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Sample records for adult american shad

  1. Diet of juvenile and adult American Shad in the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauter, Sally T.; Blubaugh, J; Parsley, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The diet of juvenile and adult American shad Alosa sapidissima captured from various locations in the Columbia River was investigated during 2007 and 2008. Collection efforts in 2007 were restricted to fish collected from existing adult and juvenile fish collection facilities located at Bonneville Dam and to adult shad captured by angling downstream from Bonneville Dam. In 2008, we used gillnets, electrofishing, beach seining, or cast nets to collect juvenile and adult shad from the saline estuary near Astoria (approximately river km 24) to just upstream from McNary Dam (approximately river km 472). We examined the stomach contents of 436 American shad captured in 2007 and 1,272 captured in 2008. Fish caught within the river were much more likely to contain food items than fish removed from fish collection facilities.


    The diet of age-0 American shad varied spatially and temporally, but was comprised primarily of crustaceans and insects. Prey diversity of age-0 American shad, as assessed by the Shannon Diversity Index, increased with decreasing distance to the estuary. Pre- and partial-spawn American shad primarily consumed Corophium spp. throughout the Columbia River; however, post-spawn adults primarily consumed gastropods upstream of McNary Dam

  2. American shad in the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, J.H.; Hinrichsen, R.A.; Gadomski, D.M.; Feil, D.H.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima from the Hudson River, New York, were introduced into the Sacramento River, California, in 1871 and were first observed in the Columbia River in 1876. American shad returns to the Columbia River increased greatly between 1960 and 1990, and recently 2-4 million adults have been counted per year at Bonneville Dam, Oregon and Washington State (river kilometer 235). The total return of American shad is likely much higher than this dam count. Returning adults migrate as far as 600 km up the Columbia and Snake rivers, passing as many as eight large hydroelectric dams. Spawning occurs primarily in the lower river and in several large reservoirs. A small sample found returning adults were 2-6 years old and about one-third of adults were repeat spawners. Larval American shad are abundant in plankton and in the nearshore zone. Juvenile American shad occur throughout the water column during night, but school near the bottom or inshore during day. Juveniles consume a variety of zooplankton, but cyclopoid copepods were 86% of the diet by mass. Juveniles emigrate from the river from August through December. Annual exploitation of American shad by commercial and recreational fisheries combined is near 9% of the total count at Bonneville Dam. The success of American shad in the Columbia River is likely related to successful passage at dams, good spawning and rearing habitats, and low exploitation. The role of American shad within the aquatic community is poorly understood. We speculate that juveniles could alter the zooplankton community and may supplement the diet of resident predators. Data, however, are lacking or sparse in some areas, and more information is needed on the role of larval and juvenile American shad in the food web, factors limiting adult returns, ocean distribution of adults, and interactions between American shad and endangered or threatened salmonids throughout the river. ?? 2003 by the American Fisheries Society.

  3. Passage of American shad: paradigms and realities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haro, Alex; Castro-Santos, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Despite more than 250 years of development, the passage of American shad Alosa sapidissima at dams and other barriers frequently remains problematic. Few improvements in design based on knowledge of the swimming, schooling, and migratory behaviors of American shad have been incorporated into passage structures. Large-scale technical fishways designed for the passage of adult salmonids on the Columbia River have been presumed to have good performance for American shad but have never been rigorously evaluated for this species. Similar but smaller fishway designs on the East Coast frequently have poor performance. Provision of effective downstream passage for both juvenile and postspawning adult American shad has been given little consideration in most passage projects. Ways to attract and guide American shad to both fishway entrances and downstream bypasses remain marginally understood. The historical development of passage structures for American shad has resulted in assumptions and paradigms about American shad behavior and passage that are frequently unsubstantiated by supporting data or appropriate experimentation. We propose that many of these assumptions and paradigms are either unfounded or invalid and that significant improvements to American shad upstream and downstream passage can be made via a sequential program of behavioral experimentation, application of experimental results to the physical and hydraulic design of new structures, and controlled tests of large-scale prototype structures in the laboratory and field.

  4. Survival and behavioral effects of exposure to a hydrokinetic turbine on juvenile Atlantic salmon and adult American shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Haro, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a series of experiments designed to measure the effect of exposure to a full-scale, vertical axis hydrokinetic turbine on downstream migrating juvenile Atlantic salmon (N=75) and upstream migrating adult American shad (N=208). Controlled studies were performed in a large-scale, open-channel flume, and all individuals approached the turbine under volitional control. No injuries were observed, and there was no measurable increase in mortality associated with turbine passage. Exposure to the turbine elicited behavioral responses from both species, however, with salmon passing primarily over the downrunning blades. Shad movement was impeded by the device, as indicated by fewer attempts of shorter duration and reduced distance of ascent up the flume. More work should be performed in both laboratory and field conditions to determine to what extent these effects are likely to influence free-swimming fish.

  5. Thiaminase activity and life history investigations in American Shad in the Columbia river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetzel, Lisa A.; Parsley, Michael J; van der Leeuw, Bjorn K.; Larsen, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima fry were successfully transplanted from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast in 1871 and have subsequently proliferated. The Columbia River population is in the millions, yet few investigations have been conducted to better understand their life history, population dynamics, or potential impacts on other species. In 2007 and 2008 we captured American shad from the Columbia River to assess levels of thiaminase activity and to characterize some aspects of American shad life history. Thiaminase levels in age-0 and adult fish were high and ranged from 4,113-20,874 pmol/g/min. Ages of spawning American shad ranged from 3-7 years and iteroparity was approximately 33-36% in the spawning population. Males were typically younger and smaller and had a higher degree of iteroparity than females

  6. Food habits of Juvenile American Shad and dynamics of zooplankton in the lower Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haskell, C.A.; Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    As many as 2.4 million adult American shad annually pass John Day Dam, Columbia River to spawn upriver, yet food web interactions of juvenile shad rearing in John Day Reservoir are unexplored. We collected zooplankton and conducted mid-water trawls in McNary (June-July) and John Day reservoirs (August-November) from 1994 through 1996 during the outmigration of subyearling American shad and Chinook salmon. Juvenile American shad were abundant and represented over 98% of the trawl catch in late summer. The five major taxa collected in zooplankton tows were Bosmina longirostris, Daphnia, cyclopoid cope-pods, rotifers, and calanoid copepods. We evaluated total crustacean zooplankton abundance and Daphnia biomass in relation to water temperature, flow, depth, diel period, and cross-sectional location using multiple regression. Differences in zooplankton abundance were largely due to differences in water temperature and flow. Spatial variation in total zooplankton abundance was observed in McNary Reservoir, but not in John Day Reservoir. Juvenile American shad generally fed on numerically abundant prey, despite being less preferred than larger bodied zooplankton. A decrease in cladoceran abundance and size in August coupled with large percentages of Daphnia in juvenile American shad stomachs indicated heavy planktivory. Smaller juvenile American shad primarily fed on Daphnia in August, but switched to more evasive copepods as the mean size of fish increased and Daphnia abundance declined. Because Daphnia are particularly important prey items for subyearling Chinook salmon in mainstem reservoirs in mid to late summer, alterations in the cladoceran food base is of concern for the management of outmigrating salmonids and other Columbia River fishes. ?? 2006 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  7. Video evaluation of passage efficiency of American shad and sea lamprey in a modified Ice Harbor fishway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haro, A.; Kynard, B.

    1997-01-01

    Movement and behavior of adult American shad Alosa sapidissima and sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus were monitored by closed-circuit video at several locations within a modified Ice Harbor fishway. American shad ascended and descended the fishway exclusively by surface weirs, while sea lampreys used both surface weirs and submerged orifices. Upstream movement of American shad during the day was higher than at night at both lower and middle fishway observation sites. Peak downstream movement of American shad at both locations was associated with decreasing light levels in the evening. Sea lampreys moved primarily at night at the lower and middle fishway sites. Mean daily passage efficiency was low (1% for American shad, -2% for sea lamprey) at the lower fishway surface weir, but passage efficiency at the middle fishway surface weir was moderate (70% for American shad, 35% for sea lamprey). High water velocity, air entrainment, and turbulence of the modified Ice Harbor fishway design appeared to inhibit American shad and sea lamprey passage by disrupting upstream migratory motivation and visual and rheotactic orientation.

  8. Growth characteristics and otolith analysis on age-0 American shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauter, Sally T.; Wetzel, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Otolith microstructure analysis provides useful information on the growth history of fish (Campana and Jones 1992, Bang and Gronkjaer 2005). Microstructure analysis can be used to construct the size-at-age growth trajectory of fish, determine daily growth rates, and estimate hatch date and other ecologically important life history events (Campana and Jones 1992, Tonkin et al. 2008). This kind of information can be incorporated into bioenergetics modeling, providing necessary data for estimating prey consumption, and guiding the development of empirically-based modeling scenarios for hypothesis testing. For example, age-0 American shad co-occur with emigrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon originating from Hanford Reach and the Snake River in the lower Columbia River reservoirs during the summer and early fall. The diet of age-0 American shad appears to overlap with that of juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Chapter 1, this reoprt), but juvenile fall Chinook salmon are also known to feed on age-0 American shad in the reservoirs (USGS unpublished data). Abundant, energy-dense age-0 American shad may provide juvenile fall Chinook salmon opportunities for rapid growth during the time period when large number of age-0 American shad are available. Otolith analysis of hatch dates and the growth curve of age-0 American shad could be used to identify when eggs, larvae, and juveniles of specific size classes are temporally available as food for fall Chinook salmon in the lower Columbia River reservoirs. This kind of temporally and spatially explicit life history information is important to include in bioenergetics modeling scenarios. Quantitive estimates of prey consumption could be used with spatially-explicit estimates of prey abundance to construct a quantitative assessment of the age-0 American shad impact on a reservoir food web.


    Analysis of the age-0 American shad growth trajectory or individual growth records may show evidence of differential growth rates over

  9. Development of a bioenergetics model for age-0 American Shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauter, Sally T.

    2011-01-01

    Bioenergetics modeling can be used as a tool to investigate the impact of non-native age-0 American shad (Alosa sapidissima) on reservoir and estuary food webs. The model can increase our understanding of how these fish influence lower trophic levels as well as predatory fish populations that feed on juvenile salmonids. Bioenergetics modeling can be used to investigate ecological processes, evaluate alternative research hypotheses, provide decision support, and quantitative prediction. Bioenergetics modeling has proven to be extremely useful in fisheries research (Ney et al. 1993,Chips and Wahl 2008, Petersen et al. 2008). If growth and diet parameters are known, the bioenergetics model can be used to quantify the relative amount of zooplankton or insects consumed by age-0 American shad. When linked with spatial and temporal information on fish abundance, model output can guide inferential hypothesis development to demonstrate where the greatest impacts of age-0 American shad might occur.


    Bioenergetics modeling is particularly useful when research questions involve multiple species and trophic levels (e.g. plankton communities). Bioenergetics models are mass-balance equations where the energy acquired from food is partitioned between maintenance costs, waste products, and growth (Winberg 1956). Specifically, the Wisconsin bioenergetics model (Hanson et al. 1997) is widely used in fisheries science. Researchers have extensively tested, reviewed, and improved on this modeling approach for over 30 years (Petersen et al. 2008). Development of a bioenergetics model for any species requires three key components: 1) determine physiological parameters for the model through laboratory experiments or incorporate data from a closely related species, 2) corroboration of the model with growth and consumption estimates from independent research, and 3) error analysis of model parameters.


    Wisconsin bioenergetics models have been parameterized for

  10. The effects of juvenile American shad planktivory on zooplankton production in Columbia River food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haskell, Craig A.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2013-01-01

    Columbia River reservoirs support a large population of nonnative American Shad Alosa sapidissima that consume the zooplankton that native fishes also rely on. We hypothesized that the unprecedented biomass of juvenile American Shad in John Day Reservoir is capable of altering the zooplankton community if these fish consume a large portion of the zooplankton production. We derived taxon-specific estimates of zooplankton production using field data and a production model from the literature. Empirical daily ration was estimated for American Shad and expanded to population-level consumption using abundance and biomass data from hydroacoustic surveys. Daphnia spp. production was high in early summer but declined to near zero by September as shad abundance increased. American Shad sequentially consumed Daphnia spp., copepods, and Bosmina spp., which tracked the production trends of these taxa. American Shad evacuation rates ranged from 0.09 to 0.24/h, and daily rations ranged from 0.008 to 0.045 g·g−1·d−1 (dry weight) over all years. We observed peak American Shad biomass (45.2 kg/ha) in 1994, and daily consumption (1.6 kg/ha) approached 30% (5.3 kg/ha) of zooplankton production. On average, American Shad consumed 23.6% of the available zooplankton production (range, <1–83%). The changes in the zooplankton community are consistent with a top-down effect of planktivory by American Shad associated with their unprecedented biomass and consumption, but the effects are likely constrained by temperature, nutrient flux, and the seasonal production patterns of zooplankton in John Day Reservoir. American Shad add to the planktivory exerted by other species like Neomysis mercedis to reduce the capacity of the reservoir to support other planktivorous fishes. The introduction of American Shad and other nonnative species will continue to alter the food web in John Day Reservoir, potentially affecting native fishes, including Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp.

  11. Demographic population model for American shad: will access to additional habitat upstream of dams increase population sizes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima are in decline in their native range, and modeling possible management scenarios could help guide their restoration. We developed a density-dependent, deterministic, stage-based matrix model to predict the population-level results of transporting American shad to suitable spawning habitat upstream of dams on the Roanoke River, North Carolina and Virginia. We used data on sonic-tagged adult American shad and oxytetracycline-marked American shad fry both above and below dams on the Roanoke River with information from other systems to estimate a starting population size and vital rates. We modeled the adult female population over 30 years under plausible scenarios of adult transport, effective fecundity (egg production), and survival of adults (i.e., to return to spawn the next year) and juveniles (from spawned egg to age 1). We also evaluated the potential effects of increased survival for adults and juveniles. The adult female population size in the Roanoke River was estimated to be 5,224. With no transport, the model predicted a slow population increase over the next 30 years. Predicted population increases were highest when survival was improved during the first year of life. Transport was predicted to benefit the population only if high rates of effective fecundity and juvenile survival could be achieved. Currently, transported adults and young are less likely to successfully out-migrate than individuals below the dams, and the estimated adult population size is much smaller than either of two assumed values of carrying capacity for the lower river; therefore, transport is not predicted to help restore the stock under present conditions. Research on survival rates, density-dependent processes, and the impacts of structures to increase out-migration success would improve evaluation of the potential benefits of access to additional spawning habitat for American shad.

  12. Movement and spawning of American shad transported above dams on the Roanoke River, North Carolina and Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima are in decline throughout much of their native range as a result of overfishing, pollution, and habitat alteration in coastal rivers where they spawn. One approach to restoration in regulated rivers is to provide access to historical spawning habitat above dams through a trap-and-transport program. We examined the initial survival, movement patterns, spawning, and downstream passage of sonic-tagged adult American shad transported to reservoir and riverine habitats upstream of hydroelectric dams on the Roanoke River, North Carolina and Virginia, during 2007–2009. Average survival to release in 2007–2008 was 85%, but survival decreased with increasing water temperature. Some tagged fish released in reservoirs migrated upstream to rivers; however, most meandered back and forth within the reservoir. A higher percentage of fish migrated through a smaller (8,215-ha) than a larger (20,234-ha) reservoir, suggesting that the population-level effects of transport may depend on upper basin characteristics. Transported American shad spent little time in upper basin rivers but were there when temperatures were appropriate for spawning. No American shad eggs were collected during weekly plankton sampling in upper basin rivers. The estimated initial survival of sonic-tagged American shad after downstream passage through each dam was 71–100%; however, only 1% of the detected fish migrated downstream through all three dams and many were relocated just upstream of a dam late in the season. Although adult American shad were successfully transported to upstream habitats in the Roanoke River basin, under present conditions transported individuals may have reduced effective fecundity and postspawning survival compared with nontransported fish that spawn in the lower Roanoke River.

  13. Movement Patterns of American Shad Transported Upstream of Dams on The Roanoke River, North Carolina and Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima are in decline throughout much of their native range as a result of overfishing, pollution, and habitat alteration in coastal rivers where they spawn. One approach to restoration in regulated rivers is to provide access to historical spawning habitat above dams through a trap-and-transport program. We examined the initial survival, movement patterns, spawning, and downstream passage of sonic-tagged adult American shad transported to reservoir and riverine habitats upstream of hydroelectric dams on the Roanoke River, North Carolina and Virginia, during 2007–2009. Average survival to release in 2007–2008 was 85%, but survival decreased with increasing water temperature. Some tagged fish released in reservoirs migrated upstream to rivers; however, most meandered back and forth within the reservoir. A higher percentage of fish migrated through a smaller (8,215-ha) than a larger (20,234-ha) reservoir, suggesting that the population-level effects of transport may depend on upper basin characteristics. Transported American shad spent little time in upper basin rivers but were there when temperatures were appropriate for spawning. No American shad eggs were collected during weekly plankton sampling in upper basin rivers. The estimated initial survival of sonic-tagged American shad after downstream passage through each dam was 71–100%; however, only 1% of the detected fish migrated downstream through all three dams and many were relocated just upstream of a dam late in the season. Although adult American shad were successfully transported to upstream habitats in the Roanoke River basin, under present conditions transported individuals may have reduced effective fecundity and postspawning survival compared with nontransported fish that spawn in the lower Roanoke River.

  14. This Letter is a Non-Technical Annual Report of Activities on Project 2007-275-00, Impact of American Shad for the Period February 1, 2008 through January 31, 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Parsley, Michael J.

    2009-01-30

    This letter is a non-technical annual report of activities on Project 2007-275-00, Impact of American Shad for the period February 1, 2008 through January 31, 2009. A non-technical report is appropriate at this time since data collection is ongoing and results are preliminary. This report is intended to highlight accomplishments during this performance period. Progress on administrative work elements in the statement of work has been captured in the periodic status reports provided through Pisces. During this performance period the USGS accomplished the following tasks: (1) Co-chaired a symposium on American shad in the Columbia Basin at the annual meeting of the Western Division, American Fisheries Society. The USGS gave four presentations from work done during this project. Abstracts of the presentations were attached to the 2007 progress report. (2) Continued parameterization of a bioenergetics model for juvenile American shad. We performed a literature review to determine the applicability of the existing adult salmon bioenergetics parameters to juvenile fall Chinook salmon in support of our modeling investigation of diet overlap between juvenile American shad and fall Chinook salmon. We formulated testable hypotheses to investigate using bioenergetics models and conceptually developed model simulations. Held an in-house workshop to obtain feedback on the physiological parameters we selected for the American shad bioenergetics model and to solicit feedback on our modeling approach to address research questions. (3) Received a Section 10 ESA sampling permit based on the application submitted in the 2007 contract period. With the ESA permit in hand, we obtained scientific collection permits from the states of Washington and Oregon that allowed us to use a variety of fisheries sampling techniques to capture juvenile and adult American shad. (4) Conducted field sampling to meet project objectives. Gillnetting efforts to capture adult American shad near Astoria were

  15. Tracking Estuary Habitat use by Young American Shad Using Stable Isotopes

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed and evaluated a stable isotope turnover model to estimate the probable risidence time of young-of-year (YOY) American shad (Alosa sapidissima), an anadromous clupeid, in various estuarine habitats.

  16. The loss of hyperosmoregulatory ability in migrating juvenile American shad, Alosa sapidissima

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, J.; McCormick, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    Investigations on juvenile American shad (Alosa sapidissima) revealed several physiological changes associated with downstream migration. Plasma chloride decreased 20% in wild juvenile shad during the autumn migration. Migrants had lower condition factor and hematocrit than non-migrant shad captured by beach seining. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity of migrant shad was higher than non-migrant; a 2.5-fold increase was observed in 1993, while a 57% increase was observed in 1994. Similar changes were observed in laboratory studies of shad maintained in fresh water under simulated natural temperature and photoperiod. Plasma chloride dropped 68% and gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity increased 3-fold over a 3-month period. Decreased plasma chloride was associated with increased mortality. Increases in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity decreases in plasma chloride and osmolality, and incidence of mortality were delayed and moderated, but not eliminated, in shad maintained at constant temperature (24??C). Shad did not survive in fresh water past December regardless of temperature regime. In seawater, all shad survived and showed no perturbation of plasma chloride at 24??C or simulated natural temperature (above 4??C). The decline in hyperosmoregulatory ability, as influenced by declining temperatures, may serve as a proximate cue for autumnal migration.

  17. Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: American shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stier, David J.; Crance, Johnie H.

    1985-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The American shad, an anadromous species, is the largest member of the herring family (Clupeidae) and is native to North America (Talbot and Sykes 1958; Hildebrand 1963; Walburg and Nichols 1967). Historically, the commercial fishery for American shad on the Atlantic coast was widespread and intense; in 1896 the estimated catch was 22.7 million kg (50 million lb). By 1960, however, the estimated catch had dropped to slightly more than 3.6 million kg (8 million lb), according to Walburg and Nichols (1967). Pollution, overfishing, and dams constructed across streams that prevent shad from reaching their spawning grounds have caused partial or total depletion of stocks (Hildebrand 1963). Several programs aimed at restoring American shad to their former range have been initiated by Federal and State agencies.

  18. Metabolic rates in an anadromous clupeid, the American shad (Alosa sapidissima)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, J.B.K.; Norieka, J.F.; Kynard, B.; McCormick, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    To assess the energetics of migration in an anadromous fish, adult American shad (Alosa sapidissima) were swum in a large respirometer at a range of speeds (1.0-2.3 body lengths (BL) s-1, 13-24 ??C). Metabolic rate (M(O2)) was logarithmically related to swimming speed (Bl s-1; r2 = 0.41, slope = 0.23 ?? 0.037) and tailbeat frequency (beats x min-1; r2 = 0.52, slope = 0.003 ?? 0.0003). Temperature had a significant effect on metabolic rate (r2 = 0.41) with a Q10 of 2.2. Standard metabolic rate (SMR), determined directly after immobilization with the neuroblocker gallamine triethiodide, ranged from 2.2-6.2 mmolO2 kg-1 h-1 and scaled with mass (W) such that SMR = 4.0 (??0.03)W(0.695(??0.15)). Comparison of directly determined and extrapolated SMR suggests that swimming respirometry provides a good estimate of SMR in this species, given the differences in basal activity monitored by the two methods. Overall, American shad metabolic rates (M(O2) and SMR) were intermediate between salmonids and fast-swimming perciforms, including tunas, and may be a result of evolutionary adaptation to their active pelagic, schooling life history. This study demonstrates variability in metabolic strategy among anadromous fishes that may be important to understanding the relative success of different migratory species under varying environmental conditions.

  19. Size and age distributions of Juvenile Connecticut River American shad above Hadley Falls: Influence on outmigration representation and timing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Donnell, M. J.; Letcher, B.H.

    2008-01-01

    Age- and size-based habitat use and movement patterns of young-of-year American shad in rivers are not well understood. Adult females reach their natal rivers at different times and ascend the river at different rates, which may lead to variation of hatch dates at a single location. Also, shad are serial spawners, so eggs of the same female may be released at different distances from the river mouth. It has long been hypothesized that juvenile shad emigration is a function of size or age, and not necessarily keyed only to a decrease in water temperature during the fall. We seined three sites in the Connecticut River biweekly to collect pre-migrant shad during river residence (spring to fall). During emigration, samples were also collected weekly at two hydroelectric facilities. Otoliths were removed from ???20% of the fish to obtain age and growth rate information. We found increases in length and age over time until late in the season, after which such increases were mostly insigniftlant. Cohorts collected early in the year as pre-migrants were never sampled as migrants later in the year at the hydroelectric projects. Cohorts collected late in the year as migrants were never collected earlier in the year as pre-migrants. Only during a narrow window of time were fish collected as both pre-migrants and migrants. Fish that were hatched later in the season exhibited higher growth rates than fish that were hatched earlier in the season. Copyright ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Chloride cells and impaired osmoregulation in juvenile American shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, J.; McCormick, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    In the laboratory, juvenile shad under a simulated natural temperature regime (SNT) in freshwater (FW) through the period of fall migration exhibited a 68% decline in plasma [Cl-] and a 3-fold increase in gill Na+K+-ATPase activity.

  1. Identification of American shad spawning sites and habitat use in the Pee Dee River, North Carolina and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined spawning site selection and habitat use by American shad Alosa sapidissima in the Pee Dee River, North Carolina and South Carolina, to inform future management in this flow-regulated river. American shad eggs were collected in plankton tows, and the origin (spawning site) of each egg was estimated; relocations of radio-tagged adults on spawning grounds illustrated habitat use and movement in relation to changes in water discharge rates. Most spawning was estimated to occur in the Piedmont physiographic region within a 25-river-kilometer (rkm) section just below the lowermost dam in the system; however, some spawning also occurred downstream in the Coastal Plain. The Piedmont region has a higher gradient and is predicted to have slightly higher current velocities and shallower depths, on average, than the Coastal Plain. The Piedmont region is dominated by large substrates (e.g., boulders and gravel), whereas the Coastal Plain is dominated by sand. Sampling at night (the primary spawning period) resulted in the collection of young eggs (≤1.5 h old) that more precisely identified the spawning sites. In the Piedmont region, most radio-tagged American shad remained in discrete areas (average linear range = 3.6 rkm) during the spawning season and generally occupied water velocities between 0.20 and 0.69 m/s, depths between 1.0 and 2.9 m, and substrates dominated by boulder or bedrock and gravel. Tagged adults made only small-scale movements with changes in water discharge rates. Our results demonstrate that the upstream extent of migration and an area of concentrated spawning occur just below the lowermost dam. If upstream areas have similar habitat, facilitating upstream access for American shad could increase the spawning habitat available and increase the population's size.

  2. Movement and population size of American shad near a low-head lock and dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, M.M.; Isely, J.J.; Bridges, W.C.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the population size and the proportion of the population of American shad Alosa sapidissima that passed through the New Savannah Bluff Lock and Dam, a low-head lock and dam on the Savannah River in South Carolina and Georgia. We fitted 110 American shad with radio transmitters in 2001 and 2002. All but two fish moved downstream after transmitter implantation. In 2001, a smaller proportion of American shad implanted with radio transmitters earlier in the season returned to the dam than fish released later. Of the fish that returned to the dam, over 50% in 2001 and 9% in 2002 passed through the lock and continued migrating upstream. In both years, the modal daily movement distance was less than 1 km. Movements greater than 5 km/d were generally associated with fish rapidly returning upstream after their initial downstream movement. Continuous diel monitoring indicated that movements greater than 0.1 km/h were more frequent at night than during the day. In both years, American shad were not uniformly distributed over the study area but were predominantly grouped just below the dam and in a relatively large pool approximately 6 km below the dam. We estimated the population size of American shad that reached the New Savannah Bluff Lock and Dam at 157,685 in 2001 and 217,077 in 2002.

  3. To stock or not to stock? Assessing restoration potential of a remnant American shad spawning run with hatchery supplementation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, Michael M.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Hatchery supplementation has been widely used as a restoration technique for American Shad Alosa sapidissima on the East Coast of the USA, but results have been equivocal. In the Penobscot River, Maine, dam removals and other improvements to fish passage will likely reestablish access to the majority of this species’ historic spawning habitat. Additional efforts being considered include the stocking of larval American Shad. The decision about whether to stock a river system undergoing restoration should be made after evaluating the probability of natural recolonization and examining the costs and benefits of potentially accelerating recovery using a stocking program. However, appropriate evaluation can be confounded by a dearth of information about the starting population size and age structure of the remnant American Shad spawning run in the river. We used the Penobscot River as a case study to assess the theoretical sensitivity of recovery time to either scenario (stocking or not) by building a deterministic model of an American Shad population. This model is based on the best available estimates of size at age, fecundity, rate of iteroparity, and recruitment. Density dependence was imposed, such that the population reached a plateau at an arbitrary recovery goal of 633,000 spawning adults. Stocking had a strong accelerating effect on the time to modeled recovery (as measured by the time to reach 50% of the recovery goal) in the base model, but stocking had diminishing effects with larger population sizes. There is a diminishing return to stocking when the starting population is modestly increased. With a low starting population (a spawning run of 1,000), supplementation with 12 million larvae annually accelerated modeled recovery by 12 years. Only a 2-year acceleration was observed if the starting population was 15,000. Such a heuristic model may aid managers in assessing the costs and benefits of stocking by incorporating a structured decision framework.

  4. Regional variation in muscle metabolic enzymes in individual American shad (Alosa sapidissima)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, J.B.K.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluation of the activity of metabolic enzymes is often used to asses metabolic capacity at the tissue level, but the amount of regional variability within a tissue in an individual fish of a given species is frequently unknown. The activities of four enzymes (citrate synthase (CS), phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and ??-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HOAD) were assayed in red and white muscle at 10 sites along the body of adult American shad (Alosa sapidissima). Red and white muscle HOAD and white muscle CS and LDH varied significantly, generally increasing posteriorly. Maximal variation occurs in red muscle HOAD (~450%) and white muscle LDH (~60%) activity. Differences between the sexes also vary with sampling location. This study suggests that the variability in enzyme activity may be linked to functional differences in the muscle at different locations, and also provides guidelines for sample collection in this species.

  5. Contribution of Allochthonous Carbon to American Shad Production in the Mattaponi River, Virginia, Using Stable Isotopes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to quantify the contribution of autochthonous, locally-produced phytoplankton, and allochthonous, terrestrial-derived organic matter (OM) to the production of young-of-year (YOY) American shad using stable isotopes...The results suggest an important link between...

  6. Occurrence of American shad eggs in 1G cooling-water canal

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, R.W.

    1982-08-01

    American shad eggs are only semi-bouyant and require river turbulence to remain suspended in the water column long enough (three days) for the larvae to hatch. In 1978, shad eggs entrained into the Savannah River Plant 16 cooling-water canal sank to the bottom of the canal before reaching the pumphouse. Eggs removed from the water column in this manner due to decreasing water velocity and turbulence would most likely be lost to predation and burial in the bottom sediments. Efforts to determine egg densities in the river and intake canals were unsuccessful due to the persistent bloom of a slime fungus (Leptomitus sp.) which clogged the plankton sampling apparatus. Thus quantitative estimates of shad egg losses were not obtainable. Further qualitative data would not have been cost-effective so the observations were terminated.

  7. Population size and relative abundance of adult Alabama shad reaching jim woodruff lock and dam, Apalachicola River, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Patrick C.; Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    We estimated the population size of migrating Alabama shad Alosa alabamae below Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam in the Apalachicola River (located in the central panhandle of northwestern Florida) using mark-recapture and relative abundance techniques. After adjustment for tag loss, emigration, and mortality, the population size was estimated as 25,935 (95% confidence interval, 17,715-39,535) in 2005, 2,767 (838-5,031) in 2006, and 8,511 (5,211-14,674) in 2007. The cumulative catch rate from boat electrofishing averaged 20.47 Alabama shad per hour in 2005, 6.10 per hour in 2006, and 13.17 per hour in 2007. The relationship between population size (N) and electrofishing catch per unit effort (CPUE) was modeled by the equation N = -9008.2 + (electrofishing CPUE X 1616.4). Additionally, in 2007 the hook-and-line catch rate averaged 1.94 Alabama shad per rod hour. A predictive model relating the population size and hook-and-line CPUE of spawning American shad A. sapidissima was applied to Alabama shad hook-and-line CPUE and produced satisfactory results. Recent spawning populations of Alabama shad in the Apalachicola River are low relative to American shad populations in other southeastern U.S. rivers. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  8. A Bayesian spawning habitat suitability model for American shad in southeastern United States rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hightower, Joseph E.; Harris, Julianne E.; Raabe, Joshua K.; Brownell, Prescott; Drew, C. Ashton

    2012-01-01

    Habitat suitability index models for American shad Alosa sapidissima were developed by Stier and Crance in 1985. These models, which were based on a combination of published information and expert opinion, are often used to make decisions about hydropower dam operations and fish passage. The purpose of this study was to develop updated habitat suitability index models for spawning American shad in the southeastern United States, building on the many field and laboratory studies completed since 1985. We surveyed biologists who had knowledge about American shad spawning grounds, assembled a panel of experts to discuss important habitat variables, and used raw data from published and unpublished studies to develop new habitat suitability curves. The updated curves are based on resource selection functions, which can model habitat selectivity based on use and availability of particular habitats. Using field data collected in eight rivers from Virginia to Florida (Mattaponi, Pamunkey, Roanoke, Tar, Neuse, Cape Fear, Pee Dee, St. Johns), we obtained new curves for temperature, current velocity, and depth that were generally similar to the original models. Our new suitability function for substrate was also similar to the original pattern, except that sand (optimal in the original model) has a very low estimated suitability. The Bayesian approach that we used to develop habitat suitability curves provides an objective framework for updating the model as new studies are completed and for testing the model's applicability in other parts of the species' range.

  9. Multibeam sonar (DIDSON) assessment of American shad (Alosa sapidissima) approaching a hydroelectric dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grote, Ann B.; Bailey, Michael M.; Zydlewski, Joseph; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the fish community approaching the Veazie Dam on the Penobscot River, Maine, prior to implementation of a major dam removal and river restoration project. Multibeam sonar (dual-frequency identification sonar, DIDSON) surveys were conducted continuously at the fishway entrance from May to July in 2011. A 5% subsample of DIDSON data contained 43 793 fish targets, the majority of which were of Excellent (15.7%) or Good (73.01%) observation quality. Excellent quality DIDSON targets (n = 6876) were apportioned by species using a Bayesian mixture model based on four known fork length distributions (river herring (alewife,Alosa psuedoharengus, and blueback herring, Alosa aestivalis), American shad, Alosa sapidissima) and two size classes (one sea-winter and multi-sea-winter) of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). 76.2% of targets were assigned to the American shad distribution; Atlantic salmon accounted for 15.64%, and river herring 8.16% of observed targets. Shad-sized (99.0%) and salmon-sized (99.3%) targets approached the fishway almost exclusively during the day, whereas river herring-sized targets were observed both during the day (51.1%) and at night (48.9%). This approach demonstrates how multibeam sonar imaging can be used to evaluate community composition and species-specific movement patterns in systems where there is little overlap in the length distributions of target species.

  10. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in american shad during their migration in the Hudson River, spring 1977.

    PubMed

    Pastel, M; Bush, B; Kim, J S

    1980-06-01

    Fifty-two female American shad (Alosa sapidissima) were collected during the spring of 1977 at two sites on the lower Hudson River, 27 miles and 75 miles from the river mouth. The fish were extracted with hexane, and the extracts were analyzed by electron-capture gas chromatography (EC-GC) and by GC/mass spectrometry (MS), PCBs were quantitated by EC-GC, and the concentrations were compared by fish length and by site. Fish collected from the downstream site contained a mean PCB concentration of 2.0 +/- 1.0 microgram/g, wet weight; fish from the upstream site contained a mean PCB concentration of 6.1 +/- 2.6 microgram/g, wet weight. Aliquots of the hexane extracts were fractionated before analysis by GC/MS. The presence of PCBs was confirmed, and DDE and the alkane series from C22 through C26 were detected. American shad are saltwater fish that only enter fresh water to spawn. Because they do not feed in fresh water before spawning, they may be used as an indicator of water contamination.

  11. American shad migratory behavior, weight loss, survival, and abundance in a North Carolina River following dam removals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raabe, Joshua K.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive management and research, populations of American Shad Alosa sapidissima have experienced prolonged declines, and uncertainty about the underlying mechanisms causing these declines remains. In the springs of 2007 through 2010, we used a resistance board weir and PIT technology to capture, tag, and track American Shad in the Little River, North Carolina, a tributary to the Neuse River with complete and partial removals of low-head dams. Our objectives were to examine migratory behaviors and estimate weight loss, survival, and abundance during each spawning season. Males typically immigrated earlier than females and also used upstream habitat at a higher percentage, but otherwise exhibited relatively similar migratory patterns. Proportional weight loss displayed a strong positive relationship with both cumulative water temperature during residence time and number of days spent upstream, and to a lesser extent, minimum distance the fish traveled in the river. Surviving emigrating males lost up to 30% of their initial weight and females lost up to 50% of their initial weight, indicating there are potential survival thresholds. Survival for the spawning season was low and estimates ranged from 0.07 to 0.17; no distinct factors (e.g., sex, size, migration distance) that could contribute to survival were detected. Sampled and estimated American Shad abundance increased from 2007 through 2009, but was lower in 2010. Our study provides substantial new information about American Shad spawning that may aid restoration efforts.

  12. An integrative study of larval organogenesis of American shad Alosa sapidissima in histological aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaoqiang; Hong, Lei; Liu, Zhifeng; Guo, Zhenglong; Wang, Yaohui; Lei, Jilin

    2016-01-01

    We describe organogenesis at a histological level in American shad ( Alosa sapidissima) larvae from 0 until 45 days after hatching (DAH). Larval development was divided into four stages based on the feeding mode, external morphological features, and structural changes in the organs: stage 1 (0-2 DAH), stage 2 (3-5 DAH), stage 3 (6-26 DAH) and stage 4 (27-45 DAH). At early stage 2 (3 DAH), American shad larvae developed the initial digestive and absorptive tissues, including the mouth and anal opening, buccopharyngeal cavity, oesophagus, incipient stomach, anterior and posterior intestine, differentiated hepatocytes, and exocrine pancreas. The digestive and absorptive capacity developed further in stages 2 to 3, at which time the pharyngeal teeth, taste buds, gut mucosa folds, differentiated stomach, and gastric glands could be observed. Four defined compartments were discernible in the heart at 4 DAH. From 3 to 13 DAH, the excretory systems started to develop, accompanied by urinary bladder opening, the appearance and development of primordial pronephros, and the proliferation and convolution of renal tubules. Primordial gills were detected at 2 DAH, the pseudobranch was visible at 6 DAH, and the filaments and lamellae proliferated rapidly during stage 3. The primordial swim bladder was first observed at 2 DAH and started to inflate at 9 DAH; from then on, it expanded constantly. The spleen was first observed at 8 DAH and the thymus was evident at 12 DAH. From stage 4 onwards, most organs essentially manifested an increase in size, number, and complexity of tissue structure.

  13. Modeling migratory energetics of Connecticut River American shad (Alosa sapidissima): implications for the conservation of an iteroparous anadromous fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castro-Santos, Theodore; Letcher, Benjamin H.

    2010-01-01

    We present a simulation model in which individual adult migrant American shad (Alosa sapidissima) ascend the Connecticut River and spawn, and survivors return to the marine environment. Our approach synthesizes bioenergetics, reproductive biology, and behavior to estimate the effects of migratory distance and delays incurred at dams on spawning success and survival. We quantified both the magnitude of effects and the consequences of uncertainty in the estimates of input variables. Behavior, physiology, and energetics strongly affected both the distribution of spawning effort and survival to the marine environment. Delays to both upstream and downstream movements had dramatic effects on spawning success, determining total fecundity and spatial extent of spawning. Delays, combined with cues for migratory reversal, also determined the likelihood of survival. Spawning was concentrated in the immediate vicinity of dams and increased with greater migratory distance and delays to downstream migration. More research is needed on reproductive biology, behavior, energetics, and barrier effects to adequately understand the interplay of the various components of this model; it does provide a framework, however, that suggests that provision of upstream passage at dams in the absence of expeditious downstream passage may increase spawning success — but at the expense of reduced iteroparity. 

  14. Effect of low-head lock and dam structures on migration and spawning of American shad and striped bass in the Cape Fear River, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joseph A.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations within the Cape Fear River, North Carolina, have declined substantially since the late 1800s. Three low-head lock-and-dam (LD) structures on the river (LD-1–3) contributed to this decline by limiting access to upstream spawning habitat. We used egg sampling and sonic telemetry to examine the effects of the LD structures on migration and spawning activity of American shad Alosa sapidissima and striped bassMorone saxatilis. Egg distribution and stage of development suggested that most of the American shad spawning took place downstream from the lowermost structure, LD-1. The predicted mean density of stage-1 American shad eggs at a water temperature of 21°C was 895 eggs/1,000 m3 (95% credible interval [CI] = 800–994) below LD-1; 147 eggs/1,000 m3 (95% CI = 103–197) below LD-2; and 32 eggs/1,000 m3 (95% CI = 17–49) below the uppermost structure, LD-3. The probability of capturing a stage-1 American shad egg was strongly dependent on water temperature and hour of egg collection. Transmitter detections for 20 sonic-tagged American shad and 20 striped bass in 2008 showed that for both species, the majority of fish moved upstream of LD-1; 35% of American shad and 25% of striped bass migrated upstream of LD-3. Based on passage rates at the three LD structures, American shad would be expected to be most abundant downstream of LD-1 and upstream of LD-3. For striped bass, the river section between LD-2 and LD-3 had the highest egg collections and highest predicted proportion of the run. In combination, these results demonstrate that the locking program provides some access to historical spawning habitat, although further improvements in fish passage could benefit both species.

  15. Genetic diversity and differentiation in a wide ranging anadromous fish, American shad (Alosa sapidissima), is correlated with latitude.

    PubMed

    Hasselman, Daniel J; Ricard, Daniel; Bentzen, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Studies that span entire species ranges can provide insight into the relative roles of historical contingency and contemporary factors that influence population structure and can reveal patterns of genetic variation that might otherwise go undetected. American shad is a wide ranging anadromous clupeid fish that exhibits variation in demographic histories and reproductive strategies (both semelparity and iteroparity) and provides a unique perspective on the evolutionary processes that govern the genetic architecture of anadromous fishes. Using 13 microsatellite loci, we examined the magnitude and spatial distribution of genetic variation among 33 populations across the species' range to (i) determine whether signals of historical demography persist among contemporary populations and (ii) assess the effect of different reproductive strategies on population structure. Patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation among populations varied widely and reflect the differential influences of historical demography, microevolutionary processes and anthropogenic factors across the species' range. Sequential reductions of diversity with latitude among formerly glaciated rivers are consistent with stepwise postglacial colonization and successive population founder events. Weak differentiation among U.S. iteroparous populations may be a consequence of human-mediated gene flow, while weak differentiation among semelparous populations probably reflects natural gene flow. Evidence for an effect of reproductive strategy on population structure suggests an important role for environmental variation and suggests that the factors that are responsible for shaping American shad life history patterns may also influence population genetic structure.

  16. Comparing historical catch rates of American shad in multifilament and monofilament nets: A step toward setting restoration targets for Virginia stocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maki, K.L.; Hoenig, J.M.; Olney, J.E.; Heisey, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Recreational and commercial harvest of American shad Alosa sapidissima in the Virginia waters of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries has been prohibited since 1994. The Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission Shad and River Herring Management Plan requires that Virginia develop restoration targets for its shad populations, but estimates of their sizes are not available and there is little information about historic population levels. Thus, establishing restoration targets based on population size is problematic. A current spawning stock monitoring program yields catch rate information that can be compared with historic catch rate information recorded in commercial fishery logbooks from the 1950s and the 1980s. However, multifilament gill nets were used in the 1950s and monofilament nets were used in the 1980s (as well as in the current monitoring program). A Latin square design was employed to test the differences in relative fishing power of the two gear types over 2 years of seasonal sampling on the York River, Virginia. Estimates are that the monofilament nets are roughly twice as efficient as the multifilament nets. Reported catch rates in the 1950s and 1980s are roughly equivalent. However, when adjustments are made for the differences in fishing gear, catch rates for the 1950s are twice as high as those during the 1980s. These results provide valuable information for setting restoration targets for Virginia stocks of American shad. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  17. Yolked Oocyte Dynamics Support Agreement between Determinate- and Indeterminate-Method Estimates of Annual Fecundity for a Northeastern United States Population of American Shad

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Richard S.; Ferreri, Rosalia; Towle, Emilee K.; Boucher, Jason M.; Basilone, Gualtiero

    2016-01-01

    Reports of American shad fecundity identify two important themes regarding egg production in fishes. First, geographic variation occurs and is biologically meaningful. Shad annual fecundity decreases with increasing latitude, but predicted lifetime fecundity does not, because of a counter-gradient of survival probability, all of which can explain the adaptive significance of natal homing. Second, the appropriate method of measuring fecundity depends on the pattern of oocyte development. Historically, the relatively simple determinate-fecundity method was used; however, a recent study in a Virginia river indicates that this method may be biased, requiring the more complicated indeterminate method. We address both themes with collections from the 2015 shad spawning run in the Connecticut River, USA. Criteria for using a determinate method were satisfied for this northern population: 1) a size gap evident in the oocyte size frequency distribution, indicating group-synchronous development of yolked oocytes; 2) a decline, early in spawning, in the standing stock of yolked oocytes; and 3) low levels of atresia at the end of spawning. The determinate-method estimate of American shad annual (2015) fecundity (303,000 ± 73,400; mean ± sd) overlapped historic estimates for this and a neighboring river. The indeterminate-method estimate of annual (2015) fecundity (311,500 ± 4,500 sd) was not significantly different from the determinate-method estimate (Student’s t-test, P > 0.05). In contrast, indeterminate-method estimates of annual fecundity for a Virginia population were twice as high as that measured by the determinate method in the past. This can all be explained by fundamentally different patterns of oogenesis (i.e., group synchrony versus asynchrony with respect to yolk development) at different latitudes. American shad, which is distributed within its native range from the Canadian maritimes to Florida, USA (50–30°N), may be particularly well suited to evaluate

  18. Spawning habitat selection of hickory shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the spawning habitat selectivity of hickory shad Alosa mediocris, an anadromous species on the Atlantic coast of North America. Using plankton tows and artificial substrates (spawning pads), we collected hickory shad eggs in the Roanoke River, North Carolina, to identify spawning timing, temperature, and microhabitat use. Hickory shad eggs were collected by both sampling gears in March and April. The results from this and three other studies in North Carolina indicate that spawning peaks at water temperatures between 12.0??C and 14.9??C and that approximately 90% occurs between 11.0??C and 18.9??C. Hickory shad eggs were collected in run and riffle habitats. Water velocity and substrate were significantly different at spawning pads with eggs than at those without eggs, suggesting that these are important microhabitat factors for spawning. Hickory shad eggs were usually collected in velocities of at least 0.1 m/s and on all substrates except those dominated by silt. Eggs were most abundant on gravel, cobble, and boulder substrates. Hickory shad spawned further upstream in years when water discharge rates at Roanoke Rapids were approximately average during March and April (2005 and 2007), as compared with a severe drought year (2006), suggesting that water flows may affect not only spawning site selection but also the quantity and quality of spawning habitat available at a macrohabitat scale. Using our field data and a Bayesian approach to resource selection analysis, we developed a preliminary habitat suitability model for hickory shad. This Bayesian approach provides an objective framework for updating the model as future studies of hickory shad spawning habitat are conducted. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  19. Effects of pressure reductions in a proposed siphon water lift system at St. Stephen Dam, South Carolina, on mortality rates of juvenile American shad and blueback herring. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Nestler, J.M.; Schilt, C.R.; Jones, D.P.

    1998-09-01

    This report presents results of studies to predict the mortality rate of juvenile blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis) and American shad (A. sapidissima) associated with reduced pressure as they pass downstream through a proposed siphon water lift system at St. Stephen Dam, South Carolina. The primary function of the siphon is to increase attracting flow to better guide upstream migrating adult herring of both species into the existing fish lift for upstream passage. The US Army Engineer District, Charleston, wishes to consider the siphon as an alternative bypass route through the dam for downstream migrating juvenile and adult herring. A pressure-reduction testing system that emulates some of the pressure characteristics of the siphon was used to determine the approximate percentage of juvenile fishes that could be reasonably expected to be killed passing through the reduced pressures anticipated for the siphon water lift system. The testing system could duplicate the range of pressure change anticipated for the siphon lift system but could not obtain pressures lower than 4.1 psi, whereas pressures for some design alternatives may approach the theoretical minimum pressure of 0.0 psi. Study results indicate that the mortality rate is probably about 20 percent. Power analysis indicates that mortality rate above 30 percent is unlikely. Conducting additional mortality studies is recommended to refine predicted mortality rates. Measures should be taken to prevent juvenile fish from entering the siphon lift system if excessive mortality rates are observed.

  20. Native American Adult Reader I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lovern Root, Ed.

    Aspects of Native American history and culture as well as issues and concerns of American Indians are presented in the twelve short articles in this reader for adults. Intended for use in an adult basic education/GED program, the reader features simply written stories (for grades 0-3), illustrations, vocabulary lists and student study questions.…

  1. Freedom Road: Adult Education of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…

  2. Further investigations of the etiology of subcutaneous neoplasms in native gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum)

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, A.D.; Ostrander, G.K.

    1995-10-01

    Aspects of the etiology of subcutaneous spindle-cell neoplasms in feral gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) collected from Lake of the Arbuckles, Oklahoma, were investigated. Field collections of adult and juvenile gizzard shad were conducted to determine the prevalence and seasonality of neoplasms and site specificity of neoplasms-bearing fish. Overall neoplasm prevalence for adult gizzard shad was 22.1%; no juveniles exhibited neoplasms. Neoplasm occurrence did not appear seasonal. Neoplasm-bearing gizzard shad were found at all three sampling sites within Lake of the Arbuckles with similar neoplasm prevalence rates (Guy Sandy Creek 22.1%, Rock creek, 17.9%, and Buckhorn Creek 22.4%). No gizzard shad (juvenile or adult) collected from Lake Carl Blackwell, Oklahoma, the reference site, exhibited neoplasms. Water, sediment, and shad liver tissue from Lake of the Arbuckles and the reference site were analyzed for total recoverable metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, and lead, by graphite furnace atomic absorption). Chromium, copper, and nickel were found in the water samples at concentrations of >1 to 8.6 {micro}g/L. Low concentrations (>1 to 13.6 {micro}g/g wet weight) of all the metals were found in the sediment and liver tissue for both sites. Heavy metal contamination does not appear linked to neoplasm occurrence. To determine if a nonbacterial infectious agent was responsible for tumor formation, cell-free neoplasm homogenates were injected into healthy rainbow trout. Neoplasms were not transmitted into rainbow trout. Neoplasms were not transmitted into rainbow trout. The etiology of these neoplasms remains unknown.

  3. American Adults' Knowledge of Exercise Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Krzewinski-Malone, Jeanette A.; Jackson, Allen W.; Bungum, Timothy J.; FitzGerald, Shannon J.

    2004-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, and some cancers. Approximately 950,000 Americans die annually from cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine whether American adults know which traditional and lifestyle physical activities affect…

  4. Frederick Douglass: An American Adult Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Jerry Paul

    2010-01-01

    Throughout his life, Frederick Douglass struggled to be something extraordinary. He rose from a life in slavery to become the most prominent African-American of his day and a leading figure in the abolitionist movement. Lost in the discussion of his life are the adult education roles that he played throughout his life and career. Beginning while…

  5. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of Larval Shad in a large impoundment

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.S.; DeVries, D.R. )

    1993-11-01

    Factors that affect recruitment of threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense and gizzard shad D. cepedianum, two important prey species in southern reservoirs, are not well understood. Larval shad typically have not been identified to species, though interactions between shad larvae likely affect their recruitment and that of their predators. Using myomere counts to identify larval shad to species, the authors quantified spatial and temporal variation in species distributions in West Point Reservoir, Alabama-Georgia. They sampled larvae every 3-4 at three distances from shore (inshore and 25 and 50 m offshore) at each of three sites. Larval threadfin shad migrated offshore in all three sites, whereas larval gizzard shad were evenly distributed across distances from shore. Because of these movement differences, larval gizzard shad and larval threadfin shad may encounter different habitat-specific predation rates, climatic effects, and food availability. In addition, larval gizzard shad were present before larval threadfin shad and grew beyond the size vulnerable to our capture techniques before threadfin shad abundance peaked. If zooplankton densities are reduced by young-of-year shad, as documented in other systems, later-hatched threadfin shad would encounter fewer zooplankton than were available to the earlier larval gizzard shad. Threadfin shad would have reduced growth and greater vulnerability to predation and starvation. 36 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Wintering ecology of adult North American ospreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Washburn, Brian E.; Martell, Mark S.; Bierregaard, Richard O.; Henny, Charles J.; Dorr, Brian S.; Olexa, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    North American Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) typically migrate long distances to their wintering grounds in the tropics. Beyond the general distribution of their wintering range (i.e., the Caribbean, South America, and Central America), very little is known about the wintering ecology of these birds. We used satellite telemetry to determine the duration of wintering period, to examine the characteristics of wintering areas used by Ospreys, and to quantify space use and activity patterns of wintering Ospreys. Adult Ospreys migrated to wintering sites and exhibited high wintering site fidelity among years. Overall, Ospreys wintered on river systems (50.6%) more than on lakes (19.0%), and use of coastal areas was (30.4%) intermediate. Ospreys remained on their wintering grounds for an average of 154 d for males and 167 d for females. Locations of wintering Ospreys obtained via GPS-capable satellite telemetry suggest these birds move infrequently and their movements are very localized (i.e., 2 and 1.4 km2, respectively. Overall, our findings suggest wintering adult North American Ospreys are very sedentary, demonstrating a pattern of limited daily movements and high fidelity to a few select locations (presumably roosts). We suggest this wintering strategy might be effective for reducing the risk of mortality and maximizing energy conservation.

  7. Life history of the gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum (Le Sueur), in western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodola, Anthony

    1966-01-01

    The rapid increase in the stocks of gizzard shad in Lake Erie since 1950 unquestionably had an important effect on the ecology of the lake. The present study, based on almost 24,000 fish collected by various means in 1952-55 in or near the island area of western Lake Erie was undertaken to provide information on the role of shad in the bionomics of the region. The annulus of the gizzard shad scale is a valid year-mark. It is laid down in May-July, a little later in the older than in the younger fish. The body-scale relation is linear with an intercept of 22.1 mm. on the axis of standard length. Age-groups 0, I, and II were abundantly represented in the samples. Age-group III was much less well represented, and older fish were extremely scarce. The oldest shad seen belonged to the VI-group. The seasonal growth was most rapid in July-August and growth was much reduced or nil in January-April. Males attained the following average standard lengths (in millimeters) at the end of the indicated years of life: 1-141; 2-273; 3-313; 4-343; 5-349. For females these values were 1-140; 2-285; 3-335; 4-364; 5-386. The weight of the gizzard shad increased as the 3.07053 power of the length. The length-weight relation varied seasonally, annually, and, near the spawning season, according to sex and state of gonads. Only a few precocious male and female gizzard shad attain sexual maturity as age-group I. Almost all males and a good percentage of females mature at age II and only rarely are III-group shad immature. Development of the egg and seasonal changes of the ovary are described. Egg production is highest in the II group-average of 378,900 per individual and 689 per gram of body weight. Spawning takes place from early June into July and is most intensive near mid-June. Heaviest spawning is at water temperatures of 67A?F. or more. Early development to the attainment of the adult shape is described; particular attention is given to the development of the alimentary tract. The

  8. Adult Caregiving among American Indians: The Role of Cultural Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, R. Turner; Spencer, S. Melinda; McGuire, Lisa C.; Goldberg, Jack; Wen, Yang; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: With a sample of American Indian adults, we estimated the prevalence of adult caregiving, assessed the demographic and cultural profile of caregivers, and examined the association between cultural factors and being a caregiver. This is the first such study conducted with American Indians. Design and Methods: Data came from a…

  9. Mexican American Adults in Higher Education: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosa, Janet Ann

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study used a narrative design to explore the perceptions, background and experiences of Mexican Americans who completed their bachelor's degree as adult learners. The study focuses in particular on their experiences of learning to be bicultural. A "Borderlands" framework whereby Mexican American adult learners negotiated…

  10. Interaction of African American Learners Online: An Adult Education Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…

  11. Clustering of Risk Behaviours among African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, M.; Addy, C. L.; Wilcox, S.; Dowda, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Individuals may engage in more than one risk behaviour at any given time. The extent to which risk behaviours cluster among African American adults has been largely unexplored. This study examined the prevalence and clustering of three risk behaviours among African American church members: smoking; low moderate-to-vigorous intensity…

  12. LULAC: Mexican-American Adult Learning, Collectivism, and Social Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rook, Brian W.

    2013-01-01

    The development of the League of United Latino American Citizens (LULAC) is often viewed as a method of cultural assimilation through adult education. However, LULAC can be viewed through a collectivist's lens wherein the members established a shared philosophy, teaching adults to mobilize and expand their cause quickly and effectively. The…

  13. Nonparent Adult Social Support and Depressive Symptoms among Mexican American and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey-Cannon, Shannon; Pasch, Lauri A.; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Flores, Elena

    2006-01-01

    The notion that nonparent social support buffers the impact of parent depressive symptoms and substance use on adolescent depressive symptoms was tested in 142 Mexican American and 148 European American families with 12- through 15-year-old adolescents. Parent risk factors and adolescent nonparent adult social support were measured at baseline;…

  14. The Dynamics of American Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelson, Paul J.

    Adult education in the United States is again beginning to emerge as a potentially important dimension of national policy as a way to retrain the work force to be internationally competitive. Skepticism has been expressed about what "retraining" actually means. Federal government initiatives for adult and continuing education have been few and far…

  15. Self-Development for Native American Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevo, Dana; Wiese, Dorene

    This instructional package consists of activity guides, materials, and background information on selected areas pertinent to the self-development of a native American Indian participant group. Covered in its six units are the following topics: self-image and success (motivation and success, personal discovery, tools and assessment instruments,…

  16. Characterizing and explaining differences in cognitive test performance between African American and European American older adults

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Adrienne T. Aiken; Marsiske, Michael; Whitfield, Keith E.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined differences in cognitive performance of African American and European American older adults on cognitive and intellectual measures, and the extent to which literacy status or reading level was useful in explaining these group differences. African American elders performed more poorly than European American elders on twelve of thirteen cognitive tests administered, p < .05. After controlling for reading level achievement, differences in performance became non-significant for five of these twelve tests. Nonetheless, some differences persisted, suggesting that other potential mediators of race differences remain to be explored in future research. PMID:18189169

  17. The Mexican American Cultural Values scales for Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Knight, George P.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Saenz, Delia S.; Bonds, Darya D.; Germán, Miguelina; Deardorff, Julianna; Roosa, Mark W.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2009-01-01

    This research evaluates the properties of a measure of culturally linked values of Mexican Americans in early adolescence and adulthood. The items measure were derived from qualitative data provided by focus groups in which Mexican Americans’ (adolescents, mothers and fathers) perceptions of key values were discussed. The focus groups and a preliminary item refinement resulted in the fifty-item Mexican American Cultural Values Scales (identical for adolescents and adults) that includes nine value subscales. Analyses of data from two large previously published studies sampling Mexican American adolescents, mothers, and fathers provided evidence of the expected two correlated higher order factor structures, reliability, and construct validity of the subscales of the Mexican American Cultural Values Scales as indicators of values that are frequently associated with Mexican/Mexican American culture. The utility of this measure for use in longitudinal research, and in resolving some important theoretical questions regarding dual cultural adaptation, are discussed. PMID:20644653

  18. A method for trapping breeding adult American Oystercatchers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, C.P.; Simons, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    We present an efficient and effective method for trapping adult, breeding American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) that minimizes disturbance to nesting birds and the risk of trapping injuries. We used a remote controlled mechanical decoy to lure territorial adults to a leg-hold noose-mat trap. We trapped 25 birds over two seasons and were successful on 54% of our trapping attempts in 2003. We only trapped birds before the breeding season or between nesting attempts to reduce nest-site disturbance.

  19. Older Korean-American Adults' Attitudes toward the Computer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Hyuckhoon

    2009-01-01

    This study seeks to gain a holistic understanding of how older Korean-American adults' socio-demographic factors affect their attitudes toward the computer. The research was guided by four main questions: (1) What do participants describe as the consequences of their using the computer? (2) What attitudes toward the computer do participants…

  20. African Americans in Adult Education: The Harlem Renaissance Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Bailey, Juanita

    2006-01-01

    This study examined a 25-year period of African Americans in adult education by accessing the archival holdings of three major data centers: the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, the Moorland-Spingarn Archives, and the Hollis Burke Frissell Library. The sociopolitical context of the data was analyzed using a Black feminist…

  1. Adult Social Roles and Alcohol Use among American Indians

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Kaylin M.; Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David

    2014-01-01

    American Indians are disproportionately burdened by alcohol-related problems. Yet, research exploring predictors of alcohol use among American Indians has been limited by cross-sectional designs and reservation-based samples. Guided by a life course developmental perspective, the current study used a subsample of American Indians (n=927) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use (current drinking, usual number of drinks, and binge drinking) among this population. We examined whether adult social roles (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, college enrollment, full-time work) were linked to the rise and fall of alcohol use. Multi-level models demonstrated that adult social roles were linked to alcohol use at the within- and between-person levels. Becoming a parent was linked to a lower likelihood of being a current drinker, fewer alcoholic drinks, and less frequent binge drinking. Transitioning to full-time work was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current drinker and more frequent binge drinking. Results point to the importance of exploring within-group trajectories of alcohol use and highlight the protective and risky nature of adult social roles among American Indians. PMID:24857795

  2. Immigration, income, drinking and obesity in African American adults.

    PubMed

    Ade, Julius N; Rohrer, Jim; Rea, Nancy K

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between immigration status, income, drinking and overweight and obesity in African American adults residing in the United States using an internet web based survey. Data on 303 adult African American immigrants and non-immigrants was collected using a self-administered web based survey. Respondents were recruited using a snowball sampling technique to obtain a convenience sample. Multiple logistic regression analysis were used to test the independent effects of the immigration status while controlling for confounding effects of demographic, social and behavioral variables. The results of the study showed no significant difference between obesity and immigration status in black adults residing in the US (adjusted odds ration = 1.1095, P = 0.7489). Significance at the P < 0.05 level was demonstrated for obesity and two independent variables: age (OR = 1.0332, P = 0.0298) and days per month consumed more than 5 alcoholic beverages (OR = 1.7735, P = 0.0001). Adult African American immigrants in this study sample were not at risk of being obese due to their immigration status. However, age and days in a month in which more than 5 alcoholic beverages are consumed were significant risk factors for obesity. Primary care providers should be alert for obesity and alcohol consumption in this population.

  3. Status of Alabama shad and skipjack herring in Gulf of Mexico drainages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mettee, M.F.; O'Neil, P. E.

    2003-01-01

    Gulf of Mexico drainages are inhabited by two alosine species, the anadromous Alabama shad Alosa alabamae and the skipjack herring A. chrysochloris. Although their distributions are reasonably well documented, the life history and ecology of both species has been incompletely investigated. Infrequent literature references suggest populations of both species have been adversely affected by river management activities throughout parts of their ranges. This purpose of this paper is to summarize available information concerning past and present distributions, population characteristics, spawning and fecundity, age and growth, and population trends of both species as well as threats to the species. Areas of research are suggested to maintain and possibly recover existing populations. ?? 2003 by the American Fisheries Society.

  4. Native American, African American, Asian American and Hispanic American Literature for Preschool through Adult. Asian American Literature. Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham, Betty Jo; Johnson, Lory

    This bibliography lists works by authors in the Asian-American population. It covers literature by authors of Chinese, Hawaiian, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, East Indian, and other Asian ancestry who are or were U.S. citizens or long-term residents. It is made up of fiction and non-fiction books drawn from standard reviewing documents and other…

  5. Walleye consumption and long-term population trends following gizzard shad introduction into a Western South Dakota reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, M.J.; Willis, D.W.; Miller, B.H.; Chipps, S.R.

    2007-01-01

    The gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) was introduced into 1,955-ha Angostura Reservoir, South Dakota to provide increased prey resources for walleye (Sander vitreus). Linear correlation analysis indicated that following gizzard shad introduction, walleye catch-per-unit-effort and mean length at age have increased over time (r = 0.68 to 0.85, P = 0.02 to 0.001). Walleye stomach contents were collected monthly from April through September, 2004 to determine the extent to which age-0 gizzard shad were being utilized as prey during the growing season. Age-0 gizzard shad were absent from walleye diets from April to mid-July (pre-shad-available period); however, from mid-July through early September (shad-available period), age-0 gizzard shad were an important prey item in all walleye diets. Mean weight decreased for walleyes of ages 2-5 during the spring, before age-0 gizzard shad became available; however, growth rate of walleyes increased appreciably during the shad-available period and was attributable to consumption of age-0 shad prey. In Angostura Reservoir, which lies at the northwestern edge of the gizzard shad range, walleye population characteristics have improved following shad introduction and during 2004, age-0 shad directly affected walleye feeding and growth.

  6. Home Remedy Use Among African American and White Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Sara A; Sandberg, Joanne C; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Altizer, Kathryn P; Arcury, Thomas A

    2015-06-01

    Home remedy use is an often overlooked component of health self-management, with a rich tradition, particularly among African Americans and others who have experienced limited access to medical care or discrimination by the health care system. Home remedies can potentially interfere with biomedical treatments. This study documented the use of home remedies among older rural adults, and compared use by ethnicity (African American and white) and gender. A purposeful sample of 62 community-dwelling adults ages 65+ from rural North Carolina was selected. Each completed an in-depth interview, which probed current use of home remedies, including food and non-food remedies, and the symptoms or conditions for use. Systematic, computer-assisted analysis was used to identify usage patterns. Five food and five non-food remedies were used by a large proportion of older adults. African American elders reported greater use than white elders; women reported more use for a greater number of symptoms than men. Non-food remedies included long-available, over-the-counter remedies (e.g., Epsom salts) for which "offlabel" uses were reported. Use focused on alleviating common digestive, respiratory, skin, and musculoskeletal symptoms. Some were used for chronic conditions in lieu of prescription medications. Home remedy use continues to be a common feature of the health self-management of older adults, particularly among African Americans, though at lower levels than previously reported. While some use is likely helpful or benign, other use has the potential to interfere with medical management of disease. Health care providers should be aware of the use of remedies by their patients. PMID:26543255

  7. Home Remedy Use Among African American and White Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Home remedy use is an often overlooked component of health self-management, with a rich tradition, particularly among African Americans and others who have experienced limited access to medical care or discrimination by the health care system. Home remedies can potentially interfere with biomedical treatments. This study documented the use of home remedies among older rural adults, and compared use by ethnicity (African American and white) and gender. A purposeful sample of 62 community-dwelling adults ages 65+ from rural North Carolina was selected. Each completed an in-depth interview, which probed current use of home remedies, including food and non-food remedies, and the symptoms or conditions for use. Systematic, computer-assisted analysis was used to identify usage patterns. Five food and five non-food remedies were used by a large proportion of older adults. African American elders reported greater use than white elders; women reported more use for a greater number of symptoms than men. Non-food remedies included long-available, over-the-counter remedies (e.g., Epsom salts) for which “off-label” uses were reported. Use focused on alleviating common digestive, respiratory, skin, and musculoskeletal symptoms. Some were used for chronic conditions in lieu of prescription medications. Home remedy use continues to be a common feature of the health self-management of older adults, particularly among African Americans, though at lower levels than previously reported. While some use is likely helpful or benign, other use has the potential to interfere with medical management of disease. Health care providers should be aware of the use of remedies by their patients. PMID:26543255

  8. Health literacy, smoking, and health indicators in African American adults

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Diana W.; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Shete, Sanjay; Spears, Claire A.; Cano, Miguel A.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Wetter, David W.; McNeill, Lorna H.

    2015-01-01

    We examined cross-sectional associations of health literacy (HL) with smoking and other established health indicators among 1,467 African American adults. Data emanated from a longitudinal cohort study designed to investigate cancer risk factors among church-going African American adults. We conducted linear and logistic regression analyses to assess associations between HL and health indicators. HL was assessed using an established single-item screening question. Outcomes included indicators of poor physical (cigarette smoking, self-rated general and physical health) and mental health (self-rated mental health, depressive symptoms, perceived stress). Nearly 19% of participants had low HL. Low HL was significantly associated with current smoking, poorer self-rated general and physical health, and higher perceived stress (ps < .05) even after controlling for demographic variables (i.e., age, gender, relationship status) and indicators of socioeconomic status (i.e., education, income, insurance status). Low HL appears to be an independent risk factor for smoking and other indicators of poor physical and mental health in a large sample of African American adults. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26513028

  9. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  10. The Black Arts Movement and African American Young Adult Literature: An Evaluation of Narrative Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Laretta

    2005-01-01

    In this article I question whether or not African American young adult literature serves as a primer for, and a version of, African American adult literature. Using the Black Aesthetic as my literary theory and the Coretta Scott King Award as the young adult canon, I note that while the content of adolescent literature is consistent with the…

  11. Hatch Timing Variations Among Reservoir Gizzard Shad Populations: Implications for Stocked Sander spp. Fingerlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zweifela, Richard D.; Bunnell, David B.; Bremiganc, Mary T.; Hale, R. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Growth and survival of stocked Sander spp. fingerlings can be influenced by timing of stocking in relation to the peak in density of larval gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum. However, coordinating stockings to coincide with peaks in gizzard shad density is difficult due to temporal variation in spawn timing among reservoirs. We used weekly estimates of larval gizzard shad density and length distributions to identify dates of peak hatching and peak total density in Ohio reservoirs and to explore the influence of spring water temperature regimes on timing of peak larval density. Gizzard shad density peaked over 21–32 d among reservoirs but generally varied by 12 d or less among years for any given population. Density peaks were driven by hatching, as larvae smaller than 10 mm accounted for a majority of the gizzard shad collected on the peak date. Peaks in gizzard shad density corresponded to water temperatures of 17–22°C and occurred most frequently when water temperatures had been stable or rising. Reservoirs in the southern portion of the state were 2–5°C warmer than northern reservoirs throughout the spring; thus, gizzard shad spawning and date of peak larval density were earliest in southern reservoirs and became progressively later for populations in more northerly reservoirs. Historical stocking dates for fingerling walleyes S. vitreus and saugeyes (sauger S. canadensis × walleye) in Ohio reservoirs indicated that southern reservoirs were often stocked after the expected peak in gizzard shad density and northern reservoirs were stocked before the peak. A statewide approach to stocking that incorporates latitudinal variations in gizzard shad hatch timing whereby southern reservoirs are stocked earliest would better align stockings with peak gizzard shad density, potentially improving survival of fingerling walleyes and saugeyes.

  12. Larval gizzard shad characteristics in Lake Oahe, South Dakota: A species at the northern edge of its range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fincel, Mark J.; Chipps, Steven R.; Graeb, Brian D. S.; Edwards, Kris R.

    2013-01-01

    Gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum, have generally been restricted to the lower Missouri River impoundments in South Dakota. In recent years, gizzard shad numbers have increased in Lake Oahe, marking the northern-most natural population. These increases could potentially affect recreational fishes. Specifically, questions arise about larval gizzard shad growth dynamics and if age-0 gizzard shad in Lake Oahe will exhibit fast or slow growth, both of which can have profound effects on piscivore populations in this reservoir. In this study, we evaluated larval gizzard shad hatch timing, growth, and density in Lake Oahe. We collected larval gizzard shad from six sites from May to July 2008 and used sagittal otoliths to estimate the growth and back-calculate the hatch date. We found that larval gizzard shad hatched earlier in the upper part of the reservoir compared to the lower portion and that hatch date appeared to correspond to warming water temperatures. The peak larval gizzard shad density ranged from 0.6 to 33.6 (#/100 m3) and varied significantly among reservoir sites. Larval gizzard shad growth ranged from 0.24 to 0.57 (mm/d) and differed spatially within the reservoir. We found no relationship between the larval gizzard shad growth or density and small- or large-bodied zooplankton density (p > 0.05). As this population exhibits slow growth and low densities, gizzard shad should remain a suitable forage option for recreational fishes in Lake Oahe.

  13. Factors Influencing Dating Experiences Among African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Naomi M.; Lee, Anna K.; Witherspoon, Daphne D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined sociocultural factors that impact dating and sexual experiences of heterosexual African American undergraduate college students attending a historically Black institution in the Southeastern United States. Specifically, mate availability and relationship involvement were analyzed to document students’ experiences, and how these influences may be associated with sexual decision making and behavior. Data from nine focus groups (N = 57) were aggregated and four subthemes were identified: competition among women, acceptability of mates, high prevalence of casual relationships, and lowered expectations for commitment. Power dynamics emerged as a contributing factor to the types of relationship involvement, sexual decision-making, and behavior among participants. The importance of prevention programs focusing on situational and cultural variables is highlighted. Additionally, implications for professionals working with emerging adults to consider the impact of the gender ratio imbalance, and perceived power distributions on perceptions of dating relationships, and sexual decision making and behavior are addressed. PMID:25530924

  14. The spring migration of adult North American Ospreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martell, Mark S.; Bierregaard, Richard O.; Washburn, Brian E.; Elliott, John E.; Henny, Charles J.; Kennedy, Robert S.; MacLeod, Iain

    2014-01-01

    Most North American Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) are migratory, breeding in northern latitudes and migrating long distances to and from their wintering grounds in the tropics. Although fall migration patterns of North American Ospreys have been described and studied, very little has been published about the spring migration of these birds. We used satellite telemetry to: (1) determine the characteristics (timing, duration, migratory routes) of spring migrations of Ospreys; (2) determine if differences in spring migration patterns existed between sexes and among three breeding populations (east coast, midwestern, and western); and (3) compare consecutive fall and spring migrations of individual Ospreys. The median dates for departure from the wintering grounds and arrival on the breeding grounds did not differ significantly between adult male and female Ospreys. Compared to their fall migrations, all male and all east coast Ospreys spent fewer days on migration, fewer days in stopover periods along the migration route, traveled shorter distances overall, and traveled farther (on average) each day during spring. In contrast, fall and spring migration characteristics of all female and western Ospreys were similar. Our findings suggest that, although sex and breeding location might influence the spring migration strategy used by individual Ospreys, both males and females minimize the time spent on migration to ensure a timely arrival on the breeding grounds to establish or defend a nesting territory.

  15. Migration behaviour of twaite shad Alosa fallax assessed by otolith Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca profiles.

    PubMed

    Magath, V; Marohn, L; Fietzke, J; Frische, M; Thiel, R; Dierking, J

    2013-06-01

    Individual migration behaviour during the juvenile and adult life phase of the anadromous twaite shad Alosa fallax in the Elbe estuary was examined using otolith Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca profiles. Between hatching and the end of the first year of life, juveniles showed two migration patterns. Pattern one exhibited a single downstream migration from fresh water to the sea with no return into fresh water. In contrast, pattern two showed a first migration into the sea, then a return into fresh water and, finally, a second downstream migration into marine water. This first report of migration plasticity for A. fallax points to different exposure times to estuarine threats depending on the migration strategy. In adults, high Sr:Ca and low Ba:Ca in the majority of individuals confirmed prior reports of a primarily marine habitat use. Patterns reflecting spawning migrations were rarely observed on otoliths, possibly due to the short duration of visits to fresh water.

  16. Ethnic Self-Labeling in Young American Adults from Chinese Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Self-reported ethnic labels were examined among 242 young American adults with Chinese ancestry (age range = 18-32 years, M = 23.97; 73% female, 27% male). Ethnic labels fell under broad categories whereby 22% reported heritage national labels (e.g., Chinese), 35% added American to their heritage national label (e.g., Chinese American), and 42%…

  17. Anxiety Psychopathology in African American Adults: Literature Review and Development of an Empirically Informed Sociocultural Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Lora Rose; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, the extant literature concerning anxiety psychopathology in African American adults is summarized to develop a testable, explanatory framework with implications for future research. The model was designed to account for purported lower rates of anxiety disorders in African Americans compared to European Americans, along with other…

  18. Cerebellar cortical degeneration in adult American Staffordshire Terriers.

    PubMed

    Olby, Natasha; Blot, Stephane; Thibaud, Jean-Laurent; Phillips, Jeff; O'Brien, Dennis P; Burr, Jeanne; Berg, Jason; Brown, Talmage; Breen, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Adult-onset cerebellar cortical degeneration recently has been reported in American Staffordshire Terriers. We describe the clinical and histopathologic features of this disease and examine its mode of inheritance in 63 affected dogs. The age at which neurologic deficits 1st were recognized varied from 18 months to 9 years, with the majority of dogs presented to veterinarians between 4 and 6 years of age. Time from onset of clinical signs to euthanasia varied from 6 months to 6.5 years, with the majority of affected dogs surviving from 2 to 4 years. Initial neurologic findings included stumbling, truncal sway, and ataxia exacerbated by lifting the head up and negotiating stairs. Signs progressed to obvious ataxia characterized by dysmetria, nystagmus, coarse intention tremor, variable loss of menace reaction, marked truncal sway, and falling with transient opisthotonus. With continued progression, dogs became unable to walk without falling repeatedly. Cerebellar atrophy was visible on magnetic resonance images and on gross pathology. Histopathologic findings included marked loss of Purkinje neurons with thinning of the molecular and granular layers and increased cellularity of the cerebellar nuclei. The closest common ancestor of the dogs was born in the 1950s and inheritance was most consistent with an autosomal recessive mode of transmission with a prevalence estimated at 1 in 400 dogs. This inherited disease is comparable to the group of diseases known as spinocerebellar ataxias in humans. Many spinocerebellar ataxias in humans are caused by nucleotide repeats, and this genetic aberration merits investigation as a potential cause of the disease in American Staffordshire Terriers. PMID:15058771

  19. Toe and plantar dermatoglyphics in adult American Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Fox, K M; Plato, C C

    1987-09-01

    The scarcity of information on control data of toe and plantar dermatoglyphics led us to undertake this study of adult American Caucasians. Toe and sole prints of 168 male and 83 female participants of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging were analyzed. Toe pattern frequencies demonstrate that fibular loops are the most prevalent pattern on the toes in both males and females. Pattern distribution by digit shows that arches are most often located on the fifth toe while whorls are found with greatest frequency on the third toe. Plantar pattern frequencies indicate that the most common pattern found in the hallucal area is the distal loop. Open fields are frequently found in the II and IV interdigital areas while distal loops are prevalent in the III area. These results are compared to the finger and palmar patterns of the same individuals. The distribution of patterns on the toes and fingers of the same individuals appear to be quite different. Population comparisons did not demonstrate a clear racial difference in the toe pattern frequencies or in the plantar areas.

  20. Exploring Dual Identification among Muslim-American Emerging Adults: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Bikmen, Nida; Mir, Madeeha; Fine, Michelle; Zaal, Mayida; Katsiaficas, Dalal

    2008-01-01

    This mixed methods study explored dual identification among Muslim-American emerging adults of immigrant origin. A closer look was taken at the relationship between American and Muslim identifications and how this relationship was influenced by experiences of discrimination, acculturative and religious practices, and whether it varied by gender.…

  1. Institutional Barriers to Participation in Adult Education among African Americans within Religious Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Paulette; Rowland, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Examined institutional deterrents to participation in adult education among African American Christian church members. Focus group interview data highlighted six categories of deterrents: lack of relevance, programmatic, communication, individual/personal, instructional techniques, and interpersonal. Results suggest that African American Christian…

  2. Report Card: Environmental Attitudes and Knowledge in America. The Fifth Annual Survey of Adult Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Environmental Education and Training Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This study investigates environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among adult Americans. The fifth survey, conducted by Roper Starch, explores the relationship between attitudes about the environment and how those attitudes are affected by learning. This report concludes that Americans have very positive views toward the need to conserve…

  3. Religiosity, Discrimination, and Community Engagement: Gendered Pathways of Muslim American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Katsiaficas, Dalal

    2011-01-01

    The attacks on September 11, 2001, changed the lives of all Americans. For many immigrant Muslims in the United States this meant dealing with an elevated amount of discrimination. This study investigated how perceived discrimination influenced levels of community engagement among Muslim American emerging adults and whether it varied by gender.…

  4. Influences of Social and Style Variables on Adult Usage of African American English Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Holly K.; Grogger, Jeffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the influences of selected social (gender, employment status, educational achievement level) and style variables (race of examiner, interview topic) on the production of African American English (AAE) by adults. Method: Participants were 50 African American men and women, ages 20-30 years. The authors…

  5. Social support among African-American adults with diabetes. Part 1: Theoretical framework.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, M. E.; Tilley, B. C.; McDonald, P. E.

    1998-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects African Americans in disproportionate numbers relative to whites. Proper management of this disease is critical because of the increased morbidity and mortality associated with poor diabetes management. The role of social support in promoting diabetes management and improved glycemic control among African Americans is a little-explored area. This article, the first in a two-part series, provides a theoretical framework for examining the relationship between social support and glycemic control among African-American adults. PMID:9640907

  6. Korean/Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Young Adult Fiction and Media Created by Korean/Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2010-01-01

    Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority…

  7. 76 FR 9320 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Alabama Shad as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... (41 to 48) on the lower limb of the anterior gill arch. Alabama shad differ from other members of...: Background In 1997, we added Alabama shad to our Candidate Species List (62 FR 37562; July 14, 1997). At that... (49 FR 38900; October 1, 1984). In 2004, we created the Species of Concern list (69 FR 19975; April...

  8. German-American Workshop on Adult Education with Target Groups = Deutsch-amerikanisches Doppelseminar zur Zielgruppenarbeit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerner, Claus, Ed.; Odenbrett, Glenn, Ed.

    This collection includes eight papers (authored by Germans) on adult education programs in Cleveland, Ohio, and eight papers (authored by Americans) about adult education programs in the Federal Republic of Germany as well as German and English introductions to the collection. The following papers are included: "Neue Wege in der Internationalen…

  9. Civic Engagement in Relation to Outcome Expectations among African American Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, He Len; Probert, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined civic engagement--volunteering and political activism--among 129 African American young adults from an urban community. The proposed model considered factors that motivate young adults to participate in civic activities as well as barriers that might inhibit involvement. Drawing upon social cognitive theory, this study…

  10. Signal Detection Analysis of Factors Associated with Diabetes among Semirural Mexican American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanni, K. D.; Ahn, D. A.; Winkleby, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Signal detection analysis was used to evaluate a combination of sociodemographic, acculturation, mental health, health care, and chronic disease risk factors potentially associated with diabetes in a sample of 4,505 semirural Mexican American adults. Overall, 8.9% of adults had been diagnosed with diabetes. The analysis resulted in 12 mutually…

  11. Perceived Racism and Encouragement among African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming

    2012-01-01

    Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…

  12. The Mexican American Cultural Values Scale for Adolescents and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, George P.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Saenz, Delia S.; Bonds, Darya D.; German, Miguelina; Deardorff, Julianna; Roosav, Mark W.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    This research evaluates the properties of a measure of culturally linked values of Mexican Americans in early adolescence and adulthood. The article discusses the items derived from qualitative data provided by focus groups in which Mexican Americans' (adolescents, mothers, and fathers) perceptions of key values were discussed. The focus groups…

  13. African Americans and Self-Help Education: The Missing Link in Adult Education. ERIC Digest No. 222.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Michael L.

    Self-help education and self-help literature is important in the lives of African American adults, but the basic models of learning, development, and program planning in adult education have often been developed with little concern for the unique needs of African Americans. In addition, current theories of adult learning often lack understanding…

  14. Racial discrimination and blood pressure: perceptions, emotions, and behaviors of black American adults.

    PubMed

    Barksdale, Debra J; Farrug, Eugene R; Harkness, Kimberly

    2009-02-01

    This study examined racial discrimination and blood pressure (BP) in 211 Black Americans. Racial discrimination is a chronic stressor for many Black Americans and hypertension prevalence is high in this population. Secondary analyses of data from the study, "Everyday Life for Black American Adults," were conducted to examine relationships among perceived racial discrimination, emotional and behavioral responses to racism, and BP. Although racial discrimination was not correlated with BP, sadness and frustration were significantly but negatively correlated with BP. Speaking out and prayer were frequent behavioral responses to racism. Findings should sensitize healthcare providers to the effects of racial discrimination on the health of Black Americans.

  15. Patient satisfaction and ethnic identity among American Indian older adults.

    PubMed

    Garroutte, Eva Marie; Kunovich, Robert M; Jacobsen, Clemma; Goldberg, Jack

    2004-12-01

    Work in the field of culturally competent medical care draws on studies showing that minority Americans often report lower satisfaction with care than White Americans and recommends that providers should adapt care to patients' cultural needs. However, empirical evidence in support of cultural competence models is limited by reliance upon measurements of racial rather than ethnic identity and also by a near-total neglect of American Indians. This project explored the relationship between ethnic identity and satisfaction using survey data collected from 115 chronically ill American Indian patients >or=50 years at a Cherokee Nation clinic. Satisfaction scores were high overall and comparable to those found in the general population. Nevertheless, analysis using hierarchical linear modeling showed that patients' self-rated American Indian ethnic identity was significantly associated with satisfaction. Specifically, patients who rated themselves high on the measure of American Indian ethnic identity reported reduced scores on satisfaction with health care providers' social skill and attentiveness, as compared to those who rated themselves lower. Significant associations remained after controlling for patients' sex, age, education, marital status, self-reported health, wait time, and number of previous visits. There were no significant associations between patients' American Indian ethnic identity and satisfaction with provider's technical skill and shared decision-making. Likewise, there were no significant associations between satisfaction and a separate measure of White American ethnic identity, although a suggestive trend was observed for satisfaction with provider's social skill. Our findings demonstrate the importance of including measures of ethnic identity in studies of medical satisfaction in racial minority populations. They support the importance of adapting care to patient's cultural needs, and they highlight the particular significance of interpersonal

  16. Patient satisfaction and ethnic identity among American Indian older adults.

    PubMed

    Garroutte, Eva Marie; Kunovich, Robert M; Jacobsen, Clemma; Goldberg, Jack

    2004-12-01

    Work in the field of culturally competent medical care draws on studies showing that minority Americans often report lower satisfaction with care than White Americans and recommends that providers should adapt care to patients' cultural needs. However, empirical evidence in support of cultural competence models is limited by reliance upon measurements of racial rather than ethnic identity and also by a near-total neglect of American Indians. This project explored the relationship between ethnic identity and satisfaction using survey data collected from 115 chronically ill American Indian patients >or=50 years at a Cherokee Nation clinic. Satisfaction scores were high overall and comparable to those found in the general population. Nevertheless, analysis using hierarchical linear modeling showed that patients' self-rated American Indian ethnic identity was significantly associated with satisfaction. Specifically, patients who rated themselves high on the measure of American Indian ethnic identity reported reduced scores on satisfaction with health care providers' social skill and attentiveness, as compared to those who rated themselves lower. Significant associations remained after controlling for patients' sex, age, education, marital status, self-reported health, wait time, and number of previous visits. There were no significant associations between patients' American Indian ethnic identity and satisfaction with provider's technical skill and shared decision-making. Likewise, there were no significant associations between satisfaction and a separate measure of White American ethnic identity, although a suggestive trend was observed for satisfaction with provider's social skill. Our findings demonstrate the importance of including measures of ethnic identity in studies of medical satisfaction in racial minority populations. They support the importance of adapting care to patient's cultural needs, and they highlight the particular significance of interpersonal

  17. North American Adult Literacy Programs and Latin American Immigrants: How Critical Pedagogy Can Help Nonprofit Literacy Programming in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straubhaar, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    As nonprofit adult literacy programs are often the only options for low-income Latin American immigrants in North America, problems accompanying these programs affect the ability of immigrants to benefit from them. North American nonprofit adult literacy programs often struggle due to the difficulties inherent in using volunteer instructors (often…

  18. Threadfin shad impingement: effect of cold stress. Report to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for period October 1, 1976-September 30, 1978

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, R.B.; Singley, P.T.; Griffith, J.S.; McGee, M.V.

    1980-05-01

    Temperature greatly influenced impingement of threadfin shad, young-of-the-year gizzard shad, and probably young-of-the-year river herring. Temperature also greatly influenced any potential effects that loss of these prey had on predators. Natural cold kills of threadfin and young-of-the-year gizzard shad masked any ecological effects due to impingement. Most of the shad, had they not been impinged, would have died due to cold stress, and these dead shad would have decomposed rather than been eaten by scavengers. Loss of shad had a measurable short-term effect on sauger, as determined by changes in condition factor, and this loss of shad contributed to an increase in percent empty stomachs of skipjack herring, striped bass, and white bass. Thermal refuges, including the Kingston Steam Plant discharge, were identified for gizzard shad and hybrid shad. Hybrid shad made up 11.2% of the total threadfin population sampled both years (1976-1977 and 1977-1978). Blood serum electrolytes (Na/sup +/, K/sup +/, Cl/sup -/) were not found to be good predictable indicators of cold stress of young gizzard shad. 24 refs., 23 figs., 18 tabs.

  19. The Costs of Treating American Indian Adults With Diabetes Within the Indian Health Service

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Joan M.; Wilson, Charlton; Manson, Spero M.; Acton, Kelly J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the costs of treating American Indian adults with diabetes within the Indian Health Service (IHS). Methods. We extracted demographic and health service utilization data from the IHS electronic medical reporting system for 32 052 American Indian adults in central Arizona in 2004 and 2005. We derived treatment cost estimates from an IHS facility–specific cost report. We examined chronic condition prevalence, medical service utilization, and treatment costs for American Indians with and without diabetes. Results. IHS treatment costs for the 10.9% of American Indian adults with diabetes accounted for 37.0% of all adult treatment costs. Persons with diabetes accounted for nearly half of all hospital days (excluding days for obstetrical care). Hospital inpatient service costs for those with diabetes accounted for 32.2% of all costs. Conclusions. In this first study of treatment costs within the IHS, costs for American Indians with diabetes were found to consume a significant proportion of IHS resources. The findings give federal agencies and tribes critical information for resource allocation and policy formulation to reduce and eventually eliminate diabetes-related disparities between American Indians and Alaska Natives and other racial/ethnic populations. PMID:22390444

  20. American Geriatrics Society care of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender older adults position statement: American Geriatrics Society Ethics Committee.

    PubMed

    2015-03-01

    There is ample evidence that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals face discrimination in the healthcare setting. Providing high-quality health care for older LGBT adults will require active steps by organizations, institutions, advocacy groups, and health professionals that create an environment that is free from discrimination. This position statement that the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Ethics Committee developed addresses the vision of the AGS for the care of LGBT older adults and specific steps that can be taken to ensure that they receive the care that they need.

  1. American Geriatrics Society care of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender older adults position statement: American Geriatrics Society Ethics Committee.

    PubMed

    2015-03-01

    There is ample evidence that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals face discrimination in the healthcare setting. Providing high-quality health care for older LGBT adults will require active steps by organizations, institutions, advocacy groups, and health professionals that create an environment that is free from discrimination. This position statement that the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Ethics Committee developed addresses the vision of the AGS for the care of LGBT older adults and specific steps that can be taken to ensure that they receive the care that they need. PMID:25803784

  2. Prayer and spiritual practices for health reasons among American adults: the role of race and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Gillum, Frank; Griffith, Derek M

    2010-09-01

    Many studies find racial differences in prayer and religious practices, but few reports examine factors that help explain the effects of Hispanic ethnicity or African American race. A national survey conducted in 2002 collected data on 10 non-religious spiritual practices as well as on prayer for health reasons in 22,929 adults aged 18 years and over. We found marked racial and ethnic differences in the use of prayer and other spiritual practices for health reasons. Greater proportions of African Americans and Hispanic Americans than European Americans reported prayer for health reasons. Sociodemographic variables and health status could not explain these differences. Further, among those who reported prayer, African Americans were more likely than European Americans to report being prayed for by others. However, African American women and Hispanic women and men were significantly less likely than European Americans to use other spiritual practices such as meditation and Tai Chi. Surprisingly African American men were just as likely to report these practices as European American men. Sociodemographic variables and health status could not explain these differences.

  3. The Adults in the Making Program: Long-Term Protective Stabilizing Effects on Alcohol Use and Substance Use Problems for Rural African American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This report addresses the long-term efficacy of the Adults in the Making (AIM) prevention program on deterring the escalation of alcohol use and development of substance use problems, particularly among rural African American emerging adults confronting high levels of contextual risk. Method: African American youths (M age, pretest =…

  4. MEXICAN AMERICAN YOUTH AND ADULT PRISON GANGS IN A CHANGING HEROIN MARKET

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Avelardo

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the interaction between the larger community’s drug markets and youth and adult prison gangs, and the process that leads to specific adverse consequences both to the youth gangs as organizations, and to individual members. Described is the emergence of a restructured heroin market dominated by an adult prison gang. A major consequence of this was the increasing use of heroin among Mexican American gang members and their transformation from autonomous youth gangs to extensions of the adult prison gangs or their demise. Data was collected from 160 members of 26 Mexican American youth gangs and key informants in San Antonio. Findings focus on organizational rules, drug market transformations, consequences on members, and the impact of heroin on the gang’s organization. Discussed is how the dominance of prison gangs is related to the increased incarceration and recidivism rates of Mexican Americans and declining economic opportunities for urban minorities. PMID:21614143

  5. Residential Segregation and Overweight/Obesity Among African-American Adults: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Corral, Irma; Landrine, Hope; Hall, Marla B; Bess, Jukelia J; Mills, Kevin R; Efird, Jimmy T

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between residential segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults remains unclear. Elucidating that relationship is relevant to efforts to prevent and to reduce racial disparities in obesity. This article provides a critical review of the 11 empirical studies of segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults. Results revealed that most studies did not use a valid measure of segregation, many did not use a valid measure of overweight/obesity, and many did not control for neighborhood poverty. Only four (36% of the) studies used valid measures of both segregation and overweight/obesity and also controlled for area-poverty. Those four studies suggest that segregation contributes to overweight and obesity among African-American adults, but that conclusion cannot be drawn with certainty in light of the considerable methodologic problems in this area of research. Suggestions for improving research on this topic are provided. PMID:26191522

  6. Food of blueback herring and threadfin shad in Jocassee Reservoir, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Bruce M.; Foltz, Jeffrey W.

    1991-01-01

    Threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense and blueback herring Alosa aestivalis were introduced into Jocassee Reservoir, South Carolina, in the early 1970s as prey for large piscivores. To assess the potential for trophic competition between these clupeids, we examined their diets and the extent of diet overlap in May, August, and December 1982 and February 1983. The diet of blueback herring consisted mainly of large species of cladocerans and copepods supplemented in August with Chaoborus punctipennis and young fish. Mean length of the organisms eaten by blueback herring was 1.4 mm. Threadfin shad fed on smaller species of cladocerans and copepods, as well as on rotifers and copepod nauplii. The mean length of the organisms eaten by threadfin shad was 0.4 mm, which differed significantly from the mean length of the zooplankton population in Jocassee Reservoir (0.6 mm). Phytoplankton contributed 24 and 32% of the stomach contents of threadfin shad in August and December. Bosmina longirostris was important in the diet of both species, although blueback herring showed negative selection for it. Diet overlap between the two clupeids was low on all four dates. Although we found no evidence of trophic competition between the two species in Jocassee Reservoir, we do not recommend stocking them together, because both species are voracious planktivores and blueback herring are piscivorous.

  7. Pathology, physiologic parameters, tissue contaminants, and tissue thiamine in morbid and healthy central Florida adult American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Ross, J.P.; Carbonneau, D.A.; Terrell, S.P.; Woodward, A.R.; Schoeb, T.R.; Perceval, H.F.; Hinterkopf, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    An investigation of adult alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) mortalities in Lake Griffin, central Florida, was conducted from 1998-2004. Alligator mortality was highest in the months of April and May and annual death count peaked in 2000. Bacterial pathogens, heavy metals, and pesticides were not linked with the mortalities. Blood chemistry did not point to any clinical diagnosis, although differences between impaired and normal animals were noted. Captured alligators with signs of neurologic impairment displayed unresponsive and uncoordinated behavior. Three of 21 impaired Lake Griffin alligators were found to have neural lesions characteristic of thiamine deficiency in the telencephalon, particularly the dorsal ventricular ridge. In some cases, lesions were found in the thalamus, and parts of the midbrain. Liver and muscle tissue concentrations of thiamine (vitamin B"1) were lowest in impaired Lake Griffin alligators when compared to unimpaired alligators or to alligators from Lake Woodruff. The consumption of thiaminase-positive gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) is thought to have been the cause of the low tissue thiamine and resulting mortalities. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  8. Falls efficacy and self-rated health in older African American adults.

    PubMed

    Tiernan, Chad; Lysack, Cathy; Neufeld, Stewart; Goldberg, Allon; Lichtenberg, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    Fear of falling and mobility restrictions have a significant negative impact on the quality of life of older adults. Because older African American adults are at increased risk for various modifiable health problems, understanding potential constraints on their overall health and mobility is critical in this population. The current study investigated this issue by analyzing a dataset of 449 older African American adults (mean age=72.3 years) living in Detroit. We characterized and investigated the relationships among the following falls- and health-related variables: previous falls, falls efficacy, mobility, self-rated health (SRH), and depression and well-being. As a whole, participants reported moderate health and well-being, little depression, few mobility problems (mean=8.4/40), and very high falls efficacy (mean=94.9/100) despite the fact that a quarter of the sample experienced a fall within the past year. Correlation results indicated that previous falls, falls efficacy, mobility, SRH and depression and well-being were all inter-related. Regression analyses revealed that higher falls efficacy was more closely associated with better SRH than was having previously fallen. Findings suggest that improving falls efficacy in older African American adults may be beneficial to their mobility and overall health and well-being. Further, by asking a single-item SRH question, clinicians may be able to quickly identify older African American adults who have low falls efficacy and are at high risk for falling. PMID:24063870

  9. Anxiety psychopathology in African American adults: literature review and development of an empirically informed sociocultural model.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Lora Rose; Schmidt, Norman B

    2010-03-01

    In this review, the extant literature concerning anxiety psychopathology in African American adults is summarized to develop a testable, explanatory framework with implications for future research. The model was designed to account for purported lower rates of anxiety disorders in African Americans compared to European Americans, along with other ethnoracial differences reported in the literature. Three specific beliefs or attitudes related to the sociocultural experience of African Americans are identified: awareness of racism, stigma of mental illness, and salience of physical illnesses. In our model, we propose that these psychological processes influence interpretations and behaviors relevant to the expression of nonpathological anxiety as well as features of diagnosable anxiety conditions. Moreover, differences in these processes may explain the differential assessed rates of anxiety disorders in African Americans. The model is discussed in the context of existing models of anxiety etiology. Specific follow-up research is also suggested, along with implications for clinical assessment, diagnosis, and treatment.

  10. Improving the Evidence Base for Treating Older Adults With Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology Statement.

    PubMed

    Hurria, Arti; Levit, Laura A; Dale, William; Mohile, Supriya G; Muss, Hyman B; Fehrenbacher, Louis; Magnuson, Allison; Lichtman, Stuart M; Bruinooge, Suanna S; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Tew, William P; Postow, Michael A; Cohen, Harvey J

    2015-11-10

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) convened a subcommittee to develop recommendations on improving the evidence base for treating older adults with cancer in response to a critical need identified by the Institute of Medicine. Older adults experience the majority of cancer diagnoses and deaths and make up the majority of cancer survivors. Older adults are also the fastest growing segment of the US population. However, the evidence base for treating this population is sparse, because older adults are underrepresented in clinical trials, and trials designed specifically for older adults are rare. The result is that clinicians have less evidence on how to treat older adults, who represent the majority of patients with cancer. Clinicians and patients are forced to extrapolate from trials conducted in younger, healthier populations when developing treatment plans. This has created a dearth of knowledge regarding the risk of toxicity in the average older patient and about key end points of importance to older adults. ASCO makes five recommendations to improve evidence generation in this population: (1) Use clinical trials to improve the evidence base for treating older adults with cancer, (2) leverage research designs and infrastructure for generating evidence on older adults with cancer, (3) increase US Food and Drug Administration authority to incentivize and require research involving older adults with cancer, (4) increase clinicians' recruitment of older adults with cancer to clinical trials, and (5) use journal policies to improve researchers' reporting on the age distribution and health risk profiles of research participants.

  11. The Lived Experience of the Adult African American Female Who Has Lived in Multiple Foster Care Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Avonda C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine and describe the lived experiences of the adult African American woman who had lived in multiple foster care placements. Eleven adult African American women ages 22-25 participated in semi-structured, face-to-face interviews to tell their stories and provide data of the memories of the experience. The…

  12. The prevalence and incidence of end-stage renal disease in Native American adults on the Navajo reservation.

    PubMed

    Hochman, M E; Watt, J P; Reid, R; O'Brien, K L

    2007-05-01

    Whereas members of the Navajo Nation are at high risk for diabetes mellitus, there are no recent published estimates of the burden of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), an important sequela of diabetes, on the Navajo Nation, a 16 million acre area in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah with more than 200 000 tribal members. We used data from the US Renal Data System to estimate the prevalence and incidence of ESRD among Native American adults (>/=18 years) living on the Navajo Nation. For comparison, we estimated the prevalence and incidence of ESRD among all adults in the US, all Native American adults in the US, and Native American adults living in Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, and Colorado excluding those living on the Navajo Nation. The age-adjusted prevalence of ESRD in the Native American adults on the Navajo Nation was 0.63%, which was higher than in the US adults (0.19%, P<0.0001) and among the Native American adults in the US (0.36%, P<0.0001), but lower than among the other Native American adults in the Southwest (0.89%, P<0.0001). The age-adjusted incidence of ESRD in the Native American adults on the Navajo Nation was 0.11%, which was also higher than in the US adults (0.045%, P<0.0001) and among the Native American adults in the US (0.073%, P<0.0009), but lower than among the other Native American adults in the Southwest (0.17%, P<0.0003). The reasons behind these disparities merit further study. PMID:17332739

  13. Implementation of Evidence-Based HIV Interventions for Young Adult African American Women in Church Settings

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the barriers and facilitators to using African American churches as sites for implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions among young African American women. Design Mixed methods cross-sectional design. Setting African American churches in Philadelphia, PA. Participants 142 African American pastors, church leaders, and young adult women ages 18 to 25. Methods Mixed methods convergent parallel design. Results The majority of young adult women reported engaging in high-risk HIV-related behaviors. Although church leaders reported willingness to implement HIV risk-reduction interventions, they were unsure of how to initiate this process. Key facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based interventions included the perception of the leadership and church members that HIV interventions were needed and that the church was a promising venue for them. A primary barrier to implementation in this setting is the perception that discussions of sexuality should be private. Conclusion Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings is feasible and needed. Building a level of comfort in discussing matters of sexuality and adapting existing evidence-based interventions to meet the needs of young women in church settings is a viable approach for successful implementation. PMID:25139612

  14. Profiles of Chronic Illness Knowledge in a Community Sample of American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Todd

    2009-01-01

    The author identified profiles of chronic illness knowledge (i.e., heart disease, cancer, diabetes) in a community sample of American adults and examined the effect of sociodemographic influences on relations of illness knowledge to health practices and well-being. Participants were 181 women and 120 men who completed measures of illness…

  15. Perceptions of the Transition to Adulthood among Chinese and American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, Sarah; Nelson, Larry J.; Barry, Carolyn McNamara

    2006-01-01

    This study explored cultural differences in the criteria young people have for becoming an adult. Specifically, the study sought (a) to compare Chinese and American responses concerning whether they believe they have reached adulthood; (b) to examine whether adulthood criteria could fit a common statistical model for both cultures; and (c) after…

  16. Testing the Development of Linguistic Knowledge in Adult Naive Learners of American Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Pein, Margreta; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the ways in which notions of semantics and phonology are acquired by adult naive learners of American Sign Language (ASL) when they are first exposed to a set of simple signs. First, a set of ASL signs was tested for nontransparency and a set of signs was selected for subsequent use. Next, a set of…

  17. The Image of the Native American in Young Adult Fiction (1960-1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Julie M.

    The portrayal of the American Indian in young adult fiction was studied through the examination of 23 works of realistic or historical fiction published from 1960 to 1985. Books selected from the card catalogue at the Center for Children's Books at the University of Chicago were primarily about Indians or Indian life, and were appropriate for…

  18. The Longitudinal Effect of Drug Use on Productivity Status of Nonmetropolitan African American Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roldós, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the longitudinal effect of marijuana and heavy alcohol use on the productivity status of nonmetropolitan African American young adults. This analysis was based on secondary data from the Family and Community Health Study. For alcohol, the study evaluated the effects on productivity status for…

  19. "Smoking": Use of Cigarettes, Cigars and Blunts among Southeast Asian American Youth and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, J. P.; Battle, R. S.; Lipton, R.; Soller, B.

    2010-01-01

    Increased use of cigars has been noted among youth, as well as use of blunts (hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana). Three types of relationships have been previously hypothesized between use of tobacco and marijuana in substance use progression. We aimed to assess these relationships for Southeast Asian American youth and adults in an urban…

  20. Adult Social Behavioral Effects of Heavy Adolescent Marijuana Use among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kerry M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of heavy adolescent marijuana use on employment, marriage, and family formation and tested both dropping out of high school and adult marijuana use as potential mediators of these associations among a community sample of African Americans followed longitudinally from age 6 to age 32-33. They used propensity …

  1. Black Greek-Letter Organizations: A Legacy of African American Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Keiwana O'Neal

    2012-01-01

    The education of African American adults evolved in response to the changing social, economic, and political needs of the Black community. To address these needs, Black Greek-Letter Organizations (BGLOs) created and implemented initiatives at the local, national, and international levels using education as a catalyst to change aspects of African…

  2. Physiologic Responses to Racial Rejection Images among Young Adults from African-American Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Carlson, Erika N.; Lawson, Yolanda N.; Shell, J. Clark

    2009-01-01

    Physiologic reactivity to racially rejecting images was assessed in 35 young adults (10 males, 25 female) from African-American backgrounds using the startle probe paradigm. In a laboratory setting, participants viewed 16 images depicting racial rejection, racial acceptance, nonracial negative, and nonracial positive themes. While viewing these…

  3. Literacy and Identity: Reflections of Six African American Males in an Adult Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drayton, Brendaly Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This multiple case study explored how the literate experiences of six African American men influenced their perceptions of and engagement with a community-based adult basic education and literacy (ABEL) program in a large northeastern city. The theoretical framework included a social practices view of literacy and a constructivist view of…

  4. Buffering Effects of a Family-Based Intervention for African American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen; Brown, Anita C.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the buffering effects of Adults in the Making (AIM), a family-centered preventive intervention, on the link between life stress and increases in risk behaviors among 347 rural, southern African Americans as they left high school. Of the families, 174 were assigned to the prevention condition and 173 to a control condition.…

  5. Concepts of Infidelity among African American Emerging Adults: Implications for HIV/STI Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyre, Stephen L.; Flythe, Michelle; Hoffman, Valerie; Fraser, Ashley E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used an exploratory methodology to determine what cultural models African American emerging adults use to understand infidelity/cheating. Cultural models are defined as "cognitive schema[s] that [are] intersubjectively shared by a social group" (D'Andrade, 1987, p. 112). We interviewed 144 participants ages 19-22 from three…

  6. Health Promoting Behaviors of Older Americans Versus Young and Middle Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Craig M.; Arnold, William

    2004-01-01

    Health promoting behaviors have become increasingly important as Americans attempt to retain their youth and health. This study collected self-reported data from 559 participants in the Southwest United States using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II to compare the health promoting behaviors of older adults (60-92 years), middle-aged adults…

  7. Health Promoting Behaviors of Older Americans versus Young and Middle Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Craig; Arnold, William

    2004-01-01

    Health promoting behaviors have become increasingly important as Americans attempt to retain their youth and health. This study collected self-reported data from 559 participants in the Southwest United States using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II to compare the health promoting behaviors of older adults (60-92 years), middle-aged adults…

  8. Inconsistencies in the Literature on Collegiate Adult Children of Alcoholics: Factors to Consider for African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodney, H. Elaine

    1996-01-01

    Several inconsistencies in literature on adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) were found. This paper emphasizes that clinicians and those developing prevention programs should stop believing that certain characteristics are typical of all ACOAs. It makes recommendations for factors to be considered in programs for African American collegiate…

  9. Adult Education as a Human Right: The Latin American Context and the Ecopedagogic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadotti, Moacir

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the concept and practice of adult education as a key issue for Brazil and other Latin American countries, both for formal and non-formal education in the public and private sectors. It includes citizen education focused on democratisation of society and sustainable development. The concept is pluralist and ideological as well…

  10. Cigarette Smoking Among Urban American Indian Adults - Hennepin and Ramsey Counties, Minnesota, 2011.

    PubMed

    Forster, Jean; Poupart, John; Rhodes, Kristine; Peterson-Hickey, Melanie; Lamont, Genelle; D'Silva, Joanne; Erickson, Darin

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, it was estimated that the prevalence of cigarette smoking among American Indians was 36.5%, the highest of all racial/ethnic groups in the continental United States (1). Among American Indians, considerable cultural and geographic variation in cigarette smoking exists. Smoking prevalence among American Indians is lowest in the Southwest and highest in the Upper Midwest/Northern Plains (2). Little information is available about tobacco use among urban American Indians, who might not have ever lived on a reservation or be enrolled in or affiliated with a tribe. In Minnesota, a significant proportion of American Indians reside in urban areas. Among Minnesota's residents who identify as American Indian alone or in combination with another race, 30% live in Hennepin County and Ramsey County, which encompass Minneapolis and St. Paul, respectively (collectively known as the Twin Cities). The predominant tribes (Ojibwe [Chippewa] and Dakota/Lakota/Nakota [Sioux]) traditionally have used locally grown tobacco (Nicotiana rustica), red willow, and other plants for religious ceremonies, although nonceremonial tobacco is often substituted for traditional plants. To assess prevalence of cigarette smoking among this population, it is important to distinguish ceremonial tobacco use (smoked or used in other ways) from nonceremonial tobacco use. To obtain estimates of cigarette smoking prevalence among American Indians in Hennepin and Ramsey counties, the American Indian Adult Tobacco Survey was administered to 964 American Indian residents in 2011, using respondent-driven sampling. Among all participants, 59% were current smokers, 19% were former smokers, and 22% had never smoked. Approximately 40% of employed participants reported that someone smoked in their workplace area during the preceding week. High prevalences of cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among urban American Indians in Minnesota underscores the need for a comprehensive and culturally

  11. Macroparasites of allis shad (Alosa alosa) and twaite shad (Alosa fallax) of the Western Iberian Peninsula Rivers: ecological, phylogenetic and zoonotic insights.

    PubMed

    Bao, M; Roura, A; Mota, M; Nachón, D J; Antunes, C; Cobo, F; MacKenzie, K; Pascual, S

    2015-10-01

    Samples of anadromous Alosa alosa (Clupeidae) (n = 163) and Alosa fallax (Clupeidae) (n = 223), caught in Western Iberian Peninsula Rivers from 2008 to 2013, were examined for buccal, branchial and internal macroparasites, which were identified using morphological and molecular methods. Alosa alosa were infected with Anisakis simplex s.s., Anisakis pegreffii, Hysterothylacium aduncum, Rhadinorhynchus pristis, Mazocraes alosae, Hemiurus appendiculatus, Ceratothoa italica and an unidentified ergasilid copepod. Ceratothoa italica represents a new host record for A. alosa. Alosa fallax were infected with A. simplex s.s., A. pegreffii, H. aduncum, H. appendiculatus, Clavellisa emarginata and an unidentified cymothoid isopod. This is the first report of C. italica, C. emarginata and M. alosae in the Iberian Peninsula. The phylogenetic positions of M. alosae, H. appendiculatus and C. emarginata were assessed using 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA); our contributions provide a better understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within their groups. Qualitative and quantitative differences in the parasite faunas of these two shad species are consistent with different feeding strategies. The results provide information about host migration behaviour and transmission pathways through diet during the marine trophic phase of the shad's life cycle and their roles as paratenic or final hosts and transporters of parasites between seawater and freshwater environments. The zoonotic parasites A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii pose a risk for consumers or riverine mammals (e.g. European otter). The use of parasites as biological tags for shad stocks in Western Iberian Rivers could be a useful approach in multidisciplinary studies concerning fish stock delimitation and characterization.

  12. Macroparasites of allis shad (Alosa alosa) and twaite shad (Alosa fallax) of the Western Iberian Peninsula Rivers: ecological, phylogenetic and zoonotic insights.

    PubMed

    Bao, M; Roura, A; Mota, M; Nachón, D J; Antunes, C; Cobo, F; MacKenzie, K; Pascual, S

    2015-10-01

    Samples of anadromous Alosa alosa (Clupeidae) (n = 163) and Alosa fallax (Clupeidae) (n = 223), caught in Western Iberian Peninsula Rivers from 2008 to 2013, were examined for buccal, branchial and internal macroparasites, which were identified using morphological and molecular methods. Alosa alosa were infected with Anisakis simplex s.s., Anisakis pegreffii, Hysterothylacium aduncum, Rhadinorhynchus pristis, Mazocraes alosae, Hemiurus appendiculatus, Ceratothoa italica and an unidentified ergasilid copepod. Ceratothoa italica represents a new host record for A. alosa. Alosa fallax were infected with A. simplex s.s., A. pegreffii, H. aduncum, H. appendiculatus, Clavellisa emarginata and an unidentified cymothoid isopod. This is the first report of C. italica, C. emarginata and M. alosae in the Iberian Peninsula. The phylogenetic positions of M. alosae, H. appendiculatus and C. emarginata were assessed using 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA); our contributions provide a better understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within their groups. Qualitative and quantitative differences in the parasite faunas of these two shad species are consistent with different feeding strategies. The results provide information about host migration behaviour and transmission pathways through diet during the marine trophic phase of the shad's life cycle and their roles as paratenic or final hosts and transporters of parasites between seawater and freshwater environments. The zoonotic parasites A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii pose a risk for consumers or riverine mammals (e.g. European otter). The use of parasites as biological tags for shad stocks in Western Iberian Rivers could be a useful approach in multidisciplinary studies concerning fish stock delimitation and characterization. PMID:26141433

  13. Battle on the Gender Homefront: Depictions of the American Civil War in Contemporary Young-Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapp-Itnyre, Alisa

    2007-01-01

    The American Civil War has been a popular topic for young-adult writers for years, with new books now being written from young women's perspectives. In this paper, I will examine the gender ideologies that infiltrate contemporary Civil War books for young adults. I will examine four recent young-adult Civil-War novels: G. Clifton Wisler's "Mr.…

  14. Beliefs about God and mental health among American adults.

    PubMed

    Silton, Nava R; Flannelly, Kevin J; Galek, Kathleen; Ellison, Christopher G

    2014-10-01

    This study examines the association between beliefs about God and psychiatric symptoms in the context of Evolutionary Threat Assessment System Theory, using data from the 2010 Baylor Religion Survey of US Adults (N = 1,426). Three beliefs about God were tested separately in ordinary least squares regression models to predict five classes of psychiatric symptoms: general anxiety, social anxiety, paranoia, obsession, and compulsion. Belief in a punitive God was positively associated with four psychiatric symptoms, while belief in a benevolent God was negatively associated with four psychiatric symptoms, controlling for demographic characteristics, religiousness, and strength of belief in God. Belief in a deistic God and one's overall belief in God were not significantly related to any psychiatric symptoms.

  15. Patterns of resistance: African American mothers and adult children with HIV illness.

    PubMed

    Boyle, J S; Hodnicki, D R; Ferrell, J A

    1999-01-01

    Although the research on caregiving and caregivers has been extensive, there have been few studies on the cultural context and meaning of African American caregiving in relation to HIV illness. Many Black feminists have argued that African American women experience a world different from those who are not Black and that failure to take account of race, class, and gender is paramount in an attempt to authentically portray the lives of African American women. This study argues that rural African American culture and experiences of racism and discrimination in the rural South shaped the responses of mothers when their adult children developed HIV illness. The study employed the ethnographic techniques of participant observation and in-depth interviews with 14 rural, poor, African American mothers who cared for adult children with HIV illness. Analysis of the data identified patterns of resistance that mothers employed throughout the caregiving experience. Mothers resisted labels and other controlling images that they believed marginalized them and negated what was happening to their children. Mothers used culturally patterned behaviors to protect their families and resist the stigma of HIV/AIDS.

  16. Patterns of resistance: African American mothers and adult children with HIV illness.

    PubMed

    Boyle, J S; Hodnicki, D R; Ferrell, J A

    1999-01-01

    Although the research on caregiving and caregivers has been extensive, there have been few studies on the cultural context and meaning of African American caregiving in relation to HIV illness. Many Black feminists have argued that African American women experience a world different from those who are not Black and that failure to take account of race, class, and gender is paramount in an attempt to authentically portray the lives of African American women. This study argues that rural African American culture and experiences of racism and discrimination in the rural South shaped the responses of mothers when their adult children developed HIV illness. The study employed the ethnographic techniques of participant observation and in-depth interviews with 14 rural, poor, African American mothers who cared for adult children with HIV illness. Analysis of the data identified patterns of resistance that mothers employed throughout the caregiving experience. Mothers resisted labels and other controlling images that they believed marginalized them and negated what was happening to their children. Mothers used culturally patterned behaviors to protect their families and resist the stigma of HIV/AIDS. PMID:10530083

  17. Education Desegregation and Cognitive Change in African American Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Sims, Regina C.; Allaire, Jason C.; Whitfield, Keith E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The present study examined the relationship between desegregated schooling and cognitive change in a sample of 420 community-dwelling African American elders (mean age = 68.6; SD = 9.1). Method. Participants were recruited for the Baltimore Study of Black Aging—Patterns of Cognitive Aging. Cognitive measures from six domains of function were administered at baseline and follow-up 33 months later. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted; the between subjects factors were schooling type and age cohort, and the within subjects factor was time. Analyses controlled for age, years of education, and sex, and follow-up univariate analyses were used to determine which individual cognitive scores drove the multivariate effects. Results. There were significant multivariate within-group, between-group, and interaction effects (p < .05). Univariate analyses indicated that the desegregated schooling group scored significantly better on Language and Perceptual Speed (p < .01), and the youngest age cohort (50- to 59-year-olds) performed better on measures of Perceptual Speed. There were no significant univariate interactions between schooling group or age cohort and cognitive change over time. Discussion. Overall, these findings suggest a slight advantage of desegregated schooling for cognitive performance, but no advantage of desegregated schooling on the rate of cognitive change over time in this sample. PMID:25361918

  18. Racial inequality in active life among adult Americans.

    PubMed

    Hayward, M D; Heron, M

    1999-02-01

    Is a shorter life with more years lived in poor health a defining attribute of the life cycle of disadvantaged groups? Based on the 1990 5% Public Use Microdata Survey, we develop life table models of healthy (or active) life for the major racial groups, by sex, in the United States. The analysis underscores the complexity of the relationship between morbidity and mortality in the population. For Asians, longer life is associated with fewer years lived in poor health. In contrast, Native Americans' relatively longer lives are accompanied by extended periods of chronic health problems. Of all racial groups, blacks live the fewest years, and they live a high proportion of those years with a chronic health problems. Hispanics also live substantially fewer years, yet the period of life they spend with a health problem is relatively compressed. Racial differences in the link between morbidity and mortality point to the importance of investigating how chronic diseases and disease prevention and treatment are related to active life across the population subgroups.

  19. Perceptions of the food marketing environment among African American teen girls and adults.

    PubMed

    Bibeau, Wendy S; Saksvig, Brit I; Gittelsohn, Joel; Williams, Sonja; Jones, Lindsey; Young, Deborah Rohm

    2012-02-01

    Obesity disproportionately affects African American adolescents, particularly girls. While ethnically targeted marketing of unhealthful food products contributes to this disparity, it is not known how African Americans perceive the food marketing environment in their communities. Qualitative methods, specifically photovoice and group discussions, were used to understand perceptions of African American adults and teen girls regarding targeted food marketing to adolescent girls. An advisory committee of four students, two faculty, and two parents was formed, who recruited peers to photograph their environments and participate in group discussions to answer "what influences teen girls to eat what they do." Seven adults and nine teens (all female) participated in the study. Discussions were transcribed, coded, and analyzed with ATLAS.ti to identify common and disparate themes among participants. Results indicated that adults and teens perceived the type of food products, availability of foods, and price to influence the girls' choices. The girls spoke about products that were highly convenient and tasty as being particularly attractive. The adults reported that advertisements and insufficient nutrition education were also influencers. The teens discussed that the places in which food products were available influenced their choices. Results suggest that the marketing of highly available, convenient food at low prices sell products to teen girls. Future work is needed to better understand the consumer's perspective on the food and beverage marketing strategies used.

  20. Racial discrimination and health-promoting vs damaging behaviors among African-American adults.

    PubMed

    Corral, Irma; Landrine, Hope

    2012-11-01

    Studies have found relationships between racial discrimination and increased health-damaging behaviors among African-Americans, but have not examined possible concomitant decreased health-promoting behaviors. We explored the role of discrimination in two health-promoting behaviors, consuming ≥ 5 fruits/vegetables daily (FVC) and physical activity (PA), for the first time, and likewise examined discrimination's contribution to cigarette smoking, among a sample of N = 2118 African-American adults. Results revealed that discrimination contributed positively to smoking and to PA but was unrelated to FVC. These findings suggest that both adaptive and maladaptive health behaviors might be used to cope with the stress of discrimination.

  1. Perceived racial/ethnic harassment and tobacco use among African American young adults.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Gary G; Wolin, Kathleen Yaus; Robinson, Elwood L; Fowler, Sherrye; Edwards, Christopher L

    2005-02-01

    We examined the association between perceived racial/ethnic harassment and tobacco use in 2129 African American college students in North Carolina. Age-adjusted and multivariate analyses evaluated the effect of harassment on daily and less-than-daily tobacco use. Harassed participants were twice as likely to use tobacco daily (odds ratio = 2.01; 95% confidence interval=1.94, 2.08) compared with those with no reported harassment experiences. Experiences of racial/ethnic harassment may contribute to tobacco use behaviors among some African American young adults.

  2. Cocaine use among American adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, P M; Johnston, L D; Bachman, J G

    1985-01-01

    In this chapter, we have tried to provide some objective information about the levels of and recent trends in cocaine use among America's adolescents and young adults, as well as some of their attitudes and beliefs about the drug and their reasons for using it. We have also examined cross-time patterns of use, certain predictors of use, and some of the conditions of the social and physical environments which are associated with use. Overall, we have found levels of use to be relatively stable for the past several years after a period of rapid increase between 1976 and 1979. We also found a strong age effect, with cocaine use increasing in the first few years after high school. The levels of use, though stable recently, are disturbingly high, particularly among young adults in their early to mid twenties. Self reported use has followed patterns that parallel exposure to use and use by friend, as would be expected, assuming valid measures. Perceived availability also has moved in tandem with these other measures. The great majority of today's seniors believe regular use to be dangerous, and 77% disapprove of even experimenting with cocaine. Use is found most frequently in the western and northeastern regions of the country, in more urban areas, among males, and among those who are not college-bound. Neither socioeconomic status nor personal income are very strongly associated with use; but a history of truancy, going out frequently in the evenings, and having relatively low religious involvement are. Cocaine users tend to use other illicit drugs (particularly marijuana) and to be cigarette smokers and heavy drinkers much more frequently than nonusers. Thus, there is little evidence that cocaine involves a separate drug-using syndrome. In fact, it is not uncommon for cocaine users to use marijuana or alcohol concurrently. When taking cocaine, high school students most often snort it, though some (24% of recent users) smoke it while only 4% of the users inject it. It

  3. Personality Assessment Screener, Childhood Abuse, and Adult Partner Violence in African American Women Using Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Porcerelli, John H; Hurrell, Kristen; Cogan, Rosemary; Jeffries, Keturah; Markova, Tsveti

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship between psychopathology with the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) and childhood physical and sexual abuse and adult physical and sexual partner violence in a primary care sample of 98 urban-dwelling African American women. Patients completed the PAS, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The PAS total score significantly correlated with all measures of childhood and adult abuse. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that PAS element scores of Suicidal Thinking and Hostile Control significantly predicted a history of childhood physical abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Hostile Control, and Acting Out significantly predicted a history of childhood sexual abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Negative Affect, and Alienation significantly predicted current adult partner physical violence; and Psychotic Features, Alcohol Problems, and Anger Control significantly predicted current adult sexual partner violence. The PAS appears to be a useful measure for fast-paced primary care settings for identifying patients who need a more thorough assessment for abuse.

  4. Personality Assessment Screener, Childhood Abuse, and Adult Partner Violence in African American Women Using Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Porcerelli, John H; Hurrell, Kristen; Cogan, Rosemary; Jeffries, Keturah; Markova, Tsveti

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship between psychopathology with the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) and childhood physical and sexual abuse and adult physical and sexual partner violence in a primary care sample of 98 urban-dwelling African American women. Patients completed the PAS, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The PAS total score significantly correlated with all measures of childhood and adult abuse. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that PAS element scores of Suicidal Thinking and Hostile Control significantly predicted a history of childhood physical abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Hostile Control, and Acting Out significantly predicted a history of childhood sexual abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Negative Affect, and Alienation significantly predicted current adult partner physical violence; and Psychotic Features, Alcohol Problems, and Anger Control significantly predicted current adult sexual partner violence. The PAS appears to be a useful measure for fast-paced primary care settings for identifying patients who need a more thorough assessment for abuse. PMID:26374084

  5. Natural Mentoring Processes Deter Externalizing Problems Among Rural African American Emerging Adults: A Prospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu

    2011-01-01

    A 3-wave model linking natural mentoring relationships to externalizing behavior was tested with 345 rural African American emerging adults in their final year of high school. Structural equation models were executed linking multi-informant reports of mentor-emerging adult relationship quality with youths’ externalizing behavior 18 months later. Consistent with our primary hypotheses, emerging adults whose relationships with their natural mentors were characterized by instrumental and emotional support and affectively positive interactions reported lower levels of anger, rule-breaking behavior, and aggression. These effects emerged independent of the influences of family support and youth gender. Two intrapersonal processes, a future orientation and self-regulation, emerged as mediators of the influence of natural mentoring relationships. The influence of natural mentors was most pronounced for emerging adults experiencing high levels of life stress. PMID:21293917

  6. Natural mentoring processes deter externalizing problems among rural African American emerging adults: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Steven M; Brody, Gene H; Chen, Yi-Fu

    2011-12-01

    A 3-wave model linking natural mentoring relationships to externalizing behavior was tested with 345 rural African American emerging adults in their final year of high school. Structural equation models were executed linking multi-informant reports of mentor-emerging adult relationship quality with youths' externalizing behavior 18 months later. Consistent with our primary hypotheses, emerging adults whose relationships with their natural mentors were characterized by instrumental and emotional support and affectively positive interactions reported lower levels of anger, rule-breaking behavior, and aggression. These effects emerged independent of the influences of family support and youth gender. Two intrapersonal processes, a future orientation and self-regulation, emerged as mediators of the influence of natural mentoring relationships. The influence of natural mentors was most pronounced for emerging adults experiencing high levels of life stress. PMID:21293917

  7. Depression among Asian-American Adults in the Community: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Jun; Park, EunMi; Storr, Carla L.; Tran, Katherine; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In this systematic review, we provide an overview of the literature on depression among Asian-Americans and explore the possible variations in depression prevalence estimates by methodological and demographic factors. Methods Six databases were used to identify studies reporting a prevalence estimate for depression in Asian-American adults in non-clinical settings. Meta-analysis was used to calculate pooled estimates of rates of depression by assessment type. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed for subgroup analyses by gender, age, ethnicity, and other participant characteristics. Results A total of 58 studies met the review criteria (n = 21.731 Asian-American adults). Heterogeneity across the studies was considerably high. The prevalence of major depression assessed via standardized clinical interviews ranged between 4.5% and 11.3%. Meta-analyses revealed comparable estimated prevalence rates of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (35.6%, 95% CI 27.6%–43.7%) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (33.1%, 95% CI 14.9%–51.3%). Estimates varied by Asian racial/ethnic group and other participant characteristics. Estimates of depression among special populations, which included maternity, caregivers, and homosexuals, were significantly higher than estimates obtained from other samples (58.8% vs 29.3%, p = .003). Estimates of depression among Korean and Filipino-Americans were similar (33.3%-34.4%); however, the estimates were twice as high as those for Chinese-Americans (15.7%; p = .012 for Korean, p = .049 for Filipino). Conclusion There appears to be wide variability in the prevalence rates of depression among Asian-Americans in the US. Practitioners and researchers who serve Asian-American adults need to be sensitive to the potential diversity of the expression of depression and treatment-seeking across Asian-American subgroups. Public health policies to increase Asian-American access to mental health care

  8. Nursing assistants' communication styles in Korean American older adults with dementia: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haesook; Woods, Dianna Lynn; Phillips, Linda R; Ruiz, Maria Elena; Salem, Benissa; Jeffers-Skrine, Kia; Salem, Nancy

    2015-03-01

    As ethnic diversity increases in the United States with the anticipated increase in dementia, it is critical to understand the implications of dementia and culturally appropriate communication for ethnic minority older adults with dementia. Utilizing the Ethno-Cultural Gerontological Nursing model and the Progressively Lowered Stress Threshold model, this article describes the relationship between nursing assistants' communication style and behavioral symptoms of dementia, focused on Korean American older adults with dementia residing in nursing homes. The discussion includes reviewing currently available studies, nursing implications, and suggestions for future studies.

  9. Text Messaging for Sexual Communication and Safety Among African American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Broaddus, Michelle R.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2014-01-01

    African American young adults are at high risk of HIV infection during their lifetimes, and the male condom remains the best method of prevention. Efforts to increase condom use should address the barrier of condom negotiation. We conducted a thematic analysis of qualitative, semi-structured interviews with African American young adults to examine their use of text messaging for requesting Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and condom use within the larger context of general sexual communication using text messages. Text messaging gave participants a level of comfort and disinhibition to discuss sexual topics and negotiate sexual safety. Benefits of text messages included ease of communication, privacy, and increased ability to express condom desires. Difficulties reflected the potential relationship implications of suggesting HIV/STI testing and condom use. Condom negotiation strategies using text messages also mirrored those used found to be used in face-to-face communication. PMID:24045286

  10. Text messaging for sexual communication and safety among African American young adults.

    PubMed

    Broaddus, Michelle R; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2013-10-01

    African American young adults are at high risk of HIV infection during their lifetimes, and the male condom remains the best method of prevention. Efforts to increase condom use should address the barrier of condom negotiation. We conducted a thematic analysis of qualitative, semistructured interviews with African American young adults to examine their use of text messaging for requesting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and condom use within the larger context of general sexual communication using text messages. Text messaging gave participants a level of comfort and disinhibition to discuss sexual topics and negotiate sexual safety. Benefits of text messages included ease of communication, privacy, and increased ability to express condom desires. Difficulties reflected the potential relationship implications of suggesting HIV/STI testing and condom use. Condom negotiation strategies using text messages also mirrored those found to be used in face-to-face communication.

  11. Relationship Involvement Among Young Adults: Are Asian American Men an Exceptional Case?

    PubMed Central

    Balistreri, Kelly Stamper; Joyner, Kara; Kao, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Asian American men and women have been largely neglected in previous studies of romantic relationship formation and status. Using data from the first and fourth waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), we examine romantic and sexual involvement among young adults, most of who were between the ages of 25 to 32 (N=11,555). Drawing from explanations that focus on structural and cultural elements as well as racial hierarchies, we examine the factors that promote and impede involvement in romantic/sexual relationships. We use logistic regression to model current involvement of men and women separately and find, with the exception of Filipino men, Asian men are significantly less likely than white men to be currently involved with a romantic partner, even after controlling for a wide array of characteristics. Our results suggest that the racial hierarchy framework best explains lower likelihood of involvement among Asian American men. PMID:26549919

  12. Anxiety symptomatology and perceived health in African American adults: Moderating role of emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Sierra E.; Walker, Rheeda L.

    2014-01-01

    Though emotional health has been theoretically and empirically linked to physical health, the anxiety-physical health association in particular is not well understood for African American adults. This study examined anxiety as a specific correlate of perceived health in addition to testing the potential moderating role of emotion regulation, an index of how and when individuals modulate emotions, in the association for anxiety to perceived health. Study participants were 151 community-based African American adults who completed measures of anxiety symptomatology and emotion regulation in addition to responding to a self-report question of perceived health. Results showed that higher levels of anxiety symptomatology were associated with poorer health ratings for those who reported more limited access to emotion regulation strategies but not those who reported having more emotion regulation strategies. The findings suggest that anxiety-related distress and health problems may be interrelated when emotion regulation strategies are limited. PMID:25045943

  13. Attitudes and Beliefs Associated with Leisure-Time Physical Activity among African American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Affuso, Olivia; Cox, Tiffany L.; Durant, Nefertiti H.; Allison, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective More than 60% of African American adults do not meet recommendations for moderate physical activity. We sought to discover the extent to which health attitudes and beliefs are associated with leisure-time physical activity in this population. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting African American adults were asked about their health attitudes and beliefs during a national survey. Participants Participants were 807 African American men and women aged 18 years and older. Random-digit dialing was employed, sampling telephone numbers by geographical region, area code, and population size. Main Outcome Measures Participants were asked six health belief questions on the importance of exercise and body weight in health. Logistic regression was used to determine which of these factors were associated with physical activity participation. Results The percent of respondents participating in some form of physical activity during the past month was 87.1% in men and 82.9% in women. Factors associated with previous month physical activity in men were perceived personal importance of exercise (p<0.001) and necessity of exercise for health (p=0.018). In women, perceived personal importance of exercise (p<0.001), necessity of exercise for health (p= 0.006), and having enough activity space (p=0.017) were associated with physical activity participation. Conclusion Though the direction of causation is unknown, having the attitude that it is important to exercise or be physically active for health predicts physical activity participation in both African American men and women. Creating a sense of importance of physical activity to relieve stress and foster good health may stimulate physical activity participation in African American adults. PMID:21462732

  14. Provider Types Utilized and Recency of Mental Health Service Use among African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sha-Lai

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined factors associated with mental health service utilization among African American emerging adults, specifically, when services were used (recency) and the types of providers utilized (mental health/non-mental health). Methods Guided by the Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations, secondary analysis of the National Survey of American Life (2001-2003) was conducted. A nationally representative sample of African American emerging adults, ages 18-29 (n=806), were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. “Evaluated need” was determined by endorsement for one of four DSM-IV diagnosis types (mood, anxiety, substance use, impulse control). Respondents who reported a need for services for emotional/substance use problems were considered to have a “perceived need”. Those who reported voluntary use of mental health/health services to address these problems were considered to have utilized services. Results 25%of the sample utilized services in their lifetime, while 9% utilized services in the past 12 months. Females were more likely than males to utilize services in three of the four service use categories (lifetime, mental health sector, and non-mental health sector).Respondents with an evaluated need for services were 2-12 times more likely to have utilized services compared to those without a need. Conclusions Little is known about why African American emerging adults underutilize mental health services. These findings indicate that being female and having an evaluated need for services were associated with greater odds of service use among this sample. This suggests the need for additional examination of gender differences in service utilization and greater mental health outreach/education among African American males. PMID:24981778

  15. Religious involvement and risk of major depression in a prospective nationwide study of African American adults.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Christopher G; Flannelly, Kevin J

    2009-08-01

    This study investigated the association between religious involvement and major depression in 607 African American adults, using longitudinal data from the National Survey of Black Americans. Logistic regression found that survey participants who reported receiving "a great deal" of guidance from religion in their day-to-day lives at Time 1 (1988-1989) were roughly half as likely (OR = 0.47, p < 0.01) to have major depression at Time 2 (1992), controlling for sociodemographic and psychological factors, and major depression at baseline. The odds of major depression were also lower for persons with high self-esteem (OR = 0.41, p < 0.01) and those who reported having satisfying relationships with friends and family members (OR = 0.51, p < 0.05) at baseline. No association was found between religious attendance or church support and major depression. The possible mechanisms through which religious involvement may protect against depression, especially among African Americans, are discussed.

  16. Blood Pressure Dipping and Urban Stressors in Young Adult African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Mellman, Thomas A.; Hall Brown, Tyish S.; Kobayashi, Ihori; Abu-Bader, Soleman H.; Lavela, Joseph; Altaee, Duaa; McLaughlin, Latesha; Randall, Otelio S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Blunted nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping is an early marker of cardiovascular risk that is prevalent among African Americans. Purpose We evaluated relationships of BP dipping to neighborhood and posttraumatic stress and sleep in urban residing young adult African Americans. Methods One hundred thirty six Black, predominately African American, men and women with a mean age of 22.9 (SD = 4.6) filled out surveys, were interviewed and had two, 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings. Results Thirty eight percent had BP dipping ratios < .10. Wake after sleep onset (WASO), neighborhood disorder and neighborhood poverty rates but not posttraumatic stress symptoms, and other sleep measures, correlated significantly with dipping ratios. Models with the neighborhood measures that also included WASO increased the explained variance. Conclusions Studies elucidating mechanisms underlying effects of neighborhoods on BP dipping and the role of disrupted sleep, and how they can be mitigated are important directions for future research. PMID:25623895

  17. Social support, physical functioning, and cognitive functioning among older African American adults.

    PubMed

    Ayotte, Brian J; Allaire, Jason C; Whitfield, Keith E

    2013-01-01

    Social support and functional ability are related to a number of outcomes in later life among African Americans, including cognitive performance. This study examined how providing and receiving social support was related to fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities among aging African American adults after accounting for functional limitations, age, education, sex, income, and self-reported health. Data from 602 African American adults (M = 69.08, SD = 9.74; 25% male) were analyzed using latent variable modeling. Fluid ability was a second-order factor indicated by measures that assessed verbal memory, working memory, perceptual speed, and inductive reasoning. Crystallized ability was a first-order factor indicated by three measures that assessed vocabulary (Shipley Verbal Meaning Test and parts A and B of the ETS Vocabulary Test). Results indicated that the receipt of social support was negatively related to both fluid and crystallized abilities, while the provision of support was positively related to fluid and crystallized ability. Follow-up tests found that the receipt of support was more strongly related to fluid ability than crystallized ability. There was no significant difference regarding the relationship of provision of support with fluid ability compared to crystallized ability. Results discuss the importance of considering the social context of older adults when examining cognitive ability. PMID:23458286

  18. Health status attributes of older African-American adults with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Kenneth C

    2004-06-01

    This article describes a study that examined hearing loss and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) attributes of 71 African-American older adults ranging in age from 60 to 89 years. Demographic profiles were used to obtain pertinent case histories, audiometric testing was used to obtain estimates of peripheral hearing sensitivity, and middle-ear integrity was assessed via tympanometry. The health status (i.e., HRQoL) attributes were determined via self-report scores on the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Results from bivariate analyses determined statistically significant correlations between hearing loss and lower SF-36 scores across subscales. Multivariate regression models revealed a statistically significant impact between hearing loss and lower SF-36 scores across subscales, even after controlling for experimental confounds. These findings suggest that hearing loss is capable of contributing to HRQoL deficits in African-American older adults. The importance of these data in terms of pre-existing attitudes of African-American older adults towards hearing healthcare services and long-term effects of untreated hearing loss are considered. PMID:15233487

  19. Mental health and substance use disorders among Latino and Asian American lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.; Alegria, Magarita; Ortega, Alexander N.; Takeuchi, David

    2009-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults may be at elevated risk for mental health and substance use disorders, possibly due to anti-gay stigma. Little of this work has examined putative excess morbidity among ethnic/racial minorities resulting from the experience of multiple sources of discrimination. We report findings from the National Latino and Asian American Survey (NLAAS), a national household probability psychiatric survey of 4,488 Latino and Asian American adults. Approximately 4.8% of persons interviewed identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or reported recent same-gender sexual experiences. Although few sexual orientation-related differences were observed, among men, gay/bisexual men were more likely than heterosexual men to report a recent suicide attempt. Among women, lesbian/bisexual women were more likely than heterosexual women to evidence positive 1-year and lifetime histories of depressive disorders. These findings suggest a small elevation in psychiatric morbidity risk among Latino and Asian American individuals with a minority sexual orientation. However, the level of morbidity among sexual orientation minorities in the NLAAS appears similar to or lower than that observed in population-based studies of lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. PMID:17907860

  20. Leisure-time physical activity and aerobic fitness in African-American young adults.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, B E; Berry, C B; Schnyder, V N; Vickers, S R

    1992-11-01

    This cross-sectional study identified the leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and aerobic fitness levels of 189 African-American young adult college freshmen. LTPA was measured with the Lipid Research Clinics (LRC), Godin Leisure-Time Exercise, and the College Alumnus physical activity questionnaires. The Physical Activity Index (PAI), an index of walking, stair climbing, and recreational sports participation, was obtained from the College Alumnus questionnaire. Aerobic fitness was measured indirectly with the Cooper 12-Minute Walking/Running Test. More women (82%) than men (53%) were classified as inactive (strenuous exercise or labor < 3 days/week and much less active than peers) or low active (strenuous exercise or labor < 3 days/week and as active or more active than peers) on the LRC Questionnaire. The PAI scores were moderately low in men (1,521 +/- 1,634 kcal.week-1) and very low in women (706 +/- 868 kcal.week-1). The majority of men (71%) and women (82%) were classified as 'very poor' in aerobic fitness levels. Body mass index (BMI), a measure of body fatness, was classified as 'overweight' or 'obese' for 39% of men and 37% of women (BMI = 25.9 +/- 5.7 kg/m2), reflecting inactive LTPA habits. These findings are consistent with studies showing low LTPA in middle-age African-American adults. School and community-level interventions are recommended to increase LTPA and aerobic fitness in adolescent and young adult African-Americans.

  1. Africentrism--Perspective or Paradigm? Implications for Adult Education. Proceedings of the African American Adult Education Research Pre-Conference (Knoxville, Tennessee, May 18-19, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Talmadge C., Ed.; And Others

    The following papers were presented at a research preconference on the implications of Afrocentrism for adult education: "The African American Adult Education Pre-Conference: Historical Reflections" (Colin); "The Perspective 'Is' the Paradigm: The Congruence of World View and Research Methodology" (Dozier-Henry); "Self-employment Skills Training;…

  2. Clinical Characteristics of Pediatric-Onset and Adult-Onset Multiple Sclerosis in Hispanic Americans.

    PubMed

    Langille, Megan M; Islam, Talat; Burnett, Margaret; Amezcua, Lilyana

    2016-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis can affect pediatric patients. Our aim was to compare characteristics between pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis and adult-onset multiple sclerosis in Hispanic Americans. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 363 Hispanic American multiple scleroses cases; demographic and clinical characteristics were analyzed. A total of 110 Hispanic patients presented with multiple sclerosis before age 18 and 253 as adult multiple sclerosis. The most common presenting symptoms for both was optic neuritis. Polyfocal symptoms, seizures, and cognitive symptoms at presentation were more prevalent in pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (P ≤ .001). Transverse myelitis was more frequent in adult-onset multiple sclerosis (P ≤ .001). Using multivariable analysis, pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (adjusted odds ratio, 0.3OR 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.71, P = .004) and being US born (adjusted odds ratio, 0.553, 95% confidence interval 0.3-1.03, P = .006) were less likely to have severe ambulatory disability. Results suggest that pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis and adult-onset multiple sclerosis in Hispanics have differences that could be important for treatment and prognosis.

  3. Perceptions of medical interactions between healthcare providers and American Indian older adults.

    PubMed

    Garroutte, Eva Marie; Sarkisian, Natalia; Goldberg, Jack; Buchwald, Dedra; Beals, Janette

    2008-08-01

    Cultural competence models assume that culture affects medical encounters, yet little research uses objective measures to examine how this may be true. Do providers and racial/ethnic minority patients interpret the same interactions similarly or differently? How might patterns of provider-patient concordance and discordance vary for patients with different cultural characteristics? We collected survey data from 115 medical visits with American Indian older adults at a clinic operated by the Cherokee Nation (in Northeastern Oklahoma, USA), asking providers and patients to evaluate nine affective and instrumental interactions. Examining data from the full sample, we found that provider and patient ratings were significantly discordant for all interactions (Wilcoxon signed-rank test pAmerican Indian patients often create greater satisfaction than they believe. We then distinguished cultural subgroups of patients, comparing magnitude of provider-patient discordance on specific interactions for patients at different levels of American Indian and White American cultural identity. Patients who affiliated strongly with American Indian cultural identity more closely shared providers' reduced evaluation for several variables related to information exchange, as compared to patients who identified weakly. These results flag interactions that providers and their most culturally distinctive patients both experience as challenging. PMID:18524443

  4. Perceptions of medical interactions between healthcare providers and American Indian older adults.

    PubMed

    Garroutte, Eva Marie; Sarkisian, Natalia; Goldberg, Jack; Buchwald, Dedra; Beals, Janette

    2008-08-01

    Cultural competence models assume that culture affects medical encounters, yet little research uses objective measures to examine how this may be true. Do providers and racial/ethnic minority patients interpret the same interactions similarly or differently? How might patterns of provider-patient concordance and discordance vary for patients with different cultural characteristics? We collected survey data from 115 medical visits with American Indian older adults at a clinic operated by the Cherokee Nation (in Northeastern Oklahoma, USA), asking providers and patients to evaluate nine affective and instrumental interactions. Examining data from the full sample, we found that provider and patient ratings were significantly discordant for all interactions (Wilcoxon signed-rank test pAmerican Indian patients often create greater satisfaction than they believe. We then distinguished cultural subgroups of patients, comparing magnitude of provider-patient discordance on specific interactions for patients at different levels of American Indian and White American cultural identity. Patients who affiliated strongly with American Indian cultural identity more closely shared providers' reduced evaluation for several variables related to information exchange, as compared to patients who identified weakly. These results flag interactions that providers and their most culturally distinctive patients both experience as challenging.

  5. Knowledge of memory functions in European and Asian American adults and children: the relation to autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Koh, Jessie Bee Kim; Song, Qingfang; Hou, Yubo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated explicit knowledge of autobiographical memory functions using a newly developed questionnaire. European and Asian American adults (N = 57) and school-aged children (N = 68) indicated their agreement with 13 statements about why people think about and share memories pertaining to four broad functions-self, social, directive and emotion regulation. Children were interviewed for personal memories concurrently with the memory function knowledge assessment and again 3 months later. It was found that adults agreed to the self, social and directive purposes of memory to a greater extent than did children, whereas European American children agreed to the emotion regulation purposes of memory to a greater extent than did European American adults. Furthermore, European American children endorsed more self and emotion regulation functions than did Asian American children, whereas Asian American adults endorsed more directive functions than did European American adults. Children's endorsement of memory functions, particularly social functions, was associated with more detailed and personally meaningful memories. These findings are informative for the understanding of developmental and cultural influences on memory function knowledge and of the relation of such knowledge to autobiographical memory development.

  6. The National Report Card on Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors: The Seventh Annual Survey of Adult Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Environmental Education and Training Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This study investigates environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among adult Americans. Public attitudes as they exist today and how they have changed over the past seven years are evaluated. A nationally representative sample of 2,000 Americans aged 18 and older were surveyed by Roper Starch Worldwide in May, 1998. Part 1 presents…

  7. Correlation between Transformative Learning and Cultural Context: A Case Study of Adult Participants in a Korean American Immigrant Congregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Brian Byung Joo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the nature, process, and facilitating factors of transformative learning experiences of Korean-American adults in a Korean American immigrant congregation (KAIC). The focus was on discovering how and to what extent, if any, the congregational culture of the KAIC as the learning situation played a role in…

  8. Model minority at risk: expressed needs of mental health by Asian American young adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon; Martinez, Genevieve; Hsu, Chiehwen E; Robinson, E Stephanie; Bawa, Julie; Ma, Grace X

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain and discuss in-depth information on mental health problems, including the status, barriers, and potential solutions in 1.5 and 2nd generation Asian American young adults. As a part of the Health Needs Assessment project, the researchers conducted two focus groups with 17 young adults (mainly 1.5 or 2nd generation) from eight Asian American communities (Asian Indian, Cambodian, Chinese, Indonesian, Korean, Taiwanese, Thai, and Vietnamese) in Montgomery County, Maryland. We developed a moderator's guide with open-ended questions and used it to collect qualitative data. Using a software, we organized and identified emergent themes by major categories. Participants reported a several common sources of stress that affect the mental health of Asian American young adults including: pressure to meet parental expectations of high academic achievement and live up to the "model minority" stereotype; difficulty of balancing two different cultures and communicating with parents; family obligations based on the strong family values; and discrimination or isolation due to racial or cultural background. Young Asian Americans tend not to seek professional help for their mental health problems; instead they use personal support networks-close friends, significant others, and religious community. Participants suggested that Asian cultural norms that do not consider mental problems important, and associated stigma of seeking professional care might undermine their mental health help seeking behavior. Our findings support a need for delivering culturally appropriate programs to raise awareness of mental health and cultural training for health providers to deliver culturally appropriate care. PMID:18931893

  9. A Periodization of North American Adult Education (1919-1970): A Critical Sociological Analysis of Trends and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, André P.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a critical sociological analysis of trends and perspectives pervasive during the emergence of North American adult education (1919-1970). In discussing transitions during the first 50 years of what is considered modern practice, it draws on Webster E. Cotton's (1986, "On Behalf of Adult Education: A Historical…

  10. The Decline of Social Education and the Rise of Instrumentalism in North American Adult Education (1947-1970)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Andre P.

    2012-01-01

    In 1947 the Truman Commission on Higher Education accentuated the importance of adult education in its report entitled "Higher Education for American Democracy". In 1970 a new US "Handbook of Adult Education" signifying the move to a more professionalised field of study and practice was published. The intervening years encapsulate a time of…

  11. African American parents' racial and emotion socialization profiles and young adults' emotional adaptation.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Angel S; Perry, Nicole B; Cavanaugh, Alyson M; Leerkes, Esther M

    2015-07-01

    The current study aimed to identify parents' profiles of racial and emotion socialization practices, to determine if these profiles vary as a function of family income and young adult child gender, and to examine their links with young adults' emotional adaptation. Participants included 192 African American young adults (70% women) who ranged in age from 18 to 24 years (M = 19.44 years). Four maternal profiles emerged: cultural-supportive (high cultural socialization and supportive responses to children's negative emotions), moderate bias preparation (moderate preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses to negative emotions), high bias preparation (high preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses), and low engaged (low across racial and socialization constructs). Three paternal profiles emerged: multifaceted (moderate across racial and emotion socialization constructs), high bias preparation, and low engaged. Men were more likely to have mothers in the high bias preparation and to have fathers in the multifaceted or high bias preparation profiles. Individuals with higher income were more likely to have mothers in the cultural-supportive profile and to have fathers in the multifaceted profile. Young adults whose mothers fit the cultural-supportive profile or the moderate bias preparation profile had lower levels of depressive symptoms than young adults whose mothers fit the high bias preparation profile. PMID:25090149

  12. Knowledge Gaps in Cardiovascular Care of the Older Adult Population: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Geriatrics Society.

    PubMed

    Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L

    2016-05-24

    The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults ≥75 years of age; however, despite the large impact of cardiovascular disease on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, patients aged ≥75 years have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older patients with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in a nursing home or assisted living facility. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older patients typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a detailed review of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and American Stroke Association guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older patients. We found that there is a pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision making in older patients with cardiovascular disease, as well as a paucity of data on the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on key outcomes that are particularly important to older patients, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older patients representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older patients in the study design. The

  13. Knowledge Gaps in Cardiovascular Care of the Older Adult Population: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Geriatrics Society.

    PubMed

    Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L

    2016-05-24

    The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults ≥75 years of age; however, despite the large impact of cardiovascular disease on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, patients aged ≥75 years have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older patients with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in a nursing home or assisted living facility. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older patients typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a detailed review of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and American Stroke Association guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older patients. We found that there is a pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision making in older patients with cardiovascular disease, as well as a paucity of data on the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on key outcomes that are particularly important to older patients, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older patients representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older patients in the study design. The

  14. Community Engagement: An Essential Component of Well-Being in Older African-American Adults*

    PubMed Central

    Tiernan, Chad; Lysack, Cathy; Neufeld, Stewart; Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Active engagement in life is a critical factor for successful aging. Research indicates that community engagement is strongly associated with health and well-being in late life. However, less is understood regarding the influence of neighborhood conditions on health and well-being, particularly in older African-American adults. The current study describes a convenience sample of older African Americans (N = 501, mean age = 70.7 [range 55-95] years) living in Detroit. The specific goal is to examine the relationships between their perceptions of neighborhood conditions, level of community engagement, and their health and well-being. Survey findings reveal a sample of highly engaged older African Americans in reasonable health who perceive their neighborhoods favorably. Regression analysis results indicate that community engagement is closely associated with both neighborhood perceptions and well-being in this sample. We propose that community engagement or “participation” mediates the relationship between neighborhood conditions and well-being for older African Americans living in Detroit. PMID:24340874

  15. Prevalence of hypertension in a sample of Black American adults using JNC 7 classifications.

    PubMed

    Brown, Debra J; Metiko, Esther B

    2005-12-01

    High blood pressure is a major health problem, particularly among Black Americans, and many Black Americans are unaware that they have the disease. In 2003, new guidelines (JNC 7) were created for classifying blood pressure including a category designated as "pre-hypertension." We examined the prevalence of hypertension based on JNC 7 guidelines in Black Americans from the study of Everyday Life for Black American Adults: Stress, Emotional and Cardiovascular Responses. In this study, 211 (N = 211) participants had no history of hypertension and were not taking anti-hypertensive medications. Demographic factors were also explored in relationship to the JNC 7 classifications. Using JNC 7, only 28.9% of the participants had normal blood pressures. Of those with abnormal blood pressures, 37.8% were pre-hypertensive. Surprisingly, there was a high prevalence of hypertension, which might be explained by a lack of awareness of their disease status, lack of desire to acknowledge it, or fear of having a disease. The pre-hypertension category allows for earlier identification of those at risk for developing hypertension so that early interventions can deter its debilitating effects. PMID:16570640

  16. A Cascade Model Connecting Life Stress to Risk Behavior Among Rural African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    A 3-wave cascade model linking life stress to increases in risk behavior was tested with 347 African American emerging adults living in the rural South. Data analyses using structural equation modeling and latent growth curve modeling demonstrated that life stress was linked to increases in risk behavior as African Americans transitioned out of secondary school. The cascade model indicated that life stress fostered increases in negative emotions. Negative emotions, in turn, were linked to increases in affiliations with deviant peers and romantic partners; this forecast increases in risk behavior. The findings supported a stress proliferation framework, in which primary stressors affect increases in secondary stressors that carry forward to influence changes in risk behaviors that can potentially compromise mental health. PMID:20576186

  17. Effects of Ethnically Diverse Photographic Stimuli on Preference and Discourse Tasks in African American and Caucasian American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Dagenais, Paul A.; Evans, Kelli J.; Camp, Travis J.; Ferguson, Neina N.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether using photographic stimuli displaying different ethnicity (African American vs. Caucasian American) influenced preference, word count, and number of content units produced by African American or Caucasian American participants. Six photograph pairs depicting common scenes were developed, differing only by model…

  18. Barriers to smoking cessation in inner-city African American young adults.

    PubMed

    Stillman, Frances A; Bone, Lee; Avila-Tang, Erika; Smith, Katherine; Yancey, Norman; Street, Calvin; Owings, Kerry

    2007-08-01

    The prevalence of tobacco use among urban African American persons aged 18 to 24 years not enrolled in college is alarmingly high and a challenge for smoking cessation initiatives. Recent data from inner-city neighborhoods in Baltimore, Md, indicate that more than 60% of young adults smoke cigarettes. We sought to describe community-level factors contributing to this problem. Data from focus groups and surveys indicate that the sale and acquisition of "loosies" are ubiquitous and normative and may contribute to the high usage and low cessation rates.

  19. Patterns of Blunt Use Among Rural Young Adult African-American Men

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Catherine F.; Foushee, Herman R.; Pevear, Jesse S.; Scarinci, Isabel C.; Carroll, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Blunts are hollowed-out cigars or leaf tobacco filled with marijuana. Use of blunts has increased since the 1990s and, in 2005, 3.5% of all American youth were estimated to have used blunts in the past month. Blunt smokers may have greater odds of cannabis and tobacco dependency and are at risk of smoking-related diseases. Previous studies have suggested that blunt use is more common among blacks, older teens, and men. However, data pertaining to blunt use in non-adolescent African-American populations are scarce. Purpose (1) To assess patterns of blunt use among young adult African-American men aged 19–30 years residing in five rural Black Belt counties in Alabama; (2) To compare these data with those from tobacco cigarette smokers within the same study population. Methods Verbal, face-to-face interviewer-administered survey of 415 participants collected and analyzed between December 2008 and February 2011. Results 159 respondents (38.3%) smoked cigarettes and 45 smoked blunts (10.8%). Of blunt smokers, 33 also smoked cigarettes (73.3%). Use of blunts was prevalent among unemployed, single men, and occupational blunt use was uncommon. Factors important in the initiation, maintenance and cessation of product use were similar for blunt and cigarette smokers, especially product use and acceptance by friends. Legal concerns were an important factor facilitating blunt cessation. Conclusions Blunt use is relatively common among male African Americans aged 19–30 years and is frequently associated with concomitant cigarette use. Tobacco control efforts in this male African-American population should also address blunt usage. PMID:22176848

  20. Every Voice Counts... Proceedings [of] the Annual African American and Latino/a American Adult Education Research Symposium (10th, Chicago, Illinois, April 21, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garth, Phyllis Ham, Ed.

    This symposium publication consists of 26 presentations. Papers are "'How to Eat an Oreo': Using African American Research through Personal Narrative To Analyze Ethnic Dysmorphic Phenomenon" (Ashford); "Authentic Members: Uncovering Adult Children" (Barnes); "What Good Is Government? Assessment of Government Official Impact on Black Businesses"…

  1. American Geriatrics Society 2015 Updated Beers Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The 2015 American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Beers Criteria are presented. Like the 2012 AGS Beers Criteria, they include lists of potentially inappropriate medications to be avoided in older adults. New to the criteria are lists of select drugs that should be avoided or have their dose adjusted based on the individual's kidney function and select drug-drug interactions documented to be associated with harms in older adults. The specific aim was to have a 13-member interdisciplinary panel of experts in geriatric care and pharmacotherapy update the 2012 AGS Beers Criteria using a modified Delphi method to systematically review and grade the evidence and reach a consensus on each existing and new criterion. The process followed an evidence-based approach using Institute of Medicine standards. The 2015 AGS Beers Criteria are applicable to all older adults with the exclusion of those in palliative and hospice care. Careful application of the criteria by health professionals, consumers, payors, and health systems should lead to closer monitoring of drug use in older adults.

  2. Adult education as a human right: The Latin American context and the ecopedagogic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, Moacir

    2011-08-01

    This article presents the concept and practice of adult education as a key issue for Brazil and other Latin American countries, both for formal and non-formal education in the public and private sectors. It includes citizen education focused on democratisation of society and sustainable development. The concept is pluralist and ideological as well as technical. All along the history of contemporary education it is essential to highlight the importance of the CONFINTEA conferences for the construction of an expanded vision of this concept. Adult education is understood as a human right. The right to education does not end when a person has reached the so-called "proper" age; it continues to be a right for the duration of everyone's entire life. This article explores Paulo Freire's contribution, particularly the methodology of MOVA (Youth and Adult Literacy Movement). It also presents the ecopedagogic perspective, which was inspired by Paulo Freire's legacy. Finally, this article stresses the need to support a long-term policy for adult education, following the recommendations of the Civil Society International Forum (FISC) and CONFINTEA VI, both held in Belém, Brazil, in 2009.

  3. A structural equation model analysis of perceived control and psychological distress on worry among African American and European American young adults.

    PubMed

    Chapman, L Kevin; Kertz, Sarah J; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Perceived control has been identified as an important factor in the development and maintenance of mood disorders, and worry has been shown to have a unique relationship with psychological distress associated with mood disorders. The relationships between these variables have received little attention in the literature, and even less in terms of the role racial status may serve. The current study investigated the structural relationship between psychological distress and perceived control in predicting self-reported worry as well as potential differences in paths to worry in African American and European American young adults using a structural equation model. One hundred twenty-one European American and 100 African American undergraduate students completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Anxiety Control Questionnaire (ACQ), and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ). Results suggest that psychological distress and perceived control predict worry in both the African American and European American samples, however there were significant differences in terms of which construct contributed most. For African Americans, psychological distress contributed significantly more to worry than perceived control, whereas low perceived control contributed more to worry for European Americans. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  4. A comparison of diets of blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis) and threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense) in a large southeastern U.S. Reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winkelman, D.L.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine dietary overlap between blueback herring and threadfin shad in J. Strom Thrumond Reservoir, South Carolina/Georgia. We also evaluated prey selectivity for each speices and diet differences between two size categories of blueback herring. Diet and zooplankton samples were collected every other month from April 1992 to February 1994. We examined stomachs containing prey from 170 large blueback herring (>140mm), 96 small blueback herring (<140mm), and 109 threadfin shad, and we also examined 45 zooplankton samples. Large blueback herring diets differed significantly from threadfin shad diets on 11 of 12 sampling dates, and small blueback herring diets differed from threadfin shad diets on all sampling dates. In general, blueback herring consumed proportionally more copepods and fewer Bosmina sp. and rotifers than threadfin shad. Large and small blueback herring diets were significantly different on five of eight sampling dates, primarily due to the tendency of small blueback herring to eat proportionally more Bosmina sp. than large blueback herring. Both blueback herring and threadfin shad fed selectively during some periods of the year. Diet differences between the species may contribute to their coexistence; however, both blueback herring and threadfin shad showed a strong preference for Bosmina sp., increasing the chance that they may negatively influence one another.

  5. Prediction of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Disadvantaged African American Adults Using a Syndemic Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Nehl, Eric J; Klein, Hugh; Sterk, Claire E; Elifson, Kirk W

    2016-02-01

    The focus of this paper is on HIV sexual risk taking among a community-based sample of disadvantaged African American adults. The objective is to examine multiple factors associated with sexual HIV risk behaviors within a syndemic conceptual framework. Face-to-face, computer-assisted, structured interviews were conducted with 1535 individuals in Atlanta, Georgia. Bivariate analyses indicated a high level of relationships among the HIV sexual risks and other factors. Results from multivariate models indicated that gender, sexual orientation, relationship status, self-esteem, condom use self-efficacy, sex while the respondent was high, and sex while the partner was high were significant predictors of condomless sex. Additionally, a multivariate additive model of risk behaviors indicated that the number of health risks significantly increased the risk of condomless sex. This intersection of HIV sexual risk behaviors and their associations with various other behavioral, socio-demographic, and psychological functioning factors help explain HIV risk-taking among this sample of African American adults and highlights the need for research and practice that accounts for multiple health behaviors and problems. PMID:26188618

  6. Disability and Health: Exploring the Disablement Experience of Young Adult African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Tracie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to examine disablement as experienced by young adult African American men and women with permanent mobility impairment. Methods This study included a sample of 5 male and 5 female participants ranging in age from 22 to 39. An exploratory descriptive design and qualitative methods, including interviews and fieldnotes, were used. Interview data was analyzed using the process of inductive qualitative content analysis. Results Basic desires for independence, shared intimacy, and psychological and physical health were not diminished by physical limitations. The disablement experience of this group is reflected in the themes of “Cumulative Losses” and “Sustained Desires.” The findings of this study describe the high level of motivation that young adult African American men and women with disabilities have to improve levels of health and well-being within the context of their impairments. Conclusion This study provides a better understanding of the contextual factors and experiences that may contribute to the development of further disability and subsequent health-related problems over time. Increased knowledge of the disablement experience of these young men and women may assist health care entities and social service providers in improving health care and rehabilitation efforts targeting this group. PMID:23745770

  7. Prediction of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Disadvantaged African American Adults Using a Syndemic Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Nehl, Eric J; Klein, Hugh; Sterk, Claire E; Elifson, Kirk W

    2016-02-01

    The focus of this paper is on HIV sexual risk taking among a community-based sample of disadvantaged African American adults. The objective is to examine multiple factors associated with sexual HIV risk behaviors within a syndemic conceptual framework. Face-to-face, computer-assisted, structured interviews were conducted with 1535 individuals in Atlanta, Georgia. Bivariate analyses indicated a high level of relationships among the HIV sexual risks and other factors. Results from multivariate models indicated that gender, sexual orientation, relationship status, self-esteem, condom use self-efficacy, sex while the respondent was high, and sex while the partner was high were significant predictors of condomless sex. Additionally, a multivariate additive model of risk behaviors indicated that the number of health risks significantly increased the risk of condomless sex. This intersection of HIV sexual risk behaviors and their associations with various other behavioral, socio-demographic, and psychological functioning factors help explain HIV risk-taking among this sample of African American adults and highlights the need for research and practice that accounts for multiple health behaviors and problems.

  8. Effect of temperature and zooplankton abundance on growth and survival of larval threadfin shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Betsill, R.K.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    As a test of the match-mismatch hypothesis, we examined the effects of prey availability and water temperature on growth and survival of weekly cohorts of larval threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense in J. Strom Thurmond Reservoir, Georgia-South Carolina. Hatching dates were estimated from otolith increments, and availability of prey was estimated from the abundance of zooplankton size-classes commonly eaten by larval threadfin shad. Growth rates of 31 cohorts ranged from 0.39 to 0.78 mm/d, demonstrating the potential for stage-duration effects on cohort survival. Daily growth rate was related to water temperature and prey availability for larvae up to 21 d old. Growth increased linearly with water temperature up to 28??C, but the relation between growth and prey availability was more complex. Growth rate increased with prey density up to 160-290 organisms/L; at higher densities, growth rate decreased or was unchanged. Cohort survival ranged from 0.65 to 0.96 (per millimeter increase in length) and was significantly correlated with water temperature and growth rate but not with prey availability.

  9. A Tire-Sulfur Hybrid Adsorption Denitrification (T-SHAD) process for decentralized wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Krayzelova, Lucie; Lynn, Thomas J; Banihani, Qais; Bartacek, Jan; Jenicek, Pavel; Ergas, Sarina J

    2014-09-15

    Nitrogen discharges from decentralized wastewater treatment (DWT) systems contribute to surface and groundwater contamination. However, the high variability in loading rates, long idle periods and lack of regular maintenance presents a challenge for biological nitrogen removal in DWT. A Tire-Sulfur Hybrid Adsorption Denitrification (T-SHAD) process was developed that combines nitrate (NO3(-)) adsorption to scrap tire chips with sulfur-oxidizing denitrification. This allows the tire chips to adsorb NO3(-) when the influent loading exceeds the denitrification capacity of the biofilm and release it when NO3(-) loading rates are low (e.g. at night). Three waste products, scrap tire chips, elemental sulfur pellets and crushed oyster shells, were used as a medium in adsorption, leaching, microcosm and up-flow packed bed bioreactor studies of NO3(-) removal from synthetic nitrified DWT wastewater. Adsorption isotherms showed that scrap tire chips have an adsorption capacity of 0.66 g NO3(-)-N kg(-1) of scrap tires. Leaching and microcosm studies showed that scrap tires leach bioavailable organic carbon that can support mixotrophic metabolism, resulting in lower effluent SO4(2-) concentrations than sulfur oxidizing denitrification alone. In column studies, the T-SHAD process achieved high NO3(-)-N removal efficiencies under steady state (90%), variable flow (89%) and variable concentration (94%) conditions.

  10. Population structure of the Korean gizzard shad, Konosirus punctatus (Clupeiformes, Clupeidae) using multivariate morphometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myoung, Se Hun; Kim, Jin-Koo

    2016-03-01

    The gizzard shad, Konosirus punctatus, is one of the most important fish species in Korea, China, Japan and Taiwan, and therefore the implementation of an appropriate population structure analysis is both necessary and fitting. In order to clarify the current distribution range for the two lineages of the Korean gizzard shad (Myoung and Kim 2014), we conducted a multivariate morphometric analysis by locality and lineage. We analyzed 17 morphometric and 5 meristic characters of 173 individuals, which were sampled from eight localities in the East Sea, the Yellow Sea and the Korean Strait. Unlike population genetics studies, the canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) results showed that the two morphotypes were clearly segregated by the center value "0" of CAN1, of which morphotype A occurred from the Yellow Sea to the western Korean Strait with negative values, and morphotype B occurred from the East Sea to the eastern Korean Strait with positive values even though there exists an admixture zone in the eastern Korean Strait. Further studies using more sensitive markers such as microsatellite DNA are required in order to define the true relationship between the two lineages.

  11. Patterns of family health history communication among older African American adults.

    PubMed

    Hovick, Shelly R; Yamasaki, Jill S; Burton-Chase, Allison M; Peterson, Susan K

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined patterns of communication regarding family health history among older African American adults. The authors conducted 5 focus groups and 6 semi-structured interviews with African Americans aged 60 years and older (N = 28). The authors identified 4 distinct patterns of family health history communication: noncommunication, open communication, selective communication (communication restricted to certain people or topics), and one-way communication (communication not reciprocated by younger family members). In general, participants favored open family health history communication, often resulting from desires to change patterns of noncommunication in previous generations regarding personal and family health history. Some participants indicated that they were selective about what and with whom they shared health information in order to protect their privacy and not worry others. Others described family health history communication as one-way or unreciprocated by younger family members who appeared uninterested or unwilling to share personal and family health information. The communication patterns that the authors identified are consistent with communication privacy management theory and with findings from studies focused on genetic testing results for hereditary conditions, suggesting that individuals are consistent in their communication of health and genetic risk information. Findings may guide the development of health message strategies for African Americans to increase family health history communication.

  12. Knowledge About and Perceptions of Advance Care Planning and Communication of Chinese-American Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Yonashiro-Cho, Jeanine; Cote, Sarah; Enguidanos, Susan

    2016-09-01

    Although advance care planning (ACP) is associated with better care at the end of life, better quality of death, and less psychological distress in survivors, ethnic disparities in ACP completion rates have been documented and may be attributable to lack of knowledge about ACP or differences in cultural values and preferences. Despite rapid increases in the size of the Asian-American population, little is known about ACP preferences of Chinese Americans. The purpose of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and preferences of older Chinese Americans toward ACP. Focus groups with Chinese older adults (n = 34) were conducted in Mandarin, Cantonese, and English, and transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Identified themes included knowledge and experience with ACP and end-of-life care options, health as a factor in timing of ACP and communication, and communication of end-of-life care preferences. Knowledge of and experience with ACP and end-of-life decision-making varied according to focus group, although few participants had an advance directive. Findings suggest that Chinese older adults prefer to use indirect communication strategies, such as commenting on the circumstances of others rather than directly stating their wishes, and informal contexts, such as during a family dinner rather than formal meeting, to convey their care preferences to loved ones and may employ similar tactics when communicating with clinicians. This is particularly important given the recent decision by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to provide reimbursement to physicians for engaging in advance care planning conversations. PMID:27584825

  13. Genetic and Environmental Predictors of Alcohol Use in Asian American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bujarski, Spencer; Lau, Anna S.; Lee, Steve S.; Ray, Lara A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Among Asian American young adults, variations in alcohol-metabolizing genes (i.e., aldehyde dehydrogenase [ALDH2] and alcohol dehydrogenase [ADH1B]) are protective, whereas Korean ethnicity, family history of alcohol problems (FH), and acculturation represent risk factors for alcohol misuse. This study aims to integrate these genetic and environmental factors in a sample of Asian Americans expressing a wide range of alcohol use behaviors and problems. Method: Participants were 97 Asian American young adults (42% female) recruited as heavy and light drinkers (n = 49 and 48, respectively). Participants completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Timeline Followback, Vancouver Acculturation Index, and Family Tree Questionnaire. All participants provided buccal cell samples for DNA analysis. Results: Family history–positive (FH+) subjects reported greater alcohol use than family history–negative (FH–) subjects. A FH × ALDH2 interaction was observed such that FH– subjects demonstrated no ALDH2 effect, yet in FH+ subjects, the ALDH2*2 genotype was associated with increased alcohol use. A significant main effect of acculturation was also moderated by FH such that the positive association between acculturation and alcohol use was greater among FH+ subjects and, in particular, among FH+ men. Conclusions: Although preliminary, these results suggest that the potential protective effects conferred by ALDH2 and ADH1B are moderated by FH, such that a positive FH appeared to abolish the protective effect of these genes. Further, acculturation was associated with greater alcohol use in FH+ subjects only. If replicated in larger samples, these data suggest that alcohol-metabolism genes may not be protective in the context of high environmental risk. PMID:26402349

  14. 78 FR 57611 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Alabama Shad as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ...: Kelly Shotts, Ecologist, by any of the following methods: Electronic Submissions: Submit all electronic... business hours at the street address given above. Instructions: Comments sent by any other method, to any... In 1997, we added Alabama shad to our Candidate Species List (62 FR 37562; July 14, 1997). At...

  15. Diabetes in Relation to Serum Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Chlorinated Pesticides in Adult Native Americans

    PubMed Central

    Codru, Neculai; Schymura, Maria J.; Negoita, Serban; Rej, Robert; Carpenter, David O.

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent research suggests that diabetes, a condition whose incidence is increasing, is associated with exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides. Objectives We investigated the potential association between diabetes and serum levels of PCBs, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and mirex in a cross-sectional study of an adult Native-American (Mohawk) population. Methods Through a standardized questionnaire we collected demographic, medical, and lifestyle information from 352 adults, ≥30 years of age. We collected fasting serum samples that were analyzed for 101 PCB congeners, DDE, HCB, and mirex along with fasting glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Participants who had fasting-glucose values > 125 mg/dL and/or who were taking antidiabetic medication were defined as persons with diabetes. We conducted logistic regression to assess the potential association between organochlorine serum levels and diabetes, while controlling for the potential confounding variables of age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, sex, and serum lipid levels. Organochlorine serum levels were categorized in tertiles, and the lowest tertile was used as the reference category. Results The prevalence of diabetes was 20.2%. The odds ratio (OR) of having diabetes for participants in the highest tertile of total PCB concentration compared with the lowest tertile was 3.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.5–10.6). The corresponding ORs for DDE and HCB were even higher. Elevated serum mirex was not associated with diabetes. After adjustment for other analytes, the OR for HCB remained significant, whereas ORs for PCBs and DDE remained elevated but not statistically significant. In contrast, after adjustment for other analytes, the OR for mirex became statistically significant and indicated an inverse association. Conclusions In this study of adult Native Americans, elevated serum PCBs, DDE, and HCB were positively associated with

  16. The reproductive hormone cycle of adult female American alligators from a barrier island population.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Heather J; Lowers, Russell H; Kohno, Satomi; Mitsui-Watanabe, Naoko; Amano, Haruna; Hara, Akihiko; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis J

    2014-06-01

    Comparatively, little data are available detailing the geographic variation that exists in the reproductive endocrinology of adult alligators, especially those living in barrier islands. The Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MI) is a unique barrier island environment and home to the Kennedy Space Center (FL, USA). Seasonal patterns of sex steroids were assessed in adult female American alligators from MI monthly from 2008 to 2009, with additional samples collected at more random intervals in 2006, 2007, and 2010. Plasma 17β-estradiol and vitellogenin concentrations peaked in April, coincident with courtship and mating, and showed patterns similar to those observed in adult female alligators in other regions. Plasma concentrations of progesterone, however, showed patterns distinctly different than those reported for alligator populations in other regions and remained relatively constant throughout the year. Plasma DHEA peaked in July around the time of oviposition, decreased in August, and then remained constant for the remaining months, except for a moderate increase in October. Circulating concentrations of DHEA have not been previously assessed in a female crocodilian, and plasma concentrations coincident with reproductive activity suggest a reproductive and/or behavioral role. Interestingly, plasma testosterone concentrations peaked in May of 2008, as has been shown in female alligator populations in other regions, but showed no peak in 2009, demonstrating dramatic variability from year to year. Surveys showed 2009 to be particularly depauperate of alligator nests in MI, and it is possible that testosterone could serve as a strong indicator of breeding success.

  17. Puppy Temperament Assessments Predict Breed and American Kennel Club Group but Not Adult Temperament.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Lauren M; Skiver Thompson, Rebekah; Ha, James C

    2016-01-01

    Puppy assessments for companion dogs have shown mixed long-term reliability. Temperament is cited among the reasons for surrendering dogs to shelters. A puppy temperament test that reliably predicts adult behavior is one potential way to lower the number of dogs given to shelters. This study used a longitudinal design to assess temperament in puppies from 8 different breeds at 7 weeks old (n = 52) and 6 years old (n = 34) using modified temperament tests, physiological measures, and a follow-up questionnaire. For 7-week-old puppies, results revealed (a) puppy breed was predictable using 3 variables, (b) 4 American Kennel Club breed groups had some validity based on temperament, (c) temperament was variable within litters of puppies, and (d) certain measures of temperament were related to physiological measures (heart rate). Finally, puppy temperament assessments were reliable in predicting the scores of 2 of the 8 adult dog temperament measures. However, overall, the puppy temperament scores were unreliable in predicting adult temperament.

  18. Puppy Temperament Assessments Predict Breed and American Kennel Club Group but Not Adult Temperament.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Lauren M; Skiver Thompson, Rebekah; Ha, James C

    2016-01-01

    Puppy assessments for companion dogs have shown mixed long-term reliability. Temperament is cited among the reasons for surrendering dogs to shelters. A puppy temperament test that reliably predicts adult behavior is one potential way to lower the number of dogs given to shelters. This study used a longitudinal design to assess temperament in puppies from 8 different breeds at 7 weeks old (n = 52) and 6 years old (n = 34) using modified temperament tests, physiological measures, and a follow-up questionnaire. For 7-week-old puppies, results revealed (a) puppy breed was predictable using 3 variables, (b) 4 American Kennel Club breed groups had some validity based on temperament, (c) temperament was variable within litters of puppies, and (d) certain measures of temperament were related to physiological measures (heart rate). Finally, puppy temperament assessments were reliable in predicting the scores of 2 of the 8 adult dog temperament measures. However, overall, the puppy temperament scores were unreliable in predicting adult temperament. PMID:26882034

  19. Commission for International Adult Education (CIAE) of the American Association for Adult and Continuing Education (AAACE). Proceedings of the 2013 International Pre-Conference (Lexington, Kentucky, November 3-5, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission for International Adult Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Commission on International Adult Education (CIAE) of the American Association for Adult and Continuing Education (AAACE) provides a forum for the discussion of international issues related to adult education in general, as well as adult education in various countries around the globe. The following purposes summarize the work of the…

  20. [Cardiovascular disease prevention in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus according to the recent statement from the American Heart Association/American Diabetes Association].

    PubMed

    Avogaro, Angelo

    2016-03-01

    There is a clear epidemiologic association between glycemic control and cardiovascular disease. There is strong evidence of a microvascular benefit by lowering glycated hemoglobin <7% while acknowledging lack of proven macrovascular benefits. It is therefore relevant, in all diabetic patients, to control all major cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. These risk factors, easily measurable, account for 90% of acute myocardial infarction. In this review, the update on prevention of cardiovascular disease in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus from the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association is discussed and commented.

  1. Depression over the adult life course for African American men: toward a framework for research and practice.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Daphne C

    2012-05-01

    Rarely are within-group differences among African American men explored in the context of mental health and well-being. Though current conceptual and empirical studies on depression among African American men exists, these studies do not offer a framework that considers how this disorder manifests over the adult life course for African American men. The purpose of this article is to examine the use of an adult life course perspective in understanding the complexity of depression for African American men. The proposed framework underscores six social determinants of depression (socioeconomic status, stressors, racial and masculine identity, kinship and social support, self-esteem and mastery, and access to quality health care) to initiate dialogue about the risk and protective factors that initiate, prolong, and exacerbate depression for African American men. The framework presented here is meant to stimulate discussion about the social determinants that influence depression for African American men to and through adulthood. Implications for the utility and applicability of the framework for researchers and health professionals who work with African American men are discussed.

  2. Foraging proficiency during the nonbreeding season of a specialized forager: are juvenile American Oystercatchers "bumble-beaks" compared to adults?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hand, Christine E.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Jodice, Patrick G.

    2010-01-01

    In many species, immature individuals are less proficient at foraging than are adults, and this difference may be especially critical during winter when survival can be at its minimum. We investigated the foraging proficiency of adult and immature American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) during the nonbreeding season. Oystercatchers forage on prey that must be handled with specialized skills, so age-related differences in foraging behavior may be expected. We found that adults spent more time searching than did immatures, a trend toward immatures taking longer to handle prey than did adults, and immatures more often handling prey unsuccessfully than did adults. Feeding rates and diet composition did not differ by age class. We posit that the immature birds traded off longer handling times with shorter searching times and that ultimately the abundant prey in the region may contribute to the ability of immature birds to feed at rates similar to those of adults.

  3. Factors linking childhood experiences to adult romantic relationships among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Landor, Antoinette M; Bryant, Chalandra M; Beach, Steven R H

    2014-06-01

    It is well known that a high-quality relationship with a romantic partner is related to a variety of positive outcomes associated with health and well-being. Establishing such relationships is an important developmental task for young adults, and past research indicates that there is a link between experiences in the family of origin and the success of later intimate relationships. It has been suggested that this association can be explained by the acquisition of social competencies (e.g., emotions, schemas, traits) that are acquired during childhood in the family of origin and, in turn, influence interaction with adult romantic partners. The current study builds on this foundation by identifying particular competencies expected to explain the association between childhood exposure to supportive and harsh parenting and later patterns of interaction with romantic partners. Specifically, we examine anger management, attachment style, hostile attribution bias, and self-control as potential mediators using prospective, longitudinal data from a sample of 345 African American young adults. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that each of the mediators in our study accounts for a significant portion of the effect of parenting on the quality of adult romantic relationships, although the constructs linking parenting to warm interactions with romantic partners are somewhat different from those that link parenting to hostile interactions with romantic partners. Even after accounting for the effect of the mediators, there is still a direct effect of parenting on both warm/loving and hostile/aggressive interactions with romantic partner. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:24730381

  4. Factors linking childhood experiences to adult romantic relationships among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Landor, Antoinette M; Bryant, Chalandra M; Beach, Steven R H

    2014-06-01

    It is well known that a high-quality relationship with a romantic partner is related to a variety of positive outcomes associated with health and well-being. Establishing such relationships is an important developmental task for young adults, and past research indicates that there is a link between experiences in the family of origin and the success of later intimate relationships. It has been suggested that this association can be explained by the acquisition of social competencies (e.g., emotions, schemas, traits) that are acquired during childhood in the family of origin and, in turn, influence interaction with adult romantic partners. The current study builds on this foundation by identifying particular competencies expected to explain the association between childhood exposure to supportive and harsh parenting and later patterns of interaction with romantic partners. Specifically, we examine anger management, attachment style, hostile attribution bias, and self-control as potential mediators using prospective, longitudinal data from a sample of 345 African American young adults. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that each of the mediators in our study accounts for a significant portion of the effect of parenting on the quality of adult romantic relationships, although the constructs linking parenting to warm interactions with romantic partners are somewhat different from those that link parenting to hostile interactions with romantic partners. Even after accounting for the effect of the mediators, there is still a direct effect of parenting on both warm/loving and hostile/aggressive interactions with romantic partner. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  5. Who’s At Risk? Ethnic Drinking Cultures, Foreign Nativity, and Problem Drinking Among Asian American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim; Bond, Jason; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Zemore, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Despite the low overall prevalence of alcohol use among Asian Americans, rates of alcohol use disorder are high among Asian American young adults. The influence of ethnic drinking cultures on immigrants and their descendants has been overlooked in past research. We took an integrative approach to examine the influence of ethnic drinking culture, acculturation, and socioeconomic disparities on problem drinking among Asian American young adults. Method: This study was a nationally representative sample of 854 Asian American young adults extracted from the Wave 4 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data. About 48% of the sample was female and 52% male. Several multiple logistic regression models were fitted. Results: Controlling for other covariates, two dimensions of ethnic drinking culture were associated with alcohol outcomes only for the foreign born: (a) detrimental drinking pattern with frequent drunkenness and alcoholabuse symptoms and (b) drinking prevalence with alcohol-dependence symptoms. Financial hardship was a significant predictor of symptoms of alcohol abuse and dependence only for the U.S. born. Asian language use was protective against alcohol-abuse symptoms and alcohol-dependence symptoms for the foreign born. Conclusions: Cultural and socioeconomic factors of problem drinking may be different for U.S.- and foreign-born Asian American young adults. Ethnic drinking cultures may significantly influence problem drinking of foreign-born Asian American young adults, independent of their acculturation into U.S. cultures. To inform effective interventions targeted at immigrants and their descendants, future research might further investigate the cultural and socioeconomic processes in immigrant communities that might significantly influence drinking. PMID:23739016

  6. Selected socio-cultural correlates of physical activity among African American adults

    PubMed Central

    Cogbill, Salimah A.; Sanders-Thompson, Vetta L.; Deshpande, Anjali D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have identified several factors to be associated with physical activity (PA) among African Americans, e.g., demographic and health-related characteristics. Formative studies suggest a link between socio-cultural factors and PA among ethnic minorities; yet, it is unclear whether these factors play a role in PA among African Americans. This paper explores the association of selected socio-cultural characteristics with self-reported PA by gender among African American adults, taking into account demographic and health-related characteristics. Design Data from the baseline survey of a colorectal cancer communication intervention trial was used. Participants included 446 African American men and women, aged 45 – 75 years. Self-report data was collected on demographics, health-related characteristics, selected socio-cultural constructs (e.g., ethnic identity, religiosity, collectivism, and medical mistrust), and PA. PA was categorized as meeting or not meeting recommended levels; recommended levels was defined as participating in vigorous PA for 20 minutes/day for at least three days/week or moderate PA for 30 minutes/day for at least five days/week or a minimum of 600 MET-minutes/week in at least five days. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression models were used to characterize the association between the selected socio-cultural constructs and PA among men and women, after adjusting for demographic and health-related characteristics. Results Most participants reported some PA but only 59% were found to be meeting recommended levels. Univariate analyses revealed that high collectivist attitudes was associated with meeting recommended PA (OR=1.74), particularly for women (OR=1.81). In multivariate analyses, high collectivist attitudes was significantly associated with meeting PA recommendations among men (OR=1.87); while high religiosity and high collectivism were significant among women (OR=1.87 and 1.85, respectively). Conclusions

  7. Ethnic Pride and Cardiovascular Health Among Mexican American Adults Along the U.S.-Mexico Border

    PubMed Central

    Balcazar, Hector G; Cardenas, Victor; Rosenthal, Lee; Schulz, Leslie O

    2012-01-01

    This study addressed the association between items from the General Acculturation Index (GAI) and cardiovascular health. Specifically, we assessed whether ethnic pride was associated with health outcomes after controlling for items regarding language, place where the childhood was spent and ethnic interaction. The study was a cross sectional analysis of demographic and clinical data from a border population of Mexican American adults (n=316) at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Outcomes included smoking and diabetes status, Framingham risk, and metabolic syndrome. Ethnic pride was associated with lower diabetes prevalence, lower Framingham risk, and fewer risk factors for metabolic syndrome, but was not associated with smoking status. Ethnic pride was not associated with the other acculturation items of the GAI. Among an at-risk border population, ethnic pride functioned independently of other acculturation indicators. Ethnic pride may act as a protective factor for diabetes, metabolic syndrome and CVD risk status. PMID:22610060

  8. Protective Parenting, Relationship Power Equity, and Condom Use Among Rural African American Emerging Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Simons, Leslie G.; Chen, Yifu; Burwell, Stephanie; Brody, Gene H.

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections disproportionately affect African Americans, particularly young women. The influence of a set of interrelated protective parenting processes—instrumental and emotional support, sexual risk communication, and encouragement of goals for employment or education—on emerging adult women was examined. Parenting was hypothesized to affect consistent condom use through its association with women’s reports of power equity in their intimate relationships. Hypotheses were tested with 135 sexually active women 18 to 21 years of age living in rural southern communities. Structural equation modeling indicated that (a) parenting processes predicted women’s self-reported relationship power equity and consistent condom use, and (b) relationship power equity predicted consistent condom use. Limited support emerged for a mediational role of relationship power equity in explaining the influence of parenting on consistent condom use. Parental involvement and young women’s establishment of personal control in their intimate relationships are important goals for sexual risk reduction programs. PMID:23729949

  9. Association of Filial Responsibility, Ethnicity, and Acculturation Among Japanese American Family Caregivers of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Miyawaki, Christina E.

    2015-01-01

    Challenges of filial caregiving practices by 1st-generation immigrants due to differences in caregiving values between their home and host countries are well documented. This study explored the filial responsibility of later generation Japanese American caregivers of older adults. Acculturation and filial responsibility were measured using the Suinn-Lew Asian Self Identity Acculturation scale and Filial Values Index, respectively. A qualitative interview guide was developed using Gordon’s assimilation theory, and 21 caregivers (M age = 68 years, 86% female, seven in each generation) were interviewed. Despite the 3rd-generation caregivers’ high acculturation level, their filial responsibility scores remained high. Qualitative interviews also revealed later generation caregivers’ strong filial responsibility and continued caregiving involvement. Unexpectedly, caregivers’ own future expectancy of care included placement in mainstream residential facilities rather than ethnicspecific settings. Findings point to the need to develop caregiver services that consider later generation caregivers’ culture and level of assimilation. PMID:25883044

  10. Acceptability and Preliminary Outcomes of a Peer-Led Depression Prevention Intervention for African American Adolescents and Young Adults in Employment Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, Darius; Mendelson, Tamar; Mance, GiShawn

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the acceptability and preliminary outcomes from an open trial of a depression prevention intervention for low-income African American adolescents and young adults in employment training programs. The sample (N=42) consisted of predominately African American adolescents and young adults (mean age=19.1) exhibiting subclinical…

  11. Model for Using Hip-Hop Music for Small Group HIV/AIDS Prevention Counseling with African American Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Torrance; Braithwaite, Ronald L.; Taylor, Sandra E.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a HIV/AIDS preventive counseling protocol developed for use with African American young adults that makes use of hip-hop music. Contends that an increased understanding of the relationships that many African American young adults have with hip-hop music may be used by disease prevention personnel to educate these populations about…

  12. Adoption of American Heart Association 2020 ideal healthy diet recommendations prevents weight gain in young adults.

    PubMed

    Forget, Geneviève; Doyon, Myriam; Lacerte, Guillaume; Labonté, Mélissa; Brown, Christine; Carpentier, André C; Langlois, Marie-France; Hivert, Marie-France

    2013-11-01

    In 2010, the American Heart Association established the concept of ideal cardiovascular health. Nationally representative data estimated that <1% of Americans meet the seven health metrics required for achieving ideal cardiovascular health, with the main challenge residing in meeting the criteria for an ideal Healthy Diet Score. In a cohort of young adults (N=196), we aimed to investigate the prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health and ideal Healthy Diet Score and its association to weight gain over a 4-year follow-up period. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, and blood samples were taken according to standardized procedures. Dietary intake was measured by a 3-day food diary and verified by a registered dietitian. We observed that only 0.5% of our sample met the criteria for ideal cardiovascular health and only 4.1% met the criteria for an ideal Healthy Diet Score. The components of the Healthy Diet Score with the lowest observance were consumption of fruits and vegetables (9.7%) and whole grains (14.8%). Meeting zero or one out of five of the Healthy Diet Score components was associated with increased risk of weight gain over 4 years compared with meeting at least two components (P=0.03). With the exception of dietary criteria, prevalence was high for achieving ideal levels of the remaining six cardiovascular health metrics. In conclusion, in this sample of young adults, a very low prevalence of ideal overall cardiovascular health was observed, mainly driven by poor dietary habits, and a poor Healthy Diet Score was associated with increased weight gain.

  13. Subglottal resonances of adult male and female native speakers of American English

    PubMed Central

    Lulich, Steven M.; Morton, John R.; Arsikere, Harish; Sommers, Mitchell S.; Leung, Gary K. F.; Alwan, Abeer

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a large-scale study of subglottal resonances (SGRs) (the resonant frequencies of the tracheo-bronchial tree) and their relations to various acoustical and physiological characteristics of speakers. The paper presents data from a corpus of simultaneous microphone and accelerometer recordings of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words embedded in a carrier phrase spoken by 25 male and 25 female native speakers of American English ranging in age from 18 to 24 yr. The corpus contains 17 500 utterances of 14 American English monophthongs, diphthongs, and the rhotic approximant [ɹ] in various CVC contexts. Only monophthongs are analyzed in this paper. Speaker height and age were also recorded. Findings include (1) normative data on the frequency distribution of SGRs for young adults, (2) the dependence of SGRs on height, (3) the lack of a correlation between SGRs and formants or the fundamental frequency, (4) a poor correlation of the first SGR with the second and third SGRs but a strong correlation between the second and third SGRs, and (5) a significant effect of vowel category on SGR frequencies, although this effect is smaller than the measurement standard deviations and therefore negligible for practical purposes. PMID:23039452

  14. Daily racial microaggressions and ethnic identification among Native American young adults.

    PubMed

    Jones, Merrill L; Galliher, Renee V

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated 114 Native American young adults' experiences of racial microaggressions, and links between microaggression experiences and self-reported ethnic and cultural identification. Microaggressions were assessed using the Daily Racial Microaggressions Scale, Short Form (DRM). Ethnic identity and cultural participation were assessed using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) and the Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale (OCIS). Participants reported strong identification with their Native/indigenous ethnicity, along with stronger commitment than exploration on the 2 MEIM subscales. On the OCIS, participants reported moderately strong identification with Native culture and practices, with strong identification with White American culture. Females reported higher White identification than males, and females also reported significantly stronger identification with White culture than Native. On the DRM, 98% of participants reported experiencing at least 1 type of racial microaggression. Generally, the extent to which participants were upset by the microaggressions was mild, but all types of microaggressions received ratings from not upsetting at all to extremely upsetting. Microinvalidations were significantly more upsetting than microinsults for females, but there was no difference among the forms of microaggression for males. Correlational findings demonstrated that greater Native identification was strongly associated with more microaggression experiences, especially among males. Regression analyses found several identity correlates of microaggression experiences. "Assumption of criminality" and "assumed superiority of White values" were most frequently associated with identity scales. Results are discussed within the context of identity development theory.

  15. Influences of Social and Style Variables on Adult Usage of African American English Features

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Holly K.; Grogger, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the authors examined the influences of selected social (gender, employment status, educational achievement level) and style variables (race of examiner, interview topic) on the production of African American English (AAE) by adults. Method Participants were 50 African American men and women, ages 20–30 years. The authors used Rapid and Anonymous Survey (RAS) methods to collect responses to questions on informal situational and formal message-oriented topics in a short interview with an unacquainted interlocutor. Results Results revealed strong systematic effects for academic achievement, but not gender or employment status. Most features were used less frequently by participants with higher educational levels, but sharp declines in the usage of 5 specific features distinguished the participants differing in educational achievement. Strong systematic style effects were found for the 2 types of questions, but not race of addressee. The features that were most commonly used across participants—copula absence, variable subject–verb agreement, and appositive pronouns—were also the features that showed the greatest style shifting. Conclusions The findings lay a foundation with mature speakers for rate-based and feature inventory methods recently shown to be informative for the study of child AAE and demonstrate the benefits of the RAS. PMID:22361105

  16. Revision of neoclassical facial canons in young adult Afro-Americans.

    PubMed

    Farkas, L G; Forrest, C R; Litsas, L

    2000-01-01

    The validity of seven neoclassical facial canons was tested in 100 young, adult, Afro-American (A-A) males and females, and the results were compared with 103 North American Caucasians, producing the first reliable information about the differences of facial proportions in the two populations. Although the canons should not be regarded as strict directives in reconstructive and esthetic surgery, the data obtained from the study offered the first information about the facial proportion qualities of Afro-Americans in relation to the white population. In the absence of a detailed facial proportion study in A-As, the findings in canons can assist in planning the surgery. Comparison of the two populations revealed that the three sections of the facial profile were not equal in either population. In an A-A sample it showed the prevalence of the long lower face height also in relation to the height of the forehead. In horizontal canons of the orbital regions, the similarity between the two populations was demonstrated by the great frequency of intercanthal spaces to be wider than the length of the palpebral fissures [1]. The facial canons, including the nose width, relatively wider [2] in A-A than in white subjects, prompted the difference between A-A and Caucasians in frequency and degree in the dominant canon variations. The greater inclination of the nasal bridge than that of the medial longitudinal axis of the ear was a very frequent canon variation in both populations. Generally, the frequency of valid canons was greatly surpassed by their variations. PMID:10890944

  17. Role of physical activity in reducing cognitive decline in older Mexican-American adults.

    PubMed

    Ottenbacher, Allison J; Snih, Soham Al; Bindawas, Saad M; Markides, Kyriakos S; Graham, James E; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Raji, Mukaila; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2014-09-01

    The effect of physical activity on cognitive function in older adults from minority and disadvantaged populations is not well understood. This study examined the longitudinal association between physical activity and cognition in older Mexican Americans. The study methodology included a prospective cohort with longitudinal analysis of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly. General linear mixed models were used to assess the associations and interactions between physical activity and cognitive function over 14 years. Community-based assessments were performed in participants' homes. Physical activity was recorded for 1,669 older Mexican Americans using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly. Cognition was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and separated into memory and nonmemory components. A statistically significant positive association was observed between levels of physical activity and cognitive function after adjusting for age, sex, marital status, education, and comorbid health conditions. There was a statistically significant difference in MMSE scores over time between participants in the third (β = 0.11, standard error (SE) = 0.05) and fourth (β = 0.10, SE = 0.2) quartiles of physical activity and those in the first. The protective effect of physical activity on cognitive decline was evident for the memory component of the MMSE but not the nonmemory component after adjusting for covariates. Greater physical activity at baseline was associated with less cognitive decline over 14 years in older Mexican Americans. The reduction in cognitive decline appeared to be related to the memory components of cognitive function.

  18. Population genetic structure of Indian shad, Tenualosa ilisha inferred from variation in mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Behera, B K; Singh, N S; Paria, P; Sahoo, A K; Panda, D; Meena, D K; Das, P; Pakrashi, S; Biswas, D K; Sharma, A P

    2015-09-01

    Indian shad, Tenualosa ilisha, is a commercially important anadromous fish representing major catch in Indo-pacific region. The present study evaluated partial Cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene sequence of mtDNA in T. ilisha for determining genetic variation from Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea origins. The genomic DNA extracted from T. ilisha samples representing two distant rivers in the Indian subcontinent, the Bhagirathi (lower stretch of Ganges) and the Tapi was analyzed. Sequencing of 307 bp mtDNA Cytochrome b gene fragment revealed the presence of 5 haplotypes, with high haplotype diversity (Hd) of 0.9048 with variance 0.103 and low nucleotide diversity (π) of 0.14301. Three population specific haplotypes were observed in river Ganga and two haplotypes in river Tapi. Neighbour-joining tree based on Cytochrome b gene sequences of T. ilisha showed that population from Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea origins belonged to two distinct clusters.

  19. Population genetic structure of Indian shad, Tenualosa ilisha inferred from variation in mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Behera, B K; Singh, N S; Paria, P; Sahoo, A K; Panda, D; Meena, D K; Das, P; Pakrashi, S; Biswas, D K; Sharma, A P

    2015-09-01

    Indian shad, Tenualosa ilisha, is a commercially important anadromous fish representing major catch in Indo-pacific region. The present study evaluated partial Cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene sequence of mtDNA in T. ilisha for determining genetic variation from Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea origins. The genomic DNA extracted from T. ilisha samples representing two distant rivers in the Indian subcontinent, the Bhagirathi (lower stretch of Ganges) and the Tapi was analyzed. Sequencing of 307 bp mtDNA Cytochrome b gene fragment revealed the presence of 5 haplotypes, with high haplotype diversity (Hd) of 0.9048 with variance 0.103 and low nucleotide diversity (π) of 0.14301. Three population specific haplotypes were observed in river Ganga and two haplotypes in river Tapi. Neighbour-joining tree based on Cytochrome b gene sequences of T. ilisha showed that population from Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea origins belonged to two distinct clusters. PMID:26521565

  20. Mitochondrial genome of the Chinese gizzard shad Clupanodon thrissa (Clupeiformes: Clupeidae) and related phylogenetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Zou, Keshu; Chen, Zuozhi; Chen, Tao

    2012-12-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the single species from the Genus Clupanodon, the Chinese gizzard shad, Clupanodon thrissa, was determined. The entire sequence is 16,692 bp in length, including the typical structure of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2 noncoding regions (control region and L-strand replication origin). With the exception of ND6 and eight tRNA genes, all other genes are encoded on the heavy strand and the organization of genes is similar to that observed in most other vertebrates. Phylogenetic analyses using the protein coding gene sequences reveal that C. thrissa is most closely related to Konosirus punctatus within the family Clupeidae and subfamily Dorosomatinae is not a monophyletic group.

  1. Pathways to Adult Marijuana and Cocaine Use: A Prospective Study of African Americans from Age 6 to 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Green, Kerry M.; Robertson, Judith A.; Juon, Hee Soon

    2009-01-01

    This study examines pathways to adult marijuana and cocaine use in a cohort of African Americans from Woodlawn, an inner city community in Chicago. Assessments were conducted in first grade (age 6), adolescence (age 16), early adulthood (age 32), and in mid-adulthood (age 42). The "social adaptation life course" framework guided the focus on…

  2. The Americans with Disabilities Act and Adults with Learning Disabilities a Employees: The Realities of the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Lynda; Gerber, Paul J.; Mulligan, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Twenty-five adults with learning disabilities were queried to examine their employment experiences at job entry and in job advancement vis-a-vis the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Results suggest that Title 1 of the ADA is underutilized by individuals with learning disabilities in the workplace. Self-disclosure about disability was rare…

  3. The Ethnic Identity, Other-Group Attitudes, and Psychosocial Functioning of Asian American Emerging Adults from Two Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda P.; Nguyen, Huong H.; Lin, Yunghui

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from two samples of Asian American emerging adults, one in an ethnically concentrated context (n = 108) and the other in an ethnically-dispersed, mainly White context (n = 153), we examined (a) how ethnic identity and other-group attitudes were related to psychosocial functioning (i.e., depression, self-esteem, and connectedness to…

  4. Resistive Efficacy and Multiple Sexual Partners among American Indian Young Adults: A Parallel-Process Latent Growth Curve Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Christina M.; Kaufman, Carol E.; Beals, Janette

    2005-01-01

    Contracting a sexually transmitted disease (STD) is one of the most serious public health issues for adolescents and young adults; rates of STDs among American Indian youth are among the highest of any racial or ethnic group in the United States. Although it is one of the key risk factors for spreading STDs, little is known about individual…

  5. The Role of Spirituality in Learning Music: A Case of North American Adult Students of Japanese Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsunobu, Koji

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the role of spirituality in learning music for North American adult students is explored by examining the case of shakuhachi music. One distinctive character of engaging in music through the shakuhachi is that it facilitates the attainment of an "optimal relationship" between the practitioners" musical pursuit and self-cultivation…

  6. Comparison of personal characteristics, tobacco use, and health states in Chaldean, Arab American, and non-Middle Eastern White adults.

    PubMed

    Jamil, H; Templin, T; Fakhouri, M; Rice, V H; Khouri, R; Fakhouri, H; Al-Omran, Hasan; Al-Fauori, Ibrahim; Baker, Omar

    2009-08-01

    This study compared and contrasted personal characteristics, tobacco use (cigarette and water pipe smoking), and health states in Chaldean, Arab American and non-Middle Eastern White adults attending an urban community service center. The average age was 39.4 (SD = 14.2). The three groups differed significantly (P < .006) on ethnicity, age, gender distribution, marital status, language spoken, education, employment, and annual income. Current cigarette smoking was highest for non-Middle Eastern White adults (35.4%) and current water pipe smoking was highest for Arab Americans (3.6%). Arab Americans were more likely to smoke both cigarettes and the narghile (4.3%). Health problems were highest among former smokers in all three ethnic groups. Being male, older, unmarried, and non-Middle Eastern White predicted current cigarette smoking; being Arab or Chaldean and having less formal education predicted current water pipe use. PMID:18311586

  7. Meeting American Geriatrics Society Competencies: Are Residents Meeting Expectations for Quality Care of Older Adults?

    PubMed

    Bynum, Debra L; Wilson, Lindsay A; Ong, Thuan; Callahan, Kathryn E; Dalton, Thomas; Ohuabunwa, Ugochi

    2015-09-01

    In order to determine how often internal medicine and family medicine residents performed specific actions related to the geriatric competencies established by the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) when caring for older hospitalized adults, a cross-sectional anonymous survey of residents at the University of North Carolina, University of Washington, Wake Forest University, Duke University, and Emory University was undertaken. Data on frequency of self-reported behaviors were analyzed, with comparisons made for different levels of training, institution, and program. A total of 375 residents responded for an overall response rate of 48%. Residents reported that they often do not demonstrate all of the AGS recommended core competencies when caring for older adults in the hospital setting. Residents report more frequently performing activities that are routinely integrated into hospital systems such as reviewing medication lists, working with an interdisciplinary team, evaluating for inappropriate bladder catheters, and evaluating for pressure ulcers. There were no consistent differences between institutions and only minor differences noted between Family Medicine and Internal Medicine residents. Operationalizing core competencies by integrating them into hospital systems' quality process indicators may prompt more consistent high-quality care and ensure systems support residents' competence.

  8. Lysophosphatidylcholine acts in the constitutive immune defence against American foulbrood in adult honeybees.

    PubMed

    Riessberger-Gallé, Ulrike; Hernández-López, Javier; Rechberger, Gerald; Crailsheim, Karl; Schuehly, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Honeybee (Apis mellifera) imagines are resistant to the Gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae), causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), whereas honeybee larvae show susceptibility against this pathogen only during the first 48 h of their life. It is known that midgut homogenate of adult honeybees as well as a homogenate of aged larvae exhibit strong anti-P. larvae activity. A bioactivity-guided LC-HRMS analysis of midgut homogenate resulted in the identification of 1-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (LPC) pointing to a yet unknown immune defence in adult honeybees against P. larvae. Antimicrobial activity of LPC was also demonstrated against Melissococcus plutonius, causative agent of European Foulbrood. To demonstrate an AFB-preventive effect of LPC in larvae, artificially reared larvae were supplemented with LPC to evaluate its toxicity and to assess whether, after infection with P. larvae spores, LPC supplementation prevents AFB infection. 10 μg LPC per larva applied for 3 d significantly lowered mortality due to AFB in comparison to controls. A potential delivery route of LPC to the larvae in a colony via nurse bees was assessed through a tracking experiment using fluorescent-labelled LPC. This yet undescribed and non-proteinous defense of honeybees against P. larvae may offer new perspectives for a treatment of AFB without the utilization of classic antibiotics. PMID:27480379

  9. Lysophosphatidylcholine acts in the constitutive immune defence against American foulbrood in adult honeybees.

    PubMed

    Riessberger-Gallé, Ulrike; Hernández-López, Javier; Rechberger, Gerald; Crailsheim, Karl; Schuehly, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Honeybee (Apis mellifera) imagines are resistant to the Gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae), causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), whereas honeybee larvae show susceptibility against this pathogen only during the first 48 h of their life. It is known that midgut homogenate of adult honeybees as well as a homogenate of aged larvae exhibit strong anti-P. larvae activity. A bioactivity-guided LC-HRMS analysis of midgut homogenate resulted in the identification of 1-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (LPC) pointing to a yet unknown immune defence in adult honeybees against P. larvae. Antimicrobial activity of LPC was also demonstrated against Melissococcus plutonius, causative agent of European Foulbrood. To demonstrate an AFB-preventive effect of LPC in larvae, artificially reared larvae were supplemented with LPC to evaluate its toxicity and to assess whether, after infection with P. larvae spores, LPC supplementation prevents AFB infection. 10 μg LPC per larva applied for 3 d significantly lowered mortality due to AFB in comparison to controls. A potential delivery route of LPC to the larvae in a colony via nurse bees was assessed through a tracking experiment using fluorescent-labelled LPC. This yet undescribed and non-proteinous defense of honeybees against P. larvae may offer new perspectives for a treatment of AFB without the utilization of classic antibiotics.

  10. Lysophosphatidylcholine acts in the constitutive immune defence against American foulbrood in adult honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Riessberger-Gallé, Ulrike; Hernández-López, Javier; Rechberger, Gerald; Crailsheim, Karl; Schuehly, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Honeybee (Apis mellifera) imagines are resistant to the Gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae), causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), whereas honeybee larvae show susceptibility against this pathogen only during the first 48 h of their life. It is known that midgut homogenate of adult honeybees as well as a homogenate of aged larvae exhibit strong anti-P. larvae activity. A bioactivity-guided LC-HRMS analysis of midgut homogenate resulted in the identification of 1-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (LPC) pointing to a yet unknown immune defence in adult honeybees against P. larvae. Antimicrobial activity of LPC was also demonstrated against Melissococcus plutonius, causative agent of European Foulbrood. To demonstrate an AFB-preventive effect of LPC in larvae, artificially reared larvae were supplemented with LPC to evaluate its toxicity and to assess whether, after infection with P. larvae spores, LPC supplementation prevents AFB infection. 10 μg LPC per larva applied for 3 d significantly lowered mortality due to AFB in comparison to controls. A potential delivery route of LPC to the larvae in a colony via nurse bees was assessed through a tracking experiment using fluorescent-labelled LPC. This yet undescribed and non-proteinous defense of honeybees against P. larvae may offer new perspectives for a treatment of AFB without the utilization of classic antibiotics. PMID:27480379

  11. Association Between Smoking and Back Pain in a Cross-Section of Adult Americans

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Claire D; Snodgrass, Jeff; Smith, Monica; Dunn, Andrew S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Back pain is the leading cause of global years lived with disability. This cross-sectional study assessed if a greater exposure to smoking cigarettes was associated with a greater prevalence of back pain. Methods: This study examined data from 34,525 United States adults from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey. Analyses assessed the difference in back pain prevalence among current smokers, former smokers, and never smokers and the number of cigarettes smoked between current smokers with and without back pain. Results: Back pain prevalence was 28%. There was a significant association between back pain and smoking, X2 (2, 599, n = 34, 241) = 546.3, p < .001. Back pain increased with increased smoking exposure; back pain was present in 23.5% of never-smokers, 33.1% of former smokers, and 36.9% of current smokers. The number of cigarettes smoked per day for current daily smokers was higher for those with back pain (Md = 13) than those without back pain (Md = 10), U = 2701065, z = -3.70, p < .001, r = .05. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there may be a biological gradient associated with exposure to smoking cigarettes and back pain in adult Americans. PMID:27790393

  12. 'Smoking': use of cigarettes, cigars and blunts among Southeast Asian American youth and young adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, J P; Battle, R S; Lipton, R; Soller, B

    2010-02-01

    Increased use of cigars has been noted among youth, as well as use of blunts (hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana). Three types of relationships have been previously hypothesized between use of tobacco and marijuana in substance use progression. We aimed to assess these relationships for Southeast Asian American youth and adults in an urban population. We conducted in-person interviews with 164 Southeast Asians, smokers and non-smokers, in two low-income urban communities in Northern California, collecting both quantitative and qualitative data. Analysis of the quantitative data indicated distinct use patterns for blunts, cigars and other forms of marijuana in terms of associations with generation in the United States. The use of these items was also found to be related: ever having smoked cigarettes or blunts increased the risk of ever having smoked the other three items. Qualitative data found indications of all three hypothesized relationships between tobacco and marijuana for youths but not for older adults. For youths in the study, 'smoking' was found to constitute a social construct within which use of cigarettes, cigars and blunts were somewhat interchangeable. Youths in similar settings may initiate into and progress through smoking as an activity domain rather than any one of these items.

  13. Meeting American Geriatrics Society Competencies: Are Residents Meeting Expectations for Quality Care of Older Adults?

    PubMed

    Bynum, Debra L; Wilson, Lindsay A; Ong, Thuan; Callahan, Kathryn E; Dalton, Thomas; Ohuabunwa, Ugochi

    2015-09-01

    In order to determine how often internal medicine and family medicine residents performed specific actions related to the geriatric competencies established by the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) when caring for older hospitalized adults, a cross-sectional anonymous survey of residents at the University of North Carolina, University of Washington, Wake Forest University, Duke University, and Emory University was undertaken. Data on frequency of self-reported behaviors were analyzed, with comparisons made for different levels of training, institution, and program. A total of 375 residents responded for an overall response rate of 48%. Residents reported that they often do not demonstrate all of the AGS recommended core competencies when caring for older adults in the hospital setting. Residents report more frequently performing activities that are routinely integrated into hospital systems such as reviewing medication lists, working with an interdisciplinary team, evaluating for inappropriate bladder catheters, and evaluating for pressure ulcers. There were no consistent differences between institutions and only minor differences noted between Family Medicine and Internal Medicine residents. Operationalizing core competencies by integrating them into hospital systems' quality process indicators may prompt more consistent high-quality care and ensure systems support residents' competence. PMID:26313811

  14. Polytobacco use and multiple-product smoking among a random community sample of African-American adults

    PubMed Central

    Corral, Irma; Landrine, Hope; Simms, Denise Adams; Bess, Jukelia J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about polytobacco use among African-American adults. This study is the first to explore this among a random, statewide, community sample of African-American adults. Setting Community-based sampling obtained a random, household-probability sample of African-American adults from California, surveyed door to door in randomly selected census tracts statewide. Participants Participants were a statewide, random-household sample of N=2118 African-American adults from California who completed a survey on past 30-day smoking of cigarettes, blunts, bidis, kreteks, cigarillos, marijuana and cigars. Results Almost half (49.3%) of the African-American cigarette-smokers and 14.9% of the cigarette non-smokers had smoked at least one non-cigarette product in the past 30 days. Smokers had a substantial prevalence of smoking cigarillos (28.7%) and blunts (27.7%). Logistic regressions revealed that the odds of smoking most of the non-cigarette products were higher for cigarette smokers and men, inversely related to age, and unrelated to socioeconomic status. However, smoking of blunts, bidis and kreteks was not predicted by cigarette smoking. Conclusions Smoking of cigarillos (eg, Phillies, Black & Mild) and blunts may be prevalent among African-American cigarette-smokers and non-smokers alike, but such products are not examined in most population-level smoking research. Smoking of these products should be included in surveillance studies, in cancer prevention programmes and in healthcare provider-assessment of smoking, and addressed in smoking cessation programmes as well. PMID:24334154

  15. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposure and Thyroid Function Tests in North American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Makey, Colleen M.; McClean, Michael D.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; He, Xue-Mei; Sjödin, Andreas; Weinberg, Janice M.; Webster, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame-retardant chemicals that are added to many consumer products. Multiple animal studies have shown PBDEs to be thyroid hormone (TH) disruptors. Epidemiologic evidence of PBDE exposure associated with TH disruption has been inconclusive. Objectives: We used repeated measures to estimate associations between serum PBDE concentrations and THs in a North American adult cohort. Methods: From 2010 to 2011, we collected ≤ 3 serum samples at approximately 6-month intervals from 52 healthy adult office workers from Boston, Massachusetts, for analysis of PBDE congeners and THs. Results: The geometric mean sum concentrations of the most prevalent PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, and BDE-153) were 22 ng/g lipid in winter 2010, 23 ng/g lipid in summer 2010, and 19 ng/g lipid in winter 2011. BDE-47 was the predominant congener. Based on a multivariable mixed regression model, we estimated that on average, a 1-ng/g serum increase in BDE-47 was associated with a 2.6-μg/dL decrease in total thyroxine (T4) (95% CI: –4.7, –0.35). Total T4 was inversely associated with each PBDE congener. Serum concentrations of PBDEs were not strongly associated with total triiodothyronine (T3), free T4, or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Conclusion: These results are consistent with those from animal studies showing that exposure to PBDEs is associated with a decrease in serum T4. Because the other TH concentrations did not appear to be associated with BDE exposures, our findings do not indicate effects on the pituitary–thyroid axis. Taken together, our findings suggest that PBDE exposure might decrease the binding of T4 to serum T4 binding proteins. Citation: Makey CM, McClean MD, Braverman LE, Pearce EN, He XM, Sjödin A, Weinberg JM, Webster TF. 2016. Polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure and thyroid function tests in North American adults. Environ Health Perspect 124:420–425; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp

  16. Allergy associations with the adult fecal microbiota: Analysis of the American Gut Project

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Xing; Goedert, James J.; Pu, Angela; Yu, Guoqin; Shi, Jianxin

    2015-01-01

    Background Alteration of the gut microbial population (dysbiosis) may increase the risk for allergies and other conditions. This study sought to clarify the relationship of dysbiosis with allergies in adults. Methods Publicly available American Gut Project questionnaire and fecal 16S rRNA sequence data were analyzed. Fecal microbiota richness (number of observed species) and composition (UniFrac) were used to compare adults with versus without allergy to foods (peanuts, tree nuts, shellfish, other) and non-foods (drug, bee sting, dander, asthma, seasonal, eczema). Logistic and Poisson regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for lowest vs highest richness tertile. Taxonomy associations considered 122 non-redundant taxa (of 2379 total taxa) with ≥ 0.1% mean abundance. Results Self-reported allergy prevalence among the 1879 participants (mean age, 45.5 years; 46.9% male) was 81.5%, ranging from 2.5% for peanuts to 40.5% for seasonal. Fecal microbiota richness was markedly lower with total allergies (P = 10− 9) and five particular allergies (P ≤ 10− 4). Richness odds ratios were 1.7 (CI 1.3–2.2) with seasonal, 1.8 (CI 1.3–2.5) with drug, and 7.8 (CI 2.3–26.5) with peanut allergy. These allergic participants also had markedly altered microbial community composition (unweighted UniFrac, P = 10− 4 to 10− 7). Total food and non-food allergies were significantly associated with 7 and 9 altered taxa, respectively. The dysbiosis was most marked with nut and seasonal allergies, driven by higher Bacteroidales and reduced Clostridiales taxa. Interpretation American adults with allergies, especially to nuts and seasonal pollen, have low diversity, reduced Clostridiales, and increased Bacteroidales in their gut microbiota. This dysbiosis might be targeted to improve treatment or prevention of allergy. PMID:26870828

  17. 40-year trends in meal and snack eating behaviors of American adults

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Ashima K.; Graubard, Barry I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding of changes in profiles of eating behaviors over time may provide insights into contributors to upward trajectories of obesity in the United States population. Yet, little is known about whether characteristics of meal and snack eating behaviors reported by adult Americans have changed over time. Objective This study examined time trends in the distribution of day’s intake into individual meal and snack behaviors and related attributes in the United States adult population. Design The study was observational with cross-sectional data from national surveys fielded over 40 years. Participant/setting Nationally representative dietary data from nine National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted from 1971–74 to 2009–2010 (n=62298; age 20–74 years) were used to describe eating behaviors. Outcomes examined The respondent-labeled eating behaviors examined included main meals (breakfast, lunch, and dinner), and snacks (before breakfast, between breakfast and lunch, between lunch and dinner, after dinner, or other). For each eating behavior, percent of reporters; relative contribution to 24-hour energy intake; the clock time of report; and intermeal/snack intervals were examined. Statistical Analysis Multivariable logistic and linear regression methods for analysis of complex survey data adjusted for characteristics of respondents in each survey. Results Over the 40-year span examined: 1) reports of each individual named main meal (or all three main meals) declined, but reports of only two out of three meals or the same meal more than once increased; 2) the percentage of 24-hour energy from snacks reported between lunch and dinner or snacks that displaced meals increased; 3) clock times of breakfast and lunch were later, and intervals between dinner and after dinner snack were shorter. Changes in several snack reporting behaviors (e.g., report of any snack or ≥2 snacks), were significant in women only. Conclusions Several meal

  18. Associations with E-cigarette use among Asian American and Pacific Islander young adults in California.

    PubMed

    Maglalang, Dale Dagar; Brown-Johnson, Cati; Prochaska, Judith J

    2016-12-01

    With attention to the rapidly growing market of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/e-cigarettes) and the fastest growing US ethnic minority group, the current study explored associations between awareness, perceived risks, and use of ENDS among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) young adults. AAPI young adults (ages 18-25) in California were recruited via social media, college classes, listservs for AAPI-serving non-profits, and snowball sampling to complete an anonymous survey between 2014 and 2015. The sample (N = 501) was 57% women, 15% LGBTQIA; with a mean age of 21; 26% foreign-born; identifying as Filipino (29%), Chinese (24%), Vietnamese (14%), mixed-AAPI heritage (13%), or 21% other. Nearly half the sample (44%) reported ever ENDS use; 11% were current users. Current ENDS use was twofold greater for: Filipino and Vietnamese compared to Chinese respondents; men versus women; LGBTQIA-identified respondents; those vocationally trained; and employed. Awareness of ENDS from peers/friends was most common and was associated with ever though not current ENDS use. Most respondents perceived ENDS as harmful (62%); low compared to high risk perception was associated with a three-fold greater likelihood of ever use and six-fold greater likelihood of current use. Popular flavors were fruit (49%, e.g., lychee, taro) and candy/sweets (26%). Current users viewed ENDS as a healthier alternative or quit aid for conventional cigarettes (42%); recreation/social use (33%) also was common. Findings indicate ENDS visibility among AAPI young adults in California with affinity for flavors and many engaging in trial and current use for harm reduction and recreational/social aims. PMID:27413658

  19. Changes in American Adults' Reported Same-Sex Sexual Experiences and Attitudes, 1973-2014.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Sherman, Ryne A; Wells, Brooke E

    2016-10-01

    We examined change over time in the reported prevalence of men having sex with men and women having sex with women and acceptance of those behaviors in the nationally representative General Social Survey of U.S. adults (n's = 28,161-33,728, ages 18-96 years), 1972-2014. The number of U.S. adults who had at least one same-sex partner since age 18 doubled between the early 1990s and early 2010s (from 3.6 to 8.7 % for women and from 4.5 to 8.2 % for men). Bisexual behavior (having sex with both male and female partners) increased from 3.1 to 7.7 %, accounting for much of the rise, with little consistent change in those having sex exclusively with same-sex partners. The increase in same-sex partners was larger for women than for men, consistent with erotic plasticity theory. Attitudes toward same-sex sexual behavior also became substantially more accepting, d = .75, between the early 1970s and early 2010s. By 2014, 49 % of American adults believed that same-sex sexual activity was "not wrong at all," up from 11 % in 1973 and 13 % in 1990. Controlling for acceptance reduced, but did not eliminate, the increase in same-sex behavior over time. Mixed effects (hierarchical linear modeling) analyses separating age, time period, and cohort showed that the trends were primarily due to time period. Increases in same-sex sexual behavior were largest in the South and Midwest and among Whites, were mostly absent among Blacks, and were smaller among the religious. Overall, same-sex sexual behavior has become both more common (or at least more commonly reported) and more accepted. PMID:27251639

  20. Associations with E-cigarette use among Asian American and Pacific Islander young adults in California.

    PubMed

    Maglalang, Dale Dagar; Brown-Johnson, Cati; Prochaska, Judith J

    2016-12-01

    With attention to the rapidly growing market of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/e-cigarettes) and the fastest growing US ethnic minority group, the current study explored associations between awareness, perceived risks, and use of ENDS among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) young adults. AAPI young adults (ages 18-25) in California were recruited via social media, college classes, listservs for AAPI-serving non-profits, and snowball sampling to complete an anonymous survey between 2014 and 2015. The sample (N = 501) was 57% women, 15% LGBTQIA; with a mean age of 21; 26% foreign-born; identifying as Filipino (29%), Chinese (24%), Vietnamese (14%), mixed-AAPI heritage (13%), or 21% other. Nearly half the sample (44%) reported ever ENDS use; 11% were current users. Current ENDS use was twofold greater for: Filipino and Vietnamese compared to Chinese respondents; men versus women; LGBTQIA-identified respondents; those vocationally trained; and employed. Awareness of ENDS from peers/friends was most common and was associated with ever though not current ENDS use. Most respondents perceived ENDS as harmful (62%); low compared to high risk perception was associated with a three-fold greater likelihood of ever use and six-fold greater likelihood of current use. Popular flavors were fruit (49%, e.g., lychee, taro) and candy/sweets (26%). Current users viewed ENDS as a healthier alternative or quit aid for conventional cigarettes (42%); recreation/social use (33%) also was common. Findings indicate ENDS visibility among AAPI young adults in California with affinity for flavors and many engaging in trial and current use for harm reduction and recreational/social aims.

  1. Changes in American Adults' Reported Same-Sex Sexual Experiences and Attitudes, 1973-2014.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Sherman, Ryne A; Wells, Brooke E

    2016-10-01

    We examined change over time in the reported prevalence of men having sex with men and women having sex with women and acceptance of those behaviors in the nationally representative General Social Survey of U.S. adults (n's = 28,161-33,728, ages 18-96 years), 1972-2014. The number of U.S. adults who had at least one same-sex partner since age 18 doubled between the early 1990s and early 2010s (from 3.6 to 8.7 % for women and from 4.5 to 8.2 % for men). Bisexual behavior (having sex with both male and female partners) increased from 3.1 to 7.7 %, accounting for much of the rise, with little consistent change in those having sex exclusively with same-sex partners. The increase in same-sex partners was larger for women than for men, consistent with erotic plasticity theory. Attitudes toward same-sex sexual behavior also became substantially more accepting, d = .75, between the early 1970s and early 2010s. By 2014, 49 % of American adults believed that same-sex sexual activity was "not wrong at all," up from 11 % in 1973 and 13 % in 1990. Controlling for acceptance reduced, but did not eliminate, the increase in same-sex behavior over time. Mixed effects (hierarchical linear modeling) analyses separating age, time period, and cohort showed that the trends were primarily due to time period. Increases in same-sex sexual behavior were largest in the South and Midwest and among Whites, were mostly absent among Blacks, and were smaller among the religious. Overall, same-sex sexual behavior has become both more common (or at least more commonly reported) and more accepted.

  2. Diabetic indicators are the strongest predictors for cardiovascular disease risk in African American adults

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Ashley N; Ralston, Penny A; Young-Clark, Iris; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2016-01-01

    African Americans have higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to other racial groups. Modifiable and non-modifiable factors play a role in the development of both diseases. This study assessed diabetes indicators in relation to other CVD risk factors taking into account confounders, among African American adults. This was a cross-sectional study in mid-life and older African Americans (≥45 years) who were recruited from the local churches. Fasting blood was collected and serum analyzed for diabetes indicators, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and lipid profile. CVD risk scores were determined using the American Heart Association and Framingham Risk Score assessments. Homeostasis Model Assessments (HOMAs) were calculated using glucose and insulin concentrations. Confounding variables were assessed by questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 21, and p<0.05 was deemed significant. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze continuous variables. Frequencies and percentages were used to examine categorical variables. T-tests compared different groups while Pearson correlations provided preliminary relationships and determined variables for multiple regression analyses. A total of n=79 participants were evaluated (69% women), 59.3±9.2 years, BMI=34.7±8.3 (mean ± SD). As expected, AA men had higher fasting blood glucose than women (123.6±54.9 mg/dL versus 99.0±21.8 mg/dL), and AA women had higher insulin (11.8±13.1 mg/dL versus 7.6±6.0 mg/dL). Our study confirmed that it is likely for AA men to have significantly lower adiponectin concentrations in comparison to AA women. Based on the CVD risk assessments, men had a significantly higher risk of developing CVD than women, which has been shown previously. Apolipoproteins, adipokines, and lipid profile also negatively influenced the cardiovascular health outcomes in men. Dietary intake, probably by influencing participants’ weight

  3. Diabetic indicators are the strongest predictors for cardiovascular disease risk in African American adults

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Ashley N; Ralston, Penny A; Young-Clark, Iris; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2016-01-01

    African Americans have higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to other racial groups. Modifiable and non-modifiable factors play a role in the development of both diseases. This study assessed diabetes indicators in relation to other CVD risk factors taking into account confounders, among African American adults. This was a cross-sectional study in mid-life and older African Americans (≥45 years) who were recruited from the local churches. Fasting blood was collected and serum analyzed for diabetes indicators, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and lipid profile. CVD risk scores were determined using the American Heart Association and Framingham Risk Score assessments. Homeostasis Model Assessments (HOMAs) were calculated using glucose and insulin concentrations. Confounding variables were assessed by questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 21, and p<0.05 was deemed significant. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze continuous variables. Frequencies and percentages were used to examine categorical variables. T-tests compared different groups while Pearson correlations provided preliminary relationships and determined variables for multiple regression analyses. A total of n=79 participants were evaluated (69% women), 59.3±9.2 years, BMI=34.7±8.3 (mean ± SD). As expected, AA men had higher fasting blood glucose than women (123.6±54.9 mg/dL versus 99.0±21.8 mg/dL), and AA women had higher insulin (11.8±13.1 mg/dL versus 7.6±6.0 mg/dL). Our study confirmed that it is likely for AA men to have significantly lower adiponectin concentrations in comparison to AA women. Based on the CVD risk assessments, men had a significantly higher risk of developing CVD than women, which has been shown previously. Apolipoproteins, adipokines, and lipid profile also negatively influenced the cardiovascular health outcomes in men. Dietary intake, probably by influencing participants’ weight

  4. Diabetic indicators are the strongest predictors for cardiovascular disease risk in African American adults.

    PubMed

    Carter, Ashley N; Ralston, Penny A; Young-Clark, Iris; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2016-01-01

    African Americans have higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to other racial groups. Modifiable and non-modifiable factors play a role in the development of both diseases. This study assessed diabetes indicators in relation to other CVD risk factors taking into account confounders, among African American adults. This was a cross-sectional study in mid-life and older African Americans (≥45 years) who were recruited from the local churches. Fasting blood was collected and serum analyzed for diabetes indicators, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and lipid profile. CVD risk scores were determined using the American Heart Association and Framingham Risk Score assessments. Homeostasis Model Assessments (HOMAs) were calculated using glucose and insulin concentrations. Confounding variables were assessed by questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 21, and p<0.05 was deemed significant. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze continuous variables. Frequencies and percentages were used to examine categorical variables. T-tests compared different groups while Pearson correlations provided preliminary relationships and determined variables for multiple regression analyses. A total of n=79 participants were evaluated (69% women), 59.3±9.2 years, BMI=34.7±8.3 (mean ± SD). As expected, AA men had higher fasting blood glucose than women (123.6±54.9 mg/dL versus 99.0±21.8 mg/dL), and AA women had higher insulin (11.8±13.1 mg/dL versus 7.6±6.0 mg/dL). Our study confirmed that it is likely for AA men to have significantly lower adiponectin concentrations in comparison to AA women. Based on the CVD risk assessments, men had a significantly higher risk of developing CVD than women, which has been shown previously. Apolipoproteins, adipokines, and lipid profile also negatively influenced the cardiovascular health outcomes in men. Dietary intake, probably by influencing participants' weight/adiposity, contributed

  5. Diabetic indicators are the strongest predictors for cardiovascular disease risk in African American adults.

    PubMed

    Carter, Ashley N; Ralston, Penny A; Young-Clark, Iris; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2016-01-01

    African Americans have higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to other racial groups. Modifiable and non-modifiable factors play a role in the development of both diseases. This study assessed diabetes indicators in relation to other CVD risk factors taking into account confounders, among African American adults. This was a cross-sectional study in mid-life and older African Americans (≥45 years) who were recruited from the local churches. Fasting blood was collected and serum analyzed for diabetes indicators, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and lipid profile. CVD risk scores were determined using the American Heart Association and Framingham Risk Score assessments. Homeostasis Model Assessments (HOMAs) were calculated using glucose and insulin concentrations. Confounding variables were assessed by questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 21, and p<0.05 was deemed significant. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze continuous variables. Frequencies and percentages were used to examine categorical variables. T-tests compared different groups while Pearson correlations provided preliminary relationships and determined variables for multiple regression analyses. A total of n=79 participants were evaluated (69% women), 59.3±9.2 years, BMI=34.7±8.3 (mean ± SD). As expected, AA men had higher fasting blood glucose than women (123.6±54.9 mg/dL versus 99.0±21.8 mg/dL), and AA women had higher insulin (11.8±13.1 mg/dL versus 7.6±6.0 mg/dL). Our study confirmed that it is likely for AA men to have significantly lower adiponectin concentrations in comparison to AA women. Based on the CVD risk assessments, men had a significantly higher risk of developing CVD than women, which has been shown previously. Apolipoproteins, adipokines, and lipid profile also negatively influenced the cardiovascular health outcomes in men. Dietary intake, probably by influencing participants' weight/adiposity, contributed

  6. Psychometric properties of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale in African American and Black Caribbean US adults.

    PubMed

    Torres, Elisa

    2012-10-01

    A 12-item version of the 20-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) Scale was not validated in Black US adults but demonstrated strong psychometrics in other populations. Using data from the National Survey of American Life (n = 4,815), the psychometric properties of the scale were tested in African American and Black Caribbean adults. When compared with the DSM-IV-TR criteria for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Dysthymia, most items in the CES-D Scale focus on depressed mood, providing evidence for content validity. Construct validity was questionable in African American and Black Caribbean men. The CES-D scores of African American men who met the DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000) criteria for Dysthymia were not significantly different than African American men who did not (t = 1.9, p = .109). The CES-D scores of Black Caribbean men who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for MDD were not significantly different than Black Caribbean men who did not (t = 1.6, p = .198), and none of the Black Caribbean men met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for Dysthymia. For the item, "I felt like everything I did was an effort," all groups had item-to-total correlations and inter-item correlations below .30. After eliminating this item, the alpha for the remaining 11 items was .80 and .76 in African American and Black Caribbean women, respectively. African American and Black Caribbean men also had item-to-total correlations and inter-item correlations below .30 for the item "I felt that I was just as good as other people." After eliminating these items, the alpha for the remaining 10 items was .73 in African American and Black Caribbean men. The cut-off score was 9 for the 11-item CES-D and 8 for the 10-item CES-D.

  7. The role of water ventilation and sediment ingestion on the uptake of hexachlorobenzene by gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum)

    SciTech Connect

    Kolok, A.S.; Groetsch, K.J.; Oris, J.T.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether sediment ingestion of water ventilation was the primary route for uptake of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the detritivorous fish, gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). Twenty nonligated and 30 esophagus-ligated fish were exposed to sediments spiked with 1 {micro}g/g HCB for 29 d. The nonligated fish roiled the water as they fed, forcing the ligated fish to ventilate turbid water. Fish were collected 7, 14, 22, and 29 d after initiation of the experiment. Detectable levels of HCB were found in all ligated and nonligated fish, although the concentration of HCB in the ligated fish only ranged from 14 to 33% of that found in the nonligated fish. Thus, ingestion of contaminated sediments is a significant source of HCB for gizzard shad.

  8. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners.

  9. Differential Item Functioning of the Boston Naming Test in Cognitively Normal African American and Caucasian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Otto; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Smith, Glenn E.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Willis, Floyd B.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Lucas, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Scores on the Boston Naming Test (BNT) are frequently lower for African American when compared to Caucasian adults. Although demographically-based norms can mitigate the impact of this discrepancy on the likelihood of erroneous diagnostic impressions, a growing consensus suggests that group norms do not sufficiently address or advance our understanding of the underlying psychometric and sociocultural factors that lead to between-group score discrepancies. Using item response theory and methods to detect differential item functioning (DIF), the current investigation moves beyond comparisons of the summed total score to examine whether the conditional probability of responding correctly to individual BNT items differs between African American and Caucasian adults. Participants included 670 adults age 52 and older who took part in Mayo's Older Americans and Older African Americans Normative Studies. Under a 2-parameter logistic IRT framework and after correction for the false discovery rate, 12 items where shown to demonstrate DIF. Six of these 12 items (“dominoes,” “escalator,” “muzzle,” “latch,” “tripod,” and “palette”) were also identified in additional analyses using hierarchical logistic regression models and represent the strongest evidence for race/ethnicity-based DIF. These findings afford a finer characterization of the psychometric properties of the BNT and expand our understanding of between-group performance. PMID:19570311

  10. Influence of toxicological and environmental factors on P4501A expression in gizzard shad: Consequences for biomarker interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, S.L.; Oris, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to examine the influence of selected endogenous factors on gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) P4501A expression. The endogenous factors that were examined included the influence of exposure to a P4501A inducer, the combined effect of coexposure to a P4501A inducer and a P4501A inhibitor and the influence of nutritional status on P4501A expression. Shad exposed at 16 C exhibited a dose-response and time-course for P4501A induction following waterborne benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) exposures. P4501A expression was increased by waterborne BaP concentrations at half of the BaP water solubility within 48 h and was increased by waterborne BaP concentrations at the water solubility within 6 h. Correlations between the amount of BaP removed from the water by the fish and the degree of induction were established using a one-compartment linear clearance model. Shad pretreated with the inhibitor bioconcentrated more parent-BaP compared to groups exposed to BaP alone. Postspawning shad exhibited seasonal variation in basal hepatic P4501A expression and this variation corresponded with changes in liver somatic index, condition factor, and percent body lipid, indicating that seasonal variation in basal field P4501A expression may result from seasonally changing nutritional status. Preliminary results from BaP induction and enzyme kinetics studies suggest that seasonal changes in P4501A expression may reflect changes in P4501A protein concentration.

  11. Spatial and temporal variation of the gill rakers of gizzard shad and silver carp in three Midwestern rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walleser, Liza R.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Howard, David R.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Amberg, Jon J.

    2014-01-01

    Improved management of invasive Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in the upper Mississippi River basin may be possible by better understanding the feeding abilities of this population. Food collection for filter-feeding fishes, such as Silver Carp, is influenced by the species-specific structure of their gill rakers. To investigate structural variation in gill rakers of Silver Carp, the morphology of gill rakers was quantified and compared with that of a native filter-feeding fish species which may compete with Silver Carp for food resources, Gizzard Shad Dorosoma cepedianum. Intra- and interspecies variation of gill rakers was examined in both species collected from three locations among four months. Interspecies analysis indicated the size of pores in gill rakers of Silver Carp were much larger than the interraker spacings of Gizzard Shad (95% CI ranged from 80.69 to 185.75 μm versus 16.72 to 47.36 μm, respectively). Intraspecies variation of gill rakers from Silver Carp was related to the overall size of fish and occurred only among sites where dissimilar sizes of fish were collected. This suggested the size of particles filtered by Silver Carp may be dependent upon ontogenic development rather than phenotypic plasticity in response to spatial or temporal factors. Intraspecies variation of gill rakers from Gizzard Shad occurred among site and monthly sampling data; however, variation was only attributable to overall size of fish for monthly sampling data. This suggested ontogeny may influence the filter-feeding ability of this species within a habitat. However, variation noted among sites, which was not attributable to size of fish, may indicate gill rakers are phenotypically plastic among Gizzard Shad populations of various river systems of the upper Mississippi River basin.

  12. Culturally competent approaches to assessing ADHD in African American adults and overcoming cultural issues with patients and families.

    PubMed

    Waite, Roberta

    2015-03-01

    To better diagnose and treat African American patients with ADHD, clinicians should consider the mental health field from a cultural and historical perspective. This perspective can aid clinicians in assessing patients' culturally informed resistance or ambivalence toward ADHD treatment and in adopting strategies for communicating with patients about their diagnosis and treatment. Clinicians must learn to recognize and manage their own biases as well as their patients' biases. Using a culturally competent approach is critical to assessing ADHD in African American adults and overcoming cultural issues with patients and their families.

  13. Culturally competent approaches to assessing ADHD in African American adults and overcoming cultural issues with patients and families.

    PubMed

    Waite, Roberta

    2015-03-01

    To better diagnose and treat African American patients with ADHD, clinicians should consider the mental health field from a cultural and historical perspective. This perspective can aid clinicians in assessing patients' culturally informed resistance or ambivalence toward ADHD treatment and in adopting strategies for communicating with patients about their diagnosis and treatment. Clinicians must learn to recognize and manage their own biases as well as their patients' biases. Using a culturally competent approach is critical to assessing ADHD in African American adults and overcoming cultural issues with patients and their families. PMID:25830467

  14. Changes in American Adults' Sexual Behavior and Attitudes, 1972-2012.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Sherman, Ryne A; Wells, Brooke E

    2015-11-01

    In the nationally representative General Social Survey, U.S. Adults (N = 33,380) in 2000-2012 (vs. the 1970s and 1980s) had more sexual partners, were more likely to have had sex with a casual date or pickup or an acquaintance, and were more accepting of most non-marital sex (premarital sex, teen sex, and same-sex sexual activity, but not extramarital sex). The percentage who believed premarital sex among adults was "not wrong at all" was 29 % in the early 1970s, 42 % in the 1980s and 1990s, 49 % in the 2000s, and 58 % between 2010 and 2012. Mixed effects (hierarchical linear modeling) analyses separating time period, generation/birth cohort, and age showed that the trend toward greater sexual permissiveness was primarily due to generation. Acceptance of non-marital sex rose steadily between the G.I. generation (born 1901-1924) and Boomers (born 1946-1964), dipped slightly among early Generation X'ers (born 1965-1981), and then rose so that Millennials (also known as Gen Y or Generation Me, born 1982-1999) were the most accepting of non-marital sex. Number of sexual partners increased steadily between the G.I.s and 1960s-born GenX'ers and then dipped among Millennials to return to Boomer levels. The largest changes appeared among White men, with few changes among Black Americans. The results were discussed in the context of growing cultural individualism and rejection of traditional social rules in the U.S. PMID:25940736

  15. Scale-Dependent Habitat Selection and Size-Based Dominance in Adult Male American Alligators.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Bradley A; Vilella, Francisco J; Belant, Jerrold L

    2016-01-01

    Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range) then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17) on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size. We used K-select analysis to quantify selection at the home range scale and patches within the home range to determine selection congruency and important habitat variables. In addition, we used linear models to determine if body size was related to selection patterns and strengths. Our results indicated habitat selection of adult male alligators was a scale-dependent process. Alligators demonstrated greater overall selection for habitat variables at the patch level and less at the home range level, suggesting resources may not be limited when selecting a home range for animals in our study area. Further, diurnal habitat selection patterns may depend on thermoregulatory needs. There was no relationship between resource selection or home range size and body size, suggesting size-dependent dominance hierarchies may not have influenced alligator resource selection or space use in our sample. Though apparent habitat suitability and low alligator density did not manifest in an observed dominance hierarchy, we hypothesize that a change in either could increase intraspecific interactions, facilitating a dominance hierarchy. Due to the broad and diverse ecological roles of alligators, understanding the factors that influence their social dominance

  16. Scale-Dependent Habitat Selection and Size-Based Dominance in Adult Male American Alligators

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Bradley A.; Vilella, Francisco J.; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range) then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17) on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size. We used K-select analysis to quantify selection at the home range scale and patches within the home range to determine selection congruency and important habitat variables. In addition, we used linear models to determine if body size was related to selection patterns and strengths. Our results indicated habitat selection of adult male alligators was a scale-dependent process. Alligators demonstrated greater overall selection for habitat variables at the patch level and less at the home range level, suggesting resources may not be limited when selecting a home range for animals in our study area. Further, diurnal habitat selection patterns may depend on thermoregulatory needs. There was no relationship between resource selection or home range size and body size, suggesting size-dependent dominance hierarchies may not have influenced alligator resource selection or space use in our sample. Though apparent habitat suitability and low alligator density did not manifest in an observed dominance hierarchy, we hypothesize that a change in either could increase intraspecific interactions, facilitating a dominance hierarchy. Due to the broad and diverse ecological roles of alligators, understanding the factors that influence their social dominance

  17. Gaze patterns during identity and emotion judgments in hearing adults and deaf users of American Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Letourneau, Susan M; Mitchell, Teresa V

    2011-01-01

    Deaf individuals rely on facial expressions for emotional, social, and linguistic cues. In order to test the hypothesis that specialized experience with faces can alter typically observed gaze patterns, twelve hearing adults and twelve deaf, early-users of American Sign Language judged the emotion and identity of expressive faces (including whole faces, and isolated top and bottom halves), while accuracy and fixations were recorded. Both groups recognized individuals more accurately from top than bottom halves, and emotional expressions from bottom than top halves. Hearing adults directed the majority of fixations to the top halves of faces in both tasks, but fixated the bottom half slightly more often when judging emotion than identity. In contrast, deaf adults often split fixations evenly between the top and bottom halves regardless of task demands. These results suggest that deaf adults have habitual fixation patterns that may maximize their ability to gather information from expressive faces. PMID:21882720

  18. Gaze patterns during identity and emotion judgments in hearing adults and deaf users of American Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Letourneau, Susan M; Mitchell, Teresa V

    2011-01-01

    Deaf individuals rely on facial expressions for emotional, social, and linguistic cues. In order to test the hypothesis that specialized experience with faces can alter typically observed gaze patterns, twelve hearing adults and twelve deaf, early-users of American Sign Language judged the emotion and identity of expressive faces (including whole faces, and isolated top and bottom halves), while accuracy and fixations were recorded. Both groups recognized individuals more accurately from top than bottom halves, and emotional expressions from bottom than top halves. Hearing adults directed the majority of fixations to the top halves of faces in both tasks, but fixated the bottom half slightly more often when judging emotion than identity. In contrast, deaf adults often split fixations evenly between the top and bottom halves regardless of task demands. These results suggest that deaf adults have habitual fixation patterns that may maximize their ability to gather information from expressive faces.

  19. Implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2008 Guidelines for the Management of Adults With Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Eva; Fernandes, Susan M; Landzberg, Michael J; Moons, Philip

    2015-08-01

    Although different guidelines on adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) care advocate for lifetime cardiac follow-up, a critical appraisal of the guideline implementation is lacking. We investigated the implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2008 guidelines for ACHD follow-up by investigating the type of health care professional, care setting, and frequency of outpatient visits in young adults with CHD. Furthermore, correlates for care in line with the recommendations or untraceability were investigated. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted, including 306 patients with CHD who had a documented outpatient visit at pediatric cardiology before age 18 years. In all, 210 patients (68.6%) were in cardiac follow-up; 20 (6.5%) withdrew from follow-up and 76 (24.9%) were untraceable. Overall, 198 patients were followed up in tertiary care, 1/4 (n = 52) of which were seen at a formalized ACHD care program and 3/4 (n = 146) remained at pediatric cardiology. Of those followed in formalized ACHD and pediatric cardiology care, the recommended frequency was implemented in 94.2% and 89%, respectively (p = 0.412). No predictors for the implementation of the guidelines were identified. Risk factors for becoming untraceable were none or lower number of heart surgeries, health insurance issues, and nonwhite ethnicity. In conclusion, a significant number of adults continue to be cared for by pediatric cardiologists, indicating that transfer to adult-oriented care was not standard practice. Frequency of follow-up for most patients was in line with the ACC/AHA 2008 guidelines. A considerable proportion of young adults were untraceable in the system, which makes them vulnerable for discontinuation of care.

  20. “Culture” in Diabetes-Related Beliefs among Low- and High-Education African American, American Indian, and White Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Ip, Eddie H.; Nguyen, Ha T.; Saldana, Santiago; Reynolds, Teresa; Bell, Ronny A.; Kirk, Julienne K.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Racial and ethnic disparities in diabetes and subsequent complications are often attributed to culture; however, previous diabetes disparities research is restricted to in-depth ethnic-specific samples or to comparative study designs with limited belief assessment. The goal of this study is to improve understanding of the cultural basis for variation in diabetes beliefs. Design Cross-sectional Setting Rural North Carolina Participants Older adults (aged 60+) with diabetes, equally divided by ethnicity (White, African American, American Indian) and gender (N=593). Interventions Guided by Explanatory Models of Illness and Cultural Consensus research traditions, trained interviewers collected data using 38 items in four diabetes belief domains: causes, symptoms, consequences, and medical management. Items were obtained from the Common Sense Model of Diabetes Inventory (CSMDI). Main Outcome Beliefs about diabetes. Response options for each diabetes belief item were “agree,” “disagree” and “don’t know”. Collected data were analyzed using Anthropac (version 4.98) and Latent Gold (version 4.5) programs. Results There is substantial similarity in diabetes beliefs among African Americans, American Indians, and Whites. Diabetes beliefs were most similar in the “symptoms” and “consequences” domains compared to beliefs pertaining to “causes” and “medical management.” Although some discrete beliefs differed by ethnicity, systematic differences by ethnicity were observed for specific educational groups. Conclusions Socioeconomic conditions influence diabetes beliefs rather than “ethnicity” per se. PMID:23140078

  1. The Role of Body Size in Mate Selection among African American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Leslie G.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2016-01-01

    A profusion of studies have demonstrated that body size is a major factor in mate selection for both men and women. The particular role played by weight, however, has been subject to some debate, particularly with respect to the types of body sizes deemed most attractive, and scholars have questioned the degree to which body size preferences are constant across groups. In this paper, we drew from two perspectives on this issue, Sexual Strategies Theory and what we termed the cultural variability perspective, and used survey data to examine how body size was associated with both casual dating and serious romantic relationships. We used a United States sample of 386 African American adolescents and young adults between ages 16 and 21, living in the Midwest and Southeast, and who were enrolled in either high school or college. Results showed that overweight women were more likely to report casually dating than women in the thinnest weight category. Body size was not related to dating status among men. Among women, the results suggest stronger support for the cultural variability argument than for Sexual Strategies Theory. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed. PMID:26973377

  2. The longitudinal effect of drug use on productivity status of nonmetropolitan african american young adults.

    PubMed

    Roldós, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the longitudinal effect of marijuana and heavy alcohol use on the productivity status of nonmetropolitan African American young adults. This analysis was based on secondary data from the Family and Community Health Study. For alcohol, the study evaluated the effects on productivity status for individuals with heavy alcohol use trajectories from adolescence into young adulthood while marijuana effects were evaluated during the period when adolescents are more likely to have initiated usage (14-16 years of age). Productivity status was measured when study participants were between 18 and 21 years, for both alcohol and marijuana. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to test the association between subjects' drug use and productivity. Bivariate analysis of the effects of marijuana use indicate that marijuana users by age 16 are 35% less likely to be productive at age 21 than those who have not initiated marijuana use (p < .005). After controlling for individual, community, and family factors, the multivariate logistic models for alcohol and marijuana use suggest that early adolescence drug use (marijuana and heavy alcohol use) do not have an impact on productivity status during early adulthood. Analyzing and understanding the different drug use trajectories in relation to a productivity outcome is important for policies and research geared to preventing drug use and in identifying its relation with micro- and macro-level labor market outcomes.

  3. Disordered eating behaviors in young adult Mexican American women: prevalence and associations with health risks.

    PubMed

    Stein, Karen Farchaus; Chen, Ding-Geng Din; Corte, Colleen; Keller, Colleen; Trabold, Nicole

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has shown that disordered eating behaviors are as prevalent in heterogenous samples of Latinas living in the U.S. as in non-Hispanic white women, yet less is known about the prevalence in women of Mexican origin. The primary purpose of this study is to report the prevalence and associations among DE behaviors and health risk of alcohol, tobacco use and obesity in a sample of N = 472 young adult college enrolled Mexican American (MA) women living in the United States. This report focuses on baseline data from a 12-month repeated measures longitudinal study. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) was used to capture the prevalence of disordered eating and health risk behaviors in the context of everyday activities. Disordered eating behaviors including purging, binge eating, fasting and exercise were reported by approximately 15% of the sample. Food/calorie restricting, was the most prevalent behavior reported by 48% of the sample and along with binge eating was a positive predictor of BMI. Fasting was the only disordered eating behavior associated with tobacco use. These findings suggest that subclinical levels of DE behaviors are prevalent in a community sample of women of Mexican origin and are associated with health risks of tobacco use and higher BMI. Early identification of DE behaviors and community-based interventions targeting MA women may help reduce disparities associated with overweight and obesity in this population.

  4. Culturally-Tailored Smoking Cessation for Adult American Indian Smokers: A Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stevens S.; Rouse, Leah M.; Caskey, Mark; Fossum, Jodi; Strickland, Rick; Culhane, J. Kevin; Waukau, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    This collaborative, community-engaged project developed and tested a Culturally-Tailored Treatment (CTT) for American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) smokers in the Menominee tribal community. One hundred three adult AI/AN smokers were randomized to receive either Standard Treatment (n= 53) or CTT (n = 50) for smoking cessation. Both treatment conditions included 12 weeks of varenicline and four individual counseling sessions but differed in terms of cultural tailoring of the counseling. The primary outcome was 7-day biochemically-confirmed point-prevalence abstinence (PPA) at the 6-month end-of-study visit. Both intention-to-treat (ITT) and responder-only analyses were conducted. There were no statistically significant group differences in 7-day PPA. The overall ITT abstinence rate at 6 months was 20%; the responder-only rate was 42%. The current study represents the first randomized smoking cessation clinical trial testing a culturally-tailored smoking cessation intervention designed for a specific AI/AN tribal community that combined FDA-approved cessation medication (varenicline) and innovative cultural intervention components. PMID:26973352

  5. The Prevalence and Correlates of Mental and Emotional Health Among American Indian Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Walls, Melissa L.; Aronson, Benjamin D.; Soper, Garrett V.; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle D.

    2014-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of mental and emotional health factors among a sample of American Indian (Indigenous) adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Methods Data are from a community-based participatory research project involving two Indigenous reservation communities. Data were collected from 218 Indigenous adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes via in-person paper-and-pencil survey interviews. Results Reports of greater numbers of mental/emotional health problems were associated with increases in self-reported hyperglycemia, comorbid health problems, and health-impaired physical activities. Conclusions This study addresses a gap in the literature by demonstrating the associations between various mental/emotional health factors and diabetes-related health problems for Indigenous Americans. Findings underscore the importance of holistic, integrated primary care models for more effective diabetes care. PMID:24562607

  6. "Mama just won't accept this": adult perspectives on engaging depressed African American teens in clinical research and treatment.

    PubMed

    Breland-Noble, Alfiee M; Bell, Carl C; Burriss, Antoinette

    2011-09-01

    This manuscript focuses on qualitative data collected for AAKOMA Project, a 2-phase treatment engagement intervention trial for depressed African American adolescents and families. Data are presented from our phase I study of adult perspectives on African American adolescent depression, depression treatment, and research engagement. The research team conducted four focus groups (N = 24) and generated major themes from the data including ideas regarding the manifestations of depression in African American youth and psychosocial barriers to participation in depression research and treatment. Findings indicate that success in recruiting and retaining African American youth in depression research and treatment may include using innovative means to overcome the culturally embedded attributions of depression to non-biological causes, beliefs about the cultural insensitivity of treatments and challenges in the logistics of obtaining care. Adults report that encouraging youth and familial involvement in treatments and research should include targeted, community-partnered activities involving diverse staff in leadership roles and including community members as equal partners.

  7. Intraindividual covariation between e-cigarette and combustible cigarette use in Korean American emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-03-01

    Critical gaps exist in understanding the patterns and correlates of dual use of electronic cigarettes (ECs) and combustible cigarettes (CCs), particularly in ethnic minority populations. In this study, we assessed CC and EC use in the naturalistic environment using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). We hypothesized that within-subject variation in EC use (yes/no each day) would be inversely associated with within-subject variation in number of CCs consumed and craving during that same day. We also examined gender and nicotine dependence as moderators of the EC-CC and EC-craving covariations. Korean American emerging adult (KAEA; 18-25 years old) smokers (N = 78) completed 7 days of EMA. Participants completed EMA surveys throughout the day, which assessed CC craving, and end-of-day surveys, which assessed EC use and the number of CCs smoked that day. Generalized linear mixed models were used to predict day-level EC use, with number of CCs smoked and craving during that same day, gender, and nicotine dependence as predictors (n = 501). We found that within-subject variation in CC use was not associated with same-day EC use; neither was within-subject variation in craving (ps > .27). Gender moderated the relationship between craving and EC use on a given day (p = .03); only for females, on the days with higher craving, the likelihood of their EC use that day was significantly heightened. This study does not suggest that EC use is linked with lower CC smoking quantity, at least at the day level and among KAEA smokers. CC craving may play a role in dual EC-CC use for KAEA female smokers.

  8. ""Una Persona Derechita" (Staying Right in the Mind)": Perceptions of Spanish-Speaking Mexican American Older Adults in South Texas "Colonias"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharkey, Joseph R.; Sharf, Barbara F.; St. John, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the perceptions of brain health among older Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans who reside in colonia areas of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Design and Methods: In 2007, 33 Mexican American older adults (9 men and 24 women) were recruited by "promotoras" (community health workers) from clusters of "colonias" in…

  9. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners. PMID:22224965

  10. Self-perceived loss of control and untreated dental decay in African American adults with and without sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Laurence, Brian; Woods, Dexter; George, David; Onyekwere, Onyinye; Katz, Ralph; Lanzkron, Sophie; Diener-West, Marie; Powe, Neil

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between self-perceived loss of control as measured by dental external locus of control summary scores, with the amount of untreated dental decay in African American adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) and African Americans adults without SCD. The sample included 102 subjects with SCD and 103 subjects without SCD matched on age, sex, and recruitment location (mean age of all subjects 35.4 years, 55.6% female). Subjects with SCD in the highest quartile for dental external locus of control summary scores had 2.58-fold (CI 1.05, 6.34) as much untreated decay as those in the lowest quartile (p<.05) in multivariable analysis using the negative binomial regression model. For subjects without SCD, those in the highest quartile for dental external locus of control summary scores had 3.00-fold (CI 1.38, 6.49) as much untreated decay as those in the lowest quartile (p<.05) using similar analysis. This study showed that higher dental external locus of control is associated with increased untreated tooth decay, both for African Americans with and without SCD and that the magnitude of the association did not differ across groups. PMID:16960327

  11. Outcomes of a Behavioral Intervention to Increase Condom Use and Reduce HIV Risk Among Urban African American Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Henry Akintobi, Tabia; Trotter, Jennie; Zellner, Tiffany; Lenoir, Shelia; Evans, Donoria; Rollins, Latrice; Miller, Assia

    2016-09-01

    African Americans comprise nearly half of people in the United States living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but compose one tenth of the population. Infection rate among young African American adults is 11 times that of Whites. The Color It Real Program was a seven-session, weekly administered, age-specific, and culturally tailored intervention designed to provide HIV education and address behavioral motivations (risk awareness, decisional balance exercises, partner negotiation, and attitudes) associated with HIV risk among African Americans ages 18 to 24 years in Atlanta, Georgia. Effectiveness was assessed through a quasi-experimental study design that consisted of intervention (n = 88) and control (n = 52) groups completing a 45-item survey. When controlling for gender and education, repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that the intervention group had significant increases in HIV transmission knowledge (F = 4.84, p = .0305), condom use, and intentions to use condoms (F = 4.38, p = .0385). Risky sexual behavior means did not significantly differ between groups (F = 1.44, p = .2331). Results indicate the value of culturally tailored educational strategies toward improved HIV knowledge and adoption of risk reduction strategies. Future studies investigating the differential impact of programs by gender and sexual orientation are also critical. Continued innovation and tailoring of risk reduction strategies for minority young adults will contribute to reducing HIV incidence and prevalence over the life course. PMID:27216874

  12. Re-Inventing the Self: Passages into History, Business, and Adult Literacy--An American Historian in Search of a Calling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demetrion, George

    This document, which is described by its author as a "critical autobiography", traces one adult educator's 15-year journey from graduate school and into the field of adult literacy and the process of his development into what he calls "an American scholar." The autobiographical narrative is developed against the backdrop of the tension stemming…

  13. Comparing Perceptions of Teamness between Adult, First- and Second-Generation Mexican American and All Other Students Enrolled in a Cohort-Based, Accelerated, Bachelor's Degree Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Tami

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a difference in the perception of the degree of teamness, as measured by the Characteristics of Effective Teams Survey (Harvey & Drolet, 2004), interviews, and archival data, between adult first- and second-generation Mexican American students and adult non-first- and…

  14. Reality and Purpose; A Visitor's Reflections on Some Aspects of American Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsdon, Konrad T.

    In this attempt to view the approach to adult education in the United States, the dangers and benefits of mingling vocational and non-vocational, credit and noncredit, technical, commercial, and liberal adult education within one institution are presented. Examined also are the status of adult educators within the university, the love of organized…

  15. Gender and Physical Health: A Study of African American and Caribbean Black Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erving, Christy L.

    2011-01-01

    Although gender disparities in health in the United States remain a primary concern among health professionals, less is known about this phenomenon within the black American population. Using the National Survey of American Life, the author examines gender differences in self-rated health, chronic illness, and functional limitations among African…

  16. Embracing Intercultural Diversification: Teaching Young Adult Literature with Native American Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Kenan; Box, Andrea; Blasingame, James

    2013-01-01

    According to the most recent census, there are five million Native Americans in the United States. Of these, there are at least 500,000 Native Americans attending public schools. However, the educational system does not fully serve this population and in fact often ignores them. More importantly, each tribe and clan has its own distinct cultural…

  17. African-American Voices in Young Adult Literature: Tradition, Transition, Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen Patricia, Ed.

    This book contains a collection of 14 original essays. The purpose of the book is to inform teachers, librarians, and other professionals working with young people about aspects of African-American literature and to stimulate further thinking about this literature. After an introduction, chapters in the book are: (1) "African-American Young Adult…

  18. Prosocial Involvement among African American Young Adults: Considering Racial Discrimination and Racial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Johnson, Rhonda L.

    2012-01-01

    Prosocial involvement is conceptualized as support for or engaging in behaviors that contribute to or benefit African American communities. The current study examines the relationship between prosocial involvement and race-related factors among 303 African American college students. Using two underlying dimensions of prosocial involvement,…

  19. Faith-Based Adult Learning Initiatives for Diabetes Education in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaillard, Trudy

    2006-01-01

    Historically, religion and spirituality have been major influences in the social, cultural, and political lives of African Americans. Spirituality is deeply embedded into their rich cultural heritage, and it is intertwined into all aspects of their life, including beliefs about health and illness. For African Americans, health and illness are a…

  20. Intergenerational Caregiving between Parents and Their Adult Children: Evidence from a Study of Older Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Wonah

    2009-01-01

    As the population of older Americans rapidly increases and the costs of institutional health care rise, there is much concern about how to satisfy the future care needs of older Americans. As these demographic and socioeconomic trends are coupled with limitations on federal funds for public health care programs, policymakers are focusing on…

  1. Silence Speaks Volumes: Parental Sexual Communication among Asian American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Janna L.; Ward, L. Monique

    2007-01-01

    Although parents greatly influence children's early understandings of sexuality, little is known about how sexual communication transpires in Asian American families. Accordingly, the authors examined the amount and type of parental sexual communication recalled by 165 Asian American college students. Parents were perceived as providing very…

  2. Caregiving Practice Patterns of Asian, Hispanic, and Non-Hispanic White American Family Caregivers of Older Adults Across Generations.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Christina E

    2016-03-01

    This study is a cross-sectional investigation of caregiving practice patterns among Asian, Hispanic and non-Hispanic White American family caregivers of older adults across three immigrant generations. The 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) dataset was used, and 591 Asian, 989 Hispanic and 6537 non-Hispanic White American caregivers of older adults were selected. First, descriptive analyses of caregivers' characteristics, caregiving situations and practice patterns were examined by racial/ethnic groups and immigrant generations. Practice patterns measured were respite care use, hours and length of caregiving. Three hypotheses on caregiving patterns based on assimilation theory were tested and analyzed using logistic regression and generalized linear models by racial/ethnic groups and generations. Caregiving patterns of non-Hispanic White caregivers supported all three hypotheses regarding respite care use, caregiving hours and caregiving duration, showing less caregiving involvement in later generations. However, Asian and Hispanic counterparts showed mixed results. Third generation Asian and Hispanic caregivers used respite care the least and spent the most caregiving hours per week and had the longest caregiving duration compared to earlier generations. These caregiving patterns revealed underlying cultural values related to filial responsibility, even among later generations of caregivers of color. Findings suggest the importance of considering the cultural values of each racial/ethnic group regardless of generation when working with racially and ethnically diverse populations of family caregivers of older adults.

  3. The Life History of the Protandrous Tropical Shad Tenualosa macrura (Alosinae: Clupeidae): Fishery Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaber, S. J. M.; Brewer, D. T.; Milton, D. A.; Merta, Gede Sedana; Efizon, D.; Fry, G.; van der Velde, T.

    1999-11-01

    Tenualosa macrura is a tropical shad that was previously found throughout the estuaries and coastal waters of Sumatra and Borneo where it formed the basis of flourishing fisheries. The only viable fishery today has contracted to the Riau Province of Sumatra, Indonesia. To provide information for conservation and fisheries management, a two-year study of the biology, ecology and life history characteristics of T. macrura was conducted. The evidence from sizes of sexes, sex ratios and histology is that T. macrura is a protandrous hermaphrodite. It changes from male to female mainly between 14 and 20 cm SL (standard length) (six months to one year in age), after the male has spawned. Almost all fish in their second year are females; the species does not appear to live beyond two years. There is a regular movement of spawning males and females between the Strait of Malacca (salinity 28-30) and the spawning grounds in the sheltered straits (salinity 20-28) of Riau Province on each new and full moon. Their occurrence in the inshore straits leads to heavy fishing during these moon phases. The main nursery areas are the shallow coastal waters of the Strait of Malacca. The decline in catches of T. macrura has probably been as a result of fishers intensively targeting aggregations of spawning females. Furthermore, most are caught before spawning. It is postulated that the protandrous habit of this species, and its likewise endangered congener of Sarawak, T. toli, renders them more vulnerable to overfishing than is the gonochoristic and more widespread T. ilisha that is heavily fished from Burma through the Indian sub-continent to Kuwait.

  4. A Comparison of African-American and Caucasian Women Adult Children of Alcoholics and Non Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedigo, Shiela; McDermott, Diane

    Alcoholism is a disease that has been shown to affect not only the alcoholic but also the family of the alcoholic. The research on Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOA) reveals that the effects of parental alcoholism are not something that is eradicated once the child leaves home. This study examined the empirical evidence for characteristics of…

  5. The Relationship between Diet Quality and Acculturation of Immigrated South Asian American Adults and Their Association with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Robert T.; Momen, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Even though the total SA American population is increasing rapidly, there is a paucity of information on the relationship between diet quality, acculturation and health outcomes such as Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in the low-income South Asian (SA) sub-population. Our goal was to examine diet quality, degree of acculturation and their potential influence on MetS in a diverse sample of SA Americans. A convenience sample of 401 adult SA men and women were studied using a cross-sectional study design. Volunteers from two low-income community health clinics in Maryland were interviewed by questionnaires. MetS, defined by the consensus harmonized definition by the presence of ≥ 3 of the 5 abnormal indicators, was studied. An interviewer obtained an automated self-administered 24-hour Recall (ASA24) and an acculturation index (using a previously validated (SL-ASIA). SA had a composite HEI2010 score of 68 suggesting an overall need for diet improvements. Males had a higher diet quality (mean HEI2010 score) than females. Males with MetS had lower diet quality (68) than males without MetS (73). The converse was true for females (68 vs. 65). Americanized (more acculturated) subjects had a higher diet quality compared to less acculturated SA. Small differences were found in diet quality scores among SA adults from different countries. Less acculturated females, had a higher percentage of MetS and lower diet quality compared to males. These results suggest that interventions are needed in males and females who were less acculturated because they may have greater MetS and lower diet quality compared to more Americanized SA. PMID:27299862

  6. A study of IgE sensitization and skin response to histamine in Asian-Pacific American adults.

    PubMed

    Lee-Wong, Mary; Chou, Vivian; Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2012-01-01

    Allergic disorders and skin response to histamine have been noted to vary in different ethnicities. We investigated IgE-mediated allergic sensitization and skin response to histamine in Asian Pacific Americans (APAs), black and Hispanic Americans, and white adults. A retrospective questionnaire-based study was performed of 2222 adults presenting at a New York City allergy referral center from 1994 to 2003. Questionnaire data included sex, age, and ethnicity and personal and family history of atopic disorders. Skin-prick test (SPT) data included saline and histamine controls and response to a standardized panel of 10 aeroallergens. APA patients had a lower odds of asthma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52-0.89; p = 0.005) and/or animal allergies (aOR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.50-0.82; p = 0.0003). Histamine response was not significantly different in APA (aOR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.73-1.12; p = 0.36) or Hispanic Americans (aOR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.85-1.24; p = 0.76), but was higher in black Americans (aOR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.67-3.21; p < 0.0001). APA had higher odds of a positive SPT to trees (aOR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.16-1.91; p = 0.002), grasses (aOR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.05-1.43; p = 0.02), feathers (aOR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.31-2.09; p < 0.0001), and cockroaches (aOR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.10-1.62; p = 0.005). Moreover, APA had a higher total number of positive SPTs when compared with white patients (5.5 ± 3.2 versus 4.9 ± 3.3; aOR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.10-1.62 p = 0.004). APA adults in our patient population had more IgE sensitizations but not an increased skin response to histamine. In contrast, black Americans had increased skin response to histamine.

  7. Predictors of change in fruit and vegetable consumption in a faith-based intervention with African American adults.

    PubMed

    Condrasky, Margaret D; Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Carter, Chad

    2013-01-01

    A majority of African American adults do not eat the recommended daily amount of fruit and vegetables. This study examined baseline demographic, health-related, and psychosocial variables as predictors of change in fruit and vegetable consumption from baseline to postprogram in a sample of church members taking part in a 15-month intervention. Participants who had a greater waist circumference, greater baseline fruit and vegetable consumption, greater leisure time physical activity, higher levels of social support, greater attendance at worship service, were obese, and did not have diabetes at baseline showed higher posttest fruit and vegetable consumption.

  8. Vascular Risk Factors, Depression, and Cognitive Change among African American Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Carmasin, Jeremy S.; Mast, Benjamin T.; Allaire, Jason C.; Whitfield, Keith E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Vascular burden has been linked to future depression and cognitive change in predominately European American samples. This study investigated these relationships in older African Americans. Methods To examine the connection between vascular risk factors, depression, and cognitive change, this study utilized data from 435 African American elders. Specifically, the study examined the link between vascular risk at baseline with depression and cognitive functioning at a 2.5 year follow-up visit. Results High baseline vascular risk was associated with increased odds of future depression while controlling for age and current depression. A series of path analyses demonstrated links between baseline vascular risk, increases in depression, and decreases in processing speed. Conclusions These findings suggest that African Americans with greater vascular burden are at greater risk for depression and cognitive change. PMID:23877973

  9. American Thoracic Society. Medical Section of the American Lung Association: Treatment of tuberculosis and tuberculosis infection in adults and children.

    PubMed

    1986-08-01

    Treatment of tuberculosis: A 6-month regimen consisting of isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide given for 2 months followed by isoniazid and rifampin for 4 months is effective treatment in patients with fully susceptible organisms who comply with the treatment regimen. It may be advisable to include ethambutol in the initial phase when isoniazid resistance is suspected. A 9-month regimen consisting of isoniazid and rifampin is also highly successful. The need for an additional drug in the initial phase is not certain unless isoniazid resistance is suspected, in which case ethambutol should be included until susceptibility tests have been reported. In the presence of documented resistance to isoniazid, rifampin and ethambutol, perhaps supplemented initially by pyrazinamide, should be given for minimum of 12 months. Children should be treated in essentially the same ways as adults using appropriately adjusted doses of the drugs. However, consideration must be given to the important differences in the approach to management in children. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis should be managed according to the principles and with the drug regimens outlined to pulmonary tuberculosis. The major determinant of the outcome of treatment is patient compliance. Careful attention should be paid to measures designed to foster compliance and to ensure that patients take the drugs as prescribed. Treatment of tuberculous infection: Preventive therapy with isoniazid given for 6 to 12 months is effective in decreasing the risk of future tuberculosis. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Adult Learning, Generativity and "Successful" Aging in Multicultural Perspective: A Hmong American Educational Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hones, Donald F.

    This document examines the themes of adult learning, generativity, and successful aging against the backdrop of the biography of a Hmong refugee who immigrated to the United States in 1988 at the age of 35, began studying English as a second language (ESL), and continues to study ESL in adult education classes while six of his seven children…

  11. Jamaican and American Adult Perspectives on Child Psychopathology: Further Exploration of the Threshold Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Michael Canute; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared adult attitudes concerning child psychopathology. Jamaican and U.S. parents, teachers, and clinicians (total n=382) judged vignettes of two children, one with overcontrolled and one with undercontrolled problems. Although years of education affected some adult ratings, culture had most profound effect. Jamaican parents and teachers rated…

  12. Adults and the Changing Workplace. 1985 Yearbook of the American Vocational Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Carol Herrnstadt, Ed.

    The 31 papers in this yearbook are organized in five sections: I. Changes in the Labor Force, which includes: "Labor Market Needs to the Year 2000" (Morgan V. Lewis) and "Occupational Adaptability and Transferable Skills: Preparing Today's Adults for Tomorrow's Careers" (Frank C. Pratzner and William L. Ashley); II. Educating Adult Students, which…

  13. "An Elusive Bird": Perceptions of Music Learning among Canadian and American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Nathan B.

    2009-01-01

    Discovering the perceptions that non-professional adult musicians hold regarding their participation in community ensembles may help improve instruction as well as the ability to more fully understand the implications of lifelong music making. Andragogy, or the teaching and learning strategies associated with adult learning, provided the impetus…

  14. Comprehension of a Colon Cancer Pamphlet among American Adults at Least 50 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chiung-ju

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of comprehension of an educational pamphlet on colon cancer, by adults at least 50 years of age living in the United States. Design: Data were analysed from the "2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy" survey. The survey was designed to assess functional English literacy, which…

  15. Whole-exome imputation of sequence variants identified two novel alleles associated with adult body height in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Du, Mengmeng; Auer, Paul L; Jiao, Shuo; Haessler, Jeffrey; Altshuler, David; Boerwinkle, Eric; Carlson, Christopher S; Carty, Cara L; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Curtis, Keith; Franceschini, Nora; Hsu, Li; Jackson, Rebecca; Lange, Leslie A; Lettre, Guillaume; Monda, Keri L; Nickerson, Deborah A; Reiner, Alex P; Rich, Stephen S; Rosse, Stephanie A; Rotter, Jerome I; Willer, Cristen J; Wilson, James G; North, Kari; Kooperberg, Charles; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Peters, Ulrike

    2014-12-15

    Adult body height is a quantitative trait for which genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci, primarily in European populations. These loci, comprising common variants, explain <10% of the phenotypic variance in height. We searched for novel associations between height and common (minor allele frequency, MAF ≥5%) or infrequent (0.5% < MAF < 5%) variants across the exome in African Americans. Using a reference panel of 1692 African Americans and 471 Europeans from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's (NHLBI) Exome Sequencing Project (ESP), we imputed whole-exome sequence data into 13 719 African Americans with existing array-based GWAS data (discovery). Variants achieving a height-association threshold of P < 5E-06 in the imputed dataset were followed up in an independent sample of 1989 African Americans with whole-exome sequence data (replication). We used P < 2.5E-07 (=0.05/196 779 variants) to define statistically significant associations in meta-analyses combining the discovery and replication sets (N = 15 708). We discovered and replicated three independent loci for association: 5p13.3/C5orf22/rs17410035 (MAF = 0.10, β = 0.64 cm, P = 8.3E-08), 13q14.2/SPRYD7/rs114089985 (MAF = 0.03, β = 1.46 cm, P = 4.8E-10) and 17q23.3/GH2/rs2006123 (MAF = 0.30; β = 0.47 cm; P = 4.7E-09). Conditional analyses suggested 5p13.3 (C5orf22/rs17410035) and 13q14.2 (SPRYD7/rs114089985) may harbor novel height alleles independent of previous GWAS-identified variants (r(2) with GWAS loci <0.01); whereas 17q23.3/GH2/rs2006123 was correlated with GWAS-identified variants in European and African populations. Notably, 13q14.2/rs114089985 is infrequent in African Americans (MAF = 3%), extremely rare in European Americans (MAF = 0.03%), and monomorphic in Asian populations, suggesting it may be an African-American-specific height allele. Our findings demonstrate that whole-exome imputation of sequence variants can identify low-frequency variants

  16. The role of water ventilation and sediment ingestion in the uptake of benzo[a]pyrene in gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum)

    SciTech Connect

    Kolok, A.S.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.; Oris, J.T.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether sediment ingestion or water ventilation was the primary route of uptake for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in the gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), a detritivorous fish. Two experiments were conducted in which fish were exposed to sediments spiked with 1 {micro}g/g BaP. In the first experiment, fish were prevented from feeding by esophagus ligation. In the second experiment, 20 nonligated fish and 30 ligated fish were added to the aquarium. The nonligated fish roiled the water as they fed. Fish were collected 4, 8, 15, and 22 d after the experiments began. Gizzard shad metabolize BaP; therefore, the concentrations of BaP equivalents (parent BaP plus metabolite) were determined. Concentrations of BaP equivalents were significantly greater in the ligated fish in experiment 2 relative to those in experiment 1. In contrast, the concentration of BaP equivalents in the ligated fish in experiment 2 was not significantly different than that in the nonligated fish. The results suggest that ventilation of turbid water may be a significant source of BaP for gizzard shad. Sediment ingestion, however, does not appear to significantly influence the total body concentration of BaP equivalents in gizzard shad.

  17. Channel catfish polyculture with fathead minnows or threadfin shad effects on pond plankton communities and catfish fillet flavor, color, and fatty acid composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense, or fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, were co-cultured with channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, in earthen ponds to determine the effects of planktivory on plankton community dynamics and catfish fillet quality. Fathead minnows had no effect on the plankton c...

  18. Longitudinal association between toenail zinc levels and the incidence of diabetes among American young adults: The CARDIA Trace Element Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Suk; Xun, Pengcheng; Li, Jing; Morris, Steve J; Jacobs, David R; Liu, Kiang; He, Ka

    2016-01-01

    Data on primary prevention of zinc status and diabetes risk are sparse and inconsistent. Of note, the previous studies measured either dietary zinc intake with questionnaire or zinc status in serum or hair. Toenail zinc levels are reliable biomarkers of a relatively long-term exposure. A total of 3,960 American young adults, aged 20-32 years, free of diabetes at baseline in 1987 when toenail clippings were collected, were examined for incident diabetes through 2010. Toenail zinc levels were measured with an inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectroscopy method. Incident diabetes cases were identified by fasting or non-fasting plasma glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests, hemoglobin A1C levels, and/or antidiabetic medications. During the 23-year follow-up, 418 incident diabetes occurred. After adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, study center, body mass index, education, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of diabetes, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and other dietary and non-dietary potential confounders, the hazard ratio of incident diabetes comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of toenail zinc levels was 1.21 (95% CI: 0.90-1.63; Ptrend = 0.20). Findings from this study do not support the hypothesis that zinc status is inversely and longitudinally associated with the incidence of diabetes in American young adults. PMID:26980156

  19. Longitudinal association between toenail zinc levels and the incidence of diabetes among American young adults: The CARDIA Trace Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Suk; Xun, Pengcheng; Li, Jing; Morris, Steve J.; Jacobs, David R.; Liu, Kiang; He, Ka

    2016-01-01

    Data on primary prevention of zinc status and diabetes risk are sparse and inconsistent. Of note, the previous studies measured either dietary zinc intake with questionnaire or zinc status in serum or hair. Toenail zinc levels are reliable biomarkers of a relatively long-term exposure. A total of 3,960 American young adults, aged 20–32 years, free of diabetes at baseline in 1987 when toenail clippings were collected, were examined for incident diabetes through 2010. Toenail zinc levels were measured with an inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectroscopy method. Incident diabetes cases were identified by fasting or non-fasting plasma glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests, hemoglobin A1C levels, and/or antidiabetic medications. During the 23-year follow-up, 418 incident diabetes occurred. After adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, study center, body mass index, education, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of diabetes, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and other dietary and non-dietary potential confounders, the hazard ratio of incident diabetes comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of toenail zinc levels was 1.21 (95% CI: 0.90–1.63; Ptrend = 0.20). Findings from this study do not support the hypothesis that zinc status is inversely and longitudinally associated with the incidence of diabetes in American young adults. PMID:26980156

  20. APOL1 Risk Alleles Are Associated with Exaggerated Age-Related Changes in Glomerular Number and Volume in African-American Adults: An Autopsy Study.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Wendy E; Hughson, Michael D; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Mott, Susan A; Bertram, John F; Winkler, Cheryl A

    2015-12-01

    APOL1 genetic variants contribute to kidney disease in African Americans. We assessed correlations between APOL1 profiles and renal histological features in subjects without renal disease. Glomerular number (N glom) and mean glomerular volume (V glom) were measured by the dissector/fractionator method in kidneys of African-American and non-African-American adults without renal disease, undergoing autopsies in Jackson, Mississippi. APOL1 risk alleles were genotyped and the kidney findings were evaluated in the context of those profiles. The proportions of African Americans with none, one, and two APOL1 risk alleles were 38%, 43%, and 19%, respectively; 38% of African Americans had G1 allele variants and 31% of African Americans had G2 allele variants. Only APOL1-positive African Americans had significant reductions in N glom and increases in V glom with increasing age. Regression analysis predicted an annual average loss of 8834 (P=0.03, sex adjusted) glomeruli per single kidney over the first 38 years of adult life in African Americans with two risk alleles. Body mass index above the group medians, but below the obesity definition of ≥ 30 kg/m(2), enhanced the expression of age-related changes in N glom in African Americans with either one or two APOL1 risk alleles. These findings indicate that APOL1 risk alleles are associated with exaggerated age-related nephron loss, probably decaying from a larger pool of smaller glomeruli in early adult life, along with enlargement of the remaining glomeruli. These phenomena might mark mechanisms of accentuated susceptibility to kidney disease in APOL1-positive African Americans.

  1. Occupational therapy in adult day-care (position paper). American Occupational Therapy Association.

    PubMed

    1986-12-01

    Occupational therapy personnel assume central roles in adult day-care regardless of specific program emphasis. Occupational therapy focuses on health rather than illness, on what the individual can do in spite of disabilities. Several of the profession's objectives directly parallel those of adult day-care--to enable individuals to function as independently as possible despite their physical and mental limitations. To achieve this, a variety of intervention strategies are used, including remedial therapeutic activities, environmental modifications, adapted living techniques, and, when necessary, adaptation of the home environment. In this way, occupational therapy contributes significantly to the quality of life of adult day-care participants.

  2. Utility of the Life Course Perspective in Research With Mexican American Caregivers of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Bronwynne C.; Crogan, Neva; FNGNA; Belyea, Michael; Coon, David

    2013-01-01

    Research on caregiving of elders in Mexican American families is urgently needed. We know little about family caregivers, family transitions in relation to the caregiving role, reciprocal impact of caregivers and care recipients on one another, adaptive strategies, positive benefits of caregiving (caregiver gain), specific caregiving burdens, or supportive interventions for family caregiving. Theory derivation using the concepts and structure of life course perspective provides a way to fill the knowledge gaps concerning Mexican American caregiving families, taking into account their ethnic status as an important Hispanic subgroup and the unique cultural and contextual factors that mark their caregiving experiences. PMID:18845694

  3. Diabetes in Relation to Serum Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Chlorinated Pesticides in Adult Native Americans

    PubMed Central

    Codru, Neculai; Schymura, Maria J.; Negoita, Serban; Rej, Robert; Carpenter, David O.

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent research suggests that diabetes, a condition whose incidence is increasing, is associated with exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides. Objectives We investigated the potential association between diabetes and serum levels of PCBs, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and mirex in a cross-sectional study of an adult Native-American (Mohawk) population. Methods Through a standardized questionnaire we collected demographic, medical, and lifestyle information from 352 adults, ≥30 years of age. We collected fasting serum samples that were analyzed for 101 PCB congeners, DDE, HCB, and mirex along with fasting glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Participants who had fasting-glucose values > 125 mg/dL and/or who were taking antidiabetic medication were defined as persons with diabetes. We conducted logistic regression to assess the potential association between organochlorine serum levels and diabetes, while controlling for the potential confounding variables of age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, sex, and serum lipid levels. Organochlorine serum levels were categorized in tertiles, and the lowest tertile was used as the reference category. Results The prevalence of diabetes was 20.2%. The odds ratio (OR) of having diabetes for participants in the highest tertile of total PCB concentration compared with the lowest tertile was 3.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.5–10.6). The corresponding ORs for DDE and HCB were even higher. Elevated serum mirex was not associated with diabetes. After adjustment for other analytes, the OR for HCB remained significant, whereas ORs for PCBs and DDE remained elevated but not statistically significant. In contrast, after adjustment for other analytes, the OR for mirex became statistically significant and indicated an inverse association. Conclusions In this study of adult Native Americans, elevated serum PCBs, DDE, and HCB were positively associated with

  4. Influence of Culture on Premarital Sexual Permissiveness among Nigerian and Black American Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oladunjoye, Femi

    1979-01-01

    This study examined the differences in premarital sexual permissiveness among two Black young adult populations with different cultural backgrounds, one in Nigeria and the other in the United States. (Author/JD)

  5. Aerobic exercise attenuates blood pressure reactivity to cold pressor test in normotensive, young adult African-American women.

    PubMed

    Bond, V; Mills, R M; Caprarola, M; Vaccaro, P; Adams, R G; Blakely, R; Roltsch, M; Hatfield, B; Davis, G C; Franks, B D; Fairfax, J; Banks, M

    1999-01-01

    Exaggerated blood pressure reactivity to behavioral stress has been observed in the African-American population, and such a pressor response is believed to play a role in hypertension. Regular aerobic exercise has been shown to exert an anti-hypertensive effect, and this may alter the blood pressure hyperreactivity observed in African Americans. To test the hypothesis that aerobic exercise attenuates pressor reactivity in African Americans, we studied eight healthy aerobically-trained normotensive African-American females and five similar sedentary females. The stress stimuli consisted of the cold pressor test with the foot immersed in ice water for two minutes. The aerobic exercise training protocol consisted of six weeks of jogging at 60-70% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), three days/week for 35 min/exercise session. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and forearm blood flow were measured. Manifestation of a training effect was illustrated by a 24.1 +/- 0.2% increase in VO2peak (26.9 +/- 1.2 mL x kg(-1) min(-1) vs 35.4 +/- 1.6 mL x kg(-1) min(-1)) (P<.05). Within the exercise-trained group there was a 6.3 +/- .15% decrease in systolic pressure (129 +/- 4.6 mm Hg vs. 121 +/- 5.4 mm Hg) (P<.05), and a 5.0 +/- .05% decrement in mean arterial blood pressure (99 +/- 3.3 mm Hg vs 94 +/- 3.6 mm Hg) (P<.05) during the cold pressor test. Pressor reactivity to cold stress did not change in the untrained group. Measures of heart rate, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and forearm blood flow were unaltered during conditions of the cold pressor test. We conclude that aerobic exercise attenuates the blood pressure reactivity to behavioral stress in young, adult normotensive African-American females. A lifestyle change such as exercising may play a role in reducing the risk of hypertension in African-American women. PMID:10355479

  6. Second Language Acquisition across Modalities: Production Variability in Adult L2 Learners of American Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilger, Allison I.; Loucks, Torrey M. J.; Quinto-Pozos, David; Dye, Matthew W. G.

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine production variability in American Sign Language (ASL) in order to gain insight into the development of motor control in a language produced in another modality. Production variability was characterized through the spatiotemporal index (STI), which represents production stability in whole utterances and is a…

  7. The Effect of Eliminating Time Restraints on a Standardized Test with American Indian Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immerman, Michael A.

    To investigate the effect of time restraints on the diagnostic test scores of Native American students entering Bureau of Indian Affairs schools, two groups of students at Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute (SIPI) in Albuquerque, New Mexico, were given the Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test, (Blue Level), 1977 edition. The test scores…

  8. Cutural Predictors of Self-Esteem: A Study of Chinese American Female and Male Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ying, Yu-Wen; Lee, Peter Allen

    2001-01-01

    Domains of cultural orientation such as language, social affiliation, and cultural pride, were examined in Chinese American college students (N=353) to see how they related to self-esteem. Cultural orientation significantly predicted self-esteem differences. Cultural predictors of self-esteem varied by gender; self-esteem was mainly related to…

  9. The Mexican American Biculturalism Scale: Bicultural Comfort, Facility, and Advantages for Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Basilio, Camille D.; Knight, George P.; O'Donnell, Megan; Roosa, Mark W.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Torres, Marisela

    2014-01-01

    Empirical research on biculturalism is limited, in part because of the lack of quality measures of biculturalism. The currently available measures have limitations due to scoring procedures and sampling of only a narrow range of behaviors and attitudes. We present a measure of biculturalism that captures a broader range of the bicultural experience and uses a scoring system that better represents the wide ranging levels of biculturalism that exist in the diverse population of Mexican American adolescents, mothers, and fathers born either in Mexico or the United States. The Mexican American Biculturalism Scale (MABS; 27 items) includes 3 subscales: bicultural comfort (9 items), bicultural facility (9 items), and bicultural advantages (9 items). We report on the reliability and construct validity of test scores, and confirmatory factor analyses findings for a diverse sample of 316 Mexican American families from a large southwestern metropolitan city. The MABS is available both in English and Spanish (see Appendix). The use of the scale has implications for future research studying how biculturalism is related to psychological outcomes for Mexicans/Mexican Americans. PMID:24548151

  10. Survey Response Styles, Acculturation, and Culture Among a Sample of Mexican American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Rachel E.; Resnicow, Ken; Couper, Mick P.

    2011-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated use of extreme (ERS) and acquiescent (ARS) response styles across cultural groups. However, due to within-group heterogeneity, it is important to also examine use of response styles, acculturation, and endorsement of cultural variables at the individual level. This study explores relationships between acculturation, six Mexican cultural factors, ERS, and ARS among a sample of 288 Mexican American telephone survey respondents. Three aspects of acculturation were assessed: Spanish use, the importance of preserving Mexican culture, and interaction with Mexican Americans versus Anglos. These variables were hypothesized to positively associate with ERS and ARS. Participants with higher Spanish use did utilize more ERS and ARS; however, value for preserving Mexican culture and interaction with Mexican Americans were not associated with response style use. In analyses of cultural factors, endorsement of familismo and simpatia were related to more frequent ERS and ARS, machismo was associated with lower ERS among men, and la mujer was related to higher ERS among women. Caballerismo was marginally associated with utilization of ERS among men. No association was found between la mujer abnegada and ERS among women. Relationships between male gender roles and ARS were nonsignificant. Relationships between female gender roles and ARS were mixed but trended in the positive direction. Overall, these findings suggest that Mexican American respondents vary in their use of response styles by acculturation and cultural factors. This usage may be specifically influenced by participants' valuing of and engagement with constructs directly associated with social behavior. PMID:21927503

  11. Survey Response Styles, Acculturation, and Culture Among a Sample of Mexican American Adults.

    PubMed

    Davis, Rachel E; Resnicow, Ken; Couper, Mick P

    2011-10-01

    A number of studies have investigated use of extreme (ERS) and acquiescent (ARS) response styles across cultural groups. However, due to within-group heterogeneity, it is important to also examine use of response styles, acculturation, and endorsement of cultural variables at the individual level. This study explores relationships between acculturation, six Mexican cultural factors, ERS, and ARS among a sample of 288 Mexican American telephone survey respondents. Three aspects of acculturation were assessed: Spanish use, the importance of preserving Mexican culture, and interaction with Mexican Americans versus Anglos. These variables were hypothesized to positively associate with ERS and ARS. Participants with higher Spanish use did utilize more ERS and ARS; however, value for preserving Mexican culture and interaction with Mexican Americans were not associated with response style use. In analyses of cultural factors, endorsement of familismo and simpatia were related to more frequent ERS and ARS, machismo was associated with lower ERS among men, and la mujer was related to higher ERS among women. Caballerismo was marginally associated with utilization of ERS among men. No association was found between la mujer abnegada and ERS among women. Relationships between male gender roles and ARS were nonsignificant. Relationships between female gender roles and ARS were mixed but trended in the positive direction. Overall, these findings suggest that Mexican American respondents vary in their use of response styles by acculturation and cultural factors. This usage may be specifically influenced by participants' valuing of and engagement with constructs directly associated with social behavior.

  12. Conflictual Independence, Adult Attachment Orientation, and Career Indecision among Asian American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Chad J.; Brown, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Due to prior research suggesting that relational variables are related to the career development process, we sought to understand how maternal conflictual independence, paternal conflictual independence, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance influence the career decision status of Asian American undergraduate students (N = 113). The…

  13. Adults with Learning Disabilities and the Underutilization of the Americans with Disabilities Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Lynda A.; Gerber, Paul J.; Mulligan, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This article explored the use of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) by individuals with learning disabilities (LD) in the workplace. A review of the extant literature revealed that people with LD were not likely to use the ADA as employees. Moreover, an analysis of selected, commonly used materials regarding transition indicated a lack of…

  14. Longitudinal associations between social support and physical and mental health in African American adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African Americans report a greater number of modifiable risk factors, such as overweight/obesity, physical inactivity and poor dietary habits, putting them at increased risk of developing and dying from chronic diseases. These risk factors are also associated with poorer health-related quality of li...

  15. Adolescent Precursors of Early Union Formation among Asian American and White Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yen-hsin Alice; Landale, Nancy S.

    2011-01-01

    Using a framework that emphasizes independent versus interdependent self-construals, this study investigates the relatively low rates of early marriage and cohabitation among Asian Americans compared with Whites. Data from Waves 1 and 3 of Add Health are used to test five hypotheses that focus on family value socialization and other precursors…

  16. Perception of American English Dark /l/ by Normally Hearing Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roussel, Nancye; Oxley, Judith

    2010-01-01

    This perceptual study describes changes in how listeners perceive VCV elements within successive truncations taken from an iambic phrase containing l (e.g. "a leaf", or "a load") spoken by four male speakers of General American English. Evidence of the respective roles of dorsal gestural affiliation between l and the reduced vowel, (V[subscript…

  17. Impact of Adult Sons' Incarceration on African American Mothers' Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kerry M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Robertson, Judith A.; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the effect of sons' incarceration on their mothers' psychological distress. Interviews were conducted over the life course with a community cohort of African American mothers who had children in first grade in 1966-1967 when the study began ("N"=615). Thirty years later, their sons had significant rates of…

  18. Older Americans Act Nutrition Programs: A Community-Based Nutrition Program Helping Older Adults Remain at Home.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Jean L; Wellman, Nancy S

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition interventions are important as the older population, most of whom live in the community, increases in size and diversity. They are key to leading a healthy, functional life and mitigating chronic health conditions. The Older Americans Act Nutrition Program served 86.3 million congregate and 137.4 million home-delivered meals to 1.6 million and 850,000 older adults, respectively (2012). Congregate and home-delivered participants were older, poorer, sicker, more functionally impaired, and at a greater risk of institutionalization than the general U.S. older population. The Nutrition Program is publically and privately funded. About 44% of congregate and 30% of home-delivered expenditures are from federal sources, which dropped from $25 per older adult in 1990 to $12 in 2013. Despite multiple funding sources, funding is insufficient for the expanding older population. Health, nutrition, and social service professionals need to coordinate their community-based services to truly help older adults remain in their homes.

  19. Association Between Childhood School Segregation and Changes in Adult Sense of Control in the African American Health Cohort

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Cross-sectional associations between childhood school segregation and adult sense of control and physical performance have been established in the African American Health (AAH) cohort. Here we extend that work by estimating the association between childhood school segregation and 2-year changes in adult sense of control. Method. Complete data on 541 older AAH men and women were used to estimate the association between childhood school segregation and changes in the sense of control. Exposure to segregation was self-reported in 2004, and the sense of control was measured in 2008 and 2010 using Blom rank transformations of Mirowsky and Ross’ 8-item scale. Declining subjective income and experiencing major life stressors between 2008 and 2010, as well as traditional covariates (demographic factors, socioeconomic status, self-rated health, racial attitudes and beliefs, and religiosity) were included for statistical adjustment. Multiple linear regression analysis with propensity score reweighting was used. Results. Receiving the majority of one’s primary and secondary education in segregated schools had a significant net positive association (d = 0.179; p = .029) with 2-year changes in adult sense of control. Conclusion. AAH participants receiving the majority of their primary and secondary educations in segregated schools appeared to have been protected, in part, from age-related declines in the sense of control. PMID:24056692

  20. Associations of Adiponectin with Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity, and Diet in Young, Healthy, Mexican Americans and Non-Latino White Adults.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rocio I; Low Wang, Cecilia C; Wolfe, Pamela; Havranek, Edward P; Long, Carlin S; Bessesen, Daniel H

    2015-12-22

    Low circulating adiponectin levels may contribute to higher diabetes risk among Mexican Americans (MA) compared to non-Latino whites (NLW). Our objective was to determine if among young healthy adult MAs have lower adiponectin than NLWs, independent of differences in adiposity. In addition, we explored associations between adiponectin and diet. This was an observational, cross-sectional study of healthy MA and NLW adults living in Colorado (U.S.A.). We measured plasma total adiponectin, adiposity (BMI, and visceral adipose tissue), insulin sensitivity (IVGTT), and self-reported dietary intake in 43 MA and NLW adults. Mean adiponectin levels were 40% lower among MA than NLW (5.8 ± 3.3 vs. 10.7 ± 4.2 µg/mL, p = 0.0003), and this difference persisted after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and visceral adiposity. Lower adiponectin in MA was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (R² = 0.42, p < 0.01). Lower adiponectin was also associated with higher dietary glycemic index, lower intake of vegetables, higher intake of trans fat, and higher intake of grains. Our findings confirm that ethnic differences in adiponectin reflect differences in insulin sensitivity, but suggest that these are not due to differences in adiposity. Observed associations between adiponectin and diet support the need for future studies exploring the regulation of adiponectin by diet and other environmental factors.

  1. College graduation reduces vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American young adult women.

    PubMed

    Painter, Julia E; Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Depadilla, Lara M; Simpson-Robinson, Lashun

    2012-01-01

    African-American women are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. The Theory of Gender and Power (TGP) posits that socioeconomic exposures, including educational attainment, place women at increased risk for STIs/HIV. This study examined the association between educational attainment and vulnerability to STIs/HIV, as well as potential TGP-driven mediators of this association, among African-American women. Baseline data were assessed from an STI/HIV prevention intervention for African-American women (n = 848) aged 18 to 29 recruited from three Kaiser Permanente Centers in Atlanta, Georgia. Data collection included a survey of demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures and self-collected, laboratory-confirmed vaginal swabs for STIs (trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human papillomavirus). Multiple regression analyses and multivariate mediation analyses were used to examine the association between educational attainment with a laboratory-confirmed STI and potential TGP mediators. Controlling for age and receipt of public assistance, the odds of an STI diagnosis were 73% lower among participants with a college degree or greater compared with participants who had not completed high school. There were also significant associations between educational attainment and multiple TGP mediators from the sexual division of power and the structure of cathexis. TGP constructs did not mediate the association between educational attainment and laboratory-confirmed STI. The current study suggests that graduating from college may lead to a beneficial reduction in vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women. Findings from this study support expanding structural-level interventions, emphasizing both high school and college graduation, as a means of reducing vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women.

  2. Recruitment of African American adults as research participants for a language in aging study: example of a principled, creative, and culture-based approach.

    PubMed

    Qualls, Constance Dean

    2002-01-01

    Recruitment of African Americans as research participants continues as a major challenge for researchers studying health and human behavior. Numerous reasons for low participation by African Americans have been cited, most of which evolve around four primary factors: social injustice, education, economics, and cultural differences. To ensure adequate representation of the diversity within the U.S. population in research, the federal government mandates the inclusion of individuals from underrepresented groups as study participants. For African Americans, this number is approximately 12%. Controversy exists, however, as to whether published research studies reflect adequate representation of African Americans as study participants. This article reports a successful approach to the recruitment and retention of 80 African American adults who participated in a study investigating language comprehension in aging. PMID:12491954

  3. Values important to terminally ill African American older adults in receiving hospice care.

    PubMed

    Noh, Hyunjin

    2014-01-01

    While racial disparity in the use of hospice care by older African Americans is widely acknowledged, little is known about the values that they consider as important in receiving health care services along with direct experiences with having these values respected by hospice care providers. Using individual, face-to-face interviews, data were collected directly from 28 African American hospice patients about their experiences in hospice care. Content analysis was used to identify and categorize themes from multiple readings of the qualitative data. Resulting themes included: dying at home, open communications, independent decision-making, autonomy in daily life, unwillingness to be a burden, and relationships. Through the initial assessment, value preferences can be explored and then shared with hospice team members to ensure that services are provided in such a way that their values and preferences are respected. PMID:25494930

  4. Cognitive Testing of PAINReportIt® in Adult African Americans with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Aruna; Suarez, Marie L.; Ferrans, Carol E.; Molokie, Robert; Kim, Young Ok; Wilkie, Diana J.

    2013-01-01

    PAINReportIt,® a computerized version of Melzack’s (© 1970) McGill Pain Questionnaire, presents pain measurement items to responders in serial display screens accompanied by pop-up screens. In this study, we used cognitive interviews to examine further validity of PAINReportIt® with 25 African Americans with sickle cell disease. The specific aims were to determine if the questions in the PAINReportIt® program were relevant to and understood by African Americans with SCD and to describe the nature of the pain they experienced. Most study participants were enthusiastic and able to use the tool as intended, appreciated the comprehensiveness, detail, and multidimensionality of its pain data. For some screens, two to six participants’ responses suggested some question understanding and interpretation issues, inability to retrieve the requested information, or technical issues. Their responses indicated that screens lacked sufficient specificity for the temporal nature of pain recurrent over a lifetime. The program captured both nociceptive and neuropathic aspects of sickle cell pain, and provided detailed information on the location, intensity, quality and pattern of pain experienced by participants. We recommend that future revisions to the PAINReportIt® program address the temporal issues of measuring recurrent pain, resolve technological issues related to pop-ups, and simplify difficult words to better match the typical health literacy levels of patients. These revisions could further enhance the technological aspects, usability, and cultural appropriateness of the tool for African Americans with SCD. PMID:20431356

  5. Personal views about aging among Korean American older adults: the role of physical health, social network, and acculturation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Giyeon; Jang, Yuri; Chiriboga, David A

    2012-06-01

    Given the importance of a positive attitude towards one's own aging, we examined its predictors in a sample of 230 Korean American older adults (M (age) = 69.8 years, SD = 7.05). Personal views about aging, measured with a subscale of the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS), were regressed on demographic variables, physical health-related factors, and psychosocial attributes (social network and acculturation). Results from the hierarchical regression analysis showed that better physical health conditions (fewer chronic conditions, less functional disability, and better vision) were associated with more positive personal views about aging. Other significant contributors included larger social networks and higher levels of acculturation. Findings suggest that personal views about aging among immigrant elderly populations can be enhanced by promoting physical health, social connectedness, and acculturation. Ways to maintain and improve positive attitudes about personal aging are discussed in a cultural context. PMID:22581472

  6. Declines in trust in others and confidence in institutions among American adults and late adolescents, 1972-2012.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Campbell, W Keith; Carter, Nathan T

    2014-10-01

    Between 1972 and 2012, Americans became significantly less trusting of each other and less confident in large institutions, such as the news media, business, religious organizations, the medical establishment, Congress, and the presidency. Levels of trust and confidence, key indicators of social capital, reached all-time or near-all-time lows in 2012 in the nationally representative General Social Survey of adults (1972-2012; N = 37,493) and the nationally representative Monitoring the Future survey of 12th graders (1976-2012; N = 101,633). Hierarchical modeling analyses separating the effects of time period, generation, and age show that this decline in social capital is primarily a time-period effect. Confidence in institutions is also influenced by generation, with Baby Boomers lowest. Trust was lowest when income inequality was high, and confidence in institutions was lowest when poverty rates were high. The prediction of a sustained revival in social capital after 2001 seems to have been premature.

  7. Condom use negotiation in heterosexual African American adults: responses to types of social power-based strategies.

    PubMed

    Otto-Salaj, Laura; Reed, Barbara; Brondino, Michael J; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Kelly, Jeffrey A; Stevenson, L Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    This study examined gender differences and preferences in the use of and response to six different styles of condom use negotiation with a hypothetical sexual partner of the opposite gender. Participants were 51 heterosexually active African American adults attending an inner-city community center. Participants completed a semistructured qualitative interview in which they were presented with six negotiation strategies based on Raven's 1992 Power/Interaction Model of Interpersonal Influence. Results showed that female participants responded best to referent, reward, and legitimate strategies, and worst to informational tactics. Male participants responded best to reward strategies, and worst to coercion to use condoms. Further, responses given by a subset of participants indicated that use of negotiation tactics involving coercion to use condoms may result in negative or angry reactions. Response to strategies may vary with the value of the relationship as viewed by the target of negotiation. Implications for HIV prevention efforts are discussed.

  8. Reported Consequences of Decriminalization of Consensual Adult Homosexuality in Seven American States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geis, Gilbert; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This article reports results of a survey of police officials, prosecuting attorneys, and members of homosexual groups in the seven states that had decriminalized private homosexual behavior between consenting adults. The response indicates that decriminalization has eased the problems of the homosexual community without any other adverse effects.…

  9. Adult Museum Programs: Designing Meaningful Experiences. American Association for State and Local History Book Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachatello-Sawyer, Bonnie; Fellenz, Robert A.; Burton, Hanly; Gittings-Carlson, Laura; Lewis-Mahony, Janet; Woolbaugh, Walter

    A three-year national study of adult museum programs used a qualitative research approach and naturalistic inquiry and interviewed 508 museum program participants, 75 instructors, and 143 museum program planners in all types and sizes of museums, including art institutes, natural and cultural historical museums, science centers, historic houses,…

  10. Food prices and fruit and vegetable consumption among young American adults.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Zhao, Zhenxiang; Wang, Youfa

    2009-12-01

    Multivariate negative binomial count models were estimated to examine associations between young adults' fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption and the prices of FV, other food at home grocery items, and fast food and the availability of restaurants and food stores. This study used the 2002 wave of data collected from US young adults aged 18-23 years in the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged by geocode identifiers with food prices and restaurant and food store availability. The results showed that higher levels of FV consumption were associated with lower FV prices (price elasticity of -0.32) and that this own-price effect was robust to the inclusion of other food prices and food outlet availability. Lower income and lower educated young adults and those with lower educated mothers and middle-income parents were found to be most price sensitive. No statistically significant cross-price effects on FV consumption were found with other grocery food (meat, dairy and bread) prices or fast food prices. Fiscal policy instruments such as FV subsidies may help to increase FV intake, particularly among young adults of lower socioeconomic status. PMID:19523869

  11. Differential Outcomes for American College Students Engaged in Community Service-Learning Involving Youth and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Scott; Rabinowicz, Samantha; Gillmor, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The Serve Program at Ignatius University is a community service-learning program that combines academic study of philosophy with a yearlong field-based project at one of approximately 50 different sites. Half of these projects entail working with youth, while the other half entail working with adults. This mixed methods analysis found that college…

  12. Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders among Latino and Asian American Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.; Alegria, Margarita; Ortega, Alexander N.; Takeuchi, David

    2007-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults may be at elevated risk for mental health and substance use disorders, possibly due to anti-gay stigma. Little of this work has examined putative excess morbidity among ethnic/racial minorities resulting from the experience of multiple sources of discrimination. The authors report…

  13. Program Planning for the Training and Continuing Education of Adults: North American Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter S., Ed.

    This book provides an overview of program planning for adult learning from philosophical and pedagogical perspectives. It contains 19 papers and an introduction by the editor, Peter S. Cookson. The following are included: "A Conceptual Context for Program Planning" (Peter S. Cookson); "Prototypical Program Planning Models"--"Houle's Fundamental…

  14. Uptake of benzo(a)pyrene in gizzard shad: The relative roles of water ventilation and sediment ingestion

    SciTech Connect

    Kolok, A.S.; Oris, J.T.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this study was to determine whether sediment ingestion or water ventilation was the primary route of uptake of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) into the tissues of the detritivorous fish, gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). Two experiments were conducted in which fish were exposed to sediments spiked with 1 {micro}g/g BaP. In the first experiment, fish were prevented from feeding on the sediment by surgical ligation of the esophagus. Water flow in the tank exceeded 12 turnovers per day, and there was no detectable concentration of BaP in the fish after 22 days of exposure. The second experiment duplicated the first, with the exception that 20 nonligated fish were added to the aquaria along with 20 ligated fish, and the semipermeable membrane devices were used to quantify the bioavailability of BaP. The nonligated fish roiled the water as they fed, forcing the ligated fish to ventilate turbid water. Fish were collected 4, 8, 15 and 22 days after initiation of the experiment. Fourteen of the twenty nonligated fish had detectable levels of BaP in their tissues. In these fish, concentrations of BaP exceeded 0.01 {micro}g/g after 4 days of exposure, but did not significantly change for the remainder of the experiment. Only three of the ligated fish had detectable concentrations of BaP in their tissues. Sediment ingestion appears to be the primary route of entry of BaP into gizzard shad, while ventilation appears to be a minor route of entry even when the fish ventilate turbid water.

  15. Self-Reported Health and Functional Characteristics of Mexican and Mexican American Adults Aged 80 and Over

    PubMed Central

    Downer, Brian; Chen, Nai-Wei; Wong, Rebeca; Markides, Kyriakos S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the health and functional characteristics of Mexican and Mexican American adults aged ≥80. Method Data came from Wave I (2001) and Wave III (2012) of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), and Wave IV (2000–2001) and Wave VII (2010–2011) of the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (HEPESE). Results In 2000–2001, diabetes, arthritis, hypertension, and stroke were higher in the HEPESE than in the MHAS. In the HEPESE, activities of daily living (ADL) difficulties and all health conditions, except heart attack, were greater in 2010–2011 than in 2000–2001. In the MHAS, hypertension and ADL difficulties were greater, and arthritis was lower in 2012 compared with 2001. In 2010–2011, all self-reported health conditions were higher in the HEPESE compared with the 2012 observation of the MHAS. Discussion The observed differences may reflect worse health for Mexican Americans, health care access, reporting bias, and more selective survival to very old age in Mexico. PMID:27590800

  16. Attitudes and program preferences of African-American urban young adults about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

    PubMed

    Smith, Dawn K; Toledo, Lauren; Smith, Donna Jo; Adams, Mary Anne; Rothenberg, Richard

    2012-10-01

    We elicited attitudes about, and service access preferences for, daily oral antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) from urban, African-American young men and women, ages 18-24 years, at risk for HIV transmission through their sexual and drug-related behaviors participating in eight mixed-gender and two MSM-only focus groups in Atlanta, Georgia. Participants reported substantial interest in PrEP associated with its perceived cost, effectiveness, and ease of accessing services and medication near to their homes or by public transportation. Frequent HIV testing was a perceived benefit. Participants differed about whether risk-reduction behaviors would change, and in which direction; and whether PrEP use would be associated with HIV stigma or would enhance the reputation for PrEP users. This provides the first information about the interests, concerns, and preferences of young adult African Americans that can be used to inform the introduction of PrEP services into HIV prevention efforts for this critical population group. PMID:23016502

  17. Implications for Educational Classification and Psychological Diagnoses Using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition with Canadian versus American Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Holmes, Alana; Silvestri, Robert; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2015-01-01

    Building on a recent work of Harrison, Armstrong, Harrison, Iverson and Lange which suggested that Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) scores might systematically overestimate the severity of intellectual impairments if Canadian norms are used, the present study examined differences between Canadian and American derived…

  18. Consensus statement of the academy of nutrition and dietetics/american society for parenteral and enteral nutrition: Characteristics recommended for the identification and documentation of adult malnutrition (undernutrition)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy) and the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) recommend that a standardized set of diagnostic characteristics be used to identify and document adult malnutrition in routine clinical practice. An etiologically based diagno...

  19. A Guide to Basic Taxonomic Literature for the Genera of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) - Adults, Pupae, and Larvae. Bulletin No. 447.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Karl W.

    A generic list of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) is presented to help aquatic biologists quickly locate important taxonomic references for the adults, larvae, and pupae of each genus. The list (in chart format) includes literature published through 1981. When recent literature is available, older references are omitted, since the purpose of…

  20. Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD): An Evaluation of a Semistructured Reading Discussion Group for African American Female Adult-Literacy Students with Histories of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jayatta D.

    2012-01-01

    Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD), a reading discussion group geared toward African American female adult-literacy students with self-defined histories of trauma, was an outgrowth of research identifying links between trauma, women's struggles with literacy, and the need to be conscious of emotional health…

  1. An Examination of the Perceptions of Older Americans on Successful Aging and Adult Education Programs to Meet Their Aging Needs in Southeast Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Ileeia Anjale

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the personal perceptions of older Americans in regards to the aging process and the characteristics of successful aging. In addition, the study aimed to determine individual perceptions of adult education programs and resources necessary in aging successfully. The study examined current resources, services…

  2. Why Take an HIV Test? Concerns, Benefits, and Strategies to Promote HIV Testing among Low-Income Heterosexual African American Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Scyatta A.; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Harris, Muriel J.; Townsend, Tiffany G.; Miller, Kim S.

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative study examined perceptions of HIV testing and strategies to enhance HIV testing among HIV-negative African American heterosexual young adults (ages 18-25 years). Twenty-six focus groups (13 male groups, 13 female groups) were conducted in two low-income communities (urban and rural). All sessions were audio-recorded and transcribed.…

  3. HIV/AIDS: Risk & Protective Behaviors among American Young Adults, 2004-2008. Monitoring the Future. NIH Publication No. 10-7586

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. The study is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research…

  4. Comparison of the big-five factor structure across samples of Chinese and American adults.

    PubMed

    Trull, T J; Geary, D C

    1997-10-01

    We compared the factor structure of Goldberg's (1992) 50-item Bipolar Rating Scale (50-BRS) in samples of Chinese (n = 198) and American (n = 303) students. Results confirmed the hypothesized five-factor pattern for the U.S. sample, and a simultaneous multisample confirmatory factor analysis showed that the same five-factor pattern fit the item covariances in the Chinese sample. High levels of internal consistency were found within each sample, and a high degree of congruency of corresponding item factor loadings was obtained across samples. Overall, results supported the potential utility of the Five-Factor Model and the 50-BRS for assessing personality dimensions in Chinese culture.

  5. Recruiting hospitalized Mexican American elder adults and caregivers: challenges and strategies.

    PubMed

    Crist, Janice D; Ruiz, Maricruz R; Torres-Urquidy, Oscar H; Pasvogel, Alice; Hepworth, Joseph T

    2013-01-01

    Minority group members' participation in clinical research is essential for eliminating health disparities. Early recruitment procedures for a randomized control trial involving minority elder adults at local hospitals were unsuccessful, with challenges at the hospital and individual levels. These challenges included referrals for home health care being written late during hospitalization, hospital staff being reluctant to assist recruiters, ill minority elder adults, and protective or unavailable caregivers. We met these challenges with evidence-based strategies, including changing inclusion criteria, increasing study staff, branding our study, using a consistently respectful manner, and pacing our process. After revising our approaches in various ways, we recruited close to our goal, with relatively good retention. Participants reported that benefiting the community, rather than monetary reward, was a strong motivator to join the study. Unexpected recruitment expenditures exceeded the recruitment budget. Our experiences include strategies that can be more cost effective in future studies at both hospital and individual levels. PMID:23244443

  6. "Condoms are the standard, right?": Exploratory study of the reasons for using condoms by Black American emerging adult women.

    PubMed

    Longmire-Avital, Buffie; Oberle, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Condoms are considered a highly effective form of sexually transmitted infection prevention for heterosexual sex. Black American women (BAW) have been and are at elevated risk for heterosexual exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because they have been and continue to be less likely to negotiate condom use with a partner that supports them financially. However, BAW who have made tremendous educational gains may still encounter challenges regarding the distribution of power that can affect condom use and negotiation. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the reasons that highly educated, emerging, adult BAW reported for using condoms. One hundred twenty-seven emerging adult BAW (ages 18-29 years) completed a mixed-methods online survey during the spring of 2013 (January-May). Approximately 80% of the women were in college or college graduates. They had a high rate of previous HIV testing (68.5%). Through the use of an interpretive paradigm and grounded theory, three themes emerged regarding the reasons that the participants in this sample used condoms as their primary form of protection: (1) the reliable "standard," (2) pregnancy prevention, and (3) cost effective and "easily accessible." Findings are discussed in terms of their public health significance for this seemingly lower-risk population.

  7. ‘Smoking’: use of cigarettes, cigars and blunts among Southeast Asian American youth and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J. P.; Battle, R. S.; Lipton, R.; Soller, B.

    2010-01-01

    Increased use of cigars has been noted among youth, as well as use of blunts (hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana). Three types of relationships have been previously hypothesized between use of tobacco and marijuana in substance use progression. We aimed to assess these relationships for Southeast Asian American youth and adults in an urban population. We conducted in-person interviews with 164 Southeast Asians, smokers and non-smokers, in two low-income urban communities in Northern California, collecting both quantitative and qualitative data. Analysis of the quantitative data indicated distinct use patterns for blunts, cigars and other forms of marijuana in terms of associations with generation in the United States. The use of these items was also found to be related: ever having smoked cigarettes or blunts increased the risk of ever having smoked the other three items. Qualitative data found indications of all three hypothesized relationships between tobacco and marijuana for youths but not for older adults. For youths in the study, ‘smoking’ was found to constitute a social construct within which use of cigarettes, cigars and blunts were somewhat interchangeable. Youths in similar settings may initiate into and progress through smoking as an activity domain rather than any one of these items. PMID:19959564

  8. "Condoms are the standard, right?": Exploratory study of the reasons for using condoms by Black American emerging adult women.

    PubMed

    Longmire-Avital, Buffie; Oberle, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Condoms are considered a highly effective form of sexually transmitted infection prevention for heterosexual sex. Black American women (BAW) have been and are at elevated risk for heterosexual exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because they have been and continue to be less likely to negotiate condom use with a partner that supports them financially. However, BAW who have made tremendous educational gains may still encounter challenges regarding the distribution of power that can affect condom use and negotiation. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the reasons that highly educated, emerging, adult BAW reported for using condoms. One hundred twenty-seven emerging adult BAW (ages 18-29 years) completed a mixed-methods online survey during the spring of 2013 (January-May). Approximately 80% of the women were in college or college graduates. They had a high rate of previous HIV testing (68.5%). Through the use of an interpretive paradigm and grounded theory, three themes emerged regarding the reasons that the participants in this sample used condoms as their primary form of protection: (1) the reliable "standard," (2) pregnancy prevention, and (3) cost effective and "easily accessible." Findings are discussed in terms of their public health significance for this seemingly lower-risk population. PMID:26327468

  9. Socioeconomic Position Is Positively Associated With Blood Pressure Dipping Among African-American Adults: The Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Hickson, DeMarc A; Diez Roux, Ana V; Wyatt, Sharon B; Gebreab, Samson Y; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Sarpong, Daniel F; Taylor, Herman A; Wofford, Marion R

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Blunted nocturnal blood pressure (NBP) dipping is a significant predictor of cardiovascular events. Lower socioeconomic position (SEP) may be an important predictor of NBP dipping, especially in African Americans (AA). However, the determinants of NBP dipping are not fully understood. METHODS The cross-sectional associations of individual and neighborhood SEP with NBP dipping, assessed by 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring, were examined among 837 AA adults (Mean age: 59.2 ± 10.7 years; 69.2% women), after adjustment for age, sex, hypertension status, body mass index (BMI), health behaviors, office, and 24-h systolic BP (SBP). RESULTS The mean hourly SBP was consistently lower among participants in the highest category of individual income compared to those in the lowest category, and these differences were most pronounced during sleeping hours. The odds of NBP dipping (defined as >10% decline in the mean asleep SBP compared to the mean awake SBP) increased by 31% (95% confidence interval: 13–53%) and 18% (95% confidence interval: 0–39%) for each s.d. increase in income and years of education, respectively, after multivariable adjustment. CONCLUSIONS NBP dipping is patterned by income and education in AA adults even after accounting for known risk factors. These results suggest that low SEP is a risk factor for insufficient NBP dipping in AA. PMID:21654853

  10. Examining the Racial Crossover in Mortality between African American and White Older Adults: A Multilevel Survival Analysis of Race, Individual Socioeconomic Status, and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Context.

    PubMed

    Yao, Li; Robert, Stephanie A

    2011-01-01

    We examine whether individual and neighborhood socioeconomic context contributes to black/white disparities in mortality among USA older adults. Using national longitudinal data from the Americans' Changing Lives study, along with census tract information for each respondent, we conduct multilevel survival analyses. Results show that black older adults are disadvantaged in mortality in younger old age, but older black adults have lower mortality risk than whites after about age 80. Both individual SES and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage contribute to the mortality risk of older adults but do not completely explain race differences in mortality. The racial mortality crossover persists even after controlling for multilevel SES, suggesting that black older adults experience selective survival at very old ages. Addressing the individual and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage of blacks is necessary to reduce mortality disparities that culminate in older adulthood.

  11. The acute treatment of migraine in adults: the american headache society evidence assessment of migraine pharmacotherapies.

    PubMed

    Marmura, Michael J; Silberstein, Stephen D; Schwedt, Todd J

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to provide an updated assessment of the evidence for individual pharmacological therapies for acute migraine treatment. Pharmacological therapy is frequently required for acutely treating migraine attacks. The American Academy of Neurology Guidelines published in 2000 summarized the available evidence relating to the efficacy of acute migraine medications. This review, conducted by the members of the Guidelines Section of the American Headache Society, is an updated assessment of evidence for the migraine acute medications. A standardized literature search was performed to identify articles related to acute migraine treatment that were published between 1998 and 2013. The American Academy of Neurology Guidelines Development procedures were followed. Two authors reviewed each abstract resulting from the search and determined whether the full manuscript qualified for review. Two reviewers studied each qualifying full manuscript for its level of evidence. Level A evidence requires at least 2 Class I studies, and Level B evidence requires 1 Class I or 2 Class II studies. The specific medications - triptans (almotriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan [oral, nasal spray, injectable, transcutaneous patch], zolmitriptan [oral and nasal spray]) and dihydroergotamine (nasal spray, inhaler) are effective (Level A). Ergotamine and other forms of dihydroergotamine are probably effective (Level B). Effective nonspecific medications include acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and naproxen), opioids (butorphanol nasal spray), sumatriptan/naproxen, and the combination of acetaminophen/aspirin/caffeine (Level A). Ketoprofen, intravenous and intramuscular ketorolac, flurbiprofen, intravenous magnesium (in migraine with aura), and the combination of isometheptene compounds, codeine/acetaminophen and tramadol/acetaminophen are probably effective (Level B). The antiemetics prochlorperazine

  12. Stimulant use by young adult African Americans in a rural community: a pipeline to prison?

    PubMed

    Kramer, Teresa L; Bell-Tolliver, Laverne; Tripathi, Shanti P; Booth, Brenda M

    2011-01-01

    The association between stimulant use and legal outcomes was examined in rural adults aged 18-21 years (n = 98) in the Mississippi River Delta of Arkansas from 2003 through 2008. Participants were interviewed at baseline and every 6 months for 2 years, using the Substance Abuse Outcomes Module, Addiction Severity Index, Short-Form 8 Health Survey, Brief Symptom Inventory, Patient Health Questionnaire depression screen, and an abbreviated antisocial personality disorder measure. More than three quarters were arrested before baseline; 47 were arrested over the next 2 years. Early arrest but not substance use was related to subsequent arrest. Limitations and implications for interventions are discussed.

  13. The association between leisure-time physical activity and dietary fat in American adults.

    PubMed Central

    Simoes, E J; Byers, T; Coates, R J; Serdula, M K; Mokdad, A H; Heath, G W

    1995-01-01

    Relations between leisure-time physical activity and dietary fat were examined in a population-based probability sample of 29,672 adults in the 1990 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Consumption of 13 high-fat food items and participation in physical activities were measured, and fat and activity scores were calculated. Dietary fat and physical activity were strongly and inversely associated. This association was independent of nine other demographic and behavioral risk factors. Etiologic researchers should consider that diet and physical activity can potentially confound each other, and creators of public health messages that target one behavior should consider including the other. PMID:7856785

  14. Perceived racism and mental health among Black American adults: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Pieterse, Alex L; Todd, Nathan R; Neville, Helen A; Carter, Robert T

    2012-01-01

    The literature indicates that perceived racism tends to be associated with adverse psychological and physiological outcomes; however, findings in this area are not yet conclusive. In this meta-analysis, we systematically reviewed 66 studies (total sample size of 18,140 across studies), published between January 1996 and April 2011, on the associations between racism and mental health among Black Americans. Using a random-effects model, we found a positive association between perceived racism and psychological distress (r = .20). We found a moderation effect for psychological outcomes, with anxiety, depression, and other psychiatric symptoms having a significantly stronger association than quality of life indicators. We did not detect moderation effects for type of racism scale, measurement precision, sample type, or type of publication. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  15. Alcohol Use Problems and Sexual Risk Among Young Adult African American Mothers.

    PubMed

    Swartzendruber, Andrea; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve S; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2016-01-01

    Studies have documented high levels of alcohol use and sexual risk among young mothers. We examined parenting satisfaction and self-efficacy in relation to alcohol use problems and sexual risk among 346 young African American women enrolled in an HIV prevention trial, 41 % (n = 141) of whom were mothers. Among mothers, greater parenting satisfaction was associated with a reduced likelihood of problematic alcohol use, having multiple sex partners, and testing positive for Trichomonas vaginalis. Relative to non-parenting women, mothers reported lower condom use. Compared to non-parenting women, mothers with the highest parenting satisfaction reported fewer alcohol use problems; mothers with the lowest parenting satisfaction reported lower condom use and were more likely to have multiple partners and test positive for T. vaginalis. Parenting self-efficacy was not associated with the outcomes examined. Future research investigating relationships between parenting satisfaction, alcohol use and sexual risk may be useful for improving multiple maternal health outcomes. PMID:26499334

  16. A LIFE COURSE APPROACH TO UNDERSTANDING POVERTY AMONG OLDER AMERICAN ADULTS*

    PubMed Central

    Rank, Mark R.; Hadley, Herbert S.; Williams, James Herbert

    2014-01-01

    A relatively new strategy for studying the prevalence of poverty in America is to analyze it as a potential life course event. We use such an approach in order to examine the likelihood of both income and asset poverty for individuals between the ages of 60 and 90. Nearly half of all elderly Americans will encounter at least one year of poverty or near poverty across these ages. In addition, 58 percent of those between the ages of 60 and 84 will at some point fail to have enough liquid assets to allow them to weather an unanticipated expense or downturn in income. The policy and practice implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25104897

  17. Shark predation on migrating adult American eels (Anguilla rostrata) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

    PubMed

    Béguer-Pon, Mélanie; Benchetrit, José; Castonguay, Martin; Aarestrup, Kim; Campana, Steven E; Stokesbury, Michael J W; Dodson, Julian J

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to document the migratory pathways and the environmental conditions encountered by American eels during their oceanic migration to the Sargasso Sea, we tagged eight silver eels with miniature satellite pop-up tags during their migration from the St. Lawrence River in Québec, Canada. Surprisingly, of the seven tags that successfully transmitted archived data, six were ingested by warm-gutted predators, as observed by a sudden increase in water temperature. Gut temperatures were in the range of 20 to 25°C-too cold for marine mammals but within the range of endothermic fish. In order to identify the eel predators, we compared their vertical migratory behavior with those of satellite-tagged porbeagle shark and bluefin tuna, the only endothermic fishes occurring non-marginally in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. We accurately distinguished between tuna and shark by using the behavioral criteria generated by comparing the diving behavior of these two species with those of our unknown predators. Depth profile characteristics of most eel predators more closely resembled those of sharks than those of tuna. During the first days following tagging, all eels remained in surface waters and did not exhibit diel vertical migrations. Three eels were eaten at this time. Two eels exhibited inverse diel vertical migrations (at surface during the day) during several days prior to predation. Four eels were eaten during daytime, whereas the two night-predation events occurred at full moon. Although tagging itself may contribute to increasing the eel's susceptibility to predation, we discuss evidence suggesting that predation of silver-stage American eels by porbeagle sharks may represent a significant source of mortality inside the Gulf of St. Lawrence and raises the possibility that eels may represent a reliable, predictable food resource for porbeagle sharks.

  18. Shark predation on migrating adult American eels (Anguilla rostrata) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

    PubMed

    Béguer-Pon, Mélanie; Benchetrit, José; Castonguay, Martin; Aarestrup, Kim; Campana, Steven E; Stokesbury, Michael J W; Dodson, Julian J

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to document the migratory pathways and the environmental conditions encountered by American eels during their oceanic migration to the Sargasso Sea, we tagged eight silver eels with miniature satellite pop-up tags during their migration from the St. Lawrence River in Québec, Canada. Surprisingly, of the seven tags that successfully transmitted archived data, six were ingested by warm-gutted predators, as observed by a sudden increase in water temperature. Gut temperatures were in the range of 20 to 25°C-too cold for marine mammals but within the range of endothermic fish. In order to identify the eel predators, we compared their vertical migratory behavior with those of satellite-tagged porbeagle shark and bluefin tuna, the only endothermic fishes occurring non-marginally in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. We accurately distinguished between tuna and shark by using the behavioral criteria generated by comparing the diving behavior of these two species with those of our unknown predators. Depth profile characteristics of most eel predators more closely resembled those of sharks than those of tuna. During the first days following tagging, all eels remained in surface waters and did not exhibit diel vertical migrations. Three eels were eaten at this time. Two eels exhibited inverse diel vertical migrations (at surface during the day) during several days prior to predation. Four eels were eaten during daytime, whereas the two night-predation events occurred at full moon. Although tagging itself may contribute to increasing the eel's susceptibility to predation, we discuss evidence suggesting that predation of silver-stage American eels by porbeagle sharks may represent a significant source of mortality inside the Gulf of St. Lawrence and raises the possibility that eels may represent a reliable, predictable food resource for porbeagle sharks. PMID:23082131

  19. Anticipated HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Sexually Active African-American Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Painter, Julia; Cene-Kush, Clare; Conner, Alaina; Cwiak, Carrie; Haddad, Lisa; Mulligan, Mark; DiClemente, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    An HIV vaccine, once it becomes available, could reduce vulnerability to HIV among African-American women. The purpose of this study was to assess determinants of HIV vaccine acceptability among African-American women across hypothetical levels of vaccine efficacy. Participants were recruited from a hospital-based family planning clinic in Atlanta, GA serving low-income patients (N = 321). Data were collected from audio-computer assisted surveys administered in the clinic waiting room. Psychosocial survey items were guided by Risk Homeostasis Theory (RHT) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify determinants of acceptability for two hypothetical HIV vaccines with 50% and 90% efficacy. Overall, 63% of participants would accept a vaccine with 50% efficacy and 85% would accept a vaccine with 90% efficacy. In multivariate analyses, odds of acceptability for a vaccine with 50% efficacy were higher among participants with greater perceived HIV vaccine benefits (AOR = 1.13, p < 0.001) and lower among participants with more than high school education (AOR = 0.47, p = 0.033) and greater perceived costs of HIV vaccination (AOR = 0.95, p = 0.010). Odds of acceptability for a vaccine with 90% efficacy were higher among participants with greater perceived costs of unprotected sex (AOR = 1.08, p = 0.026), HIV vaccine benefits (AOR = 1.23, p < 0.001) and self-efficacy for sex refusal (AOR = 1.11, p = 0.044). HIV vaccine acceptability was high, particularly for a vaccine with 90% efficacy. Findings suggest that demographic and psychosocial factors may impact acceptability of an eventual HIV vaccine. Once an HIV vaccine is available, interventions to maximize uptake may benefit from using RHT and SCT constructs to target relevant psychosocial factors, such as perceived benefits and perceived costs of vaccination. PMID:26343960

  20. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment to Identify Common Smoking Situations Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Cerrada, Christian Jules; Ra, Chaelin Karen; Shin, Hee-Sung; Dzubur, Eldin; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    The present study provides detailed contextual information about smoking habits among young Korean American smokers with the goal of characterizing situations where they are most at risk for smoking. Relevant situational factors included location, social context, concurrent activities, time of day, affective states, and food and beverage consumption. Using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) over 7 days, participants (N = 78) were instructed to respond to smoking prompts (n = 2614) and non-smoking prompts (n = 2136) randomly scheduled throughout the day. At each prompt, participants completed a short survey about immediate contextual factors. We used multilevel models to evaluate the association between contextual factors and smoking and further explored the distribution of smoking locations and concurrent activities across each social context and reason for smoking. Compared to non-smoking events, smoking events were associated with being outside, the presence of Korean friends, socializing, consuming alcohol, and experiencing more stress relative to one's average stress level (all ps < .01). Further analyses involving only smoking events showed that when participants smoked alone, they were most commonly at home (50 %) and most often studying/working (28 %). When smoking with Korean friends, participants were most often outside (38 %) and socializing (54 %). When smoking to reduce craving, participants were most often at home (39 %) and studying/working (25 %). To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide detailed descriptions of real-time smoking contexts among young Korean American smokers. Information with this level of granularity is needed to develop effective just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs) for smoking cessation. PMID:27476588

  1. Fasting Insulin Level Is Positively Associated With Incidence of Hypertension Among American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Xun, Pengcheng; Liu, Kiang; Cao, Wenhong; Sidney, Stephen; Williams, O. Dale; He, Ka

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although hyperinsulinemia, a surrogate of insulin resistance, may play a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension (HTN), the longitudinal association between fasting insulin level and HTN development is still controversial. We examined the relation between fasting insulin and incidence of HTN in a large prospective cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A prospective cohort of 3,413 Americans, aged 18–30 years, without HTN in 1985 (baseline) were enrolled. Six follow-ups were conducted in 1987, 1990, 1992, 1995, 2000, and 2005. Fasting insulin and glucose levels were assessed by a radioimmunoassay and hexokinase method, respectively. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs of incident HTN (defined as the initiation of antihypertensive medication, systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg, or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg). RESULTS During the 20-year follow-up, 796 incident cases were identified. After adjustment for potential confounders, participants in the highest quartile of insulin levels had a significantly higher incidence of HTN (HR 1.85 [95% CI 1.42–2.40]; Ptrend < 0.001) compared with those in the lowest quartile. The positive association persisted in each sex/ethnicity/weight status subgroup. A similar dose-response relation was observed when insulin-to-glucose ratio or homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance was used as exposure. CONCLUSIONS Fasting serum insulin levels or hyperinsulinemia in young adulthood was positively associated with incidence of HTN later in life for both men and women, African Americans and Caucasians, and those with normal weight and overweight. Our findings suggested that fasting insulin ascertainment may help clinicians identify those at high risk of HTN. PMID:22511258

  2. Prevalence of DSM-IV borderline personality disorder in two community samples: 6,330 English 11-year-olds and 34,653 American adults.

    PubMed

    Zanarini, Mary C; Horwood, Jeremy; Wolke, Dieter; Waylen, Andrea; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Grant, Bridget F

    2011-10-01

    This study had two main objectives. The first was to assess the prevalence of DSM-IV borderline personality disorder and its constituent symptoms in a community sample of late-latency children. The second was to compare these rates to those found in a community sample of American adults. A birth cohort of 6,330 11-year-old children in Bristol, England, was interviewed concerning borderline psychopathology in 2002-2004. A community sample of 34,653 American adults was interviewed about borderline psychopathology in 2004-2005. Rates of chronic emptiness, physically self-damaging acts, and stormy relationships were very similar in both samples (<2% difference). However, a significantly higher percentage of children than adults reported being angry and moody. In contrast, a significantly higher percentage of adults than children reported being paranoid/dissociated, having a serious identity disturbance, being impulsive, and making frantic efforts to avoid abandonment. In addition, a significantly higher percentage of adults than children met DSM-IV criteria for BPD (5.9% vs. 3.2%). Statistically significant but clinically minor gender differences were also found between girls and boys as well as men and women. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that late-latency children are about half as likely as adults to meet DSM-IV criteria for BPD. They also suggest that gender does not play a defining role in symptom expression.

  3. Intraurban Variations in Adult Mortality in a Large Latin American City

    PubMed Central

    Green Franklin, Tracy; Alazraqui, Marcio; Spinelli, Hugo

    2007-01-01

    Urbanization is high and growing in low- and middle-income countries, but intraurban variations in adult health have been infrequently examined. We used spatial analysis methods to investigate spatial variation in total, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and neoplasm adult mortality in Buenos Aires, Argentina, a large city within a middle-income country in Latin America. Conditional autoregressive models were used to examine the contribution of socioeconomic inequalities to the spatial patterning observed. Spatial autocorrelation was present in both men and women for total deaths, cardiovascular deaths, and other causes of death (Moran’s Is ranging from 0.15 to 0.37). There was some spatial autocorrelation for respiratory deaths, which was stronger in men than in women. Neoplasm deaths were not spatially patterned. Socioeconomic disadvantage explained some of this spatial patterning and was strongly associated with death from all causes except respiratory deaths in women and neoplasms in men and women [relative rates (RR) for 90th vs 10th percentile of percent of adults with incomplete high school and 95% confidence intervals: 1.23 and 1.09–1.39 vs 1.24 and 1.08–1.42 for total deaths in men and women, respectively; 1.36 and 1.15–1.60 vs 1.22 and 1.01–1.47 for cardiovascular deaths; 1.21 and 0.97–1.52 vs 1.07 and 0.85–1.34 for respiratory deaths; 0.94 and 0.85–1.04 vs 1.03 and 0.87–1.22 for neoplasms; and 1.49 and 1.20–1.85 vs 1.63 and 1.31–2.03 for other deaths].There is substantial intraurban variation in risk of death within cities. This spatial variability was present for multiple causes of death and is partly explained by the spatial patterning of socioeconomic disadvantage. Our results highlight the pervasive role of space and social inequalities in shaping life and death within large cities. PMID:17357849

  4. Distributions and Determinants of Mercury Concentrations in Toenails among American Young Adults: the CARDIA Trace Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Xun, Pengcheng; Liu, Kiang; Morris, J. Steve; Jordan, Joanne M.; He, Ka

    2012-01-01

    Background Since data on mercury (Hg) levels in Caucasians and African Americans (AAs) of both genders are lacking, this study aims to present toenail Hg distributions and explore the potential determinants using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Trace Element Study. Methods Data from 4344 Americans, aged 20–32 in 1987, recruited from Oakland, Chicago, Minneapolis and Birmingham were used to measure toenail Hg levels by instrumental neutron-activation method. The Hg distribution was described with selected percentiles and geometric means. Multivariable linear regression (MLR) was used to examine potential determinants of Hg levels within ethnicity-gender subgroups. Results The geometric mean of toenail Hg was 0.212 (95% CI: 0.207–0.218) μg/g. Hg levels varied geographically with Oakland the highest [0.381 (0.367–0.395) μg/g] and Minneapolis the lowest [0.140 (0.134–0.147) μg/g]. MLR analyses showed that male gender and AA ethnicity were negatively associated with toenail Hg levels; and that age, living in Oakland city, education level, alcohol consumption and total fish intake were positively associated with toenail Hg concentrations within each ethnicity-gender subgroup. Current smokers were found to have higher Hg only in AA men. Conclusions This study suggested age, gender, ethnicity, study center, alcohol, education level and fish consumption consistently predict toenail Hg levels. As fish consumption was the key determinant, avoiding certain types of fish that have relatively high Hg levels may be crucial in reducing Hg intake. PMID:22926255

  5. Folate intake and incidence of hypertension among American young adults: a 20-y follow-up study123

    PubMed Central

    Xun, Pengcheng; Liu, Kiang; Loria, Catherine M; Bujnowski, Deborah; Shikany, James M; Schreiner, Pamela J; Sidney, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Laboratory studies suggest that folate intake may decrease blood pressure (BP) through increasing nitric oxide synthesis in endothelial cells and/or reducing plasma homocysteine concentrations. However, human studies, particularly longitudinal data, are limited. Objective: Our objective was to investigate whether dietary folate intake is associated with the 20-y incidence of hypertension. Design: We prospectively followed 4400 men and women (African Americans and whites aged 18–30 y) without hypertension at baseline (1985) in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study 6 times, in 1987, 1990, 1992, 1995, 2000, and 2005. Diet was assessed by dietary-history questionnaire at baseline and in 1992 and 2005. Incident hypertension was defined as the first occurrence at any follow-up examination of systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication. Results: A total of 989 incident cases were identified during the 20-y follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, participants in the highest quintile of total folate intake had a significantly lower incidence of hypertension (HR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.62; P-trend < 0.01) than did those in the lowest quintile. The multivariable HRs for the same comparison were 0.33 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.51; P-trend < 0.01) in whites and 0.54 (95% CI: 0.40, 0.75; P-trend < 0.01) in African Americans (P-interaction = 0.047). The inverse associations were confirmed in a subset of the cohort (n = 1445) with serum folate measured at baseline and in 1992 and 2000. Conclusions: Higher folate intake in young adulthood was longitudinally associated with a lower incidence of hypertension later in life. This inverse association was more pronounced in whites. Additional studies are warranted to establish the causal inference. PMID:22492371

  6. Assessing Acculturation Over Time: A Four-year Prospective Study of Asian American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Kate E.; Klonoff, Elizabeth A.; Garcini, Luz M.; Ullman, Jodie B.; Wall, Tamara L.; Myers, Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    Acculturation is commonly defined as a dynamic and multidimensional process in which individuals and groups change over time when coming into contact with another culture. Despite the emphasis on acculturation as a process of change over time, few researchers have directly assessed this hypothesis. The current study first identifies and then examines “stable” and “dynamic” dimensions of acculturation within a 4-year prospective study of 433 first- and second-generation Chinese- and Korean-American college students. Separate growth model analyses revealed significant linear change for first-generation students toward greater U.S. acculturation. In comparison, tests of linear and quadratic change for second-generation students were not significant. When stratifying by gender, acculturation increased for women but there was no significant change in acculturation for men. While all students reported increases in alcohol consumption over the study period, changes in acculturation predicted changes in alcohol consumption only for women. Chinese men showed greater increases in alcohol consumption than Korean men but there was no effect for ethnicity among women. There was significant individual variability in the models, which underscores the importance of examining change prospectively through within and between person analyses. The findings highlight the importance of examining acculturation changes over time for different migrant groups with implications for further development of acculturation measures, research methodologies, and health interventions. More prospective research designs of acculturation are needed to examine changes in health behavior and overall adaptation across migrant groups at varying stages of development. PMID:25558310

  7. Sociodemographic Factors, Acculturation, and Nutrition Management among Hispanic American Adults with Self-reported Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yilin Xu; Simonsen, Neal; Chen, Liwei; Zhang, L U; Scribner, Richard; Tseng, Tung-Sung

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether sociodemographic factors and acculturation affect achievement of selected American Diabetes Association (ADA) nutrition therapy recommendations among Hispanics with diabetes. Cross-sectional data for Hispanics with diabetes in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2010 were used. Achievements of the ADA recommendation for five nutrition components were examined (i.e., daily intake of saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, and fiber, and daily servings of alcohol). Acculturation measurement derived from language use, country of birth, and length of residence in the U.S. Logistic regressions were performed. Only 49% of Hispanics with diabetes met three or more recommended criteria. Male gender and younger age (≤45) predicted poor recommendation adherence. More acculturated individuals had around 50% lower odds to achieve saturated fat [OR 0.5, CI 0.2-0.7], fiber [OR 0.5, CI 0.2-0.9], sodium [OR 0.5, CI 0.3-0.9] and cholesterol intake [OR 0.5, CI 0.3-0.8] recommendations than their less acculturated counterparts.

  8. Limited percentages of adults in Washington State meet the Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommended intakes of fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Ta, Myduc L; VanEenwyk, Juliet; Bensley, Lillian

    2012-05-01

    Nutritious diets that include sufficient intake of fruits and vegetables promote health and reduce risk for chronic diseases. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend four to 13 servings of fruits and vegetables daily for energy intake levels of 1,000 to 3,200 kcal, including seven to 13 servings for 1,600 to 3,000 kcal/day as recommended for adults aged ≥25 years. The 2006-2007 Washington Adult Health Survey, a cross-sectional study designed to measure risk factors for cardiovascular disease among a representative sample of Washington State residents aged ≥25 years, included a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ included approximately 120 food items and summary questions for fruits and vegetables that were used to compute energy intake and two measures of fruit and vegetable intake. Measure 1 was computed as the sum of intake of individual FFQ fruit and vegetable items; Measure 2 combined the summary questions with selected individual FFQ fruit and vegetable items. Depending on the measure used, approximately 14% to 22% of 519 participants with complete information met the guidelines for fruits, 11% to 15% for vegetables, and 5% to 6% for both fruits and vegetables. Participants aged ≥65 years and women were more likely to meet recommendations, compared with younger participants and men. Despite decades of public health attention, the vast majority of Washington State residents do not consume the recommended amount of fruits or vegetables daily. These findings underscore the need for developing and evaluating new approaches to promote fruit and vegetable consumption.

  9. Surprising SES Gradients in Mortality, Health, and Biomarkers in a Latin American Population of Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dow, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Background To determine socioeconomic status (SES) gradients in the different dimensions of health among elderly Costa Ricans. Hypothesis: SES disparities in adult health are minimal in Costa Rican society. Methods Data from the Costa Rican Study on Longevity and Healthy Aging study: 8,000 elderly Costa Ricans to determine mortality in the period 2000–2007 and a subsample of 3,000 to determine prevalence of several health conditions and biomarkers from anthropometry and blood and urine specimens. Results The ultimate health indicator, mortality, as well as the metabolic syndrome, reveals that better educated and wealthier individuals are worse off. In contrast, quality of life–related measures such as functional and cognitive disabilities, physical frailty, and depression all clearly worsen with lower SES. Overall self-reported health (SRH) also shows a strong positive SES gradient. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes and cholesterol are not significantly related to SES, but hypertension and obesity are worse among high-SES individuals. Reflecting mixed SES gradients in behaviors, smoking and lack of exercise are more common among low SES, but high calorie diets are more common among high SES. Conclusions Negative modern behaviors among high-SES groups may be reversing cardiovascular risks across SES groups, hence reversing mortality risks. But negative SES gradients in healthy years of life persist. PMID:19196695

  10. Does a college education reduce depressive symptoms in American young adults?

    PubMed

    McFarland, Michael J; Wagner, Brandon G

    2015-12-01

    Higher levels of educational attainment are consistently associated with better mental health. Whether this association represents an effect of education on mental health, however, is less clear as omitted variable bias remains a pressing concern with education potentially serving as a proxy for unobserved factors including family background and genetics. To combat this threat and come closer to a causal estimate of the effect of education on depressive symptoms, this study uses data on 231 monozygotic twin pairs from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health and employs a twin-pair difference-in-difference design to account for both unobserved shared factors between twin pairs (e.g. home, school, and neighborhood environment throughout childhood) and a number of observed non-shared but theoretically relevant factors (e.g. cognitive ability, personality characteristics, adolescent health). We find an inverse association between possessing a college degree and depressive symptoms in both conventional and difference-in-difference models. Results of this study also highlight the potentially overlooked role of personality characteristics in the education and mental health literature.

  11. The evolution of adult light emission color in North American fireflies.

    PubMed

    Hall, David W; Sander, Sarah E; Pallansch, Jennifer C; Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F

    2016-09-01

    Firefly species (Lampyridae) vary in the color of their adult bioluminescence. It has been hypothesized that color is selected to enhance detection by conspecifics. One mechanism to improve visibility of the signal is to increase contrast against ambient light. High contrast implies that fireflies active early in the evening will emit yellower luminescence to contrast against ambient light reflected from green vegetation, especially in habitats with high vegetation cover. Another mechanism to improve visibility is to use reflection off the background to enhance the light signal. Reflectance predicts that sedentary females will produce greener light to maximize reflection off the green vegetation on which they signal. To test these predictions, we recorded over 7500 light emission spectra and determined peak emission wavelength for 675 males, representing 24 species, at 57 field sites across the Eastern United States. We found support for both hypotheses: males active early in more vegetated habitats produced yellower flashes in comparison to later-active males with greener flashes. Further, in two of the eight species with female data, female light emissions were significantly greener as compared to males. PMID:27412777

  12. The evolution of adult light emission color in North American fireflies.

    PubMed

    Hall, David W; Sander, Sarah E; Pallansch, Jennifer C; Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F

    2016-09-01

    Firefly species (Lampyridae) vary in the color of their adult bioluminescence. It has been hypothesized that color is selected to enhance detection by conspecifics. One mechanism to improve visibility of the signal is to increase contrast against ambient light. High contrast implies that fireflies active early in the evening will emit yellower luminescence to contrast against ambient light reflected from green vegetation, especially in habitats with high vegetation cover. Another mechanism to improve visibility is to use reflection off the background to enhance the light signal. Reflectance predicts that sedentary females will produce greener light to maximize reflection off the green vegetation on which they signal. To test these predictions, we recorded over 7500 light emission spectra and determined peak emission wavelength for 675 males, representing 24 species, at 57 field sites across the Eastern United States. We found support for both hypotheses: males active early in more vegetated habitats produced yellower flashes in comparison to later-active males with greener flashes. Further, in two of the eight species with female data, female light emissions were significantly greener as compared to males.

  13. Gender and the association of smoking with sleep quantity and quality in American adults.

    PubMed

    Mehari, Alem; Weir, Nargues A; Gillum, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    Smoking and gender are known risk factors for sleep disorders. Studies of samples from Norway and Japan have suggested stronger associations between smoking and disrupted sleep in women; therefore, we examined, gender differences in the association in the U.S. population. We analyzed data from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We examined the associations between smoking and self-reported measures of sleep disorders (i.e., snoring, short sleep, long sleep, poor sleep, and health care provider diagnosis of sleep disordered breathing) using multivariate logistic regression with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) as measures of association. We also assessed whether the associations varied by gender using a gender x smoking interaction term. Compared to never smokers, current smokers had significantly higher odds of self-reported snoring (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.56-2.56), short sleep (OR 1.68; 95% CI = 1.35-2.10) and poor sleep (OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.09-1.74). A dose-response relationship was observed between the amount smoked and sleep symptoms. In multivariate analyses, no significant gender x smoking interaction was observed for snoring, short sleep or poor sleep. Current smoking was independently associated with increased odds of snoring, short sleep, and poor sleep in women and men among U.S. adults. PMID:24261545

  14. Gender and the association of smoking with sleep quantity and quality in American adults.

    PubMed

    Mehari, Alem; Weir, Nargues A; Gillum, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    Smoking and gender are known risk factors for sleep disorders. Studies of samples from Norway and Japan have suggested stronger associations between smoking and disrupted sleep in women; therefore, we examined, gender differences in the association in the U.S. population. We analyzed data from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We examined the associations between smoking and self-reported measures of sleep disorders (i.e., snoring, short sleep, long sleep, poor sleep, and health care provider diagnosis of sleep disordered breathing) using multivariate logistic regression with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) as measures of association. We also assessed whether the associations varied by gender using a gender x smoking interaction term. Compared to never smokers, current smokers had significantly higher odds of self-reported snoring (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.56-2.56), short sleep (OR 1.68; 95% CI = 1.35-2.10) and poor sleep (OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.09-1.74). A dose-response relationship was observed between the amount smoked and sleep symptoms. In multivariate analyses, no significant gender x smoking interaction was observed for snoring, short sleep or poor sleep. Current smoking was independently associated with increased odds of snoring, short sleep, and poor sleep in women and men among U.S. adults.

  15. How welcome do Iranian-Americans feel in their homeland? Perceptions of social distance among Muslim, Jewish, and Non-Religious Iranian-American adults.

    PubMed

    Paige, Shari; Hatfield, Elaine; Liang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Recent political events in the United States have created a political climate that promotes prejudice against Middle Eastern, Iranian, and Muslim people. In this study, we were interested in investigating two questions: (1) How welcome do Iranian-American men and women from various religious backgrounds (Muslim, Jewish, or no religious affiliation) feel in their new homeland (specifically, how much social distance (affective distance) do they think their Euro-American neighbors feel toward them? and (2) to what extent does the possession of stereotypical Middle Eastern, Iranian, or Muslim traits (an accent, darker skin, wearing of religious symbols, traditional garb, etc.) spark prejudice and thus Iranian-Americans perception of social distance? Participants were recruited from two very different sources: (1) shoppers at grocery stores in Iranian-American neighborhoods in Los Angeles, and (2) a survey posted on http://Surveymonkey.com. A total of 374 Iranian-Americans, ages 18 and older, completed an in-person or online questionnaire that included the following: a request for demographic information, religious preferences, a survey of how typically Iranian-American the respondents' traits were, and the social distance scale. A surprise was that it was the Iranian-American Jews (not the Muslims), who felt most keenly that Euro-Americans kept them at a distance. Jewish women received higher scores on the social distance scale than did members of any other group. In addition, again, it was mainly Iranian-American Jews, particularly those who spoke with a Middle Eastern accent or wore stereotypically religious symbols, who felt the most social distance existing between them and "typical" Americans. PMID:26693106

  16. Qualitative developmental research among low income African American adults to inform a social marketing campaign for walking

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study describes the development of a social marketing campaign for increasing walking in a low income, high crime community as part of the Positive Action for Today’s Health (PATH) trial. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 52 African American adults (ages 18 to 65 yrs), from two underserved communities to develop themes for a social marketing campaign to promote walking. Participants responded to questions concerning social marketing principles related to product, price, place, promotion, and positioning for increasing neighbourhood walking. Results Focus group data informed the development of the campaign objectives that were derived from the “5 Ps” to promote physical and mental health, social connectedness, safety, and confidence in walking regularly. Focus group themes indicated that physical and mental health benefits of walking were important motivators. Walking for social reasons was also important for overcoming barriers to walking. Police support from trusted officers while walking was also essential to promoting safety for walking. Print materials were developed by the steering committee, with a 12-month calendar and door hangers delivered to residents’ homes to invite them to walk. Pride Stride walks empowered community walkers to serve as peer leaders for special walking events to engage new walkers. Conclusions Essential elements for developing culturally tailored social marketing interventions for promoting walking in underserved communities are outlined for future researchers. PMID:23497164

  17. The Moderating Role of Gender in the Relationship Between Tobacco Outlet Exposure and Tobacco Use Among African American Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Brown, Qiana; Milam, Adam J; Bowie, Janice V; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Gaskin, Darrell J; Furr-Holden, Debra

    2016-04-01

    Tobacco outlet exposure is a correlate of tobacco use with potential differences by gender that warrant attention. The aim of this study is to explore the moderating role of gender in the relationship between tobacco outlet exposure and past month tobacco use among African American young adults 21 to 24 years old. This cross-sectional study (n = 283) used geospatial methods to determine the number of tobacco outlets within walking distance (i.e., a quarter mile) of participants' homes and distance to the nearest outlet. Logistic regression models were used to test interactions between gender and tobacco outlet exposure (i.e., density and proximity). Tobacco outlets were classified based on whether or not they were licensed to sell tobacco only (TO outlets) or tobacco and alcohol (TA outlets). Neither density nor proximity was associated with past month tobacco use in the pooled models. However, gender modified the relationship between TO outlet density and tobacco use, and this relationship was significant only among women (OR = 1.02; p < 0.01; adjusted OR = 1.01; p < 0.05). This study underscores the importance of reducing tobacco outlet density in residential neighborhoods, especially TO outlets, as well as highlights potential gender differences in the relationship between tobacco outlet density and tobacco use. PMID:26680642

  18. Application of the PEN-3 Model to Tobacco Initiation, Use, and Cessation Among American Indian and Alaska Native Adults.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y; Trinidad, Susan B; Avey, Jaedon P; Robinson, Renee F

    2016-07-01

    American Indian (AI) and Alaska Native (AN) communities confront some of the highest rates of tobacco use and its sequelae. As part of a formative research project investigating stakeholder understandings, preferences, and needs surrounding the use of pharmacogenetics toward tobacco cessation treatment, we sought to characterize sociocultural issues related to tobacco use and cessation. We used the PEN-3 cultural model to frame the research question and analysis of stakeholder interviews with 20 AI/AN patients, 12 health care providers, and 9 tribal leaders. Our study found high knowledge levels of the negative health effects of tobacco use; however, most patient participants ascribed negative health effects only to regular, heavy tobacco use and not to light use, which is more common in the population. The majority of patient participants did not endorse use of tobacco cessation treatment despite evidence of efficacy among AI/AN adults. Health promotion messaging to target low-tobacco consuming AI/AN people is needed. Additionally, messaging to promote tobacco cessation treatment using successful AI/AN former tobacco users to improve community perception of tobacco cessation treatment is recommended. PMID:27178836

  19. Joint Consensus Statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society on the Recommended Amount of Sleep for a Healthy Adult: Methodology and Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Badr, M. Safwan; Belenky, Gregory; Bliwise, Donald L.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Buysse, Daniel; Dinges, David F.; Gangwisch, James; Grandner, Michael A.; Kushida, Clete; Malhotra, Raman K.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Patel, Sanjay R.; Quan, Stuart F.; Tasali, Esra

    2015-01-01

    The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society recently released a Consensus Statement regarding the recommended amount of sleep to promote optimal health in adults. This paper describes the methodology, background literature, voting process, and voting results for the consensus statement. In addition, we address important assumptions and challenges encountered during the consensus process. Finally, we outline future directions that will advance our understanding of sleep need and place sleep duration in the broader context of sleep health. Citation: Watson NF, Badr MS, Belenky G, Bliwise DL, Buxton OM, Buysse D, Dinges DF, Gangwisch J, Grandner MA, Kushida C, Malhotra RK, Martin JL, Patel SR, Quan SF, Tasali E. Joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society on the recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult: methodology and discussion. SLEEP 2015;38(8):1161–1183. PMID:26194576

  20. Joint Consensus Statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society on the Recommended Amount of Sleep for a Healthy Adult: Methodology and Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Badr, M. Safwan; Belenky, Gregory; Bliwise, Donald L.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Buysse, Daniel; Dinges, David F.; Gangwisch, James; Grandner, Michael A.; Kushida, Clete; Malhotra, Raman K.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Patel, Sanjay R.; Quan, Stuart F.; Tasali, Esra

    2015-01-01

    The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society recently released a Consensus Statement regarding the recommended amount of sleep to promote optimal health in adults. This paper describes the methodology, background literature, voting process, and voting results for the consensus statement. In addition, we address important assumptions and challenges encountered during the consensus process. Finally, we outline future directions that will advance our understanding of sleep need and place sleep duration in the broader context of sleep health. Citation: Watson NF, Badr MS, Belenky G, Bliwise DL, Buxton OM, Buysse D, Dinges DF, Gangwisch J, Grandner MA, Kushida C, Malhotra RK, Martin JL, Patel SR, Quan SF, Tasali E. Joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society on the recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult: methodology and discussion. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(8):931–952. PMID:26235159

  1. Distribution of toenail selenium levels in young adult Caucasians and African Americans in the United States: The CARDIA Trace Element Study

    SciTech Connect

    Xun, Pengcheng; Bujnowski, Deborah; Liu, Kiang; Steve Morris, J.; Guo, Zhongqin; He, Ka

    2011-05-15

    Background: Data on selenium (Se) levels in American young adults, especially in African Americans, are lacking. Objective: This study presented toenail Se distributions in American young adults of both genders, including both Caucasians and African Americans; and explored potential predictors of toenail Se levels. Data and methods: Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study among 4252 American young adults, aged 20-32 in 1987 was used to examine toenail Se levels by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The distribution of Se levels was described and multivariable linear regression was used to examine potential modifiers of toenail Se concentration within ethnicity-gender subgroups. Results: The geometric mean of toenail Se in this cohort was 0.844 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 {mu}g/g) and the median was 0.837 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.833-0.844 {mu}g/g). Median levels from lowest to highest quintile were 0.691, 0.774, 0.838, 0.913 and 1.037 {mu}g/g. Se levels varied geographically, and were generally in accordance with its concentrations in local soil. Males, African Americans, current smokers, heavy drinkers and less educated participants were more likely to have low Se levels. Conclusion: This study suggests that toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. In addition to gender, ethnicity and education level, smoking status and alcohol consumption are two important indicators of Se status since they are modifiable lifestyle factors. Findings from this study might aid public health professionals in identifying people at relatively high or low Se levels, so that chronic disease prevention efforts can be directed toward these subgroups. - Research highlights: {yields} Average of toenail Se levels in this cohort was 0.844 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 {mu}g/g). {yields} Toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. {yields} Males, African Americans and less educated participants have

  2. Joint Consensus Statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society on the Recommended Amount of Sleep for a Healthy Adult: Methodology and Discussion.

    PubMed

    Watson, Nathaniel F; Badr, M Safwan; Belenky, Gregory; Bliwise, Donald L; Buxton, Orfeu M; Buysse, Daniel; Dinges, David F; Gangwisch, James; Grandner, Michael A; Kushida, Clete; Malhotra, Raman K; Martin, Jennifer L; Patel, Sanjay R; Quan, Stuart F; Tasali, Esra

    2015-08-01

    The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society recently released a Consensus Statement regarding the recommended amount of sleep to promote optimal health in adults. This paper describes the methodology, background literature, voting process, and voting results for the consensus statement. In addition, we address important assumptions and challenges encountered during the consensus process. Finally, we outline future directions that will advance our understanding of sleep need and place sleep duration in the broader context of sleep health.

  3. Joint Consensus Statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society on the Recommended Amount of Sleep for a Healthy Adult: Methodology and Discussion.

    PubMed

    Watson, Nathaniel F; Badr, M Safwan; Belenky, Gregory; Bliwise, Donald L; Buxton, Orfeu M; Buysse, Daniel; Dinges, David F; Gangwisch, James; Grandner, Michael A; Kushida, Clete; Malhotra, Raman K; Martin, Jennifer L; Patel, Sanjay R; Quan, Stuart F; Tasali, Esra

    2015-08-15

    The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society recently released a Consensus Statement regarding the recommended amount of sleep to promote optimal health in adults. This paper describes the methodology, background literature, voting process, and voting results for the consensus statement. In addition, we address important assumptions and challenges encountered during the consensus process. Finally, we outline future directions that will advance our understanding of sleep need and place sleep duration in the broader context of sleep health.

  4. Pelagic Life and Depth: Coastal Physical Features in West Africa Shape the Genetic Structure of the Bonga Shad, Ethmalosa fimbriata

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Jean-Dominique; Guinand, Bruno; Dodson, Julian J.; Lecomte, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    The bonga shad, Ethmalosa fimbriata, is a West African pelagic species still abundant in most habitats of its distribution range and thought to be only recently affected by anthropogenic pressure (habitat destruction or fishing pressure). Its presence in a wide range of coastal habitats characterised by different hydrodynamic processes, represents a case study useful for evaluating the importance of physical structure of the west African shoreline on the genetic structure of a small pelagic species. To investigate this question, the genetic diversity of E. fimbriata was assessed at both regional and species range scales, using mitochondrial (mt) and nuclear DNA markers. Whereas only three panmictic units were identified with mtDNA at the large spatial scale, nuclear genetic markers (EPIC: exon-primed intron-crossing) indicated a more complex genetic pattern at the regional scale. In the northern-most section of shad’s distribution range, up to 4 distinct units were identified. Bayesian inference as well as spatial autocorrelation methods provided evidence that gene flow is impeded by the presence of deep-water areas near the coastline (restricting the width of the coastal shelf), such as the Cap Timiris and the Kayar canyons in Mauritania and Senegal, respectively. The added discriminatory power provided by the use of EPIC markers proved to be essential to detect the influence of more subtle, contemporary processes (e.g. gene flow, barriers, etc.) acting within the glacial refuges identified previously by mtDNA. PMID:24130890

  5. Phylogeographical pattern of Mazocraeoides gonialosae (Monogenea, Mazocraeidae) on the dotted gizzard shad, Konosirus punctatus, along the coast of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Shi, Su-Fen; Brown, Christopher L; Yang, Ting-Bao

    2011-10-01

    In the present study, we examined the phylogeographical pattern of the monogenean, Mazocraeoides gonialosae, which parasitises the dotted gizzard shad (Konosirus punctatus) along the coast of China. Fragments of 756 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene were sequenced for 147 individuals from seven localities along the coast of China. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no significant genealogical clades of samples corresponding to sampling localities. Analyses of molecular variance and pairwise F(ST) suggested a high rate of gene flow and the lack of a predictable genetic structure between different populations of this parasite. Both neutrality tests and mismatch distribution analyses indicated a recent population expansion in M. gonialosae after the last glacial maximum. Gradually decreasing genetic diversity in more northerly populations implied a historical south-to-north expansion of this parasite. Dispersal of eggs and larvae with ocean currents was considered to be associated with the genetic homogeneity of this species. The limited time to accumulate genetic variation after the last glacial maximum may also account in part for the lack of phylogeographical structure in the studied region.

  6. “Mama just won’t accept this”: Adult Perspectives on Engaging Depressed African American Teens in Clinical Research and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Carl C.; Burriss, Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript focuses on qualitative data collected for AAKOMA Project, a 2-phase treatment engagement intervention trial for depressed African American adolescents and families. Data are presented from our phase I study of adult perspectives on African American adolescent depression, depression treatment, and research engagement. The research team conducted four focus groups (N = 24) and generated major themes from the data including ideas regarding the manifestations of depression in African American youth and psychosocial barriers to participation in depression research and treatment. Findings indicate that success in recruiting and retaining African American youth in depression research and treatment may include using innovative means to overcome the culturally embedded attributions of depression to non-biological causes, beliefs about the cultural insensitivity of treatments and challenges in the logistics of obtaining care. Adults report that encouraging youth and familial involvement in treatments and research should include targeted, community-partnered activities involving diverse staff in leadership roles and including community members as equal partners. PMID:21512751

  7. Associated pathways between neighborhood environment, community resource factors and leisure-time physical activity among Mexican-American adults in San Diego, CA

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Suzanna M.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Patrick, Kevin; Arredondo, Elva M.; Roesch, Scott; Elder, John

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine pathways between individual, social, and environmental factors associated with leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among Mexican-American adults. Design Cross-sectional design using random digit dialing to administer a structured telephone interview. Setting Mexican-American adults living in a U.S./Mexican border community in San Diego, CA (N=672). Measures Data were collected on LTPA, demographic characteristics, acculturation, and other psychosocial and environmental factors associated with LTPA. Analysis Structural equation modeling to test an a priori model of LTPA. Results Participants were mostly female (71%) with a mean age of 39 years (SD = 13). Only 32% of participants met PA guidelines in their leisure time, with men (39%) meeting the guidelines more than women (29%). Using structural equation modeling, neighborhood factors, both social and environmental, showed indirect relationships with meeting PA guidelines through community resource factors. Significant covariates included marital status and age. Conclusion Individual, social and environmental factors were associated with LTPA in this sample of Mexican-American adults. These findings can inform intervention studies that aim to increase LTPA in this population. PMID:22548422

  8. Resources, roadblocks and turning points: a qualitative study of American Indian/Alaska Native adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jennifer L; Brown, Jennifer; Khan, Burhan; Mau, Marjorie K; Dillard, Denise

    2013-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a worldwide health problem that has reached epidemic proportions in some communities. Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI) people are disproportionately diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and incidence is increasing in many Alaska communities. Developing effective interventions requires understanding the social and psychological factors that impact effective management of diabetes, yet little is known about these factors in AN/AI communities. The objective of this study was to explore perceived psychosocial needs and barriers to management of diabetes among AN/AI adults with type 2 diabetes receiving care at the Alaska Native Primary Care Center (ANPCC) to inform programmatic efforts and potential future research. We conducted three focus groups and five interviews with 13 AN/AI adults with type 2 diabetes. Interview and focus group questions elicited perceived factors that affect management of diabetes, with a focus on the psychological, social and spiritual impacts of diabetes. Data were transcribed, coded and analyzed using thematic analysis. Key themes that emerged from these data included resources and roadblocks, as well as turning points in the trajectory of diabetes. Resources are factors with a perceived positive impact on management of diabetes, including: (1) knowledge and education about diabetes, (2) social support from other people with diabetes, (3) spirituality, and (4) self-efficacy. Roadblocks are factors with a perceived negative impact on management of diabetes and include: (1) self-reported lack of knowledge about nutrition and diet, (2) social difficulties caused by dietary restrictions, and (3) co-morbid medical conditions. Finally, turning points are experiences described by participants as having transformed roadblocks in resources and thus facilitating improvement in the management of diabetes. Future programmatic interventions to improve management of diabetes with this population should focus on improving dietary

  9. Acculturation and Plasma Fatty Acid Concentrations in Hispanic and Chinese-American Adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Diep, Cassandra S.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Manichaikul, Ani W.; Rich, Stephen S.; St-Jules, David E.; Steffen, Brian T.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Siscovick, David S.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acculturation to the U.S. is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiologic pathways are not fully understood. Plasma fatty acid levels exhibit ethnic differences and are emerging as biomarkers and predictors of cardiovascular disease risk. Thus, plasma fatty acids may represent one pathway underlying the association between acculturation and cardiovascular disease. We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids in a diverse sample of Hispanic- and Chinese-American adults. Methods and Findings Participants included 377 Mexican, 320 non-Mexican Hispanic, and 712 Chinese adults from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, who had full plasma phospholipid assays and acculturation information. Acculturation was determined from three proxy measures: nativity, language spoken at home, and years in the U.S., with possible scores ranging from 0 (least acculturated) to 5 (most acculturated) points. α-Linolenic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid were measured in fasting plasma. Linear regression models were conducted in race/ethnicity-stratified analyses, with acculturation as the predictor and plasma phospholipid fatty acids as the outcome variables. We ran secondary analyses to examine associations between acculturation and dietary fatty acids for comparison. Covariates included age, gender, education, and income. Contrary to our hypothesis, no statistically significant associations were detected between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids for Chinese, non-Mexican Hispanic, or Mexican participants. However, acculturation was related to dietary total n-6 fatty acids and dietary n-3/n-6 ratios in expected directions for Mexican, non-Mexican Hispanic, and combined Hispanic participants. In Chinese individuals, acculturation was unexpectedly associated with lower arachidonic acid intake. Conclusion Absence of

  10. Beliefs About Asthma and Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Low-Income Inner-City African-American Adults

    PubMed Central

    George, Maureen; Birck, Kathleen; Hufford, David J; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Weaver, Terri E

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND The gap in asthma prevalence, morbidity, and mortality is increasing in low-income racial/ethnic minority groups as compared with Caucasians. In order to address these disparities, alternative beliefs and behaviors need to be identified. OBJECTIVE To identify causal models of asthma and the context of conventional prescription versus complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in low-income African-American (AA) adults with severe asthma. DESIGN Qualitative analysis of 28 in-depth interviews. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-six women and 2 men, aged 21 to 48, who self-identified as being AA, low-income, and an inner-city resident. APPROACH Transcripts of semi-structured in-depth qualitative interviews were inductively analyzed using the constant comparison approach. RESULTS Sixty-four percent of participants held biologically correct causal models of asthma although 100% reported the use of at least 1 CAM for asthma. Biologically based therapies, humoral balance, and prayer were the most popular CAM. While most subjects trusted prescription asthma medicine, there was a preference for integration of CAM with conventional asthma treatment. Complementary and alternative medicine was considered natural, effective, and potentially curative. Sixty-three percent of participants reported nonadherence to conventional therapies in the 2 weeks before the research interview. Neither CAM nor nonmedical causal models altered most individuals (93%) willingness to use prescription medication. Three possibly dangerous CAM were identified. CONCLUSIONS Clinicians should be aware of patient-generated causal models of asthma and use of CAM in this population. Discussing patients' desire for an integrated approach to asthma management and involving social networks are 2 strategies that may enhance patient-provider partnerships and treatment fidelity. PMID:16995890

  11. Using Photovoice to Understand Barriers to and Facilitators of Cardiovascular Health Among African American Adults and Adolescents, North Carolina, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Woods-Jaeger, Briana; Lomas, Jesse; Taggart, Tamara; Thayer, Linden; Sutton, Sussie; Lightfoot, Alexandra F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, and mortality rates are higher among African Americans than among people of other races/ethnicities. We aimed to understand how African American adults and adolescents conceptualize cardiovascular health and perceive related barriers and facilitators. Methods This qualitative study was conducted as formative research for a larger study, Heart Healthy Lenoir, which aimed to reduce cardiovascular disease disparities among African Americans in eastern North Carolina, part of the widely-known “stroke belt” that runs through the southeastern United States. Using photovoice, a community-based participatory research method, we conducted eight 90-minute photovoice sessions with 6 adults and 9 adolescents in Lenoir County, North Carolina. Topics for each discussion were selected by participants and reflected themes related to cardiovascular health promotion. All sessions were transcribed and coded using a data-driven, inductive approach. Results Participants conceptualized cardiovascular health to have mental, spiritual, and social health dimensions. Given these broad domains, participants acknowledged many ecological barriers to cardiovascular health; however, they also emphasized the importance of personal responsibility. Facilitators for cardiovascular health included using social health (eg, family/community relationships) and spiritual health dimensions (eg, understanding one’s body and purpose) to improve health behaviors. Conclusion The perspectives of African American adults and adolescents elicited through this formative research provided a strong foundation for Heart Healthy Lenoir’s ongoing engagement of community members in Lenoir County and development and implementation of its intervention to prevent cardiovascular disease. PMID:26425868

  12. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2014, 218, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 30% more ...

  13. Optimal older adult emergency care: introducing multidisciplinary geriatric emergency department guidelines from the American College of Emergency Physicians, American Geriatrics Society, Emergency Nurses Association, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Christopher R; Bromley, Marilyn; Caterino, Jeffrey M; Chun, Audrey; Gerson, Lowell W; Greenspan, Jason; Hwang, Ula; John, David P; Lyons, William L; Platts-Mills, Timothy F; Mortensen, Betty; Ragsdale, Luna; Rosenberg, Mark; Wilber, Scott

    2014-07-01

    In the United States and around the world, effective, efficient, and reliable strategies to provide emergency care to aging adults is challenging crowded emergency departments (EDs) and strained healthcare systems. In response, geriatric emergency medicine clinicians, educators, and researchers collaborated with the American College of Emergency Physicians, American Geriatrics Society, Emergency Nurses Association, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine to develop guidelines intended to improve ED geriatric care by enhancing expertise, educational, and quality improvement expectations, equipment, policies, and protocols. These Geriatric Emergency Department Guidelines represent the first formal society-led attempt to characterize the essential attributes of the geriatric ED and received formal approval from the boards of directors of each of the four societies in 2013 and 2014. This article is intended to introduce emergency medicine and geriatric healthcare providers to the guidelines while providing recommendations for continued refinement of these proposals through educational dissemination, formal effectiveness evaluations, cost-effectiveness studies, and eventually institutional credentialing. PMID:24890806

  14. American Indian and Alaska Native Adult Education and Vocational Training Programs: Historical Beginnings, Present Conditions and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, John

    The success of Native adult education and vocational training programs is linked to the economic health of Native communities. Reports since 1923 document the failure of Federal Government programs in producing educated Native adults and the inadequacy of adult education delivery systems. An array of federal legislation has attempted to increase…

  15. Elevating the Civic Science Literacy of American Adults: Assessing a Renewed Citizen Science Paradigm Integrating Nonformal Outdoor Adult Education and Enhanced Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, David Patrick

    2011-01-01

    America's adult populace has failed to keep pace with the rapid inundation of science-centric advancements affecting nearly every facet of personal and public life. With deficiencies in areas of science knowledge, America's adult populace is characterized as civic science illiterate. This research constructed and employed the renewed citizen…

  16. Adult Education in the American Experience from the Colonial Period to the Present. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubblefield, Harold W.; Keane, Patrick

    This book offers a comprehensive history of adult education in the United States from the colonial period to the present day. Chapter 1 discusses definitions of adult education and explores formative influences. Chapters 2-3 on the colonial and post-Revolutionary periods trace an Atlantic information network, rise of a literate culture, Puritan…

  17. Prevalence, severity, and risk indicators of gingival inflammation in a multi-center study on South American adults: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Paola; Gómez, Mariel; Gomes, Sabrina; Costa, Ricardo; Toledo, Andres; Solanes, Fernando; Romanelli, Hugo; Oppermann, Rui; Rösing, Cassiano; Gamonal, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and severity of gingival inflammation and associated risk indicators in South American adults. Material and Methods: Multi-stage samples totaling 1,650 adults from Porto Alegre (Brazil), Tucumán (Argentina), and Santiago (Chile) were assessed. The sampling procedure consisted of a 4-stage process. Examinations were performed in mobile dental units by calibrated examiners. A multivariable logistic regression model was utilized for associating variables as indicators of gingival inflammation (GI) (Gingival Index ≥0.5). Statistical significance was set at 0.05. Results: A total of 96.5% of the adults have GI. Regarding the severity of GI, 22.5% of participants examined have mild GI, 74.0% have moderate GI, and 3.6% have severe GI. The multivariate analyses identify the main risk indicators for GI as adults with higher mean of Calculus Index (OR=18.59); with a Visible Plaque Index ≥30% (OR=14.56); living in Santiago (OR=7.17); having ≤12 years of schooling (OR=2.18), and females (OR=1.93). Conclusions: This study shows a high prevalence and severity of gingival inflammation, being the first one performed in adult populations in three cities of South America.

  18. Comparison of African American and Afro-Caribbean Older Adults' Self-Reported Health Status, Function, and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Florence; Tappen, Ruth M.; Williams, Christine L.; Rosselli, Monica

    2009-01-01

    African American and Afro-Caribbean elders differ in regard to ethnic group membership, place of birth, and years of residence in the United States. In this study, the authors compare self-rated health status, function, and reports of substance use in these two groups. Fifty low-income African American and fifty low-income Afro-Caribbean adults…

  19. The Contribution of Community and Family Contexts to African American Young Adults' Romantic Relationship Health: A Prospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Steven M.; Lei, Man-Kit; Grange, Christina R.; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Chen, Yi-fu

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that African American men and women experience unique challenges in developing and maintaining stable, satisfying romantic relationships. Extant studies have linked relationship quality among African American couples to contemporaneous risk factors such as economic hardship and racial discrimination. Little research,…

  20. Maternal socialization goals, parenting styles, and social-emotional adjustment among Chinese and European American young adults: testing a mediation model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Costanzo, Philip R; Putallaz, Martha

    2010-01-01

    The authors compared the associations among perceived maternal socialization goals (self-development, filial piety, and collectivism), perceived maternal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and training), and the social-emotional adjustment (self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and depression) between Chinese and European American young adults. The mediation processes in which socialization goals relate to young adults' adjustment outcomes through parenting styles were examined. Results showed that European American participants perceived higher maternal self-development socialization goals, whereas Chinese participants perceived higher maternal collectivism socialization goals as well as more authoritarian parenting. Cross-cultural similarities were found in the associations between perceived maternal authoritative parenting and socioemotional adjustment (e.g., higher self-esteem and higher academic self-efficacy) across the two cultural groups. However, perceived maternal authoritarian and training parenting styles were found only to be related to Chinese participants' adjustment (e.g., higher academic self-efficacy and lower depression). The mediation analyses showed that authoritative parenting significantly mediated the positive associations between the self-development and collectivism goal and socioemotional adjustment for both cultural groups. Additionally, training parenting significantly mediated the positive association between the filial piety goal and young adults' academic self-efficacy for the Chinese group only. Findings of this study highlight the importance of examining parental socialization goals in cross-cultural parenting research. PMID:21171548

  1. Maternal socialization goals, parenting styles, and social-emotional adjustment among Chinese and European American young adults: testing a mediation model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Costanzo, Philip R; Putallaz, Martha

    2010-01-01

    The authors compared the associations among perceived maternal socialization goals (self-development, filial piety, and collectivism), perceived maternal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and training), and the social-emotional adjustment (self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and depression) between Chinese and European American young adults. The mediation processes in which socialization goals relate to young adults' adjustment outcomes through parenting styles were examined. Results showed that European American participants perceived higher maternal self-development socialization goals, whereas Chinese participants perceived higher maternal collectivism socialization goals as well as more authoritarian parenting. Cross-cultural similarities were found in the associations between perceived maternal authoritative parenting and socioemotional adjustment (e.g., higher self-esteem and higher academic self-efficacy) across the two cultural groups. However, perceived maternal authoritarian and training parenting styles were found only to be related to Chinese participants' adjustment (e.g., higher academic self-efficacy and lower depression). The mediation analyses showed that authoritative parenting significantly mediated the positive associations between the self-development and collectivism goal and socioemotional adjustment for both cultural groups. Additionally, training parenting significantly mediated the positive association between the filial piety goal and young adults' academic self-efficacy for the Chinese group only. Findings of this study highlight the importance of examining parental socialization goals in cross-cultural parenting research.

  2. Decline in perfluorooctanesulfonate and other polyfluoroalkyl chemicals in American Red Cross adult blood donors, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Geary W; Mair, David C; Church, Timothy R; Ellefson, Mark E; Reagen, William K; Boyd, Theresa M; Herron, Ross M; Medhdizadehkashi, Zahra; Nobiletti, John B; Rios, Jorge A; Butenhoff, John L; Zobel, Larry R

    2008-07-01

    In 2000, 3M Company, the primary global manufacturer, announced a phase-out of perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride (POSF, C8F17SO2F)-based materials after perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS, C8F17SO3-) was reported in human populations and wildlife. The purpose of this study was to determine whether PFOS and other polyfluoroalkyl concentrations in plasma samples, collected in 2006 from six American Red Cross adult blood donor centers, have declined compared to nonpaired serum samples from the same locations in 2000-2001. For each location, 100 samples were obtained evenly distributed by age (20-69 years) and sex. Analytes measured, using tandem mass spectrometry, were PFOS, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), N-methyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate (Me-PFOSA-AcOH), and N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate (Et-PFOSA-AcOH). The geometric mean plasma concentrations were for PFOS 14.5 ng/mL (95% CI 13.9-15.2), PFOA 3.4 ng/ mL (95% CI 3.3-3.6), and PFHxS 1.5 ng/mL (95% CI 1.4-1.6). The majority of PFBS, Me-PFOSA-AcOH, and Et-PFOSA-AcOH concentrations were less than the lower limit of quantitation. Age- and sex-adjusted geometric means were lower in 2006 (approximately 60% for PFOS, 25% for PFOA, and 30% for PFHxS) than those in 2000-2001. The declines for PFOS and PFHxS are consistent with their serum elimination half-lives and the time since the phase-out of POSF-based materials. The shorter serum elimination half-life for PFOA and its smaller percentage decline than PFOS suggests PFOA concentrations measured in the general population are unlikely to be solely attributed to POSF-based materials. Direct and indirect exposure sources of PFOA could include historic and ongoing electrochemical cell fluorination (ECF) of PFOA, telomer production of PFOA, fluorotelomer-based precursors, and other fluoropoly-mer production. PMID:18678038

  3. The effects of alcohol, relationship power, and partner type on perceived difficulty implementing condom use among African American adults: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Woolf-King, Sarah E; Maisto, Stephen A

    2015-04-01

    African American adults are disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States, underscoring the need for additional research on barriers to condom use. Guided by the theory of gender and power, this experimental study used a series of vignettes to test causal hypotheses regarding the influence of event-level alcohol use (present and absent), partner type (serious and casual), and relationship power (low and equal) on perceived difficulty implementing condom use. A total of 299 (151 women and 148 men) heterosexual African American adults indicated how "difficult" it would be to use a condom after reading 8 hypothetical sexual encounters, presented in a random order. A 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 repeated measures analysis of covariance with one between subjects factor (gender) and one covariate (condom use self-efficacy) was used to estimate the effects of these variables on an index of perceived difficulty. The women in the study reported significantly higher ratings of difficulty implementing condom use in vignettes characterized by low relationship power (p < .001) and presence of alcohol use (p < .001); the manipulated independent variables did not produce any main effects for men. Both men and women's ratings of perceived difficulty decreased as condom use self-efficacy increased (p < .001). This is the first study to use an experimental methodology to test hypotheses about barriers to condom use among a community-based sample of African American adults. These data can be used to enhance existing HIV prevention interventions.

  4. Evidence for Association between SH2B1 Gene Variants and Glycated Hemoglobin in Nondiabetic European American Young Adults: The Add Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lange, Leslie A; Graff, Mariaelisa; Lange, Ethan M; Young, Kristin L; Richardson, Andrea S; Mohlke, Karen L; North, Kari E; Harris, Kathleen M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2016-09-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is used to classify glycaemia and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Body mass index (BMI) is a predictor of HbA1c levels and T2D. We tested 43 established BMI and obesity loci for association with HbA1c in a nationally representative multiethnic sample of young adults from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health [Add Health: age 24-34 years; n = 5641 European Americans (EA); 1740 African Americans (AA); 1444 Hispanic Americans (HA)] without T2D, using two levels of covariate adjustment (Model 1: age, sex, smoking, and geographic region; Model 2: Model 1 covariates plus BMI). Bonferroni adjustment was made for 43 SNPs and we considered P < 0.0011 statistically significant. Means (SD) for HbA1c were 5.4% (0.3) in EA, 5.7% (0.4) in AA, and 5.5% (0.3) in HA. We observed significant evidence for association with HbA1c for two variants near SH2B1 in EA (rs4788102, P = 2.2 × 10(-4) ; rs7359397, P = 9.8 × 10(-4) ) for Model 1. Both results were attenuated after adjustment for BMI (rs4788102, P = 1.7 × 10(-3) ; rs7359397, P = 4.6 × 10(-3) ). No variant reached Bonferroni-corrected significance in AA or HA. These results suggest that SH2B1 polymorphisms are associated with HbA1c, largely independent of BMI, in EA young adults. PMID:27530450

  5. Evidence for Association between SH2B1 Gene Variants and Glycated Hemoglobin in Nondiabetic European American Young Adults: The Add Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lange, Leslie A; Graff, Mariaelisa; Lange, Ethan M; Young, Kristin L; Richardson, Andrea S; Mohlke, Karen L; North, Kari E; Harris, Kathleen M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2016-09-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is used to classify glycaemia and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Body mass index (BMI) is a predictor of HbA1c levels and T2D. We tested 43 established BMI and obesity loci for association with HbA1c in a nationally representative multiethnic sample of young adults from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health [Add Health: age 24-34 years; n = 5641 European Americans (EA); 1740 African Americans (AA); 1444 Hispanic Americans (HA)] without T2D, using two levels of covariate adjustment (Model 1: age, sex, smoking, and geographic region; Model 2: Model 1 covariates plus BMI). Bonferroni adjustment was made for 43 SNPs and we considered P < 0.0011 statistically significant. Means (SD) for HbA1c were 5.4% (0.3) in EA, 5.7% (0.4) in AA, and 5.5% (0.3) in HA. We observed significant evidence for association with HbA1c for two variants near SH2B1 in EA (rs4788102, P = 2.2 × 10(-4) ; rs7359397, P = 9.8 × 10(-4) ) for Model 1. Both results were attenuated after adjustment for BMI (rs4788102, P = 1.7 × 10(-3) ; rs7359397, P = 4.6 × 10(-3) ). No variant reached Bonferroni-corrected significance in AA or HA. These results suggest that SH2B1 polymorphisms are associated with HbA1c, largely independent of BMI, in EA young adults.

  6. Perceived racism and suicide ideation: mediating role of depression but moderating role of religiosity among African American adults.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rheeda L; Salami, Temilola K; Carter, Sierra E; Flowers, Kelci

    2014-10-01

    Suicide is a public health problem for African Americans who are young and of working age. The purpose of this study was to examine mediated and moderated effects of perceived racism on suicide ideation in a community sample of 236 African American men and women. Measures of suicide ideation, depression symptoms, intrinsic/extrinsic religiosity, and perceived racism were administered. Perceived racial discrimination was directly and indirectly associated with suicide ideation. For participants who reported low levels of extrinsic religiosity, the mediated effect of perceived racism (via depression symptoms) was significant. These findings provide some insight into suicide vulnerability for specific subgroups of African Americans.

  7. Physical Activity and Public Health in Older Adults: Recommendation from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To issue a recommendation on the types and amounts of physical activity needed to improve and maintain health in older adults. Participants: A panel of scientists with expertise in public health, behavioral science, epidemiology, exercise science, medicine, and gerontology. Evidence: The ...

  8. Effects of azadirachtin on the biology of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) adult female, the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    De Andrade-Coelho, Cláudia Alves; De Souza, Nataly Araujo; Silva, Vanderlei Campos; Souza, Adelson A; Gonzalez, Marcelo Salabert; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2014-07-01

    The effects of azadirachtin A added to the sucrose diet of the adult females on the mortality, oviposition, and hatching of the sand fly vector of American visceral leishmaniasis Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) were investigated. Concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 microg/mg of azadirachtin significantly increased insect mortality in comparison with control insects. The same dose also significantly reduced oviposition but not hatching. After a long development period, significantly fewer adult insects were obtained from eggs hatching by azadirachtin-treated females in a dose-response manner. These results indicate that azadirachtin is a potent sterilizer that could be used against the development of Lu. longipalpis populations and as a tool for studying physiological and biochemical processes in phlebotomine species. PMID:25118426

  9. Effects of azadirachtin on the biology of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) adult female, the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    De Andrade-Coelho, Cláudia Alves; De Souza, Nataly Araujo; Silva, Vanderlei Campos; Souza, Adelson A; Gonzalez, Marcelo Salabert; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2014-07-01

    The effects of azadirachtin A added to the sucrose diet of the adult females on the mortality, oviposition, and hatching of the sand fly vector of American visceral leishmaniasis Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) were investigated. Concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 microg/mg of azadirachtin significantly increased insect mortality in comparison with control insects. The same dose also significantly reduced oviposition but not hatching. After a long development period, significantly fewer adult insects were obtained from eggs hatching by azadirachtin-treated females in a dose-response manner. These results indicate that azadirachtin is a potent sterilizer that could be used against the development of Lu. longipalpis populations and as a tool for studying physiological and biochemical processes in phlebotomine species.

  10. Evaluation of a mindfulness-based intervention program to decrease blood pressure in low-income African-American older adults.

    PubMed

    Palta, Priya; Page, G; Piferi, R L; Gill, J M; Hayat, M J; Connolly, A B; Szanton, S L

    2012-04-01

    Hypertension affects a large proportion of urban African-American older adults.While there have been great strides in drug development, many older adults do not have access to such medicines or do not take them. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR)has been shown to decrease blood pressure in some populations. This has not been tested in low-income, urban African-American older adults. Therefore, the primary purpose of this pilot study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a mindfulness-based program for low income, minority older adults provided in residence. The secondary purpose was to learn if the mindfulness-based program produced differences in blood pressure between the intervention and control groups. Participants were at least 62 years old and residents of a low-income senior residence. All participants were African-American, and one was male.Twenty participants were randomized to the mindfulness-based intervention or a social support control group of the same duration and dose. Blood pressure was measured with the Omron automatic blood pressure machine at baseline and at the end of the 8-week intervention. A multivariate regression analysis was performed on the difference in scores between baseline and post-intervention blood pressure measurements, controlling for age,education, smoking status, and anti-hypertensive medication use. Effect sizes were calculated to quantify the magnitude of the relationship between participation in the mindfulness-based intervention and the outcome variable, blood pressure. Attendance remained 980%in all 8 weeks of both the intervention and the control groups. The average systolic blood pressure decreased for both groups post-intervention. Individuals in the intervention group exhibited a 21.92-mmHg lower systolic blood pressure compared to the social support control group post-intervention and this value was statistically significant(p=0.020). The average diastolic blood pressure decreased in the

  11. Model for using hip-hop music for small group HIV/AIDS prevention counseling with African American adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Stephens, T; Braithwaite, R L; Taylor, S E

    1998-10-01

    Currently little attention has been directed, with the exception of peer education efforts, to constructively develop new and innovative ways to promote HIV/AIDS primary prevention among African American (AA) adolescents and young adults. With this in mind, the aim of this conceptual effort is to present a HIV/AIDS preventive counseling protocol developed for use with AA young adults that makes use of hip-hop music, a form of music popularized by young AAs. The author contend that an increased understanding of the relationships that many AA young adults have with hip-hop music may be used by disease prevention personnel to educate these populations about protective factors for HIV. Making use of hip-hop music is one strategy for integrating counseling in prevention and health maintenance. The overall implications of using hip-hop music in health promotion are unlimited. First, this method makes use of cultural relevant materials to address the educational and health needs of the target community. Second, it is grounded in an approach that serves to stimulate cooperative learning based on peer developed content. Moreover, the use of this medium can be applied to other health promotion activities such as violence/harm reduction and substance abuse prevention, upon reviews of songs for appropriate content. The authors contend that such an approach holds heuristic value in dealing with HIV/AIDS prevention among AA young adults. Additional testing of the intervention is warranted in the refinement of this innovative intervention.

  12. Daily Family Interactions among Young Adults in the United States from Latin American, Filipino, East Asian, and European Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuligni, Andrew; Masten, Carrie L.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the abundant research on family relationships during adolescence, the nature of family interactions during young adulthood remains comparatively unexamined. The current study explored ethnic differences in young adults' interactions with parents and siblings, the role of other activities in young adults' family interactions, and the…

  13. Comparative phylogeography and demographic history of European shads (Alosa alosa and A. fallax) inferred from mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Comparative broad-scale phylogeographic studies of aquatic organisms provide insights on biotic responses to the paleohydrological dynamics associated with climatic oscillations. These insights can be used to formulate a framework for understanding the evolutionary history of a species or closely related taxa as well as aid in predictive modeling of further responses to climate change. Anadromous fishes constitute interesting models for understanding the relative importance of environmental versus biological factors in shaping intraspecific genetic substructure on the interface between marine and freshwater realms. European shads, Alosa alosa and A. fallax are anadromous species that have persisted through historical large-scale environmental perturbations and now additionally face an array of anthropogenic challenges. A comprehensive phylogeographic investigation of these species is needed to provide insights on both the historical processes that have shaped their extant genetic structure and diversity, and the prospects for their future management and conservation. Results Despite introgressive hybridization, A. alosa and A. fallax are genetically divergent, congruent with previous studies. Three similarly divergent mtDNA clades were recognized within both A. fallax and A. alosa, most likely originating during common periods of isolation during the Pleistocene among the studied oceanographic regions. Periods of basin isolation apparently extended to the Black Sea as additional Alosa clades occur there. The present day geographic distribution of genetic diversity within European Alosa sp. suggests the existence of a strong but permeable barrier between the Atlantic and Mediterranean seas, as shown for a number of other aquatic species. Overall mtDNA diversity is considerably lower for A. alosa compared to A. fallax, suggesting that the former species is more sensitive to climatic as well as anthropogenic changes. For A. fallax, migration from the

  14. Holocene Depositional History of Shad Pond, a Hypersaline Coastal Lagoon, Eleuthera, Bahamas and Its Influence on Lucayan Occupation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boush, L. E.; Fentress, S.; Conroy, M.; Cook, A.; Miseridina, D.; Buynevich, I. V.; Myrbo, A.; Brown, E. T.; Berman, M.; Gnivecki, P.; Kjellmark, E.; Savarese, M.; Brady, K.

    2013-12-01

    Shad Pond, an enclosed hypersaline lagoon on the southeastern tip of Eleuthera, Bahamas reveals a ~5000-year record of hurricane activity, as well as sea-level and climate change history. Three sediment cores recovered 1.04-2.54 m of sediment over bedrock along a transect perpendicular to shoreline. Sediment composition and grain size, loss on ignition, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements of the cores along with dune transects and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles adjacent to the lake provide a comprehensive dataset to interpret the history of this coastal basin. The sedimentary sequence was composed of alternating lithofacies that included microbial mats, sand, and peat. Laminated mats often alternated with sandy layers in thin to medium-bedded units. Two peat layers were found in the basal part of the shore-distal core (Site 1) between 1.82-2.40 m and 2.53-2.54 m and were separated by a 13-cm-thick gray mud layer. In general, organic matter and carbonate content tracked granulometry and composition in all cores. High-resolution XRF scans of Ca and Sr at Site 1 show elevated levels ~3,700 cal yBP, which correlate with the top of the peat layer, but these elemental concentrations vary at Site 3. XRF measurements of Fe indicate a dust flux that has been recorded regionally throughout the Caribbean. Dune transects and GPR profiles indicate a phased history of the pond, beginning with initial stages as an open lagoon dominated by red mangrove, with black mangrove and buttonwood also present. The lake likely closed at approximately 3,700 cal yBP indicated by the transition between the upper peat and microbial mat layers. This could have been due to increased storm events in a regime of rising sea level. Aeolian aggradation continued to heighten the barrier between the bedrock headlands to its present position. Hurricane overwash deposits punctuated the algal mat accumulation throughout this time period. Present-day hypersaline conditions sustain algal mats

  15. Sources of social support associated with health and quality of life: a cross-sectional study among Canadian and Latin American older adults

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, Emmanuelle; Ahmed, Tamer; Vafaei, Afshin; Curcio, Carmen Lucia; Phillips, Susan P; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether the association between emotional support and indicators of health and quality of life differs between Canadian and Latin American older adults. Design Cross-sectional analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS). Social support from friends, family members, children and partner was measured with a previously validated social network and support scale (IMIAS-SNSS). Low social support was defined as ranking in the lowest site-specific quartile. Prevalence ratios (PR) of good health, depression and good quality of life were estimated with Poisson regression models, adjusting for age, gender, education, income and disability in activities of daily living. Setting Kingston and Saint-Hyacinthe in Canada, Manizales in Colombia and Natal in Brazil. Participants 1600 community-dwelling adults aged 65–74 years, n=400 at each site. Outcome measures Likert scale question on self-rated health, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and 10-point analogical quality-of-life (QoL) scale. Results Relationships between social support and study outcomes differed between Canadian and Latin American older adults. Among Canadians, those without a partner had a lower prevalence of good health (PR=0.90; 95% CI 0.82 to 0.98), and those with high support from friends had a higher prevalence of good health (PR=1.09; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.18). Among Latin Americans, depression was lower among those with high levels of support from family (PR=0.63; 95% CI 0.48 to 0.83), children (PR=0.60; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.80) and partner (PR=0.57; 95% CI 0.31 to 0.77); good QoL was associated with high levels of support from children (PR=1.54; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.99) and partner (PR=1.31; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.67). Conclusions Among older adults, different sources of support were relevant to health across societies. Support from friends and having a partner were related to good health in Canada, whereas in Latin America, support from family, children and

  16. Few differences in diet and health behaviors and perceptions were observed in adult urban Native American Indians by tribal association, gender, and age grouping.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tina L; Morse, Kristin L; Giraud, David W; Driskell, Judy A

    2008-12-01

    Diet and health behaviors and perceptions of adult urban Native American Indians in a large Midwestern city were evaluated for differences by tribal association, gender, and age grouping. The hypothesis was that human behavior is influenced by tribal association, gender, and age grouping in the subject population. The subjects included 33 men and 32 women, with 26 being Sioux; 22 Omaha; and 17 a combination of other tribes. The descriptive survey included two interviewer-administered 24-hour recalls. The majority of subjects were overweight or obese. Significant differences (P< .05) were observed in vitamin A and calcium intakes by tribal association. Men reported consuming significantly more (P< .05) kilocalories, vitamin C, and sodium. Over half the subjects consumed more than the recommended 20% to 35% kcal from fat, >or=10% kcal from saturated fat, and >or=300 mg cholesterol/d. Less than Estimated Average Requirements for vitamin A, vitamin C, and iron were consumed by 31%, 59%, and 6%, respectively; 79% consumed less than Adequate Intakes for calcium. Ninety-two percent consumed more than the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for sodium. Few differences were observed in the kilocalorie, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and sodium intakes of these Native American Indians by tribal association, gender, or age grouping. Significant differences in percentages consuming alcohol were observed by gender (P< .05) and by age grouping (P< .01). A significant difference (P< .01) was observed by gender regarding the subjects' perceptions of their being alcoholics. Overall, few differences were observed in diet and health behaviors and perceptions of adult urban Native American Indians by tribal association, gender, and age grouping. PMID:19083496

  17. The Relevancy of Community-Based Methods: Using Diet within Native American and Alaska Native Adult Populations as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Fialkowski, Marie K.; Okoror, Titilayo A.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    The rates of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease in Native Americans and Alaska Natives far exceed that of the general US population. There are many postulating reasons for these excessive rates including the transition from a traditional to a contemporary diet. Although information on the dietary intakes of Native American and Alaska Native communities are limited, there seems to be a consensus that the Native American and Alaska Native diet is high in total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium. Further information on the diet needs to be attained so that dietary interventions can effectively be implemented in these communities. An approach that is community based is proposed as the best solution to understanding the Native diet and developing culturally tailored interventions to sustainably improve diet. PMID:22686210

  18. Progressive lymphadenopathy and intractable pain in an immunocompetent African-American adult with cat-scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Bonza, Sarah; McDougle, Leon; McConaghy, John R

    2008-10-01

    Persistent, painful cervical lymphadenopathy associated with malaise that does not respond to oral antibiotics may be cat-scratch disease. This condition is challenging to treat and may require surgical intervention. We present a case report of an immunocompetent 47-year-old African-American woman who was diagnosed with cat-scratch disease and hospitalized after multiple outpatient evaluations for progressive, painful lymphadenopathy. This case report outlines the patient's treatment in the author's urban outpatient clinic followed by an inpatient hospital stay with surgical intervention. Although the reported incidence of cat-scratch disease is higher in whites, primary care physicians should include cat-scratch disease in their differential diagnosis for African-American patients with regional lymphadenopathy, which is a hallmark of the disease. In addition, primary care physicians should be familiar with the atypical presentations of cat-scratch disease and the broad differential diagnosis for regional lymphadenopathy, including sarcoidosis, which is more common in African Americans.

  19. A cross-culturally standardized set of pictures for younger and older adults: American and Chinese norms for name agreement, concept agreement, and familiarity.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Carolyn; Feinberg, Fred; Luo, Ting; Hedden, Trey; Gutchess, Angela Hall; Chen, Hiu-Ying Mary; Mikels, Joseph A; Jiao, Shulan; Park, Denise C

    2004-11-01

    The present study presents normative measures for 260 line drawings of everyday objects, found in Snodgrass and Vanderwart (1980), viewed by individuals in China and the United States. Within each cultural group, name agreement, concept agreement, and familiarity measures were obtained separately for younger adults and older adults. For a subset of 57 pictures (22%), there was equivalence in both name agreement and concept agreement, and for an additional subset of 29 pictures (11%), there was nonequivalent name agreement but equivalent concept agreement, across all culture-by-age groups. The data indicate substantial differences across culture-by-age groups in name agreement percentages and number of distinct name responses provided. We discovered significant differences between older and younger American adults in both name agreement percentages (67 pictures, or 26%) and concept agreement percentages (44 pictures, or 17%). Written naming responses collected for the entire set of Snodgrass and Vanderwart pictures showed shifts in both naming and concept agreement percentages over the intervening decades: Although correlations in name agreement were strong (r = .71, p < .001) between our younger American samples and those of Snodgrass and Vanderwart, name agreement percentages have changed for a substantial proportion (33%) of the 260 pictures; moreover, 63% of the stimuli for which Snodgrass and Vanderwart reported concept agreement now appear to differ. We provide comprehensive comparison statistics and tests for both the present study and prior ones, finding differences across numerous item-level measures. The corpus of data suggests that substantial differences in all measures can be found across age as well as culture, so that unequivocal conclusions with respect to cross-cultural or age-related differences in cognition can be made only when appropriate stimuli are selected for studies. Data for all 260 pictures, for each of the four groups, and all supporting

  20. Chromium exposure and incidence of metabolic syndrome among American young adults over a 23-year follow-up: the CARDIA Trace Element Study.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jianling; Xun, Pengcheng; Morris, Steve; Jacobs, David R; Liu, Kiang; He, Ka

    2015-10-22

    Studies suggest that chromium deficiency is associated with elevated levels of fasting blood glucose, circulating insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides, and decreased proportion of lean body mass. However, data directly relating chromium levels to metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk are lacking. A total of 3,648 American adults from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, aged 20-32 years, were prospectively examined for the incidence of MetS and its five components from 1987-88 to 2010-11. Baseline toenail chromium levels were measured with instrumental neutron-activation analysis. Incident MetS was defined by the NCEP-ATP III criteria. During the 23-year follow-up, 878 incident MetS cases were identified. Baseline toenail chromium was inversely associated with incidence of MetS as well as its blood lipid components. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of MetS comparing the highest to the lowest quartiles of toenail chromium levels was 0.80 (0.66-0.98; Plinear trend = 0.006). The adjusted HRs were 0.82 (0.68-0.98; Ptrend = 0.045) for having abnormal triglycerides levels and 0.75 (0.64-0.88; Ptrend  = 0.030) for having abnormal HDL cholesterol levels. Toenail chromium levels were inversely and longitudinally associated with incidence of MetS in American young adults. This inverse association was mainly explained by its relation to blood lipids.

  1. Sedentary and physically active behavior patterns among low-income African-American and white adults living in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sarah S; Matthews, Charles E; Signorello, Lisa B; Schlundt, David G; Blot, William J; Buchowski, Maciej S

    2013-01-01

    Increased sedentary behavior and lack of physical activity are associated with increased risk for many chronic diseases. Differences in leisure-time physical activity between African American and white adults have been suggested to partially explain racial disparities in chronic disease outcomes, but expanding the definition of physical activity to include household and occupational activities may reduce or even eliminate racial differences in total physical activity. The objective of this study was to describe patterns of active and sedentary behaviors in black and white adults and to examine these behaviors across demographic measures. Sedentary and physically active behaviors were obtained from a validated physical activity questionnaire in 23,021 black men, 9,899 white men, 32,214 black women, and 15,425 white women (age 40-79) at enrollment into the Southern Community Cohort Study. Descriptive statistics for sedentary time; light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity; sports/exercise; total activity; and meeting current physical activity recommendations via sports/exercise were examined for each race-sex group. Adjusted means were calculated using multiple linear regression models across demographic measures. Study participants spent approximately 60% of waking time in sedentary behaviors. Blacks reported more television viewing time than whites (45 minutes for females, 15 minutes for males), but when sitting time was expressed as a proportion of overall awake time, minimal racial differences were found. Patterns of light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity were similar in all race/sex groups. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans were followed by 16% of women and 25% of men independent of race. Overall, black and white men and women in this study spent the majority of their daily time in sedentary behaviors and less than one-fourth followed current guidelines for physical activity. These results indicate that

  2. Chromium exposure and incidence of metabolic syndrome among American young adults over a 23-year follow-up: the CARDIA Trace Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jianling; Xun, Pengcheng; Morris, Steve; Jacobs, David R.; Liu, Kiang; He, Ka

    2015-01-01

    Studies suggest that chromium deficiency is associated with elevated levels of fasting blood glucose, circulating insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides, and decreased proportion of lean body mass. However, data directly relating chromium levels to metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk are lacking. A total of 3,648 American adults from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, aged 20–32 years, were prospectively examined for the incidence of MetS and its five components from 1987–88 to 2010–11. Baseline toenail chromium levels were measured with instrumental neutron-activation analysis. Incident MetS was defined by the NCEP-ATP III criteria. During the 23-year follow-up, 878 incident MetS cases were identified. Baseline toenail chromium was inversely associated with incidence of MetS as well as its blood lipid components. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of MetS comparing the highest to the lowest quartiles of toenail chromium levels was 0.80 (0.66–0.98; Plinear trend = 0.006). The adjusted HRs were 0.82 (0.68–0.98; Ptrend = 0.045) for having abnormal triglycerides levels and 0.75 (0.64–0.88; Ptrend  = 0.030) for having abnormal HDL cholesterol levels. Toenail chromium levels were inversely and longitudinally associated with incidence of MetS in American young adults. This inverse association was mainly explained by its relation to blood lipids. PMID:26489690

  3. Sedentary and physically active behavior patterns among low-income African-American and white adults living in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sarah S; Matthews, Charles E; Signorello, Lisa B; Schlundt, David G; Blot, William J; Buchowski, Maciej S

    2013-01-01

    Increased sedentary behavior and lack of physical activity are associated with increased risk for many chronic diseases. Differences in leisure-time physical activity between African American and white adults have been suggested to partially explain racial disparities in chronic disease outcomes, but expanding the definition of physical activity to include household and occupational activities may reduce or even eliminate racial differences in total physical activity. The objective of this study was to describe patterns of active and sedentary behaviors in black and white adults and to examine these behaviors across demographic measures. Sedentary and physically active behaviors were obtained from a validated physical activity questionnaire in 23,021 black men, 9,899 white men, 32,214 black women, and 15,425 white women (age 40-79) at enrollment into the Southern Community Cohort Study. Descriptive statistics for sedentary time; light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity; sports/exercise; total activity; and meeting current physical activity recommendations via sports/exercise were examined for each race-sex group. Adjusted means were calculated using multiple linear regression models across demographic measures. Study participants spent approximately 60% of waking time in sedentary behaviors. Blacks reported more television viewing time than whites (45 minutes for females, 15 minutes for males), but when sitting time was expressed as a proportion of overall awake time, minimal racial differences were found. Patterns of light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity were similar in all race/sex groups. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans were followed by 16% of women and 25% of men independent of race. Overall, black and white men and women in this study spent the majority of their daily time in sedentary behaviors and less than one-fourth followed current guidelines for physical activity. These results indicate that

  4. Interventions for Improving Nutrition and Physical Activity Behaviors in Adult African American Populations: A Systematic Review, January 2000 Through December 2011

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Brittny A.; Ilich, Jasminka Z.; Ralston, Penny A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of preventable chronic diseases is disproportionally high among African Americans and could be reduced through diet and physical activity interventions. Our objective was to systematically review the literature on clinical outcomes of diet and physical activity interventions conducted among adult African American populations in the United States. Methods We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta Analysis construct in our review. We searched Medline (PubMed and Ovid), Cochrane, and DARE databases and restricted our search to articles published in English from January 2000 through December 2011. We included studies of educational interventions with clinically relevant outcomes and excluded studies that dealt with nonadult populations or populations with pre-existing catabolic or other complicated disorders, that did not focus on African Americans, that provided no quantitative baseline or follow-up data, or that included no diet or physical activity education or intervention. We report retention and attendance rates, study setting, program sustainability, behavior theory, and education components. Results Nineteen studies were eligible for closer analysis. These studies described interventions for improving diet or physical activity as indicators of health promotion and disease prevention and that reported significant improvement in clinical outcomes. Conclusion Our review suggests that nutrition and physical activity educational interventions can be successful in improving clinically relevant outcomes among African Americans in the United States. Further research is needed to study the cost and sustainability of lifestyle interventions. Further studies should also include serum biochemical parameters to substantiate more specifically the effect of interventions on preventing chronic disease and reducing its incidence and prevalence. PMID:23786910

  5. Associations of Toll-Like Receptor and β-Defensin Polymorphisms with Measures of Periodontal Disease (PD) in HIV+ North American Adults: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Catherine M.; Weinberg, Aaron; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Vernon, Lance T.

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphisms in toll-like receptor (TLR) and β-defensin (DEFB) genes have been recognized as potential genetic factors that can influence susceptibility to and severity of periodontal diseases (PD). However, data regarding associations between these polymorphisms and PD are still scarce in North American populations, and are not available in HIV+ North American populations. In this exploratory study, we analyzed samples from HIV+ adults (n = 115), who received primary HIV care at 3 local outpatient HIV clinics and were monitored for PD status. We genotyped a total of 41 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 TLR genes and copy number variation (CNV) in DEFB4/103A. We performed regression analyses for levels of 3 periodontopathogens in subgingival dental plaques (Porphyromonas gingivalis [Pg], Treponema denticola [Td], and Tannerella forsythia [Tf]) and 3 clinical measures of PD (periodontal probing depth [PPD], gingival recession [REC], and bleeding on probing [BOP]). In all subjects combined, 2 SNPs in TLR1 were significantly associated with Td, and one SNP in TLR2 was significantly associated with BOP. One of the 2 SNPs in TLR1 was significantly associated with Td in Caucasians. In addition, another SNP in TLR1 and a SNP in TLR6 were also significantly associated with Td and Pg, respectively, in Caucasians. All 3 periodontopathogen levels were significantly associated with PPD and BOP, but none was associated with REC. Instrumental variable analysis showed that 8 SNPs in 6 TLR genes were significantly associated with the 3 periodontopathogen levels. However, associations between the 3 periodontopathogen levels and PPD or BOP were not driven by associations with these identified SNPs. No association was found between DEFB4/103A CNV and any periodontopathogen level or clinical measure in all samples, Caucasians, or African Americans. Our exploratory study suggests a role of TLR polymorphisms, particularly TLR1 and TLR6 polymorphisms, in PD in HIV+ North

  6. Social and Health Conditions of the Black/African-American Population: The Setting for Children and Adults with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, H. Barry; Perlman, Steven P.; Kucine, Allan J.

    2008-01-01

    The 2000 Census reported that more than 7 million black residents five years and older (almost 24 percent of black persons, compared to 19 percent of the total population) had one or more disabilities. Black and Native American residents share the highest overall estimated disability rate. Based upon the data from the 2000 Census among black…

  7. National Trends in Drug Use and Related Factors among American High School Students and Young Adults, 1975-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; And Others

    This report is the 10th in an annual series reporting the drug use and related attitudes of American high school seniors. Findings reported cover the high school classes of 1975 through 1986 and come from the national project, Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of the Lifestyles and Values of Youth. Findings on the prevalence of, and trends…

  8. Transition from School to Adult Life: Critical Issues for Native American Youth with and without Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramasamy, Rangasamy; Duffy, Mary Lou; Camp, Jimmy L., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    In an effort to examine the transition status of Apache Native American school leavers, a 38-item survey collected information from 48 former students with and without learning disabilities. Results indicated the students with learning disabilities had higher rates of unemployment and substance abuse and were less likely to live independently or…

  9. Understanding Impediments and Enablers to Physical Activity among African American Adults: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiqi, Zoveen; Tiro, Jasmin A.; Shuval, Kerem

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading cause of premature death, disability and numerous chronic diseases. Minority and underserved populations in the United States and worldwide have a higher prevalence of physical inactivity affecting their morbidity and mortality rates. In the United States, African Americans are less physically active and have a…

  10. Participation in a Technological World: The Meaning of Educational Technology in the Lives of Young Adult Central American Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt-Mentle, Davina S.

    Many communities throughout the United States are experiencing a large influx of Central American immigrants. Langley Park, Maryland is typical of the pockets that are formed by the new arrivals. Community members of Latino background now account for 60% of the population, while in 1990 they were only 40% (US Census, 2000). As the immigrants move…

  11. Promoting Sexual Health Equity in the United States: Implications from Exploratory Research with African-American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Allison L.; Uhrig, Jennifer; Poehlman, Jon; Scales, Monica; Hogben, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to inform communication efforts to promote sexual health equity in the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sought to explore African-Americans' perceptions of the sexually transmitted disease (STD) problem in their communities, reactions to racially comparative STD data and opinions about dissemination…

  12. American Identity Revisited: The Relation between National, Ethnic, and Personal Identity in a Multiethnic Sample of Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Liliana; Schwartz, Seth J.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss

    2010-01-01

    The present mixed-methods study investigated meanings and affective valences ascribed to "American identity" and the ways in which these meanings and valences relate to ethnic and personal identity. The data were collected from 2004 to 2006 and used a multiethnic sample of 287 college students residing in Miami, Florida. Subjective meanings of…

  13. Roles and functions of occupational therapy in adult day-care (position paper). American Occupational Therapy Association.

    PubMed

    1986-12-01

    Occupational therapy's long-standing involvement in adult day-care attests to the importance of the profession's role in this setting. The functional approach used by occupational therapy helps the older person overcome multiple disablements associated with aging. Intervention promotes independence, adaptation, and the maintenance of occupational performance in self-care, work, and leisure. Working collaboratively with the day-care staff, participant, and family or care giver, occupational therapy personnel use their expertise to analyze activities and facilitate problem solving. Occupational therapy personnel may also work as administrators, activity coordinators, and consultants within the adult day-care setting.

  14. The Shad Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, Sandy

    2006-01-01

    Science trade books can spark real-life involvement in saving a threatened fish. A successful science program at the Westbrook Elementary School, in Bethesda, Maryland, does just that. The program--in which students participate in watershed restoration projects as part of a yearlong study of the local Chesapeake Bay and the Potomac River…

  15. Romantic relationships and health among African American young adults: linking patterns of relationship quality over time to changes in physical and mental health.

    PubMed

    Barr, Ashley B; Culatta, Elizabeth; Simons, Ronald L

    2013-01-01

    With trends in delayed marriage, scholars have begun to explore how a wide range of romantic relationships contribute to health. Although a welcome shift, this largely cross-sectional work ignores potential (in)stability in relationship supports and stressors thought to affect health. Using Family and Community Health Study data on 634 African American young adults, we extend this work by demonstrating the value of a holistic, multidimensional assessment of relationship quality for understanding the link between relationships and health. In addition, however, we also show that there is substantial instability in both the presence and quality of romantic relationships during the transition to adulthood. Importantly, particular patterns of instability are uniquely associated with changes in mental and physical health. Given persistent racial inequalities across both relationships and health, such findings prove theoretically and practically important. In particular, they highlight the need for more contextualized, life course-sensitive approaches in future work.

  16. End of life issues in a palliative care framework for a critically ill adult African American with cystic fibrosis: a case study.

    PubMed

    McNeal, Gloria J

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation, using case study methodology, was to explore the end of life issues and to give meaning to the biopsychosocial experiences of the study participant, an adult African American female patient diagnosed with Cystic Fibrosis. Two theoretical frameworks were used to guide the investigation of the study: Kubler-Ross Model of the Stages of Dying and the Conceptual Framework for Palliative Care Practice. Data analysis included review of medical records and patient journals, interviews, observations and clinical assessment. The findings indicated that end of life issues can be articulated within the context of a palliative care framework and that the biopsychosocial experiences of the dying person acquire meaning when situated within life history, ethical values and metaphysical belief systems.

  17. Reliability and Structural Validity of Cross Racial Identity Scale Scores in a Sample of African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrell, Frank C.; Vandiver, Beverly J.; Cross, William E., Jr.; Fhagen-Smith, Peony E.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine the internal consistency and structural validity of scores on the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS; Vandiver et al., 2000; Worrell, Vandiver, & Cross, 2000) in a sample of 105 adults. Exploratory factor analyses provided support for the six-factor structure of the CRIS. Reliability estimates for the scores…

  18. Respondent-Driven Sampling with Hard-to-Reach Emerging Adults: An Introduction and Case Study with Rural African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Steven M.; Wejnert, Cyprian; Chen, Yi-fu; Brody, Gene H.; Slater, LaTrina M.

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining representative samples from populations of emerging adults who do not attend college is challenging for researchers. This article introduces respondent-driven sampling (RDS), a method for obtaining representative samples of hard-to-reach but socially interconnected populations. RDS combines a prescribed method for chain referral with a…

  19. Adult male height in an American colony: Puerto Rico and the USA mainland compared, 1886-1955.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Ricardo A; Goodman, Elizabeth; Levins, Richard; Caram, Mariana; Seyfried, Craig

    2007-03-01

    The links between adult height and socioeconomic-political marginality are controversial. We test hypotheses by comparing secular trends between two groups of USA adult male citizens born during 1886-1930: (a) 9805 men surveyed in Puerto Rico during 1965 and (b) 3064 non-Hispanic Whites surveyed on the mainland during 1971-1975. Puerto Rico provides an apt case study because it is the oldest colony in the world and was the poorest region of the USA during the 20th century. During the period considered the average adult man in Puerto Rico was 164.8 cm tall, 8.3 cm shorter than the average adult man on the mainland (173.1cm). Both groups experienced secular improvements in height, with men on the mainland having higher rates than men in Puerto Rico. In neither case were results statistically significant. The modest changes in Puerto Rico likely reflect the offsetting role of improved health and a stagnant rural economy during the first half of the 20th century.

  20. Drug Use among American High School Students, College Students, and Other Young Adults. National Trends Through 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; And Others

    Drug use and related attitudes of U.S. high school seniors from the graduating classes of 1975-1985 and young adults in their late teens and early- to mid-twenties were studied, as part of an ongoing research project. Eleven classes of drugs were assessed: marijuana (including hashish), inhalants, hallucinogens, cocaine, heroin, other natural and…

  1. Social support buffering of the relation between low income and elevated blood pressure in at-risk African-American adults.

    PubMed

    Coulon, S M; Wilson, D K

    2015-10-01

    Socioeconomic disadvantage has been linked to elevated blood pressure (BP), and the purpose of this study was to assess whether interpersonal social supports buffer these adverse relations in African-American adults. In three communities matched demographically, a subsample of participants (N = 204) of the Positive Action for Today's Health trial provided measures of perceived social support, annual household income, and BP. Multiple regression analyses with cross-product interactions were conducted using follow-up data. The sample had a mean age of 52.8 years (SD = 15.1), and was predominantly female (66 %) with a high body mass index (M = 33.5, SD = 14.7). Results indicated an inverse relation between social support and diastolic BP (B = -.178, p = .005), and also an interaction with income (p = .046), such that higher social support related to lower diastolic BP in the lowest-income individuals (B = -1.05). The same direct (B = -.141, p = .025) and interacting (B = -1.42, p = .040) social support effects were present for systolic BP, however the omnibus model for systolic BP was not significant, F(6, 196) = 1.80, p = .09. The hypothesized buffering effect of social support on the adverse relation of income to BP was partially supported in at-risk African-American adults. Future prevention efforts for reducing the impact of socioeconomic stress on BP may aim to increase perceptions of social support. PMID:26156119

  2. Social support buffering of the relation between low income and elevated blood pressure in at-risk African-American adults.

    PubMed

    Coulon, S M; Wilson, D K

    2015-10-01

    Socioeconomic disadvantage has been linked to elevated blood pressure (BP), and the purpose of this study was to assess whether interpersonal social supports buffer these adverse relations in African-American adults. In three communities matched demographically, a subsample of participants (N = 204) of the Positive Action for Today's Health trial provided measures of perceived social support, annual household income, and BP. Multiple regression analyses with cross-product interactions were conducted using follow-up data. The sample had a mean age of 52.8 years (SD = 15.1), and was predominantly female (66 %) with a high body mass index (M = 33.5, SD = 14.7). Results indicated an inverse relation between social support and diastolic BP (B = -.178, p = .005), and also an interaction with income (p = .046), such that higher social support related to lower diastolic BP in the lowest-income individuals (B = -1.05). The same direct (B = -.141, p = .025) and interacting (B = -1.42, p = .040) social support effects were present for systolic BP, however the omnibus model for systolic BP was not significant, F(6, 196) = 1.80, p = .09. The hypothesized buffering effect of social support on the adverse relation of income to BP was partially supported in at-risk African-American adults. Future prevention efforts for reducing the impact of socioeconomic stress on BP may aim to increase perceptions of social support.

  3. Secular trends in patterns of self-reported food consumption of adult Americans: NHANES 1971–1975 to NHANES 1999–2002123

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I

    2006-01-01

    Background The contributors to trends in increasing prevalence of obesity in the US population are poorly understood. Objective We examined secular trends in food consumption behaviors to understand their possible contribution to increasing energy intakes and adiposity in the American population. Design We used dietary data from 4 consecutive National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) to examine trends (1971–2002) in frequency of eating episodes, meal and snack consumption, quantity of food consumed, and the energy density of foods reported by adult Americans (n = 39 094). Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. Results The reported number of all eating episodes increased slightly in women from 4.90 in 1971–1975 to 5.04 in 1999–2002 (P for trend = 0.002). The amount (in g) of foods and beverages consumed, the energy density of foods, and energy intake per eating episode increased, but the mention of breakfast declined in both sexes (P for trend < 0.0001). The observed trends in mention of a snack (in men) and percentage of energy from evening food intake (in women) were downward. The amount (in g) of foods and their energy density were independent positive correlates of obesity in combined data from all surveys (P for trend < 0.0001). Conclusions Our results do not support large increases in eating frequency, snacking, or evening eating by the American population from 1971 to 2002. The quantity of foods and their energy density increased beginning in NHANES III (1988–1994) with trajectories roughly parallel to the rates of prevalence of obesity in the US population. However, we urge cautious interpretation of these results because of concurrent changes in dietary methods during this period. PMID:17093177

  4. Diet quality and physical activity outcome improvements resulting from a church-based diet and supervised physical activity intervention for rural, southern, Africian American adults: Delta Body and Soul III

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed the effects of a 6-month, church¬-based, diet and supervised physical activity intervention, conducted between 2011 and ¬2012, on improving diet quality and increasing physical activity of southern, African American adults. Using a quasi¬-experimental design, 8 self-selected, eligible c...

  5. Design of a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Web-Based Intervention to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Remote Reservation-Dwelling American Indian Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Jeffrey A.; Chubak, Jessica; O'Connell, Joan; Ramos, Maria C.; Jensen, Julie; Jobe, Jared B.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a randomized controlled trial, the Lakota Oyate Wicozani Pi Kte (LOWPK) trial, which was designed to determine whether a Web-based diabetes and nutritional intervention can improve risk factors related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) among a group of remote reservation-dwelling adult American Indian men and women with type 2 diabetes…

  6. "Discovery of Calling on a Road Not yet Taken": A Qualitative Exploration of the Influence of Religious and Cultural Values on the Vocational Identity of Second Generation Vietnamese American Young Adults Training for the Helping Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Minh-Kha Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing predicament among second generation Vietnamese American young adults desiring to study and work in people-helping professions. Although this population wants to maintain a sense of belonging, loyalty, and duty toward their ethnic heritage, they are essentially breaking cultural norms by pursuing occupations that are not readily…

  7. Predictors and Profiles of Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Among African American Adolescents and Young Adult Males Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Gross, Israel Moses; Hosek, Sybil; Richards, Maryse Heather; Fernandez, M Isabel

    2016-07-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is crucial for thwarting HIV disease progression and reducing secondary HIV transmission, yet youth living with HIV (YLH) struggle with adherence. The highest rates of new HIV infections in the United States occur in young African American men. A sample of 387 HIV-positive young African American males on ART was selected from a cross-sectional assessment of (YLH) receiving medical care within the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN) from 2010 to 2012 (12-24 years old, median 22.00, SD 2.08). Participants completed self-reported adherence, demographic, health, and psychosocial measures. Sixty-two percent self-reported 100% ART adherence. Optimal data analysis identified frequency of cannabis use during the past 3 months as the strongest independent predictor of adherence, yielding moderate effect strength sensitivity (ESS) = 27.1, p < 0.001. Among participants with infrequent cannabis use, 72% reported full adherence; in contrast, only 45% of participants who used cannabis frequently reported full adherence. Classification tree analysis (CTA) was utilized to improve classification accuracy and to identify the pathways of ART adherence and nonadherence. The CTA model evidenced a 38% improvement above chance for correctly classifying participants as ART adherent or nonadherent. Participants most likely to be adherent were those with low psychological distress and minimal alcohol use (82% were adherent). Participants least likely to be adherent were those with higher psychological distress and engaged in weekly cannabis use (69% were nonadherent). Findings suggest multiple profiles of ART adherence for young African American males living with HIV and argue for targeted psychosocial interventions. PMID:27410496

  8. Love and hooking up in the new millennium: communication technology and relationships among urban African American and Puerto Rican young adults.

    PubMed

    Bergdall, Anna R; Kraft, Joan Marie; Andes, Karen; Carter, Marion; Hatfield-Timajchy, Kendra; Hock-Long, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Communication technology is a central feature of young people's lives, but its role in romantic and sexual relationships has not been thoroughly examined. This article describes how young adults use communication technology for partnering across relationship stages (formation, maintenance, and dissolution) and types (serious/casual), and proposes implications of usage in relationships. This study analyzed qualitative data from a five-week, prospective, coital diary method with related debriefing interviews (N = 70) of African American and Puerto Rican men and women aged 18 to 25 years in Hartford and Philadelphia. Cell phones, including calls, text messaging, and mobile Internet, were the most common forms of communication technology used for partnering goals. Participants reported using cell phones to pursue partnering goals across all relationship stages, including formation (meeting, screening, and getting to know new partners), maintaining existing relationships, and breaking up. Cell phone uses depended on the type of relationship (serious/casual) and the participants' intentions and desires. Results indicated that cell phones are an important element of communication among young adults in romantic and sexual relationships. Specific features of cell phone communication shape the process and context of partnering. Future research should explore emerging communication technologies and implications for psychosocial development, dating violence, and sexual behavior.

  9. Lifestyle habits and obesity progression in overweight and obese American young adults: Lessons for promoting cardiometabolic health.

    PubMed

    Cha, EunSeok; Akazawa, Margeaux K; Kim, Kevin H; Dawkins, Colleen R; Lerner, Hannah M; Umpierrez, Guillermo; Dunbar, Sandra B

    2015-12-01

    Obesity among young adults is a growing problem in the United States and is related to unhealthy lifestyle habits, such as high caloric intake and inadequate exercise. Accurate assessment of lifestyle habits across obesity stages is important for informing age-specific intervention strategies to prevent and reduce obesity progression. Using a modified version of the Edmonton Obesity Staging System (mEOSS), a new scale for defining obesity risk and predicting obesity morbidity and mortality, this cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence of overweight/obese conditions in 105 young adults and compared their lifestyle habits across the mEOSS stages. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and one-way analyses of variance were performed. Eighty percent of participants (n = 83) fell into the mEOSS-2 group and had obesity-related chronic disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension, and/or dyslipidemia. There were significant differences in dietary quality and patterns across the mEOSS stages. Findings highlighted the significance of prevention and early treatment for overweight and obese young adults to prevent and cease obesity progression.

  10. The association between depressive symptoms, anger, and perceived support resources among underserved older HIV positive black/African American adults.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Nicole Ennis; Hearn, Lauren E; Burrell, Larry

    2014-09-01

    By 2015, half of those living with HIV in the United States will be ≥50 years of age. Research suggests that perceived social support is an important factor in maintaining positive health behaviors in this population. The present study examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and trait anger on perceived social support in a sample of low-income HIV positive (HIV+) African Americans ≥50 years of age. Additionally, we examined life stressors moderated the relationship between mental health and perceived support. This study includes 95 HIV+ men and women ≥50 years of age who identify as black/African American. As expected, depressive symptoms and trait anger showed a strong inverse relationship with perceived support resources. Furthermore, life stressors also showed a strong inverse relationship with perceived support. However, life stressors did not moderate the relationship between depressive symptoms and anger. Instead life stressors demonstrated a strong independent relationship with perceived support. The association between depressive symptoms, trait anger, life stressors, and lower perceived support suggests that these factors play a role in one's ability to access needed support resources. Greater perceived support is associated with improved health in HIV+ persons, and may be especially important in tailoring interventions for those ≥50 years of age.

  11. Applying Novel Genome-Wide Linkage Strategies to Search for Loci Influencing Type 2 Diabetes and Adult Height in American Samoa

    PubMed Central

    ÅBERG, KAROLINA; SUN, GUANGYUN; SMELSER, DIANE; INDUGULA, SUBBA RAO; TSAI, HUI-JU; STEELE, MATTHEW S.; TUITELE, JOHN; DEKA, RANJAN; MCGARVEY, STEPHEN T.; WEEKS, DANIEL E.

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common complex phenotype that by the year 2010 is predicted to affect 221 million people globally. In the present study we performed a genome-wide linkage scan using the allele-sharing statistic Sall implemented in Allegro and a novel two-dimensional genome-wide strategy implemented in Merloc that searches for pairwise interaction between genetic markers located on different chromosomes linked to T2DM. In addition, we used a robust score statistic from the newly developed QTL-ALL software to search for linkage to variation in adult height. The strategies were applied to a study sample consisting of 238 sib-pairs affected with T2DM from American Samoa. We did not detect any genome-wide significant susceptibility loci for T2DM. However, our two-dimensional linkage investigation detected several loci pairs of interest, including 11q22 and 21q21, 9q21 and 11q22, 1p22–p21 and 4p15, and 4p15 and 15q11–q14, with a two-loci maximum LOD score (MLS) greater than 2.00. Most detected individual loci have previously been identified as susceptibility loci for diabetes-related traits. Our two-dimensional linkage results may facilitate the selection of potential candidate genes and molecular pathways for further diabetes studies because these results, besides providing candidate loci, also demonstrate that polygenic effects may play an important role in T2DM. Linkage was detected (p value of 0.005) for variation in adult height on chromosome 9q31, which was reported previously in other populations. Our finding suggests that the 9q31 region may be a strong quantitative trait locus for adult height, which is likely to be of importance across populations. PMID:18720898

  12. Adult Recruitment Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Juliet, Ed.; And Others

    Findings of an American College Testing Program 1981 survey on college recruitment of adult students are summarized, and 12 articles on adult recruitment are presented. Titles and authors are as follows: "Adult Recruitment Practices: A Report of a National Survey" (Patricia Spratt, Juliet Kaufmann, Lee Noel); "Three Programs for Adults in Shopping…

  13. The social context and meaning of virginity loss among African American and Puerto Rican young adults in Hartford.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Pamela I; Badiane, Louise; Singer, Merrill

    2013-09-01

    We describe virginity loss experiences of inner-city minority youth to understand the meaning attributed to first sex and the social and structural factors that contribute to early sexual debut. We interviewed 62 18-25-year-old African American and Puerto Rican Hartford men and women about their sexual and romantic life histories. Transcripts were coded in ATLAS.ti and analyzed for themes about virginity and sexual debut. We found different conceptions of virginity as a stigma to be lost, a normal part of growing up, and a gift to be given. The normative experience was consensual, early, and unplanned sexual debut. Inner-city minority youth have similar feelings, motivations, and experiences of sexual debut as non-ethnic youth reported in the literature except they are far younger. We discuss structural factors that affect inner-city sexual scripts for early sexual debut and identify it as a health inequity.

  14. Prevalence and correlates of perceived societal racism in older African-American adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Moody-Ayers, Sandra Y; Stewart, Anita L; Covinsky, Kenneth E; Inouye, Sharon K

    2005-12-01

    Although experiences of racism in day-to-day life may affect minority patients' interaction with the health system and may influence health outcomes, little is known about these experiences in patients with chronic diseases. The goal of this study was to explore the frequency and correlates of perceived societal racism in 42 African Americans aged 50 and older with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Twenty-seven items of the McNeilly Perceived Racism Scale were used to assess exposure to racist incidents in employment and public domains and emotional and coping responses to perceived racism in general. Mean age was 62, 71% were women, and more than half rated their health as fair/poor (55%). Overall, 95.2% of the participants reported at least some exposure to perceived societal racism. Higher mean lifetime exposure to societal racism, based on summary scores on the perceived racism scale, was reported by men (35.0+/-19.1) than women (19.7+/-14.4) (P<.01) and by those with higher household income (30.7+/-17.3) than those with lower household income (18.6+/-15.1) (P<.05). Greater passive coping (e.g., "avoiding it," "ignoring it") was associated with being female and having lower household income and fair/poor self-rated health. The findings that perception of racism and a range of emotional and coping responses were common in older African-American patients attending two diabetes clinics suggest that physicians and other healthcare providers may need to be more aware of patients' day-to-day experiences of societal racism and the influence these experiences may have on patient trust in the medical system and their adherence to medical advice or engagement in self-management of their chronic conditions.

  15. Chagas Disease among the Latin American Adult Population Attending in a Primary Care Center in Barcelona, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Roca, Carme; Pinazo, María Jesús; López-Chejade, Paolo; Bayó, Joan; Posada, Elizabeth; López-Solana, Jordi; Gállego, Montserrat; Portús, Montserrat; Gascón, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims The epidemiology of Chagas disease, until recently confined to areas of continental Latin America, has undergone considerable changes in recent decades due to migration to other parts of the world, including Spain. We studied the prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin American patients treated at a health center in Barcelona and evaluated its clinical phase. We make some recommendations for screening for the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed an observational, cross-sectional prevalence study by means of an immunochromatographic test screening of all continental Latin American patients over the age of 14 years visiting the health centre from October 2007 to October 2009. The diagnosis was confirmed by serological methods: conventional in-house ELISA (cELISA), a commercial kit (rELISA) and ELISA using T cruzi lysate (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics) (oELISA). Of 766 patients studied, 22 were diagnosed with T. cruzi infection, showing a prevalence of 2.87% (95% CI, 1.6–4.12%). Of the infected patients, 45.45% men and 54.55% women, 21 were from Bolivia, showing a prevalence in the Bolivian subgroup (n = 127) of 16.53% (95% CI, 9.6–23.39%). All the infected patients were in a chronic phase of Chagas disease: 81% with the indeterminate form, 9.5% with the cardiac form and 9.5% with the cardiodigestive form. All patients infected with T. cruzi had heard of Chagas disease in their country of origin, 82% knew someone affected, and 77% had a significant history of living in adobe houses in rural areas. Conclusions We found a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in immigrants from Bolivia. Detection of T. cruzi–infected persons by screening programs in non-endemic countries would control non-vectorial transmission and would benefit the persons affected, public health and national health systems. PMID:21572511

  16. Associations of body mass index with incident hypertension in American white, American black and Chinese Asian adults in early and middle adulthood: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study and the People's Republic of China (PRC) study.

    PubMed

    Katz, Eva G; Stevens, June; Truesdale, Kimberly P; Cai, Jianwen; North, Kari E; Steffen, Lyn M

    2013-01-01

    The association of body mass index (BMI) with blood pressure may be stronger in Asian than non-Asian populations, however, longitudinal studies with direct comparisons between ethnicities are lacking. We compared the relationship of BMI with incident hypertension over approximately 9.5 years of follow-up in young (24-39 years) and middle-aged (45-64 years) Chinese Asians (n=5354), American Blacks (n=6076) and American Whites (n=13451). We estimated risk differences using logistic regression models and calculated adjusted incidences and incidence differences. To facilitate comparisons across ethnicities, standardized estimates were calculated using mean covariate values for age, sex, smoking, education and field center, and included the quadratic terms for BMI and age. Weighted least-squares regression models with were constructed to summarize ethnic-specific incidence differences across BMI. Wald statistics and p-values were calculated based on chi-square distributions. The association of BMI with the incidence difference for hypertension was steeper in Chinese (p<0.05) than in American populations during young and middle-adulthood. For example, at a BMI of 25 vs 21 kg/m2 the adjusted incidence differences per 1000 persons (95% CI) in young adults with a BMI of 25 vs those with a BMI of 21 was 83 (36- 130) for Chinese, 50 (26-74) for Blacks and 30 (12-48) for Whites; among middle-aged adults it was 137 (77-198) for Chinese, 49 (9-88) for Blacks and 54 (38-69) for Whites. Whether hypertension carries the same level of risk of stroke or cardiovascular disease across national or ethnic groups remains uncertain.

  17. The Changing Image of Hispanic Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Charles N.

    2005-01-01

    Data from surveys representative of the adult population of the United States were used to examine changes from 1990 to 2000 in the image of Hispanic Americans on wealth, work ethic, violence, and intelligence as seen by 2,226 European Americans, 90 Jewish Americans, 304 African Americans, and 205 Hispanic Americans. The image that European…

  18. Condom Use Negotiation in Heterosexual African-American Adults: Responses to Types of Social Power-Based Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Otto-Salaj, Laura L.; Reed, Barbara; Brondino, Michael J.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Stevenson, L. Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    Little research has been performed on how people respond to different strategies to negotiate condom use in sexual situations, and whether certain strategies tend to be perceived as more or less effective in condom use negotiation. This study examined gender differences and preferences in the use of and response to six different styles of condom use negotiation with a hypothetical sexual partner of the opposite gender. Participants were 51 heterosexually-active African-American men and women between the ages of 18 and 35, attending an inner-city community center. Study participants completed a semi-structured qualitative interview in which they were presented with six negotiation strategies —coercive, reward, legitimate, expert, referent, and informational--based on Raven’s 1992 Power/Interaction Model of Interpersonal Influence. Results showed that women participants responded best to referent, reward, and legitimate strategies, and worst to informational tactics. Men participants responded best to reward strategies, and worst to coercion to use condoms. Further, responses given by a subset of both women—and, to a greater extent, men--indicated that use of negotiation tactics involving coercion to use condoms may result in negative or angry reactions. Finally, response to strategies may vary with the value of the relationship as viewed by the target of negotiation. Implications for HIV prevention programs and media campaigns are discussed. PMID:18569536

  19. Creating a Community–Physical Therapy Partnership to Increase Physical Activity in Urban African-American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Healey, William E.; Reed, Monique; Huber, Gail

    2013-01-01

    Background: Racial disparities in health across the United States remain, and in some cities have worsened despite increased focus at federal and local levels. One approach to addressing health inequity is community-based participatory research (CBPR). Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to describe the develop ment of an ongoing community–physical therapy partnership focused on physical activity (PA), which aims to improve the health of African-American community members and engage physical therapist (PT) students in CBPR. Methods: Three main research projects that resulted from an initial partnership-building seed grant include (1) community focus groups, (2) training of community PA promoters, and (3) pilot investigation of PA promoter effectiveness. Lessons Learned: Results from each project informed the next. Focus groups findings led to development of a PA pro moter training curriculum. PA promoters were accepted by the community, with potential to increase PA. Focus on the community issue of PA fostered and sustained the partnership. Conclusions: Community and academic partners benefitted from funding, structure, and time to create meaningful, trusting, and sustainable relationships committed to improving health. Engaging PT students with community residents provided learning opportunities that promote respect and appreciation of the social, economic, and environmental context of future patients. PMID:24056507

  20. Attitudes Toward and Sexual Partnerships With Drug Dealers Among Young Adult African American Females in Socially Disorganized Communities

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Leah J.; Brown, Qiana

    2015-01-01

    Drug markets in disadvantaged African American neighborhoods have altered social and sexual norms as well as sexual networks, which impact an individual’s risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection. Presently, we describe the prevalence of sexual partnerships with males involved with illegal drugs among a sample of non-drug-dependent females. In 2010, 120 Black females aged 18 to 30 years completed a semistructured HIV-risk interview. Descriptive statistics revealed approximately 80% of females perceived neighborhood drug activity as a major problem, 58% had sex with a male drug dealer, 48% reported sex with a male incarcerated for selling drugs, and 56% believed drug dealers have the most sexual partners. Our results suggest sexual partnerships with males involved in the distribution of drugs are prevalent. These partnerships may play a substantial role in the spread of sexually transmitted infections among low-risk females, as drug dealers likely serve as a bridge between higher HIV-risk drug and prison populations and lower HIV-risk females. However, the significance of partnerships with males involved in drug dealing has received little attention in HIV and drug abuse literature. Presently, there is a need for more research focused on understanding the extent to which the drug epidemic affects the HIV risk of non-drug-dependent Black female residents of neighborhoods inundated with drugs. Special consideration should be given to the role of the neighborhood drug dealer in the spread of sexually transmitted infections. PMID:25797963

  1. Measurement equivalence of the Revised Helping Alliance Questionnaire across African American and non-Latino White substance using adult outpatients.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Frank R

    2013-08-01

    Analyses of the effectiveness of substance abuse treatments across racial/ethnic groups should ensure that outcome measures have the same conceptual meaning (i.e., measurement equivalence) across groups. Because racial groups differ in perceptions and experiences of the therapeutic alliance, this study investigated measurement equivalence properties of the Revised Helping Alliance Questionnaire (HAq-II) across racial groups. The sample included 138 African American and 133 non-Latino White participants, age 18-64 years, who participated in a randomized clinical trial investigating the effectiveness of Motivational Enhancement Therapy in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network. Results demonstrated configural invariance and two forms of metric invariance (weak and strong/scalar), suggesting that conceptualizations of therapeutic alliance and overall levels of endorsement of therapeutic alliance are comparable across racial groups. The groups indicated partial, strict metric nonequivalence. No studies to date reported measurement equivalence properties of the HAq-II. Findings support valid measurement and interpretation of HAq-II outcomes. PMID:23522849

  2. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Liberalization of the diet prescription improves quality of life for older adults in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Niedert, Kathleen C

    2005-12-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) that the quality of life and nutritional status of older residents in long-term care facilities may be enhanced by liberalization of the diet prescription. The Association advocates the use of qualified dietetics professionals to assess and evaluate the need for medical nutrition therapy according to each person's individual medical condition, needs, desires, and rights. In 2003, ADA designated aging as its second "emerging" area. Nutrition care in long-term settings must meet two goals: maintenance of health and promotion of quality of life. The Nutrition Care Process includes assessment of nutritional status through development of an individualized nutrition intervention plan. Medical nutrition therapy must balance medical needs and individual desires and maintain quality of life. The recent paradigm shift from restrictive institutions to vibrant communities for older adults requires dietetics professionals to be open-minded when assessing risks vs benefits of therapeutic diets, especially for frail older adults. Food is an essential component of quality of life; an unacceptable or unpalatable diet can lead to poor food and fluid intake, resulting in weight loss and undernutrition and a spiral of negative health effects. Facilities are adopting new attitudes toward providing care. "Person-centered" or "resident-centered care" involves residents in decisions about schedules, menus, and dining locations. Allowing residents to participate in diet-related decisions can provide nutrient needs, allow alterations contingent on medical conditions, and simultaneously increase the desire to eat and enjoyment of food, thus decreasing the risks of weight loss, undernutrition, and other potential negative effects of poor nutrition and hydration.

  3. Epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of BMI, BMI change and waist circumference in African American adults identifies multiple replicated loci

    PubMed Central

    Demerath, Ellen W.; Guan, Weihua; Grove, Megan L.; Aslibekyan, Stella; Mendelson, Michael; Zhou, Yi-Hui; Hedman, Åsa K.; Sandling, Johanna K.; Li, Li-An; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Zhi, Degui; Deloukas, Panos; Liang, Liming; Liu, Chunyu; Bressler, Jan; Spector, Tim D.; North, Kari; Li, Yun; Absher, Devin M.; Levy, Daniel; Arnett, Donna K.; Fornage, Myriam; Pankow, James S.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is an important component of the pathophysiology of chronic diseases. Identifying epigenetic modifications associated with elevated adiposity, including DNA methylation variation, may point to genomic pathways that are dysregulated in numerous conditions. The Illumina 450K Bead Chip array was used to assay DNA methylation in leukocyte DNA obtained from 2097 African American adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Mixed-effects regression models were used to test the association of methylation beta value with concurrent body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and BMI change, adjusting for batch effects and potential confounders. Replication using whole-blood DNA from 2377 White adults in the Framingham Heart Study and CD4+ T cell DNA from 991 Whites in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network Study was followed by testing using adipose tissue DNA from 648 women in the Multiple Tissue Human Expression Resource cohort. Seventy-six BMI-related probes, 164 WC-related probes and 8 BMI change-related probes passed the threshold for significance in ARIC (P < 1 × 10−7; Bonferroni), including probes in the recently reported HIF3A, CPT1A and ABCG1 regions. Replication using blood DNA was achieved for 37 BMI probes and 1 additional WC probe. Sixteen of these also replicated in adipose tissue, including 15 novel methylation findings near genes involved in lipid metabolism, immune response/cytokine signaling and other diverse pathways, including LGALS3BP, KDM2B, PBX1 and BBS2, among others. Adiposity traits are associated with DNA methylation at numerous CpG sites that replicate across studies despite variation in tissue type, ethnicity and analytic approaches. PMID:25935004

  4. Total alpha-tocopherol intakes are associated with serum alpha-tocopherol concentrations in African American adults.

    PubMed

    Talegawkar, Sameera A; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Carithers, Teresa; Taylor, Herman A; Bogle, Margaret L; Tucker, Katherine L

    2007-10-01

    African Americans in the southern United States have a high prevalence of chronic disease. Tocopherol intake and status have been associated with protection against several chronic diseases. Our objectives were, therefore, to examine the association between tocopherol intakes as measured by 2 regional FFQ and their corresponding concentrations in serum and to report on dietary sources of tocopherols in 404 men and women participating in the cross-sectional Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study of the Jackson Heart Study. A large proportion (49% of men and 66% of women) reported dietary supplement use. Only 5.8% of men and 4.5% of women met the estimated average requirement (EAR) for vitamin E from foods alone, whereas 44.2% men and 49.2% women met it from foods and supplements. Total (diet + supplement) intake of alpha-tocopherol was associated with its corresponding measure in serum. Vitamin E supplement use, sex, serum cholesterol, education, and BMI, but not gamma-tocopherol intakes, were associated with serum gamma-tocopherol. For delta-tocopherol, associated variables included sex and serum cholesterol. The top food sources of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol were snack chips and the top food source of delta-tocopherol was margarine. Despite prevalent vitamin E supplement use, more than one-half of this population did not meet the EAR for alpha-tocopherol intake and very few met it from food alone. Supplement use was associated with higher alpha- but lower gamma-tocopherol concentration in serum. The possible health implications of this difference in relative tocopherol subtypes require further study. PMID:17885014

  5. A North American brain tumor consortium phase II study of Poly-ICLC for adult patients with recurrent anaplastic gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Butowski, Nicholas; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Lee, Bee L; Prados, Michael D.; Cloughesy, Timothy; DeAngelis, Lisa M.; Abrey, Lauren; Fink, Karen; Lieberman, Frank; Mehta, Minesh; Robins, H. Ian; Junck, Larry; Salazar, Andres M.; Chang, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This phase II study was designed to determine the objective response rate and 6-month progression free survival of adult patients with recurrent supratentorial anaplastic glioma when treated with the immune modulator, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid stabilized with polylysine and carboxymethylcellulose (poly-ICLC). Methods and Materials This was an open-labeled, single arm phase II study. Patients were treated with poly-ICLC alone. Patients may have had treatment for no more than two prior relapses. Treatment with poly-ICLC continued until tumor progression. Results 55 patients were enrolled in the study. 10 were ineligible after central review of pathology. 11% of patients (5 of 45) had a radiographic response. Time to progression was known for 39 patients and 6 remain on treatment. The estimated 6-month progression free survival was 24%. The median survival time was 43 weeks. Conclusions Poly-ICLC was well tolerated, but there was no improvement in 6-month progression free survival compared to historical database nor was there an encouraging objective radiographic response rate. Based on this study, poly-ICLC does not improve 6moPFS in patients with recurrent anaplastic gliomas but may be worth further study in combination with agents such as temozolomide. PMID:18850068

  6. Addressing the Vaccine Hesitancy Continuum: An Audience Segmentation Analysis of American Adults Who Did Not Receive the 2009 H1N1 Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ramanadhan, Shoba; Galarce, Ezequiel; Xuan, Ziming; Alexander-Molloy, Jaclyn; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the heterogeneity of groups along the vaccine hesitancy continuum presents an opportunity to tailor and increase the impact of public engagement efforts with these groups. Audience segmentation can support these goals, as demonstrated here in the context of the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. In March 2010, we surveyed 1569 respondents, drawn from a nationally representative sample of American adults, with oversampling of racial/ethnic minorities and persons living below the United States Federal Poverty Level. Guided by the Structural Influence Model, we assessed knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to H1N1; communication outcomes; and social determinants. Among those who did not receive the vaccine (n = 1166), cluster analysis identified three vaccine-hesitant subgroups. Disengaged Skeptics (67%) were furthest from vaccine acceptance, with low levels of concern and engagement. The Informed Unconvinced (19%) were sophisticated consumers of media and health information who may not have been reached with information to motivate vaccination. The Open to Persuasion cluster (14%) had the highest levels of concern and motivation and may have required engagement about vaccination broadly. There were significant sociodemographic differences between groups. This analysis highlights the potential to use segmentation techniques to identify subgroups on the vaccine hesitancy continuum and tailor public engagement efforts accordingly. PMID:26350595

  7. Differential effects of self-reported lifetime marijuana use on interleukin-1 alpha and tumor necrosis factor in African American adults.

    PubMed

    Keen, Larry; Turner, Arlener D

    2015-06-01

    It is unknown how lifetime marijuana use affects different proinflammatory cytokines. The purpose of the current study is to explore potential differential effects of lifetime marijuana use on interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in a community based sample. Participants included 168 African American adults (51 % female, median age = 47 years). Upon study entry, blood was drawn and the participants completed questions regarding illicit drug use history whose answers were used to create three groups: lifetime non-drug users (n = 77), lifetime marijuana only users (n = 46) and lifetime marijuana and other drug users (n = 45). In the presence of demographic and physiological covariates, non-drug users were approximately two times more likely (AOR 2.73, CI 1.18, 6.31; p = .03) to have higher TNF levels than marijuana only users. Drug use was not associated with IL-1α. The influence of marijuana may be selective in nature, potentially localizing around innate immunity and the induction of cellular death.

  8. Differential Effects of Self-Reported Lifetime Marijuana Use on Interleukin-1 Alpha and Tumor Necrosis Factor in African American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Keen, Larry; Turner, Arlener D.; Callender, Clive; Campbell, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown how lifetime marijuana use affects different proinflammatory cytokines. The purpose of the current study is to explore potential differential effects of lifetime marijuana use on interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in a community based sample. Participants included 168 African American adults (51% female, median age= 47 years). Upon study entry, blood was drawn and the participants completed questions regarding illicit drug use history whose answers were used to create three groups: lifetime non-drug users (n= 77), lifetime marijuana only users (n= 46) and lifetime marijuana and other drug users (n= 45). In the presence of demographic and physiological covariates, non-drug users were approximately two times more likely (AOR= 2.73, CI= 1.18, 6.31; p= .03) to have higher TNF levels than marijuana only users. Drug use was not associated with IL-1α. The influence of marijuana may be selective in nature, potentially localizing around innate immunity and the induction of cellular death. PMID:25731665

  9. Addressing the Vaccine Hesitancy Continuum: An Audience Segmentation Analysis of American Adults Who Did Not Receive the 2009 H1N1 Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Ramanadhan, Shoba; Galarce, Ezequiel; Xuan, Ziming; Alexander-Molloy, Jaclyn; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the heterogeneity of groups along the vaccine hesitancy continuum presents an opportunity to tailor and increase the impact of public engagement efforts with these groups. Audience segmentation can support these goals, as demonstrated here in the context of the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. In March 2010, we surveyed 1569 respondents, drawn from a nationally representative sample of American adults, with oversampling of racial/ethnic minorities and persons living below the United States Federal Poverty Level. Guided by the Structural Influence Model, we assessed knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to H1N1; communication outcomes; and social determinants. Among those who did not receive the vaccine (n = 1166), cluster analysis identified three vaccine-hesitant subgroups. Disengaged Skeptics (67%) were furthest from vaccine acceptance, with low levels of concern and engagement. The Informed Unconvinced (19%) were sophisticated consumers of media and health information who may not have been reached with information to motivate vaccination. The Open to Persuasion cluster (14%) had the highest levels of concern and motivation and may have required engagement about vaccination broadly. There were significant sociodemographic differences between groups. This analysis highlights the potential to use segmentation techniques to identify subgroups on the vaccine hesitancy continuum and tailor public engagement efforts accordingly. PMID:26350595

  10. Medical advice and diabetes self-management reported by Mexican-American, Black- and White-non-Hispanic adults across the United States

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, particularly among minorities, and if improperly managed can lead to medical complications and death. Healthcare providers play vital roles in communicating standards of care, which include guidance on diabetes self-management. The background of the client may play a role in the patient-provider communication process. The aim of this study was to determine the association between medical advice and diabetes self care management behaviors for a nationally representative sample of adults with diabetes. Moreover, we sought to establish whether or not race/ethnicity was a modifier for reported medical advice received and diabetes self-management behaviors. Methods We analyzed data from 654 adults aged 21 years and over with diagnosed diabetes [130 Mexican-Americans; 224 Black non-Hispanics; and, 300 White non-Hispanics] and an additional 161 with 'undiagnosed diabetes' [N = 815(171 MA, 281 BNH and 364 WNH)] who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate whether medical advice to engage in particular self-management behaviors (reduce fat or calories, increase physical activity or exercise, and control or lose weight) predicted actually engaging in the particular behavior and whether the impact of medical advice on engaging in the behavior differed by race/ethnicity. Additional analyses examined whether these relationships were maintained when other factors potentially related to engaging in diabetes self management such as participants' diabetes education, sociodemographics and physical characteristics were controlled. Sample weights were used to account for the complex sample design. Results Although medical advice to the patient is considered a standard of care for diabetes, approximately one-third of the sample reported not receiving dietary, weight management, or physical activity self

  11. BASEBALL IN AMERICAN FICTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRABER, RALPH S.

    BASEBALL FICTION HAS MOVED FROM THE JUVENILE STORIES OF THE TURN OF THE CENTURY TO ADULT FICTION IN WHICH THE GAME IS EXAMINED FOR THE LIGHT IT SHEDS ON THE PARADOXES OF AMERICAN LIFE. EARLY BASEBALL FICTION WAS DIRECTED TOWARD THE DIME-NOVEL AUDIENCE, BUT AFTER WORLD WAR I, SUCH WRITERS AS HEYWOOD BROUN AND RING LARDNER AIMED FOR ADULT READERS…

  12. Marketing to Older American Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Barbara; Stephens, Nancy

    1986-01-01

    Examined older adults as a potential market for American businesses. Data indicate that in terms of size and income, senior citizens comprise a substantial buying group. Their buying styles, product and service needs, and shopping behavior vary from younger adults and within the older adult population. Strategies for successful marketing are…

  13. Alligator diet in relation to alligator mortality on Lake Griffin, FL

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, A.N.; Ross, J.P.; Woodward, A.R.; Carbonneau, D.A.; Percival, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    Alligator mississippiensis (American Alligators) demonstrated low hatch-rate success and increased adult mortality on Lake Griffin, FL, between 1998 and 2003. Dying Lake Griffin alligators with symptoms of poor motor coordination were reported to show specific neurological impairment and brain lesions. Similar lesions were documented in salmonines that consumed clupeids with high thiaminase levels. Therefore, we investigated the diet of Lake Griffin alligators and compared it with alligator diets from two lakes that exhibited relatively low levels of unexplained alligator mortality to see if consumption of Dorosoma cepedianum (gizzard shad) could be correlated with patterns of mortality. Shad in both lakes Griffin and Apopka had high levels of thiaminase and Lake Apopka alligators were consuming greater amounts of shad relative to Lake Griffin without showing mortality rates similar to Lake Griffin alligators. Therefore, a relationship between shad consumption alone and alligator mortality is not supported.

  14. Plasma levels of glucose, ketone bodies, lactate, and alanine in the vascular supply to and from the brain of the adult American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana).

    PubMed

    Gibbs, S R; deRoos, R M

    1991-04-01

    Serial, paired blood samples were collected via cannulae chronically placed in the common carotid artery (A) to and the internal jugular vein (V) from the brain of the fasted adult American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). Plasma glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, lactate, and alanine levels were measured by standard enzymatic procedures. Cannula failure ended sampling after 1-2 days in most animals. The common carotid artery plasma metabolite levels were greatest at the time of surgery and subsequently declined to relatively stable levels. The summarized data indicated glucose uptake and alanine release by the brain, but no significant beta-hydroxybutyrate or lactate A-V percentage changes. Initially, acetoacetate levels also were measured, but were discontinued in favor of continued beta-hydroxybutyrate determinations when no significant A-V percentage changes occurred. Separate analysis of the metabolite levels during the surgery and recovery period (less than or equal to 24 hr) and the "normal" under the experimental conditions period (greater than 24 hr) revealed that summarizing the data masked important A-V percentage changes during the two different physiological conditions. Glucose was the only metabolite extracted by the brain during the less than or equal to 24 hr period of elevated and subsequently declining metabolite levels. In contrast, glucose uptake did not occur during the greater than 24 hr period of stable levels, but there was lactate release. If the bullfrog brain stores substantial glycogen as do the other ectothermic vertebrates studied, glucose uptake when plasma levels are elevated, for example after feeding, may serve both to fuel the brain and to replenish endogenous glycogen reserves that may be mobilized to provide glucose for the brain after plasma glucose levels return to normal. Assuming that mammalian and bullfrog metabolic pathways are the same, the release of lactate and alanine by the brain, possibly to remove excess

  15. The Interdependence of Adult Relationship Quality and Parenting Behaviours among African American and European Couples in Rural, Low-Income Communities

    PubMed Central

    Zvara, Bharathi J.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Heilbron, Nicole; Clincy, Amanda; Cox, Martha J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study extends the spillover and crossover hypotheses to more carefully model the potential interdependence between parent–parent interaction quality and parent–child interaction quality in family systems. Using propensity score matching, the present study attempted to isolate family processes that are unique across African American and European American couples that are independent of other socio-demographic factors to further clarify how interparental relationships may be related to parenting in a rural, low-income sample. The Actor–Partner Interdependence Model (APIM), a statistical analysis technique that accounts for the interdependence of relationship data, was used with a sample of married and non-married cohabiting African American and European American couples (n = 82 dyads) to evaluate whether mothers' and fathers' observed parenting behaviours are related to their behaviours and their partner's behaviours observed in a couple problem-solving interaction. Findings revealed that interparental withdrawal behaviour, but not conflict behaviour, was associated with less optimal parenting for fathers but not mothers, and specifically so for African American fathers. Our findings support the notion of interdependence across subsystems within the family and suggest that African American fathers may be specifically responsive to variations in interparental relationship quality. PMID:26430390

  16. Artifacts and the American Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlereth, Thomas J.

    Ten essays are presented which suggest rationale and methods for involving students of American history in first hand research using primary source material. The book is intended for classroom and extra curricular use by teachers and students of American studies on the high school, college, and adult education levels. It can also be of use to…

  17. Associations between the SS Variant of 5-HTTLPR and PTSD Among Adults with Histories of Childhood Emotional Abuse: Results from Two African American Independent Samples

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; Uddin, Monica; Soliven, Richelo; Wildman, Derek E.; Bradley-Davino, Bekh

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies have found that the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) interacts with stressful life events to increase general risk for PTSD, but this association has not extended to African American samples. Further, little is known about the effects of this interaction on specific PTSD symptom clusters, despite indications that clusters may have different biological substrates. The current study examined the interaction between exposure to childhood emotional abuse and 5-HTTLPR genotype on risk for PTSD symptom severity and severity of specific PTSD symptom clusters in two African American samples. Methods Participants were 136 African American household residents from Detroit, MI and 546 African American patients recruited from waiting rooms in primary care clinics in Atlanta, GA. Participants reported emotional abuse exposure and PTSD symptom severity, and provided DNA for triallelic 5-HTTLPR genotyping. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to examine main effects and interactions. Results In both African American samples, 5-HTTLPR genotype modified the effect of emotional abuse on PTSD symptom severity. Participants with the low-expression SS genotype who were exposed to emotional abuse had significantly lower reexperiencing and arousal symptom severity scores. Limitations The DNHS genetic sample size was small, and abuse data were assessed retrospectively. Conclusions The SS variant of 5-HTTLPR appears to buffer against developing the reexperiencing and arousal symptoms of PTSD in two independent African American samples exposed to childhood emotional abuse. Findings also highlight the importance of considering emotional abuse experiences in patients with suspected PTSD. PMID:24751314

  18. Language Use in Multiethnic Literature For Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christianson, Darcy

    This study analyzed ethnic authenticity with regard to language use in 16 books for children and young adults used in Central Michigan University's English 582 course, "Cultural Pluralism in Children and Young Adult Literature." Four ethnic groups were included: Native American, African American, Asian American, and Hispanic American. To evaluate…

  19. Use of Media Technologies by Native American Teens and Young Adults in the Pacific Northwest: Exploring Their Utility for Designing Culturally Appropriate Technology-Based Health Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushing, Stephanie Craig; Stephens, David

    2011-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth are disproportionally burdened by many common adolescent health issues, including drug and alcohol use, injury and violence, sexually transmitted infections, and teen pregnancy. Media technologies, including the Internet, cell phones, and video games, offer new avenues for reaching adolescents on a…

  20. American Potpourri: Multi-ethnic Books for Children and Young Adults. A Bibliography Based on the Acquisitions of the Educational Materials Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Mary DeWitt; And Others

    A selective annotated bibliography of multiethnic books, which were published in 1975 or 1976, is presented. Section one, books for preschool and beginning readers, contains 13 fiction and five nonfiction entries. These stress self-concept and understanding of Mexican and American Indian cultures. Section two contains 20 fiction and 13 nonfiction…

  1. Health-Related Quality of Life and Health Behaviors in a Population-Based Sample of Older, Foreign-Born, Chinese American Adults Living in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Laura C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Islam, Nadia S.; Kwon, Simona C.

    2014-01-01

    Although the New York City Chinese population aged =65 years increased by 50% between 2000 and 2010, the health needs of this population are poorly understood. Approximately 3,001 Chinese individuals from high-density Asian American New York City areas were included in the REACH U.S. Risk Factor Survey; 805 (26.8%) were aged =65 years and…

  2. The Future of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    It is an interesting assignment to think about the future of adult education. In fact, it is an assignment the author has the graduate students in his "Introduction to Adult Education" class at East Carolina University consider during one of their course units. As a member of the Board of Directors for the American Association for Adult and…

  3. The Shad-Fack Transom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crannell, Annalisa

    2011-01-01

    We provide several constructions, both algebraic and geometric, for determining the ratio of the radii of two circles in an Apollonius-like packing problem. This problem was inspired by the art deco design in the transom window above the Shadek Fackenthal Library door on the Franklin & Marshall College campus.

  4. Management of Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Clinical Guidance Statement From the Academy of Geriatric Physical Therapy of the American Physical Therapy Association

    PubMed Central

    Avin, Keith G.; Hanke, Timothy A.; Kirk-Sanchez, Neva; McDonough, Christine M.; Shubert, Tiffany E.; Hartley, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Background Falls in older adults are a major public health concern due to high prevalence, impact on health outcomes and quality of life, and treatment costs. Physical therapists can play a major role in reducing fall risk for older adults; however, existing clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) related to fall prevention and management are not targeted to physical therapists. Objective The purpose of this clinical guidance statement (CGS) is to provide recommendations to physical therapists to help improve outcomes in the identification and management of fall risk in community-dwelling older adults. Design and Methods The Subcommittee on Evidence-Based Documents of the Practice Committee of the Academy of Geriatric Physical Therapy developed this CGS. Existing CPGs were identified by systematic search and critically appraised using the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research, and Evaluation in Europe II (AGREE II) tool. Through this process, 3 CPGs were recommended for inclusion in the CGS and were synthesized and summarized. Results Screening recommendations include asking all older adults in contact with a health care provider whether they have fallen in the previous year or have concerns about balance or walking. Follow-up should include screening for balance and mobility impairments. Older adults who screen positive should have a targeted multifactorial assessment and targeted intervention. The components of this assessment and intervention are reviewed in this CGS, and barriers and issues related to implementation are discussed. Limitations A gap analysis supports the need for the development of a physical therapy–specific CPG to provide more precise recommendations for screening and assessment measures, exercise parameters, and delivery models. Conclusion This CGS provides recommendations to assist physical therapists in the identification and management of fall risk in older community-dwelling adults. PMID:25573760

  5. Culturally Sensitive Approaches to Identification and Treatment of Depression among HIV Infected African American Adults: A Qualitative Study of Primary Care Providers’ Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Le, Huynh-Nhu; Hipolito, Maria Mananita S; Lambert, Sharon; Terrell-Hamilton, Flora; Rai, Narayan; McLean, Charlee; Kapetanovic, Suad; Nwulia, Evaristus

    2016-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly prevalent among HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals, and is associated with non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), and accelerated disease progression. MDD is underdiagnosed and undertreated among low-income African Americans, who are disproportionately impacted by the HIV epidemic. To improve detection and treatment of depression among African Americans living with HIV/AIDS, it is important to understand culturally and contextually relevant aspects of MDD and attitudes about mental health treatment. Methods A focus group session was conducted with seven providers and staff at a primary care center that serves a largely African-American community heavily impacted by the HIV epidemic in Washington, DC. Data were analyzed using an inductive approach to distill prominent themes, perspectives, and experiences among participating providers. Results Five themes emerged to characterize the lived experiences of HIV+ African-American patients: (a) Changes in perceptions of HIV over time; (b) HIV is comorbid with mental illness, particularly depression and substance abuse; (c) Stigma is associated with both HIV and depression; (d) Existing mental health services vary and are insufficient and (e) Suggestions for optimal treatment for comorbid HIV and depression. Limitation This study reflects the views of providers from one clinic in this community. Conclusion Substantial economic disadvantage, pervasive childhood adversity, limited education and limited resources jointly put members of this community at risk for acquisition of HIV and for development of depression and addictions. These contextual factors provide an important reminder that any patient-level depression identification or intervention in this community will have to be mindful of such circumstances. PMID:27347445

  6. Media exposure, internalization of the thin ideal, and body dissatisfaction: comparing Asian American and European American college females.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Mahsa; Hill, Laura G; Orrell-Valente, Joan K

    2011-09-01

    Internalization of the thin ideal mediates the media exposure-body dissatisfaction relation in young adult European American females. There is little related research on Asian Americans. We used structural equations modeling to test: (1) whether media exposure was associated with body dissatisfaction in Asian American young adult females, (2) internalization of the thin ideal mediated any such association, and (3) whether the mediational model provided equivalent fit for European American and Asian American samples. Participants were 287 college females (154 Asian Americans, 133 European Americans). Internalization of the thin ideal explained the media exposure-body dissatisfaction association equally well for both groups. Results suggest that Asian Americans may be employing unhealthy weight control behaviors, and may be prone to developing eating disorders, at rates similar to European American young adult females. Clinicians need to screen carefully for body dissatisfaction, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and eating disorders in Asian American females. PMID:21775227

  7. Rising Blood Sugar Hitting More Obese Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159853.html Rising Blood Sugar Hitting More Obese Adults To curb diabetes, researchers ... News) -- Among obese American adults, control of blood sugar is worsening, leading to more diabetes and heart ...

  8. "Starting Stories" among Older Northern Plains American Indian Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Christopher E.

    2009-01-01

    American Indian adults have the highest smoking rate of any racial group in the nation. By the turn of the 21st century, smoking rates for the general adult population were reported to be 24%. Among adolescents in the United States, 34.8% of high school students reported they currently smoked in 1999. In comparison, American Indian adults report…

  9. Design of a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Web-Based Intervention to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among Remote Reservation–Dwelling American Indian Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Chubak, Jessica; O’Connell, Joan; Ramos, Maria C.; Jensen, Julie; Jobe, Jared B.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a randomized controlled trial, the Lakota Oyate Wicozani Pi Kte (LOWPK) trial, which was designed to determine whether a Web-based diabetes and nutritional intervention can improve risk factors related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) among a group of remote reservation–dwelling adult American Indian men and women with type 2 diabetes who are at high risk for CVD. Enrollment on a rolling basis of 180 planned participants began during 2009; an average 18-month follow-up was completed by June 2011. The primary outcome variable is change in glycosylated hemoglobin level after an average 18-month follow-up period. Secondary outcome variables include changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, and smoking status, as well as an evaluation of intervention cost-effectiveness. If effective, the LOWPK trial may serve as a guide for future chronic disease intervention trials in remote, technologically challenged settings. PMID:23001642

  10. Instructional Effectiveness of Fifteen Video, Oral English Programs with Non-English Speaking Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban Adults. 1969-70 Field Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Atilano A.

    The first field testing of the Adult Basic Education Oral Language video tapes, conducted during 1968-69, included five television video lessons and used three testing conditions: a classroom condition with video exposure, a classroom condition with video exposure and follow-up drills conducted by a teacher, and a home condition with video…

  11. Oral English Development among Non-English Speaking, Spanish-Speaking American Adults Based on Thirty Innovative Video Programs and Related Paper/Pencil Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Atilano A.

    The 1970-1971 field testing of the Adult Basic Education Empleen Ingles video programs and paper and pencil lessons was undertaken to provide answers to several questions. These questions concerned: (1) the instructional effectiveness of the 30 video programs and pen and pencil lessons; (2) the two programs as single or dual instructional media;…

  12. Perceptions, Motivations and Barriers of Earning a High School Diploma and Achieving Higher Education among African American and Latino Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fears-Hackett, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the motivations, perspectives, and barriers of adult learners returning to school to receive a high school diploma after previously dropping out of a traditional high school setting. Specifically, this study explored the backgrounds, discrimination factors, income variables, perspectives, and environmental and emotional…

  13. A Six-Year Follow-Up Study of Social Network Changes among African-American, Caribbean, and U.S.-Born Caucasian Urban Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Francine; Magai, Carol; Jones, Samuel; Fiori, Katherine; Gillespie, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study explores dynamic changes in network size and composition by examining patterns of older adults' social network change over time, that is: types of movements; the reason for the loss of network members; and the relation of movement and composition in concert. This study is a 6-year follow up of changes in the social networks of U.S.-Born…

  14. Evidence-Based Guideline: Treatment of Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Children and Adults: Report of the Guideline Committee of the American Epilepsy Society

    PubMed Central

    Shinnar, Shlomo; Gloss, David; Alldredge, Brian; Arya, Ravindra; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn; Bare, Mary; Bleck, Thomas; Dodson, W. Edwin; Garrity, Lisa; Jagoda, Andy; Lowenstein, Daniel; Pellock, John; Riviello, James; Sloan, Edward; Treiman, David M.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: The optimal pharmacologic treatment for early convulsive status epilepticus is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To analyze efficacy, tolerability and safety data for anticonvulsant treatment of children and adults with convulsive status epilepticus and use this analysis to develop an evidence-based treatment algorithm. DATA SOURCES: Structured literature review using MEDLINE, Embase, Current Contents, and Cochrane library supplemented with article reference lists. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled trials of anticonvulsant treatment for seizures lasting longer than 5 minutes. DATA EXTRACTION: Individual studies were rated using predefined criteria and these results were used to form recommendations, conclusions, and an evidence-based treatment algorithm. RESULTS: A total of 38 randomized controlled trials were identified, rated and contributed to the assessment. Only four trials were considered to have class I evidence of efficacy. Two studies were rated as class II and the remaining 32 were judged to have class III evidence. In adults with convulsive status epilepticus, intramuscular midazolam, intravenous lorazepam, intravenous diazepam and intravenous phenobarbital are established as efficacious as initial therapy (Level A). Intramuscular midazolam has superior effectiveness compared to intravenous lorazepam in adults with convulsive status epilepticus without established intravenous access (Level A). In children, intravenous lorazepam and intravenous diazepam are established as efficacious at stopping seizures lasting at least 5 minutes (Level A) while rectal diazepam, intramuscular midazolam, intranasal midazolam, and buccal midazolam are probably effective (Level B). No significant difference in effectiveness has been demonstrated between intravenous lorazepam and intravenous diazepam in adults or children with convulsive status epilepticus (Level A). Respiratory and cardiac symptoms are the most commonly encountered treatment-emergent adverse events

  15. Sleep Characteristics and Health-Related Quality of Life among a National Sample of American Young Adults: Assessment of Possible Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoli; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the associations of sleep characteristics with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and sleep health disparities among US young adults using national survey data. Methods The study sample consisted of 2,391 young adults aged 20–39 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008. HRQOL was assessed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s HRQOL-4 scale. Multivariable logistic regression models were applied to evaluate the sleep-HRQOL associations. Stratified analyses were conducted to examine whether the associations varied by sociodemographic characteristics. Results Approximately 35.6% of young adults slept < 7 hours, 41.9% had insomnia, 4.4% had sleep disorders, and 8.5% had sleep apnea. More females had insomnia than males (48.6% vs. 35.9%, P<0.001). US-born young adults had more sleep disturbances than their foreign-born counterparts. Compared with those sleeping 7–8 hours, the adjusted odds ratio of poor general health was 1.60 (95% confidence interval, 1.08–2.35) for individuals sleeping 6–7 hours and 1.88 (1.23–2.86) for those sleeping <6 hours. Similar results were found for low mental HRQOL and overall HRQOL. Insomnia, long sleep latency, troubling falling asleep, daytime sleepiness, and frequent sleeping pill use were significantly associated with low mental HRQOL and overall HRQOL. The associations between sleep disturbances and low HRQOL varied little by sex, race/ethnicity, and country of birth. Conclusions Sleep disturbances are common among US young adults, and are significantly associated with low HRQOL. Objective measures of sleep are warranted to confirm our findings. PMID:23860850

  16. Safety and Efficacy of Bupropion Extended Release in Treating a Community Sample of Hispanic and African American Adults With Major Depressive Disorder: An Open-Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Paul K.; Nourse, Rosemary; Wasser, Thomas E.; Bukenya, Deo

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Many publications and federal agencies call for more trials and research on the effectiveness of medications and treatment needs in diverse patient populations with psychiatric disorders. This study investigates the effectiveness of bupropion extended release (XL) on a community sample of men and women of either Hispanic or African American heritage with major depressive disorder (MDD). Method: Twenty-six patients of Hispanic or African American descent with MDD as diagnosed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders were required to have a score of 20 or greater on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (17-item) (HAM-D-17) at baseline and prior to randomization. Patients were also required to have a score of 4 or greater on the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness scale (CGI-S) at baseline and prior to initiation of treatment. Patients were treated openly for an optimum of 9 weeks. Bupropion XL was initiated at 150 mg daily and then increased to 300 mg daily after 1 week and 450 mg daily 4 weeks later if judged clinically necessary by the investigator. Tools utilized for repeated-measures methodology indicating efficacy were the HAM-D-17, CGI-S, Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale (CGI-I), Change in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (CSFQ), and the 18-item Motivation and Energy Inventory. The study was conducted from February 9, 2005, to March 23, 2006. Results: Efficacy was demonstrated on the HAM-D-17, CGI-S, CGI-I, and CSFQ (p < .05). Mean times ranged from 50% symptom reduction in about 2 weeks to 90% symptom reduction in less than 2 months. Dry mouth, transient stomach discomfort, and headache were the most commonly reported side effects. Conclusions: Data from this 10-week open-label study suggest bupropion XL is an effective and well tolerated treatment for depressive symptoms in the moderately to markedly ill Hispanic and African American community. PMID:17607332

  17. Cardiovascular disease risks in adult Native and Mexican Americans with a history of alcohol use disorders: association with cardiovascular autonomic control.

    PubMed

    Criado, José R; Gilder, David A; Kalafut, Mary A; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2016-04-01

    Hypertension and obesity are serious health problems that have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We recently showed a relationship between hypertension, obesity and cardiovagal control in a sample of Native and Mexican Americans at high risk of alcohol use disorders (AUD). While studies have shown that Native and Mexican Americans exhibit high rates of AUD, the consequences of AUD on CVD risk factors and their relationship with cardiovascular autonomic control is not well understood in these ethnic groups. This study investigated whether an association could be demonstrated between cardiovascular autonomic control and several CVD risk factors in Native and Mexican American men and women (n = 228) who are literate in English and are residing legally in San Diego County. Participants with lifetime history of AUD showed higher rates of systolic and diastolic hypertension and obesity than participants without lifetime AUD. Lifetime AUD was significantly associated with reduced HR response to deep breathing (HRDB) measure of cardiovagal control, higher current drinking quantity, and obesity. Reduced HRDB was also associated with increased systolic pre-hypertension or hypertension (pre-/hypertension) and with higher diastolic blood pressure in a linear regression model that included several diagnostic and demographic variables. HRDB and time- and frequency-domain measures of cardiovagal control were significantly reduced in participants with diastolic pre-/hypertension. These data suggest that lower cardiovagal control may play a role in the prevalence of systolic and diastolic pre-/hypertension in a community sample with a history of alcohol and substance use disorders.

  18. Cardiovascular disease risks in adult Native and Mexican Americans with a history of alcohol use disorders: association with cardiovascular autonomic control.

    PubMed

    Criado, José R; Gilder, David A; Kalafut, Mary A; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2016-04-01

    Hypertension and obesity are serious health problems that have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We recently showed a relationship between hypertension, obesity and cardiovagal control in a sample of Native and Mexican Americans at high risk of alcohol use disorders (AUD). While studies have shown that Native and Mexican Americans exhibit high rates of AUD, the consequences of AUD on CVD risk factors and their relationship with cardiovascular autonomic control is not well understood in these ethnic groups. This study investigated whether an association could be demonstrated between cardiovascular autonomic control and several CVD risk factors in Native and Mexican American men and women (n = 228) who are literate in English and are residing legally in San Diego County. Participants with lifetime history of AUD showed higher rates of systolic and diastolic hypertension and obesity than participants without lifetime AUD. Lifetime AUD was significantly associated with reduced HR response to deep breathing (HRDB) measure of cardiovagal control, higher current drinking quantity, and obesity. Reduced HRDB was also associated with increased systolic pre-hypertension or hypertension (pre-/hypertension) and with higher diastolic blood pressure in a linear regression model that included several diagnostic and demographic variables. HRDB and time- and frequency-domain measures of cardiovagal control were significantly reduced in participants with diastolic pre-/hypertension. These data suggest that lower cardiovagal control may play a role in the prevalence of systolic and diastolic pre-/hypertension in a community sample with a history of alcohol and substance use disorders. PMID:26758567

  19. Racial and ethnic differences in HPV knowledge, attitudes, and vaccination rates among low-income African-American, Haitian, Latina and Caucasian young adult women

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Jack A.; Mercilus, Glory; Wilbur, MaryAnn B.; Figaro, Jean; Perkins, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine facilitators and barriers to HPV vaccine uptake in African-American, Haitian, Latina, and White women ages 18–22 and to determine vaccination completion rates among participants over 5 years. Design Using semi-structured interviews and medical record review, we assessed HPV knowledge and attitudes towards HPV vaccination among young women. We then determined their subsequent HPV vaccination initiation and completion rates. We used constructs from the Health Belief Model and methods based in grounded theory and content analysis to identify attitudes towards HPV vaccination cues to initiate vaccination, perception of HPV, and how communication about issues of sexuality may impact vaccine uptake. Participants We enrolled 132 African-American, Haitian, Latina, and White women aged 18–22 years who visited an urban academic medical center and two affiliated community health centers between the years 2007 and 2012. Main Outcome Measures Intent to vaccinate and actual vaccination rates Results Of 132 participants, 116 (90%) stated that they were somewhat or very likely to accept HPV vaccination if offered by their physician, but only 51% initiated the vaccination over the next 5 years. Seventy-eight percent of those who initiated vaccination completed the 3 doses of the HPV vaccine series. Forty-five percent (45%, n=50) of the adolescents who started the series completed three doses over a five year period: forty-two percent African-American (n=16), thirty-three percent Haitian (n=13), sixty-three percent Latina (n=10), and sixty-five White young women (n=11) completed the three-dose series. Despite low knowledge, they reported high levels of trust in physicians and were willing to vaccinate if recommended by their physicians. Conclusion Desire for HPV vaccination is high among older adolescents, physician recommendation and use of every clinic visit opportunity may improve vaccine uptake in young women. More White young women completed the HPV

  20. Differences among African Americans and Euro-Americans in reasons for sports participation.

    PubMed

    Philipp, Steven F; Brezina, Sherie

    2002-08-01

    Findings from 829 respondents from the southern United States (323 African American, 506 Euro-American adults) in 64 nonschool leisure locations participating in 19 different sports showed that the African American and Euro-American groups differed significantly on the importance given to 2 of 6 reasons offered for their sports participation, "socializing with others" and "improving skills." Both reasons were rated as of greater importance by African-American respondents. These findings have implications for designing, marketing, and evaluating adult sports opportunities.