about the spring migration of these birds. We used satellite telemetry to: (1) determine the characteristics (timing, duration, migratory routes) of spring migrations of Ospreys; (2) determine if differences in spring migration patterns existed between sexes and among three breeding populations (east coast, midwestern, and western); and (3) compare consecutive fall and spring migrations of individual Ospreys. The median dates for departure from the wintering grounds and arrival on the breeding grounds did not differ significantly between adult male and female Ospreys. Compared to their fall migrations, all male and all east coast Ospreys spent fewer days on migration, fewer days in stopover periods along the migration route, traveled shorter distances overall, and traveled farther (on average) each day during spring. In contrast, fall and spring migration characteristics of all female and western Ospreys were similar. Our findings suggest that, although sex and breeding location might influence the spring migration strategy used by individual Ospreys, both males and females minimize the time spent on migration to ensure a timely arrival on the breeding grounds to establish or defend a nesting territory.

  12. Engaging Chinese American Adults in Advance Care Planning: A Community-Based, Culturally Sensitive Seminar.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mei Ching; Hinderer, Katherine A; Friedmann, Erika

    2015-08-01

    Ethnic minority groups are less engaged than Caucasian American adults in advance care planning (ACP). Knowledge deficits, language, and culture are barriers to ACP. Limited research exists on ACP and advance directives in the Chinese American adult population. Using a pre-posttest, repeated measures design, the current study explored the effectiveness of a nurseled, culturally sensitive ACP seminar for Chinese American adults on (a) knowledge, completion, and discussion of advance directives; and (b) the relationship between demographic variables, advance directive completion, and ACP discussions. A convenience sample of 72 urban, community-dwelling Chinese American adults (mean age=61 years) was included. Knowledge, advance directive completion, and ACP discussions increased significantly after attending the nurse-led seminar (p<0.01). Increased age correlated with advance directive completion and ACP discussions; female gender correlated with ACP discussions. Nursing education in a community setting increased advance directive knowledge and ACP engagement in Chinese American adults. PMID:25912237

  13. Anxiety Psychopathology in African American Adults: Literature Review and Development of an Empirically Informed Sociocultural Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Lora Rose; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, the extant literature concerning anxiety psychopathology in African American adults is summarized to develop a testable, explanatory framework with implications for future research. The model was designed to account for purported lower rates of anxiety disorders in African Americans compared to European Americans, along with other…

  14. Ethnic Self-Labeling in Young American Adults from Chinese Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Self-reported ethnic labels were examined among 242 young American adults with Chinese ancestry (age range = 18-32 years, M = 23.97; 73% female, 27% male). Ethnic labels fell under broad categories whereby 22% reported heritage national labels (e.g., Chinese), 35% added American to their heritage national label (e.g., Chinese American), and 42%…

  15. Asian-Americans in Better Health Than Other U.S. Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Asian-Americans in Better Health Than Other U.S. Adults Lifestyle might account for the finding, expert says ... a culture of fast food, soda, stress and insomnia," said Dr. David Katz. Director of the Yale ...

  16. Religiosity, Discrimination, and Community Engagement: Gendered Pathways of Muslim American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Katsiaficas, Dalal

    2011-01-01

    The attacks on September 11, 2001, changed the lives of all Americans. For many immigrant Muslims in the United States this meant dealing with an elevated amount of discrimination. This study investigated how perceived discrimination influenced levels of community engagement among Muslim American emerging adults and whether it varied by gender.…

  17. Report Card: Environmental Attitudes and Knowledge in America. The Fifth Annual Survey of Adult Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Environmental Education and Training Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This study investigates environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among adult Americans. The fifth survey, conducted by Roper Starch, explores the relationship between attitudes about the environment and how those attitudes are affected by learning. This report concludes that Americans have very positive views toward the need to conserve…

  18. Exploring Dual Identification among Muslim-American Emerging Adults: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Bikmen, Nida; Mir, Madeeha; Fine, Michelle; Zaal, Mayida; Katsiaficas, Dalal

    2008-01-01

    This mixed methods study explored dual identification among Muslim-American emerging adults of immigrant origin. A closer look was taken at the relationship between American and Muslim identifications and how this relationship was influenced by experiences of discrimination, acculturative and religious practices, and whether it varied by gender.…

  19. Institutional Barriers to Participation in Adult Education among African Americans within Religious Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Paulette; Rowland, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Examined institutional deterrents to participation in adult education among African American Christian church members. Focus group interview data highlighted six categories of deterrents: lack of relevance, programmatic, communication, individual/personal, instructional techniques, and interpersonal. Results suggest that African American Christian…

  20. Influences of Social and Style Variables on Adult Usage of African American English Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Holly K.; Grogger, Jeffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the influences of selected social (gender, employment status, educational achievement level) and style variables (race of examiner, interview topic) on the production of African American English (AAE) by adults. Method: Participants were 50 African American men and women, ages 20-30 years. The authors…

  1. Social support among African-American adults with diabetes. Part 1: Theoretical framework.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, M. E.; Tilley, B. C.; McDonald, P. E.

    1998-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects African Americans in disproportionate numbers relative to whites. Proper management of this disease is critical because of the increased morbidity and mortality associated with poor diabetes management. The role of social support in promoting diabetes management and improved glycemic control among African Americans is a little-explored area. This article, the first in a two-part series, provides a theoretical framework for examining the relationship between social support and glycemic control among African-American adults. PMID:9640907

  2. Korean/Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Young Adult Fiction and Media Created by Korean/Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2010-01-01

    Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority…

  3. German-American Workshop on Adult Education with Target Groups = Deutsch-amerikanisches Doppelseminar zur Zielgruppenarbeit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerner, Claus, Ed.; Odenbrett, Glenn, Ed.

    This collection includes eight papers (authored by Germans) on adult education programs in Cleveland, Ohio, and eight papers (authored by Americans) about adult education programs in the Federal Republic of Germany as well as German and English introductions to the collection. The following papers are included: "Neue Wege in der Internationalen…

  4. Barriers to Persistence in Adult Basic Education: The Experiences of African American Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Simone

    2011-01-01

    One of the most pervasive issues facing educators and administrators in Adult Basic Education (ABE) is student persistence. The purposes of this qualitative study were 1) to identify the experiences that African American adult learners associated with their decisions to leave ABE programs; 2) to ascertain the impact of participants'…

  5. Signal Detection Analysis of Factors Associated with Diabetes among Semirural Mexican American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanni, K. D.; Ahn, D. A.; Winkleby, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Signal detection analysis was used to evaluate a combination of sociodemographic, acculturation, mental health, health care, and chronic disease risk factors potentially associated with diabetes in a sample of 4,505 semirural Mexican American adults. Overall, 8.9% of adults had been diagnosed with diabetes. The analysis resulted in 12 mutually…

  6. Perceived Racism and Encouragement among African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming

    2012-01-01

    Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…

  7. The Mexican American Cultural Values Scale for Adolescents and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, George P.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Saenz, Delia S.; Bonds, Darya D.; German, Miguelina; Deardorff, Julianna; Roosav, Mark W.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    This research evaluates the properties of a measure of culturally linked values of Mexican Americans in early adolescence and adulthood. The article discusses the items derived from qualitative data provided by focus groups in which Mexican Americans' (adolescents, mothers, and fathers) perceptions of key values were discussed. The focus groups…

  8. African Americans and Self-Help Education: The Missing Link in Adult Education. ERIC Digest No. 222.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Michael L.

    Self-help education and self-help literature is important in the lives of African American adults, but the basic models of learning, development, and program planning in adult education have often been developed with little concern for the unique needs of African Americans. In addition, current theories of adult learning often lack understanding…

  9. Personal Goals and Depression among Vietnamese American and European American Young Adults: A Meditational Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Anthony D.; Phinney, Jean S.

    2002-01-01

    Reports findings that support the utility of the self-concordance model as an alternative approach to studying depression among Vietnamese and European American college students. Finds that Vietnamese Americans reported higher levels of depression than did the European American students. Includes references. (CMK)

  10. North American Adult Literacy Programs and Latin American Immigrants: How Critical Pedagogy Can Help Nonprofit Literacy Programming in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straubhaar, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    As nonprofit adult literacy programs are often the only options for low-income Latin American immigrants in North America, problems accompanying these programs affect the ability of immigrants to benefit from them. North American nonprofit adult literacy programs often struggle due to the difficulties inherent in using volunteer instructors (often…

  11. Patient satisfaction and ethnic identity among American Indian older adults.

    PubMed

    Garroutte, Eva Marie; Kunovich, Robert M; Jacobsen, Clemma; Goldberg, Jack

    2004-12-01

    Work in the field of culturally competent medical care draws on studies showing that minority Americans often report lower satisfaction with care than White Americans and recommends that providers should adapt care to patients' cultural needs. However, empirical evidence in support of cultural competence models is limited by reliance upon measurements of racial rather than ethnic identity and also by a near-total neglect of American Indians. This project explored the relationship between ethnic identity and satisfaction using survey data collected from 115 chronically ill American Indian patients >or=50 years at a Cherokee Nation clinic. Satisfaction scores were high overall and comparable to those found in the general population. Nevertheless, analysis using hierarchical linear modeling showed that patients' self-rated American Indian ethnic identity was significantly associated with satisfaction. Specifically, patients who rated themselves high on the measure of American Indian ethnic identity reported reduced scores on satisfaction with health care providers' social skill and attentiveness, as compared to those who rated themselves lower. Significant associations remained after controlling for patients' sex, age, education, marital status, self-reported health, wait time, and number of previous visits. There were no significant associations between patients' American Indian ethnic identity and satisfaction with provider's technical skill and shared decision-making. Likewise, there were no significant associations between satisfaction and a separate measure of White American ethnic identity, although a suggestive trend was observed for satisfaction with provider's social skill. Our findings demonstrate the importance of including measures of ethnic identity in studies of medical satisfaction in racial minority populations. They support the importance of adapting care to patient's cultural needs, and they highlight the particular significance of interpersonal

  12. Threadfin shad impacts phytoplankton and zooplankton community structures in channel catfish ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plankton community structure and chlorophyll a concentration were compared in 12 0.1-ha earthen ponds co-stocked with channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, 1818) in multiple-batch culture (initial biomass = 5,458 kg ha-1) and a planktivore, threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense Güther, 1867;...

  13. Food of blueback herring and threadfin shad in Jocassee Reservoir, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Bruce M.; Foltz, Jeffrey W.

    1991-01-01

    Threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense and blueback herring Alosa aestivalis were introduced into Jocassee Reservoir, South Carolina, in the early 1970s as prey for large piscivores. To assess the potential for trophic competition between these clupeids, we examined their diets and the extent of diet overlap in May, August, and December 1982 and February 1983. The diet of blueback herring consisted mainly of large species of cladocerans and copepods supplemented in August with Chaoborus punctipennis and young fish. Mean length of the organisms eaten by blueback herring was 1.4 mm. Threadfin shad fed on smaller species of cladocerans and copepods, as well as on rotifers and copepod nauplii. The mean length of the organisms eaten by threadfin shad was 0.4 mm, which differed significantly from the mean length of the zooplankton population in Jocassee Reservoir (0.6 mm). Phytoplankton contributed 24 and 32% of the stomach contents of threadfin shad in August and December. Bosmina longirostris was important in the diet of both species, although blueback herring showed negative selection for it. Diet overlap between the two clupeids was low on all four dates. Although we found no evidence of trophic competition between the two species in Jocassee Reservoir, we do not recommend stocking them together, because both species are voracious planktivores and blueback herring are piscivorous.

  14. Effect of threadfin shad as forage for channel catfish fed daily or every third day

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated whether stocking threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense) as a forage fish in multiple-batch channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) production ponds could substitute for formulated feed when catfish were fed daily or every three days. A completely randomized design in 2 x 2 factorial arrangem...

  15. American Geriatrics Society care of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender older adults position statement: American Geriatrics Society Ethics Committee.

    PubMed

    2015-03-01

    There is ample evidence that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals face discrimination in the healthcare setting. Providing high-quality health care for older LGBT adults will require active steps by organizations, institutions, advocacy groups, and health professionals that create an environment that is free from discrimination. This position statement that the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Ethics Committee developed addresses the vision of the AGS for the care of LGBT older adults and specific steps that can be taken to ensure that they receive the care that they need. PMID:25803784

  16. The Adults in the Making Program: Long-Term Protective Stabilizing Effects on Alcohol Use and Substance Use Problems for Rural African American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This report addresses the long-term efficacy of the Adults in the Making (AIM) prevention program on deterring the escalation of alcohol use and development of substance use problems, particularly among rural African American emerging adults confronting high levels of contextual risk. Method: African American youths (M age, pretest =…

  17. Residential Segregation and Overweight/Obesity Among African-American Adults: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Corral, Irma; Landrine, Hope; Hall, Marla B; Bess, Jukelia J; Mills, Kevin R; Efird, Jimmy T

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between residential segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults remains unclear. Elucidating that relationship is relevant to efforts to prevent and to reduce racial disparities in obesity. This article provides a critical review of the 11 empirical studies of segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults. Results revealed that most studies did not use a valid measure of segregation, many did not use a valid measure of overweight/obesity, and many did not control for neighborhood poverty. Only four (36% of the) studies used valid measures of both segregation and overweight/obesity and also controlled for area-poverty. Those four studies suggest that segregation contributes to overweight and obesity among African-American adults, but that conclusion cannot be drawn with certainty in light of the considerable methodologic problems in this area of research. Suggestions for improving research on this topic are provided. PMID:26191522

  18. Pathology, physiologic parameters, tissue contaminants, and tissue thiamine in morbid and healthy central Florida adult American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Honeyfield, Dale C; Ross, J Perran; Carbonneau, Dwayne A; Terrell, Scott P; Woodward, Allan R; Schoeb, Trenton R; Perceval, H Franklin; Hinterkopf, Joy P

    2008-04-01

    An investigation of adult alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) mortalities in Lake Griffin, central Florida, was conducted from 1998-2004. Alligator mortality was highest in the months of April and May and annual death count peaked in 2000. Bacterial pathogens, heavy metals, and pesticides were not linked with the mortalities. Blood chemistry did not point to any clinical diagnosis, although differences between impaired and normal animals were noted. Captured alligators with signs of neurologic impairment displayed unresponsive and uncoordinated behavior. Three of 21 impaired Lake Griffin alligators were found to have neural lesions characteristic of thiamine deficiency in the telencephalon, particularly the dorsal ventricular ridge. In some cases, lesions were found in the thalamus, and parts of the midbrain. Liver and muscle tissue concentrations of thiamine (vitamin B(1)) were lowest in impaired Lake Griffin alligators when compared to unimpaired alligators or to alligators from Lake Woodruff. The consumption of thiaminase-positive gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) is thought to have been the cause of the low tissue thiamine and resulting mortalities. PMID:18436661

  19. Pathology, physiologic parameters, tissue contaminants, and tissue thiamine in morbid and healthy central Florida adult American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Ross, J.P.; Carbonneau, D.A.; Terrell, S.P.; Woodward, A.R.; Schoeb, T.R.; Perceval, H.F.; Hinterkopf, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    An investigation of adult alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) mortalities in Lake Griffin, central Florida, was conducted from 1998-2004. Alligator mortality was highest in the months of April and May and annual death count peaked in 2000. Bacterial pathogens, heavy metals, and pesticides were not linked with the mortalities. Blood chemistry did not point to any clinical diagnosis, although differences between impaired and normal animals were noted. Captured alligators with signs of neurologic impairment displayed unresponsive and uncoordinated behavior. Three of 21 impaired Lake Griffin alligators were found to have neural lesions characteristic of thiamine deficiency in the telencephalon, particularly the dorsal ventricular ridge. In some cases, lesions were found in the thalamus, and parts of the midbrain. Liver and muscle tissue concentrations of thiamine (vitamin B"1) were lowest in impaired Lake Griffin alligators when compared to unimpaired alligators or to alligators from Lake Woodruff. The consumption of thiaminase-positive gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) is thought to have been the cause of the low tissue thiamine and resulting mortalities. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  20. Measured Acculturation and MMPI-168 Performance of Native American Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, Tom; And Others

    1985-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that acculturation influences the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) performance of Native Americans, an instrument was developed to measure five components of acculturation. When both the acculturation instrument and the MMPI-168 were administered to 69 Rosebud Sioux, results confirmed the hypothesis. Thus,…

  1. Improving the Evidence Base for Treating Older Adults With Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology Statement.

    PubMed

    Hurria, Arti; Levit, Laura A; Dale, William; Mohile, Supriya G; Muss, Hyman B; Fehrenbacher, Louis; Magnuson, Allison; Lichtman, Stuart M; Bruinooge, Suanna S; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Tew, William P; Postow, Michael A; Cohen, Harvey J

    2015-11-10

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) convened a subcommittee to develop recommendations on improving the evidence base for treating older adults with cancer in response to a critical need identified by the Institute of Medicine. Older adults experience the majority of cancer diagnoses and deaths and make up the majority of cancer survivors. Older adults are also the fastest growing segment of the US population. However, the evidence base for treating this population is sparse, because older adults are underrepresented in clinical trials, and trials designed specifically for older adults are rare. The result is that clinicians have less evidence on how to treat older adults, who represent the majority of patients with cancer. Clinicians and patients are forced to extrapolate from trials conducted in younger, healthier populations when developing treatment plans. This has created a dearth of knowledge regarding the risk of toxicity in the average older patient and about key end points of importance to older adults. ASCO makes five recommendations to improve evidence generation in this population: (1) Use clinical trials to improve the evidence base for treating older adults with cancer, (2) leverage research designs and infrastructure for generating evidence on older adults with cancer, (3) increase US Food and Drug Administration authority to incentivize and require research involving older adults with cancer, (4) increase clinicians' recruitment of older adults with cancer to clinical trials, and (5) use journal policies to improve researchers' reporting on the age distribution and health risk profiles of research participants. PMID:26195697

  2. Probing the Paradoxical Pattern of Cigarette Smoking among African-Americans: Low Teenage Consumption and High Adult Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigelman, William; Lee, Julia

    1995-01-01

    Based on secondary analysis of the 1990 California Tobacco Survey of 24,296 adult and 7,767 adolescent respondents, this study investigates enigmatic results established by past research of comparatively low smoking prevalence rates among African American adolescents and high use patterns for African American adults. Findings support hypothesis…

  3. The Lived Experience of the Adult African American Female Who Has Lived in Multiple Foster Care Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Avonda C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine and describe the lived experiences of the adult African American woman who had lived in multiple foster care placements. Eleven adult African American women ages 22-25 participated in semi-structured, face-to-face interviews to tell their stories and provide data of the memories of the experience. The…

  4. Implementation of Evidence-Based HIV Interventions for Young Adult African American Women in Church Settings

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the barriers and facilitators to using African American churches as sites for implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions among young African American women. Design Mixed methods cross-sectional design. Setting African American churches in Philadelphia, PA. Participants 142 African American pastors, church leaders, and young adult women ages 18 to 25. Methods Mixed methods convergent parallel design. Results The majority of young adult women reported engaging in high-risk HIV-related behaviors. Although church leaders reported willingness to implement HIV risk-reduction interventions, they were unsure of how to initiate this process. Key facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based interventions included the perception of the leadership and church members that HIV interventions were needed and that the church was a promising venue for them. A primary barrier to implementation in this setting is the perception that discussions of sexuality should be private. Conclusion Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings is feasible and needed. Building a level of comfort in discussing matters of sexuality and adapting existing evidence-based interventions to meet the needs of young women in church settings is a viable approach for successful implementation. PMID:25139612

  5. Adult Education Research: A Comparison of North American and British Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    1982-01-01

    Finding that British researchers are believed to use qualitative methods while North Americans favor quantitative measurement in adult education enquiry, the author examines substantive research concerns and research publication in the United States, Britain, and Canada and concludes that there is some validity to the stereotype. (Availability:…

  6. Concepts of Infidelity among African American Emerging Adults: Implications for HIV/STI Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyre, Stephen L.; Flythe, Michelle; Hoffman, Valerie; Fraser, Ashley E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used an exploratory methodology to determine what cultural models African American emerging adults use to understand infidelity/cheating. Cultural models are defined as "cognitive schema[s] that [are] intersubjectively shared by a social group" (D'Andrade, 1987, p. 112). We interviewed 144 participants ages 19-22 from three…

  7. American Government. Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.

    This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on American government is divided into fourteen topics. The topics included are: definition of "State"; left to right political spectrum; Dictatorship vs. Democracy; Capitalism, Communism,…

  8. Black Greek-Letter Organizations: A Legacy of African American Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Keiwana O'Neal

    2012-01-01

    The education of African American adults evolved in response to the changing social, economic, and political needs of the Black community. To address these needs, Black Greek-Letter Organizations (BGLOs) created and implemented initiatives at the local, national, and international levels using education as a catalyst to change aspects of African…

  9. "Smoking": Use of Cigarettes, Cigars and Blunts among Southeast Asian American Youth and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, J. P.; Battle, R. S.; Lipton, R.; Soller, B.

    2010-01-01

    Increased use of cigars has been noted among youth, as well as use of blunts (hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana). Three types of relationships have been previously hypothesized between use of tobacco and marijuana in substance use progression. We aimed to assess these relationships for Southeast Asian American youth and adults in an urban…

  10. Literacy and Identity: Reflections of Six African American Males in an Adult Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drayton, Brendaly Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This multiple case study explored how the literate experiences of six African American men influenced their perceptions of and engagement with a community-based adult basic education and literacy (ABEL) program in a large northeastern city. The theoretical framework included a social practices view of literacy and a constructivist view of…

  11. Buffering Effects of a Family-Based Intervention for African American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen; Brown, Anita C.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the buffering effects of Adults in the Making (AIM), a family-centered preventive intervention, on the link between life stress and increases in risk behaviors among 347 rural, southern African Americans as they left high school. Of the families, 174 were assigned to the prevention condition and 173 to a control condition.…

  12. Adult Social Behavioral Effects of Heavy Adolescent Marijuana Use among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kerry M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of heavy adolescent marijuana use on employment, marriage, and family formation and tested both dropping out of high school and adult marijuana use as potential mediators of these associations among a community sample of African Americans followed longitudinally from age 6 to age 32-33. They used propensity …

  13. Physiologic Responses to Racial Rejection Images among Young Adults from African-American Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Carlson, Erika N.; Lawson, Yolanda N.; Shell, J. Clark

    2009-01-01

    Physiologic reactivity to racially rejecting images was assessed in 35 young adults (10 males, 25 female) from African-American backgrounds using the startle probe paradigm. In a laboratory setting, participants viewed 16 images depicting racial rejection, racial acceptance, nonracial negative, and nonracial positive themes. While viewing these…

  14. Engaging in Violence on American Television: A Comparison of Child, Teen, and Adult Perpetrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Barbara J.; Colvin, Carolyn M.; Smith, Stacy L.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the perpetrators of violence on American television in terms of their chronological age. Compares the amount and nature of violence committed by child and teen characters to that committed by adult characters. Suggests that younger perpetrators are depicted in several ways that pose risks for the child viewer. (SG)

  15. Inconsistencies in the Literature on Collegiate Adult Children of Alcoholics: Factors to Consider for African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodney, H. Elaine

    1996-01-01

    Several inconsistencies in literature on adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) were found. This paper emphasizes that clinicians and those developing prevention programs should stop believing that certain characteristics are typical of all ACOAs. It makes recommendations for factors to be considered in programs for African American collegiate…

  16. Health Promoting Behaviors of Older Americans versus Young and Middle Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Craig; Arnold, William

    2004-01-01

    Health promoting behaviors have become increasingly important as Americans attempt to retain their youth and health. This study collected self-reported data from 559 participants in the Southwest United States using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II to compare the health promoting behaviors of older adults (60-92 years), middle-aged adults…

  17. Health Promoting Behaviors of Older Americans Versus Young and Middle Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Craig M.; Arnold, William

    2004-01-01

    Health promoting behaviors have become increasingly important as Americans attempt to retain their youth and health. This study collected self-reported data from 559 participants in the Southwest United States using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II to compare the health promoting behaviors of older adults (60-92 years), middle-aged adults…

  18. The Longitudinal Effect of Drug Use on Productivity Status of Nonmetropolitan African American Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roldós, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the longitudinal effect of marijuana and heavy alcohol use on the productivity status of nonmetropolitan African American young adults. This analysis was based on secondary data from the Family and Community Health Study. For alcohol, the study evaluated the effects on productivity status for…

  19. Profiles of Chronic Illness Knowledge in a Community Sample of American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Todd

    2009-01-01

    The author identified profiles of chronic illness knowledge (i.e., heart disease, cancer, diabetes) in a community sample of American adults and examined the effect of sociodemographic influences on relations of illness knowledge to health practices and well-being. Participants were 181 women and 120 men who completed measures of illness…

  20. Longitudinal precursors of young adult light smoking among African Americans and Puerto Ricans

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Pebbles; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have consistently documented the importance of examining light smoking among African American and Latino adolescent and adult smokers. Little is known, however, about the psychosocial antecedents of adolescent and young adult light smoking in these racial/ethnic minority groups. Methods: This study examined the longitudinal interrelationships and pathways leading to light smoking among African Americans (n = 288) and Puerto Ricans (n = 262). Specifically, we assessed parental factors, perceived discrimination, peer smoking, personality factors, and light smoking in late adolescence as precursors to light smoking among African American and Puerto Rican young adults. Results: The results of structural equation modeling showed that a history of greater parental smoking, less parental educational attainment, and more perceived discrimination were each mediated by peer smoking and the youth's maladaptive personality and behavior in late adolescence. The youth's maladaptive personality and behavioral characteristics and light smoking in late adolescence, in turn, predicted light smoking in young adulthood. There were no significant racial/ethnic or gender differences in the pathways to light smoking. Discussion: Findings highlight the longitudinal pathways to light smoking among African Americans and Puerto Ricans. The results suggest that effective prevention and cessation programs must address peer and parental social influences, perceived discrimination, and especially, emotional and behavioral problems in late adolescence to reduce light smoking among late adolescents and young adults in these racial/ethnic groups. PMID:19251769

  1. Young Adult, Rural, African American Stimulant Users: Antecedents and Vulnerabilities

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Han, Xiaotong; Booth, Brenda M.

    2009-01-01

    Early initiation of substance use appears to be an alarming trend among rural minorities. This study focuses on 18–21 year old African American stimulant users in the Arkansas Mississippi Delta. Most participants had no high school diploma and were unemployed; 74.5% had already been arrested. Substance use was initiated early, and nearly all of the men and three quarters of the women already met criteria for lifetime abuse or dependence. Only 18% reported they had ever received substance abuse treatment. The results suggest that substance use interventions in rural communities will require multi-faceted strategies addressing economic, educational and healthcare disparities. PMID:20098663

  2. Associations between anxiety disorders, suicide ideation, and age in nationally representative samples of Canadian and American adults.

    PubMed

    Raposo, Sarah; El-Gabalawy, Renée; Erickson, Julie; Mackenzie, Corey S; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-12-01

    Suicidal behaviors are of significant concern for the individuals displaying such behavior and for service providers who encounter them. Using nationally representative samples of Canadian and American adults, we aimed to examine: whether age moderates the relationship between having any anxiety disorder and suicide ideation (SI), the prevalence of SI among younger and older adults, and whether age and individual anxiety disorders were differentially associated with SI. Age moderated the relationship between any anxiety disorder and SI among Americans only. Past-year SI was less prevalent among older, compared to younger, adults; though, nearly every anxiety disorder was associated with increased odds of SI among younger and older Canadian and American adults after controlling for covariates. Effect sizes were particularly large for older American adults, but were coupled with large confidence intervals. Findings contribute to a growing literature suggesting that SI in the context of anxiety is a highly prevalent and complex mental health problem across the adult lifespan. PMID:25306089

  3. Role of children in end-of-life treatment planning among Korean American older adults.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eunjeong; Berkman, Cathy S

    2010-01-01

    Three focus groups (n = 23) with Korean American older adults explored the role of culture in end-of-life decision making. No participants had completed an advance directive and few had discussed end-of-life treatment preferences. Focus group themes addressed: (a) whether children are resistant or receptive to discussing their parents' end-of-life treatment preferences; (b) whether the older adults or their children should make decisions about end-of-life treatment; (c) whether decision making should be the responsibility of the eldest son or of all the children; and (d) whether children would implement the parent's preferences for end-of-life treatment. Understanding the role of children in end-of-life decision making among Korean American older adults is important for culturally competent care. PMID:21132598

  4. RELATIONAL SCHEMAS, HOSTILE ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIPS, AND BELIEFS ABOUT MARRIAGE AMONG YOUNG AFRICAN AMERICAN ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Lei, Man Kit; Landor, Antoinette

    2011-01-01

    The present study tests a developmental model designed to explain the romantic relationship difficulties and reluctance to marry often reported for African Americans. Using longitudinal data from a sample of approximately 400 African American young adults, we examine the manner in which race-related adverse experiences during late childhood and early adolescence give rise to the cynical view of romantic partners and marriage held by many young African Americans. Our results indicate that adverse circumstances disproportionately suffered by African American youth (viz., harsh parenting, family instability, discrimination, criminal victimization, and financial hardship) promote distrustful relational schemas that lead to troubled dating relationships, and that these negative relationship experiences, in turn, encourage a less positive view of marriage. PMID:22328799

  5. Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: Gizzard Shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, Kathryn L.; Nelson, Patrick C.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop habitat suitability index models and instream flow suitability curves for the gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  6. Cigarette Smoking Among Urban American Indian Adults - Hennepin and Ramsey Counties, Minnesota, 2011.

    PubMed

    Forster, Jean; Poupart, John; Rhodes, Kristine; Peterson-Hickey, Melanie; Lamont, Genelle; D'Silva, Joanne; Erickson, Darin

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, it was estimated that the prevalence of cigarette smoking among American Indians was 36.5%, the highest of all racial/ethnic groups in the continental United States (1). Among American Indians, considerable cultural and geographic variation in cigarette smoking exists. Smoking prevalence among American Indians is lowest in the Southwest and highest in the Upper Midwest/Northern Plains (2). Little information is available about tobacco use among urban American Indians, who might not have ever lived on a reservation or be enrolled in or affiliated with a tribe. In Minnesota, a significant proportion of American Indians reside in urban areas. Among Minnesota's residents who identify as American Indian alone or in combination with another race, 30% live in Hennepin County and Ramsey County, which encompass Minneapolis and St. Paul, respectively (collectively known as the Twin Cities). The predominant tribes (Ojibwe [Chippewa] and Dakota/Lakota/Nakota [Sioux]) traditionally have used locally grown tobacco (Nicotiana rustica), red willow, and other plants for religious ceremonies, although nonceremonial tobacco is often substituted for traditional plants. To assess prevalence of cigarette smoking among this population, it is important to distinguish ceremonial tobacco use (smoked or used in other ways) from nonceremonial tobacco use. To obtain estimates of cigarette smoking prevalence among American Indians in Hennepin and Ramsey counties, the American Indian Adult Tobacco Survey was administered to 964 American Indian residents in 2011, using respondent-driven sampling. Among all participants, 59% were current smokers, 19% were former smokers, and 22% had never smoked. Approximately 40% of employed participants reported that someone smoked in their workplace area during the preceding week. High prevalences of cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among urban American Indians in Minnesota underscores the need for a comprehensive and culturally

  7. Battle on the Gender Homefront: Depictions of the American Civil War in Contemporary Young-Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapp-Itnyre, Alisa

    2007-01-01

    The American Civil War has been a popular topic for young-adult writers for years, with new books now being written from young women's perspectives. In this paper, I will examine the gender ideologies that infiltrate contemporary Civil War books for young adults. I will examine four recent young-adult Civil-War novels: G. Clifton Wisler's "Mr.…

  8. Patterns of resistance: African American mothers and adult children with HIV illness.

    PubMed

    Boyle, J S; Hodnicki, D R; Ferrell, J A

    1999-01-01

    Although the research on caregiving and caregivers has been extensive, there have been few studies on the cultural context and meaning of African American caregiving in relation to HIV illness. Many Black feminists have argued that African American women experience a world different from those who are not Black and that failure to take account of race, class, and gender is paramount in an attempt to authentically portray the lives of African American women. This study argues that rural African American culture and experiences of racism and discrimination in the rural South shaped the responses of mothers when their adult children developed HIV illness. The study employed the ethnographic techniques of participant observation and in-depth interviews with 14 rural, poor, African American mothers who cared for adult children with HIV illness. Analysis of the data identified patterns of resistance that mothers employed throughout the caregiving experience. Mothers resisted labels and other controlling images that they believed marginalized them and negated what was happening to their children. Mothers used culturally patterned behaviors to protect their families and resist the stigma of HIV/AIDS. PMID:10530083

  9. Education Desegregation and Cognitive Change in African American Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Sims, Regina C.; Allaire, Jason C.; Whitfield, Keith E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The present study examined the relationship between desegregated schooling and cognitive change in a sample of 420 community-dwelling African American elders (mean age = 68.6; SD = 9.1). Method. Participants were recruited for the Baltimore Study of Black Aging—Patterns of Cognitive Aging. Cognitive measures from six domains of function were administered at baseline and follow-up 33 months later. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted; the between subjects factors were schooling type and age cohort, and the within subjects factor was time. Analyses controlled for age, years of education, and sex, and follow-up univariate analyses were used to determine which individual cognitive scores drove the multivariate effects. Results. There were significant multivariate within-group, between-group, and interaction effects (p < .05). Univariate analyses indicated that the desegregated schooling group scored significantly better on Language and Perceptual Speed (p < .01), and the youngest age cohort (50- to 59-year-olds) performed better on measures of Perceptual Speed. There were no significant univariate interactions between schooling group or age cohort and cognitive change over time. Discussion. Overall, these findings suggest a slight advantage of desegregated schooling for cognitive performance, but no advantage of desegregated schooling on the rate of cognitive change over time in this sample. PMID:25361918

  10. Natural mentoring processes deter externalizing problems among rural African American emerging adults: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Steven M; Brody, Gene H; Chen, Yi-Fu

    2011-12-01

    A 3-wave model linking natural mentoring relationships to externalizing behavior was tested with 345 rural African American emerging adults in their final year of high school. Structural equation models were executed linking multi-informant reports of mentor-emerging adult relationship quality with youths' externalizing behavior 18 months later. Consistent with our primary hypotheses, emerging adults whose relationships with their natural mentors were characterized by instrumental and emotional support and affectively positive interactions reported lower levels of anger, rule-breaking behavior, and aggression. These effects emerged independent of the influences of family support and youth gender. Two intrapersonal processes, a future orientation and self-regulation, emerged as mediators of the influence of natural mentoring relationships. The influence of natural mentors was most pronounced for emerging adults experiencing high levels of life stress. PMID:21293917

  11. Personality Assessment Screener, Childhood Abuse, and Adult Partner Violence in African American Women Using Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Porcerelli, John H; Hurrell, Kristen; Cogan, Rosemary; Jeffries, Keturah; Markova, Tsveti

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship between psychopathology with the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) and childhood physical and sexual abuse and adult physical and sexual partner violence in a primary care sample of 98 urban-dwelling African American women. Patients completed the PAS, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The PAS total score significantly correlated with all measures of childhood and adult abuse. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that PAS element scores of Suicidal Thinking and Hostile Control significantly predicted a history of childhood physical abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Hostile Control, and Acting Out significantly predicted a history of childhood sexual abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Negative Affect, and Alienation significantly predicted current adult partner physical violence; and Psychotic Features, Alcohol Problems, and Anger Control significantly predicted current adult sexual partner violence. The PAS appears to be a useful measure for fast-paced primary care settings for identifying patients who need a more thorough assessment for abuse. PMID:26374084

  12. A Comparison of Maternal Attachment between American Adolescent and Adult Mothers of Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Ratchaneewan; Youngblut, JoAnne M.

    2013-01-01

    American adolescent mothers have been viewed as less effective parents than adult mothers. The socioeconomic disadvantages of adolescent mothers should be taken into account. The objectives of this study were to compare maternal attachment between adolescent and adult mothers of preschoolers and to examine changes of adolescents’ maternal attachment over time. A secondary analysis of data from a larger study of maternal employment and low birth weight infant outcomes were used. Data were collected through home visits using structured questionnaires at two different time points. Forty-three pairs of adolescent and adult mothers who could be matched on family structure, maternal race, and child’s gestational status were compared on maternal attachment. The 7-item Attachment subscale of the Parenting Stress Index was used to measure maternal attachment. Results revealed that the adolescent mothers were not less attached to their preschoolers than the adults. This held true when important confounding factors were taken into account using multiple regression. PMID:24860239

  13. Natural Mentoring Processes Deter Externalizing Problems Among Rural African American Emerging Adults: A Prospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu

    2011-01-01

    A 3-wave model linking natural mentoring relationships to externalizing behavior was tested with 345 rural African American emerging adults in their final year of high school. Structural equation models were executed linking multi-informant reports of mentor-emerging adult relationship quality with youths’ externalizing behavior 18 months later. Consistent with our primary hypotheses, emerging adults whose relationships with their natural mentors were characterized by instrumental and emotional support and affectively positive interactions reported lower levels of anger, rule-breaking behavior, and aggression. These effects emerged independent of the influences of family support and youth gender. Two intrapersonal processes, a future orientation and self-regulation, emerged as mediators of the influence of natural mentoring relationships. The influence of natural mentors was most pronounced for emerging adults experiencing high levels of life stress. PMID:21293917

  14. Depression among Asian-American Adults in the Community: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Jun; Park, EunMi; Storr, Carla L.; Tran, Katherine; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In this systematic review, we provide an overview of the literature on depression among Asian-Americans and explore the possible variations in depression prevalence estimates by methodological and demographic factors. Methods Six databases were used to identify studies reporting a prevalence estimate for depression in Asian-American adults in non-clinical settings. Meta-analysis was used to calculate pooled estimates of rates of depression by assessment type. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed for subgroup analyses by gender, age, ethnicity, and other participant characteristics. Results A total of 58 studies met the review criteria (n = 21.731 Asian-American adults). Heterogeneity across the studies was considerably high. The prevalence of major depression assessed via standardized clinical interviews ranged between 4.5% and 11.3%. Meta-analyses revealed comparable estimated prevalence rates of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (35.6%, 95% CI 27.6%–43.7%) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (33.1%, 95% CI 14.9%–51.3%). Estimates varied by Asian racial/ethnic group and other participant characteristics. Estimates of depression among special populations, which included maternity, caregivers, and homosexuals, were significantly higher than estimates obtained from other samples (58.8% vs 29.3%, p = .003). Estimates of depression among Korean and Filipino-Americans were similar (33.3%-34.4%); however, the estimates were twice as high as those for Chinese-Americans (15.7%; p = .012 for Korean, p = .049 for Filipino). Conclusion There appears to be wide variability in the prevalence rates of depression among Asian-Americans in the US. Practitioners and researchers who serve Asian-American adults need to be sensitive to the potential diversity of the expression of depression and treatment-seeking across Asian-American subgroups. Public health policies to increase Asian-American access to mental health care

  15. Health of Elderly Mexican American Adults and Family Caregiver Distress

    PubMed Central

    Rote, Sunshine; Angel, Jacqueline L.; Markides, Kyriakos

    2016-01-01

    Using newly available data on family caregivers from a large epidemiological study of elderly Mexican-origin adults (Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly [HEPESE], 2010/2011), we identify which types of impairment (functional, psychological, and cognitive) in the elderly individual are associated with family caregiver depressive symptoms. Results from ordinary least squares regressions using 626 caregiver–care recipient dyads demonstrate that more severe mobility limitations (Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment), social disability (instrumental activities of daily living), neuropsychiatric disturbances related to cognitive decline (Neuropsychiatric Inventory), and depressive symptoms in the elderly subject are positively associated with caregiver psychological distress. Perceived social stress partially accounts for these associations. We also identify certain segments of this caregiver population that are especially vulnerable to burden when caring for a family member with high levels of impairment, namely female and low-income caregivers. These vulnerabilities should be the focus of intervention efforts to reduce stress and improve the emotional and psychological well-being of Mexican-origin caregivers. PMID:25651573

  16. Anisakis infection in allis shad, Alosa alosa (Linnaeus, 1758), and twaite shad, Alosa fallax (Lacépède, 1803), from Western Iberian Peninsula Rivers: zoonotic and ecological implications.

    PubMed

    Bao, M; Mota, M; Nachón, D J; Antunes, C; Cobo, F; Garci, M E; Pierce, G J; Pascual, S

    2015-06-01

    Spawning individuals of allis shad, Alosa alosa (Linnaeus, 1758), and twaite shad, Alosa fallax (Lacépède, 1803), were sampled from three rivers on the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula (Ulla, Minho, Mondego) during 2008 to 2013 to assess the presence of the zoonotic marine parasite Anisakis spp. larvae. The results revealed that both shad species were infected by third-larval stage Anisakis simplex s.s. and Anisakis pegreffii. The latter is reported in mixed infections in both shad species of Western Iberian Peninsula for the first time. In A. alosa, the prevalence of Anisakis infection can reach 100%, while in A. fallax, prevalence was up to 83%. Infected individuals of the former species also often contain much higher number of parasites in theirs internal organs and flesh: from 1 to 1138 Anisakis spp. larvae as compared to 1 to 121 larvae, respectively. In general, numbers of A. pegreffii were higher than those of A. simplex s.s. Our results suggest that in the marine environment of the Western Iberian Peninsula, both anadromous shad species act as paratenic hosts for A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii, thus widening the distribution of the infective nematode larvae from the marine to the freshwater ecosystem. This finding is of great epidemiological relevance for wildlife managers and consumers, considering the zoonotic and gastroallergic threats posed of these parasites. PMID:25810220

  17. Text Messaging for Sexual Communication and Safety Among African American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Broaddus, Michelle R.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2014-01-01

    African American young adults are at high risk of HIV infection during their lifetimes, and the male condom remains the best method of prevention. Efforts to increase condom use should address the barrier of condom negotiation. We conducted a thematic analysis of qualitative, semi-structured interviews with African American young adults to examine their use of text messaging for requesting Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and condom use within the larger context of general sexual communication using text messages. Text messaging gave participants a level of comfort and disinhibition to discuss sexual topics and negotiate sexual safety. Benefits of text messages included ease of communication, privacy, and increased ability to express condom desires. Difficulties reflected the potential relationship implications of suggesting HIV/STI testing and condom use. Condom negotiation strategies using text messages also mirrored those used found to be used in face-to-face communication. PMID:24045286

  18. Provider Types Utilized and Recency of Mental Health Service Use among African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sha-Lai

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined factors associated with mental health service utilization among African American emerging adults, specifically, when services were used (recency) and the types of providers utilized (mental health/non-mental health). Methods Guided by the Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations, secondary analysis of the National Survey of American Life (2001-2003) was conducted. A nationally representative sample of African American emerging adults, ages 18-29 (n=806), were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. “Evaluated need” was determined by endorsement for one of four DSM-IV diagnosis types (mood, anxiety, substance use, impulse control). Respondents who reported a need for services for emotional/substance use problems were considered to have a “perceived need”. Those who reported voluntary use of mental health/health services to address these problems were considered to have utilized services. Results 25%of the sample utilized services in their lifetime, while 9% utilized services in the past 12 months. Females were more likely than males to utilize services in three of the four service use categories (lifetime, mental health sector, and non-mental health sector).Respondents with an evaluated need for services were 2-12 times more likely to have utilized services compared to those without a need. Conclusions Little is known about why African American emerging adults underutilize mental health services. These findings indicate that being female and having an evaluated need for services were associated with greater odds of service use among this sample. This suggests the need for additional examination of gender differences in service utilization and greater mental health outreach/education among African American males. PMID:24981778

  19. Mental health and substance use disorders among Latino and Asian American lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Susan D; Mays, Vickie M; Alegria, Margarita; Ortega, Alexander N; Takeuchi, David

    2007-10-01

    Growing evidence suggests that lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults may be at elevated risk for mental health and substance use disorders, possibly due to anti-gay stigma. Little of this work has examined putative excess morbidity among ethnic/racial minorities resulting from the experience of multiple sources of discrimination. The authors report findings from the National Latino and Asian American Survey (NLAAS), a national household probability psychiatric survey of 4,488 Latino and Asian American adults. Approximately 4.8% of persons interviewed identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or reported recent same-gender sexual experiences. Although few sexual orientation-related differences were observed, among men, gay/bisexual men were more likely than heterosexual men to report a recent suicide attempt. Among women, lesbian/bisexual women were more likely than heterosexual women to evidence positive 1-year and lifetime histories of depressive disorders. These findings suggest a small elevation in psychiatric morbidity risk among Latino and Asian American individuals with a minority sexual orientation. However, the level of morbidity among sexual orientation minorities in the NLAAS appears similar to or lower than that observed in population-based studies of lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. PMID:17907860

  20. Awareness and Completion of Advance Directives Among Korean American Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dobbs, Debra; Park, Nan Sook; Jang, Yuri; Meng, Hongdao

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing concerns about racial and ethnic disparities in completion rates of advance directives (ADs) among community-dwelling older populations. While differences in AD completion rates in non-Hispanic Whites and African Americans have been reported, not much is known about the awareness and completion of ADs in other groups of ethnic minorities. Using a sample of community-dwelling Korean American older adults (n = 675) as a target, factors associated with their awareness and completion of ADs were explored. Guided by Andersen's behavioral health model, predisposing (age, sex, marital status, and education), need (chronic conditions and functional disability), and enabling variables (health insurance and acculturation) were included in the separate logistic regression models of AD awareness and AD completion. In both models, acculturation was found to be a significant predictor; those who had a higher level of acculturation were more likely to be aware of ADs and to have completed ADs. This study contributes to the knowledge about the role of acculturation in explaining AD awareness and completion among Korean American older adults and provides practice implications for possible AD educational interventions for this older adult minority population. PMID:25803787

  1. Acculturation, Childhood Trauma and the Cortisol Awakening Response in Mexican American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mangold, Deborah; Wand, Gary; Javors, Martin; Mintz, James

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to chronic and traumatic stress has been associated with the dysregulation of crucial stress response systems. Acculturation has been associated with unique forms of chronic psychosocial stress. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exposure to early traumatic stress and acculturation on dysregulation of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in Mexican-American adults. Salivary cortisol samples were collected at awakening and 30, 45, and 60 minutes thereafter, on two consecutive weekdays from 59, healthy Mexican American adult males (26) and females (33), ages 18-38 years. Participants were assessed for level of acculturation and exposure to early trauma. Data were analyzed using a mixed effects regression model with repeated measures at four time points. Mixed effects regression results indicated a significant Early Trauma x Time interaction (p=.0029) and a significant Acculturation x Time interaction (p=.0015), after controlling for age and sex. Subsequent analyses of the interaction of Trauma x Acculturation x Time showed that more than minimal exposure to either risk factor was associated with attenuation of the awakening cortisol response (p=.0002). Higher levels of acculturation with greater Anglo-orientation were associated with attenuation of the CAR in Mexican-American adults. Both moderate and higher levels of exposure to early trauma were associated with an attenuated CAR. However, greater exposure to both risk factors was only incrementally worse than exposure to either one. PMID:20600049

  2. Health status attributes of older African-American adults with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Kenneth C

    2004-06-01

    This article describes a study that examined hearing loss and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) attributes of 71 African-American older adults ranging in age from 60 to 89 years. Demographic profiles were used to obtain pertinent case histories, audiometric testing was used to obtain estimates of peripheral hearing sensitivity, and middle-ear integrity was assessed via tympanometry. The health status (i.e., HRQoL) attributes were determined via self-report scores on the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Results from bivariate analyses determined statistically significant correlations between hearing loss and lower SF-36 scores across subscales. Multivariate regression models revealed a statistically significant impact between hearing loss and lower SF-36 scores across subscales, even after controlling for experimental confounds. These findings suggest that hearing loss is capable of contributing to HRQoL deficits in African-American older adults. The importance of these data in terms of pre-existing attitudes of African-American older adults towards hearing healthcare services and long-term effects of untreated hearing loss are considered. PMID:15233487

  3. Arterial elasticity in American Indian and Caucasian children, adolescents, and young adults.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andrew W; Parker, Donald E

    2011-08-01

    We compared arterial elasticity in American Indian and Caucasian children, adolescents, and young adults, and we assessed whether demographic, body composition, and ambulatory activity measures were predictive of arterial elasticity within each group. Fifty-one American Indians and 66 Caucasians between the ages of 8 and 30 years were assessed on large artery elasticity index, small artery elasticity index, body fat percentage, and daily ambulatory activity during 7 consecutive days. American Indians had a higher percentage of body fat than Caucasians (p = 0.002), whereas daily ambulatory activity measures were similar (p > 0.05). American Indians had a 16% lower large artery elasticity index (p = 0.007) and a 19% lower small artery elasticity index (p < 0.001) than Caucasians. The regression model for large artery elasticity index included average cadence (p = 0.001), fat-free mass (p < 0.001), age component (Caucasian only) (p < 0.001), and sex (p = 0.025). The regression model for small artery elasticity index included fat-free mass (p < 0.001), maximum cadence for 30 continuous minutes (p = 0.009), race (p = 0.005), and average cadence (p = 0.049). Between 8 and 30 years of age, elasticity means for the large and small arteries is lower in American Indians than in Caucasians. A smaller difference was observed in children, with a trend to a much larger difference in young adults. Furthermore, greater fat-free mass and higher daily ambulatory cadence are associated with higher arterial elasticity in both American Indians and Caucasians. PMID:21828174

  4. Clinical Characteristics of Pediatric-Onset and Adult-Onset Multiple Sclerosis in Hispanic Americans.

    PubMed

    Langille, Megan M; Islam, Talat; Burnett, Margaret; Amezcua, Lilyana

    2016-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis can affect pediatric patients. Our aim was to compare characteristics between pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis and adult-onset multiple sclerosis in Hispanic Americans. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 363 Hispanic American multiple scleroses cases; demographic and clinical characteristics were analyzed. A total of 110 Hispanic patients presented with multiple sclerosis before age 18 and 253 as adult multiple sclerosis. The most common presenting symptoms for both was optic neuritis. Polyfocal symptoms, seizures, and cognitive symptoms at presentation were more prevalent in pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (P ≤ .001). Transverse myelitis was more frequent in adult-onset multiple sclerosis (P ≤ .001). Using multivariable analysis, pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (adjusted odds ratio, 0.3OR 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.71, P = .004) and being US born (adjusted odds ratio, 0.553, 95% confidence interval 0.3-1.03, P = .006) were less likely to have severe ambulatory disability. Results suggest that pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis and adult-onset multiple sclerosis in Hispanics have differences that could be important for treatment and prognosis. PMID:27021143

  5. Buffering Effects of a Family-Based Intervention for African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen; Brown, Anita C.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the buffering effects of Adults in the Making (AIM), a family-centered preventive intervention, on the link between life stress and increases in risk behaviors among 347 rural, southern African Americans as they left high school. Of the families, 174 were assigned to the prevention condition and 173 to a control condition. Emerging adults reported risk behaviors at pretest, posttest (7 months after pretest), and long-term follow-up (10 months after posttest). A significant Life stress × Prevention condition interaction emerged: Increases in risk behaviors were significantly greater among emerging adults in the control condition who experienced high stress levels than among those in the prevention condition who experienced equally high stress levels. PMID:20976130

  6. Perceptions of Medical Interactions between Healthcare Providers and American Indian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Garroutte, Eva Marie; Sarkisian, Natalia; Goldberg, Jack; Buchwald, Dedra; Beals, Janette

    2008-01-01

    Cultural competence models assume that culture affects medical encounters, yet little research uses objective measures to examine how this may be true. Do providers and racial/ethnic minority patients interpret the same interactions similarly or differently? How might patterns of provider-patient concordance and discordance vary for patients with different cultural characteristics? We collected survey data from 115 medical visits with American Indian older adults at a clinic operated by the Cherokee Nation (in Northeastern Oklahoma, USA), asking providers and patients to evaluate 9 affective and instrumental interactions. Examining data from the full sample, we found that provider and patient ratings were significantly discordant for all interactions (Wilcoxon test p ≤ .02). However, discordance typically reflected a trend in which providers were more critical of their own behaviors than were patients. These findings suggest that providers serving American Indian patients often create greater satisfaction than they believe. We then distinguished cultural subgroups of patients, comparing magnitude of provider-patient discordance on specific interactions for patients at different levels of American Indian and White American cultural identity. Patients who affiliated strongly with American Indian cultural identity more closely shared providers' reduced evaluation for several variables related to information exchange, as compared to patients who identified weakly. These results flag interactions that providers and their most culturally distinctive patients both experience as challenging. PMID:18524443

  7. Perceptions of medical interactions between healthcare providers and American Indian older adults.

    PubMed

    Garroutte, Eva Marie; Sarkisian, Natalia; Goldberg, Jack; Buchwald, Dedra; Beals, Janette

    2008-08-01

    Cultural competence models assume that culture affects medical encounters, yet little research uses objective measures to examine how this may be true. Do providers and racial/ethnic minority patients interpret the same interactions similarly or differently? How might patterns of provider-patient concordance and discordance vary for patients with different cultural characteristics? We collected survey data from 115 medical visits with American Indian older adults at a clinic operated by the Cherokee Nation (in Northeastern Oklahoma, USA), asking providers and patients to evaluate nine affective and instrumental interactions. Examining data from the full sample, we found that provider and patient ratings were significantly discordant for all interactions (Wilcoxon signed-rank test pAmerican Indian patients often create greater satisfaction than they believe. We then distinguished cultural subgroups of patients, comparing magnitude of provider-patient discordance on specific interactions for patients at different levels of American Indian and White American cultural identity. Patients who affiliated strongly with American Indian cultural identity more closely shared providers' reduced evaluation for several variables related to information exchange, as compared to patients who identified weakly. These results flag interactions that providers and their most culturally distinctive patients both experience as challenging. PMID:18524443

  8. Do the adult criminal careers of African Americans fit the “facts”?

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Elaine Eggleston; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A major gap in the criminal career research is our understanding of offending among African Americans, especially beyond early adulthood. In light of this gap, this study describes the criminal career patterns of a cohort of African American males and females. Methods This paper uses official criminal history data spanning ages 17 to 52 from the Woodlawn Study, a community cohort of 1,242 urban African American males and females. We use basic descriptive statistics as well as group-based modeling to provide a detailed description of the various dimensions of their adult criminal careers. Results We find cumulative prevalence rates similar to those for African Americans from national probability sample estimates, yet participation in offending extends farther into midlife than expected with a substantial proportion of the cohort still engaged in offending into their 30s. Conclusions The descriptive analyses contribute to the larger body of knowledge regarding the relationship between age and crime and the unfolding of the criminal career for African American males and females. The applicability of existing life course and developmental theories is discussed in light of the findings. PMID:25605979

  9. The National Report Card on Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors: The Seventh Annual Survey of Adult Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Environmental Education and Training Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This study investigates environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among adult Americans. Public attitudes as they exist today and how they have changed over the past seven years are evaluated. A nationally representative sample of 2,000 Americans aged 18 and older were surveyed by Roper Starch Worldwide in May, 1998. Part 1 presents…

  10. Correlation between Transformative Learning and Cultural Context: A Case Study of Adult Participants in a Korean American Immigrant Congregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Brian Byung Joo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the nature, process, and facilitating factors of transformative learning experiences of Korean-American adults in a Korean American immigrant congregation (KAIC). The focus was on discovering how and to what extent, if any, the congregational culture of the KAIC as the learning situation played a role in…

  11. Model minority at risk: expressed needs of mental health by Asian American young adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon; Martinez, Genevieve; Hsu, Chiehwen E; Robinson, E Stephanie; Bawa, Julie; Ma, Grace X

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain and discuss in-depth information on mental health problems, including the status, barriers, and potential solutions in 1.5 and 2nd generation Asian American young adults. As a part of the Health Needs Assessment project, the researchers conducted two focus groups with 17 young adults (mainly 1.5 or 2nd generation) from eight Asian American communities (Asian Indian, Cambodian, Chinese, Indonesian, Korean, Taiwanese, Thai, and Vietnamese) in Montgomery County, Maryland. We developed a moderator's guide with open-ended questions and used it to collect qualitative data. Using a software, we organized and identified emergent themes by major categories. Participants reported a several common sources of stress that affect the mental health of Asian American young adults including: pressure to meet parental expectations of high academic achievement and live up to the "model minority" stereotype; difficulty of balancing two different cultures and communicating with parents; family obligations based on the strong family values; and discrimination or isolation due to racial or cultural background. Young Asian Americans tend not to seek professional help for their mental health problems; instead they use personal support networks-close friends, significant others, and religious community. Participants suggested that Asian cultural norms that do not consider mental problems important, and associated stigma of seeking professional care might undermine their mental health help seeking behavior. Our findings support a need for delivering culturally appropriate programs to raise awareness of mental health and cultural training for health providers to deliver culturally appropriate care. PMID:18931893

  12. A Periodization of North American Adult Education (1919-1970): A Critical Sociological Analysis of Trends and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, André P.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a critical sociological analysis of trends and perspectives pervasive during the emergence of North American adult education (1919-1970). In discussing transitions during the first 50 years of what is considered modern practice, it draws on Webster E. Cotton's (1986, "On Behalf of Adult Education: A Historical…

  13. The Decline of Social Education and the Rise of Instrumentalism in North American Adult Education (1947-1970)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Andre P.

    2012-01-01

    In 1947 the Truman Commission on Higher Education accentuated the importance of adult education in its report entitled "Higher Education for American Democracy". In 1970 a new US "Handbook of Adult Education" signifying the move to a more professionalised field of study and practice was published. The intervening years encapsulate a time of…

  14. Educating Out and Giving Back: Adults' Conceptions of Successful Outcomes of African American High School Students from Impoverished Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Dadisman, Kimberly; Latendresse, Shawn J.; Thompson, Jana; Irvin, Matthew J.; Zhang, Lei

    2006-01-01

    This study examined community adults' conceptions of successful early adult outcomes for rural African American adolescents from 2 low-resource communities in the Deep South. Focus groups were conducted with parents, teachers, and community leaders. Parents also completed semistructured phone interviews. The focus groups identified 2 general types…

  15. African American parents' racial and emotion socialization profiles and young adults' emotional adaptation.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Angel S; Perry, Nicole B; Cavanaugh, Alyson M; Leerkes, Esther M

    2015-07-01

    The current study aimed to identify parents' profiles of racial and emotion socialization practices, to determine if these profiles vary as a function of family income and young adult child gender, and to examine their links with young adults' emotional adaptation. Participants included 192 African American young adults (70% women) who ranged in age from 18 to 24 years (M = 19.44 years). Four maternal profiles emerged: cultural-supportive (high cultural socialization and supportive responses to children's negative emotions), moderate bias preparation (moderate preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses to negative emotions), high bias preparation (high preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses), and low engaged (low across racial and socialization constructs). Three paternal profiles emerged: multifaceted (moderate across racial and emotion socialization constructs), high bias preparation, and low engaged. Men were more likely to have mothers in the high bias preparation and to have fathers in the multifaceted or high bias preparation profiles. Individuals with higher income were more likely to have mothers in the cultural-supportive profile and to have fathers in the multifaceted profile. Young adults whose mothers fit the cultural-supportive profile or the moderate bias preparation profile had lower levels of depressive symptoms than young adults whose mothers fit the high bias preparation profile. PMID:25090149

  16. Function in context: Why American and Trinidadian young and older adults remember the personal past

    PubMed Central

    Bluck, Susan; Ali, Sideeka

    2014-01-01

    Multiple and interacting contextual (culture, life phase) and person-specific predictors (i.e., personality, tendency to think-talk about the past) of the functions of autobiographical memory were examined using the Thinking about Life Experiences scale. American (N = 174) and Trinidadian (N = 182) young and older adults self-reported how frequently they remembered the personal past to serve self, social, and directive functions, how often they thought and talked about their past overall, and completed a measure of trait personality. Independent contextual and person-specific predictors were found for using memory to serve a social-bonding function: Americans, young adults, those higher in extraversion, lower in conscientiousness, and individuals who frequently think and talk about the past more often use autobiographical memory for social-bonding. Across cultures, younger adults report more frequently using memory to serve all three functions, whereas Trinidadians who think more often about the past compared with those who reflect less often, are more likely to use it for self and directive functions. Findings are discussed in terms of the individual’s embeddedness in cultural and life phase contexts when remembering. PMID:24992649

  17. Evaluation of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program with low-income, urban, African American older adults.

    PubMed

    Rose, Molly A; Arenson, Christine; Harrod, Pamela; Salkey, Robyn; Santana, Abbie; Diamond, James

    2008-01-01

    A 1-group pretest-posttest design to assess for changes in outcomes at 10 weeks and 6 months was the method used to evaluate the standardized 6-session Chronic Disease Self Management Program (CDSMP) with low income, urban African American older adults. Participants included 153 older adults (primarily African American) with 1 or more chronic health conditions. Classes were provided in the community at senior citizen centers, senior housing, and churches. Significant improvements were noted in selected areas at 10 weeks and 6 months after the program completion. The CDSMP was feasible and well-received with the older adults who participated in the study. PMID:18979330

  18. Knowledge Gaps in Cardiovascular Care of the Older Adult Population: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Geriatrics Society.

    PubMed

    Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L

    2016-05-24

    The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults ≥75 years of age; however, despite the large impact of cardiovascular disease on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, patients aged ≥75 years have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older patients with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in a nursing home or assisted living facility. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older patients typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a detailed review of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and American Stroke Association guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older patients. We found that there is a pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision making in older patients with cardiovascular disease, as well as a paucity of data on the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on key outcomes that are particularly important to older patients, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older patients representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older patients in the study design. The

  19. Knowledge Gaps in Cardiovascular Care of the Older Adult Population: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Geriatrics Society.

    PubMed

    Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L

    2016-05-24

    The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults ≥75 years of age; however, despite the large impact of cardiovascular disease on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, patients aged ≥75 years have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older patients with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in a nursing home or assisted living facility. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older patients typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a detailed review of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and American Stroke Association guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older patients. We found that there is a pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision making in older patients with cardiovascular disease, as well as a paucity of data on the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on key outcomes that are particularly important to older patients, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older patients representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older patients in the study design. The

  20. Ethnic Drinking Cultures and Alcohol Use among Asian American Adults: Findings from a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim; Mulia, Nina; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the influence of ethnic drinking cultures on alcohol use by Asian Americans and how this influence may be moderated by their level of integration into Asian ethnic cultures. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 952 Asian American adults extracted from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions data was used. Multiple logistic and linear regression models were fitted, some of which were stratified by nativity. Results: Controlling for financial stress, discrimination and demographic variables, a hypothesized, positive relationship between ethnic drinking cultures and alcohol outcomes held for most drinking outcomes. A hypothesis on the moderating effect of integration into ethnic cultures indicated by ethnic language use was supported for US-born Asian Americans. Conclusion: Ethnic drinking cultures may significantly influence alcohol use by Asian Americans. The influence of ethnic drinking cultures may be conditioned by the degree of integration into the ethnic cultures. To inform alcohol interventions for reducing harmful and hazardous alcohol use among immigrants, future research needs to explore the cultural and social processes occurring in immigrant communities that might significantly influence drinking. PMID:22378829

  1. Prevalence of hypertension in a sample of Black American adults using JNC 7 classifications.

    PubMed

    Brown, Debra J; Metiko, Esther B

    2005-12-01

    High blood pressure is a major health problem, particularly among Black Americans, and many Black Americans are unaware that they have the disease. In 2003, new guidelines (JNC 7) were created for classifying blood pressure including a category designated as "pre-hypertension." We examined the prevalence of hypertension based on JNC 7 guidelines in Black Americans from the study of Everyday Life for Black American Adults: Stress, Emotional and Cardiovascular Responses. In this study, 211 (N = 211) participants had no history of hypertension and were not taking anti-hypertensive medications. Demographic factors were also explored in relationship to the JNC 7 classifications. Using JNC 7, only 28.9% of the participants had normal blood pressures. Of those with abnormal blood pressures, 37.8% were pre-hypertensive. Surprisingly, there was a high prevalence of hypertension, which might be explained by a lack of awareness of their disease status, lack of desire to acknowledge it, or fear of having a disease. The pre-hypertension category allows for earlier identification of those at risk for developing hypertension so that early interventions can deter its debilitating effects. PMID:16570640

  2. A cascade model connecting life stress to risk behavior among rural African American emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Brody, Gene H; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M

    2010-08-01

    A three-wave cascade model linking life stress to increases in risk behavior was tested with 347 African American emerging adults living in the rural South. Data analyses using structural equation modeling and latent growth curve modeling demonstrated that life stress was linked to increases in risk behavior as African Americans transitioned out of secondary school. The cascade model indicated that life stress fostered increases in negative emotions. Negative emotions, in turn, were linked to increases in affiliations with deviant peers and romantic partners; this forecast increases in risk behavior. The findings supported a stress proliferation framework, in which primary stressors affect increases in secondary stressors that carry forward to influence changes in risk behaviors that can potentially compromise mental health. PMID:20576186

  3. A comparison of diets of blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis) and threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense) in a large southeastern U.S. Reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winkelman, D.L.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine dietary overlap between blueback herring and threadfin shad in J. Strom Thrumond Reservoir, South Carolina/Georgia. We also evaluated prey selectivity for each speices and diet differences between two size categories of blueback herring. Diet and zooplankton samples were collected every other month from April 1992 to February 1994. We examined stomachs containing prey from 170 large blueback herring (>140mm), 96 small blueback herring (<140mm), and 109 threadfin shad, and we also examined 45 zooplankton samples. Large blueback herring diets differed significantly from threadfin shad diets on 11 of 12 sampling dates, and small blueback herring diets differed from threadfin shad diets on all sampling dates. In general, blueback herring consumed proportionally more copepods and fewer Bosmina sp. and rotifers than threadfin shad. Large and small blueback herring diets were significantly different on five of eight sampling dates, primarily due to the tendency of small blueback herring to eat proportionally more Bosmina sp. than large blueback herring. Both blueback herring and threadfin shad fed selectively during some periods of the year. Diet differences between the species may contribute to their coexistence; however, both blueback herring and threadfin shad showed a strong preference for Bosmina sp., increasing the chance that they may negatively influence one another.

  4. Effects of Ethnically Diverse Photographic Stimuli on Preference and Discourse Tasks in African American and Caucasian American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Dagenais, Paul A.; Evans, Kelli J.; Camp, Travis J.; Ferguson, Neina N.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether using photographic stimuli displaying different ethnicity (African American vs. Caucasian American) influenced preference, word count, and number of content units produced by African American or Caucasian American participants. Six photograph pairs depicting common scenes were developed, differing only by model…

  5. Racial identification, racial discrimination, and substance use vulnerability among African American young adults.

    PubMed

    Stock, Michelle L; Gibbons, Frederick X; Walsh, Laura A; Gerrard, Meg

    2011-10-01

    Two studies examined racial identity (RI) as a protective factor against substance use cognitions among African American young adults who either envisioned or experienced racial discrimination. In Study 1, participants envisioned a discrimination or nondiscrimination scenario, and then their willingness to use drugs and an indirect measure of substance use were assessed. Discrimination was associated with higher levels of use cognitions among participants with low levels of RI. In Study 2, participants were excluded or included in an online game (Cyberball) by White peers and then engaged in an RI-affirmation or control writing task. Participants attributed this exclusion to racial discrimination. Excluded participants who did not affirm their RI reported the highest levels of substance use cognitions, especially if they had engaged in higher levels of previous substance use. These findings highlight the importance of RI among Black young adults and the impact of discrimination on health behaviors. PMID:21628598

  6. Racial Identification, Racial Discrimination, and Substance Use Vulnerability Among African American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Michelle L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Walsh, Laura A.; Gerrard, Meg

    2016-01-01

    Two studies examined racial identity (RI) as a protective factor against substance use cognitions among African American young adults who either envisioned or experienced racial discrimination. In Study 1, participants envisioned a discrimination or nondiscrimination scenario, and then their willingness to use drugs and an indirect measure of substance use were assessed. Discrimination was associated with higher levels of use cognitions among participants with low levels of RI. In Study 2, participants were excluded or included in an online game (Cyberball) by White peers and then engaged in an RI-affirmation or control writing task. Participants attributed this exclusion to racial discrimination. Excluded participants who did not affirm their RI reported the highest levels of substance use cognitions, especially if they had engaged in higher levels of previous substance use. These findings highlight the importance of RI among Black young adults and the impact of discrimination on health behaviors. PMID:21628598

  7. Population structure of the Korean gizzard shad, Konosirus punctatus (Clupeiformes, Clupeidae) using multivariate morphometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myoung, Se Hun; Kim, Jin-Koo

    2016-03-01

    The gizzard shad, Konosirus punctatus, is one of the most important fish species in Korea, China, Japan and Taiwan, and therefore the implementation of an appropriate population structure analysis is both necessary and fitting. In order to clarify the current distribution range for the two lineages of the Korean gizzard shad (Myoung and Kim 2014), we conducted a multivariate morphometric analysis by locality and lineage. We analyzed 17 morphometric and 5 meristic characters of 173 individuals, which were sampled from eight localities in the East Sea, the Yellow Sea and the Korean Strait. Unlike population genetics studies, the canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) results showed that the two morphotypes were clearly segregated by the center value "0" of CAN1, of which morphotype A occurred from the Yellow Sea to the western Korean Strait with negative values, and morphotype B occurred from the East Sea to the eastern Korean Strait with positive values even though there exists an admixture zone in the eastern Korean Strait. Further studies using more sensitive markers such as microsatellite DNA are required in order to define the true relationship between the two lineages.

  8. A Tire-Sulfur Hybrid Adsorption Denitrification (T-SHAD) process for decentralized wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Krayzelova, Lucie; Lynn, Thomas J; Banihani, Qais; Bartacek, Jan; Jenicek, Pavel; Ergas, Sarina J

    2014-09-15

    Nitrogen discharges from decentralized wastewater treatment (DWT) systems contribute to surface and groundwater contamination. However, the high variability in loading rates, long idle periods and lack of regular maintenance presents a challenge for biological nitrogen removal in DWT. A Tire-Sulfur Hybrid Adsorption Denitrification (T-SHAD) process was developed that combines nitrate (NO3(-)) adsorption to scrap tire chips with sulfur-oxidizing denitrification. This allows the tire chips to adsorb NO3(-) when the influent loading exceeds the denitrification capacity of the biofilm and release it when NO3(-) loading rates are low (e.g. at night). Three waste products, scrap tire chips, elemental sulfur pellets and crushed oyster shells, were used as a medium in adsorption, leaching, microcosm and up-flow packed bed bioreactor studies of NO3(-) removal from synthetic nitrified DWT wastewater. Adsorption isotherms showed that scrap tire chips have an adsorption capacity of 0.66 g NO3(-)-N kg(-1) of scrap tires. Leaching and microcosm studies showed that scrap tires leach bioavailable organic carbon that can support mixotrophic metabolism, resulting in lower effluent SO4(2-) concentrations than sulfur oxidizing denitrification alone. In column studies, the T-SHAD process achieved high NO3(-)-N removal efficiencies under steady state (90%), variable flow (89%) and variable concentration (94%) conditions. PMID:24922353

  9. Effect of temperature and zooplankton abundance on growth and survival of larval threadfin shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Betsill, R.K.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    As a test of the match-mismatch hypothesis, we examined the effects of prey availability and water temperature on growth and survival of weekly cohorts of larval threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense in J. Strom Thurmond Reservoir, Georgia-South Carolina. Hatching dates were estimated from otolith increments, and availability of prey was estimated from the abundance of zooplankton size-classes commonly eaten by larval threadfin shad. Growth rates of 31 cohorts ranged from 0.39 to 0.78 mm/d, demonstrating the potential for stage-duration effects on cohort survival. Daily growth rate was related to water temperature and prey availability for larvae up to 21 d old. Growth increased linearly with water temperature up to 28??C, but the relation between growth and prey availability was more complex. Growth rate increased with prey density up to 160-290 organisms/L; at higher densities, growth rate decreased or was unchanged. Cohort survival ranged from 0.65 to 0.96 (per millimeter increase in length) and was significantly correlated with water temperature and growth rate but not with prey availability.

  10. American Geriatrics Society 2015 Updated Beers Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The 2015 American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Beers Criteria are presented. Like the 2012 AGS Beers Criteria, they include lists of potentially inappropriate medications to be avoided in older adults. New to the criteria are lists of select drugs that should be avoided or have their dose adjusted based on the individual's kidney function and select drug-drug interactions documented to be associated with harms in older adults. The specific aim was to have a 13-member interdisciplinary panel of experts in geriatric care and pharmacotherapy update the 2012 AGS Beers Criteria using a modified Delphi method to systematically review and grade the evidence and reach a consensus on each existing and new criterion. The process followed an evidence-based approach using Institute of Medicine standards. The 2015 AGS Beers Criteria are applicable to all older adults with the exclusion of those in palliative and hospice care. Careful application of the criteria by health professionals, consumers, payors, and health systems should lead to closer monitoring of drug use in older adults. PMID:26446832

  11. Adult education as a human right: The Latin American context and the ecopedagogic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, Moacir

    2011-08-01

    This article presents the concept and practice of adult education as a key issue for Brazil and other Latin American countries, both for formal and non-formal education in the public and private sectors. It includes citizen education focused on democratisation of society and sustainable development. The concept is pluralist and ideological as well as technical. All along the history of contemporary education it is essential to highlight the importance of the CONFINTEA conferences for the construction of an expanded vision of this concept. Adult education is understood as a human right. The right to education does not end when a person has reached the so-called "proper" age; it continues to be a right for the duration of everyone's entire life. This article explores Paulo Freire's contribution, particularly the methodology of MOVA (Youth and Adult Literacy Movement). It also presents the ecopedagogic perspective, which was inspired by Paulo Freire's legacy. Finally, this article stresses the need to support a long-term policy for adult education, following the recommendations of the Civil Society International Forum (FISC) and CONFINTEA VI, both held in Belém, Brazil, in 2009.

  12. Association Between Adolescent Drinking and Adult Violence: Evidence From a Longitudinal Study of Urban African Americans*

    PubMed Central

    Green, Kerry M.; Doherty, Elaine E.; Zebrak, Katarzyna A.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between adolescent alcohol use and adult violence from a developmental perspective, specifically whether frequent adolescent drinking predicts adult violence once shared risk factors are taken into account through propensity score matching. The research considered multiple types of violence, including assault, robbery, and suicidal behavior, as well as other types of offending. It tested whether educational attainment and adult alcohol use and problems contribute to the adolescent drinking–adult violence relationship. Method: Data came from a longitudinal epidemiological study of a community cohort of urban African Americans followed from age 6 to 42 (N = 702; 51% female). Frequent adolescent drinking was operationalized as 20 times or more by age 16. Data on violent arrests and offenses were collected throughout adulthood from self-reports and official criminal records. Matching variables came from childhood and adolescence and included such shared risk factors as childhood externalizing behaviors, school achievement, and family functioning. Results: Adjusted logistic regression analyses on the sample matched on childhood and adolescent risk factors showed that frequent adolescent drinking was associated with an increased risk of violence in young adulthood (in particular assault) but not with other types of crime, self-directed violence, or violence in midlife. Findings varied by gender. Heavy episodic drinking in adulthood seemed to account for some of the association between frequent adolescent drinking and adult assault. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that preventing frequent adolescent drinking could potentially decrease adult assault. This study adds to the growing body of literature suggesting long-term negative consequences of adolescent alcohol use. PMID:21906497

  13. Every Voice Counts... Proceedings [of] the Annual African American and Latino/a American Adult Education Research Symposium (10th, Chicago, Illinois, April 21, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garth, Phyllis Ham, Ed.

    This symposium publication consists of 26 presentations. Papers are "'How to Eat an Oreo': Using African American Research through Personal Narrative To Analyze Ethnic Dysmorphic Phenomenon" (Ashford); "Authentic Members: Uncovering Adult Children" (Barnes); "What Good Is Government? Assessment of Government Official Impact on Black Businesses"…

  14. 78 FR 57611 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Alabama Shad as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... In 1997, we added Alabama shad to our Candidate Species List (62 FR 37562; July 14, 1997). At that... (49 FR 38900; October 1, 1984). In 2004, we created the Species of Concern list (69 FR 19975; April 15... published a negative 90-day finding in the Federal Register (76 FR 9320) stating that the petition did...

  15. 76 FR 9320 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Alabama Shad as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ...: Background In 1997, we added Alabama shad to our Candidate Species List (62 FR 37562; July 14, 1997). At that... (49 FR 38900; October 1, 1984). In 2004, we created the Species of Concern list (69 FR 19975; April 15..., delisting, and reclassifying a species under the ESA (61 FR 4722; February 7, 1996). A species,...

  16. Prediction of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Disadvantaged African American Adults Using a Syndemic Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Nehl, Eric J; Klein, Hugh; Sterk, Claire E; Elifson, Kirk W

    2016-02-01

    The focus of this paper is on HIV sexual risk taking among a community-based sample of disadvantaged African American adults. The objective is to examine multiple factors associated with sexual HIV risk behaviors within a syndemic conceptual framework. Face-to-face, computer-assisted, structured interviews were conducted with 1535 individuals in Atlanta, Georgia. Bivariate analyses indicated a high level of relationships among the HIV sexual risks and other factors. Results from multivariate models indicated that gender, sexual orientation, relationship status, self-esteem, condom use self-efficacy, sex while the respondent was high, and sex while the partner was high were significant predictors of condomless sex. Additionally, a multivariate additive model of risk behaviors indicated that the number of health risks significantly increased the risk of condomless sex. This intersection of HIV sexual risk behaviors and their associations with various other behavioral, socio-demographic, and psychological functioning factors help explain HIV risk-taking among this sample of African American adults and highlights the need for research and practice that accounts for multiple health behaviors and problems. PMID:26188618

  17. Disability and Health: Exploring the Disablement Experience of Young Adult African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Tracie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to examine disablement as experienced by young adult African American men and women with permanent mobility impairment. Methods This study included a sample of 5 male and 5 female participants ranging in age from 22 to 39. An exploratory descriptive design and qualitative methods, including interviews and fieldnotes, were used. Interview data was analyzed using the process of inductive qualitative content analysis. Results Basic desires for independence, shared intimacy, and psychological and physical health were not diminished by physical limitations. The disablement experience of this group is reflected in the themes of “Cumulative Losses” and “Sustained Desires.” The findings of this study describe the high level of motivation that young adult African American men and women with disabilities have to improve levels of health and well-being within the context of their impairments. Conclusion This study provides a better understanding of the contextual factors and experiences that may contribute to the development of further disability and subsequent health-related problems over time. Increased knowledge of the disablement experience of these young men and women may assist health care entities and social service providers in improving health care and rehabilitation efforts targeting this group. PMID:23745770

  18. Examining the psychometric validity of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R) in a community sample of African American and European American adults.

    PubMed

    Chakawa, Ayanda; Butler, Robert C; Shapiro, Steven K

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R), focusing on a sample drawn from a geographic region in the United States that has not been included in previously published research on the MEIM-R. Data were obtained from a community-based sample of 105 African American (AA) and 91 European American (EA) adults located in the state of Alabama. The MEIM-R was best represented by two constructs-exploration and commitment. AA adults reported higher levels of racial/ethnic identity exploration and commitment than EA adults. Differential item functioning was found among 1 of the exploration items. The current study provides additional support for the structural validity of the MEIM-R. Further research on the invariance of responses to the MEIM-R across a variety of sociodemographic factors is still necessary. PMID:25642783

  19. The stories we keep: autobiographical memory in American and Chinese middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Conway, Martin A

    2004-10-01

    One hundred and eight European American and Chinese adults, aged between 38 and 60, participated in this questionnaire study. They each recalled 20 memories from any period of their lives. Memory content was analyzed as a function of culture (U.S. and China), life period (childhood, youth, early midlife, and peak midlife), and gender (female and male). Across the four life periods, Americans provided more memories of individual experiences and unique, one-time events and focused on their own roles and emotions. In contrast, Chinese were more inclined to recall memories of social and historical events and placed a great emphasis on social interactions and significant others in their memory narratives. Chinese also more frequently drew upon past events to convey moral messages than did Americans. In addition, memory content evidenced age-related increases in both autonomous and social orientations. Findings are discussed in light of the self-definitional and directive functions of Autobiographical memory in the context of culture. PMID:15335332

  20. Genetic and Environmental Predictors of Alcohol Use in Asian American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bujarski, Spencer; Lau, Anna S.; Lee, Steve S.; Ray, Lara A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Among Asian American young adults, variations in alcohol-metabolizing genes (i.e., aldehyde dehydrogenase [ALDH2] and alcohol dehydrogenase [ADH1B]) are protective, whereas Korean ethnicity, family history of alcohol problems (FH), and acculturation represent risk factors for alcohol misuse. This study aims to integrate these genetic and environmental factors in a sample of Asian Americans expressing a wide range of alcohol use behaviors and problems. Method: Participants were 97 Asian American young adults (42% female) recruited as heavy and light drinkers (n = 49 and 48, respectively). Participants completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Timeline Followback, Vancouver Acculturation Index, and Family Tree Questionnaire. All participants provided buccal cell samples for DNA analysis. Results: Family history–positive (FH+) subjects reported greater alcohol use than family history–negative (FH–) subjects. A FH × ALDH2 interaction was observed such that FH– subjects demonstrated no ALDH2 effect, yet in FH+ subjects, the ALDH2*2 genotype was associated with increased alcohol use. A significant main effect of acculturation was also moderated by FH such that the positive association between acculturation and alcohol use was greater among FH+ subjects and, in particular, among FH+ men. Conclusions: Although preliminary, these results suggest that the potential protective effects conferred by ALDH2 and ADH1B are moderated by FH, such that a positive FH appeared to abolish the protective effect of these genes. Further, acculturation was associated with greater alcohol use in FH+ subjects only. If replicated in larger samples, these data suggest that alcohol-metabolism genes may not be protective in the context of high environmental risk. PMID:26402349

  1. Pro-drinking messages and message environments for young adults: the case of alcohol industry advertising in African American, Latino, and Native American communities.

    PubMed

    Alaniz, M L; Wilkes, C

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines targeted alcohol advertising in three ethnic communities: African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans in the U.S. We focus on the appropriation of cultural systems and the reinvention of them as commodities to consumers. We outline the specific strategies used in each ethnic community. For African Americans, there is an emphasis on selling malt liquor to young adults through the use of "power" and gang-related images. For Latinos, there is an appropriation of historical and cultural symbols such as the national flags and maps of Mexico and Central America. Native Americans have coalesced to keep the image of a chief and warrior, Crazy Horse, from being used to market malt liquor. Each of the ethnic groups is engaged in action to prevent alcohol-related problems in their communities. Generating and implementing solutions is a universal social responsibility. PMID:9922620

  2. Puppy Temperament Assessments Predict Breed and American Kennel Club Group but Not Adult Temperament.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Lauren M; Skiver Thompson, Rebekah; Ha, James C

    2016-01-01

    Puppy assessments for companion dogs have shown mixed long-term reliability. Temperament is cited among the reasons for surrendering dogs to shelters. A puppy temperament test that reliably predicts adult behavior is one potential way to lower the number of dogs given to shelters. This study used a longitudinal design to assess temperament in puppies from 8 different breeds at 7 weeks old (n = 52) and 6 years old (n = 34) using modified temperament tests, physiological measures, and a follow-up questionnaire. For 7-week-old puppies, results revealed (a) puppy breed was predictable using 3 variables, (b) 4 American Kennel Club breed groups had some validity based on temperament, (c) temperament was variable within litters of puppies, and (d) certain measures of temperament were related to physiological measures (heart rate). Finally, puppy temperament assessments were reliable in predicting the scores of 2 of the 8 adult dog temperament measures. However, overall, the puppy temperament scores were unreliable in predicting adult temperament. PMID:26882034

  3. The relationship between collective self-esteem, acculturation, and alcohol-related consequences among Asian American young adults.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Hsu, Sharon Hsin; Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M; Larimer, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relationship between collective self-esteem (i.e., the value one places on being part of a collective group), acculturation, and alcohol-related consequences in a sample of 442 Asian American young adults. We found that membership self-esteem and public collective self-esteem interacted with acculturation such that low levels of both predicted greater rates of consequences. Participants with lower acculturation and greater private collective self-esteem experienced more alcohol consequences. This study suggests that differential aspects of collective self-esteem may serve as protective or risk factors for Asian American young adults depending on degree of acculturation. PMID:23480211

  4. The Relationship Between Collective Self-Esteem, Acculturation, and Alcohol-Related Consequences Among Asian American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    PEDERSEN, ERIC R.; HSU, SHARON HSIN; NEIGHBORS, CLAYTON; LEE, CHRISTINE M.; LARIMER, MARY E.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the relationship between collective self-esteem (i.e., the value one places on being part of a collective group), acculturation, and alcohol-related consequences in a sample of 442 Asian American young adults. We found that membership self-esteem and public collective self-esteem interacted with acculturation such that low levels of both predicted greater rates of consequences. Participants with lower acculturation and greater private collective self-esteem experienced more alcohol consequences. This study suggests that differential aspects of collective self-esteem may serve as protective or risk factors for Asian American young adults depending on degree of acculturation. PMID:23480211

  5. Commission for International Adult Education (CIAE) of the American Association for Adult and Continuing Education (AAACE). Proceedings of the 2013 International Pre-Conference (Lexington, Kentucky, November 3-5, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission for International Adult Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Commission on International Adult Education (CIAE) of the American Association for Adult and Continuing Education (AAACE) provides a forum for the discussion of international issues related to adult education in general, as well as adult education in various countries around the globe. The following purposes summarize the work of the…

  6. Secular Changes in Prediabetes Indicators Among Older-Adult Americans, 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Caspersen, Carl J.; Thomas, G. Darlene; Beckles, Gloria L.A.; Bullard, Kai McKeever

    2015-01-01

    Background Sex-specific prediabetes estimates are not available for older-adult Americans. Purpose To estimate prediabetes prevalence, using nationally representative data, in civilian, non-institutionalized, older U.S. adults. Methods Data from 7,995 participants aged ≥50 years from the 1999–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed in 2013. Prediabetes was defined as hemoglobin A1c=5.7%–6.4% (39–47 mmol/mol [HbA1c5.7]), fasting plasma glucose of 100–125 mg/dL (impaired fasting glucose [IFG]), or both. Crude and age-adjusted prevalences for prediabetes, HbA1c5.7, and IFG by sex and three age groups were calculated, with additional adjustment for sex, age, race/ethnicity, poverty status, education, living alone, and BMI. Results From 1999 to 2005 and 2006 to 2010, prediabetes increased for adults aged 50–64 years (38.5% [95% CI=35.3, 41.8] to 45.9% [42.3, 49.5], p=0.003) and 65–74 years (41.3% [37.2, 45.5] to 47.9% [44.5, 51.3]; p=0.016), but not significantly for adults aged ≥75 years (45.1% [95% CI=41.1, 49.1] to 48.9% [95% CI=45.2, 52.6]; p>0.05). Prediabetes increased significantly for women in the two youngest age groups, and HbA1c5.7 for both sexes (except men aged ≥75 years), but IFG remained stable for both sexes. Men had higher prevalences than women for prediabetes and IFG among adults aged 50–64 years, and for IFG among adults aged ≥75 years. Across demographic subgroups, adjusted prevalence gains for both sexes were similar and most pronounced for HbA1c5.7, virtually absent for IFG, but greater for women than men for prediabetes. Conclusions Given the large, growing prediabetes prevalence and its anticipated burden, older adults, especially women, are likely intervention targets. PMID:25601724

  7. Prevalence of adult domestic violence among women seeking routine care in a Native American health care facility.

    PubMed Central

    Fairchild, D G; Fairchild, M W; Stoner, S

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and sociodemographic factors associated with, adult domestic violence within a Native American community. METHODS: Adult women in the community were surveyed. RESULTS: Of 371 eligible women, 341 (92%) were surveyed. Among respondents, 179 reported a history of at least 1 episode of domestic violence. Fifty-six (16.4%) reported violence within the previous 12 months. Age under 40 years and living in a household receiving governmental financial assistance were independently associated with 1-year prevalence of adult domestic violence. CONCLUSIONS: Adult domestic violence is prevalent within this Native American community. Additional research is required to characterize further the relationship between domestic violence and socioeconomic status. PMID:9772854

  8. Foraging proficiency during the nonbreeding season of a specialized forager: are juvenile American Oystercatchers "bumble-beaks" compared to adults?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hand, Christine E.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Jodice, Patrick G.

    2010-01-01

    In many species, immature individuals are less proficient at foraging than are adults, and this difference may be especially critical during winter when survival can be at its minimum. We investigated the foraging proficiency of adult and immature American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) during the nonbreeding season. Oystercatchers forage on prey that must be handled with specialized skills, so age-related differences in foraging behavior may be expected. We found that adults spent more time searching than did immatures, a trend toward immatures taking longer to handle prey than did adults, and immatures more often handling prey unsuccessfully than did adults. Feeding rates and diet composition did not differ by age class. We posit that the immature birds traded off longer handling times with shorter searching times and that ultimately the abundant prey in the region may contribute to the ability of immature birds to feed at rates similar to those of adults.

  9. Population genetic structure of Indian shad, Tenualosa ilisha inferred from variation in mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Behera, B K; Singh, N S; Paria, P; Sahoo, A K; Panda, D; Meena, D K; Das, P; Pakrashi, S; Biswas, D K; Sharma, A P

    2015-09-01

    Indian shad, Tenualosa ilisha, is a commercially important anadromous fish representing major catch in Indo-pacific region. The present study evaluated partial Cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene sequence of mtDNA in T. ilisha for determining genetic variation from Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea origins. The genomic DNA extracted from T. ilisha samples representing two distant rivers in the Indian subcontinent, the Bhagirathi (lower stretch of Ganges) and the Tapi was analyzed. Sequencing of 307 bp mtDNA Cytochrome b gene fragment revealed the presence of 5 haplotypes, with high haplotype diversity (Hd) of 0.9048 with variance 0.103 and low nucleotide diversity (π) of 0.14301. Three population specific haplotypes were observed in river Ganga and two haplotypes in river Tapi. Neighbour-joining tree based on Cytochrome b gene sequences of T. ilisha showed that population from Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea origins belonged to two distinct clusters. PMID:26521565

  10. Factors linking childhood experiences to adult romantic relationships among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Landor, Antoinette M; Bryant, Chalandra M; Beach, Steven R H

    2014-06-01

    It is well known that a high-quality relationship with a romantic partner is related to a variety of positive outcomes associated with health and well-being. Establishing such relationships is an important developmental task for young adults, and past research indicates that there is a link between experiences in the family of origin and the success of later intimate relationships. It has been suggested that this association can be explained by the acquisition of social competencies (e.g., emotions, schemas, traits) that are acquired during childhood in the family of origin and, in turn, influence interaction with adult romantic partners. The current study builds on this foundation by identifying particular competencies expected to explain the association between childhood exposure to supportive and harsh parenting and later patterns of interaction with romantic partners. Specifically, we examine anger management, attachment style, hostile attribution bias, and self-control as potential mediators using prospective, longitudinal data from a sample of 345 African American young adults. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that each of the mediators in our study accounts for a significant portion of the effect of parenting on the quality of adult romantic relationships, although the constructs linking parenting to warm interactions with romantic partners are somewhat different from those that link parenting to hostile interactions with romantic partners. Even after accounting for the effect of the mediators, there is still a direct effect of parenting on both warm/loving and hostile/aggressive interactions with romantic partner. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:24730381

  11. Factors Linking Childhood Experiences to Adult Romantic Relationships among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Landor, Antoinette M.; Bryant, Chalandra M.; Beach, Steven R.H.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that a high quality relationship with a romantic partner is related to a variety of positive outcomes associated with health and well-being. Establishing such relationships is an important developmental task for young adults and past research indicates that there is a link between experiences in the family of origin and the success of later intimate relationships. It has been suggested that this association can be explained by the acquisition of social competencies (e.g., emotions, schemas, traits) that are acquired during childhood in the family of origin and, in turn, influence interaction with adult romantic partners. The current study builds on this foundation by identifying particular competencies expected to explain the association between childhood exposure to supportive and harsh parenting and later patterns of interaction with romantic partners. Specifically, we examine anger management, attachment style, hostile attribution bias, and self-control as potential mediators using prospective, longitudinal data from a sample of 345 African American young adults. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that each of the mediators in our study accounts for a significant portion of the effect of parenting on the quality of adult romantic relationships although the constructs linking parenting to warm interactions with romantic partners are somewhat different from those that link parenting to hostile interactions with romantic partners. Even after accounting for the effect of the mediators, there is still a direct effect of parenting on both warm/loving and hostile/aggressive interactions with romantic partner. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:24730381

  12. Model for Using Hip-Hop Music for Small Group HIV/AIDS Prevention Counseling with African American Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Torrance; Braithwaite, Ronald L.; Taylor, Sandra E.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a HIV/AIDS preventive counseling protocol developed for use with African American young adults that makes use of hip-hop music. Contends that an increased understanding of the relationships that many African American young adults have with hip-hop music may be used by disease prevention personnel to educate these populations about…

  13. Acceptability and Preliminary Outcomes of a Peer-Led Depression Prevention Intervention for African American Adolescents and Young Adults in Employment Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, Darius; Mendelson, Tamar; Mance, GiShawn

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the acceptability and preliminary outcomes from an open trial of a depression prevention intervention for low-income African American adolescents and young adults in employment training programs. The sample (N=42) consisted of predominately African American adolescents and young adults (mean age=19.1) exhibiting subclinical…

  14. Ethnic Pride and Cardiovascular Health Among Mexican American Adults Along the U.S.-Mexico Border

    PubMed Central

    Balcazar, Hector G; Cardenas, Victor; Rosenthal, Lee; Schulz, Leslie O

    2012-01-01

    This study addressed the association between items from the General Acculturation Index (GAI) and cardiovascular health. Specifically, we assessed whether ethnic pride was associated with health outcomes after controlling for items regarding language, place where the childhood was spent and ethnic interaction. The study was a cross sectional analysis of demographic and clinical data from a border population of Mexican American adults (n=316) at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Outcomes included smoking and diabetes status, Framingham risk, and metabolic syndrome. Ethnic pride was associated with lower diabetes prevalence, lower Framingham risk, and fewer risk factors for metabolic syndrome, but was not associated with smoking status. Ethnic pride was not associated with the other acculturation items of the GAI. Among an at-risk border population, ethnic pride functioned independently of other acculturation indicators. Ethnic pride may act as a protective factor for diabetes, metabolic syndrome and CVD risk status. PMID:22610060

  15. Protective Parenting, Relationship Power Equity, and Condom Use Among Rural African American Emerging Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Simons, Leslie G.; Chen, Yifu; Burwell, Stephanie; Brody, Gene H.

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections disproportionately affect African Americans, particularly young women. The influence of a set of interrelated protective parenting processes—instrumental and emotional support, sexual risk communication, and encouragement of goals for employment or education—on emerging adult women was examined. Parenting was hypothesized to affect consistent condom use through its association with women’s reports of power equity in their intimate relationships. Hypotheses were tested with 135 sexually active women 18 to 21 years of age living in rural southern communities. Structural equation modeling indicated that (a) parenting processes predicted women’s self-reported relationship power equity and consistent condom use, and (b) relationship power equity predicted consistent condom use. Limited support emerged for a mediational role of relationship power equity in explaining the influence of parenting on consistent condom use. Parental involvement and young women’s establishment of personal control in their intimate relationships are important goals for sexual risk reduction programs. PMID:23729949

  16. Genome-wide Association Study of Exercise Behavior in Dutch and American Adults

    PubMed Central

    De Moor, Marleen HM; Liu, Yong-Jun; Boomsma, Dorret I; Li, Jian; Hamilton, James J; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Levy, Shawn; Liu, Xiao-Gang; Pei, Yu-Fang; Posthuma, Danielle; Recker, Robert R; Sullivan, Patrick F; Wang, Liang; Willemsen, Gonneke; Yan, Han; De Geus, Eco JC; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to identify genetic variants that are associated with adult leisure-time exercise behavior using genome-wide association in two independent samples. Methods Exercise behavior was measured in 1,772 unrelated Dutch and 978 unrelated American adults with detailed questions about type, frequency and duration of exercise. Individuals were classified into regular exercisers or non-exercisers using a threshold of 4 METhours (metabolic equivalents*hours per week). Regular exercisers were further divided into 5 categories of METhours, ranging from moderate (>=4 METhours) to highly vigorous (>=40 METhours) exercisers. Genome-wide association analyses with a total of 470,719 SNPs were conducted in both samples independently using regression-based techniques in SNPtest, including sex, age and BMI as covariates. Results SNPs located in SGIP1, DNASE2B, PRSS16, ERCC2 and PAPSS2 were associated with exercise participation (combined p-value between 0.0004 and 4.5*10-6 with the same direction of allelic effects in both samples). Associations of candidate genes based on existing literature were replicated for the LEPR gene in the American sample (rs12405556, p=0.0005) and for the CYP19A1 gene in the Dutch sample (rs2470158, 0.0098). Conclusion Two genes (SGIP1 and LEPR) are expressed in the hypothalamus and involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Their effects were independent of BMI, suggesting a direct role of hypothalamic factors in the drive to exercise. PMID:19727025

  17. Subglottal resonances of adult male and female native speakers of American English

    PubMed Central

    Lulich, Steven M.; Morton, John R.; Arsikere, Harish; Sommers, Mitchell S.; Leung, Gary K. F.; Alwan, Abeer

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a large-scale study of subglottal resonances (SGRs) (the resonant frequencies of the tracheo-bronchial tree) and their relations to various acoustical and physiological characteristics of speakers. The paper presents data from a corpus of simultaneous microphone and accelerometer recordings of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words embedded in a carrier phrase spoken by 25 male and 25 female native speakers of American English ranging in age from 18 to 24 yr. The corpus contains 17 500 utterances of 14 American English monophthongs, diphthongs, and the rhotic approximant [ɹ] in various CVC contexts. Only monophthongs are analyzed in this paper. Speaker height and age were also recorded. Findings include (1) normative data on the frequency distribution of SGRs for young adults, (2) the dependence of SGRs on height, (3) the lack of a correlation between SGRs and formants or the fundamental frequency, (4) a poor correlation of the first SGR with the second and third SGRs but a strong correlation between the second and third SGRs, and (5) a significant effect of vowel category on SGR frequencies, although this effect is smaller than the measurement standard deviations and therefore negligible for practical purposes. PMID:23039452

  18. Daily racial microaggressions and ethnic identification among Native American young adults.

    PubMed

    Jones, Merrill L; Galliher, Renee V

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated 114 Native American young adults' experiences of racial microaggressions, and links between microaggression experiences and self-reported ethnic and cultural identification. Microaggressions were assessed using the Daily Racial Microaggressions Scale, Short Form (DRM). Ethnic identity and cultural participation were assessed using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) and the Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale (OCIS). Participants reported strong identification with their Native/indigenous ethnicity, along with stronger commitment than exploration on the 2 MEIM subscales. On the OCIS, participants reported moderately strong identification with Native culture and practices, with strong identification with White American culture. Females reported higher White identification than males, and females also reported significantly stronger identification with White culture than Native. On the DRM, 98% of participants reported experiencing at least 1 type of racial microaggression. Generally, the extent to which participants were upset by the microaggressions was mild, but all types of microaggressions received ratings from not upsetting at all to extremely upsetting. Microinvalidations were significantly more upsetting than microinsults for females, but there was no difference among the forms of microaggression for males. Correlational findings demonstrated that greater Native identification was strongly associated with more microaggression experiences, especially among males. Regression analyses found several identity correlates of microaggression experiences. "Assumption of criminality" and "assumed superiority of White values" were most frequently associated with identity scales. Results are discussed within the context of identity development theory. PMID:25090153

  19. Language of administration and neuropsychological test performance in neurologically intact Hispanic American bilingual adults.

    PubMed

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard; Croyle, Kristin L; Cavazos-Gonzalez, Cynthia; Sandoval, Omar

    2007-11-01

    This study compared the performance of Hispanic American bilingual adults on Spanish and English language versions of a neuropsychological test battery. Language achievement test scores were used to divide 36 bilingual, neurologically intact, Hispanic Americans from south Texas into Spanish-dominant, balanced, and English-dominant bilingual groups. They were administered the eight subtests of the Bateria Neuropsicologica and the Matrix Reasoning subtest of the WAIS-III in Spanish and English. Half the participants were tested in Spanish first. Balanced bilinguals showed no significant differences in test scores between Spanish and English language administrations. Spanish and/or English dominant bilinguals showed significant effects of language of administration on tests with higher language compared to visual perceptual weighting (Woodcock-Munoz Language Survey-Revised, Letter Fluency, Story Memory, and Stroop Color and Word Test). Scores on tests with higher visual-perceptual weighting (Matrix Reasoning, Figure Memory, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Spatial Span), were not significantly affected by language of administration, nor were scores on the Spanish/California Verbal Learning Test, and Digit Span. A problem was encountered in comparing false positive rates in each language, as Spanish norms fell below English norms, resulting in a much higher false positive rate in English across all bilingual groupings. Use of a comparison standard (picture vocabulary score) reduced false positive rates in both languages, but the higher false positive rate in English persisted. PMID:17900857

  20. Individual characteristics and relocation factors affecting adjustment among relocated American and Egyptian older adults.

    PubMed

    Bekhet, Abir K; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2014-02-01

    Worldwide, the population of elders is increasing significantly. Relocation can be a positive or a negative experience, depending on many factors, including culture. The purpose of this study is to compare individual characteristics (age, gender, marital status, education, perceived health status, activities of daily living), relocation factors (movement preparation, time passed since relocation, closeness of prior home to the present, and whether relocation was from home or another facility), and adjustment in relocated American and Egyptian elders. This secondary analysis study merged data from two cross-sectional descriptive studies of a 104 elders relocated to retirement communities in Northeast Ohio and 94 elders relocated to retirement communities in Alexandria, Egypt. Our findings indicated that American elders have greater independence in daily activities (t (161.23) = -3.03, p = .003); better perceived health (χ(2)[3, N = 198] = 53.21, p < .001), better education (χ(2)[1, N = 198] = 47.28, p < .001), better preparation before the move (χ(2)[1, N = 198] = 40.58, p < .001), and better relocation adjustment (t (196) = 9.42, p < .001) than relocated Egyptian elders. Our results indicate that culture should be taken into account when caring for older adults who relocate to retirement communities. Additionally, interventions, such as counseling, and preparation before relocation are needed to help elders adjust to relocation. PMID:24502465

  1. Influences of Social and Style Variables on Adult Usage of African American English Features

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Holly K.; Grogger, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the authors examined the influences of selected social (gender, employment status, educational achievement level) and style variables (race of examiner, interview topic) on the production of African American English (AAE) by adults. Method Participants were 50 African American men and women, ages 20–30 years. The authors used Rapid and Anonymous Survey (RAS) methods to collect responses to questions on informal situational and formal message-oriented topics in a short interview with an unacquainted interlocutor. Results Results revealed strong systematic effects for academic achievement, but not gender or employment status. Most features were used less frequently by participants with higher educational levels, but sharp declines in the usage of 5 specific features distinguished the participants differing in educational achievement. Strong systematic style effects were found for the 2 types of questions, but not race of addressee. The features that were most commonly used across participants—copula absence, variable subject–verb agreement, and appositive pronouns—were also the features that showed the greatest style shifting. Conclusions The findings lay a foundation with mature speakers for rate-based and feature inventory methods recently shown to be informative for the study of child AAE and demonstrate the benefits of the RAS. PMID:22361105

  2. Revision of neoclassical facial canons in young adult Afro-Americans.

    PubMed

    Farkas, L G; Forrest, C R; Litsas, L

    2000-01-01

    The validity of seven neoclassical facial canons was tested in 100 young, adult, Afro-American (A-A) males and females, and the results were compared with 103 North American Caucasians, producing the first reliable information about the differences of facial proportions in the two populations. Although the canons should not be regarded as strict directives in reconstructive and esthetic surgery, the data obtained from the study offered the first information about the facial proportion qualities of Afro-Americans in relation to the white population. In the absence of a detailed facial proportion study in A-As, the findings in canons can assist in planning the surgery. Comparison of the two populations revealed that the three sections of the facial profile were not equal in either population. In an A-A sample it showed the prevalence of the long lower face height also in relation to the height of the forehead. In horizontal canons of the orbital regions, the similarity between the two populations was demonstrated by the great frequency of intercanthal spaces to be wider than the length of the palpebral fissures [1]. The facial canons, including the nose width, relatively wider [2] in A-A than in white subjects, prompted the difference between A-A and Caucasians in frequency and degree in the dominant canon variations. The greater inclination of the nasal bridge than that of the medial longitudinal axis of the ear was a very frequent canon variation in both populations. Generally, the frequency of valid canons was greatly surpassed by their variations. PMID:10890944

  3. Pathways to Adult Marijuana and Cocaine Use: A Prospective Study of African Americans from Age 6 to 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Green, Kerry M.; Robertson, Judith A.; Juon, Hee Soon

    2009-01-01

    This study examines pathways to adult marijuana and cocaine use in a cohort of African Americans from Woodlawn, an inner city community in Chicago. Assessments were conducted in first grade (age 6), adolescence (age 16), early adulthood (age 32), and in mid-adulthood (age 42). The "social adaptation life course" framework guided the focus on…

  4. Resistive Efficacy and Multiple Sexual Partners among American Indian Young Adults: A Parallel-Process Latent Growth Curve Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Christina M.; Kaufman, Carol E.; Beals, Janette

    2005-01-01

    Contracting a sexually transmitted disease (STD) is one of the most serious public health issues for adolescents and young adults; rates of STDs among American Indian youth are among the highest of any racial or ethnic group in the United States. Although it is one of the key risk factors for spreading STDs, little is known about individual…

  5. The Ethnic Identity, Other-Group Attitudes, and Psychosocial Functioning of Asian American Emerging Adults from Two Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda P.; Nguyen, Huong H.; Lin, Yunghui

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from two samples of Asian American emerging adults, one in an ethnically concentrated context (n = 108) and the other in an ethnically-dispersed, mainly White context (n = 153), we examined (a) how ethnic identity and other-group attitudes were related to psychosocial functioning (i.e., depression, self-esteem, and connectedness to…

  6. The Role of Spirituality in Learning Music: A Case of North American Adult Students of Japanese Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsunobu, Koji

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the role of spirituality in learning music for North American adult students is explored by examining the case of shakuhachi music. One distinctive character of engaging in music through the shakuhachi is that it facilitates the attainment of an "optimal relationship" between the practitioners" musical pursuit and self-cultivation…

  7. A church-based pilot study designed to improve dietary quality for rural, Lower Mississippi Delta, African American Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To assess the feasibility of implementing a six-month, church-based, dietary, pilot intervention, called Delta Body and Soul (DBS), for African American (AA) adults in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region of Mississippi. Effectiveness of the intervention to improve diet quality [measured using t...

  8. Diabetes and obesity risks in African American young adult freshmen attending a historically black college/university.

    PubMed

    Owens, Chequita Smith

    2008-11-01

    Convincing African American and other young adults that obesity increases their risk for diabetes and its complications is challenging for health educators and clinicians. At a historically Black university (HBCU) this question was examined, Do overweight and obese African American freshmen have higher risks for diabetes through low physical activity or toning and poor nutritional habits? Survey data found 40% of the 101 respondents sampled there were obese (defined as body mass index of 30 or more kg/m2), which is a higher proportion of obesity than found in other college health surveys. Scores reflecting higher risks of diabetes mellitus were significantly related to higher BMI values and low aerobic physical activity. Students had low levels of physical activity and toning than reported in general college populations. To reduce diabetes-disparity risks and obesity-related behaviors, African American younger adult freshmen may benefit from effective intervention strategies targeting them. PMID:19029739

  9. Comparison of personal characteristics, tobacco use, and health states in Chaldean, Arab American, and non-Middle Eastern White adults.

    PubMed

    Jamil, H; Templin, T; Fakhouri, M; Rice, V H; Khouri, R; Fakhouri, H; Al-Omran, Hasan; Al-Fauori, Ibrahim; Baker, Omar

    2009-08-01

    This study compared and contrasted personal characteristics, tobacco use (cigarette and water pipe smoking), and health states in Chaldean, Arab American and non-Middle Eastern White adults attending an urban community service center. The average age was 39.4 (SD = 14.2). The three groups differed significantly (P < .006) on ethnicity, age, gender distribution, marital status, language spoken, education, employment, and annual income. Current cigarette smoking was highest for non-Middle Eastern White adults (35.4%) and current water pipe smoking was highest for Arab Americans (3.6%). Arab Americans were more likely to smoke both cigarettes and the narghile (4.3%). Health problems were highest among former smokers in all three ethnic groups. Being male, older, unmarried, and non-Middle Eastern White predicted current cigarette smoking; being Arab or Chaldean and having less formal education predicted current water pipe use. PMID:18311586

  10. A cultural model of infidelity among African American and Puerto Rican young adults.

    PubMed

    Macauda, Mark M; Erickson, Pamela I; Singer, Merrill C; Santelices, Claudia C

    2011-12-01

    Having concurrent sexual partners is a risk factor for STIs and HIV/AIDS, yet few studies have investigated the cultural meanings and functions of concurrency. A multi-method qualitative/quantitative study of sexual ideas, attitudes, and behaviors among inner-city Puerto Rican and African American emergent adults (age 18-25) in Hartford, Connecticut, USA, suggests that having concurrent partners is common in this population. Using data from 12 focus groups and 40 participants in systematic data collection techniques (e.g., pile sorts), the underlying cognitive structure of concurrency and cheating/infidelity are explored. Results suggest that participants are less tolerant of multiple partners in more committed relationships, but that very few relationships can be considered committed. Furthermore, participants see cheating as inevitable even in committed relationships. Sexual transgressions are considered the most severe form of cheating. Having an outside partner for emotional reasons or to have access to one's child were seen as more acceptable/forgivable than doing so for sexual satisfaction, social status or material goods. Multiple partnerships must be seen in the context of the inner city where resources and opportunities are scarce and young adults attempt to protect themselves from emotional injury. Documenting new and changing social constructions of infidelity is important for understanding the social context of sexual behavior in our global world and for designing culturally appropriate health interventions. PMID:22060128

  11. Effectiveness of oral self-care among adult Gullah-speaking African Americans with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Hon K.; Tress, Mary E.; Salinas, Carlos F.; Slate, Elizabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of plaque removal after an oral self-care demonstration among adult Gullah-speaking African Americans with diabetes. Fiftyfour adults with diabetes completed an observed, uninstructed oral self-care demonstration with their normal mode of oral self-care. Before and after the oral self-care demonstration, the plaque levels of six test teeth were assessed using the Plaque Index. The mean percentage of plaque removal after the oral self-care demonstration was 27.4%. The mandibular teeth and the lingual surface had less plaque removal compared with the maxillary teeth and buccal surfaces. Only approximately 10% of participants achieved 50% or more plaque removal after the oral self-care demonstration. Thus, the majority of the participants did not achieve an acceptable level of plaque removal. Dental health professionals should emphasize better oral home care for people with diabetes and teach them how to access the lingual surfaces, especially of the mandibular teeth. PMID:19938252

  12. Testing of applicability of mutuality scale with Mexican American caregivers of older adults.

    PubMed

    Kao, Hsueh-Fen S; Lynn, Mary R; Crist, Janice D

    2013-03-01

    By 2050, Mexican Americans (MAs) will become the largest aged minority subgroup in the United States. Although older MAs often depend on family for care, no standard instrument is available to scale the motive for filial obligation. Building on previous work, the purpose of this study is to establish psychometric properties of the bilingual Mutuality Scale (MS) for use with MA family caregivers of older adults. A methodological design with a convenience sample is used. Through Principal Axis Factoring with Oblimin(©) rotation, a two-factor structure emerge--interaction between the caregiving dyad and reaction from the care recipient--which accounted for 63% of the variance in MS scores. Cronbach's alphas are .87 in both cases and test-retest estimates across three weeks are r = .93 and .94, respectively. Despite needing further refinement, the MS shows potential to measure the motive involved in older adult care, which may be useful in designing culturally relevant interventions for the MA population. PMID:25474218

  13. Meeting American Geriatrics Society Competencies: Are Residents Meeting Expectations for Quality Care of Older Adults?

    PubMed

    Bynum, Debra L; Wilson, Lindsay A; Ong, Thuan; Callahan, Kathryn E; Dalton, Thomas; Ohuabunwa, Ugochi

    2015-09-01

    In order to determine how often internal medicine and family medicine residents performed specific actions related to the geriatric competencies established by the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) when caring for older hospitalized adults, a cross-sectional anonymous survey of residents at the University of North Carolina, University of Washington, Wake Forest University, Duke University, and Emory University was undertaken. Data on frequency of self-reported behaviors were analyzed, with comparisons made for different levels of training, institution, and program. A total of 375 residents responded for an overall response rate of 48%. Residents reported that they often do not demonstrate all of the AGS recommended core competencies when caring for older adults in the hospital setting. Residents report more frequently performing activities that are routinely integrated into hospital systems such as reviewing medication lists, working with an interdisciplinary team, evaluating for inappropriate bladder catheters, and evaluating for pressure ulcers. There were no consistent differences between institutions and only minor differences noted between Family Medicine and Internal Medicine residents. Operationalizing core competencies by integrating them into hospital systems' quality process indicators may prompt more consistent high-quality care and ensure systems support residents' competence. PMID:26313811

  14. Migraine Headache in Affectively Ill Latino Adults of Mexican American Origin Is Associated With Bipolarity

    PubMed Central

    Benazzi, Franco; Oedegaard, Ketil J.; Fasmer, Ole B.; Akiskal, Kareen K.; Akiskal, Hagop S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of migraine headache among depressed Latino adults of Mexican American origin meeting the criteria for bipolar disorder (BPD) or major depressive disorder (MDD) relative to patients in a psychiatric comparison group. Method: In a mental health clinic for the indigent, consecutively and systematically evaluated acutely depressed Latino adults received structured diagnostic psychiatric interviews based on modules extracted from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. All were asked as part of routine assessment whether they had headaches “in the last week.” Patients with unilateral, pounding, pulsating headache were classified as having migraine headache. The prevalence of migraine headache among the patients with BPD and MDD was contrasted with that of patients in a psychiatric comparison group composed of patients with disorders other than schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Logistic regression was used to test for associations and control for confounding effects. The data were collected between August 2001 and November 2004. Results: Eighty-seven patients had BPD and 123 had MDD. Bipolar patients were 2.9 times more likely to have migraine headaches than patients with MDD (P < .0001). There was a trend for patients with MDD to have a higher prevalence of migraine than patients in the psychiatric comparison group. Conclusions: Bipolar patients had a high prevalence of migraine headache relative to patients with MDD. This study suggests that migraine is linked to bipolarity. PMID:20098521

  15. Lysophosphatidylcholine acts in the constitutive immune defence against American foulbrood in adult honeybees.

    PubMed

    Riessberger-Gallé, Ulrike; Hernández-López, Javier; Rechberger, Gerald; Crailsheim, Karl; Schuehly, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Honeybee (Apis mellifera) imagines are resistant to the Gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae), causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), whereas honeybee larvae show susceptibility against this pathogen only during the first 48 h of their life. It is known that midgut homogenate of adult honeybees as well as a homogenate of aged larvae exhibit strong anti-P. larvae activity. A bioactivity-guided LC-HRMS analysis of midgut homogenate resulted in the identification of 1-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (LPC) pointing to a yet unknown immune defence in adult honeybees against P. larvae. Antimicrobial activity of LPC was also demonstrated against Melissococcus plutonius, causative agent of European Foulbrood. To demonstrate an AFB-preventive effect of LPC in larvae, artificially reared larvae were supplemented with LPC to evaluate its toxicity and to assess whether, after infection with P. larvae spores, LPC supplementation prevents AFB infection. 10 μg LPC per larva applied for 3 d significantly lowered mortality due to AFB in comparison to controls. A potential delivery route of LPC to the larvae in a colony via nurse bees was assessed through a tracking experiment using fluorescent-labelled LPC. This yet undescribed and non-proteinous defense of honeybees against P. larvae may offer new perspectives for a treatment of AFB without the utilization of classic antibiotics. PMID:27480379

  16. Lysophosphatidylcholine acts in the constitutive immune defence against American foulbrood in adult honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Riessberger-Gallé, Ulrike; Hernández-López, Javier; Rechberger, Gerald; Crailsheim, Karl; Schuehly, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Honeybee (Apis mellifera) imagines are resistant to the Gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae), causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), whereas honeybee larvae show susceptibility against this pathogen only during the first 48 h of their life. It is known that midgut homogenate of adult honeybees as well as a homogenate of aged larvae exhibit strong anti-P. larvae activity. A bioactivity-guided LC-HRMS analysis of midgut homogenate resulted in the identification of 1-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (LPC) pointing to a yet unknown immune defence in adult honeybees against P. larvae. Antimicrobial activity of LPC was also demonstrated against Melissococcus plutonius, causative agent of European Foulbrood. To demonstrate an AFB-preventive effect of LPC in larvae, artificially reared larvae were supplemented with LPC to evaluate its toxicity and to assess whether, after infection with P. larvae spores, LPC supplementation prevents AFB infection. 10 μg LPC per larva applied for 3 d significantly lowered mortality due to AFB in comparison to controls. A potential delivery route of LPC to the larvae in a colony via nurse bees was assessed through a tracking experiment using fluorescent-labelled LPC. This yet undescribed and non-proteinous defense of honeybees against P. larvae may offer new perspectives for a treatment of AFB without the utilization of classic antibiotics. PMID:27480379

  17. Polytobacco use and multiple-product smoking among a random community sample of African-American adults

    PubMed Central

    Corral, Irma; Landrine, Hope; Simms, Denise Adams; Bess, Jukelia J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about polytobacco use among African-American adults. This study is the first to explore this among a random, statewide, community sample of African-American adults. Setting Community-based sampling obtained a random, household-probability sample of African-American adults from California, surveyed door to door in randomly selected census tracts statewide. Participants Participants were a statewide, random-household sample of N=2118 African-American adults from California who completed a survey on past 30-day smoking of cigarettes, blunts, bidis, kreteks, cigarillos, marijuana and cigars. Results Almost half (49.3%) of the African-American cigarette-smokers and 14.9% of the cigarette non-smokers had smoked at least one non-cigarette product in the past 30 days. Smokers had a substantial prevalence of smoking cigarillos (28.7%) and blunts (27.7%). Logistic regressions revealed that the odds of smoking most of the non-cigarette products were higher for cigarette smokers and men, inversely related to age, and unrelated to socioeconomic status. However, smoking of blunts, bidis and kreteks was not predicted by cigarette smoking. Conclusions Smoking of cigarillos (eg, Phillies, Black & Mild) and blunts may be prevalent among African-American cigarette-smokers and non-smokers alike, but such products are not examined in most population-level smoking research. Smoking of these products should be included in surveillance studies, in cancer prevention programmes and in healthcare provider-assessment of smoking, and addressed in smoking cessation programmes as well. PMID:24334154

  18. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposure and Thyroid Function Tests in North American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Makey, Colleen M.; McClean, Michael D.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; He, Xue-Mei; Sjödin, Andreas; Weinberg, Janice M.; Webster, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame-retardant chemicals that are added to many consumer products. Multiple animal studies have shown PBDEs to be thyroid hormone (TH) disruptors. Epidemiologic evidence of PBDE exposure associated with TH disruption has been inconclusive. Objectives: We used repeated measures to estimate associations between serum PBDE concentrations and THs in a North American adult cohort. Methods: From 2010 to 2011, we collected ≤ 3 serum samples at approximately 6-month intervals from 52 healthy adult office workers from Boston, Massachusetts, for analysis of PBDE congeners and THs. Results: The geometric mean sum concentrations of the most prevalent PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, and BDE-153) were 22 ng/g lipid in winter 2010, 23 ng/g lipid in summer 2010, and 19 ng/g lipid in winter 2011. BDE-47 was the predominant congener. Based on a multivariable mixed regression model, we estimated that on average, a 1-ng/g serum increase in BDE-47 was associated with a 2.6-μg/dL decrease in total thyroxine (T4) (95% CI: –4.7, –0.35). Total T4 was inversely associated with each PBDE congener. Serum concentrations of PBDEs were not strongly associated with total triiodothyronine (T3), free T4, or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Conclusion: These results are consistent with those from animal studies showing that exposure to PBDEs is associated with a decrease in serum T4. Because the other TH concentrations did not appear to be associated with BDE exposures, our findings do not indicate effects on the pituitary–thyroid axis. Taken together, our findings suggest that PBDE exposure might decrease the binding of T4 to serum T4 binding proteins. Citation: Makey CM, McClean MD, Braverman LE, Pearce EN, He XM, Sjödin A, Weinberg JM, Webster TF. 2016. Polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure and thyroid function tests in North American adults. Environ Health Perspect 124:420–425; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp

  19. Allergy associations with the adult fecal microbiota: Analysis of the American Gut Project

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Xing; Goedert, James J.; Pu, Angela; Yu, Guoqin; Shi, Jianxin

    2015-01-01

    Background Alteration of the gut microbial population (dysbiosis) may increase the risk for allergies and other conditions. This study sought to clarify the relationship of dysbiosis with allergies in adults. Methods Publicly available American Gut Project questionnaire and fecal 16S rRNA sequence data were analyzed. Fecal microbiota richness (number of observed species) and composition (UniFrac) were used to compare adults with versus without allergy to foods (peanuts, tree nuts, shellfish, other) and non-foods (drug, bee sting, dander, asthma, seasonal, eczema). Logistic and Poisson regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for lowest vs highest richness tertile. Taxonomy associations considered 122 non-redundant taxa (of 2379 total taxa) with ≥ 0.1% mean abundance. Results Self-reported allergy prevalence among the 1879 participants (mean age, 45.5 years; 46.9% male) was 81.5%, ranging from 2.5% for peanuts to 40.5% for seasonal. Fecal microbiota richness was markedly lower with total allergies (P = 10− 9) and five particular allergies (P ≤ 10− 4). Richness odds ratios were 1.7 (CI 1.3–2.2) with seasonal, 1.8 (CI 1.3–2.5) with drug, and 7.8 (CI 2.3–26.5) with peanut allergy. These allergic participants also had markedly altered microbial community composition (unweighted UniFrac, P = 10− 4 to 10− 7). Total food and non-food allergies were significantly associated with 7 and 9 altered taxa, respectively. The dysbiosis was most marked with nut and seasonal allergies, driven by higher Bacteroidales and reduced Clostridiales taxa. Interpretation American adults with allergies, especially to nuts and seasonal pollen, have low diversity, reduced Clostridiales, and increased Bacteroidales in their gut microbiota. This dysbiosis might be targeted to improve treatment or prevention of allergy. PMID:26870828

  20. 40-year trends in meal and snack eating behaviors of American adults

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Ashima K.; Graubard, Barry I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding of changes in profiles of eating behaviors over time may provide insights into contributors to upward trajectories of obesity in the United States population. Yet, little is known about whether characteristics of meal and snack eating behaviors reported by adult Americans have changed over time. Objective This study examined time trends in the distribution of day’s intake into individual meal and snack behaviors and related attributes in the United States adult population. Design The study was observational with cross-sectional data from national surveys fielded over 40 years. Participant/setting Nationally representative dietary data from nine National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted from 1971–74 to 2009–2010 (n=62298; age 20–74 years) were used to describe eating behaviors. Outcomes examined The respondent-labeled eating behaviors examined included main meals (breakfast, lunch, and dinner), and snacks (before breakfast, between breakfast and lunch, between lunch and dinner, after dinner, or other). For each eating behavior, percent of reporters; relative contribution to 24-hour energy intake; the clock time of report; and intermeal/snack intervals were examined. Statistical Analysis Multivariable logistic and linear regression methods for analysis of complex survey data adjusted for characteristics of respondents in each survey. Results Over the 40-year span examined: 1) reports of each individual named main meal (or all three main meals) declined, but reports of only two out of three meals or the same meal more than once increased; 2) the percentage of 24-hour energy from snacks reported between lunch and dinner or snacks that displaced meals increased; 3) clock times of breakfast and lunch were later, and intervals between dinner and after dinner snack were shorter. Changes in several snack reporting behaviors (e.g., report of any snack or ≥2 snacks), were significant in women only. Conclusions Several meal

  1. Associations with E-cigarette use among Asian American and Pacific Islander young adults in California.

    PubMed

    Maglalang, Dale Dagar; Brown-Johnson, Cati; Prochaska, Judith J

    2016-12-01

    With attention to the rapidly growing market of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/e-cigarettes) and the fastest growing US ethnic minority group, the current study explored associations between awareness, perceived risks, and use of ENDS among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) young adults. AAPI young adults (ages 18-25) in California were recruited via social media, college classes, listservs for AAPI-serving non-profits, and snowball sampling to complete an anonymous survey between 2014 and 2015. The sample (N = 501) was 57% women, 15% LGBTQIA; with a mean age of 21; 26% foreign-born; identifying as Filipino (29%), Chinese (24%), Vietnamese (14%), mixed-AAPI heritage (13%), or 21% other. Nearly half the sample (44%) reported ever ENDS use; 11% were current users. Current ENDS use was twofold greater for: Filipino and Vietnamese compared to Chinese respondents; men versus women; LGBTQIA-identified respondents; those vocationally trained; and employed. Awareness of ENDS from peers/friends was most common and was associated with ever though not current ENDS use. Most respondents perceived ENDS as harmful (62%); low compared to high risk perception was associated with a three-fold greater likelihood of ever use and six-fold greater likelihood of current use. Popular flavors were fruit (49%, e.g., lychee, taro) and candy/sweets (26%). Current users viewed ENDS as a healthier alternative or quit aid for conventional cigarettes (42%); recreation/social use (33%) also was common. Findings indicate ENDS visibility among AAPI young adults in California with affinity for flavors and many engaging in trial and current use for harm reduction and recreational/social aims. PMID:27413658

  2. Changes in American Adults' Reported Same-Sex Sexual Experiences and Attitudes, 1973-2014.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Sherman, Ryne A; Wells, Brooke E

    2016-10-01

    We examined change over time in the reported prevalence of men having sex with men and women having sex with women and acceptance of those behaviors in the nationally representative General Social Survey of U.S. adults (n's = 28,161-33,728, ages 18-96 years), 1972-2014. The number of U.S. adults who had at least one same-sex partner since age 18 doubled between the early 1990s and early 2010s (from 3.6 to 8.7 % for women and from 4.5 to 8.2 % for men). Bisexual behavior (having sex with both male and female partners) increased from 3.1 to 7.7 %, accounting for much of the rise, with little consistent change in those having sex exclusively with same-sex partners. The increase in same-sex partners was larger for women than for men, consistent with erotic plasticity theory. Attitudes toward same-sex sexual behavior also became substantially more accepting, d = .75, between the early 1970s and early 2010s. By 2014, 49 % of American adults believed that same-sex sexual activity was "not wrong at all," up from 11 % in 1973 and 13 % in 1990. Controlling for acceptance reduced, but did not eliminate, the increase in same-sex behavior over time. Mixed effects (hierarchical linear modeling) analyses separating age, time period, and cohort showed that the trends were primarily due to time period. Increases in same-sex sexual behavior were largest in the South and Midwest and among Whites, were mostly absent among Blacks, and were smaller among the religious. Overall, same-sex sexual behavior has become both more common (or at least more commonly reported) and more accepted. PMID:27251639

  3. Attitudes toward mental health services: age-group differences in Korean American adults.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yuri; Chiriboga, David A; Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the attitudes toward mental health services held by younger (aged 20-45, n = 209) and older (aged 60 and older, n = 462) groups of Korean Americans. Following Andersen's (1968; A behavioral model of families' use of health service, Center for Health Administration Studies) behavioral health model, predisposing (age, gender, marital status and education), need (anxiety and depressive symptoms) and enabling (acculturation, health insurance coverage and personal experience and beliefs) variables were considered. In the mean-level assessment, younger and older adults were found to hold a similar level of positive attitudes toward mental health services. In the multivariate analysis, culture-influenced beliefs were shown to have a substantial contribution to the model of attitudes toward mental health services in both age groups. The belief that depression is a medical condition was found to be a common predictor of positive attitudes across the groups. In the older adult sample, more negative attitudes were observed among those who believed that depression is a sign of personal weakness and that having a mentally ill family member brings shame to the whole family. Our findings show that older adults are not only more subject to cultural misconceptions and stigma related to mental disorders, but also their attitudes toward service use are negatively influenced by the cultural stigma. The findings provide important implications for interventions targeted to improve access to mental health care among minority populations. Based on the similarities and differences found between young and old, both general and age-specific strategies need to be developed in order to increase effectiveness of these programs. PMID:19197698

  4. The role of water ventilation and sediment ingestion on the uptake of hexachlorobenzene by gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum)

    SciTech Connect

    Kolok, A.S.; Groetsch, K.J.; Oris, J.T.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether sediment ingestion of water ventilation was the primary route for uptake of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the detritivorous fish, gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). Twenty nonligated and 30 esophagus-ligated fish were exposed to sediments spiked with 1 {micro}g/g HCB for 29 d. The nonligated fish roiled the water as they fed, forcing the ligated fish to ventilate turbid water. Fish were collected 7, 14, 22, and 29 d after initiation of the experiment. Detectable levels of HCB were found in all ligated and nonligated fish, although the concentration of HCB in the ligated fish only ranged from 14 to 33% of that found in the nonligated fish. Thus, ingestion of contaminated sediments is a significant source of HCB for gizzard shad.

  5. Climate change and the green energy paradox: the consequences for twaite shad Alosa fallax from the River Severn, U.K.

    PubMed

    Aprahamian, M W; Aprahamian, C D; Knights, A M

    2010-11-01

    A stock-recruitment model with a temperature component was used to estimate the effect of an increase in temperature predicted by climate change projections on population persistence and distribution of twaite shad Alosa fallax. An increase of 1 and 2° C above the current mean summer (June to August) water temperature of 17·8° C was estimated to result in a three and six-fold increase in the population, respectively. Climate change is also predicted to result in an earlier commencement to their spawning migration into fresh water. The model was expanded to investigate the effect of any additional mortality that might arise from a tidal power barrage across the Severn Estuary. Turbine mortality was separated into two components: (1) juvenile (pre-maturation) on their out migration during their first year and on their first return to the river to spawn and (2) post-maturation mortality on adults on the repeat spawning component of the population. Under current conditions, decreasing pre-maturation and post-maturation survival by 8% is estimated to result in the stock becoming extinct. It is estimated that an increase in mean summer water temperature of 1° C would mean that survival pre and post-maturation would need to be reduced by c. 10% before the stock becomes extinct. Therefore, climate change is likely to be beneficial to populations of A. fallax within U.K. rivers, increasing survival and thus, population persistence. PMID:21078098

  6. Influence of toxicological and environmental factors on P4501A expression in gizzard shad: Consequences for biomarker interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, S.L.; Oris, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to examine the influence of selected endogenous factors on gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) P4501A expression. The endogenous factors that were examined included the influence of exposure to a P4501A inducer, the combined effect of coexposure to a P4501A inducer and a P4501A inhibitor and the influence of nutritional status on P4501A expression. Shad exposed at 16 C exhibited a dose-response and time-course for P4501A induction following waterborne benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) exposures. P4501A expression was increased by waterborne BaP concentrations at half of the BaP water solubility within 48 h and was increased by waterborne BaP concentrations at the water solubility within 6 h. Correlations between the amount of BaP removed from the water by the fish and the degree of induction were established using a one-compartment linear clearance model. Shad pretreated with the inhibitor bioconcentrated more parent-BaP compared to groups exposed to BaP alone. Postspawning shad exhibited seasonal variation in basal hepatic P4501A expression and this variation corresponded with changes in liver somatic index, condition factor, and percent body lipid, indicating that seasonal variation in basal field P4501A expression may result from seasonally changing nutritional status. Preliminary results from BaP induction and enzyme kinetics studies suggest that seasonal changes in P4501A expression may reflect changes in P4501A protein concentration.

  7. Differential Item Functioning of the Boston Naming Test in Cognitively Normal African American and Caucasian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Otto; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Smith, Glenn E.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Willis, Floyd B.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Lucas, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Scores on the Boston Naming Test (BNT) are frequently lower for African American when compared to Caucasian adults. Although demographically-based norms can mitigate the impact of this discrepancy on the likelihood of erroneous diagnostic impressions, a growing consensus suggests that group norms do not sufficiently address or advance our understanding of the underlying psychometric and sociocultural factors that lead to between-group score discrepancies. Using item response theory and methods to detect differential item functioning (DIF), the current investigation moves beyond comparisons of the summed total score to examine whether the conditional probability of responding correctly to individual BNT items differs between African American and Caucasian adults. Participants included 670 adults age 52 and older who took part in Mayo's Older Americans and Older African Americans Normative Studies. Under a 2-parameter logistic IRT framework and after correction for the false discovery rate, 12 items where shown to demonstrate DIF. Six of these 12 items (“dominoes,” “escalator,” “muzzle,” “latch,” “tripod,” and “palette”) were also identified in additional analyses using hierarchical logistic regression models and represent the strongest evidence for race/ethnicity-based DIF. These findings afford a finer characterization of the psychometric properties of the BNT and expand our understanding of between-group performance. PMID:19570311

  8. Self-Reported Physical Activity Is Associated With β-Cell Function in Mexican American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhanghua; Black, Mary Helen; Watanabe, Richard M.; Trigo, Enrique; Takayanagi, Miwa; Lawrence, Jean M.; Buchanan, Thomas A.; Xiang, Anny H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between self-reported physical activity (PA) and diabetes-related quantitative traits. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The observational cohort was 1,152 Mexican American adults with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests, and self-reported dietary and PA questionnaires. PA was categorized into three mutually exclusive groups according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services PA guidelines for Americans: low (vigorous <75 min/week and moderate <150 min/week), moderate (vigorous ≥75 min/week or moderate ≥150 min/week), and high (vigorous ≥75 min/week and moderate ≥150 min/week). Trends in PA groups were tested for association with metabolic traits in a cross-sectional analysis. RESULTS The participants’ mean age was 35 years (range, 18–66 years), mean BMI was 29.6 kg/m2, and 73% were female. Among them, 501 (43%), 448 (39%), and 203 (18%) were classified as having low, moderate, and high PA, respectively. After adjustment for age, a higher PA was significantly associated with lower 2-h glucose, fasting insulin, and 2-h insulin and greater β-cell function (P = 0.001, 0.0003, 0.0001, and 0.004, respectively). The association did not differ significantly by sex. Results were similar after further adjustment for age, sex, BMI, or percent body fat. CONCLUSIONS An increasing level of PA is associated with a better glucose and insulin profile and enhanced β-cell function that is not explained by differences in BMI or percent body fat. Our results suggest that PA can be beneficial to β-cell function and glucose regulation independent of obesity. PMID:23223346

  9. Comprehensive long-term management program for asthma: effect on outcomes in adult African-Americans.

    PubMed

    Kelso, T M; Abou-Shala, N; Heilker, G M; Arheart, K L; Portner, T S; Self, T H

    1996-06-01

    To determine if a comprehensive long-term management program, emphasizing inhaled corticosteroids and patient education, would improve outcomes in adult African-American asthmatics a nonrandomized control trial with a 2-year intervention was performed in a university-based clinic. Inclusion criteria consisted of (> or = 5) emergency department (ED) visits or hospitalizations (> or = 2) during the previous 2 years. Intervention patients were volunteers; a comparable control group was identified via chart review at hospitals within the same area and time period as the intervention patients. Individualized doses of beclomethasone with a spacer, inhaled albuterol "as needed," and crisis prednisone were the primary therapies. Environmental control, peak flow monitoring, and a partnership with the patient were emphasized. Detailed patient education was an integral part of management. Control patients received usual care from local physicians. ED visits and hospitalizations for 2 years before and 2 years during the intervention period were compared. Quality of life (QOL) measurements were made at baseline and every 6 months in the intervention group. Study group (n = 21) had a significant reduction in ED visits (2.3 +/- 0.2 pre-intervention versus 0.6 +/- 0.2 post-intervention; P = 0.0001). Control group (n = 18) did not have a significant change in ED visits during the 2-year post-intervention period (2.6 +/- 0.2 pre-intervention versus 2.0 +/- 0.2 post-intervention; P = 0.11). Both groups had significant reductions in hospitalizations, but the study group had a greater reduction. Sixty-two percent of study patients had complete elimination of ED visits and hospitalizations, whereas no control patients had total elimination of the need for institutional acute care. QOL in the study patients revealed significant improvements for most parameters. A comprehensive long-term management program emphasizing inhaled corticosteroids combined with other state-of-the-art management

  10. Evaluating the Orbach Mikulincer Mental Pain Scale among Late Adolescent and Early Adult African Americans: A Rasch Analysis.

    PubMed

    Trent Haines, R; Jackson, Avis D; Thomas, Erika L

    2015-01-01

    Although there are only a few psychometric investigations of mental pain measurement in the literature, there are no previous evaluations of mental pain scales among African Americans. The present study examined the Rasch measurement properties of the nine subscales contained in the Orbach-Mikulincer Mental Pain (OMMP) Scale among a sample of older adolescent and young adult African Americans. Results from the analyses suggest that three of the OMMP subscales meet the requirements of the Rasch model and hold promise for use in research and applied settings. Implications for further development and use of the remaining subscales are discussed. PMID:26514254

  11. Scale-Dependent Habitat Selection and Size-Based Dominance in Adult Male American Alligators.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Bradley A; Vilella, Francisco J; Belant, Jerrold L

    2016-01-01

    Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range) then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17) on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size. We used K-select analysis to quantify selection at the home range scale and patches within the home range to determine selection congruency and important habitat variables. In addition, we used linear models to determine if body size was related to selection patterns and strengths. Our results indicated habitat selection of adult male alligators was a scale-dependent process. Alligators demonstrated greater overall selection for habitat variables at the patch level and less at the home range level, suggesting resources may not be limited when selecting a home range for animals in our study area. Further, diurnal habitat selection patterns may depend on thermoregulatory needs. There was no relationship between resource selection or home range size and body size, suggesting size-dependent dominance hierarchies may not have influenced alligator resource selection or space use in our sample. Though apparent habitat suitability and low alligator density did not manifest in an observed dominance hierarchy, we hypothesize that a change in either could increase intraspecific interactions, facilitating a dominance hierarchy. Due to the broad and diverse ecological roles of alligators, understanding the factors that influence their social dominance

  12. Loneliness and substance use: the influence of gender among HIV+ Black/African American adults 50.

    PubMed

    Mannes, Zachary L; Burrell, Larry E; Bryant, Vaughn E; Dunne, Eugene M; Hearn, Lauren E; Whitehead, Nicole Ennis

    2016-05-01

    Estimates suggest 30% of adults report the highest levels of loneliness. Though men are more likely than women to use illicit substances and engage in heavy drinking, the prevalence of substance use in women is growing and their escalation toward dependence occurs more rapidly. Loneliness and substance use have greater relevance within the HIV+ population, with higher rates of substance misuse than the general population. However, the association between loneliness and substance use within HIV+ individuals remains understudied. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that there would be an association between loneliness and substance moderated by gender in HIV+ older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2013 and January 2014. Study participants included 96 HIV-positive Black/African American men and women recruited through the University of Florida Center for HIV/AIDS Research, Education and Service (UF CARES) in Jacksonville, Florida. Participants completed an interviewer-administered assessment examining mental and behavioral health. Pearson correlations examined associations between loneliness and substance use. Binary logistic regression analyses stratified by gender examined the association between loneliness and substance use while controlling for covariates. Among women, loneliness was associated with illicit drug use, AOR = 3.37, 95% CI: 1.23-9.21, p = .018 and heavy drinking, AOR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.07-5.71, p = .033. No significant associations were found between loneliness and illicit drug use, and heavy drinking in men. Substance use among women in this population may be linked to loneliness. Interventions should be gender specific. Further research into this association is necessary as it will likely have important clinical implications for this population. PMID:26654243

  13. Changes in American Adults' Sexual Behavior and Attitudes, 1972-2012.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Sherman, Ryne A; Wells, Brooke E

    2015-11-01

    In the nationally representative General Social Survey, U.S. Adults (N = 33,380) in 2000-2012 (vs. the 1970s and 1980s) had more sexual partners, were more likely to have had sex with a casual date or pickup or an acquaintance, and were more accepting of most non-marital sex (premarital sex, teen sex, and same-sex sexual activity, but not extramarital sex). The percentage who believed premarital sex among adults was "not wrong at all" was 29 % in the early 1970s, 42 % in the 1980s and 1990s, 49 % in the 2000s, and 58 % between 2010 and 2012. Mixed effects (hierarchical linear modeling) analyses separating time period, generation/birth cohort, and age showed that the trend toward greater sexual permissiveness was primarily due to generation. Acceptance of non-marital sex rose steadily between the G.I. generation (born 1901-1924) and Boomers (born 1946-1964), dipped slightly among early Generation X'ers (born 1965-1981), and then rose so that Millennials (also known as Gen Y or Generation Me, born 1982-1999) were the most accepting of non-marital sex. Number of sexual partners increased steadily between the G.I.s and 1960s-born GenX'ers and then dipped among Millennials to return to Boomer levels. The largest changes appeared among White men, with few changes among Black Americans. The results were discussed in the context of growing cultural individualism and rejection of traditional social rules in the U.S. PMID:25940736

  14. Rates and consequences of posttraumatic distress among American Indian adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Benjamin D; Palombi, Laura C; Walls, Melissa L

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the prevalence of screened posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and associated diabetes-related outcomes. A sample of American Indian adults with type 2 diabetes (n = 218) participated in interviewer-administered surveys. Using a cutoff of 3 on the Primary Care PTSD screener, 21.8 % of participants screened positive for PTSD. PTSD symptoms were negatively associated with self-rated health status and positively associated with past year hospitalization after controlling for several demographic factors, but not after controlling for depressive symptoms. Past month frequency of hyperglycemia symptoms was not related to PTSD symptoms. When grouped by mental health conditions (neither screened PTSD nor depressive symptoms, screened PTSD only, depressive symptoms only, and both), those with both screened PTSD and depressive symptoms reported the highest proportion of any past month hyperglycemia, past year hospitalization, and low self-rated health status. Screened PTSD, especially in those with comorbid depressive symptoms, is an important consideration in diabetes care. PMID:27001254

  15. Perfluorooctanesulfonate and other fluorochemicals in the serum of American Red Cross adult blood donors.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Geary W; Church, Timothy R; Miller, John P; Burris, Jean M; Hansen, Kristen J; Lundberg, James K; Armitage, John B; Herron, Ross M; Medhdizadehkashi, Zahra; Nobiletti, John B; O'Neill, E Mary; Mandel, Jeffrey H; Zobel, Larry R

    2003-01-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride-based products have included surfactants, paper and packaging treatments, and surface protectants (e.g., for carpet, upholstery, textile). Depending on the specific functional derivatization or degree of polymerization, such products may degrade or metabolize, to an undetermined degree, to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), a stable and persistent end product that has the potential to bioaccumulate. In this investigation, a total of 645 adult donor serum samples from six American Red Cross blood collection centers were analyzed for PFOS and six other fluorochemicals using HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. PFOS concentrations ranged from the lower limit of quantitation of 4.1 ppb to 1656.0 ppb with a geometric mean of 34.9 ppb [95% confidence interval (CI), 33.3-36.5]. The geometric mean was higher among males (37.8 ppb; 95% CI, 35.5-40.3) than among females (31.3 ppb; 95% CI, 30.0-34.3). No substantial difference was observed with age. The estimate of the 95% tolerance limit of PFOS was 88.5 ppb (upper limit of 95% CI, 100.0 ppb). The measures of central tendency for the other fluorochemicals (N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate, N-methyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate, perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate, perfluorooctanesulfonamide, perfluorooctanoate, and perfluorohexanesulfonate) were approximately an order of magnitude lower than PFOS. Because serum PFOS concentrations correlate with cumulative human exposure, this information can be useful for risk characterization. PMID:14644663

  16. Psychometric properties of the pressure to move scale in relocated american older adults: further evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bekhet, Abir K; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Nakhla, Wagdy E

    2011-01-01

    The number of elders who relocate to retirement communities is increasing exponentially, and their ability to exercise free choice, personal control, and autonomy has been associated with relocation adjustment and positive outcomes in regard to physical, emotional, and social well-being. Although a measure of relocation controllability (the degree of personal control associated with the move) exists, there is limited evidence of its psychometric adequacy. This study tested the reliability and validity of the Pressure to Move Scale (PTMS). A convenience sample of 104 American elders who relocated to six Northeast Ohio retirement communities was recruited. Study participants completed the nine-item PTMS and two validation measures during structured interviews. Cronbach's alpha was .71. Homogeneity was supported by item-to-total correlations between .30 and .70, except for two items. Deletion of the item asking about the elder's first impression of relocation improved the alpha to .74. The PTMS was correlated in the expected direction with positive cognitions (r = -.37, p < .01) and relocation adjustment (r = -.62, p < .01), indicating convergent validity. Factor extraction generated three factors, the first reflecting "internal" control factors and the second reflecting "external" control factors; a third factor, containing two items with low item-to-total correlations, reflected another level of "external" control. With preliminary evidence of its reliability and validity, this scale can be a useful tool for screening for pressure to move or involuntary relocation among older adults so that negative outcomes associated with relocation can be prevented through tailored interventions. PMID:21992263

  17. Culturally-Tailored Smoking Cessation for Adult American Indian Smokers: A Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stevens S.; Rouse, Leah M.; Caskey, Mark; Fossum, Jodi; Strickland, Rick; Culhane, J. Kevin; Waukau, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    This collaborative, community-engaged project developed and tested a Culturally-Tailored Treatment (CTT) for American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) smokers in the Menominee tribal community. One hundred three adult AI/AN smokers were randomized to receive either Standard Treatment (n= 53) or CTT (n = 50) for smoking cessation. Both treatment conditions included 12 weeks of varenicline and four individual counseling sessions but differed in terms of cultural tailoring of the counseling. The primary outcome was 7-day biochemically-confirmed point-prevalence abstinence (PPA) at the 6-month end-of-study visit. Both intention-to-treat (ITT) and responder-only analyses were conducted. There were no statistically significant group differences in 7-day PPA. The overall ITT abstinence rate at 6 months was 20%; the responder-only rate was 42%. The current study represents the first randomized smoking cessation clinical trial testing a culturally-tailored smoking cessation intervention designed for a specific AI/AN tribal community that combined FDA-approved cessation medication (varenicline) and innovative cultural intervention components. PMID:26973352

  18. 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in healthy young adult Anglo, Hispanic, and African-American subjects.

    PubMed

    Chase, H P; Garg, S K; Icaza, G; Carmain, J A; Walravens, C F; Marshall, G

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) values for adolescent and young adult males and females of Anglo, Hispanic, and African-American descent. One hundred and eighteen healthy subjects (62 females, 56 males) participated, with an ethnic distribution of 50 Anglo, 32 Hispanic, and 36 African-American subjects. All subjects came to the clinic for height, weight, sitting blood pressure (BP), and to begin 24-h ABP monitoring using the SpaceLabs model 90207 automatic noninvasive monitor. The monitor recorded readings every 0.5 h from 06:00 to 22:00 and every hour at night from 22:00 to 06:00. Office systolic and diastolic BP values were higher for all males compared to all females. Mean 24-h, nighttime, and daytime systolic ABP values were also significantly higher for males compared to females. The 24-h mean and daytime systolic ABP values were significantly different by ethnic groups. The African-American subjects always had the highest readings. Mean 24-h diastolic ABP was also significantly different by ethnic groups, with the African-American subjects being higher than the Anglos or the Hispanics. Diastolic ABP (24-h mean, daytime, and nighttime) values (for all subjects combined) increased gradually and varied significantly with age. This study provides preliminary normative data about ABP in an understudied population (ie, teenagers and young adults of different ethnic backgrounds). It also shows that higher blood pressures are present among males and among subjects of African-American descent in the teenage and young adult population. PMID:9008244

  19. Exploring the relationship of conspiracy beliefs about HIV/AIDS to sexual behaviors and attitudes among African-American adults.

    PubMed

    Bogart, Laura M; Bird, Sheryl Thorburn

    2003-11-01

    Conspiracy beliefs about HIV/AIDS have been endorsed by significant percentages of African Americans in prior research. However, almost no research has investigated the relationship of such beliefs to behaviors and attitudes relevant to HIV risk. In the present exploratory study, 71 African-American adults (aged 18-45; 61% female) in the United States participated in a national, cross-sectional telephone survey examining the relationship of HIV/AIDS conspiracy beliefs to sexual attitudes and behaviors. Results indicated significant associations between endorsement of a general HIV/AIDS government conspiracy and negative beliefs regarding condoms and greater numbers of sexual partners. Endorsement of HIV/AIDS treatment conspiracies was related to positive attitudes about condoms and greater condom use intentions. Findings suggest that conspiracy beliefs have implications for HIV prevention in African-American communities. PMID:14651372

  20. People of Color Rising up and Speaking out: Oppression and Knowledge Production. Proceedings for the Annual African American & Latino/a American Adult Education Research Symposium (11th, Chicago, Illinois, April 6, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garth, Phyllis Ham, Ed.

    This document contains 14 papers from an annual symposium on research in adult education for African Americans and Latin Americans. Representative papers include the following: "Congressman Adam Clayton Powell Jr., Keeping the Faith and Representing the Race--From the Pulpit to Politics" (Roudell Kirkwood); "Religious Education and Slavery:…

  1. Pathways to Adult Marijuana and Cocaine Use: A Prospective Study of African Americans from Age 6 to 42*

    PubMed Central

    Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Green, Kerry; Robertson, Judith A.; Juon, Hee Soon

    2009-01-01

    This study examines pathways to adult marijuana and cocaine use in a cohort of African Americans from Woodlawn, an inner city community in Chicago. Assessments were conducted in first grade (age 6), adolescence (age 16), early adulthood (age 32), and in mid adulthood (age 42). The Social Adaptation Life Course Framework guided the focus on social adaptation, social bonds, and economic resources as predictors of adult drug use. Results indicate that more frequent substance use in adolescence and lower income and less frequent church attendance in early adulthood increase the risk of midlife drug use. Shyness in first grade related inversely to later cocaine use and marijuana use (marginally significant). Indirect pathways to drug use also were identified. Gender differences were not significant. The findings show continuities in social maladaptation over time and the importance of social integration and economic resources in the early adult years. PMID:19413135

  2. Using adult learning theory concepts to address barriers to cancer genetic risk assessment in the African American community.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Jeff; Kendall, Colleen; Catts, Zohra Ali-Khan; Radford, Cristi; Dasch, Kimberly

    2007-06-01

    Utilization of cancer genetic risk assessment can be profoundly influenced by an individuals' knowledge of risk assessment, attitudes regarding illness and healthcare, and affective reactions derived from social norms. Race and ethnicity play a powerful role in the development of an individual's attitudes and should be considered when attempting to understand a person's openness to cancer genetic risk assessment (Lannin et al., 1998). Until recently, however, cancer screening and prevention programs have been primarily based on data from studies conducted with the Caucasian population, yielding data that are not fully applicable to the African American community. In the last several years, research findings regarding African American's knowledge, attitudes, and feelings about genetic counseling and testing have grown (Matthews et al., 2000; Singer et al., 2004; Thompson et al., 2003). However, to the authors' knowledge, these data have yet to be presented in a manner that both summarizes the barriers that African Americans have reported regarding cancer genetic risk assessment, while at the same time suggesting methods individual genetic counselors can utilize during community presentations to help address these barriers. This article will first summarize previous empirical findings regarding African Americans' knowledge, attitudes, and feelings about cancer genetic risk assessment. The article will then apply adult learning theory to those findings to provide genetic counselors with practical, theory based techniques to apply toward community based educational programs with African American groups. PMID:17473964

  3. ""Una Persona Derechita" (Staying Right in the Mind)": Perceptions of Spanish-Speaking Mexican American Older Adults in South Texas "Colonias"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharkey, Joseph R.; Sharf, Barbara F.; St. John, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the perceptions of brain health among older Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans who reside in colonia areas of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Design and Methods: In 2007, 33 Mexican American older adults (9 men and 24 women) were recruited by "promotoras" (community health workers) from clusters of "colonias" in…

  4. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners. PMID:22224965

  5. The Life History of the Protandrous Tropical Shad Tenualosa macrura (Alosinae: Clupeidae): Fishery Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaber, S. J. M.; Brewer, D. T.; Milton, D. A.; Merta, Gede Sedana; Efizon, D.; Fry, G.; van der Velde, T.

    1999-11-01

    Tenualosa macrura is a tropical shad that was previously found throughout the estuaries and coastal waters of Sumatra and Borneo where it formed the basis of flourishing fisheries. The only viable fishery today has contracted to the Riau Province of Sumatra, Indonesia. To provide information for conservation and fisheries management, a two-year study of the biology, ecology and life history characteristics of T. macrura was conducted. The evidence from sizes of sexes, sex ratios and histology is that T. macrura is a protandrous hermaphrodite. It changes from male to female mainly between 14 and 20 cm SL (standard length) (six months to one year in age), after the male has spawned. Almost all fish in their second year are females; the species does not appear to live beyond two years. There is a regular movement of spawning males and females between the Strait of Malacca (salinity 28-30) and the spawning grounds in the sheltered straits (salinity 20-28) of Riau Province on each new and full moon. Their occurrence in the inshore straits leads to heavy fishing during these moon phases. The main nursery areas are the shallow coastal waters of the Strait of Malacca. The decline in catches of T. macrura has probably been as a result of fishers intensively targeting aggregations of spawning females. Furthermore, most are caught before spawning. It is postulated that the protandrous habit of this species, and its likewise endangered congener of Sarawak, T. toli, renders them more vulnerable to overfishing than is the gonochoristic and more widespread T. ilisha that is heavily fished from Burma through the Indian sub-continent to Kuwait.

  6. Financial Exploitation and Psychological Mistreatment Among Older Adults: Differences Between African Americans and Non-African Americans in a Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Scott R.; Schulz, Richard; Castle, Nicholas G.; Rosen, Jules

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine racial differences in (a) the prevalence of financial exploitation and psychological mistreatment since turning 60 and in the past 6 months and (b) the experience—perpetrator, frequency, and degree of upset—of psychological mistreatment in the past 6 months. Design and methods: Random digit dial telephone recruitment and population-based survey (telephone and in-person) of 903 adults aged 60 years and older in Allegheny County (Pittsburgh), Pennsylvania (693 non-African American and 210 African American). Covariates included sex, age, education, marital status, household composition, cognitive function, instrumental activities of daily living/activities of daily living difficulties, and depression symptoms. Results: Prevalence rates were significantly higher for African Americans than for non-African Americans for financial exploitation since turning 60 (23.0% vs. 8.4%) and in the past 6 months (12.9% vs. 2.4%) and for psychological mistreatment since turning 60 (24.4% vs. 13.2%) and in the past 6 months (16.1% vs. 7.2%). These differences remained once all covariates were controlled in logistic regression models. There were also racial differences in the experience of psychological mistreatment in the past 6 months. Risk for clinical depression was also a consistent predictor of financial exploitation and psychological mistreatment. Implications: Although the results will need to be replicated in national surveys, the study suggests that racial differences in elder mistreatment are a potentially serious issue deserving of continued attention from researchers, health providers, and social service professionals. PMID:20650947

  7. Comparing Perceptions of Teamness between Adult, First- and Second-Generation Mexican American and All Other Students Enrolled in a Cohort-Based, Accelerated, Bachelor's Degree Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Tami

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a difference in the perception of the degree of teamness, as measured by the Characteristics of Effective Teams Survey (Harvey & Drolet, 2004), interviews, and archival data, between adult first- and second-generation Mexican American students and adult non-first- and…

  8. Self-perceived loss of control and untreated dental decay in African American adults with and without sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Laurence, Brian; Woods, Dexter; George, David; Onyekwere, Onyinye; Katz, Ralph; Lanzkron, Sophie; Diener-West, Marie; Powe, Neil

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between self-perceived loss of control as measured by dental external locus of control summary scores, with the amount of untreated dental decay in African American adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) and African Americans adults without SCD. The sample included 102 subjects with SCD and 103 subjects without SCD matched on age, sex, and recruitment location (mean age of all subjects 35.4 years, 55.6% female). Subjects with SCD in the highest quartile for dental external locus of control summary scores had 2.58-fold (CI 1.05, 6.34) as much untreated decay as those in the lowest quartile (p<.05) in multivariable analysis using the negative binomial regression model. For subjects without SCD, those in the highest quartile for dental external locus of control summary scores had 3.00-fold (CI 1.38, 6.49) as much untreated decay as those in the lowest quartile (p<.05) using similar analysis. This study showed that higher dental external locus of control is associated with increased untreated tooth decay, both for African Americans with and without SCD and that the magnitude of the association did not differ across groups. PMID:16960327

  9. Outcomes of a Behavioral Intervention to Increase Condom Use and Reduce HIV Risk Among Urban African American Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Henry Akintobi, Tabia; Trotter, Jennie; Zellner, Tiffany; Lenoir, Shelia; Evans, Donoria; Rollins, Latrice; Miller, Assia

    2016-09-01

    African Americans comprise nearly half of people in the United States living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but compose one tenth of the population. Infection rate among young African American adults is 11 times that of Whites. The Color It Real Program was a seven-session, weekly administered, age-specific, and culturally tailored intervention designed to provide HIV education and address behavioral motivations (risk awareness, decisional balance exercises, partner negotiation, and attitudes) associated with HIV risk among African Americans ages 18 to 24 years in Atlanta, Georgia. Effectiveness was assessed through a quasi-experimental study design that consisted of intervention (n = 88) and control (n = 52) groups completing a 45-item survey. When controlling for gender and education, repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that the intervention group had significant increases in HIV transmission knowledge (F = 4.84, p = .0305), condom use, and intentions to use condoms (F = 4.38, p = .0385). Risky sexual behavior means did not significantly differ between groups (F = 1.44, p = .2331). Results indicate the value of culturally tailored educational strategies toward improved HIV knowledge and adoption of risk reduction strategies. Future studies investigating the differential impact of programs by gender and sexual orientation are also critical. Continued innovation and tailoring of risk reduction strategies for minority young adults will contribute to reducing HIV incidence and prevalence over the life course. PMID:27216874

  10. Reading-Related Literacy Activities of American Adults: Time Spent, Task Types, and Cognitive Skills Used

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sheida; Chen, Jing; Forsyth, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This article presents data on the types and duration of reading-related activities reported by a volunteer sample of 400 adults (demographically similar to the U.S. adult population age 20 and older in terms of race, ethnicity, education, and working status) in the 2005 Real-World Tasks Study. This diary study revealed that adults spent, on…

  11. Reality and Purpose; A Visitor's Reflections on Some Aspects of American Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsdon, Konrad T.

    In this attempt to view the approach to adult education in the United States, the dangers and benefits of mingling vocational and non-vocational, credit and noncredit, technical, commercial, and liberal adult education within one institution are presented. Examined also are the status of adult educators within the university, the love of organized…

  12. Caregiving Practice Patterns of Asian, Hispanic, and Non-Hispanic White American Family Caregivers of Older Adults Across Generations.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Christina E

    2016-03-01

    This study is a cross-sectional investigation of caregiving practice patterns among Asian, Hispanic and non-Hispanic White American family caregivers of older adults across three immigrant generations. The 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) dataset was used, and 591 Asian, 989 Hispanic and 6537 non-Hispanic White American caregivers of older adults were selected. First, descriptive analyses of caregivers' characteristics, caregiving situations and practice patterns were examined by racial/ethnic groups and immigrant generations. Practice patterns measured were respite care use, hours and length of caregiving. Three hypotheses on caregiving patterns based on assimilation theory were tested and analyzed using logistic regression and generalized linear models by racial/ethnic groups and generations. Caregiving patterns of non-Hispanic White caregivers supported all three hypotheses regarding respite care use, caregiving hours and caregiving duration, showing less caregiving involvement in later generations. However, Asian and Hispanic counterparts showed mixed results. Third generation Asian and Hispanic caregivers used respite care the least and spent the most caregiving hours per week and had the longest caregiving duration compared to earlier generations. These caregiving patterns revealed underlying cultural values related to filial responsibility, even among later generations of caregivers of color. Findings suggest the importance of considering the cultural values of each racial/ethnic group regardless of generation when working with racially and ethnically diverse populations of family caregivers of older adults. PMID:26810575

  13. Comparison of Disability Rates Among Older Adults in Aggregated and Separate Asian American/Pacific Islander Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Hurd, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the prevalence and adjusted odds of 4 types of disability among 7 groups of older Asian American/Pacific Islander (AAPI) subpopulations, both separately and aggregated, compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Methods. Data were from the nationally representative 2006 American Community Survey, which included institutionalized and community-dwelling Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (n = 524), Vietnamese (n = 2357), Korean (n = 2082), Japanese (n = 3230), Filipino (n = 5109), Asian Indian (n = 2942), Chinese (n = 6034), and non-Hispanic White (n = 641 177) individuals aged 55 years and older. The weighted prevalence, population estimates, and odds ratios of 4 types of disability (functional limitations, limitations in activities of daily living, cognitive problems, and blindness or deafness) were reported for each group. Results. Disability rates in older adults varied more among AAPI subpopulations than between non-Hispanic Whites and the aggregated Asian group. Asian older adults had, on average, better disability outcomes than did non-Hispanic Whites. Conclusions. This study provides the strongest evidence to date that exclusion of institutionalized older adults minimizes disparities in disabilities between Asians and Whites. The aggregation of Asians into one group obscures substantial subgroup variability and fails to identify the most vulnerable groups (e.g., Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders and Vietnamese). PMID:20299647

  14. Intergenerational Caregiving between Parents and Their Adult Children: Evidence from a Study of Older Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Wonah

    2009-01-01

    As the population of older Americans rapidly increases and the costs of institutional health care rise, there is much concern about how to satisfy the future care needs of older Americans. As these demographic and socioeconomic trends are coupled with limitations on federal funds for public health care programs, policymakers are focusing on…

  15. Faith-Based Adult Learning Initiatives for Diabetes Education in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaillard, Trudy

    2006-01-01

    Historically, religion and spirituality have been major influences in the social, cultural, and political lives of African Americans. Spirituality is deeply embedded into their rich cultural heritage, and it is intertwined into all aspects of their life, including beliefs about health and illness. For African Americans, health and illness are a…

  16. Gender and Physical Health: A Study of African American and Caribbean Black Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erving, Christy L.

    2011-01-01

    Although gender disparities in health in the United States remain a primary concern among health professionals, less is known about this phenomenon within the black American population. Using the National Survey of American Life, the author examines gender differences in self-rated health, chronic illness, and functional limitations among African…

  17. Prosocial Involvement among African American Young Adults: Considering Racial Discrimination and Racial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Johnson, Rhonda L.

    2012-01-01

    Prosocial involvement is conceptualized as support for or engaging in behaviors that contribute to or benefit African American communities. The current study examines the relationship between prosocial involvement and race-related factors among 303 African American college students. Using two underlying dimensions of prosocial involvement,…

  18. Silence Speaks Volumes: Parental Sexual Communication among Asian American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Janna L.; Ward, L. Monique

    2007-01-01

    Although parents greatly influence children's early understandings of sexuality, little is known about how sexual communication transpires in Asian American families. Accordingly, the authors examined the amount and type of parental sexual communication recalled by 165 Asian American college students. Parents were perceived as providing very…

  19. Embracing Intercultural Diversification: Teaching Young Adult Literature with Native American Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Kenan; Box, Andrea; Blasingame, James

    2013-01-01

    According to the most recent census, there are five million Native Americans in the United States. Of these, there are at least 500,000 Native Americans attending public schools. However, the educational system does not fully serve this population and in fact often ignores them. More importantly, each tribe and clan has its own distinct cultural…

  20. Victimization and Violent Offending: An Assessment of the Victim-Offender Overlap Among Native American Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reingle, Jennifer M.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the victim–offender overlap among a nationally representative sample of Native American adolescents and young adults. Data for this study were obtained from 338 Native American youth who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Waves I-IV. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to estimate trajectories of violence and victimization separately. Bivariate tests were used to assess the overlap between victimization and violent trajectory groups. Multinomial regression procedures were used to assess the predictors of victimization, offending, and the overlap category of both victimization and offending. Three trajectory groups were found for violence (nonviolent, escalators, and desistors) and victimization (nonvictim, decreasing victimization, and increasing victimization). We found substantial evidence of an overlap between victimization and offending among Native Americans, as 27.5% of the sample reported both victimization and offending. Those in the overlap group had greater number of risk factors present at baseline. These results suggest that the victim–offender overlap is present in Native American adolescents. Explanations and implications are discussed. PMID:24078778

  1. A Comparison of African-American and Caucasian Women Adult Children of Alcoholics and Non Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedigo, Shiela; McDermott, Diane

    Alcoholism is a disease that has been shown to affect not only the alcoholic but also the family of the alcoholic. The research on Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOA) reveals that the effects of parental alcoholism are not something that is eradicated once the child leaves home. This study examined the empirical evidence for characteristics of…

  2. The Relationship between Diet Quality and Acculturation of Immigrated South Asian American Adults and Their Association with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Robert T.; Momen, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Even though the total SA American population is increasing rapidly, there is a paucity of information on the relationship between diet quality, acculturation and health outcomes such as Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in the low-income South Asian (SA) sub-population. Our goal was to examine diet quality, degree of acculturation and their potential influence on MetS in a diverse sample of SA Americans. A convenience sample of 401 adult SA men and women were studied using a cross-sectional study design. Volunteers from two low-income community health clinics in Maryland were interviewed by questionnaires. MetS, defined by the consensus harmonized definition by the presence of ≥ 3 of the 5 abnormal indicators, was studied. An interviewer obtained an automated self-administered 24-hour Recall (ASA24) and an acculturation index (using a previously validated (SL-ASIA). SA had a composite HEI2010 score of 68 suggesting an overall need for diet improvements. Males had a higher diet quality (mean HEI2010 score) than females. Males with MetS had lower diet quality (68) than males without MetS (73). The converse was true for females (68 vs. 65). Americanized (more acculturated) subjects had a higher diet quality compared to less acculturated SA. Small differences were found in diet quality scores among SA adults from different countries. Less acculturated females, had a higher percentage of MetS and lower diet quality compared to males. These results suggest that interventions are needed in males and females who were less acculturated because they may have greater MetS and lower diet quality compared to more Americanized SA. PMID:27299862

  3. Improving asthma self-efficacy: Developing and testing a pilot community-based asthma intervention for African American adults

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Molly A.; Catrambone, Catherine D.; Kee, Romina A.; Evans, Arthur T.; Sharp, Lisa K.; Lyttle, Christopher; Rucker-Whitaker, Cheryl; Weiss, Kevin B.; Shannon, John Jay

    2009-01-01

    Background Low-income African American adults in Chicago have disproportionately high asthma morbidity and mortality rates. Interventions that improve asthma self-efficacy for appropriate self-management behaviors may ultimately improve asthma control in this population. Objective To pilot test an intervention to improve asthma self-efficacy for appropriate self-management behaviors. Methods Participants for this trial were recruited through two primary care clinics located in the largest African American community in Chicago. Participants were then randomized into two groups. The control group received mailed asthma education. The intervention group was offered 4 group sessions lead by a community social worker and 6 home visits by community health workers. Telephone interviews were conducted at baseline (pre-intervention), 3 months (post-intervention), and 6 months (maintenance). Results The 42 participants were predominantly African American, low income, and had poorly controlled persistent asthma. The intervention group had significantly higher asthma self-efficacy at 3 months (p<0.001) after the completion of the intervention. Asthma action plans were more common in the intervention group at 3 months (p=0.06). At 6 months, the intervention group had improved asthma quality of life (p=0.002), and improved coping (p=0.01) compared to controls. Trends in behavioral and clinical outcomes favored the intervention group but were not statistically significant. Conclusions This community-based asthma intervention improved asthma self-efficacy, self-perceived coping skills, and asthma quality of life for low income African American adults. Larger trials are needed to test the efficacy of this intervention to reduce asthma morbidity in similar high-risk populations. PMID:19130936

  4. The role of water ventilation and sediment ingestion in the uptake of benzo[a]pyrene in gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum)

    SciTech Connect

    Kolok, A.S.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.; Oris, J.T.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether sediment ingestion or water ventilation was the primary route of uptake for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in the gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), a detritivorous fish. Two experiments were conducted in which fish were exposed to sediments spiked with 1 {micro}g/g BaP. In the first experiment, fish were prevented from feeding by esophagus ligation. In the second experiment, 20 nonligated fish and 30 ligated fish were added to the aquarium. The nonligated fish roiled the water as they fed. Fish were collected 4, 8, 15, and 22 d after the experiments began. Gizzard shad metabolize BaP; therefore, the concentrations of BaP equivalents (parent BaP plus metabolite) were determined. Concentrations of BaP equivalents were significantly greater in the ligated fish in experiment 2 relative to those in experiment 1. In contrast, the concentration of BaP equivalents in the ligated fish in experiment 2 was not significantly different than that in the nonligated fish. The results suggest that ventilation of turbid water may be a significant source of BaP for gizzard shad. Sediment ingestion, however, does not appear to significantly influence the total body concentration of BaP equivalents in gizzard shad.

  5. Channel catfish polyculture with fathead minnows or threadfin shad effects on pond plankton communities and catfish fillet flavor, color, and fatty acid composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense, or fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, were co-cultured with channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, in earthen ponds to determine the effects of planktivory on plankton community dynamics and catfish fillet quality. Fathead minnows had no effect on the plankton c...

  6. HPV knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among Northern Plains American Indian adolescents, parents, young adults, and health professionals.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Grimminger, Delf; Frerichs, Leah; Black Bird, Arlene E; Workman, Karen; Dobberpuhl, Mitchell; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu

    2013-06-01

    Native American women in the Northern Plains have a high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and high incidence of cervical disease and cervical cancer. HPV vaccination coverage is shown to be lower among nonwhite populations and disparity populations. We assessed HPV knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs towards HPV and HPV vaccination during a community-based participatory research project among tribal youth, young adults, parents, and health professionals. In 2009, we recruited a total of 73 individuals to participate in four tribal focus groups: tribal health providers, (n=10), Indian Health Service providers (n=7), young adult women ages 19-26 (n=22), girls (14-18) (n=18), and parents (n=16). Of these, 62 (84.93 %) completed a survey, which included 10 healthcare providers, 22 young adults, 14 teens, and 16 parents. We employed a qualitative thematic analysis of focus group transcript data and conducted frequency analysis of survey data, which were both reviewed and triangulated by a Community Advisory Board. Based on the results of this study, the tribal community advisory board identified local tribal settings for interventions to increase HPV vaccination coverage through health education classes and a school-based vaccination clinic. In addition to tribal community-wide education events to increase awareness of HPV disease, the HPV vaccine, provider-specific training was identified as a potential intervention. These community-based focus group findings underscore the importance of locally and cultural tailored educational interventions to further increase HPV knowledge and HPV vaccination among disparate populations like American Indian adolescent and young adult women. PMID:23564429

  7. Adult Perspectives on Behavior and Emotional Problems in African American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Michael Canute; Puig, Marieva; Lyubansky, Mikhail; Rowan, George T.; Winfrey, Tyrone

    2001-01-01

    Using vignettes describing African American children with internalizing versus externalizing problems, parents, teachers, and clinicians judged problem seriousness, prognosis, etiology, referral, and intervention needs. Opinions differed widely among groups, particularly on judgements about children with externalizing problems. More clinicians…

  8. Cultural predictors of self-esteem: a study of Chinese American female and male young adults.

    PubMed

    Tsai, J L; Ying, Y W; Lee, P A

    2001-08-01

    This study examined how specific domains of cultural orientation (language, social affiliation, and cultural pride) related to self-esteem for a sample of 174 Chinese American male and 179 Chinese American female college students. Participants completed measures of cultural orientation (General Ethnicity Questionnaire; J.L. Tsai, Y.W. Ying, & P.A. Lee, 2000) and self-esteem (M. Rosenberg, 1965). Cultural orientation significantly predicted self-esteem, above and beyond the contribution of age, gender, grade point average, and socioeconomic status. Specifically, proficiency in English and Chinese languages and pride in Chinese culture were positively correlated with self-esteem, whereas affiliation with Chinese people was negatively correlated with selfesteem. The cultural predictors of self-esteem differed for Chinese American men and women. Whereas self-esteem was mainly related to pride in Chinese culture for Chinese American women, self-esteem was mainly related to English and Chinese language proficiency for Chinese American men. Implications of these findings for understanding Asian Americans are discussed. PMID:11506074

  9. Adult Learning, Generativity and "Successful" Aging in Multicultural Perspective: A Hmong American Educational Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hones, Donald F.

    This document examines the themes of adult learning, generativity, and successful aging against the backdrop of the biography of a Hmong refugee who immigrated to the United States in 1988 at the age of 35, began studying English as a second language (ESL), and continues to study ESL in adult education classes while six of his seven children…

  10. Jamaican and American Adult Perspectives on Child Psychopathology: Further Exploration of the Threshold Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Michael Canute; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared adult attitudes concerning child psychopathology. Jamaican and U.S. parents, teachers, and clinicians (total n=382) judged vignettes of two children, one with overcontrolled and one with undercontrolled problems. Although years of education affected some adult ratings, culture had most profound effect. Jamaican parents and teachers rated…

  11. "An Elusive Bird": Perceptions of Music Learning among Canadian and American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Nathan B.

    2009-01-01

    Discovering the perceptions that non-professional adult musicians hold regarding their participation in community ensembles may help improve instruction as well as the ability to more fully understand the implications of lifelong music making. Andragogy, or the teaching and learning strategies associated with adult learning, provided the impetus…

  12. Adults and the Changing Workplace. 1985 Yearbook of the American Vocational Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Carol Herrnstadt, Ed.

    The 31 papers in this yearbook are organized in five sections: I. Changes in the Labor Force, which includes: "Labor Market Needs to the Year 2000" (Morgan V. Lewis) and "Occupational Adaptability and Transferable Skills: Preparing Today's Adults for Tomorrow's Careers" (Frank C. Pratzner and William L. Ashley); II. Educating Adult Students, which…

  13. Respectfully Treating the Elderly: Affective and Behavioral Ways of American Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Kyu-Taik; Kim, Bum Jung; Torres-Gil, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    There has been little research on how young people respect, or disrespect, older adults. This study explored the ways in which young adults connote elder respect by utilizing two different forms of data. Based on quantitative data from a survey of 521 college students, a set of 11 behavioral forms of elder respect was obtained. Out of these forms,…

  14. The Future of Adult Education in the Urban African American Church

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, E. Paulette

    2005-01-01

    Throughout societal transformations and trends, adult education has been available, providing relevant and personal learning needs for adult learners. Such has been the case in urban communities. However, our urban communities have experienced a transformation of sorts. Once thriving with numerous businesses and churches, they no longer enjoy the…

  15. Comprehension of a Colon Cancer Pamphlet among American Adults at Least 50 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chiung-ju

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of comprehension of an educational pamphlet on colon cancer, by adults at least 50 years of age living in the United States. Design: Data were analysed from the "2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy" survey. The survey was designed to assess functional English literacy, which…

  16. Whole-exome imputation of sequence variants identified two novel alleles associated with adult body height in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Du, Mengmeng; Auer, Paul L.; Jiao, Shuo; Haessler, Jeffrey; Altshuler, David; Boerwinkle, Eric; Carlson, Christopher S.; Carty, Cara L.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Curtis, Keith; Franceschini, Nora; Hsu, Li; Jackson, Rebecca; Lange, Leslie A.; Lettre, Guillaume; Monda, Keri L.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rosse, Stephanie A.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Willer, Cristen J.; Wilson, James G.; North, Kari; Kooperberg, Charles; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Peters, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Adult body height is a quantitative trait for which genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci, primarily in European populations. These loci, comprising common variants, explain <10% of the phenotypic variance in height. We searched for novel associations between height and common (minor allele frequency, MAF ≥5%) or infrequent (0.5% < MAF < 5%) variants across the exome in African Americans. Using a reference panel of 1692 African Americans and 471 Europeans from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's (NHLBI) Exome Sequencing Project (ESP), we imputed whole-exome sequence data into 13 719 African Americans with existing array-based GWAS data (discovery). Variants achieving a height-association threshold of P < 5E−06 in the imputed dataset were followed up in an independent sample of 1989 African Americans with whole-exome sequence data (replication). We used P < 2.5E−07 (=0.05/196 779 variants) to define statistically significant associations in meta-analyses combining the discovery and replication sets (N = 15 708). We discovered and replicated three independent loci for association: 5p13.3/C5orf22/rs17410035 (MAF = 0.10, β = 0.64 cm, P = 8.3E−08), 13q14.2/SPRYD7/rs114089985 (MAF = 0.03, β = 1.46 cm, P = 4.8E−10) and 17q23.3/GH2/rs2006123 (MAF = 0.30; β = 0.47 cm; P = 4.7E−09). Conditional analyses suggested 5p13.3 (C5orf22/rs17410035) and 13q14.2 (SPRYD7/rs114089985) may harbor novel height alleles independent of previous GWAS-identified variants (r2 with GWAS loci <0.01); whereas 17q23.3/GH2/rs2006123 was correlated with GWAS-identified variants in European and African populations. Notably, 13q14.2/rs114089985 is infrequent in African Americans (MAF = 3%), extremely rare in European Americans (MAF = 0.03%), and monomorphic in Asian populations, suggesting it may be an African-American-specific height allele. Our findings demonstrate that whole-exome imputation of sequence variants can identify low

  17. Longitudinal association between toenail zinc levels and the incidence of diabetes among American young adults: The CARDIA Trace Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Suk; Xun, Pengcheng; Li, Jing; Morris, Steve J.; Jacobs, David R.; Liu, Kiang; He, Ka

    2016-01-01

    Data on primary prevention of zinc status and diabetes risk are sparse and inconsistent. Of note, the previous studies measured either dietary zinc intake with questionnaire or zinc status in serum or hair. Toenail zinc levels are reliable biomarkers of a relatively long-term exposure. A total of 3,960 American young adults, aged 20–32 years, free of diabetes at baseline in 1987 when toenail clippings were collected, were examined for incident diabetes through 2010. Toenail zinc levels were measured with an inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectroscopy method. Incident diabetes cases were identified by fasting or non-fasting plasma glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests, hemoglobin A1C levels, and/or antidiabetic medications. During the 23-year follow-up, 418 incident diabetes occurred. After adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, study center, body mass index, education, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of diabetes, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and other dietary and non-dietary potential confounders, the hazard ratio of incident diabetes comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of toenail zinc levels was 1.21 (95% CI: 0.90–1.63; Ptrend = 0.20). Findings from this study do not support the hypothesis that zinc status is inversely and longitudinally associated with the incidence of diabetes in American young adults. PMID:26980156

  18. Childhood sexual abuse severity and disclosure as predictors of depression among adult African American and Latina women

    PubMed Central

    Sciolla, Andres; Glover, Dorie A.; Loeb, Tamra B.; Zhang, Muyu; Myers, Hector F.; Wyatt, Gail E.

    2011-01-01

    A history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with adult depression, but data on abuse severity and disclosure are scant, particularly among low income ethnic minorities. CSA often co-occurs with other adversities, which also increase the risk of depression. This study examined the peri-trauma variable of abuse severity and the post-trauma variables of disclosure and self-blame as predictors of current depression symptoms in 94 low-income African American and Latina women with histories of CSA. After controlling for non-sexual childhood adversity and adult burden (i.e., chronic stress), severe CSA overall was associated with higher depression scores, especially among Latinas who disclosed their abuse. Depression symptoms among African American women were highest in those who disclosed and reported high levels of self-blame at the time of the incident. The link between depression and specific peri- and post-CSA factors in minority women may help guide future interventions. PMID:21716061

  19. Longitudinal association between toenail zinc levels and the incidence of diabetes among American young adults: The CARDIA Trace Element Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Suk; Xun, Pengcheng; Li, Jing; Morris, Steve J; Jacobs, David R; Liu, Kiang; He, Ka

    2016-01-01

    Data on primary prevention of zinc status and diabetes risk are sparse and inconsistent. Of note, the previous studies measured either dietary zinc intake with questionnaire or zinc status in serum or hair. Toenail zinc levels are reliable biomarkers of a relatively long-term exposure. A total of 3,960 American young adults, aged 20-32 years, free of diabetes at baseline in 1987 when toenail clippings were collected, were examined for incident diabetes through 2010. Toenail zinc levels were measured with an inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectroscopy method. Incident diabetes cases were identified by fasting or non-fasting plasma glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests, hemoglobin A1C levels, and/or antidiabetic medications. During the 23-year follow-up, 418 incident diabetes occurred. After adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, study center, body mass index, education, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of diabetes, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and other dietary and non-dietary potential confounders, the hazard ratio of incident diabetes comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of toenail zinc levels was 1.21 (95% CI: 0.90-1.63; Ptrend = 0.20). Findings from this study do not support the hypothesis that zinc status is inversely and longitudinally associated with the incidence of diabetes in American young adults. PMID:26980156

  20. APOL1 Risk Alleles Are Associated with Exaggerated Age-Related Changes in Glomerular Number and Volume in African-American Adults: An Autopsy Study.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Wendy E; Hughson, Michael D; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Mott, Susan A; Bertram, John F; Winkler, Cheryl A

    2015-12-01

    APOL1 genetic variants contribute to kidney disease in African Americans. We assessed correlations between APOL1 profiles and renal histological features in subjects without renal disease. Glomerular number (N glom) and mean glomerular volume (V glom) were measured by the dissector/fractionator method in kidneys of African-American and non-African-American adults without renal disease, undergoing autopsies in Jackson, Mississippi. APOL1 risk alleles were genotyped and the kidney findings were evaluated in the context of those profiles. The proportions of African Americans with none, one, and two APOL1 risk alleles were 38%, 43%, and 19%, respectively; 38% of African Americans had G1 allele variants and 31% of African Americans had G2 allele variants. Only APOL1-positive African Americans had significant reductions in N glom and increases in V glom with increasing age. Regression analysis predicted an annual average loss of 8834 (P=0.03, sex adjusted) glomeruli per single kidney over the first 38 years of adult life in African Americans with two risk alleles. Body mass index above the group medians, but below the obesity definition of ≥ 30 kg/m(2), enhanced the expression of age-related changes in N glom in African Americans with either one or two APOL1 risk alleles. These findings indicate that APOL1 risk alleles are associated with exaggerated age-related nephron loss, probably decaying from a larger pool of smaller glomeruli in early adult life, along with enlargement of the remaining glomeruli. These phenomena might mark mechanisms of accentuated susceptibility to kidney disease in APOL1-positive African Americans. PMID:26038529

  1. The concrete jungle: city stress and substance abuse among young adult African American men.

    PubMed

    Seth, Puja; Murray, Colleen C; Braxton, Nikia D; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2013-04-01

    Substance use is prevalent among African American men living in urban communities. The impact of substance use on the social, psychological, and physical health of African American men has important public health implications for families, communities, and society. Given the adverse consequences of alcohol and drug abuse within communities of color, this study evaluated the relationship between city stress, alcohol consumption, and drug use among African American men. Eighty heterosexual, African American men, 18 to 29 years old, completed psychosocial risk assessments that assessed substance use and city stress. Multiple logistic regression analyses, controlling for age, indicated that participants reporting high levels of urban stress, relative to low levels of urban stress, were more likely to report a history of marijuana use (AOR = 5.19, p = .05), history of ecstasy and/or GHB use (AOR = 3.34, p = .04), having family/friends expressing strong concerns about their illicit drug use (AOR = 4.06, p = .02), and being unable to remember what happened the night before due to drinking (AOR = 4.98, p = .01). African American men living within the confines of a stressful urban environment are at increased risk for exposure to and utilization of illicit substances. Culturally competent public health interventions for substance use/abuse should address psychological factors, such as stress and neighborhood violence. PMID:22739803

  2. Asthma 1-2-3: a low literacy multimedia tool to educate African American adults about asthma.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Rina M; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Waite, Katherine R; Rittner, Sarah S; Wilson, Elizabeth A H; Wolf, Michael S

    2009-08-01

    Asthma 1-2-3 is a newly-developed low-literacy multimedia education tool designed to promote asthma self-care concepts among African American adults. An expert panel (n = 10) informed content development for the tool. The video script and storyboard imagery were shown to 30 African Americans recruited from the American Lung Association, whose reactions and comments guided further revisions. The final version was pilot tested in three diverse community settings in Chicago to determine the efficacy of Asthma 1-2-3 at improving patient understanding of asthma and its symptoms. In all, 130 adults participated in the pilot test. Knowledge scores significantly improved from pretest to posttest following presentation of the developed tool for subjects across all literacy levels (Pretest: Mean = 4.2 [SD = 1.6]; Posttest: M = 6.8 [SD = 2.0], P < 0.001). Symptom pathophysiology concepts were the least understood. Individuals with low literacy had less total knowledge score gains compared to those with marginal and adequate literacy (1.8, 2.6, and 3.2 respectively; P = 0.002). The multimedia tool significantly improved understanding of asthma. Individuals with limited literacy may require additional instruction, repeated viewing, or added tangible cues (i.e. supplementary print materials) to support knowledge retention. In general, feedback from the target population was particularly helpful in the development of the tool and its initial evaluation, and should be considered as a necessary step in the creation of other patient education materials. PMID:19353250

  3. Neighborhood Factors Relevant for Walking in Older, Urban, African American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Nancy Ambrose; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A.; Robinson, Jennifer C.; Torres, Elisa R.; Murphy, Susan L.; Martyn, Kristy K.

    2010-01-01

    Focus-group and photo-voice methodology were used to identify the salient factors of the neighborhood environment that encourage or discourage walking in older, urban African Americans. Twenty-one male (n = 2) and female (n = 19) African Americans age 60 years and older (M = 70 ± 8.7, range = 61–85) were recruited from a large urban senior center. Photographs taken by the participants were used to facilitate focus-group discussions. The most salient factors that emerged included the presence of other people, neighborhood surroundings, and safety from crime, followed by sidewalk and traffic conditions, animals, public walking tracks and trails, and weather. Future walking interventions for older African Americans should include factors that encourage walking, such as the presence of other friendly or active people, attractive or peaceful surroundings, and a sense of safety from crime. PMID:20181997

  4. Diabetes in Relation to Serum Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Chlorinated Pesticides in Adult Native Americans

    PubMed Central

    Codru, Neculai; Schymura, Maria J.; Negoita, Serban; Rej, Robert; Carpenter, David O.

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent research suggests that diabetes, a condition whose incidence is increasing, is associated with exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides. Objectives We investigated the potential association between diabetes and serum levels of PCBs, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and mirex in a cross-sectional study of an adult Native-American (Mohawk) population. Methods Through a standardized questionnaire we collected demographic, medical, and lifestyle information from 352 adults, ≥30 years of age. We collected fasting serum samples that were analyzed for 101 PCB congeners, DDE, HCB, and mirex along with fasting glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Participants who had fasting-glucose values > 125 mg/dL and/or who were taking antidiabetic medication were defined as persons with diabetes. We conducted logistic regression to assess the potential association between organochlorine serum levels and diabetes, while controlling for the potential confounding variables of age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, sex, and serum lipid levels. Organochlorine serum levels were categorized in tertiles, and the lowest tertile was used as the reference category. Results The prevalence of diabetes was 20.2%. The odds ratio (OR) of having diabetes for participants in the highest tertile of total PCB concentration compared with the lowest tertile was 3.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.5–10.6). The corresponding ORs for DDE and HCB were even higher. Elevated serum mirex was not associated with diabetes. After adjustment for other analytes, the OR for HCB remained significant, whereas ORs for PCBs and DDE remained elevated but not statistically significant. In contrast, after adjustment for other analytes, the OR for mirex became statistically significant and indicated an inverse association. Conclusions In this study of adult Native Americans, elevated serum PCBs, DDE, and HCB were positively associated with

  5. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Appropriate intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults.

    PubMed

    Jakicic, J M; Clark, K; Coleman, E; Donnelly, J E; Foreyt, J; Melanson, E; Volek, J; Volpe, S L

    2001-12-01

    In excess of 55% of adults in the United States are classified as either overweight (body mass index = 25-29.9 kg.m(-2)) or obese (body mass index > or = 30 kg.m(-2)). To address this significant public health problem, the American College of Sports Medicine recommends that the combination of reductions in energy intake and increases in energy expenditure, through structured exercise and other forms of physical activity, be a component of weight loss intervention programs. An energy deficit of 500-1000 kcal.d-1 achieved through reductions in total energy intake is recommended. Moreover, it appears that reducing dietary fat intake to <30% of total energy intake may facilitate weight loss by reducing total energy intake. Although there may be advantages to modifying protein and carbohydrate intake, the optimal doses of these macronutritents for weight loss have not been determined. Significant health benefits can be recognized with participation in a minimum of 150 min (2.5 h) of moderate intensity exercise per week, and overweight and obese adults should progressively increase to this initial exercise goal. However, there may be advantages to progressively increasing exercise to 200-300 min (3.3-5 h) of exercise per week, as recent scientific evidence indicates that this level of exercise facilitates the long-term maintenance of weight loss. The addition of resistance exercise to a weight loss intervention will increase strength and function but may not attenuate the loss of fat-free mass typically observed with reductions in total energy intake and loss of body weight. When medically indicated, pharmacotherapy may be used for weight loss, but pharmacotherapy appears to be most effective when used in combination with modifications of both eating and exercise behaviors. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that the strategies outlined in this position paper be incorporated into interventions targeting weight loss and the prevention of weight regain for

  6. Utility of the Life Course Perspective in Research With Mexican American Caregivers of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Bronwynne C.; Crogan, Neva; FNGNA; Belyea, Michael; Coon, David

    2013-01-01

    Research on caregiving of elders in Mexican American families is urgently needed. We know little about family caregivers, family transitions in relation to the caregiving role, reciprocal impact of caregivers and care recipients on one another, adaptive strategies, positive benefits of caregiving (caregiver gain), specific caregiving burdens, or supportive interventions for family caregiving. Theory derivation using the concepts and structure of life course perspective provides a way to fill the knowledge gaps concerning Mexican American caregiving families, taking into account their ethnic status as an important Hispanic subgroup and the unique cultural and contextual factors that mark their caregiving experiences. PMID:18845694

  7. Subglottal resonances of adult male and female native speakers of American English.

    PubMed

    Lulich, Steven M; Morton, John R; Arsikere, Harish; Sommers, Mitchell S; Leung, Gary K F; Alwan, Abeer

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a large-scale study of subglottal resonances (SGRs) (the resonant frequencies of the tracheo-bronchial tree) and their relations to various acoustical and physiological characteristics of speakers. The paper presents data from a corpus of simultaneous microphone and accelerometer recordings of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words embedded in a carrier phrase spoken by 25 male and 25 female native speakers of American English ranging in age from 18 to 24 yr. The corpus contains 17,500 utterances of 14 American English monophthongs, diphthongs, and the rhotic approximant [[inverted r

  8. Urban African-American and Hispanic adolescents and young adults: who do they talk to about AIDS and condoms? What are they learning?

    PubMed

    Ford, K; Norris, A

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the first qualitative part of a study designed to investigate factors related to the use of condoms among African-American and Hispanic adolescents and young adults in Detroit. This paper describes who young, urban, African-American and Hispanic persons talk to about AIDS and condoms and what they are learning. The paper provides data on attitudes and beliefs about AIDS and condoms that are needed for further research and for prevention programs. PMID:1931424

  9. Impact of Adult Sons' Incarceration on African American Mothers' Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kerry M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Robertson, Judith A.; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the effect of sons' incarceration on their mothers' psychological distress. Interviews were conducted over the life course with a community cohort of African American mothers who had children in first grade in 1966-1967 when the study began ("N"=615). Thirty years later, their sons had significant rates of…

  10. Cutural Predictors of Self-Esteem: A Study of Chinese American Female and Male Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ying, Yu-Wen; Lee, Peter Allen

    2001-01-01

    Domains of cultural orientation such as language, social affiliation, and cultural pride, were examined in Chinese American college students (N=353) to see how they related to self-esteem. Cultural orientation significantly predicted self-esteem differences. Cultural predictors of self-esteem varied by gender; self-esteem was mainly related to…

  11. An Analysis of Adult-Child Conversation Patterns in Diverse African American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolson, Timothy F. J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines familial conversation patterns of African American families during evening meals, using a social interaction analysis. Found that family size had a pervasive impact on familial interaction, and that although mothers were the clear focus of mealtime interactions, the increased number of children necessitated that fathers take a more direct…

  12. Survey Response Styles, Acculturation, and Culture Among a Sample of Mexican American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Rachel E.; Resnicow, Ken; Couper, Mick P.

    2011-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated use of extreme (ERS) and acquiescent (ARS) response styles across cultural groups. However, due to within-group heterogeneity, it is important to also examine use of response styles, acculturation, and endorsement of cultural variables at the individual level. This study explores relationships between acculturation, six Mexican cultural factors, ERS, and ARS among a sample of 288 Mexican American telephone survey respondents. Three aspects of acculturation were assessed: Spanish use, the importance of preserving Mexican culture, and interaction with Mexican Americans versus Anglos. These variables were hypothesized to positively associate with ERS and ARS. Participants with higher Spanish use did utilize more ERS and ARS; however, value for preserving Mexican culture and interaction with Mexican Americans were not associated with response style use. In analyses of cultural factors, endorsement of familismo and simpatia were related to more frequent ERS and ARS, machismo was associated with lower ERS among men, and la mujer was related to higher ERS among women. Caballerismo was marginally associated with utilization of ERS among men. No association was found between la mujer abnegada and ERS among women. Relationships between male gender roles and ARS were nonsignificant. Relationships between female gender roles and ARS were mixed but trended in the positive direction. Overall, these findings suggest that Mexican American respondents vary in their use of response styles by acculturation and cultural factors. This usage may be specifically influenced by participants' valuing of and engagement with constructs directly associated with social behavior. PMID:21927503

  13. Adolescent Precursors of Early Union Formation among Asian American and White Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yen-hsin Alice; Landale, Nancy S.

    2011-01-01

    Using a framework that emphasizes independent versus interdependent self-construals, this study investigates the relatively low rates of early marriage and cohabitation among Asian Americans compared with Whites. Data from Waves 1 and 3 of Add Health are used to test five hypotheses that focus on family value socialization and other precursors…

  14. The Mexican American Biculturalism Scale: Bicultural Comfort, Facility, and Advantages for Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Basilio, Camille D.; Knight, George P.; O'Donnell, Megan; Roosa, Mark W.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Torres, Marisela

    2014-01-01

    Empirical research on biculturalism is limited, in part because of the lack of quality measures of biculturalism. The currently available measures have limitations due to scoring procedures and sampling of only a narrow range of behaviors and attitudes. We present a measure of biculturalism that captures a broader range of the bicultural experience and uses a scoring system that better represents the wide ranging levels of biculturalism that exist in the diverse population of Mexican American adolescents, mothers, and fathers born either in Mexico or the United States. The Mexican American Biculturalism Scale (MABS; 27 items) includes 3 subscales: bicultural comfort (9 items), bicultural facility (9 items), and bicultural advantages (9 items). We report on the reliability and construct validity of test scores, and confirmatory factor analyses findings for a diverse sample of 316 Mexican American families from a large southwestern metropolitan city. The MABS is available both in English and Spanish (see Appendix). The use of the scale has implications for future research studying how biculturalism is related to psychological outcomes for Mexicans/Mexican Americans. PMID:24548151

  15. Longitudinal associations between social support and physical and mental health in African American adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African Americans report a greater number of modifiable risk factors, such as overweight/obesity, physical inactivity and poor dietary habits, putting them at increased risk of developing and dying from chronic diseases. These risk factors are also associated with poorer health-related quality of li...

  16. Second Language Acquisition across Modalities: Production Variability in Adult L2 Learners of American Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilger, Allison I.; Loucks, Torrey M. J.; Quinto-Pozos, David; Dye, Matthew W. G.

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine production variability in American Sign Language (ASL) in order to gain insight into the development of motor control in a language produced in another modality. Production variability was characterized through the spatiotemporal index (STI), which represents production stability in whole utterances and is a…

  17. Perception of American English Dark /l/ by Normally Hearing Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roussel, Nancye; Oxley, Judith

    2010-01-01

    This perceptual study describes changes in how listeners perceive VCV elements within successive truncations taken from an iambic phrase containing l (e.g. "a leaf", or "a load") spoken by four male speakers of General American English. Evidence of the respective roles of dorsal gestural affiliation between l and the reduced vowel, (V[subscript…

  18. Conflictual Independence, Adult Attachment Orientation, and Career Indecision among Asian American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Chad J.; Brown, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Due to prior research suggesting that relational variables are related to the career development process, we sought to understand how maternal conflictual independence, paternal conflictual independence, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance influence the career decision status of Asian American undergraduate students (N = 113). The…

  19. Vitamin D3 supplementation for 16 weeks improves flow-mediated dilation in overweight African American adults

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ryan A; Pedersen-White, Jennifer; Guo, De-Huang; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger S.; Keeton, Daniel; Huang, Ying; Shah, Yashesh; Zhu, Haidong; Dong, Yanbin

    2013-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence has linked vitamin D deficiency to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Vitamin D deficiency is also more common in African Americans for whom an increased cardiovascular disease risk exists. This study sought to test the hypothesis that 16 weeks of 60,000 IU monthly supplementation of oral vitamin D3 would improve flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in African Americans, whereas no change would be observed in the placebo group. Methods A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial was conducted. Fifty-seven African American adults were randomly assigned to either the placebo group or vitamin D group. Results Following 16 weeks of placebo (n=23; mean age 31±2 years) or 60,000 IU monthly oral vitamin D3 (n=22; mean age 29±2 years), serum concentrations of 25 hydroxyvitamin D increased from 38.2±3.0 nmol/L to 48.7±3.2 nmol/L and 34.3±2.2 nmol/L to 100.9±6.6 nmol/L, respectively. No changes in serum parathyroid hormone, serum calcium, or urine calcium/creatinine were observed following either treatment. Following 16 weeks of treatment, significant improvements in FMD were only observed in the vitamin D group (1.8±1.3%), whereas the placebo group had no change (-1.3±0.6%). Similarly, the vitamin D group exhibited an increase in absolute change in diameter (0.005±0.004 cm) and FMD/shear (0.08±0.04 %/s-1, AUC × 103) following treatment, whereas no change (-0.005±0.002 cm and -0.02±0.02 %/s-1, AUC, respectively) was observed following placebo. Conclusions Supplementation of 60,000 IU monthly oral vitamin D3 (~2000 IU per day) for 16 weeks is effective at improving vascular endothelial function in African American adults. PMID:21311504

  20. Values important to terminally ill African American older adults in receiving hospice care.

    PubMed

    Noh, Hyunjin

    2014-01-01

    While racial disparity in the use of hospice care by older African Americans is widely acknowledged, little is known about the values that they consider as important in receiving health care services along with direct experiences with having these values respected by hospice care providers. Using individual, face-to-face interviews, data were collected directly from 28 African American hospice patients about their experiences in hospice care. Content analysis was used to identify and categorize themes from multiple readings of the qualitative data. Resulting themes included: dying at home, open communications, independent decision-making, autonomy in daily life, unwillingness to be a burden, and relationships. Through the initial assessment, value preferences can be explored and then shared with hospice team members to ensure that services are provided in such a way that their values and preferences are respected. PMID:25494930

  1. Cognitive testing of PAINReportIt in adult African Americans with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Jha, Aruna; Suarez, Marie L; Ferrans, Carol E; Molokie, Robert; Kim, Young Ok; Wilkie, Diana J

    2010-01-01

    PAINReportIt, a computerized version of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (Pain. 1975, 1:277-299), presents pain measurement items to responders in serial display screens accompanied by pop-up screens. In this study, we used cognitive interviews to examine further validity of PAINReportIt with 25 African Americans with sickle cell disease. The specific aims were to determine if the questions in the PAINReportIt program were relevant to and understood by African Americans with sickle cell disease and to describe the nature of the pain they experienced. Most study participants were enthusiastic and able to use the tool as intended and appreciated the comprehensiveness, detail, and multidimensionality of its pain data. For some screens, two to six participants' responses suggested some question understanding and interpretation issues, inability to retrieve the requested information, or technical issues. Their responses indicated that screens lacked sufficient specificity for the temporal nature of pain recurrence over a lifetime. The program captured both nociceptive and neuropathic aspects of sickle cell pain and provided detailed information on the location, intensity, quality, and pattern of pain experienced by participants. We recommend that future revisions to the PAINReportIt program address the temporal issues of measuring recurrent pain, resolve technological issues related to pop-ups, and simplify difficult words to better match the typical health literacy levels of patients. These revisions could further enhance the technological aspects, usability, and cultural appropriateness of the tool for African Americans with sickle cell disease. PMID:20431356

  2. Linking parenting and informal mentor processes to depressive symptoms among rural African American young adult men.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Steven M; Brody, Gene H

    2010-07-01

    Little is known about the rates of depressive symptoms among rural African American men during young adulthood or the processes that predict those rates. Many rural African American men in the deep South confront difficult environments that provide minimal resources and diminishing social support to help them embark on beneficial life paths. A model of protective processes hypothesized to deter depression among this population was tested that included autonomy-promoting parenting, informal mentoring, and protective self-regulatory processes. Data from a Respondent-Driven Sampling study with 116 rural African American men age 18-21 were used to test study hypotheses. The unadjusted prevalence of clinically significant depression was 37.9%. As predicted, self-regulatory processes mediated the influence of autonomy-promoting parenting on depressive symptoms. Leaving the family home was associated negatively and educational attainment was associated positively with self-regulatory processes. Support from an informal mentor moderated the link between autonomy-promoting parenting and self-regulatory processes. Findings suggest malleable targets for intervention development with this population. PMID:20658872

  3. Cognitive Testing of PAINReportIt® in Adult African Americans with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Aruna; Suarez, Marie L.; Ferrans, Carol E.; Molokie, Robert; Kim, Young Ok; Wilkie, Diana J.

    2013-01-01

    PAINReportIt,® a computerized version of Melzack’s (© 1970) McGill Pain Questionnaire, presents pain measurement items to responders in serial display screens accompanied by pop-up screens. In this study, we used cognitive interviews to examine further validity of PAINReportIt® with 25 African Americans with sickle cell disease. The specific aims were to determine if the questions in the PAINReportIt® program were relevant to and understood by African Americans with SCD and to describe the nature of the pain they experienced. Most study participants were enthusiastic and able to use the tool as intended, appreciated the comprehensiveness, detail, and multidimensionality of its pain data. For some screens, two to six participants’ responses suggested some question understanding and interpretation issues, inability to retrieve the requested information, or technical issues. Their responses indicated that screens lacked sufficient specificity for the temporal nature of pain recurrent over a lifetime. The program captured both nociceptive and neuropathic aspects of sickle cell pain, and provided detailed information on the location, intensity, quality and pattern of pain experienced by participants. We recommend that future revisions to the PAINReportIt® program address the temporal issues of measuring recurrent pain, resolve technological issues related to pop-ups, and simplify difficult words to better match the typical health literacy levels of patients. These revisions could further enhance the technological aspects, usability, and cultural appropriateness of the tool for African Americans with SCD. PMID:20431356

  4. Personal views about aging among Korean American older adults: the role of physical health, social network, and acculturation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Giyeon; Jang, Yuri; Chiriboga, David A

    2012-06-01

    Given the importance of a positive attitude towards one's own aging, we examined its predictors in a sample of 230 Korean American older adults (M (age) = 69.8 years, SD = 7.05). Personal views about aging, measured with a subscale of the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS), were regressed on demographic variables, physical health-related factors, and psychosocial attributes (social network and acculturation). Results from the hierarchical regression analysis showed that better physical health conditions (fewer chronic conditions, less functional disability, and better vision) were associated with more positive personal views about aging. Other significant contributors included larger social networks and higher levels of acculturation. Findings suggest that personal views about aging among immigrant elderly populations can be enhanced by promoting physical health, social connectedness, and acculturation. Ways to maintain and improve positive attitudes about personal aging are discussed in a cultural context. PMID:22581472

  5. Assessing family-of-origin functioning in Mexican American adults: retrospective application of the family environment scale.

    PubMed

    Negy, Charles; Snyder, Douglas K

    2006-12-01

    Although both theoretical and empirical literature suggests that individuals' family-of-origin experiences affect subsequent relationship functioning as adults, few studies have examined the appropriateness of family assessment techniques when applied retrospectively for use in either theory development or clinical applications. This study examined psycho-metric characteristics of the Family Environment Scale (FES) when used retrospectively with Mexican Americans to assess their families-of-origin. Findings provided qualified support for the internal consistency of the FES and showed significant mean profile differences for this population across gender and when compared to the normative sample for this measure. Retrospective reports on the FES related to independent measures of family history of distress and, to a lesser extent, with current relationship functioning, providing preliminary support for the criterion-related validity of the FES when adapted for retrospective assessment. Limitations and implications of findings for further research are discussed. PMID:17050910

  6. Differential Outcomes for American College Students Engaged in Community Service-Learning Involving Youth and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Scott; Rabinowicz, Samantha; Gillmor, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The Serve Program at Ignatius University is a community service-learning program that combines academic study of philosophy with a yearlong field-based project at one of approximately 50 different sites. Half of these projects entail working with youth, while the other half entail working with adults. This mixed methods analysis found that college…

  7. Motives in American Men and Women across the Adult Life Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veroff, Joseph; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Investigates stability and change in four social motives (achievement, affiliation, fear of weakness, hope of power) over the adult life cycle. Motives were assessed in 1957 and 1976 by coding thematic apperceptive content in stories told about six pictures. Some age differences and cohort stability were evident for both sexes. (Author/CB)

  8. Program Planning for the Training and Continuing Education of Adults: North American Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter S., Ed.

    This book provides an overview of program planning for adult learning from philosophical and pedagogical perspectives. It contains 19 papers and an introduction by the editor, Peter S. Cookson. The following are included: "A Conceptual Context for Program Planning" (Peter S. Cookson); "Prototypical Program Planning Models"--"Houle's Fundamental…

  9. Barriers to Participation in Adult Education for African Americans Attending a Christian Methodist Episcopal Church

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Faith-based organizations, particularly churches, have embraced education. Historically, churches, synagogues, and temples have been the sites for educational programming. Yet, a great concern among religious institutions is participation in educational activities. Many studies have identified barriers to participation in adult education among…

  10. The Status of Adult and Continuing Education within American Institutions of Higher Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, David M.; Bowker, Lee H.

    Data gathered from a national survey on the status of adult and continuing education in the United States are presented. Chapters cover: continuing education in 410 institutions of higher education (description of the sample, relationships among institutional characteristics, staffing patterns, and support for grants acquisition); the continuing…

  11. Adult Museum Programs: Designing Meaningful Experiences. American Association for State and Local History Book Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachatello-Sawyer, Bonnie; Fellenz, Robert A.; Burton, Hanly; Gittings-Carlson, Laura; Lewis-Mahony, Janet; Woolbaugh, Walter

    A three-year national study of adult museum programs used a qualitative research approach and naturalistic inquiry and interviewed 508 museum program participants, 75 instructors, and 143 museum program planners in all types and sizes of museums, including art institutes, natural and cultural historical museums, science centers, historic houses,…

  12. Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders among Latino and Asian American Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.; Alegria, Margarita; Ortega, Alexander N.; Takeuchi, David

    2007-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults may be at elevated risk for mental health and substance use disorders, possibly due to anti-gay stigma. Little of this work has examined putative excess morbidity among ethnic/racial minorities resulting from the experience of multiple sources of discrimination. The authors report…

  13. Attitudes and program preferences of African-American urban young adults about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

    PubMed

    Smith, Dawn K; Toledo, Lauren; Smith, Donna Jo; Adams, Mary Anne; Rothenberg, Richard

    2012-10-01

    We elicited attitudes about, and service access preferences for, daily oral antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) from urban, African-American young men and women, ages 18-24 years, at risk for HIV transmission through their sexual and drug-related behaviors participating in eight mixed-gender and two MSM-only focus groups in Atlanta, Georgia. Participants reported substantial interest in PrEP associated with its perceived cost, effectiveness, and ease of accessing services and medication near to their homes or by public transportation. Frequent HIV testing was a perceived benefit. Participants differed about whether risk-reduction behaviors would change, and in which direction; and whether PrEP use would be associated with HIV stigma or would enhance the reputation for PrEP users. This provides the first information about the interests, concerns, and preferences of young adult African Americans that can be used to inform the introduction of PrEP services into HIV prevention efforts for this critical population group. PMID:23016502

  14. Aerobic Exercise Attenuates an Exaggerated Exercise Blood Pressure Response in Normotensive Young Adult African-American Men

    PubMed Central

    BOND, VERNON; STEPHENS, QUIONA; ADAMS, RICHARD G.; VACCARO, PAUL; DEMEERSMAN, RONALD; WILLIAMS, DEBORAH; OBISESAN, THOMAS O.; FRANKS, B. DON; OKE, LUE M.; COLEMAN, BERNELL; BLAKELY, RAYMOND; MILLIS, RICHARD M.

    2011-01-01

    An exaggerated exercise blood pressure response (EEBPR) may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension. We hypothesized that aerobic exercise training can decrease EEBPR and the risk for hypertension by decreasing arterial resistance. We studied the effects of aerobic training on the submaximal exercise blood pressure (BP) of eight normotensive young adult African-American men with an EEBPR. Subjects were trained on a stationary bicycle at an intensity of 70% peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) for 30 min, three times per week, for 8 weeks. BP, heart rate, cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV) and total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR) were measured at rest and during submaximal exercise at a work intensity of 50% VO2peak. Significance of the training effects were evaluated by comparing the pre- and post-training measures (t-test, p < 0.05). A 15% post-training increase in VO2peak (34.6 ± 1.4 to 40 ± 1.4 ml/kg/min) and a 9.5 ml post-training increase in mean resting stroke volume were found. A 16.2 mmHg decrement in mean systolic BP, an 11.5 mmHg decrement in mean diastolic BP, a 120 dyne/s/cm5 decrement in TPR and a 1.2 l/min increase in CO were detected during the post-training submaximal exercise tests. These results suggest that reductions in TPR may attenuate the EEBPR of normotensive African-American males following an 8-week training regimen of stationary bicycling at 70% VO2peak. Aerobic exercise training may, therefore, reduce the risk of hypertension in normotensive African-American males by the mechanism of a reduction in TPR. Because of the limited number of subjects, the results of this study should be interpreted cautiously pending confirmation by a larger controlled trial. PMID:12361191

  15. "What about Me? I'm Not Like Chinese but I'm Not Like American": Heritage-Language Learning and Identity of Mixed-Heritage Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines heritage-language (HL) experience and identity of 12 adults of mixed-heritage backgrounds through in-depth autobiographical interviews. Each participant has an English-speaking American parent and an HL (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Spanish, or Vietnamese)-speaking immigrant parent. The interviews explored each participant's…

  16. HIV/AIDS: Risk & Protective Behaviors among American Young Adults, 2004-2008. Monitoring the Future. NIH Publication No. 10-7586

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. The study is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research…

  17. An Examination of the Perceptions of Older Americans on Successful Aging and Adult Education Programs to Meet Their Aging Needs in Southeast Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Ileeia Anjale

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the personal perceptions of older Americans in regards to the aging process and the characteristics of successful aging. In addition, the study aimed to determine individual perceptions of adult education programs and resources necessary in aging successfully. The study examined current resources, services…

  18. Consensus statement of the academy of nutrition and dietetics/american society for parenteral and enteral nutrition: Characteristics recommended for the identification and documentation of adult malnutrition (undernutrition)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy) and the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) recommend that a standardized set of diagnostic characteristics be used to identify and document adult malnutrition in routine clinical practice. An etiologically based diagno...

  19. Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD): An Evaluation of a Semistructured Reading Discussion Group for African American Female Adult-Literacy Students with Histories of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jayatta D.

    2012-01-01

    Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD), a reading discussion group geared toward African American female adult-literacy students with self-defined histories of trauma, was an outgrowth of research identifying links between trauma, women's struggles with literacy, and the need to be conscious of emotional health…

  20. Why Take an HIV Test? Concerns, Benefits, and Strategies to Promote HIV Testing among Low-Income Heterosexual African American Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Scyatta A.; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Harris, Muriel J.; Townsend, Tiffany G.; Miller, Kim S.

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative study examined perceptions of HIV testing and strategies to enhance HIV testing among HIV-negative African American heterosexual young adults (ages 18-25 years). Twenty-six focus groups (13 male groups, 13 female groups) were conducted in two low-income communities (urban and rural). All sessions were audio-recorded and transcribed.…

  1. A Guide to Basic Taxonomic Literature for the Genera of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) - Adults, Pupae, and Larvae. Bulletin No. 447.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Karl W.

    A generic list of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) is presented to help aquatic biologists quickly locate important taxonomic references for the adults, larvae, and pupae of each genus. The list (in chart format) includes literature published through 1981. When recent literature is available, older references are omitted, since the purpose of…

  2. The Protective Role of Ethnic and Racial Identity and Aspects of an Africentric Orientation against Drug Use among African American Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; Pahl, Kerstin

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined (a) the protective potential of multiple components of ethnic and racial identity and (b) the aspects of an Africentric orientation for moderating psychobehavioral risk and protective factors for drug use among a sample of 333 urban low-income African American young adults. Ethnic and racial identity and…

  3. Implications for Educational Classification and Psychological Diagnoses Using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition with Canadian versus American Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Holmes, Alana; Silvestri, Robert; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2015-01-01

    Building on a recent work of Harrison, Armstrong, Harrison, Iverson and Lange which suggested that Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) scores might systematically overestimate the severity of intellectual impairments if Canadian norms are used, the present study examined differences between Canadian and American derived…

  4. Male Role Norms, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of Colorectal Cancer Screening among Young Adult African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Charles R.; Goodson, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Racial disparities in health among African American men (AAM) in the United States are extensive. In contrast to their White counterparts, AAM have more illnesses and die younger. AAM have colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates 25% and 50% higher, respectively, than White men. Due to CRC’s younger age at presentation and high incidence among AAM, CRC screening (CRCS) is warranted at the age of 45 rather than 50, but little is known about younger AAM’s views of CRCS. Employing survey design, the purpose of the study was to describe the male role norms (MRN), knowledge, attitudes, perceived subjective norms, and perceived barriers associated with screening for CRC among a non-random sample of 157 young adult AAM (ages 19–45). Sixty-seven percent of the study sample received a passing knowledge score (85% or better), yet no significant differences were found among the three educational levels (i.e., low, medium, high). More negative attitudes toward CRCS correlated with the participants’ strong perceptions of barriers, but no extremely negative or positive MRN and perceived subjective norms were found. The factors significantly associated with attitudes were family history of cancer (unsure), work status, and perceived barriers. Findings from this study provide a solid basis for developing structured health education interventions that address the salient factors shaping young adult AAM’s view of CRC and early detection screening behaviors. PMID:25506049

  5. ‘Smoking’: use of cigarettes, cigars and blunts among Southeast Asian American youth and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J. P.; Battle, R. S.; Lipton, R.; Soller, B.

    2010-01-01

    Increased use of cigars has been noted among youth, as well as use of blunts (hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana). Three types of relationships have been previously hypothesized between use of tobacco and marijuana in substance use progression. We aimed to assess these relationships for Southeast Asian American youth and adults in an urban population. We conducted in-person interviews with 164 Southeast Asians, smokers and non-smokers, in two low-income urban communities in Northern California, collecting both quantitative and qualitative data. Analysis of the quantitative data indicated distinct use patterns for blunts, cigars and other forms of marijuana in terms of associations with generation in the United States. The use of these items was also found to be related: ever having smoked cigarettes or blunts increased the risk of ever having smoked the other three items. Qualitative data found indications of all three hypothesized relationships between tobacco and marijuana for youths but not for older adults. For youths in the study, ‘smoking’ was found to constitute a social construct within which use of cigarettes, cigars and blunts were somewhat interchangeable. Youths in similar settings may initiate into and progress through smoking as an activity domain rather than any one of these items. PMID:19959564

  6. "Condoms are the standard, right?": Exploratory study of the reasons for using condoms by Black American emerging adult women.

    PubMed

    Longmire-Avital, Buffie; Oberle, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Condoms are considered a highly effective form of sexually transmitted infection prevention for heterosexual sex. Black American women (BAW) have been and are at elevated risk for heterosexual exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because they have been and continue to be less likely to negotiate condom use with a partner that supports them financially. However, BAW who have made tremendous educational gains may still encounter challenges regarding the distribution of power that can affect condom use and negotiation. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the reasons that highly educated, emerging, adult BAW reported for using condoms. One hundred twenty-seven emerging adult BAW (ages 18-29 years) completed a mixed-methods online survey during the spring of 2013 (January-May). Approximately 80% of the women were in college or college graduates. They had a high rate of previous HIV testing (68.5%). Through the use of an interpretive paradigm and grounded theory, three themes emerged regarding the reasons that the participants in this sample used condoms as their primary form of protection: (1) the reliable "standard," (2) pregnancy prevention, and (3) cost effective and "easily accessible." Findings are discussed in terms of their public health significance for this seemingly lower-risk population. PMID:26327468

  7. Associations among environmental supports, physical activity, and blood pressure in African-American adults in the PATH trial.

    PubMed

    Coulon, Sandra M; Wilson, Dawn K; Egan, Brent M

    2013-06-01

    High blood pressure disproportionately affects African-American adults and is a leading cause of stroke and heart attack. Engaging in recommended levels of physical activity reduces blood pressure, and social and physical environmental supports for physical activity may increase engagement in physical activity. Based on social cognitive theory within a bioecological framework, the present study tested hypotheses that perceived peer social support for physical activity and neighborhood walkability would be positively associated with physical activity, and that physical activity would mediate their relation with blood pressure. Baseline data were collected with 434 African-American adults in underserved communities (low income, high crime) participating in the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) trial. Perceived peer social support for physical activity and neighborhood walkability were measured with validated surveys. Physical activity was assessed with 7-day accelerometry (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, min/day) and with a 4-week recall of walking. Three blood pressure assessments were taken by trained staff using standard protocols, with values from the second and third assessments averaged. The sample was predominantly female (63%), overweight (mean body mass index = 30.9, SD = 8.4), and had slightly elevated blood pressures with a mean systolic blood pressure of 132.4 (SD = 17.9) and a mean diastolic blood pressure of 81.4 (SD = 11.0). Results demonstrated that peer social support for physical activity (B = 2.43, p = .02) and neighborhood walkability (B = 2.40, p = .046) were significantly related to average daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Neighborhood walkability was also significantly associated with self-reported average daily walking (B = 8.86, p = .02). Physical activity did not mediate their relation with blood pressure and no significant direct effects of these variables on blood pressure were found. The positive influence of

  8. Distribution of Toenail Selenium Levels in Young Adult Caucasians and African Americans in the United States: The CARDIA Trace Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Xun, Pengcheng; Bujnowski, Deborah; Liu, Kiang; Morris, J. Steve; Guo, Zhongqin; He, Ka

    2011-01-01

    Background Data on selenium (Se) levels in American young adults, especially in African Americans, are lacking. Objective This study presented toenail Se distributions in American young adults of both genders, including both Caucasians and African Americans; and explored potential predictors of toenail Se levels. Data and Methods Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study among 4252 American young adults, aged 20-32 in 1987 was used to examine toenail Se levels by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The distribution of Se levels was described and multivariable linear regression was used to examine potential modifiers of toenail Se concentration within ethnicity-gender subgroups. Results The geometric mean of toenail Se in this cohort was 0.844 μg/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 μg/g) and the median was 0.837 μg/g (95% CI, 0.833-0.844 μg/g). Median levels from lowest to highest quintile were 0.691, 0.774, 0.838, 0.913 and 1.037 μg/g, respectively. Se levels varied geographically, and were generally in accordance with its concentrations in local soil. Males, African Americans, current smokers, heavy drinkers and less educated participants were more likely to have low Se levels. Conclusion This study suggests that toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. In addition to gender, ethnicity and education level, smoking status and alcohol consumption are two important indicators of Se status since they are modifiable lifestyle factors. Findings from this study might aid public health professionals in identifying people at relatively high or low Se levels, so that chronic disease prevention efforts can be directed toward these subgroups. PMID:21316044

  9. Marked Ethnic, Nativity, and Socioeconomic Disparities in Disability and Health Insurance among US Children and Adults: The 2008–2010 American Community Survey

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gopal K.; Lin, Sue C.

    2013-01-01

    We used the 2008–2010 American Community Survey Micro-data Sample (N = 9,093,077) to estimate disability and health insurance rates for children and adults in detailed racial/ethnic, immigrant, and socioeconomic groups in the USA. Prevalence and adjusted odds derived from logistic regression were used to examine social inequalities. Disability rates varied from 1.4% for Japanese children to 6.8% for Puerto Rican children. Prevalence of disability in adults ranged from 5.6% for Asian Indians to 22.0% among American Indians/Alaska Natives. More than 17% of Korean, Mexican, and American Indian children lacked health insurance, compared with 4.1% of Japanese and 5.9% of white children. Among adults, Mexicans (43.6%), Central/South Americans (41.4%), American Indians/Alaska Natives (32.7%), and Pakistanis (29.3%) had the highest health-uninsurance rates. Ethnic nativity disparities were considerable, with 58.3% of all Mexican immigrants and 34.0% of Mexican immigrants with disabilities being uninsured. Socioeconomic gradients were marked, with poor children and adults having 3–6 times higher odds of disability and uninsurance than their affluent counterparts. Socioeconomic differences accounted for 24.4% and 60.2% of racial/ethnic variations in child health insurance and disability and 75.1% and 89.7% of ethnic inequality in adult health insurance and disability, respectively. Health policy programs urgently need to tackle these profound social disparities in disability and healthcare access. PMID:24232569

  10. The acute treatment of migraine in adults: the american headache society evidence assessment of migraine pharmacotherapies.

    PubMed

    Marmura, Michael J; Silberstein, Stephen D; Schwedt, Todd J

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to provide an updated assessment of the evidence for individual pharmacological therapies for acute migraine treatment. Pharmacological therapy is frequently required for acutely treating migraine attacks. The American Academy of Neurology Guidelines published in 2000 summarized the available evidence relating to the efficacy of acute migraine medications. This review, conducted by the members of the Guidelines Section of the American Headache Society, is an updated assessment of evidence for the migraine acute medications. A standardized literature search was performed to identify articles related to acute migraine treatment that were published between 1998 and 2013. The American Academy of Neurology Guidelines Development procedures were followed. Two authors reviewed each abstract resulting from the search and determined whether the full manuscript qualified for review. Two reviewers studied each qualifying full manuscript for its level of evidence. Level A evidence requires at least 2 Class I studies, and Level B evidence requires 1 Class I or 2 Class II studies. The specific medications - triptans (almotriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan [oral, nasal spray, injectable, transcutaneous patch], zolmitriptan [oral and nasal spray]) and dihydroergotamine (nasal spray, inhaler) are effective (Level A). Ergotamine and other forms of dihydroergotamine are probably effective (Level B). Effective nonspecific medications include acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and naproxen), opioids (butorphanol nasal spray), sumatriptan/naproxen, and the combination of acetaminophen/aspirin/caffeine (Level A). Ketoprofen, intravenous and intramuscular ketorolac, flurbiprofen, intravenous magnesium (in migraine with aura), and the combination of isometheptene compounds, codeine/acetaminophen and tramadol/acetaminophen are probably effective (Level B). The antiemetics prochlorperazine

  11. Transitions in Care among Older Adults with Dementia in a Nationally Representative Sample of Older Americans

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Christopher M.; Tu, Wanzhu; Unroe, Kathleen T.; LaMantia, Michael A.; Stump, Timothy E.; Clark, Daniel O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Older adults with dementia experience frequent transitions in care Objectives To describe transitions in care among older adults with dementia identified from a nationally representative cohort and to describe transition rates among subjects with more severe levels of cognitive and functional impairment Design Longitudinal cohort study Setting Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Participants 16,186 HRS respondents aged 65 years or over whose survey data were linked with Medicare claims from 1999-2008 Measurements Transitions in care between home, home with formal services, hospital, and nursing facility care, as well as cognitive function, activities of daily living, and mortality. Results The 3,447 (21.3%) HRS subjects who were ever diagnosed with dementia experienced frequent transitions. Among subjects transitioning from a hospital stay, 52.2% returned home without home care services while 33.8% transitioned to a nursing facility. Among subjects transitioning from a nursing facility, 59.2% transitioned to the hospital while 25.3% returned home without services. There were 2,139 transitions to death and 58.7% of HRS subjects with dementia died at home. Even among persons with moderate to severe dementia, we documented multiple transitions in care, including transitions from the hospital to home and back to the hospital. Conclusion In this nationally representative sample of older adults, subjects diagnosed with dementia experience frequent transitions. Those persons with dementia who are cared for at home and who transition back to home often have moderate to severe impairments in both function and cognition. PMID:26200764

  12. Effect of corazonin and crustacean cardioactive peptide on heartbeat in the adult American cockroach (Periplaneta americana).

    PubMed

    Sláma, Karel; Sakai, Tsubasa; Takeda, Makio

    2006-06-01

    Changes in the frequency of cardiac pulsations have been monitored in the decapitated body of adult P. americana before and 5 h after the injections of [Arg(7)]-corazonin and CCAP, using newly invented touch-free, noninvasive optocardiographic methods. Relatively large dosages of these peptides (10(-6) M concentrations in the body) had no effect on the rate of the heartbeat beyond the Ringer control limits. It has been concluded, therefore, that Corazonin and CCAP, which are currently cited in the literature as "the most potent cardiostimulating peptides" in insects, have no effect on the physiological regulation of cardiac functions in the living body. PMID:16703615

  13. Stimulant Use by Young Adult African Americans in a Rural Community: A Pipeline to Prison?

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Bell-Tolliver, LaVerne; Tripathi, Shanti P.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2012-01-01

    The association between stimulant use and legal outcomes was examined in rural adults 18–21 years (n=98) in the Mississippi River Delta of Arkansas from 2003 through 2008. Participants were interviewed at baseline and every six months for two years using the Substance Abuse Outcomes Module, Addiction Severity Index, Short-Form 8 Health Survey, Brief Symptom Inventory, Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Screen, and an abbreviated Antisocial Personality Disorder measure. More than three-quarters were arrested before baseline; 47 were arrested over the next two years. Early arrest but not substance use was related to subsequent arrest. Limitations and implications for interventions are discussed. PMID:21047150

  14. Art therapy: Using the creative process for healing and hope among African American older adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Carol M; Sullivan-Marx, Eileen M

    2006-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the field of art therapy and the potential it can offer to address the emotional needs of the frail elderly. Two case studies are discussed, and examples of artwork are provided. The case studies and artwork were created under the guidance of an art therapist at a Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) site in an urban African American community. This article explores how art making addresses the specific developmental tasks of the elderly in a culturally competent manner. Included are practical considerations in the choice of art media and directives for working with elderly clients, as well as resources for further information on the use of art in therapy. PMID:17045130

  15. Prevalence of vocal fry in young adult male American English speakers.

    PubMed

    Abdelli-Beruh, Nassima B; Wolk, Lesley; Slavin, Dianne

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess possible gender differences in the prevalence of vocal fry in the voices of young male college students. Results were compared with previously published findings derived from a matched sample of female speakers. Thirty-four male college students, native American English speakers, produced speech samples in two speaking conditions: (1) sustained isolated vowel /a/ and (2) reading task. Data analyses included perceptual evaluations by two licensed speech-language pathologists. Results showed that vocal fry was perceived significantly more frequently in sentences than in isolated vowel productions. When vocal fry occurred in sentences, it was detected significantly more often in sentence-final position than in initial- and/or mid-sentence position. Furthermore, the prevalence of vocal fry in sentences was significantly lower for male speakers than has previously been reported for female speakers. Possible physiological and sociolinguistic explanations are discussed. PMID:24315658

  16. Anticipated HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Sexually Active African-American Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Painter, Julia; Cene-Kush, Clare; Conner, Alaina; Cwiak, Carrie; Haddad, Lisa; Mulligan, Mark; DiClemente, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    An HIV vaccine, once it becomes available, could reduce vulnerability to HIV among African-American women. The purpose of this study was to assess determinants of HIV vaccine acceptability among African-American women across hypothetical levels of vaccine efficacy. Participants were recruited from a hospital-based family planning clinic in Atlanta, GA serving low-income patients (N = 321). Data were collected from audio-computer assisted surveys administered in the clinic waiting room. Psychosocial survey items were guided by Risk Homeostasis Theory (RHT) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify determinants of acceptability for two hypothetical HIV vaccines with 50% and 90% efficacy. Overall, 63% of participants would accept a vaccine with 50% efficacy and 85% would accept a vaccine with 90% efficacy. In multivariate analyses, odds of acceptability for a vaccine with 50% efficacy were higher among participants with greater perceived HIV vaccine benefits (AOR = 1.13, p < 0.001) and lower among participants with more than high school education (AOR = 0.47, p = 0.033) and greater perceived costs of HIV vaccination (AOR = 0.95, p = 0.010). Odds of acceptability for a vaccine with 90% efficacy were higher among participants with greater perceived costs of unprotected sex (AOR = 1.08, p = 0.026), HIV vaccine benefits (AOR = 1.23, p < 0.001) and self-efficacy for sex refusal (AOR = 1.11, p = 0.044). HIV vaccine acceptability was high, particularly for a vaccine with 90% efficacy. Findings suggest that demographic and psychosocial factors may impact acceptability of an eventual HIV vaccine. Once an HIV vaccine is available, interventions to maximize uptake may benefit from using RHT and SCT constructs to target relevant psychosocial factors, such as perceived benefits and perceived costs of vaccination. PMID:26343960

  17. Shark predation on migrating adult American eels (Anguilla rostrata) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

    PubMed

    Béguer-Pon, Mélanie; Benchetrit, José; Castonguay, Martin; Aarestrup, Kim; Campana, Steven E; Stokesbury, Michael J W; Dodson, Julian J

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to document the migratory pathways and the environmental conditions encountered by American eels during their oceanic migration to the Sargasso Sea, we tagged eight silver eels with miniature satellite pop-up tags during their migration from the St. Lawrence River in Québec, Canada. Surprisingly, of the seven tags that successfully transmitted archived data, six were ingested by warm-gutted predators, as observed by a sudden increase in water temperature. Gut temperatures were in the range of 20 to 25°C-too cold for marine mammals but within the range of endothermic fish. In order to identify the eel predators, we compared their vertical migratory behavior with those of satellite-tagged porbeagle shark and bluefin tuna, the only endothermic fishes occurring non-marginally in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. We accurately distinguished between tuna and shark by using the behavioral criteria generated by comparing the diving behavior of these two species with those of our unknown predators. Depth profile characteristics of most eel predators more closely resembled those of sharks than those of tuna. During the first days following tagging, all eels remained in surface waters and did not exhibit diel vertical migrations. Three eels were eaten at this time. Two eels exhibited inverse diel vertical migrations (at surface during the day) during several days prior to predation. Four eels were eaten during daytime, whereas the two night-predation events occurred at full moon. Although tagging itself may contribute to increasing the eel's susceptibility to predation, we discuss evidence suggesting that predation of silver-stage American eels by porbeagle sharks may represent a significant source of mortality inside the Gulf of St. Lawrence and raises the possibility that eels may represent a reliable, predictable food resource for porbeagle sharks. PMID:23082131

  18. Shark Predation on Migrating Adult American Eels (Anguilla rostrata) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence

    PubMed Central

    Béguer-Pon, Mélanie; Benchetrit, José; Castonguay, Martin; Aarestrup, Kim; Campana, Steven E.; Stokesbury, Michael J. W.; Dodson, Julian J.

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to document the migratory pathways and the environmental conditions encountered by American eels during their oceanic migration to the Sargasso Sea, we tagged eight silver eels with miniature satellite pop-up tags during their migration from the St. Lawrence River in Québec, Canada. Surprisingly, of the seven tags that successfully transmitted archived data, six were ingested by warm-gutted predators, as observed by a sudden increase in water temperature. Gut temperatures were in the range of 20 to 25°C—too cold for marine mammals but within the range of endothermic fish. In order to identify the eel predators, we compared their vertical migratory behavior with those of satellite-tagged porbeagle shark and bluefin tuna, the only endothermic fishes occurring non-marginally in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. We accurately distinguished between tuna and shark by using the behavioral criteria generated by comparing the diving behavior of these two species with those of our unknown predators. Depth profile characteristics of most eel predators more closely resembled those of sharks than those of tuna. During the first days following tagging, all eels remained in surface waters and did not exhibit diel vertical migrations. Three eels were eaten at this time. Two eels exhibited inverse diel vertical migrations (at surface during the day) during several days prior to predation. Four eels were eaten during daytime, whereas the two night-predation events occurred at full moon. Although tagging itself may contribute to increasing the eel's susceptibility to predation, we discuss evidence suggesting that predation of silver-stage American eels by porbeagle sharks may represent a significant source of mortality inside the Gulf of St. Lawrence and raises the possibility that eels may represent a reliable, predictable food resource for porbeagle sharks. PMID:23082131

  19. Intraurban Variations in Adult Mortality in a Large Latin American City

    PubMed Central

    Green Franklin, Tracy; Alazraqui, Marcio; Spinelli, Hugo

    2007-01-01

    Urbanization is high and growing in low- and middle-income countries, but intraurban variations in adult health have been infrequently examined. We used spatial analysis methods to investigate spatial variation in total, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and neoplasm adult mortality in Buenos Aires, Argentina, a large city within a middle-income country in Latin America. Conditional autoregressive models were used to examine the contribution of socioeconomic inequalities to the spatial patterning observed. Spatial autocorrelation was present in both men and women for total deaths, cardiovascular deaths, and other causes of death (Moran’s Is ranging from 0.15 to 0.37). There was some spatial autocorrelation for respiratory deaths, which was stronger in men than in women. Neoplasm deaths were not spatially patterned. Socioeconomic disadvantage explained some of this spatial patterning and was strongly associated with death from all causes except respiratory deaths in women and neoplasms in men and women [relative rates (RR) for 90th vs 10th percentile of percent of adults with incomplete high school and 95% confidence intervals: 1.23 and 1.09–1.39 vs 1.24 and 1.08–1.42 for total deaths in men and women, respectively; 1.36 and 1.15–1.60 vs 1.22 and 1.01–1.47 for cardiovascular deaths; 1.21 and 0.97–1.52 vs 1.07 and 0.85–1.34 for respiratory deaths; 0.94 and 0.85–1.04 vs 1.03 and 0.87–1.22 for neoplasms; and 1.49 and 1.20–1.85 vs 1.63 and 1.31–2.03 for other deaths].There is substantial intraurban variation in risk of death within cities. This spatial variability was present for multiple causes of death and is partly explained by the spatial patterning of socioeconomic disadvantage. Our results highlight the pervasive role of space and social inequalities in shaping life and death within large cities. PMID:17357849

  20. Competing Demands from Aging Parents and Adult Children in Two Cohorts of American Women

    PubMed Central

    Wiemers, Emily E.; Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2015-01-01

    In late middle age, individuals may face competing demands on their time and financial resources from elderly parents and young adult children. This study uses the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine changes over time in the probability of having children and living parents for women age 45 to 64. We compare two cohorts: those born in the 1920s and 1930s and those born in the 1940s and 1950s. We find that there has been a dramatic increase in the probability of having children and living parents and that this increase has been driven mainly by changes in life expectancy of the parent generation. We further examine transfers of money and co-residence for women in the later cohort. We find that while women may not give to parents and children concurrently, approximately thirty percent of them have provided support to both parents and children at some point in the past. PMID:26594071

  1. Distributions and Determinants of Mercury Concentrations in Toenails among American Young Adults: the CARDIA Trace Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Xun, Pengcheng; Liu, Kiang; Morris, J. Steve; Jordan, Joanne M.; He, Ka

    2012-01-01

    Background Since data on mercury (Hg) levels in Caucasians and African Americans (AAs) of both genders are lacking, this study aims to present toenail Hg distributions and explore the potential determinants using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Trace Element Study. Methods Data from 4344 Americans, aged 20–32 in 1987, recruited from Oakland, Chicago, Minneapolis and Birmingham were used to measure toenail Hg levels by instrumental neutron-activation method. The Hg distribution was described with selected percentiles and geometric means. Multivariable linear regression (MLR) was used to examine potential determinants of Hg levels within ethnicity-gender subgroups. Results The geometric mean of toenail Hg was 0.212 (95% CI: 0.207–0.218) μg/g. Hg levels varied geographically with Oakland the highest [0.381 (0.367–0.395) μg/g] and Minneapolis the lowest [0.140 (0.134–0.147) μg/g]. MLR analyses showed that male gender and AA ethnicity were negatively associated with toenail Hg levels; and that age, living in Oakland city, education level, alcohol consumption and total fish intake were positively associated with toenail Hg concentrations within each ethnicity-gender subgroup. Current smokers were found to have higher Hg only in AA men. Conclusions This study suggested age, gender, ethnicity, study center, alcohol, education level and fish consumption consistently predict toenail Hg levels. As fish consumption was the key determinant, avoiding certain types of fish that have relatively high Hg levels may be crucial in reducing Hg intake. PMID:22926255

  2. Sociodemographic Factors, Acculturation, and Nutrition Management among Hispanic American Adults with Self-reported Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yilin Xu; Simonsen, Neal; Chen, Liwei; Zhang, L U; Scribner, Richard; Tseng, Tung-Sung

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether sociodemographic factors and acculturation affect achievement of selected American Diabetes Association (ADA) nutrition therapy recommendations among Hispanics with diabetes. Cross-sectional data for Hispanics with diabetes in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2010 were used. Achievements of the ADA recommendation for five nutrition components were examined (i.e., daily intake of saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, and fiber, and daily servings of alcohol). Acculturation measurement derived from language use, country of birth, and length of residence in the U.S. Logistic regressions were performed. Only 49% of Hispanics with diabetes met three or more recommended criteria. Male gender and younger age (≤45) predicted poor recommendation adherence. More acculturated individuals had around 50% lower odds to achieve saturated fat [OR 0.5, CI 0.2-0.7], fiber [OR 0.5, CI 0.2-0.9], sodium [OR 0.5, CI 0.3-0.9] and cholesterol intake [OR 0.5, CI 0.3-0.8] recommendations than their less acculturated counterparts. PMID:27524787

  3. A systematic review of physical activity interventions among African American adults: evidence from 2009 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Whitt-Glover, M C; Keith, N R; Ceaser, T G; Virgil, K; Ledford, L; Hasson, R E

    2014-10-01

    This review extends findings from four previous reviews of physical activity (PA) interventions among African Americans (AA) and includes papers published between January 2009 and August 2013. Eligible papers were retrieved using strategies employed in previous reviews. Overall, 16 relevant papers were identified, including four pilot studies and 12 full trials. Interventions were based on a variety of behavioural sciences theories. The most common setting for interventions was churches. Most interventions lasted >6 months; few interventions included >6 months of post-intervention follow-up. Overall, studies identified within-group differences showing positive improvements in PA, and most studies showed statistically significant between-group differences in at least one measure of PA. A quality score was used to rate various elements of the studies and provide a numerical assessment of each paper; scores ranged from 3 to 10 out of 13 possible points. The current review indicates a continued need for studies that use objective PA measures, assess long-term intervention impact, provide specific PA goals for interventions, include more attention to strategies that can increase retention and adherence among AA study participants, include AA men and determine the independent and synergistic effects of individual and environmental (socio-cultural and built) change strategies. PMID:25196410

  4. Life-Space and Cognitive Decline in a Community-Based Sample of African American and Caucasian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Michael; Andel, Ross; Wadley, Virginia G.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Sawyer, Patricia; Allman, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Life-space, a measure of movement through one’s environment, may be viewed as one aspect of environmental complexity for older adults. We examined the relationship between life-space and subsequent change in cognitive function. Methods Participants were 624 community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries (49% African American) who completed in-home assessments at baseline and follow-up 4 years later. The Life-Space Assessment was used at baseline to measure extent, frequency, and independence of participants’ movement within and outside the home. Cognitive decline was measured with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Results In a regression model adjusted for baseline MMSE, age, gender, race, residence (rural/urban), and education, greater life-space at baseline predicted reduced cognitive decline (β = −.177, p < .001). This association remained statistically significant in subsequent models that examined what proportion of the observed association was explained by baseline physical activity, physical function, vascular risk factors, comorbidity, and psychosocial factors. Physical function accounted for the largest proportion (37.3%) of the association between life-space and cognitive decline. There was no significant interaction between life-space and race, gender, or age in predicting cognitive decline. In a logistic regression analysis, participants in the highest quartile of life-space had 53% reduced odds of substantial cognitive decline (≥4 points on MMSE) compared to those in the lowest quartile. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest that life-space may be a useful identifier of older adults at risk for cognitive decline. Future research should investigate the potential reciprocal relationship between life-space and cognitive function as well as the interrelationship between these factors and physical function. PMID:19038840

  5. American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand. Exercise and physical activity for older adults.

    PubMed

    1998-06-01

    ACSM Position Stand on Exercise and Physical Activity for Older Adults. Med. Sci. Sports. Exerc., Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 992-1008, 1998. By the year 2030, the number of individuals 65 yr and over will reach 70 million in the United States alone; persons 85 yr and older will be the fastest growing segment of the population. As more individuals live longer, it is imperative to determine the extent and mechanisms by which exercise and physical activity can improve health, functional capacity, quality of life, and independence in this population. Aging is a complex process involving many variables (e.g., genetics, lifestyle factors, chronic diseases) that interact with one another, greatly influencing the manner in which we age. Participation in regular physical activity (both aerobic and strength exercises) elicits a number of favorable responses that contribute to healthy aging. Much has been learned recently regarding the adaptability of various biological systems, as well as the ways that regular exercise can influence them. Participation in a regular exercise program is an effective intervention/ modality to reduce/prevent a number of functional declines associated with aging. Further, the trainability of older individuals (including octo- and nonagenarians) is evidenced by their ability to adapt and respond to both endurance and strength training. Endurance training can help maintain and improve various aspects of cardiovascular function (as measured by maximal VO2, cardiac output, and arteriovenous O2 difference), as well as enhance submaximal performance. Importantly, reductions in risk factors associated with disease states (heart disease, diabetes, etc.) improve health status and contribute to an increase in life expectancy. Strength training helps offset the loss in muscle mass and strength typically associated with normal aging. Additional benefits from regular exercise include improved bone health and, thus, reduction in risk for osteoporosis; improved

  6. Gender and the association of smoking with sleep quantity and quality in American adults.

    PubMed

    Mehari, Alem; Weir, Nargues A; Gillum, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    Smoking and gender are known risk factors for sleep disorders. Studies of samples from Norway and Japan have suggested stronger associations between smoking and disrupted sleep in women; therefore, we examined, gender differences in the association in the U.S. population. We analyzed data from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We examined the associations between smoking and self-reported measures of sleep disorders (i.e., snoring, short sleep, long sleep, poor sleep, and health care provider diagnosis of sleep disordered breathing) using multivariate logistic regression with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) as measures of association. We also assessed whether the associations varied by gender using a gender x smoking interaction term. Compared to never smokers, current smokers had significantly higher odds of self-reported snoring (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.56-2.56), short sleep (OR 1.68; 95% CI = 1.35-2.10) and poor sleep (OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.09-1.74). A dose-response relationship was observed between the amount smoked and sleep symptoms. In multivariate analyses, no significant gender x smoking interaction was observed for snoring, short sleep or poor sleep. Current smoking was independently associated with increased odds of snoring, short sleep, and poor sleep in women and men among U.S. adults. PMID:24261545

  7. Surprising SES Gradients in Mortality, Health, and Biomarkers in a Latin American Population of Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dow, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Background To determine socioeconomic status (SES) gradients in the different dimensions of health among elderly Costa Ricans. Hypothesis: SES disparities in adult health are minimal in Costa Rican society. Methods Data from the Costa Rican Study on Longevity and Healthy Aging study: 8,000 elderly Costa Ricans to determine mortality in the period 2000–2007 and a subsample of 3,000 to determine prevalence of several health conditions and biomarkers from anthropometry and blood and urine specimens. Results The ultimate health indicator, mortality, as well as the metabolic syndrome, reveals that better educated and wealthier individuals are worse off. In contrast, quality of life–related measures such as functional and cognitive disabilities, physical frailty, and depression all clearly worsen with lower SES. Overall self-reported health (SRH) also shows a strong positive SES gradient. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes and cholesterol are not significantly related to SES, but hypertension and obesity are worse among high-SES individuals. Reflecting mixed SES gradients in behaviors, smoking and lack of exercise are more common among low SES, but high calorie diets are more common among high SES. Conclusions Negative modern behaviors among high-SES groups may be reversing cardiovascular risks across SES groups, hence reversing mortality risks. But negative SES gradients in healthy years of life persist. PMID:19196695

  8. Hearing, use of hearing protection, and attitudes towards noise among young American adults.

    PubMed

    Widén, S E; Holmes, A E; Johnson, T; Bohlin, M; Erlandsson, S I

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible associations between college students' attitudes, risk-taking behaviour related to noisy activities, and hearing problems such as threshold shifts or self-experienced hearing symptoms. The sample included 258 students aged between 17 and 21 enrolled at the University of Pennsylvania, USA. A questionnaire measuring attitudes towards noise, use of hearing protection, and self-reported hearing symptoms was distributed among the students. After completing the questionnaire a hearing screening, including pure-tone audiometry and tympanometry, was conducted. The result revealed that 26% had thresholds poorer than the screening level of 20 dBHL. Attitudes were significantly related to self-experienced hearing symptoms, but not to threshold shifts. Attitudes and noise sensitivity was, significantly related to use of hearing protection. Hearing protection use was found in activities such as using firearms, mowing lawns, and when using noisy tools but was less reported for concerts and discotheques. It can be concluded that the young adults in this study expose themselves to hearing risks, since the use of hearing protection is in general very low. PMID:19842807

  9. Pelagic Life and Depth: Coastal Physical Features in West Africa Shape the Genetic Structure of the Bonga Shad, Ethmalosa fimbriata

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Jean-Dominique; Guinand, Bruno; Dodson, Julian J.; Lecomte, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    The bonga shad, Ethmalosa fimbriata, is a West African pelagic species still abundant in most habitats of its distribution range and thought to be only recently affected by anthropogenic pressure (habitat destruction or fishing pressure). Its presence in a wide range of coastal habitats characterised by different hydrodynamic processes, represents a case study useful for evaluating the importance of physical structure of the west African shoreline on the genetic structure of a small pelagic species. To investigate this question, the genetic diversity of E. fimbriata was assessed at both regional and species range scales, using mitochondrial (mt) and nuclear DNA markers. Whereas only three panmictic units were identified with mtDNA at the large spatial scale, nuclear genetic markers (EPIC: exon-primed intron-crossing) indicated a more complex genetic pattern at the regional scale. In the northern-most section of shad’s distribution range, up to 4 distinct units were identified. Bayesian inference as well as spatial autocorrelation methods provided evidence that gene flow is impeded by the presence of deep-water areas near the coastline (restricting the width of the coastal shelf), such as the Cap Timiris and the Kayar canyons in Mauritania and Senegal, respectively. The added discriminatory power provided by the use of EPIC markers proved to be essential to detect the influence of more subtle, contemporary processes (e.g. gene flow, barriers, etc.) acting within the glacial refuges identified previously by mtDNA. PMID:24130890

  10. Prevalence of Child and Adult Sexual Abuse and Risk Taking Practices Among HIV Serodiscordant African-American Couples

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the prevalence of child (CSA) and adult (ASA) sexual abuse among 535 African American HIV serodiscordant couples from four major United State cities, and its relationship to personal and couple related vulnerabilities and HIV risk factors. As part of a randomized, clinical trial, CSA and ASA histories were obtained through face-to-face interviews. Results indicate that HIV positive women were significantly more likely to report one kind of abuse (32.32%), either before or since age 18 or both (32.6%). HIV-positive men (34.9%) were significantly more likely to report CSA than HIV-negative men (22.0%). Overall, 72% of couples reported that one or both had CSA histories. These findings underscore the heightened emotional vulnerability, and STI and HIV transmission risk taking practices, associated with sexual abuse. Sexual abuse histories among couples should be assessed to better understand how these histories may contribute to couples dynamics and risk-taking practices. PMID:20499150

  11. Relationships of posttraumatic stress symptoms and sleep measures to cognitive performance in young-adult African Americans.

    PubMed

    Brownlow, Janeese A; Brown, Tyish S Hall; Mellman, Thomas A

    2014-04-01

    Disturbed sleep is a prominent feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD and disrupted sleep have been independently linked to cognitive deficits; however, synergistic effects of PTSD and poor sleep on cognition have not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of PTSD symptoms and objectively measured disruptions to sleep on cognitive function. Forty-four young-adult African American urban residents comprised the study sample. The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS; Blake et al., 1995) was utilized to determine the severity of PTSD symptoms. Participants underwent 2 consecutive nights of polysomnography. The Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (Reeves, Winter, Bleiberg, & Kang, ) was utilized to assess sustained attention and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (Schmidt, ) was used to evaluate verbal memory. PTSD symptom severity, r(42) = .40, p = .007, was significantly associated with omission errors on the sustained attention task, and sleep duration, r(42) = .41, p = .006, and rapid eye movement sleep, r(42) = .43, p = .003, were positively correlated with verbal memory. There was an interaction of PTSD symptom severity and sleep duration on omission errors such that more than 7 hours 12 minutes of sleep mitigated attentional lapses that were associated with PTSD. PMID:24740871

  12. Qualitative developmental research among low income African American adults to inform a social marketing campaign for walking

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study describes the development of a social marketing campaign for increasing walking in a low income, high crime community as part of the Positive Action for Today’s Health (PATH) trial. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 52 African American adults (ages 18 to 65 yrs), from two underserved communities to develop themes for a social marketing campaign to promote walking. Participants responded to questions concerning social marketing principles related to product, price, place, promotion, and positioning for increasing neighbourhood walking. Results Focus group data informed the development of the campaign objectives that were derived from the “5 Ps” to promote physical and mental health, social connectedness, safety, and confidence in walking regularly. Focus group themes indicated that physical and mental health benefits of walking were important motivators. Walking for social reasons was also important for overcoming barriers to walking. Police support from trusted officers while walking was also essential to promoting safety for walking. Print materials were developed by the steering committee, with a 12-month calendar and door hangers delivered to residents’ homes to invite them to walk. Pride Stride walks empowered community walkers to serve as peer leaders for special walking events to engage new walkers. Conclusions Essential elements for developing culturally tailored social marketing interventions for promoting walking in underserved communities are outlined for future researchers. PMID:23497164

  13. Declines in trust in others and confidence in institutions among American adults and late adolescents, 1972-2012.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Campbell, W Keith; Carter, Nathan T

    2014-10-01

    Between 1972 and 2012, Americans became significantly less trusting of each other and less confident in large institutions, such as the news media, business, religious organizations, the medical establishment, Congress, and the presidency. Levels of trust and confidence, key indicators of social capital, reached all-time or near-all-time lows in 2012 in the nationally representative General Social Survey of adults (1972-2012; N = 37,493) and the nationally representative Monitoring the Future survey of 12th graders (1976-2012; N = 101,633). Hierarchical modeling analyses separating the effects of time period, generation, and age show that this decline in social capital is primarily a time-period effect. Confidence in institutions is also influenced by generation, with Baby Boomers lowest. Trust was lowest when income inequality was high, and confidence in institutions was lowest when poverty rates were high. The prediction of a sustained revival in social capital after 2001 seems to have been premature. PMID:25205784

  14. Application of the PEN-3 Model to Tobacco Initiation, Use, and Cessation Among American Indian and Alaska Native Adults.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y; Trinidad, Susan B; Avey, Jaedon P; Robinson, Renee F

    2016-07-01

    American Indian (AI) and Alaska Native (AN) communities confront some of the highest rates of tobacco use and its sequelae. As part of a formative research project investigating stakeholder understandings, preferences, and needs surrounding the use of pharmacogenetics toward tobacco cessation treatment, we sought to characterize sociocultural issues related to tobacco use and cessation. We used the PEN-3 cultural model to frame the research question and analysis of stakeholder interviews with 20 AI/AN patients, 12 health care providers, and 9 tribal leaders. Our study found high knowledge levels of the negative health effects of tobacco use; however, most patient participants ascribed negative health effects only to regular, heavy tobacco use and not to light use, which is more common in the population. The majority of patient participants did not endorse use of tobacco cessation treatment despite evidence of efficacy among AI/AN adults. Health promotion messaging to target low-tobacco consuming AI/AN people is needed. Additionally, messaging to promote tobacco cessation treatment using successful AI/AN former tobacco users to improve community perception of tobacco cessation treatment is recommended. PMID:27178836

  15. Joint Consensus Statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society on the Recommended Amount of Sleep for a Healthy Adult: Methodology and Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Badr, M. Safwan; Belenky, Gregory; Bliwise, Donald L.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Buysse, Daniel; Dinges, David F.; Gangwisch, James; Grandner, Michael A.; Kushida, Clete; Malhotra, Raman K.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Patel, Sanjay R.; Quan, Stuart F.; Tasali, Esra

    2015-01-01

    The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society recently released a Consensus Statement regarding the recommended amount of sleep to promote optimal health in adults. This paper describes the methodology, background literature, voting process, and voting results for the consensus statement. In addition, we address important assumptions and challenges encountered during the consensus process. Finally, we outline future directions that will advance our understanding of sleep need and place sleep duration in the broader context of sleep health. Citation: Watson NF, Badr MS, Belenky G, Bliwise DL, Buxton OM, Buysse D, Dinges DF, Gangwisch J, Grandner MA, Kushida C, Malhotra RK, Martin JL, Patel SR, Quan SF, Tasali E. Joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society on the recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult: methodology and discussion. SLEEP 2015;38(8):1161–1183. PMID:26194576

  16. Joint Consensus Statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society on the Recommended Amount of Sleep for a Healthy Adult: Methodology and Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Badr, M. Safwan; Belenky, Gregory; Bliwise, Donald L.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Buysse, Daniel; Dinges, David F.; Gangwisch, James; Grandner, Michael A.; Kushida, Clete; Malhotra, Raman K.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Patel, Sanjay R.; Quan, Stuart F.; Tasali, Esra

    2015-01-01

    The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society recently released a Consensus Statement regarding the recommended amount of sleep to promote optimal health in adults. This paper describes the methodology, background literature, voting process, and voting results for the consensus statement. In addition, we address important assumptions and challenges encountered during the consensus process. Finally, we outline future directions that will advance our understanding of sleep need and place sleep duration in the broader context of sleep health. Citation: Watson NF, Badr MS, Belenky G, Bliwise DL, Buxton OM, Buysse D, Dinges DF, Gangwisch J, Grandner MA, Kushida C, Malhotra RK, Martin JL, Patel SR, Quan SF, Tasali E. Joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society on the recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult: methodology and discussion. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(8):931–952. PMID:26235159

  17. Distribution of toenail selenium levels in young adult Caucasians and African Americans in the United States: The CARDIA Trace Element Study

    SciTech Connect

    Xun, Pengcheng; Bujnowski, Deborah; Liu, Kiang; Steve Morris, J.; Guo, Zhongqin; He, Ka

    2011-05-15

    Background: Data on selenium (Se) levels in American young adults, especially in African Americans, are lacking. Objective: This study presented toenail Se distributions in American young adults of both genders, including both Caucasians and African Americans; and explored potential predictors of toenail Se levels. Data and methods: Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study among 4252 American young adults, aged 20-32 in 1987 was used to examine toenail Se levels by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The distribution of Se levels was described and multivariable linear regression was used to examine potential modifiers of toenail Se concentration within ethnicity-gender subgroups. Results: The geometric mean of toenail Se in this cohort was 0.844 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 {mu}g/g) and the median was 0.837 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.833-0.844 {mu}g/g). Median levels from lowest to highest quintile were 0.691, 0.774, 0.838, 0.913 and 1.037 {mu}g/g. Se levels varied geographically, and were generally in accordance with its concentrations in local soil. Males, African Americans, current smokers, heavy drinkers and less educated participants were more likely to have low Se levels. Conclusion: This study suggests that toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. In addition to gender, ethnicity and education level, smoking status and alcohol consumption are two important indicators of Se status since they are modifiable lifestyle factors. Findings from this study might aid public health professionals in identifying people at relatively high or low Se levels, so that chronic disease prevention efforts can be directed toward these subgroups. - Research highlights: {yields} Average of toenail Se levels in this cohort was 0.844 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 {mu}g/g). {yields} Toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. {yields} Males, African Americans and less educated participants have

  18. The Effects of Alcohol, Relationship Power, and Partner Type on Perceived Difficulty Implementing Condom Use among African American Adults: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Woolf-King, Sarah E.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    African American adults are disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States, underscoring the need for additional research on barriers to condom use. Guided by the theory of gender and power, this experimental study used a series of vignettes to test causal hypotheses regarding the influence of event-level alcohol use (present and absent), partner type (serious and casual), and relationship power (low and equal) on perceived difficulty implementing condom use. A total of 299 (151 women and 148 men) heterosexual African American adults indicated how “difficult” it would be to use a condom after reading 8 hypothetical sexual encounters, presented in a random order. A 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 repeated measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with one between subjects factor (gender) and one covariate (condom use self-efficacy) was used to estimate the effects of these variables on an index of perceived difficultly. The women in the study reported significantly higher ratings of difficulty implementing condom use in vignettes characterized by low relationship power (p < .001) and presence of alcohol use (p < .001); the manipulated independent variables did not produce any main effects for men. Both men and women’s ratings of perceived difficulty decreased as condom use self-efficacy increased (p < .001). This is the first study to use an experimental methodology to test hypotheses about barriers to condom use among a community-based sample of African American adults. These data can be used to enhance existing HIV prevention interventions. PMID:25277692

  19. “Mama just won’t accept this”: Adult Perspectives on Engaging Depressed African American Teens in Clinical Research and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Carl C.; Burriss, Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript focuses on qualitative data collected for AAKOMA Project, a 2-phase treatment engagement intervention trial for depressed African American adolescents and families. Data are presented from our phase I study of adult perspectives on African American adolescent depression, depression treatment, and research engagement. The research team conducted four focus groups (N = 24) and generated major themes from the data including ideas regarding the manifestations of depression in African American youth and psychosocial barriers to participation in depression research and treatment. Findings indicate that success in recruiting and retaining African American youth in depression research and treatment may include using innovative means to overcome the culturally embedded attributions of depression to non-biological causes, beliefs about the cultural insensitivity of treatments and challenges in the logistics of obtaining care. Adults report that encouraging youth and familial involvement in treatments and research should include targeted, community-partnered activities involving diverse staff in leadership roles and including community members as equal partners. PMID:21512751

  20. Low Adherence to Dietary Recommendations for Saturated Fat, Fiber, and Sodium Found Among American Indians and Other U.S. Adults with Diabetes*

    PubMed Central

    Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Xu, Jiaqiong; Zephier, Ellie; O’Leary, Veronica; Howard, Barbara V.; Resnick, Helaine E.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article was to evaluate how well American Indians with diabetes met dietary recommendations and to compare adherence to dietary recommendations with those of U.S. adults with diabetes in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Dietary intake in both studies was assessed using a 24-h recall questionnaire. Dietary intakes were evaluated against American Diabetes Association (ADA) dietary recommendations. The analysis sample consisted of 1,008 participants from SHS examined from 1997–1999 and 373 participants from NHANES examined from 1999–2000, all with diabetes. In both samples, intake of protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and carbohydrates met the 1997 ADA dietary recommendations. However, intakes of saturated fatty acid (SFA) as well as sodium were higher and dietary fiber intake was lower than recommended. In the SHS and NHANES, only 4.6% and 8.5% of persons with diabetes met recommendations for both SFA and fiber (p = 0.02), respectively. However, only 8.3% of the NHANES sample met the 2006 recommendations for SFA and fiber, and none of the SHS sample met those recommendations. This cross-sectional study shows low adherence to ADA dietary recommendations for saturated fat, fiber, and sodium by American Indians with diabetes and by the broader U.S. population of adults with diabetes, and shows that in American Indians with diabetes programs to decrease SFA and increase fiber intakes are warranted. PMID:18716172

  1. Acculturation and Plasma Fatty Acid Concentrations in Hispanic and Chinese-American Adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Diep, Cassandra S.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Manichaikul, Ani W.; Rich, Stephen S.; St-Jules, David E.; Steffen, Brian T.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Siscovick, David S.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acculturation to the U.S. is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiologic pathways are not fully understood. Plasma fatty acid levels exhibit ethnic differences and are emerging as biomarkers and predictors of cardiovascular disease risk. Thus, plasma fatty acids may represent one pathway underlying the association between acculturation and cardiovascular disease. We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids in a diverse sample of Hispanic- and Chinese-American adults. Methods and Findings Participants included 377 Mexican, 320 non-Mexican Hispanic, and 712 Chinese adults from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, who had full plasma phospholipid assays and acculturation information. Acculturation was determined from three proxy measures: nativity, language spoken at home, and years in the U.S., with possible scores ranging from 0 (least acculturated) to 5 (most acculturated) points. α-Linolenic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid were measured in fasting plasma. Linear regression models were conducted in race/ethnicity-stratified analyses, with acculturation as the predictor and plasma phospholipid fatty acids as the outcome variables. We ran secondary analyses to examine associations between acculturation and dietary fatty acids for comparison. Covariates included age, gender, education, and income. Contrary to our hypothesis, no statistically significant associations were detected between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids for Chinese, non-Mexican Hispanic, or Mexican participants. However, acculturation was related to dietary total n-6 fatty acids and dietary n-3/n-6 ratios in expected directions for Mexican, non-Mexican Hispanic, and combined Hispanic participants. In Chinese individuals, acculturation was unexpectedly associated with lower arachidonic acid intake. Conclusion Absence of

  2. Beliefs About Asthma and Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Low-Income Inner-City African-American Adults

    PubMed Central

    George, Maureen; Birck, Kathleen; Hufford, David J; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Weaver, Terri E

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND The gap in asthma prevalence, morbidity, and mortality is increasing in low-income racial/ethnic minority groups as compared with Caucasians. In order to address these disparities, alternative beliefs and behaviors need to be identified. OBJECTIVE To identify causal models of asthma and the context of conventional prescription versus complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in low-income African-American (AA) adults with severe asthma. DESIGN Qualitative analysis of 28 in-depth interviews. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-six women and 2 men, aged 21 to 48, who self-identified as being AA, low-income, and an inner-city resident. APPROACH Transcripts of semi-structured in-depth qualitative interviews were inductively analyzed using the constant comparison approach. RESULTS Sixty-four percent of participants held biologically correct causal models of asthma although 100% reported the use of at least 1 CAM for asthma. Biologically based therapies, humoral balance, and prayer were the most popular CAM. While most subjects trusted prescription asthma medicine, there was a preference for integration of CAM with conventional asthma treatment. Complementary and alternative medicine was considered natural, effective, and potentially curative. Sixty-three percent of participants reported nonadherence to conventional therapies in the 2 weeks before the research interview. Neither CAM nor nonmedical causal models altered most individuals (93%) willingness to use prescription medication. Three possibly dangerous CAM were identified. CONCLUSIONS Clinicians should be aware of patient-generated causal models of asthma and use of CAM in this population. Discussing patients' desire for an integrated approach to asthma management and involving social networks are 2 strategies that may enhance patient-provider partnerships and treatment fidelity. PMID:16995890

  3. Using Photovoice to Understand Barriers to and Facilitators of Cardiovascular Health Among African American Adults and Adolescents, North Carolina, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Woods-Jaeger, Briana; Lomas, Jesse; Taggart, Tamara; Thayer, Linden; Sutton, Sussie; Lightfoot, Alexandra F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, and mortality rates are higher among African Americans than among people of other races/ethnicities. We aimed to understand how African American adults and adolescents conceptualize cardiovascular health and perceive related barriers and facilitators. Methods This qualitative study was conducted as formative research for a larger study, Heart Healthy Lenoir, which aimed to reduce cardiovascular disease disparities among African Americans in eastern North Carolina, part of the widely-known “stroke belt” that runs through the southeastern United States. Using photovoice, a community-based participatory research method, we conducted eight 90-minute photovoice sessions with 6 adults and 9 adolescents in Lenoir County, North Carolina. Topics for each discussion were selected by participants and reflected themes related to cardiovascular health promotion. All sessions were transcribed and coded using a data-driven, inductive approach. Results Participants conceptualized cardiovascular health to have mental, spiritual, and social health dimensions. Given these broad domains, participants acknowledged many ecological barriers to cardiovascular health; however, they also emphasized the importance of personal responsibility. Facilitators for cardiovascular health included using social health (eg, family/community relationships) and spiritual health dimensions (eg, understanding one’s body and purpose) to improve health behaviors. Conclusion The perspectives of African American adults and adolescents elicited through this formative research provided a strong foundation for Heart Healthy Lenoir’s ongoing engagement of community members in Lenoir County and development and implementation of its intervention to prevent cardiovascular disease. PMID:26425868

  4. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2014, 218, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 30% more ...

  5. American Indian and Alaska Native Adult Education and Vocational Training Programs: Historical Beginnings, Present Conditions and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, John

    The success of Native adult education and vocational training programs is linked to the economic health of Native communities. Reports since 1923 document the failure of Federal Government programs in producing educated Native adults and the inadequacy of adult education delivery systems. An array of federal legislation has attempted to increase…

  6. Elevating the Civic Science Literacy of American Adults: Assessing a Renewed Citizen Science Paradigm Integrating Nonformal Outdoor Adult Education and Enhanced Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, David Patrick

    2011-01-01

    America's adult populace has failed to keep pace with the rapid inundation of science-centric advancements affecting nearly every facet of personal and public life. With deficiencies in areas of science knowledge, America's adult populace is characterized as civic science illiterate. This research constructed and employed the renewed citizen…

  7. Adult Education in the American Experience from the Colonial Period to the Present. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubblefield, Harold W.; Keane, Patrick

    This book offers a comprehensive history of adult education in the United States from the colonial period to the present day. Chapter 1 discusses definitions of adult education and explores formative influences. Chapters 2-3 on the colonial and post-Revolutionary periods trace an Atlantic information network, rise of a literate culture, Puritan…

  8. Maternal socialization goals, parenting styles, and social-emotional adjustment among Chinese and European American young adults: testing a mediation model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Costanzo, Philip R; Putallaz, Martha

    2010-01-01

    The authors compared the associations among perceived maternal socialization goals (self-development, filial piety, and collectivism), perceived maternal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and training), and the social-emotional adjustment (self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and depression) between Chinese and European American young adults. The mediation processes in which socialization goals relate to young adults' adjustment outcomes through parenting styles were examined. Results showed that European American participants perceived higher maternal self-development socialization goals, whereas Chinese participants perceived higher maternal collectivism socialization goals as well as more authoritarian parenting. Cross-cultural similarities were found in the associations between perceived maternal authoritative parenting and socioemotional adjustment (e.g., higher self-esteem and higher academic self-efficacy) across the two cultural groups. However, perceived maternal authoritarian and training parenting styles were found only to be related to Chinese participants' adjustment (e.g., higher academic self-efficacy and lower depression). The mediation analyses showed that authoritative parenting significantly mediated the positive associations between the self-development and collectivism goal and socioemotional adjustment for both cultural groups. Additionally, training parenting significantly mediated the positive association between the filial piety goal and young adults' academic self-efficacy for the Chinese group only. Findings of this study highlight the importance of examining parental socialization goals in cross-cultural parenting research. PMID:21171548

  9. Comparison of African American and Afro-Caribbean Older Adults' Self-Reported Health Status, Function, and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Florence; Tappen, Ruth M.; Williams, Christine L.; Rosselli, Monica

    2009-01-01

    African American and Afro-Caribbean elders differ in regard to ethnic group membership, place of birth, and years of residence in the United States. In this study, the authors compare self-rated health status, function, and reports of substance use in these two groups. Fifty low-income African American and fifty low-income Afro-Caribbean adults…

  10. Evidence for Association between SH2B1 Gene Variants and Glycated Hemoglobin in Nondiabetic European American Young Adults: The Add Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lange, Leslie A; Graff, Mariaelisa; Lange, Ethan M; Young, Kristin L; Richardson, Andrea S; Mohlke, Karen L; North, Kari E; Harris, Kathleen M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2016-09-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is used to classify glycaemia and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Body mass index (BMI) is a predictor of HbA1c levels and T2D. We tested 43 established BMI and obesity loci for association with HbA1c in a nationally representative multiethnic sample of young adults from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health [Add Health: age 24-34 years; n = 5641 European Americans (EA); 1740 African Americans (AA); 1444 Hispanic Americans (HA)] without T2D, using two levels of covariate adjustment (Model 1: age, sex, smoking, and geographic region; Model 2: Model 1 covariates plus BMI). Bonferroni adjustment was made for 43 SNPs and we considered P < 0.0011 statistically significant. Means (SD) for HbA1c were 5.4% (0.3) in EA, 5.7% (0.4) in AA, and 5.5% (0.3) in HA. We observed significant evidence for association with HbA1c for two variants near SH2B1 in EA (rs4788102, P = 2.2 × 10(-4) ; rs7359397, P = 9.8 × 10(-4) ) for Model 1. Both results were attenuated after adjustment for BMI (rs4788102, P = 1.7 × 10(-3) ; rs7359397, P = 4.6 × 10(-3) ). No variant reached Bonferroni-corrected significance in AA or HA. These results suggest that SH2B1 polymorphisms are associated with HbA1c, largely independent of BMI, in EA young adults. PMID:27530450

  11. Physical Activity and Public Health in Older Adults: Recommendation from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To issue a recommendation on the types and amounts of physical activity needed to improve and maintain health in older adults. Participants: A panel of scientists with expertise in public health, behavioral science, epidemiology, exercise science, medicine, and gerontology. Evidence: The ...

  12. Perceived racism and suicide ideation: mediating role of depression but moderating role of religiosity among African American adults.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rheeda L; Salami, Temilola K; Carter, Sierra E; Flowers, Kelci

    2014-10-01

    Suicide is a public health problem for African Americans who are young and of working age. The purpose of this study was to examine mediated and moderated effects of perceived racism on suicide ideation in a community sample of 236 African American men and women. Measures of suicide ideation, depression symptoms, intrinsic/extrinsic religiosity, and perceived racism were administered. Perceived racial discrimination was directly and indirectly associated with suicide ideation. For participants who reported low levels of extrinsic religiosity, the mediated effect of perceived racism (via depression symptoms) was significant. These findings provide some insight into suicide vulnerability for specific subgroups of African Americans. PMID:24690042

  13. Holocene Depositional History of Shad Pond, a Hypersaline Coastal Lagoon, Eleuthera, Bahamas and Its Influence on Lucayan Occupation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boush, L. E.; Fentress, S.; Conroy, M.; Cook, A.; Miseridina, D.; Buynevich, I. V.; Myrbo, A.; Brown, E. T.; Berman, M.; Gnivecki, P.; Kjellmark, E.; Savarese, M.; Brady, K.

    2013-12-01

    Shad Pond, an enclosed hypersaline lagoon on the southeastern tip of Eleuthera, Bahamas reveals a ~5000-year record of hurricane activity, as well as sea-level and climate change history. Three sediment cores recovered 1.04-2.54 m of sediment over bedrock along a transect perpendicular to shoreline. Sediment composition and grain size, loss on ignition, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements of the cores along with dune transects and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles adjacent to the lake provide a comprehensive dataset to interpret the history of this coastal basin. The sedimentary sequence was composed of alternating lithofacies that included microbial mats, sand, and peat. Laminated mats often alternated with sandy layers in thin to medium-bedded units. Two peat layers were found in the basal part of the shore-distal core (Site 1) between 1.82-2.40 m and 2.53-2.54 m and were separated by a 13-cm-thick gray mud layer. In general, organic matter and carbonate content tracked granulometry and composition in all cores. High-resolution XRF scans of Ca and Sr at Site 1 show elevated levels ~3,700 cal yBP, which correlate with the top of the peat layer, but these elemental concentrations vary at Site 3. XRF measurements of Fe indicate a dust flux that has been recorded regionally throughout the Caribbean. Dune transects and GPR profiles indicate a phased history of the pond, beginning with initial stages as an open lagoon dominated by red mangrove, with black mangrove and buttonwood also present. The lake likely closed at approximately 3,700 cal yBP indicated by the transition between the upper peat and microbial mat layers. This could have been due to increased storm events in a regime of rising sea level. Aeolian aggradation continued to heighten the barrier between the bedrock headlands to its present position. Hurricane overwash deposits punctuated the algal mat accumulation throughout this time period. Present-day hypersaline conditions sustain algal mats

  14. Comparative phylogeography and demographic history of European shads (Alosa alosa and A. fallax) inferred from mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Comparative broad-scale phylogeographic studies of aquatic organisms provide insights on biotic responses to the paleohydrological dynamics associated with climatic oscillations. These insights can be used to formulate a framework for understanding the evolutionary history of a species or closely related taxa as well as aid in predictive modeling of further responses to climate change. Anadromous fishes constitute interesting models for understanding the relative importance of environmental versus biological factors in shaping intraspecific genetic substructure on the interface between marine and freshwater realms. European shads, Alosa alosa and A. fallax are anadromous species that have persisted through historical large-scale environmental perturbations and now additionally face an array of anthropogenic challenges. A comprehensive phylogeographic investigation of these species is needed to provide insights on both the historical processes that have shaped their extant genetic structure and diversity, and the prospects for their future management and conservation. Results Despite introgressive hybridization, A. alosa and A. fallax are genetically divergent, congruent with previous studies. Three similarly divergent mtDNA clades were recognized within both A. fallax and A. alosa, most likely originating during common periods of isolation during the Pleistocene among the studied oceanographic regions. Periods of basin isolation apparently extended to the Black Sea as additional Alosa clades occur there. The present day geographic distribution of genetic diversity within European Alosa sp. suggests the existence of a strong but permeable barrier between the Atlantic and Mediterranean seas, as shown for a number of other aquatic species. Overall mtDNA diversity is considerably lower for A. alosa compared to A. fallax, suggesting that the former species is more sensitive to climatic as well as anthropogenic changes. For A. fallax, migration from the

  15. The Adult Congenital and Pediatric Cardiology Section: increasing the opportunities for the congenital heart disease community within the American College of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Martin, Gerard R; Mitchell, Stephanie; Beekman, Robert H; Feinstein, Jeffrey A; Jenkins, Kathy J; Landzberg, Michael; Webb, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The Adult Congenital and Pediatric Cardiology (AC/PC) Section was established to develop a clear voice within the American College of Cardiology and address the myriad issues facing the congenital heart disease profession. The Section is governed by the AC/PC Council, which includes pediatric cardiologists, adult congenital cardiologists, a cardiac care associate, and a fellow-in-training member. The Council is responsible for bidirectional communication between the College's Board of Trustees and the AC/PC Section members. Since its founding in 2004, Section objectives have been defined by the College's mission: to advocate for quality cardiovascular care through education, research promotion, and the development and application of standards and guidelines and to influence health care policy. The pillars of the College-advocacy, quality, education, and member engagement-serve as the defining template for the Section's strategy. The Section has developed work groups in advocacy, clinical practice, education and training, quality, and publications. A separate leadership group has been developed for adult congenital heart disease. Work groups are open to all Section members. Recognition of the importance of lifelong care in congenital heart disease led Section leaders to incorporate pediatric cardiology and adult congenital heart disease content into each of the work groups. There are more than 1,200 Section members, with nearly 400 members actively contributing to Section activities. This article outlines Section efforts to date and highlights significant successes to date. PMID:22192673

  16. Sources of social support associated with health and quality of life: a cross-sectional study among Canadian and Latin American older adults

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, Emmanuelle; Ahmed, Tamer; Vafaei, Afshin; Curcio, Carmen Lucia; Phillips, Susan P; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether the association between emotional support and indicators of health and quality of life differs between Canadian and Latin American older adults. Design Cross-sectional analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS). Social support from friends, family members, children and partner was measured with a previously validated social network and support scale (IMIAS-SNSS). Low social support was defined as ranking in the lowest site-specific quartile. Prevalence ratios (PR) of good health, depression and good quality of life were estimated with Poisson regression models, adjusting for age, gender, education, income and disability in activities of daily living. Setting Kingston and Saint-Hyacinthe in Canada, Manizales in Colombia and Natal in Brazil. Participants 1600 community-dwelling adults aged 65–74 years, n=400 at each site. Outcome measures Likert scale question on self-rated health, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and 10-point analogical quality-of-life (QoL) scale. Results Relationships between social support and study outcomes differed between Canadian and Latin American older adults. Among Canadians, those without a partner had a lower prevalence of good health (PR=0.90; 95% CI 0.82 to 0.98), and those with high support from friends had a higher prevalence of good health (PR=1.09; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.18). Among Latin Americans, depression was lower among those with high levels of support from family (PR=0.63; 95% CI 0.48 to 0.83), children (PR=0.60; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.80) and partner (PR=0.57; 95% CI 0.31 to 0.77); good QoL was associated with high levels of support from children (PR=1.54; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.99) and partner (PR=1.31; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.67). Conclusions Among older adults, different sources of support were relevant to health across societies. Support from friends and having a partner were related to good health in Canada, whereas in Latin America, support from family, children and

  17. Forty-Year Trends in Tooth Loss Among American Adults With and Without Diabetes Mellitus: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Huabin; Pan, Wei; Sloan, Frank; Feinglos, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to assess the trends in tooth loss among adults with and without diabetes mellitus in the United States and racial/ethnic disparities in tooth loss patterns, and to evaluate trends in tooth loss by age, birth cohorts, and survey periods. Methods Data came from 9 waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1971 through 2012. The trends in the estimated tooth loss in people with and without diabetes were assessed by age groups, survey periods, and birth cohorts. The analytical sample was 37,609 dentate (ie, with at least 1 permanent tooth) adults aged 25 years or older. We applied hierarchical age-period-cohort cross-classified random-effects models for the trend analysis. Results The estimated number of teeth lost among non-Hispanic blacks with diabetes increased more with age than that among non-Hispanic whites with diabetes (z = 4.05, P < .001) or Mexican Americans with diabetes (z = 4.38, P < .001). During 1971–2012, there was a significant decreasing trend in the number of teeth lost among non-Hispanic whites with diabetes (slope = −0.20, P < .001) and non-Hispanic blacks with diabetes (slope = −0.37, P < .001). However, adults with diabetes had about twice the tooth loss as did those without diabetes. Conclusion Substantial differences in tooth loss between adults with and without diabetes and across racial/ethnic groups persisted over time. Appropriate dental care and tooth retention need to be further promoted among adults with diabetes. PMID:26632952

  18. The Relevancy of Community-Based Methods: Using Diet within Native American and Alaska Native Adult Populations as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Fialkowski, Marie K.; Okoror, Titilayo A.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    The rates of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease in Native Americans and Alaska Natives far exceed that of the general US population. There are many postulating reasons for these excessive rates including the transition from a traditional to a contemporary diet. Although information on the dietary intakes of Native American and Alaska Native communities are limited, there seems to be a consensus that the Native American and Alaska Native diet is high in total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium. Further information on the diet needs to be attained so that dietary interventions can effectively be implemented in these communities. An approach that is community based is proposed as the best solution to understanding the Native diet and developing culturally tailored interventions to sustainably improve diet. PMID:22686210

  19. Partner influences and gender-related factors associated with noncondom use among young adult African American women.

    PubMed

    Wingood, G M; DiClemente, R J

    1998-02-01

    We examined the partner influences and gender-related correlates of noncondom use among African American women. The prevalence of noncondom use was 45.3%. Women whose sexual partners were noncondom users were four times more likely to believe that asking their partner to use a condom implied he was unfaithful, three times as likely to have a partner who resisted using condoms, three times more likely to receive AFDC, twice as likely to be sexually nonassertive, three times more likely to believe that it was not difficult to find an "eligible" African American man, and three times as likely to have had one sexual partner. HIV prevention tailored towards African American women should address these partner influences and gender-related factors. PMID:9574497

  20. Sedentary and physically active behavior patterns among low-income African-American and white adults living in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sarah S; Matthews, Charles E; Signorello, Lisa B; Schlundt, David G; Blot, William J; Buchowski, Maciej S

    2013-01-01

    Increased sedentary behavior and lack of physical activity are associated with increased risk for many chronic diseases. Differences in leisure-time physical activity between African American and white adults have been suggested to partially explain racial disparities in chronic disease outcomes, but expanding the definition of physical activity to include household and occupational activities may reduce or even eliminate racial differences in total physical activity. The objective of this study was to describe patterns of active and sedentary behaviors in black and white adults and to examine these behaviors across demographic measures. Sedentary and physically active behaviors were obtained from a validated physical activity questionnaire in 23,021 black men, 9,899 white men, 32,214 black women, and 15,425 white women (age 40-79) at enrollment into the Southern Community Cohort Study. Descriptive statistics for sedentary time; light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity; sports/exercise; total activity; and meeting current physical activity recommendations via sports/exercise were examined for each race-sex group. Adjusted means were calculated using multiple linear regression models across demographic measures. Study participants spent approximately 60% of waking time in sedentary behaviors. Blacks reported more television viewing time than whites (45 minutes for females, 15 minutes for males), but when sitting time was expressed as a proportion of overall awake time, minimal racial differences were found. Patterns of light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity were similar in all race/sex groups. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans were followed by 16% of women and 25% of men independent of race. Overall, black and white men and women in this study spent the majority of their daily time in sedentary behaviors and less than one-fourth followed current guidelines for physical activity. These results indicate that

  1. Chromium exposure and incidence of metabolic syndrome among American young adults over a 23-year follow-up: the CARDIA Trace Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jianling; Xun, Pengcheng; Morris, Steve; Jacobs, David R.; Liu, Kiang; He, Ka

    2015-01-01

    Studies suggest that chromium deficiency is associated with elevated levels of fasting blood glucose, circulating insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides, and decreased proportion of lean body mass. However, data directly relating chromium levels to metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk are lacking. A total of 3,648 American adults from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, aged 20–32 years, were prospectively examined for the incidence of MetS and its five components from 1987–88 to 2010–11. Baseline toenail chromium levels were measured with instrumental neutron-activation analysis. Incident MetS was defined by the NCEP-ATP III criteria. During the 23-year follow-up, 878 incident MetS cases were identified. Baseline toenail chromium was inversely associated with incidence of MetS as well as its blood lipid components. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of MetS comparing the highest to the lowest quartiles of toenail chromium levels was 0.80 (0.66–0.98; Plinear trend = 0.006). The adjusted HRs were 0.82 (0.68–0.98; Ptrend = 0.045) for having abnormal triglycerides levels and 0.75 (0.64–0.88; Ptrend  = 0.030) for having abnormal HDL cholesterol levels. Toenail chromium levels were inversely and longitudinally associated with incidence of MetS in American young adults. This inverse association was mainly explained by its relation to blood lipids. PMID:26489690

  2. Condom Use by Hispanic and African American Teens and Young Adults Who Use Hormonal Contraception: Implications for HIV Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roye, Carol F.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the relationship between young Hispanic and African American womens' hormonal contraceptive use and condom use. Surveys of women at an inner-city health clinic investigated demographics, contraceptive practices, sexual behavior, condom use, and communication skills. Hormonal contraceptive use related to decreased condom use. Discussion…

  3. Total a-Tocopherol Intakes Are Associated with Serum a-Tocopherol Concentrations in African American Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African Americans in the southern United State have a high prevalence of chronic disease. Tocopherol intake and status have been associated with protection against several chronic diseases. Our objectives were, therefore, to examine the association between tocopherol intakes as measured by 2 regiona...

  4. Participation in a Technological World: The Meaning of Educational Technology in the Lives of Young Adult Central American Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt-Mentle, Davina S.

    Many communities throughout the United States are experiencing a large influx of Central American immigrants. Langley Park, Maryland is typical of the pockets that are formed by the new arrivals. Community members of Latino background now account for 60% of the population, while in 1990 they were only 40% (US Census, 2000). As the immigrants move…

  5. Validity and calibration of Food Frequency Questionnaires used with African American adults in the Jackson Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper details the calibration process and validity of two Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs) developed for use in investigating diet disease relationships existing within the African American population. A calibration design was used which included comparison of mean nutrient intakes from fo...

  6. Promoting Sexual Health Equity in the United States: Implications from Exploratory Research with African-American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Allison L.; Uhrig, Jennifer; Poehlman, Jon; Scales, Monica; Hogben, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to inform communication efforts to promote sexual health equity in the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sought to explore African-Americans' perceptions of the sexually transmitted disease (STD) problem in their communities, reactions to racially comparative STD data and opinions about dissemination…

  7. Transition from School to Adult Life: Critical Issues for Native American Youth with and without Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramasamy, Rangasamy; Duffy, Mary Lou; Camp, Jimmy L., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    In an effort to examine the transition status of Apache Native American school leavers, a 38-item survey collected information from 48 former students with and without learning disabilities. Results indicated the students with learning disabilities had higher rates of unemployment and substance abuse and were less likely to live independently or…

  8. Understanding Impediments and Enablers to Physical Activity among African American Adults: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiqi, Zoveen; Tiro, Jasmin A.; Shuval, Kerem

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading cause of premature death, disability and numerous chronic diseases. Minority and underserved populations in the United States and worldwide have a higher prevalence of physical inactivity affecting their morbidity and mortality rates. In the United States, African Americans are less physically active and have a…

  9. The Shad Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, Sandy

    2006-01-01

    Science trade books can spark real-life involvement in saving a threatened fish. A successful science program at the Westbrook Elementary School, in Bethesda, Maryland, does just that. The program--in which students participate in watershed restoration projects as part of a yearlong study of the local Chesapeake Bay and the Potomac River…

  10. Status report from the American Acne & Rosacea Society on medical management of acne in adult women, part 3: oral therapies.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q; Harper, Julie C; Graber, Emmy M; Thiboutot, Diane; Silverberg, Nanette B; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2015-12-01

    Parts 1 and 2 of this 3-part series provided an overview of the epidemiology, visible patterns, and important considerations for clinical and laboratory evaluation of acne vulgaris (AV) in adult women and reviewed the role of proper skin care and topical therapies in this patient population. In Part 3, oral therapies including combination oral contraceptives, spironolactone, antibiotics, and isotretinoin are discussed along with important considerations that clinicians should keep in mind when selecting oral agents for management of AV in adult women. PMID:26761932

  11. Status report from the American Acne & Rosacea Society on medical management of acne in adult women, part 2: topical therapies.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q; Harper, Julie C; Graber, Emmy M; Thiboutot, Diane; Silverberg, Nanette B; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2015-11-01

    In part 1 of this 3-part series, an overview of the epidemiology, visible patterns, and important considerations for clinical and laboratory evaluation of acne vulgaris (AV) in adult women was provided. Proper selection and integration of skin care products is important in the management of AV in this patient population. Part 2 of this series includes a discussion of over-the-counter and prescription topical therapies for adult women with AV. A summary of key randomized controlled trials also is provided. Further well-designed studies are needed, as data on the use of topical agents in this subpopulation are limited. PMID:26682555

  12. Strategies for Managing the Dual Risk of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Unintended Pregnancy Among Puerto Rican and African American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hock-Long, Linda; Kraft, Joan Marie; Henry-Moss, Dare; Hatfield-Timajchy, Kendra; Singer, Merrill

    2012-01-01

    Although young adults in the United States are at increased risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancy, they do not report high rates of dual-method use (condoms plus other contraception) for prevention. We used prospective qualitative data from 69 urban Puerto Rican and African American individuals aged 18 to 25 years to determine how they managed these risks in their heterosexual relationships during a 4- to 8-week period. Hormonal or long-acting contraceptive use, condoms, and withdrawal were the most common unintended pregnancy prevention strategies; condoms, STI testing, and perceived fidelity were dominant among STI prevention strategies. We need to shift the focus from dual-method use toward a broader concept of dual protection to be more responsive to young adults’ concerns, perceptions, and priorities. PMID:22390507

  13. Assessing Family-of-Origin Functioning in Mexican American Adults: Retrospective Application of the Family Environment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negy, Charles; Snyder, Douglas K.

    2006-01-01

    Although both theoretical and empirical literature suggests that individuals' family-of-origin experiences affect subsequent relationship functioning as adults, few studies have examined the appropriateness of family assessment techniques when applied retrospectively for use in either theory development or clinical applications. This study…

  14. Drug Use among American High School Students, College Students, and Other Young Adults. National Trends Through 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; And Others

    Drug use and related attitudes of U.S. high school seniors from the graduating classes of 1975-1985 and young adults in their late teens and early- to mid-twenties were studied, as part of an ongoing research project. Eleven classes of drugs were assessed: marijuana (including hashish), inhalants, hallucinogens, cocaine, heroin, other natural and…

  15. Respondent-Driven Sampling with Hard-to-Reach Emerging Adults: An Introduction and Case Study with Rural African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Steven M.; Wejnert, Cyprian; Chen, Yi-fu; Brody, Gene H.; Slater, LaTrina M.

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining representative samples from populations of emerging adults who do not attend college is challenging for researchers. This article introduces respondent-driven sampling (RDS), a method for obtaining representative samples of hard-to-reach but socially interconnected populations. RDS combines a prescribed method for chain referral with a…

  16. Predictive Validity of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Pooled Cohort Equations in Predicting All-Cause and Cardiovascular Disease-Specific Mortality in a National Prospective Cohort Study of Adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Addoh, Ovuokerie

    2016-06-01

    The predictive validity of the Pooled Cohort risk (PCR) equations for cardiovascular disease (CVD)-specific and all-cause mortality among a national sample of US adults has yet to be evaluated, which was this study's purpose. Data from the 1999-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used, with participants followed up through December 31, 2011, to ascertain mortality status via the National Death Index probabilistic algorithm. The analyzed sample included 11,171 CVD-free adults (40-79 years of age). The 10-year risk of a first atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) event was determined from the PCR equations. For the entire sample encompassing 849,202 person-months, we found an incidence rate of 1.00 (95% CI, 0.93-1.07) all-cause deaths per 1000 person-months and an incidence rate of 0.15 (95% CI, 0.12-0.17) CVD-specific deaths per 1000 person-months. The unweighted median follow-up duration was 72 months. For nearly all analyses (unadjusted and adjusted models with ASCVD expressed as a continuous variable as well as dichotomized at 7.5% and 20%), the ASCVD risk score was significantly associated with all-cause and CVD-specific mortality (P<.05). In the adjusted model, the increased all-cause mortality risk ranged from 47% to 77% based on an ASCVD risk of 20% or higher and 7.5% or higher, respectively. Those with an ASCVD score of 7.5% or higher had a 3-fold increased risk of CVD-specific mortality. The 10-year predicted risk of a first ASCVD event via the PCR equations was associated with all-cause and CVD-specific mortality among those free of CVD at baseline. In this American adult sample, the PCR equations provide evidence of predictive validity. PMID:27180122

  17. Gene polymorphisms and gene scores linked to low serum carotenoid status and their associations with metabolic disturbance and depressive symptoms in African-American adults

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, May A.; Nalls, Michael A.; Canas, J. Atilio; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2016-01-01

    Gene polymorphisms provide means to obtain unconfounded associations between carotenoids and various health outcomes. We tested whether gene polymophorisms and gene scores linked to serum carotenoid status are related to metabolic disturbance and depressive symptoms in African-American adults residing in Baltimore city, MD, using cross-sectional data from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhood of Diversity Across the Lifespan (HANDLS) study (Age range:30–64y, N=873–994). We examined 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms of various gene loci that were previously shown to be associated with low serum carotenoid status (SNPlcar). Genetic risk scores (5 low specific-carotenoid risk scores (LSCRS: α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein+zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene) and 1 low total-carotenoid risk score (LTCRS: total carotenoids)) were created. SNPlcar, LSCRS and LTCRS were entered as predictors for a number of health outcomes. Those included obesity, National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, elevated homeostatic model assessment, Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), C-reactive protein (CRP), hyperuricemia and elevated depressive symptoms (EDS, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) score≥16). Among key findings, SNPlcar were not associated with the main outcomes after correction for multiple testing. However, an inverse association was found between LTCRS and HDL-C dyslipidemia. Specifically, the α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin LSCRS were associated with lower odds of HDL-C dyslipidemia. However, the β-cryptoxanthin LSCRS was linked to a higher odds of EDS, with a linear dose-response relationship. In sum, gene risk scores linked to low serum carotenoids had mixed effects on HDL-C dyslipidemia and EDS. Further studies using larger African-American samples are needed. PMID:25201307

  18. Social support buffering of the relation between low income and elevated blood pressure in at-risk African-American adults.

    PubMed

    Coulon, S M; Wilson, D K

    2015-10-01

    Socioeconomic disadvantage has been linked to elevated blood pressure (BP), and the purpose of this study was to assess whether interpersonal social supports buffer these adverse relations in African-American adults. In three communities matched demographically, a subsample of participants (N = 204) of the Positive Action for Today's Health trial provided measures of perceived social support, annual household income, and BP. Multiple regression analyses with cross-product interactions were conducted using follow-up data. The sample had a mean age of 52.8 years (SD = 15.1), and was predominantly female (66 %) with a high body mass index (M = 33.5, SD = 14.7). Results indicated an inverse relation between social support and diastolic BP (B = -.178, p = .005), and also an interaction with income (p = .046), such that higher social support related to lower diastolic BP in the lowest-income individuals (B = -1.05). The same direct (B = -.141, p = .025) and interacting (B = -1.42, p = .040) social support effects were present for systolic BP, however the omnibus model for systolic BP was not significant, F(6, 196) = 1.80, p = .09. The hypothesized buffering effect of social support on the adverse relation of income to BP was partially supported in at-risk African-American adults. Future prevention efforts for reducing the impact of socioeconomic stress on BP may aim to increase perceptions of social support. PMID:26156119

  19. A Church-Based Diet and Physical Activity Intervention for Rural, Lower Mississippi Delta African American Adults: Delta Body and Soul Effectiveness Study, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Mayo, Tanyatta; Edmond, Emanuel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Obesity, diabetes, and hypertension have reached epidemic levels in the largely rural Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region. We assessed the effectiveness of a 6-month, church-based diet and physical activity intervention, conducted during 2010 through 2011, for improving diet quality (measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2005) and increasing physical activity of African American adults in the LMD region. Methods We used a quasi-experimental design in which 8 self-selected eligible churches were assigned to intervention or control. Assessments included dietary, physical activity, anthropometric, and clinical measures. Statistical tests for group comparisons included χ2, Fisher’s exact, and McNemar’s tests for categorical variables, and mixed-model regression analysis for continuous variables and modeling intervention effects. Results Retention rates were 85% (176 of 208) for control and 84% (163 of 195) for intervention churches. Diet quality components, including total fruit, total vegetables, and total quality improved significantly in both control (mean [standard deviation], 0.3 [1.8], 0.2 [1.1], and 3.4 [9.6], respectively) and intervention (0.6 [1.7], 0.3 [1.2], and 3.2 [9.7], respectively) groups, while significant increases in aerobic (22%) and strength/flexibility (24%) physical activity indicators were apparent in the intervention group only. Regression analysis indicated that intervention participation level and vehicle ownership were significant positive predictors of change for several diet quality components. Conclusion This church-based diet and physical activity intervention may be effective in improving diet quality and increasing physical activity of LMD African American adults. Components key to the success of such programs are participant engagement in educational sessions and vehicle access. PMID:23742940

  20. Design of a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Web-Based Intervention to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Remote Reservation-Dwelling American Indian Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Jeffrey A.; Chubak, Jessica; O'Connell, Joan; Ramos, Maria C.; Jensen, Julie; Jobe, Jared B.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a randomized controlled trial, the Lakota Oyate Wicozani Pi Kte (LOWPK) trial, which was designed to determine whether a Web-based diabetes and nutritional intervention can improve risk factors related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) among a group of remote reservation-dwelling adult American Indian men and women with type 2 diabetes…

  1. Diet quality and physical activity outcome improvements resulting from a church-based diet and supervised physical activity intervention for rural, southern, Africian American adults: Delta Body and Soul III

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed the effects of a 6-month, church¬-based, diet and supervised physical activity intervention, conducted between 2011 and ¬2012, on improving diet quality and increasing physical activity of southern, African American adults. Using a quasi¬-experimental design, 8 self-selected, eligible c...

  2. "Discovery of Calling on a Road Not yet Taken": A Qualitative Exploration of the Influence of Religious and Cultural Values on the Vocational Identity of Second Generation Vietnamese American Young Adults Training for the Helping Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Minh-Kha Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing predicament among second generation Vietnamese American young adults desiring to study and work in people-helping professions. Although this population wants to maintain a sense of belonging, loyalty, and duty toward their ethnic heritage, they are essentially breaking cultural norms by pursuing occupations that are not readily…

  3. Predictors and Profiles of Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Among African American Adolescents and Young Adult Males Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Gross, Israel Moses; Hosek, Sybil; Richards, Maryse Heather; Fernandez, M Isabel

    2016-07-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is crucial for thwarting HIV disease progression and reducing secondary HIV transmission, yet youth living with HIV (YLH) struggle with adherence. The highest rates of new HIV infections in the United States occur in young African American men. A sample of 387 HIV-positive young African American males on ART was selected from a cross-sectional assessment of (YLH) receiving medical care within the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN) from 2010 to 2012 (12-24 years old, median 22.00, SD 2.08). Participants completed self-reported adherence, demographic, health, and psychosocial measures. Sixty-two percent self-reported 100% ART adherence. Optimal data analysis identified frequency of cannabis use during the past 3 months as the strongest independent predictor of adherence, yielding moderate effect strength sensitivity (ESS) = 27.1, p < 0.001. Among participants with infrequent cannabis use, 72% reported full adherence; in contrast, only 45% of participants who used cannabis frequently reported full adherence. Classification tree analysis (CTA) was utilized to improve classification accuracy and to identify the pathways of ART adherence and nonadherence. The CTA model evidenced a 38% improvement above chance for correctly classifying participants as ART adherent or nonadherent. Participants most likely to be adherent were those with low psychological distress and minimal alcohol use (82% were adherent). Participants least likely to be adherent were those with higher psychological distress and engaged in weekly cannabis use (69% were nonadherent). Findings suggest multiple profiles of ART adherence for young African American males living with HIV and argue for targeted psychosocial interventions. PMID:27410496

  4. Midlife health and socioeconomic consequences of persistent overweight across early adulthood: findings from a national survey of American adults (1986-2008).

    PubMed

    Clarke, Philippa J; O'Malley, Patrick M; Schulenberg, John E; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2010-09-01

    The health consequences of obesity and overweight have been well documented, but less research has examined their social and economic consequences. This paper examines the long-term consequences of early adult overweight for midlife health and socioeconomic attainment using prospective nationally representative panel data from American adults in the Monitoring the Future Study (1986-2008). Growth mixture models identified 2 distinct latent classes of trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from age 19 to 35 years: a persistently overweight class (BMI >25 kg/m(2)) and a second class exhibiting more moderate growth in BMI to age 35 years. Women (odds ratio (OR) = 2.16, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39, 3.36) and those from a lower childhood socioeconomic position (OR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.30, 2.24) were more likely to be in the persistently overweight class. Compared with those in the moderately increasing BMI class, those in the persistently overweight class were more likely to have a chronic health problem at age 40 years (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 2.20, 3.43), to have no further education beyond high school (OR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.69), and to have a higher odds of receiving welfare or unemployment compensation at age 40 years (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.49, 2.04). These findings highlight the importance of addressing persistent obesity and overweight early in the life course. PMID:20610468

  5. Applying Novel Genome-Wide Linkage Strategies to Search for Loci Influencing Type 2 Diabetes and Adult Height in American Samoa

    PubMed Central

    ÅBERG, KAROLINA; SUN, GUANGYUN; SMELSER, DIANE; INDUGULA, SUBBA RAO; TSAI, HUI-JU; STEELE, MATTHEW S.; TUITELE, JOHN; DEKA, RANJAN; MCGARVEY, STEPHEN T.; WEEKS, DANIEL E.

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common complex phenotype that by the year 2010 is predicted to affect 221 million people globally. In the present study we performed a genome-wide linkage scan using the allele-sharing statistic Sall implemented in Allegro and a novel two-dimensional genome-wide strategy implemented in Merloc that searches for pairwise interaction between genetic markers located on different chromosomes linked to T2DM. In addition, we used a robust score statistic from the newly developed QTL-ALL software to search for linkage to variation in adult height. The strategies were applied to a study sample consisting of 238 sib-pairs affected with T2DM from American Samoa. We did not detect any genome-wide significant susceptibility loci for T2DM. However, our two-dimensional linkage investigation detected several loci pairs of interest, including 11q22 and 21q21, 9q21 and 11q22, 1p22–p21 and 4p15, and 4p15 and 15q11–q14, with a two-loci maximum LOD score (MLS) greater than 2.00. Most detected individual loci have previously been identified as susceptibility loci for diabetes-related traits. Our two-dimensional linkage results may facilitate the selection of potential candidate genes and molecular pathways for further diabetes studies because these results, besides providing candidate loci, also demonstrate that polygenic effects may play an important role in T2DM. Linkage was detected (p value of 0.005) for variation in adult height on chromosome 9q31, which was reported previously in other populations. Our finding suggests that the 9q31 region may be a strong quantitative trait locus for adult height, which is likely to be of importance across populations. PMID:18720898

  6. The social context and meaning of virginity loss among African American and Puerto Rican young adults in Hartford.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Pamela I; Badiane, Louise; Singer, Merrill

    2013-09-01

    We describe virginity loss experiences of inner-city minority youth to understand the meaning attributed to first sex and the social and structural factors that contribute to early sexual debut. We interviewed 62 18-25-year-old African American and Puerto Rican Hartford men and women about their sexual and romantic life histories. Transcripts were coded in ATLAS.ti and analyzed for themes about virginity and sexual debut. We found different conceptions of virginity as a stigma to be lost, a normal part of growing up, and a gift to be given. The normative experience was consensual, early, and unplanned sexual debut. Inner-city minority youth have similar feelings, motivations, and experiences of sexual debut as non-ethnic youth reported in the literature except they are far younger. We discuss structural factors that affect inner-city sexual scripts for early sexual debut and identify it as a health inequity. PMID:24105907

  7. Intimate Partner Violence Reported by Two Samples of Deaf Adults via a Computerized American Sign Language Survey

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Robert Q; Sutter, Erika; Cerulli, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    A computerized sign language survey was administered to two large samples of deaf adults. Six questions regarding intimate partner violence (IPV) were included, querying lifetime and past-year experiences of emotional abuse, physical abuse, and forced sex. Comparison data were available from a telephone survey of local households. Deaf respondents reported high rates of emotional abuse and much higher rates of forced sex than general population respondents. Physical abuse rates were comparable between groups. More men than women in both deaf samples reported past-year physical and sexual abuse. Past-year IPV was associated with higher utilization of hospital emergency services. Implications for IPV research, education, and intervention in the Deaf community are discussed. PMID:24142445

  8. Condom Use Negotiation in Heterosexual African-American Adults: Responses to Types of Social Power-Based Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Otto-Salaj, Laura L.; Reed, Barbara; Brondino, Michael J.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Stevenson, L. Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    Little research has been performed on how people respond to different strategies to negotiate condom use in sexual situations, and whether certain strategies tend to be perceived as more or less effective in condom use negotiation. This study examined gender differences and preferences in the use of and response to six different styles of condom use negotiation with a hypothetical sexual partner of the opposite gender. Participants were 51 heterosexually-active African-American men and women between the ages of 18 and 35, attending an inner-city community center. Study participants completed a semi-structured qualitative interview in which they were presented with six negotiation strategies —coercive, reward, legitimate, expert, referent, and informational--based on Raven’s 1992 Power/Interaction Model of Interpersonal Influence. Results showed that women participants responded best to referent, reward, and legitimate strategies, and worst to informational tactics. Men participants responded best to reward strategies, and worst to coercion to use condoms. Further, responses given by a subset of both women—and, to a greater extent, men--indicated that use of negotiation tactics involving coercion to use condoms may result in negative or angry reactions. Finally, response to strategies may vary with the value of the relationship as viewed by the target of negotiation. Implications for HIV prevention programs and media campaigns are discussed. PMID:18569536

  9. Measurement equivalence of the Revised Helping Alliance Questionnaire across African American and non-Latino White substance using adult outpatients.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Frank R

    2013-08-01

    Analyses of the effectiveness of substance abuse treatments across racial/ethnic groups should ensure that outcome measures have the same conceptual meaning (i.e., measurement equivalence) across groups. Because racial groups differ in perceptions and experiences of the therapeutic alliance, this study investigated measurement equivalence properties of the Revised Helping Alliance Questionnaire (HAq-II) across racial groups. The sample included 138 African American and 133 non-Latino White participants, age 18-64 years, who participated in a randomized clinical trial investigating the effectiveness of Motivational Enhancement Therapy in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network. Results demonstrated configural invariance and two forms of metric invariance (weak and strong/scalar), suggesting that conceptualizations of therapeutic alliance and overall levels of endorsement of therapeutic alliance are comparable across racial groups. The groups indicated partial, strict metric nonequivalence. No studies to date reported measurement equivalence properties of the HAq-II. Findings support valid measurement and interpretation of HAq-II outcomes. PMID:23522849

  10. Epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of BMI, BMI change and waist circumference in African American adults identifies multiple replicated loci

    PubMed Central

    Demerath, Ellen W.; Guan, Weihua; Grove, Megan L.; Aslibekyan, Stella; Mendelson, Michael; Zhou, Yi-Hui; Hedman, Åsa K.; Sandling, Johanna K.; Li, Li-An; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Zhi, Degui; Deloukas, Panos; Liang, Liming; Liu, Chunyu; Bressler, Jan; Spector, Tim D.; North, Kari; Li, Yun; Absher, Devin M.; Levy, Daniel; Arnett, Donna K.; Fornage, Myriam; Pankow, James S.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is an important component of the pathophysiology of chronic diseases. Identifying epigenetic modifications associated with elevated adiposity, including DNA methylation variation, may point to genomic pathways that are dysregulated in numerous conditions. The Illumina 450K Bead Chip array was used to assay DNA methylation in leukocyte DNA obtained from 2097 African American adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Mixed-effects regression models were used to test the association of methylation beta value with concurrent body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and BMI change, adjusting for batch effects and potential confounders. Replication using whole-blood DNA from 2377 White adults in the Framingham Heart Study and CD4+ T cell DNA from 991 Whites in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network Study was followed by testing using adipose tissue DNA from 648 women in the Multiple Tissue Human Expression Resource cohort. Seventy-six BMI-related probes, 164 WC-related probes and 8 BMI change-related probes passed the threshold for significance in ARIC (P < 1 × 10−7; Bonferroni), including probes in the recently reported HIF3A, CPT1A and ABCG1 regions. Replication using blood DNA was achieved for 37 BMI probes and 1 additional WC probe. Sixteen of these also replicated in adipose tissue, including 15 novel methylation findings near genes involved in lipid metabolism, immune response/cytokine signaling and other diverse pathways, including LGALS3BP, KDM2B, PBX1 and BBS2, among others. Adiposity traits are associated with DNA methylation at numerous CpG sites that replicate across studies despite variation in tissue type, ethnicity and analytic approaches. PMID:25935004

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure assessment by multivariate statistical analysis of serum congener profiles in an adult Native American population.

    PubMed

    DeCaprio, Anthony P; Johnson, Glenn W; Tarbell, Alice M; Carpenter, David O; Chiarenzelli, Jeffrey R; Morse, Gayle S; Santiago-Rivera, Azara L; Schymura, Maria J

    2005-07-01

    The major determinants of human polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden include the source and route of exposure and the toxicokinetic processes occurring after uptake. However, the relative importance of each factor for individual subjects cannot currently be determined. The present study characterizes levels and patterns of PCB congeners in a large cohort of adult Akwesasne Mohawks with historical PCB exposure. Total serum PCB ranged from 0.29 to 48.32 ng/g and was higher in adult men than in women (median of 3.81 vs. 2.94 ng/g). The mean serum congener profile for the full cohort was dominated by persistent penta- to hepta-chlorinated biphenyls; several labile congeners were also prominent. In order to provide additional information on individual body burden determinants, multivariate exploratory data analysis techniques were applied to the congener-specific serum PCB data. A self-training receptor model, polytopic vector analysis (PVA), was employed to determine the number, composition, and relative proportions of independent congener patterns that contributed to the overall serum PCB profile for each Mohawk subject. PVA identified five such patterns, each of which was characterized by a unique mix of congeners. One pattern observed in a limited number of Mohawks was similar to those reported for air sampled near contaminated sediment deposits at Akwesasne and for volatilized Aroclor 1248 and is hypothesized to reflect recent inhalation exposure in these subjects. A second pattern was consistent with unaltered Aroclor 1254. A third pattern, resembling Aroclor 1262 but without labile congeners, was correlated with age and is interpreted as representing a lifetime PCB accumulation profile. The final two patterns were dominated by subsets of major persistent congeners and are hypothesized to reflect intermediate bioaccumulation profiles and/or differences in individual toxicokinetics. The results confirm the utility of a multivariate exploratory analysis

  12. Total alpha-tocopherol intakes are associated with serum alpha-tocopherol concentrations in African American adults.

    PubMed

    Talegawkar, Sameera A; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Carithers, Teresa; Taylor, Herman A; Bogle, Margaret L; Tucker, Katherine L

    2007-10-01

    African Americans in the southern United States have a high prevalence of chronic disease. Tocopherol intake and status have been associated with protection against several chronic diseases. Our objectives were, therefore, to examine the association between tocopherol intakes as measured by 2 regional FFQ and their corresponding concentrations in serum and to report on dietary sources of tocopherols in 404 men and women participating in the cross-sectional Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study of the Jackson Heart Study. A large proportion (49% of men and 66% of women) reported dietary supplement use. Only 5.8% of men and 4.5% of women met the estimated average requirement (EAR) for vitamin E from foods alone, whereas 44.2% men and 49.2% women met it from foods and supplements. Total (diet + supplement) intake of alpha-tocopherol was associated with its corresponding measure in serum. Vitamin E supplement use, sex, serum cholesterol, education, and BMI, but not gamma-tocopherol intakes, were associated with serum gamma-tocopherol. For delta-tocopherol, associated variables included sex and serum cholesterol. The top food sources of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol were snack chips and the top food source of delta-tocopherol was margarine. Despite prevalent vitamin E supplement use, more than one-half of this population did not meet the EAR for alpha-tocopherol intake and very few met it from food alone. Supplement use was associated with higher alpha- but lower gamma-tocopherol concentration in serum. The possible health implications of this difference in relative tocopherol subtypes require further study. PMID:17885014

  13. Discordance between self-report and genetic confirmation of sickle cell disease status in African-American adults

    PubMed Central

    Bean, Christopher J.; Hooper, W. Craig; Ellingsen, Dorothy; DeBaun, Michael R.; Sonderman, Jennifer; Blot, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder, with persons heterozygous for the mutation said to have the sickle cell trait (SCT). Serious adverse effects are mainly limited to those with SCD, but the distinction between disease and trait is not always clear to the general population. We sought to determine accuracy of self-reported SCD when compared to genetic confirmation. Methods From stratified random samples of Southern Community Cohort Study participants, we sequenced the β-globin gene in 51 individuals reporting SCD and 75 individuals reporting no SCD. Results The median age of the group selected was 53 (range 40–69) with 29% male. Only 5.9% of the 51 individuals reporting SCD were confirmed by sequencing, with the remaining 62.7% having SCT, 5.9% having hemoglobin C trait, and 25.5% having neither SCD nor trait. Sequencing results of the 75 individuals reporting no SCD by contrast were 100% concordant with self-report. Conclusions Misreporting of SCD is common in an older adult population, with most persons reporting SCD in this study being carriers of the trait and a sizeable minority completely unaffected. The results from this pilot survey support the need for increased efforts to raise community awareness and knowledge of SCD. PMID:24685557

  14. Moderate chronic pain, weight and dietary intake in African-American adult patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed Central

    Pells, Jennifer J.; Presnell, Katherine E.; Edwards, Christopher L.; Wood, Mary; Harrison, Myleme O.; DeCastro, Laura; Johnson, Stephanie; Feliu, Miriam; Canada, Stephanie; Jonassaint, Jude C.; Barker, Camela; Leach-Beale, Brittani; Mathis, Markece J.; Applegate, Katherine; Holmes, Anita; Byrd, Goldie; Robinson, Elwood

    2005-01-01

    In this exploratory study, we evaluated weight status and dietary intake patterns during painful episodes in adult patients with SCD. Specifically, we explored the relation between pain severity and body mass index (BMI), and we tested the hypothesis that dietary intake would be reduced and dietary content altered during periods of increased pain. We conducted an analysis of survey data from 62 patients involved in a longitudinal evaluation of the relationship of medical and psychosocial factors to pain. Nearly half of patients with SCD were overweight, and 20% were obese. BMI was positively related to interference associated with pain. Although BMI was not statistically associated with reported pain severity, >40% of patients reported that they perceived their pain to be affected by their weight. Less than 20% of patients reported that they perceived that their weight affected their pain. Regarding dietary patterns, the majority of patients reported eating less during episodes of pain and significantly decreasing their intake of fats and proteins. We conclude that there is a need to better understand the relation among weight, dietary patterns and pain in patients with SCD in order to provide patients with accurate education and effective treatment recommendations for managing their disease and reducing current and future risks of lifestyle and disease-related morbidities. PMID:16396054

  15. A North American brain tumor consortium phase II study of poly-ICLC for adult patients with recurrent anaplastic gliomas.

    PubMed

    Butowski, Nicholas; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Lee, Bee L; Prados, Michael D; Cloughesy, Timothy; DeAngelis, Lisa M; Abrey, Lauren; Fink, Karen; Lieberman, Frank; Mehta, Minesh; Ian Robins, H; Junck, Larry; Salazar, Andres M; Chang, Susan M

    2009-01-01

    This phase II study was designed to determine the objective response rate and 6-month progression free survival of adult patients with recurrent supratentorial anaplastic glioma when treated with the immune modulator, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid stabilized with polylysine and carboxymethylcellulose (poly-ICLC). This was an open-labeled, single arm phase II study. Patients were treated with poly-ICLC alone. Patients may have had treatment for no more than two prior relapses. Treatment with poly-ICLC continued until tumor progression. Fifty five patients were enrolled in the study. Ten were ineligible after central review of pathology. Eleven percent of patients (5 of 45) had a radiographic response. Time to progression was known for 39 patients and 6 remain on treatment. The estimated 6-month progression free survival was 24%. The median survival time was 43 weeks. Poly-ICLC was well tolerated, but there was no improvement in 6-month progression free survival compared to historical database nor was there an encouraging objective radiographic response rate. Based on this study, poly-ICLC does not improve 6moPFS in patients with recurrent anaplastic gliomas but may be worth further study in combination with agents such as temozolomide. PMID:18850068

  16. A North American brain tumor consortium phase II study of Poly-ICLC for adult patients with recurrent anaplastic gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Butowski, Nicholas; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Lee, Bee L; Prados, Michael D.; Cloughesy, Timothy; DeAngelis, Lisa M.; Abrey, Lauren; Fink, Karen; Lieberman, Frank; Mehta, Minesh; Robins, H. Ian; Junck, Larry; Salazar, Andres M.; Chang, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This phase II study was designed to determine the objective response rate and 6-month progression free survival of adult patients with recurrent supratentorial anaplastic glioma when treated with the immune modulator, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid stabilized with polylysine and carboxymethylcellulose (poly-ICLC). Methods and Materials This was an open-labeled, single arm phase II study. Patients were treated with poly-ICLC alone. Patients may have had treatment for no more than two prior relapses. Treatment with poly-ICLC continued until tumor progression. Results 55 patients were enrolled in the study. 10 were ineligible after central review of pathology. 11% of patients (5 of 45) had a radiographic response. Time to progression was known for 39 patients and 6 remain on treatment. The estimated 6-month progression free survival was 24%. The median survival time was 43 weeks. Conclusions Poly-ICLC was well tolerated, but there was no improvement in 6-month progression free survival compared to historical database nor was there an encouraging objective radiographic response rate. Based on this study, poly-ICLC does not improve 6moPFS in patients with recurrent anaplastic gliomas but may be worth further study in combination with agents such as temozolomide. PMID:18850068

  17. Addressing the Vaccine Hesitancy Continuum: An Audience Segmentation Analysis of American Adults Who Did Not Receive the 2009 H1N1 Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ramanadhan, Shoba; Galarce, Ezequiel; Xuan, Ziming; Alexander-Molloy, Jaclyn; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the heterogeneity of groups along the vaccine hesitancy continuum presents an opportunity to tailor and increase the impact of public engagement efforts with these groups. Audience segmentation can support these goals, as demonstrated here in the context of the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. In March 2010, we surveyed 1569 respondents, drawn from a nationally representative sample of American adults, with oversampling of racial/ethnic minorities and persons living below the United States Federal Poverty Level. Guided by the Structural Influence Model, we assessed knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to H1N1; communication outcomes; and social determinants. Among those who did not receive the vaccine (n = 1166), cluster analysis identified three vaccine-hesitant subgroups. Disengaged Skeptics (67%) were furthest from vaccine acceptance, with low levels of concern and engagement. The Informed Unconvinced (19%) were sophisticated consumers of media and health information who may not have been reached with information to motivate vaccination. The Open to Persuasion cluster (14%) had the highest levels of concern and motivation and may have required engagement about vaccination broadly. There were significant sociodemographic differences between groups. This analysis highlights the potential to use segmentation techniques to identify subgroups on the vaccine hesitancy continuum and tailor public engagement efforts accordingly. PMID:26350595

  18. Differential Effects of Self-Reported Lifetime Marijuana Use on Interleukin-1 Alpha and Tumor Necrosis Factor in African American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Keen, Larry; Turner, Arlener D.; Callender, Clive; Campbell, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown how lifetime marijuana use affects different proinflammatory cytokines. The purpose of the current study is to explore potential differential effects of lifetime marijuana use on interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in a community based sample. Participants included 168 African American adults (51% female, median age= 47 years). Upon study entry, blood was drawn and the participants completed questions regarding illicit drug use history whose answers were used to create three groups: lifetime non-drug users (n= 77), lifetime marijuana only users (n= 46) and lifetime marijuana and other drug users (n= 45). In the presence of demographic and physiological covariates, non-drug users were approximately two times more likely (AOR= 2.73, CI= 1.18, 6.31; p= .03) to have higher TNF levels than marijuana only users. Drug use was not associated with IL-1α. The influence of marijuana may be selective in nature, potentially localizing around innate immunity and the induction of cellular death. PMID:25731665

  19. Why take an HIV test? Concerns, benefits, and strategies to promote HIV testing among low-income heterosexual African American young adults.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Scyatta A; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Harris, Muriel J; Townsend, Tiffany G; Miller, Kim S

    2011-10-01

    A qualitative study examined perceptions of HIV testing and strategies to enhance HIV testing among HIV-negative African American heterosexual young adults (ages 18-25 years). Twenty-six focus groups (13 male groups, 13 female groups) were conducted in two low-income communities (urban and rural). All sessions were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data analysis was completed using AnSWR software. Many participants expressed that learning one's HIV status, regardless of the result, was a benefit of taking an HIV test because this was perceived to produce emotional relief. Additional benefits included the avoidance of unknowingly spreading the virus, being offered treatment access if HIV-positive, and taking time to assess and modify risky sexual behaviors if HIV-negative. If diagnosed HIV-positive, HIV testing concerns included the recognition of one's mortality, the experience of social stigma, and concerns about accessing affordable treatment. Recommended promotion strategies included the use of HIV-positive individuals, pop culture icons, and the media to promote HIV testing messages. PMID:21464204

  20. Differential effects of self-reported lifetime marijuana use on interleukin-1 alpha and tumor necrosis factor in African American adults.

    PubMed

    Keen, Larry; Turner, Arlener D

    2015-06-01

    It is unknown how lifetime marijuana use affects different proinflammatory cytokines. The purpose of the current study is to explore potential differential effects of lifetime marijuana use on interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in a community based sample. Participants included 168 African American adults (51 % female, median age = 47 years). Upon study entry, blood was drawn and the participants completed questions regarding illicit drug use history whose answers were used to create three groups: lifetime non-drug users (n = 77), lifetime marijuana only users (n = 46) and lifetime marijuana and other drug users (n = 45). In the presence of demographic and physiological covariates, non-drug users were approximately two times more likely (AOR 2.73, CI 1.18, 6.31; p = .03) to have higher TNF levels than marijuana only users. Drug use was not associated with IL-1α. The influence of marijuana may be selective in nature, potentially localizing around innate immunity and the induction of cellular death. PMID:25731665

  1. Addressing the Vaccine Hesitancy Continuum: An Audience Segmentation Analysis of American Adults Who Did Not Receive the 2009 H1N1 Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Ramanadhan, Shoba; Galarce, Ezequiel; Xuan, Ziming; Alexander-Molloy, Jaclyn; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the heterogeneity of groups along the vaccine hesitancy continuum presents an opportunity to tailor and increase the impact of public engagement efforts with these groups. Audience segmentation can support these goals, as demonstrated here in the context of the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. In March 2010, we surveyed 1569 respondents, drawn from a nationally representative sample of American adults, with oversampling of racial/ethnic minorities and persons living below the United States Federal Poverty Level. Guided by the Structural Influence Model, we assessed knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to H1N1; communication outcomes; and social determinants. Among those who did not receive the vaccine (n = 1166), cluster analysis identified three vaccine-hesitant subgroups. Disengaged Skeptics (67%) were furthest from vaccine acceptance, with low levels of concern and engagement. The Informed Unconvinced (19%) were sophisticated consumers of media and health information who may not have been reached with information to motivate vaccination. The Open to Persuasion cluster (14%) had the highest levels of concern and motivation and may have required engagement about vaccination broadly. There were significant sociodemographic differences between groups. This analysis highlights the potential to use segmentation techniques to identify subgroups on the vaccine hesitancy continuum and tailor public engagement efforts accordingly. PMID:26350595

  2. The distribution of Paenibacillus larvae spores in adult bees and honey and larval mortality, following the addition of American foulbrood diseased brood or spore-contaminated honey in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Anders; Korpela, Seppo; Fries, Ingemar

    2008-09-01

    Within colony transmission of Paenibacillus larvae spores was studied by giving spore-contaminated honey comb or comb containing 100 larvae killed by American foulbrood to five experimental colonies respectively. We registered the impact of the two treatments on P. larvae spore loads in adult bees and honey and on larval mortality by culturing for spores in samples of adult bees and honey, respectively, and by measuring larval survival. The results demonstrate a direct effect of treatment on spore levels in adult bees and honey as well as on larval mortality. Colonies treated with dead larvae showed immediate high spore levels in adult bee samples, while the colonies treated with contaminated honey showed a comparable spore load but the effect was delayed until the bees started to utilize the honey at the end of the flight season. During the winter there was a build up of spores in the adult bees, which may increase the risk for infection in spring. The results confirm that contaminated honey can act as an environmental reservoir of P. larvae spores and suggest that less spores may be needed in honey, compared to in diseased brood, to produce clinically diseased colonies. The spore load in adult bee samples was significantly related to larval mortality but the spore load of honey samples was not. PMID:18640122

  3. Higher blood pressure in middle-aged American adults with less education-role of multiple dietary factors: the INTERMAP study.

    PubMed

    Stamler, J; Elliott, P; Appel, L; Chan, Q; Buzzard, M; Dennis, B; Dyer, A R; Elmer, P; Greenland, P; Jones, D; Kesteloot, H; Kuller, L; Labarthe, D; Liu, K; Moag-Stahlberg, A; Nichaman, M; Okayama, A; Okuda, N; Robertson, C; Rodriguez, B; Stevens, M; Ueshima, H; Horn, L Van; Zhou, B

    2003-09-01

    Extensive evidence exists that an inverse relation between education and blood pressure prevails in many adult populations, but little research has been carried out on reasons for this finding. A prior goal of the INTERMAP Study was to investigate this phenomenon further, and to assess the role of dietary factors in accounting for it. Of the 4680 men and women aged 40-59 years, from 17 diverse population samples in Japan, People's Republic of China, UK, and USA, a strong significant inverse education-BP relation was manifest particularly for the 2195 USA participants, independent of ethnicity. With participants stratified by years of education, and assessment of 100+ dietary variables from four 24-h dietary recalls and two 24-h urine collections/person, graded relationships were found between education and intake of many macro- and micronutrients, electrolytes, fibre, and body mass index (BMI). In multiple linear regression analyses with systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) of individuals the dependent variables (controlled for ethnicity, other possible nondietary confounders), BMI markedly reduced size of education-BP relations, more so for women than for men. Several nutrients considered singly further decreased size of this association by > or =10%: urinary 24-h Na and K excretion, Keys dietary lipid score, vegetable protein, fibre, vitamins C and B6, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, calcium, magnesium, and iron. Combinations of these dietary variables and BMI attenuated the education-SBP inverse coefficient by 54-58%, and the education-DBP inverse coefficient by 59-67%, with over half these effects attributable to specific nutrients (independent of BMI). As a result, the inverse education-BP coefficients ceased to be statistically significant. Multiple specific dietary factors together with body mass largely account for the more adverse BP levels of less educated than more educated Americans. Special efforts to improve eating patterns of less educated strata

  4. Alligator diet in relation to alligator mortality on Lake Griffin, FL

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, A.N.; Ross, J.P.; Woodward, A.R.; Carbonneau, D.A.; Percival, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    Alligator mississippiensis (American Alligators) demonstrated low hatch-rate success and increased adult mortality on Lake Griffin, FL, between 1998 and 2003. Dying Lake Griffin alligators with symptoms of poor motor coordination were reported to show specific neurological impairment and brain lesions. Similar lesions were documented in salmonines that consumed clupeids with high thiaminase levels. Therefore, we investigated the diet of Lake Griffin alligators and compared it with alligator diets from two lakes that exhibited relatively low levels of unexplained alligator mortality to see if consumption of Dorosoma cepedianum (gizzard shad) could be correlated with patterns of mortality. Shad in both lakes Griffin and Apopka had high levels of thiaminase and Lake Apopka alligators were consuming greater amounts of shad relative to Lake Griffin without showing mortality rates similar to Lake Griffin alligators. Therefore, a relationship between shad consumption alone and alligator mortality is not supported.

  5. Marketing to Older American Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Barbara; Stephens, Nancy

    1986-01-01

    Examined older adults as a potential market for American businesses. Data indicate that in terms of size and income, senior citizens comprise a substantial buying group. Their buying styles, product and service needs, and shopping behavior vary from younger adults and within the older adult population. Strategies for successful marketing are…

  6. Depressive symptoms are more strongly related to executive functioning and episodic memory among African American compared with non-Hispanic White older adults.

    PubMed

    Zahodne, Laura B; Nowinski, Cindy J; Gershon, Richard C; Manly, Jennifer J

    2014-11-01

    We examined whether the reserve capacity model can be extended to cognitive outcomes among older African Americans. Two hundred and ninety-two non-Hispanic Whites and 37 African Americans over age 54 participated in the normative study for the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function. Multiple-group path analysis showed that associations between depressive symptoms and cognition differed by race, independent of age, education, reading level, income, health, and recruitment site. Depressive symptoms were associated with slowed processing speed among Whites and worse task-switching, inhibition, and episodic memory among African Americans. African Americans may be more vulnerable to negative effects of depression on cognition than non-Hispanic Whites. Further research is needed to explicate the psychological and neurobiological underpinnings of this greater vulnerability. PMID:25280795

  7. The Interdependence of Adult Relationship Quality and Parenting Behaviours among African American and European Couples in Rural, Low-Income Communities

    PubMed Central

    Zvara, Bharathi J.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Heilbron, Nicole; Clincy, Amanda; Cox, Martha J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study extends the spillover and crossover hypotheses to more carefully model the potential interdependence between parent–parent interaction quality and parent–child interaction quality in family systems. Using propensity score matching, the present study attempted to isolate family processes that are unique across African American and European American couples that are independent of other socio-demographic factors to further clarify how interparental relationships may be related to parenting in a rural, low-income sample. The Actor–Partner Interdependence Model (APIM), a statistical analysis technique that accounts for the interdependence of relationship data, was used with a sample of married and non-married cohabiting African American and European American couples (n = 82 dyads) to evaluate whether mothers' and fathers' observed parenting behaviours are related to their behaviours and their partner's behaviours observed in a couple problem-solving interaction. Findings revealed that interparental withdrawal behaviour, but not conflict behaviour, was associated with less optimal parenting for fathers but not mothers, and specifically so for African American fathers. Our findings support the notion of interdependence across subsystems within the family and suggest that African American fathers may be specifically responsive to variations in interparental relationship quality. PMID:26430390

  8. Critical evaluation of the modified-adult immersion test with discriminating dose bioassy for Boophilus microplus using American and Australian isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Similar adult immersion tests (AITs) for acaricide susceptibility of Boophilus microplus were done in Texas, USA (Muñoz strain) and in Queensland, Australia (N strain and Ultimo strain). Engorged adult female ticks were immersed in one of a series of dilutions of commercial acaricide in water and th...

  9. Artifacts and the American Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlereth, Thomas J.

    Ten essays are presented which suggest rationale and methods for involving students of American history in first hand research using primary source material. The book is intended for classroom and extra curricular use by teachers and students of American studies on the high school, college, and adult education levels. It can also be of use to…

  10. Diet Quality and Physical Activity Outcome Improvements Resulting From a Church-Based Diet and Supervised Physical Activity Intervention for Rural, Southern, African American Adults: Delta Body and Soul III.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jessica L; Goodman, Melissa H; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the effects of a 6-month, church-based, diet and supervised physical activity intervention, conducted between 2011 and 2012, on improving diet quality and increasing physical activity of Southern, African American adults. Using a quasi-experimental design, eight self-selected, eligible churches were assigned to intervention or control. Assessments included dietary, physical activity, anthropometric, and clinical measures. Mixed model regression analysis and McNemar's test were used to determine if within and between group differences were significant. Cohen's d effect sizes for selected outcomes also were computed and compared with an earlier, lower dose intervention. Retention rates were 84% (102/122) for control and 76% (219/287) for intervention participants. Diet quality components, including fruits, vegetables, discretionary calories, and total quality, improved significantly in the intervention group. Strength/flexibility physical activity also increased in the intervention group, while both aerobic and strength/flexibility physical activity significantly decreased in the control group. Effect sizes for selected health outcomes were larger in the current intervention as compared to an earlier, less intense iteration of the study. Results suggest that more frequent education sessions as well as supervised group physical activity may be key components to increasing the efficacy of behavioral lifestyle interventions in rural, Southern, African American adults. PMID:25603798

  11. Differential Predictors of Medication Adherence in HIV: Findings from a Sample of African American and Caucasian HIV-Positive Drug-Using Adults

    PubMed Central

    Moizel, Jennifer; Panos, Stella E.; Patel, Sapna M.; Byrd, Desiree A.; Myers, Hector F.; Wyatt, Gail E.; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Modest or even occasional nonadherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) can result in adverse clinical outcomes. African Americans demonstrate lower rates of adherence than Caucasians or Latinos. Identifying factors that influence medication adherence among African Americans is a critical step toward reducing HIV/AIDS disease progression and mortality. In a sample of 181 African American (n=144) and Caucasian (n=37) HIV-positive drug-using individuals [age (M=42.31; SD=6.6) education (M=13.41; SD=2.1)], we examined the influence of baseline drug use, literacy, neurocognition, depression, treatment-specific social support, and patient satisfaction with health care provider on medication adherence averaged over the course of 6 months (study dates 2002–2006). Our findings suggest differential baseline predictors of medication adherence for African Americans and Caucasians, such that patient satisfaction with provider was the strongest predictor of follow-up medication adherence for African Americans whereas for Caucasians depressive symptoms and treatment-specific social support were predictive of medication adherence (after controlling for duration of drug use). PMID:22889235

  12. Language Use in Multiethnic Literature For Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christianson, Darcy

    This study analyzed ethnic authenticity with regard to language use in 16 books for children and young adults used in Central Michigan University's English 582 course, "Cultural Pluralism in Children and Young Adult Literature." Four ethnic groups were included: Native American, African American, Asian American, and Hispanic American. To evaluate…

  13. Associations between the SS Variant of 5-HTTLPR and PTSD Among Adults with Histories of Childhood Emotional Abuse: Results from Two African American Independent Samples

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; Uddin, Monica; Soliven, Richelo; Wildman, Derek E.; Bradley-Davino, Bekh

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies have found that the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) interacts with stressful life events to increase general risk for PTSD, but this association has not extended to African American samples. Further, little is known about the effects of this interaction on specific PTSD symptom clusters, despite indications that clusters may have different biological substrates. The current study examined the interaction between exposure to childhood emotional abuse and 5-HTTLPR genotype on risk for PTSD symptom severity and severity of specific PTSD symptom clusters in two African American samples. Methods Participants were 136 African American household residents from Detroit, MI and 546 African American patients recruited from waiting rooms in primary care clinics in Atlanta, GA. Participants reported emotional abuse exposure and PTSD symptom severity, and provided DNA for triallelic 5-HTTLPR genotyping. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to examine main effects and interactions. Results In both African American samples, 5-HTTLPR genotype modified the effect of emotional abuse on PTSD symptom severity. Participants with the low-expression SS genotype who were exposed to emotional abuse had significantly lower reexperiencing and arousal symptom severity scores. Limitations The DNHS genetic sample size was small, and abuse data were assessed retrospectively. Conclusions The SS variant of 5-HTTLPR appears to buffer against developing the reexperiencing and arousal symptoms of PTSD in two independent African American samples exposed to childhood emotional abuse. Findings also highlight the importance of considering emotional abuse experiences in patients with suspected PTSD. PMID:24751314

  14. Sandia Helicopter Acoustic Detector (SHAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arlowe, H. D.

    1982-05-01

    The Sandia Helicopter Acoustic Detector was developed to provide a low cost alternative to radar for countering the helicopter threat at new DOE facilities. The main buildings of these new designs are generally hardened to provide significant delay to a helicopter borne adversary team. Under these circumstances the sensor is only required to detect helicopters that are in their final landing phase and at close range (less than 75 m). This short detection range allows the use of a fairly simple acoustic detection algorithm without making the system overly sensitive to wind noise, motor vehicles, and ventilation/heat exchange blowers. This work was sponsored by the Department of Energy/Office of Safeguards and Security as part of the overall Sandia Fixed Facility Physical Protection Program.

  15. The Shad-Fack Transom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crannell, Annalisa

    2011-01-01

    We provide several constructions, both algebraic and geometric, for determining the ratio of the radii of two circles in an Apollonius-like packing problem. This problem was inspired by the art deco design in the transom window above the Shadek Fackenthal Library door on the Franklin & Marshall College campus.

  16. The Future of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    It is an interesting assignment to think about the future of adult education. In fact, it is an assignment the author has the graduate students in his "Introduction to Adult Education" class at East Carolina University consider during one of their course units. As a member of the Board of Directors for the American Association for Adult and…

  17. Use of Media Technologies by Native American Teens and Young Adults in the Pacific Northwest: Exploring Their Utility for Designing Culturally Appropriate Technology-Based Health Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushing, Stephanie Craig; Stephens, David

    2011-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth are disproportionally burdened by many common adolescent health issues, including drug and alcohol use, injury and violence, sexually transmitted infections, and teen pregnancy. Media technologies, including the Internet, cell phones, and video games, offer new avenues for reaching adolescents on a…

  18. The Interdependence of Adult Relationship Quality and Parenting Behaviours among African American and European Couples in Rural, Low-Income Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zvara, Bharathi J.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Heilbron, Nicole; Clincy, Amanda; Cox, Martha J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study extends the spillover and crossover hypotheses to more carefully model the potential interdependence between parent-parent interaction quality and parent-child interaction quality in family systems. Using propensity score matching, the present study attempted to isolate family processes that are unique across African American and…

  19. Knowledge about type 2 diabetes risk and prevention of African-American and Hispanic adults and adolescents with family history of type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to assess type 2 diabetes knowledge, perceptions, risk factor awareness, and prevention practices among African-American and Hispanic families with a history of diabetes. Ninth and tenth grade Houston area students who had a parent who spoke English or Spanish and had a...

  20. Health-Related Quality of Life and Health Behaviors in a Population-Based Sample of Older, Foreign-Born, Chinese American Adults Living in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Laura C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Islam, Nadia S.; Kwon, Simona C.

    2014-01-01

    Although the New York City Chinese population aged =65 years increased by 50% between 2000 and 2010, the health needs of this population are poorly understood. Approximately 3,001 Chinese individuals from high-density Asian American New York City areas were included in the REACH U.S. Risk Factor Survey; 805 (26.8%) were aged =65 years and…

  1. Sandwiches are major contributors of sodium in the diets of American adults: Results from What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efforts to sharpen the focus of sodium reduction strategies include identification of major food group contributors of sodium intake. Although sandwiches are a staple of the American diet, examinations of their contribution to sodium intake have been limited to “single-code” sandwiches. One day of...

  2. American Potpourri: Multi-ethnic Books for Children and Young Adults. A Bibliography Based on the Acquisitions of the Educational Materials Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Mary DeWitt; And Others

    A selective annotated bibliography of multiethnic books, which were published in 1975 or 1976, is presented. Section one, books for preschool and beginning readers, contains 13 fiction and five nonfiction entries. These stress self-concept and understanding of Mexican and American Indian cultures. Section two contains 20 fiction and 13 nonfiction…

  3. Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children, adolescents, and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Dulcan, M

    1997-10-01

    These practice parameters review the literature on children, adolescents, and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). There are three types of ADHD: predominantly inattentive, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive, and combined. Together, they occur in as many as 10% of boys and 5% of girls of elementary school age. Prevalence declines with age, although up to 65% of hyperactive children are still symptomatic as adults. Frequency in adults is estimated to be 2% to 7%. Assessment includes clinical interviews and standardized rating scales from parents and teachers. Testing of intelligence and academic achievement usually are required. Comorbidity is common. The cornerstones of treatment are support and education of parents, appropriate school placement, and pharmacology. The primary medications are psychostimulants, but antidepressants and alpha-adrenergic agonists are used in special circumstances. Other treatments such as behavior modification, school consultation, family therapy, and group therapy address remaining symptoms. PMID:9334567

  4. Management of Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Clinical Guidance Statement From the Academy of Geriatric Physical Therapy of the American Physical Therapy Association

    PubMed Central

    Avin, Keith G.; Hanke, Timothy A.; Kirk-Sanchez, Neva; McDonough, Christine M.; Shubert, Tiffany E.; Hartley, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Background Falls in older adults are a major public health concern due to high prevalence, impact on health outcomes and quality of life, and treatment costs. Physical therapists can play a major role in reducing fall risk for older adults; however, existing clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) related to fall prevention and management are not targeted to physical therapists. Objective The purpose of this clinical guidance statement (CGS) is to provide recommendations to physical therapists to help improve outcomes in the identification and management of fall risk in community-dwelling older adults. Design and Methods The Subcommittee on Evidence-Based Documents of the Practice Committee of the Academy of Geriatric Physical Therapy developed this CGS. Existing CPGs were identified by systematic search and critically appraised using the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research, and Evaluation in Europe II (AGREE II) tool. Through this process, 3 CPGs were recommended for inclusion in the CGS and were synthesized and summarized. Results Screening recommendations include asking all older adults in contact with a health care provider whether they have fallen in the previous year or have concerns about balance or walking. Follow-up should include screening for balance and mobility impairments. Older adults who screen positive should have a targeted multifactorial assessment and targeted intervention. The components of this assessment and intervention are reviewed in this CGS, and barriers and issues related to implementation are discussed. Limitations A gap analysis supports the need for the development of a physical therapy–specific CPG to provide more precise recommendations for screening and assessment measures, exercise parameters, and delivery models. Conclusion This CGS provides recommendations to assist physical therapists in the identification and management of fall risk in older community-dwelling adults. PMID:25573760

  5. Rising Blood Sugar Hitting More Obese Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159853.html Rising Blood Sugar Hitting More Obese Adults To curb diabetes, researchers ... HealthDay News) -- Among obese American adults, control of blood sugar is worsening, leading to more diabetes and heart ...

  6. Screening Pelvic Examination in Nonpregnant Adult Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Screening Pelvic Examination in Nonpregnant Adult Women: Recommendations From the American ... Physicians The full report is titled “Screening Pelvic Examination in Adult Women: A Clinical Practice Guideline From ...

  7. "Starting Stories" among Older Northern Plains American Indian Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Christopher E.

    2009-01-01

    American Indian adults have the highest smoking rate of any racial group in the nation. By the turn of the 21st century, smoking rates for the general adult population were reported to be 24%. Among adolescents in the United States, 34.8% of high school students reported they currently smoked in 1999. In comparison, American Indian adults report…

  8. Culturally Sensitive Approaches to Identification and Treatment of Depression among HIV Infected African American Adults: A Qualitative Study of Primary Care Providers’ Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Le, Huynh-Nhu; Hipolito, Maria Mananita S; Lambert, Sharon; Terrell-Hamilton, Flora; Rai, Narayan; McLean, Charlee; Kapetanovic, Suad; Nwulia, Evaristus

    2016-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly prevalent among HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals, and is associated with non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), and accelerated disease progression. MDD is underdiagnosed and undertreated among low-income African Americans, who are disproportionately impacted by the HIV epidemic. To improve detection and treatment of depression among African Americans living with HIV/AIDS, it is important to understand culturally and contextually relevant aspects of MDD and attitudes about mental health treatment. Methods A focus group session was conducted with seven providers and staff at a primary care center that serves a largely African-American community heavily impacted by the HIV epidemic in Washington, DC. Data were analyzed using an inductive approach to distill prominent themes, perspectives, and experiences among participating providers. Results Five themes emerged to characterize the lived experiences of HIV+ African-American patients: (a) Changes in perceptions of HIV over time; (b) HIV is comorbid with mental illness, particularly depression and substance abuse; (c) Stigma is associated with both HIV and depression; (d) Existing mental health services vary and are insufficient and (e) Suggestions for optimal treatment for comorbid HIV and depression. Limitation This study reflects the views of providers from one clinic in this community. Conclusion Substantial economic disadvantage, pervasive childhood adversity, limited education and limited resources jointly put members of this community at risk for acquisition of HIV and for development of depression and addictions. These contextual factors provide an important reminder that any patient-level depression identification or intervention in this community will have to be mindful of such circumstances. PMID:27347445

  9. American Women and American Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmaj, Betty E.

    The American Studies Association (ASA) is an interprofessional group, representing a cross-section of persons from American literature, American history, the social sciences, philosophy, archeology, Black Studies, Urban Studies, American Studies, and others. This document by the ASA Commission on the Status of Women includes: (1) a report of the…

  10. Media exposure, internalization of the thin ideal, and body dissatisfaction: comparing Asian American and European American college females.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Mahsa; Hill, Laura G; Orrell-Valente, Joan K

    2011-09-01

    Internalization of the thin ideal mediates the media exposure-body dissatisfaction relation in young adult European American females. There is little related research on Asian Americans. We used structural equations modeling to test: (1) whether media exposure was associated with body dissatisfaction in Asian American young adult females, (2) internalization of the thin ideal mediated any such association, and (3) whether the mediational model provided equivalent fit for European American and Asian American samples. Participants were 287 college females (154 Asian Americans, 133 European Americans). Internalization of the thin ideal explained the media exposure-body dissatisfaction association equally well for both groups. Results suggest that Asian Americans may be employing unhealthy weight control behaviors, and may be prone to developing eating disorders, at rates similar to European American young adult females. Clinicians need to screen carefully for body dissatisfaction, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and eating disorders in Asian American females. PMID:21775227

  11. Design of a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Web-Based Intervention to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among Remote Reservation–Dwelling American Indian Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Chubak, Jessica; O’Connell, Joan; Ramos, Maria C.; Jensen, Julie; Jobe, Jared B.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a randomized controlled trial, the Lakota Oyate Wicozani Pi Kte (LOWPK) trial, which was designed to determine whether a Web-based diabetes and nutritional intervention can improve risk factors related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) among a group of remote reservation–dwelling adult American Indian men and women with type 2 diabetes who are at high risk for CVD. Enrollment on a rolling basis of 180 planned participants began during 2009; an average 18-month follow-up was completed by June 2011. The primary outcome variable is change in glycosylated hemoglobin level after an average 18-month follow-up period. Secondary outcome variables include changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, and smoking status, as well as an evaluation of intervention cost-effectiveness. If effective, the LOWPK trial may serve as a guide for future chronic disease intervention trials in remote, technologically challenged settings. PMID:23001642

  12. Design of a randomized controlled trial of a web-based intervention to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors among remote reservation-dwelling American Indian adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Jeffrey A; Chubak, Jessica; O'Connell, Joan; Ramos, Maria C; Jensen, Julie; Jobe, Jared B

    2012-08-01

    We describe a randomized controlled trial, the Lakota Oyate Wicozani Pi Kte (LOWPK) trial, which was designed to determine whether a Web-based diabetes and nutritional intervention can improve risk factors related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) among a group of remote reservation-dwelling adult American Indian men and women with type 2 diabetes who are at high risk for CVD. Enrollment on a rolling basis of 180 planned participants began during 2009; an average 18-month follow-up was completed by June 2011. The primary outcome variable is change in glycosylated hemoglobin level after an average 18-month follow-up period. Secondary outcome variables include changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, and smoking status, as well as an evaluation of intervention cost-effectiveness. If effective, the LOWPK trial may serve as a guide for future chronic disease intervention trials in remote, technologically challenged settings. PMID:23001642

  13. The dissection and SSR mapping of a high-temperature adult-plant stripe rust resistance gene in American spring wheat cultivar Alturas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust is one of major diseases in wheat production worldwide. The best economic and efficient method is to utilize resistant varieties. Alturas has high-temperature adult-plant resistance. In order to determine stripe rust resistance characteristics, resistance gene combination and molecular m...

  14. A Six-Year Follow-Up Study of Social Network Changes among African-American, Caribbean, and U.S.-Born Caucasian Urban Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Francine; Magai, Carol; Jones, Samuel; Fiori, Katherine; Gillespie, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study explores dynamic changes in network size and composition by examining patterns of older adults' social network change over time, that is: types of movements; the reason for the loss of network members; and the relation of movement and composition in concert. This study is a 6-year follow up of changes in the social networks of U.S.-Born…

  15. Evidence-Based Guideline: Treatment of Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Children and Adults: Report of the Guideline Committee of the American Epilepsy Society

    PubMed Central

    Shinnar, Shlomo; Gloss, David; Alldredge, Brian; Arya, Ravindra; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn; Bare, Mary; Bleck, Thomas; Dodson, W. Edwin; Garrity, Lisa; Jagoda, Andy; Lowenstein, Daniel; Pellock, John; Riviello, James; Sloan, Edward; Treiman, David M.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: The optimal pharmacologic treatment for early convulsive status epilepticus is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To analyze efficacy, tolerability and safety data for anticonvulsant treatment of children and adults with convulsive status epilepticus and use this analysis to develop an evidence-based treatment algorithm. DATA SOURCES: Structured literature review using MEDLINE, Embase, Current Contents, and Cochrane library supplemented with article reference lists. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled trials of anticonvulsant treatment for seizures lasting longer than 5 minutes. DATA EXTRACTION: Individual studies were rated using predefined criteria and these results were used to form recommendations, conclusions, and an evidence-based treatment algorithm. RESULTS: A total of 38 randomized controlled trials were identified, rated and contributed to the assessment. Only four trials were considered to have class I evidence of efficacy. Two studies were rated as class II and the remaining 32 were judged to have class III evidence. In adults with convulsive status epilepticus, intramuscular midazolam, intravenous lorazepam, intravenous diazepam and intravenous phenobarbital are established as efficacious as initial therapy (Level A). Intramuscular midazolam has superior effectiveness compared to intravenous lorazepam in adults with convulsive status epilepticus without established intravenous access (Level A). In children, intravenous lorazepam and intravenous diazepam are established as efficacious at stopping seizures lasting at least 5 minutes (Level A) while rectal diazepam, intramuscular midazolam, intranasal midazolam, and buccal midazolam are probably effective (Level B). No significant difference in effectiveness has been demonstrated between intravenous lorazepam and intravenous diazepam in adults or children with convulsive status epilepticus (Level A). Respiratory and cardiac symptoms are the most commonly encountered treatment-emergent adverse events

  16. Competency-Based Adult Education Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education.

    This resource guide for adult education personnel describes programs and publications on APL (Adult Performance Level) and Competency-Based Adult Education (CBAE). Includes: (1) Descriptions of APL examination programs developed by the American College Testing Program, (2) brief description of Missouri project on the identification of adult basic…

  17. Too Few Americans Take Advantage of Local Parks

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158915.html Too Few Americans Take Advantage of Local Parks Modest changes would ... a center of physical activity for adults, older Americans and females," Cohen said in a news release ...

  18. Racial and ethnic differences in HPV knowledge, attitudes, and vaccination rates among low-income African-American, Haitian, Latina and Caucasian young adult women

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Jack A.; Mercilus, Glory; Wilbur, MaryAnn B.; Figaro, Jean; Perkins, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine facilitators and barriers to HPV vaccine uptake in African-American, Haitian, Latina, and White women ages 18–22 and to determine vaccination completion rates among participants over 5 years. Design Using semi-structured interviews and medical record review, we assessed HPV knowledge and attitudes towards HPV vaccination among young women. We then determined their subsequent HPV vaccination initiation and completion rates. We used constructs from the Health Belief Model and methods based in grounded theory and content analysis to identify attitudes towards HPV vaccination cues to initiate vaccination, perception of HPV, and how communication about issues of sexuality may impact vaccine uptake. Participants We enrolled 132 African-American, Haitian, Latina, and White women aged 18–22 years who visited an urban academic medical center and two affiliated community health centers between the years 2007 and 2012. Main Outcome Measures Intent to vaccinate and actual vaccination rates Results Of 132 participants, 116 (90%) stated that they were somewhat or very likely to accept HPV vaccination if offered by their physician, but only 51% initiated the vaccination over the next 5 years. Seventy-eight percent of those who initiated vaccination completed the 3 doses of the HPV vaccine series. Forty-five percent (45%, n=50) of the adolescents who started the series completed three doses over a five year period: forty-two percent African-American (n=16), thirty-three percent Haitian (n=13), sixty-three percent Latina (n=10), and sixty-five White young women (n=11) completed the three-dose series. Despite low knowledge, they reported high levels of trust in physicians and were willing to vaccinate if recommended by their physicians. Conclusion Desire for HPV vaccination is high among older adolescents, physician recommendation and use of every clinic visit opportunity may improve vaccine uptake in young women. More White young women completed the HPV

  19. Cardiovascular disease risks in adult Native and Mexican Americans with a history of alcohol use disorders: association with cardiovascular autonomic control.

    PubMed

    Criado, José R; Gilder, David A; Kalafut, Mary A; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2016-04-01

    Hypertension and obesity are serious health problems that have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We recently showed a relationship between hypertension, obesity and cardiovagal control in a sample of Native and Mexican Americans at high risk of alcohol use disorders (AUD). While studies have shown that Native and Mexican Americans exhibit high rates of AUD, the consequences of AUD on CVD risk factors and their relationship with cardiovascular autonomic control is not well understood in these ethnic groups. This study investigated whether an association could be demonstrated between cardiovascular autonomic control and several CVD risk factors in Native and Mexican American men and women (n = 228) who are literate in English and are residing legally in San Diego County. Participants with lifetime history of AUD showed higher rates of systolic and diastolic hypertension and obesity than participants without lifetime AUD. Lifetime AUD was significantly associated with reduced HR response to deep breathing (HRDB) measure of cardiovagal control, higher current drinking quantity, and obesity. Reduced HRDB was also associated with increased systolic pre-hypertension or hypertension (pre-/hypertension) and with higher diastolic blood pressure in a linear regression model that included several diagnostic and demographic variables. HRDB and time- and frequency-domain measures of cardiovagal control were significantly reduced in participants with diastolic pre-/hypertension. These data suggest that lower cardiovagal control may play a role in the prevalence of systolic and diastolic pre-/hypertension in a community sample with a history of alcohol and substance use disorders. PMID:26758567

  20. Status report from the American Acne & Rosacea Society on medical management of acne in adult women, part 1: overview, clinical characteristics, and laboratory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q; Harper, Julie C; Graber, Emmy M; Thiboutot, Diane; Silverberg, Nanette B; Eichenfield, Dawn Zhang; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2015-10-01

    Acne presenting in adult women is commonly encountered in clinical practice. Many affected women have had acne during their teenaged years, have tried several therapies in the past, and are seeking effective treatment. Others are frustrated by the inexplicable emergence of acne as an adult when they never had it as a teenager. Both groups seek an explanation of why they have acne, are often psychosocially affected by its effects on appearance and self-esteem, and all are wanting effective and safe treatment. Clinicians are encouraged to connect favorably with each patient through careful history and physical examination and to consider underlying causes of androgen excess. Practical approaches to examination and laboratory evaluation are discussed. PMID:26682286

  1. The relationship between trajectories of family/cultural stressors and depression and suicidal ideation among substance using Mexican-American adults.

    PubMed

    Saint Onge, Jarron M; Cepeda, Alice; Lee King, Patricia A; Valdez, Avelardo

    2013-12-01

    We used an intersectional minority stress perspective to examine the association between family/cultural stress and mental health among substance-using Mexican-Americans. Employing a unique longitudinal sample of 239 socioeconomically disadvantaged, non-injecting heroin-using Mexican-Americans from San Antonio, Texas, we examined how culturally relevant stressors are related to depression and suicidal ideation. First, we identified depression and suicidal ideation prevalence rates for this disadvantaged sample. Second, we determined how cultural stress is experienced over time using stress trajectories. Third, we evaluated how family/cultural stressors and stress trajectories are related to depression and suicidal ideation outcomes. Results showed high rates of baseline depression (24 %) and suicidal ideation (30 %). We used latent class growth analysis to identify three primary stress trajectories (stable, high but decreasing, and increasing) over three time points during 1 year. We found that the increasing stressors trajectory was associated with higher rates of depression and suicidal ideation, and that stress trajectories had unique relationships with mental illness. We also showed that baseline stressors, sum stressors, and high but decreasing stressors maintained positive associations with mental illness after controlling for baseline depression. Our results highlight the importance of focusing on within-group, culturally specific stressors and addressing both operant and cumulative stressors in the study of mental health for marginalized populations and suggest the importance of early intervention in minimizing stressors. PMID:23904175

  2. The Relationship of Adverse Childhood Experiences to PTSD, Depression, Poly-Drug Use and Suicide Attempt in Reservation-Based Native American Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Brockie, Teresa N; Dana-Sacco, Gail; Wallen, Gwenyth R; Wilcox, Holly C; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2015-06-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with numerous risk behaviors and mental health outcomes among youth. This study examines the relationship between the number of types of exposures to ACEs and risk behaviors and mental health outcomes among reservation-based Native Americans. In 2011, data were collected from Native American (N = 288; 15-24 years of age) tribal members from a remote plains reservation using an anonymous web-based questionnaire. We analyzed the relationship between six ACEs, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, physical and emotional neglect, witness to intimate partner violence, for those <18 years, and included historical loss associated symptoms, and perceived discrimination for those <19 years; and four risk behavior/mental health outcomes: post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression symptoms, poly-drug use, and suicide attempt. Seventy-eight percent of the sample reported at least one ACE and 40 % reported at least two. The cumulative impact of the ACEs were significant (p < .001) for the four outcomes with each additional ACE increasing the odds of suicide attempt (37 %), poly-drug use (51 %), PTSD symptoms (55 %), and depression symptoms (57 %). To address these findings culturally appropriate childhood and adolescent interventions for reservation-based populations must be developed, tested and evaluated longitudinally. PMID:25893815

  3. Haitian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catanese, Anthony V.

    1998-01-01

    Uses 1990 U.S. Census data to show the changing demographic profile of Haitian Americans. Haitian Americans are likely to live along the Atlantic seaboard and to have relatively low, although not the lowest, incomes. However, the demographic mosaic of Haitian Americans is diverse, showing the effects of Haitian national and ethnic history. (SLD)

  4. Pathways from Early Childhood Adversity to Later Adult Drug Use and Psychological Distress: A Prospective Study of a Cohort of African Americans.

    PubMed

    Fothergill, Kate; Ensminger, Margaret E; Doherty, Elaine E; Juon, Hee-Soon; Green, Kerry M

    2016-06-01

    Drawing on the life course perspective, this research addresses the direct and indirect pathways between childhood adversity and midlife psychological distress and drug use across a majority of the life span in an African American cohort (N = 1,242) followed from age 6 to 42 (1966 to 2002). Results from structural equation models highlight the impact of low childhood socioeconomic status (SES), poor maternal mental health, and the role of first-grade maladaptation in launching a trajectory of social maladaptation from age 6 to 42. Specifically, for men, we found a direct pathway from early low SES to drug use in mid adulthood and an indirect pathway to psychological distress through first-grade maladaptation and adolescent poor mental health. For females, early SES affected first-grade maladaptation and low school bonds, which then predicted later drug use. PMID:27284077

  5. Depression and Cognitive Impairment Are Associated with Low Education and Literacy Status and Smoking but Not Caffeine Consumption in Urban African Americans and White Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kuczmarski, Andrew V.; Mason, Marc A.; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent research has linked caffeine consumption with a lower risk for depression and cognitive decline. However, no studies have examined the relationship in an African American compared to a white, socioeconomically diverse representative urban sample. Methods: Data from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the associations of caffeine use with depressive symptomatology and cognition in a sample of 1,724 participants in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. The United States Department of Agriculture's Automated Multiple Pass Method was used by trained interviewers to collect two, in-person 24-hour dietary recalls. Depressive symptoms and global cognition were assessed using two well-validated measures: the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depressive Scale (CES-D) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), respectively. Usual caffeine intake was based on both recalls. Data were analyzed with t- and chi-square tests, correlation analysis, and ordinal logistic regression. Results: African Americans consumed significantly less caffeine than did whites (89.0±3.2 and 244.0±8.7 mg respectively). Caffeine consumption was not associated with depressive symptomatology or global cognition. Age, less than 5th grade literacy, and less than high school education were significantly associated with both depressive symptoms and cognitive function. Smokers had a 43% greater risk for depression but only a 3% higher risk for cognitive impairment. Conclusion: The low level of dietary caffeine intake in combination with smoking among HANDLS study participants may have influenced the lack of association with depressive symptomatology or global cognition. For this sample, low literacy and education appear more highly associated with depressive symptoms and cognitive function than caffeine intake. PMID:25785235

  6. 76 FR 14378 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... Council's (MAFMC) River Herring and Shad Ad Hoc Committee will hold a webinar meeting. DATES: The meeting... available to the Council for management of River Herring (blueback and alewife) and Shad (American...

  7. Healthy Eating and Risks of Total and Cause-Specific Death among Low-Income Populations of African-Americans and Other Adults in the Southeastern United States: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Danxia; Sonderman, Jennifer; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Steinwandel, Mark; Signorello, Lisa B.; Zhang, Xianglan; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Blot, William J.; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background A healthy diet, as defined by the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), has been associated with lower morbidity and mortality from major chronic diseases in studies conducted in predominantly non-Hispanic white individuals. It is unknown whether this association can be extrapolated to African-Americans and low-income populations. Methods and Findings We examined the associations of adherence to the DGA with total and cause-specific mortality in the Southern Community Cohort Study, a prospective study that recruited 84,735 American adults, aged 40–79 y, from 12 southeastern US states during 2002–2009, mostly through community health centers that serve low-income populations. The present analysis included 50,434 African-Americans, 24,054 white individuals, and 3,084 individuals of other racial/ethnic groups, among whom 42,759 participants had an annual household income less than US$15,000. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Adherence to the DGA was measured by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), 2010 and 2005 editions (HEI-2010 and HEI-2005, respectively). During a mean follow-up of 6.2 y, 6,906 deaths were identified, including 2,244 from cardiovascular disease, 1,794 from cancer, and 2,550 from other diseases. A higher HEI-2010 score was associated with lower risks of disease death, with adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.73–0.86) for all-disease mortality, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.70–0.94) for cardiovascular disease mortality, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.69–0.95) for cancer mortality, and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.67–0.88) for other disease mortality, when comparing the highest quintile with the lowest (all p-values for trend < 0.05). Similar inverse associations between HEI-2010 score and mortality were observed regardless of sex, race, and income (all p-values for interaction > 0.50). Several component scores in the HEI-2010, including whole grains, dairy, seafood and plant proteins, and ratio

  8. In and out of love with hip-hop: saliency of sexual scripts for young adult African American women in hip-hop and Black-oriented television.

    PubMed

    Coleman, M Nicole; Butler, Ebony O; Long, Amanda M; Fisher, Felicia D

    2016-10-01

    Hip-hop media and Black-oriented reality television are powerful mechanisms for conveying and promoting stereotypes of Black women. Black women's sexuality is frequently presented as highly-salient in each medium. However, little is known about the impact of those images on Black women's sexuality and identity. The current study uses focus-group methodology to engage young adult Black in critical discussion of two predominant sexual scripts found in hip-hop music and Black-oriented reality television - the Freak and the Gold Digger. Analyses revealed shared and distinct aspects of each sexual script represented in both media and the impact of those scripts on participants' experiences. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:27188876

  9. The role of political efficacy on the relationship between facebook use and participatory behaviors: a comparative study of young American and Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Chan, Michael; Guo, Jing

    2013-06-01

    This comparative study of young adults in an established democracy (America) and transitional democracy (Hong Kong) analyzed the impact of political efficacy on the relationship between Internet/Facebook use on political and civic participation. Regression analyses in both samples showed that Facebook use consistently predicted both types of participation. Moreover, there were significant negative interaction effects of political efficacy and Facebook use on participation, such that the relationship between Facebook use and participation was stronger for those with lower levels of political efficacy. The findings provide cross-cultural support for the argument that social media use among youth can facilitate greater political and civic engagement, particularly for those who perceive that they have limited ability to participate and understand political affairs. PMID:23505970

  10. Screening, Assessment, and Management of Fatigue in Adult Survivors of Cancer: An American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Bower, Julienne E.; Bak, Kate; Berger, Ann; Breitbart, William; Escalante, Carmelita P.; Ganz, Patricia A.; Schnipper, Hester Hill; Lacchetti, Christina; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; Lyman, Gary H.; Ogaily, Mohammed S.; Pirl, William F.; Jacobsen, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This guideline presents screening, assessment, and treatment approaches for the management of adult cancer survivors who are experiencing symptoms of fatigue after completion of primary treatment. Methods A systematic search of clinical practice guideline databases, guideline developer Web sites, and published health literature identified the pan-Canadian guideline on screening, assessment, and care of cancer-related fatigue in adults with cancer, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Clinical Practice Guidelines In Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Cancer-Related Fatigue and the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship. These three guidelines were appraised and selected for adaptation. Results It is recommended that all patients with cancer be evaluated for the presence of fatigue after completion of primary treatment and be offered specific information and strategies for fatigue management. For those who report moderate to severe fatigue, comprehensive assessment should be conducted, and medical and treatable contributing factors should be addressed. In terms of treatment strategies, evidence indicates that physical activity interventions, psychosocial interventions, and mind-body interventions may reduce cancer-related fatigue in post-treatment patients. There is limited evidence for use of psychostimulants in the management of fatigue in patients who are disease free after active treatment. Conclusion Fatigue is prevalent in cancer survivors and often causes significant disruption in functioning and quality of life. Regular screening, assessment, and education and appropriate treatment of fatigue are important in managing this distressing symptom. Given the multiple factors contributing to post-treatment fatigue, interventions should be tailored to each patient's specific needs. In particular, a number of nonpharmacologic treatment approaches have demonstrated efficacy in cancer survivors. PMID:24733803

  11. High levels of genetic variability and differentiation in hilsa shad, Tenualosa ilisha (Clupeidae, Clupeiformes) populations revealed by PCR-RFLP analysis of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The hilsa shad, Tenualosa ilisha (Clupeidae, Clupeiformes) is an important anadromous clupeid species from the Western division of the Indo-Pacific region. It constitutes the largest single fishable species in Bangladesh. Information on genetic variability and population structure is very important for both management and conservation purposes. Past reports on the population structure of T. ilisha involving morphometric, allozyme and RAPD analyses are contradictory. We examined genetic variability and divergence in two riverine (the Jamuna and the Meghna), two estuarine (Kuakata and Sundarbans) and one marine (Cox's Bazar) populations of T. ilisha by applying PCR-RFLP analysis of the mtDNA D-loop region. The amplified PCR products were restricted with four restriction enzymes namely, XbaI, EcoRI, EcoRV, and HaeIII. High levels of haplotype and gene diversity within and significant differentiations among, populations of T. ilisha were observed in this study. Significant FST values indicated differentiation among the river, estuary and marine populations. The UPGMA dendrogram based on genetic distance resulted in two major clusters, although, these were subsequently divided into three, corresponding to the riverine, estuarine and marine populations. The study underlines the usefulness of RFLP of mtDNA D-loop region as molecular markers, and detected at least two differentiated populations of T. ilisha in Bangladesh waters. PMID:21637667

  12. Use of media technologies by Native American teens and young adults in the Pacific Northwest: exploring their utility for designing culturally appropriate technology-based health interventions.

    PubMed

    Rushing, Stephanie Craig; Stephens, David

    2011-08-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth are disproportionally burdened by many common adolescent health issues, including drug and alcohol use, injury and violence, sexually transmitted infections, and teen pregnancy. Media technologies, including the Internet, cell phones, and video games, offer new avenues for reaching adolescents on a wide range of sensitive health topics. While several studies have informed the development of technology-based interventions targeting mainstream youth, no such data have been reported for AI/AN youth. To fill this gap, this study quantified media technology use among 405 AI/AN youth (13-21 years old) living in tribes and urban communities in the Pacific Northwest, and identified patterns in their health information-seeking practices and preferences. Overall, technology use was exceptionally common among survey respondents, mirroring or exceeding national rates. High rates of online health information seeking were also reported: Over 75% of AI/AN youth reported searching online for health information. These data are now being used by the Northwest Portland Area Indian Health Board and NW tribes to design culturally-appropriate, technology-based health interventions targeting AI/AN youth. PMID:21805055

  13. Results of a Culturally Adapted Internet-Enhanced Physical Activity Pilot Intervention for Overweight and Obese Young Adult African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Pekmezi, Dori; Dutton, Gareth R.; Cherrington, Andrea L.; Kim, Young-II; Allison, Jeroan J.; Durant, Nefertiti H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated a culturally relevant, social cognitive theory–based, Internet-enhanced physical activity (PA) pilot intervention developed for overweight/obese African American (AA) female college students. Design Using a 3-month, single group, pretest–posttest design, participants accessed a culturally relevant PA promotion website and engaged in four moderate-intensity PA sessions each week. Results Study completers (n = 25, mean age = 21.9 years) reported a decrease in sedentary screen time (p < .0001); however, no changes in moderate-to-vigorous PA were reported (p = .150). A significant increase in self-regulation for PA (p < .0001) and marginally significant increases in social support (p = .052) and outcome expectations (p = .057) for PA were observed. No changes in body mass index (p = .162), PA enjoyment (p = .151), or exercise self-efficacy (p = .086) were reported. Conclusions Findings of this exploratory study show some preliminary support for Internet-enhanced approaches to promote PA among overweight/obese AA women. Implications for Practice Future studies with larger samples are needed to further explore culturally relevant Internet-enhanced PA programs in this underserved population. PMID:24934566

  14. Prevalence of Diabetes and Intermediate Hyperglycemia Among Adults From the First Multinational Study of Noncommunicable Diseases in Six Central American Countries

    PubMed Central

    Barcelo, Alberto; Gregg, Edward W.; Gerzoff, Robert B.; Wong, Roy; Perez Flores, Enrique; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Cafiero, Elizabeth; Altamirano, Lesbia; Ascencio Rivera, Melanie; de Cosio, Gerardo; de Maza, Martha Dinorah; del Aguila, Roberto; Emanuel, Englebert; Gil, Enrique; Gough, Ethan; Jenkins, Valerie; Orellana, Patrícia; Palma, Ruben; Palomo, Ruben; Pastora, Martha; Peña, Rodolfo; Pineda, Elia; Rodriguez, Bismark; Tacsan, Luis; Thompson, Loraine; Villagra, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The increasing burdens of obesity and diabetes are two of the most prominent threats to the health of populations of developed and developing countries alike. The Central America Diabetes Initiative (CAMDI) is the first study to examine the prevalence of diabetes in Central America. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The CAMDI survey was a cross-sectional survey based on a probabilistic sample of the noninstitutionalized population of five Central American populations conducted between 2003 and 2006. The total sample population was 10,822, of whom 7,234 (67%) underwent anthropometry measurement and a fasting blood glucose or 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. RESULTS The total prevalence of diabetes was 8.5%, but was higher in Belize (12.9%) and lower in Honduras (5.4%). Of the screened population, 18.6% had impaired glucose tolerance/impaired fasting glucose. CONCLUSIONS As this population ages, the prevalence of diabetes is likely to continue to rise in a dramatic and devastating manner. Preventive strategies must be quickly introduced. PMID:22323417

  15. Gangsta Rap and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Talmadge C.

    2004-01-01

    Adult education instructors and administrators, who typically are not members of the hip-hop generation, have little or no background, sensitivity, or understanding of the influence and significance of black popular culture and music for young African American and white adult learners. (Contains 1 note.)

  16. Food security of older adults requesting Older Americans Act Nutrition Program in Georgia can be validly measured using a short form of the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Sun; Johnson, Mary Ann; Brown, Arvine; Nord, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Food security is a newly recommended outcome measure for the Older Americans Act Nutrition Program (OAANP); however, it is unknown how best to evaluate the need for this program and assess its impact on a large scale. Therefore, we measured food security in all new OAANP participants and waitlisted applicants in Georgia between July and early November, 2008 (n = 4731) with the self-administered mail survey method used in the ongoing Georgia Performance Outcomes Measures project. We used a modified 6-item U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM) with a 30-d reference period and 2 reminder postcards. Approximately 33% of those identified completed the survey (n = 1594, mean age 74.6 ± 9.5 y, 68.6% female, 30.6% black). Most of the respondents (91%) completed all 6 food security questions, whereas 26 did not respond to any question. Infit and outfit statistics for each of the 6 questions were within an acceptable range. Psychometric properties observed in our food security data were generally similar to those in the nationally representative survey conducted by the Census Bureau and suggest that our food security statistics may be meaningfully compared with national food security statistics published by the USDA. Our findings suggest that food security can be reasonably measured by a short form of HFSSM in older adults requesting OAANP. Such methodology also can be used to estimate the extent of food insecurity and help guide program and policy decisions to meet the nutrition assistance needs of vulnerable older adults. PMID:21562242

  17. Thyroid Dysfunction in an Adult Female Population: A population-based study of Latin American Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (LAVOS) - Puerto Rico Site Hypothyroidism in LAVOS-Puerto Rico site

    PubMed Central

    González-Rodríguez, Loida A.; Felici-Giovanini, Marcos E; Haddock, Lillian

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of hypothyroidism in an adult female population in Puerto Rico and to determine the relationship between hypothyroidism, bone mineral density and vertebral and non-vertebral fractures in this population. Methods Data from the 400 subjects database of the Latin American Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (LAVOS), Puerto Rico site was reviewed. Patient’s medical history, anthropometric data, current medications, laboratories, and DXA results was extracted. Subjects with thyroid dysfunction were identified based on their previous medical history and levels of TSH. Bone Mineral Density was classified using the World Health Organization criteria. Crude prevalence of thyroid dysfunction were estimated with a confidence of 95% and weighted by the population distribution by age, according to the distribution by age group in the 2000 census. Bone mineral densities and prevalence of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures were compared among the groups. Results The weighted prevalence of hyperthyroidism in this population was 0.0043% (95% CI: −0.0021%, 0.0107%). The weighted prevalence of hypothyroidism was 24.2% (95% CI: 19.9%, 28.4%). Increased prevalence of hypothyroidism was found in participants 70 years or older. The mean BMD at spine, hip and femoral neck was similar among the groups. No difference in the proportion of participants with vertebral and non-vertebral fractures was found among the groups. Conclusion Our study found a high prevalence of hypothyroidism among adult postmenopausal females in Puerto Rico. No association between hypothyroidism and decreased bone mineral densities, vertebral or non-vertebral fractures was found in this population. PMID:23781620

  18. Dance for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruett, Diane Milhan, Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Dance programs for older adults that encourage exercise and socializing are described in six articles. Program guidelines of the American Alliance Committee on Aging are explained, and other articles emphasize a movement education approach that may involve intergenerational contact. A dance program held in a worship setting is also discussed. (PP)

  19. Health-related quality of life and health behaviors in a population-based sample of older, foreign-born, Chinese American adults living in New York City.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Laura C; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Islam, Nadia S; Kwon, Simona C

    2014-10-01

    Although the New York City Chinese population aged ≥ 65 years increased by 50% between 2000 and 2010, the health needs of this population are poorly understood. Approximately 3,001 Chinese individuals from high-density Asian American New York City areas were included in the REACH U.S. Risk Factor Survey; 805 (26.8%) were aged ≥ 65 years and foreign-born. Four health-related quality of life and three behavioral risk factor outcome variables were examined. Descriptive statistics were conducted by gender, and logistic regression models assessed sociodemographic and health factors associated with each outcome. Few women were current smokers (1.3% vs. 14.8% of men), 19% of respondents ate fruits and vegetables more than or equal to five times daily, and one-third of individuals received sufficient weekly physical activity. Days of poor health were similar to the national population aged ≥ 65 years, while self-reported fair or poor health was much greater among our Chinese sample; over 60% of respondents rated their health as fair or poor. Lower education and lower obesity were significantly associated with cigarette smoking among men, and older age was significantly associated with insufficient physical activity overall. Female gender was significantly associated with all poor health days; older age was significantly associated with poor days of physical health, and lower income was significantly associated with poor days of physical health and fair or poor self-reported health. This study provides important health-related information on a rapidly growing older population and highlights future research areas to inform culturally appropriate health promotion and disease prevention strategies and policies within community-based settings. PMID:25274716

  20. Community Health Resource Training for Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrader, Elizabeth L.; Schrader, David C.

    This paper applies concepts from intercultural communication theory, adult learning theory, and traditional Native American medicine to a specific learning experience for Native Americans. The background is an educational opportunity offered by the Indian Health Services Bureau to tribe members to become employed on their reservations as Health…

  1. Variants of the Ankyrin Repeat Domain 6 Gene (ANKRD6) and Muscle and Physical Activity Phenotypes Among European-Derived American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Van Deveire, Katherine N.; Scranton, Sarah K.; Kostek, Mathew A.; Angelopoulos, Theodore J.; Clarkson, Priscilla M.; Gordon, Paul M.; Moyna, Niall M.; Visich, Paul S.; Zoeller, Robert F.; Thompson, Paul D.; Devaney, Joseph M.; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Hoffman, Eric P.; Maresh, Carl M.; Pescatello, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    Ankyrin repeat domain 6 (ANKRD6) is a ubiquitous protein that associates with early development in mammals and is highly expressed in the brain, spinal cord, and heart of humans. We examined the role of 8 ANKRD6 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on muscle performance and habitual physical activity (PA). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were 545 T>A (rs9362667), 485 M>L (rs61736690), 233 T>M (rs2273238), 128 I>L (rs3748085), 631 P>L (rs61739327), 122 Q>E (rs16881983), 197805 G>A (rs9344950), and 710 L>X (NOVEL). This study consisted of 922 healthy, untrained, European-derived American men (n = 376, 23.6 ± 0.3 years, 25.0 ± 0.2 kg·m−2) and women (n = 546, 23.2 ± 0.2 years, 24.0 ± 0.2 kg·m−2). Muscle strength (maximum voluntary contraction [MVC] and 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and size (cross-sectional area [CSA]) were assessed before and after 12 weeks of unilateral resistance training (RT). A subsample (n = 536, 23.4 ± 0.2 years, 24.6 ± 0.2 kg·m−2) completed the Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire. Associations among ANKRD6 genotypes and muscle phenotypes were tested with repeated measure analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and PA phenotypes with multivariate ANCOVA, with age and body mass index as covariates. ANKRD6 122 Q>E was associated with increased baseline biceps CSA. ANKRD6 545 A>T and ANKRD6 710 L>X were associated with increased 1RM and MVC in response to RT, respectively. ANKRD6 631 P>L was associated with increased biceps CSA response to RT and time spent in moderate-intensity PA among the total sample and women. ANKRD6 genetic variants were associated with the muscle size and strength response to RT and habitual PA levels. Further research is needed to validate our results and explore mechanisms for the associations we observed. PMID:22580979

  2. American ginseng

    MedlinePlus

    ... listed as an ingredient in some soft drinks. Oils and extracts made from American ginseng are used in soaps and cosmetics. Don’t confuse American ginseng with Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) or Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng). They have different medicinal effects.

  3. RANA CATESBEIANA (AMERICAN BULLFROG) DIET

    EPA Science Inventory

    RANA CATESBELANA (American Bullfrog). DIET. Data were obtained opportunistically
    from 28 adult (M = 14; F = 14) bullftogs collected in April 2001 from the Meadow Valley Wash
    located between the cities of Carp and Elgin, Lincoln County, Nevada, USA (N37'17':WI14'30'). Alth...

  4. Cultural Influences on Caregiving Burden: Cases of Koreans and Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yoon-Ro; Sung, Kyu-Taik

    1998-01-01

    Compares cultural influences on caregiver burdens of Korean adult children and American adult children caring for parents with dementia. Identifies culturally specific values, norms, and customs associated with low or high burden. Findings show low burden for Korean caregivers and high burden for American caregivers. (MKA)

  5. Learning Havens for Stressed Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seay, Sandra E.

    2005-01-01

    Having stressful workdays is not the sole prerogative of adult students enrolled in educational leadership programs. According to a report released by the American Institute of Stress in 2002, 80% of adult workers felt stress in the workplace. From this it can be assumed that a certain amount of stress accompanies every adult who enters an evening…

  6. Assessment of Anxiety and Depression in Asian American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Christina B.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the current state of research on the assessment of anxiety and depression in Asian American children and adolescents. Contrary to lay perceptions of Asian Americans as a "model minority," research indicates that rates of depression and anxiety among Asian American adults are comparable to those found among European American…

  7. A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of incorporating peanuts into an American Diabetes Association meal plan on the nutrient profile of the total diet and cardiometabolic parameters of adults with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the nutritional goals for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are to achieve an optimal nutrient intake to achieve normoglycemia and a cardioprotective lipid profile. Peanuts are nutrient dense foods that contain high levels of monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and are a natural source of arginine, fiber, phytosterols, resveritrol, niacin, folate, vitamin E and magnesium, which have the potential for improving blood lipids and glycemic control. This study sought to evaluate the effect of a peanut enriched ADA meal plan on the nutrient profile of the total diet and cardiometabolic parameters in adults with T2D. Methods This was a randomized, prospective 24-week parallel-group clinical trial with 60 adults with T2D [age range 34–84 years; body mass index (BMI) range 17.2-48.7 kg/m2]. Subjects consumed an ADA meal plan containing ~20% of energy from peanuts (peanut group) or a peanut-free ADA meal plan (control group). Weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC) and nutrient intake from 24-hour recalls were measured every 4 weeks and fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c and blood lipids were measured every 12 weeks. A mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of covariance was performed to assess the significance of changes in the cardiometabolic parameters. Results A higher polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) to saturated fat diet ratio and higher intake of MUFA, PUFA, α-tocopherol, niacin and magnesium was observed in the peanut group as compared to the control group (P < 0.01-P = 0.04). Both groups experienced mild reductions in weight, BMI, and WC during the study (P = 0.01-P = 0.03), however there were no differences between the two groups in these measurements or in FBG, HbA1c or blood lipids. For each kilogram of weight loss in the entire cohort there were associations for reductions in WC of 0.48 cm (P < 0.01), FBG of 0.11 mmol/l (P = 0.01) and HbA1c of 0.07% (P < 0.01). Conclusions Daily

  8. Depression among Rural Native American and European American Grandparents Rearing Their Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letiecq, Bethany L.; Bailey, Sandra J.; Kurtz, Marcia A.

    2008-01-01

    Increasing numbers of grandparents are rearing their grandchildren because of their adult children's inability to parent. Researchers have begun to document the mental health outcomes of grandparent caregivers in general, yet none have examined the mental health of Native American and European American grandparent caregivers residing in rural…

  9. A REVIEW OF PRESENT EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS AVAILABLE TO OLDER ADULTS IN CALIFORNIA'S PUBLIC ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DEGABRIELE, EUGENE H.

    ADMINISTRATORS OF ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN ADULT SCHOOLS AND JUNIOR COLLEGES IN CALIFORNIA WERE SURVEYED IN MAY 1967 AS TO WAYS IN WHICH THEIR PROGRAMS WERE SERVING THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF ADULTS AGED 50 AND OVER. FINE ARTS, CRAFTS, HOMEMAKING, BUSINESS EDUCATION, AMERICANIZATION, CIVIC EDUCATION AND SPECIAL FIELDS, VOCATIONAL AND INDUSTRIAL…

  10. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  11. Great Help for Older Americans | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Falls and Older Adults Great Help for Older Americans Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents Click ... prevent or delay disability. Claude D. Pepper Older American Independence Centers (OAICs) University of California San Francisco ...

  12. W. E. B. Du Bois's Basic American Negro Creed and the Associates in Negro Folk Education: A Case of Repressive Tolerance in the Censorship of Radical Black Discourse on Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Talmadge C.; Brookfield, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    W. E. B. Du Bois, one of the brightest lights in African American history, wrote a sparkling critique of the American social and economic system originally planned as part of the Bronze Booklets series, edited and published by Alain Locke and the Associates in Negro Folk Education. The piece was never published and has, until now, been lost to the…

  13. Chinese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Stanford M.

    This book on the Chinese Americans focuses on such aspects of intergroup relations, community characteristics, social problems, acculturation, racial and social discrimination, and economic opportunities for the ethnic group as: the Chinese diaspora; forerunners of overseas Chinese community organization; Chinese community organization in the…

  14. American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Caroline, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Published bimonthly by the National Endowment for the Humanities, this edition of "Humanities" focuses on issues in American literature. Articles and their authors consist of: (1) "Conversations about Literature" (an interview with Cleanth Brooks and Willie Morris about writing and writers in America); (2) "The Spine of Literature" (an interview…

  15. American ginseng

    MedlinePlus

    ... children aged 3-17 years. Breast cancer. Some studies conducted in China suggest that breast cancer patients treated with any form of ginseng (American or Panax) do better and feel better. However, ... because the patients in the study were also more likely to be treated with ...

  16. Cultural and gender differences in coping strategies between Caucasian American and Korean American older people.

    PubMed

    Lee, HeeSoon; Mason, Derek

    2014-12-01

    Coping strategies have significant effects on older people's health. This study examined whether gender and ethnic differences influence the coping strategies chosen by older adults when they encounter daily life stressors. Data were collected from 444 community-dwelling people over the age of 65, including 238 Caucasian Americans and 206 Korean Americans. Results showed significant differences between the two groups. Korean Americans had higher scores on problem and emotion-focused coping strategies as well as avoidant coping strategies than Caucasian Americans. Caucasian older women employed more active coping, planning, and positive reframing skills; relied more on religion; and sought emotional support more than Caucasian men. For Korean Americans, older women utilized religion and denial; whereas older men employed instrumental support and substance abuse. The results suggest that practitioners should develop ethnic, gender-specific programs to help older adults cope more effectively with their daily life stressors. PMID:25260229

  17. Ethnically Diverse Older Adults' Beliefs about Staying Mentally Sharp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Daniela B.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Laditka, James N.; Wu, Bei; Liu, Rui; Price, Anna E.; Tseng, Winston; Corwin, Sara J.; Ivey, Susan L.; Hunter, Rebecca; Sharkey, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined diverse older adults' (n = 396, ages 50+) views about how to stay mentally sharp. We conducted 42 focus groups in four languages at nine United States locations using a standardized discussion guide and methods. The groups represented African Americans, American Indians, Chinese Americans, Latinos, Whites other than Latinos,…

  18. Estimating mortality rates of adult fish from entrainment through the propellers of river towboats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutreuter, S.; Dettmers, J.M.; Wahl, David H.

    2003-01-01

    We developed a method to estimate mortality rates of adult fish caused by entrainment through the propellers of commercial towboats operating in river channels. The method combines trawling while following towboats (to recover a fraction of the kills) and application of a hydrodynamic model of diffusion (to estimate the fraction of the total kills collected in the trawls). The sampling problem is unusual and required quantifying relatively rare events. We first examined key statistical properties of the entrainment mortality rate estimators using Monte Carlo simulation, which demonstrated that a design-based estimator and a new ad hoc estimator are both unbiased and converge to the true value as the sample size becomes large. Next, we estimated the entrainment mortality rates of adult fishes in Pool 26 of the Mississippi River and the Alton Pool of the Illinois River, where we observed kills that we attributed to entrainment. Our estimates of entrainment mortality rates were 2.52 fish/km of towboat travel (80% confidence interval, 1.00-6.09 fish/km) for gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, 0.13 fish/km (0.00-0.41) for skipjack herring Alosa chrysochloris, and 0.53 fish/km (0.00-1.33) for both shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus and smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus. Our approach applies more broadly to commercial vessels operating in confined channels, including other large rivers and intracoastal waterways.

  19. Approaches to a Successful Adult Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Tanjula; Thomas, Christine C.

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 40 million Americans adults live their lives deprived of prosperity, pleasures, and the rewards of lifelong learning (Comings & Cuban, 2007). With the economic, social, and technical changes in society, there are shifts in the labor market (Champagne, 1987). Many adults are having to set their sights on obtaining sufficient skills…

  20. Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Presents the American Psychological Association Guidelines for psychological practice with older adults. The present document is intended to assist psychologists in evaluating their own readiness for working clinically with older adults and in seeking and using appropriate education and training to increase their knowledge, skills, and experience…