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Sample records for adult antennal lobe

  1. The glial investment of the adult and developing antennal lobe of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Oland, Lynne A.; Biebelhausen, John P.; Tolbert, Leslie P.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the Drosophila olfactory system, with its unparalleled opportunities for genetic dissection of development and functional organization, has been used to study the development of central olfactory neurons and the molecular basis of olfactory coding. The results of these studies have been interpreted in the absence of a detailed understanding of the steps in maturation of glial cells in the antennal lobe. Here, we present a high-resolution study of the glia associated with olfactory glomeruli in adult and developing antennal lobes. The study provides a basis for comparison of findings in Drosophila with those in the moth Manduca sexta that indicate a critical role for glia in antennal lobe development. Using flies expressing GFP under a Nervana2 driver to visualize glia for confocal microscopy, and probing at higher resolution with the electron microscope, we find that glial development in Drosophila differs markedly from that in moths: glial cell bodies remain in a rind around the glomerular neuropil; glial processes ensheathe axon bundles in the nerve layer but likely contribute little to axonal sorting; their processes insinuate between glomeruli only very late and then form only a sparse, open network around each glomerulus; and glial processes invade the synaptic neuropil. Taking our results in the context of previous studies, we conclude that glial cells in the developing Drosophila antennal lobe are unlikely to play a strong role in either axonal sorting or glomerulus stabilization and that in the adult, glial processes do not electrically isolate glomeruli from their neighbors. PMID:18537134

  2. Glomerular interactions in olfactory processing channels of the antennal lobes

    PubMed Central

    Heinbockel, Thomas; Shields, Vonnie D. C.; Reisenman, Carolina E.

    2014-01-01

    An open question in olfactory coding is the extent of interglomerular connectivity: do olfactory glomeruli and their neurons regulate the odorant responses of neurons innervating other glomeruli? In the olfactory system of the moth Manduca sexta, the response properties of different types of antennal olfactory receptor cells are known. Likewise, a subset of antennal lobe glomeruli has been functionally characterized and the olfactory tuning of their innervating neurons identified. This provides a unique opportunity to determine functional interactions between glomeruli of known input, specifically, (1) glomeruli processing plant odors and (2) glomeruli activated by antennal stimulation with pheromone components of conspecific females. Several studies describe reciprocal inhibitory effects between different types of pheromone-responsive projection neurons suggesting lateral inhibitory interactions between pheromone component-selective glomerular neural circuits. Furthermore, antennal lobe projection neurons that respond to host plant volatiles and innervate single, ordinary glomeruli are inhibited during antennal stimulation with the female’s sex pheromone. The studies demonstrate the existence of lateral inhibitory effects in response to behaviorally significant odorant stimuli and irrespective of glomerular location in the antennal lobe. Inhibitory interactions are present within and between olfactory subsystems (pheromonal and non-pheromonal subsystems), potentially to enhance contrast and strengthen odorant discrimination. PMID:23893248

  3. Serotonin Modulates Olfactory Processing in the Antennal Lobe of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Dacks, Andrew M.; Green, David S.; Root, Cory M.; Nighorn, Alan J.; Wang, Jing W.

    2010-01-01

    Sensory systems must be able to extract features of environmental cues within the context of the different physiological states of the organism and often temper their activity in a state-dependent manner via the process of neuromodulation. We examined the effects of the neuromodulator serotonin on a well-characterized sensory circuit, the antennal lobe of Drosophila melanogaster, using two-photon microscopy and the genetically expressed calcium indicator, G-CaMP. Serotonin enhances sensitivity of the antennal lobe output projection neurons in an odor-specific manner. For odorants that sparsely activate the antennal lobe, serotonin enhances projection neuron responses and causes an offset of the projection neuron tuning curve, most likely by increasing projection neuron sensitivity. However, for an odorant that evokes a broad activation pattern, serotonin enhances projection neuron responses in some, but not all, glomeruli. Further, serotonin enhances the responses of inhibitory local interneurons, resulting in a reduction of neurotransmitter release from the olfactory sensory neurons via GABAB receptor-dependent presynaptic inhibition, which may be a mechanism underlying the odorant-specific modulation of projection neuron responses. Our data suggest that the complexity of serotonin modulation in the antennal lobe accommodates coding stability in a glomerular pattern and flexible projection neuron sensitivity under different physiological conditions. PMID:19863268

  4. The compartment structures of the antennal lobe in the ant, Aphaenogaster smythiesi japonica.

    PubMed

    Sakura, Midori; Hiraguchi, T; Ohkawara, K; Aonuma, H

    2008-01-01

    Pheromones are important cues for social insects such as ants. As a first step in elucidation of pheromonal information processing mechanisms in the myrmicine ant, we investigated the morphological structure of the antennal lobe. Using autofluorescence imaging, labeling of neuronal filamentous actin, and reduced silver impregnation staining, the antennal lobe was found to consist of five compartments that, each received input from a different antennal sensory tract. Two major tracts of projection neurons, the medial and lateral antenno-cerebral tract (m- and 1-ACT), originated from a different region of the antennal lobe. The m-ACT originated from the posterior part of the antennal lobe whereas the 1-ACT originated from the anterior part. These results demonstrate a spatial segregation of function within the antennal lobe. PMID:18652391

  5. Rapid Odor Processing in the Honeybee Antennal Lobe Network

    PubMed Central

    Krofczik, Sabine; Menzel, Randolf; Nawrot, Martin P.

    2008-01-01

    In their natural environment, many insects need to identify and evaluate behaviorally relevant odorants on a rich and dynamic olfactory background. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that bees recognize learned odors within <200 ms, indicating a rapid processing of olfactory input in the sensory pathway. We studied the role of the honeybee antennal lobe network in constructing a fast and reliable code of odor identity using in vivo intracellular recordings of individual projection neurons (PNs) and local interneurons (LNs). We found a complementary ensemble code where odor identity is encoded in the spatio-temporal pattern of response latencies as well as in the pattern of activated and inactivated PN firing. This coding scheme rapidly reaches a stable representation within 50–150 ms after stimulus onset. Testing an odor mixture versus its individual compounds revealed different representations in the two morphologically distinct types of lateral- and median PNs (l- and m-PNs). Individual m-PNs mixture responses were dominated by the most effective compound (elemental representation) whereas l-PNs showed suppressed responses to the mixture but not to its individual compounds (synthetic representation). The onset of inhibition in the membrane potential of l-PNs coincided with the responses of putative inhibitory interneurons that responded significantly faster than PNs. Taken together, our results suggest that processing within the LN network of the AL is an essential component of constructing the antennal lobe population code. PMID:19221584

  6. Comparative neuroanatomy of the antennal lobes of 2 homopteran species.

    PubMed

    Rossi Stacconi, Marco Valerio; Hansson, Bill S; Rybak, Jürgen; Romani, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    We compared the morphology of the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), in 2 homopteran insects, Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Homoptera: Cixiidae) and Scaphoideus titanus Ball (Homoptera: Cicadomorpha). The comparison between the ALs of the 2 species is particularly interesting considering that, although both use volatile cues to locate their host plants, their feeding behavior differs considerably: specifically, H. obsoletus is a highly polyphagous species, whereas S. titanus is strictly monophagous (on grapevine). Our investigation of the AL structure using immunocytochemical staining and antennal backfills did not reveal any sexual dimorphism in either the size of the ALs or in the size of individual glomeruli for either species. Instead, the AL of H. obsoletus displayed numerous and well-delineated glomeruli (about 130 in both sexes) arranged in a multilayered structure, whereas the smaller AL of S. titanus contained fewer than 15 glomerular-like structures. This difference is likely to reflect the comparatively reduced olfactory abilities in S. titanus, probably as a consequence of the reduced number of volatiles coming from the single host plant. Instead, in H. obsoletus, the ability to distinguish among several host plants may require a more complex olfactory neuronal network. PMID:24443423

  7. A 4-Dimensional Representation of Antennal Lobe Output Based on an Ensemble of Characterized Projection Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Staudacher, Erich M.; Huetteroth, Wolf; Schachtner, Joachim; Daly, Kevin C.

    2009-01-01

    A central problem facing studies of neural encoding in sensory systems is how to accurately quantify the extent of spatial and temporal responses. In this study, we take advantage of the relatively simple and stereotypic neural architecture found in invertebrates. We combine standard electrophysiological techniques, recently developed population analysis techniques, and novel anatomical methods to form an innovative 4-dimensional view of odor output representations in the antennal lobe of the moth Manduca sexta. This novel approach allows quantification of olfactory responses of characterized neurons with spike time resolution. Additionally, arbitrary integration windows can be used for comparisons with other methods such as imaging. By assigning statistical significance to changes in neuronal firing, this method can visualize activity across the entire antennal lobe. The resulting 4-dimensional representation of antennal lobe output complements imaging and multi-unit experiments yet provides a more comprehensive and accurate view of glomerular activation patterns in spike time resolution. PMID:19464513

  8. Sexual dimorphism and phenotypic plasticity in the antennal lobe of a stingless bee, Melipona scutellaris.

    PubMed

    Roselino, Ana Carolina; Hrncir, Michael; da Cruz Landim, Carminda; Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2015-07-01

    Among social insects, the stingless bees (Apidae, Meliponini), a mainly tropical group of highly eusocial bees, present an intriguing variety of well-described olfactory-dependent behaviors showing both caste- and sex-specific adaptations. By contrast, little is known about the neural structures underlying such behavioral richness or the olfactory detection and processing abilities of this insect group. This study therefore aimed to provide the first detailed description and comparison of the brains and primary olfactory centers, the antennal lobes, of the different members of a colony of the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. Global neutral red staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and 3D reconstructions were used to compare the brain structures of males, workers, and virgin queens with a special emphasis on the antennal lobe. We found significant differences between both sexes and castes with regard to the relative volumes of olfactory and visual neuropils in the brain and also in the number and volume of the olfactory glomeruli. In addition, we identified one (workers, queens) and three or four (males) macroglomeruli in the antennal lobe. In both sexes and all castes, the largest glomerulus (G1) was located at a similar position relative to four identified landmark glomeruli, close to the entrance of the antennal nerve. This similarity in position suggests that G1s of workers, virgin queens, and males of M. scutellaris may correspond to the same glomerular entity, possibly tuned to queen-emitted volatiles since all colony members need this information. PMID:25597397

  9. Integration of temperature and olfactory information in cockroach antennal lobe glomeruli.

    PubMed

    Zeiner, R; Tichy, H

    2000-01-01

    Individual neurons in the antennal lobe of the cockroach not only respond to warming, cooling and the odor of lemon oil but they also integrate the responses to simultaneously occurring temperature and olfactory stimuli. This integration results in an increase or decrease of the neuron's activity as compared to its responses to the temperature stimuli presented alone. The mean gain for a change in temperature in the warm and cold direction is 9.5 (imp s(-1)) degrees C(-1) and 10.2 (imp s(-1)) degrees C(-1), respectively. Thus, the average neuron elevates its impulse frequency by 1 imp s(-1) when temperature is increased by 0.1 degree C or decreased by 0.09 degree C. Examination of response scatter reveals that the difference required between two warm or two cold stimuli to be discriminated is 0.5 degree C. Similar values for gain and resolving power are obtained for the enhanced responses to the warm-odor and the cold-odor stimulus combinations. The neurons described are: (1) local interneurons innervating a number of glomeruli distributed within the antennal lobe, and (2) projection neurons collecting information from single glomeruli at 140-280 microm from the surface of the antennal lobe and providing links with the calyces of the mushroom bodies and the lateral lobe of the protocerebrum. PMID:11016787

  10. Pheromone-evoked potentials and oscillations in the antennal lobes of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Heinbockel, T; Kloppenburg, P; Hildebrand, J G

    1998-06-01

    Using intra- and extracellular recording methods, we studied the activity of pheromone-responsive projection neurons in the antennal lobe of the moth Manduca sexta. Intracellularly recorded responses of neurons to antennal stimulation with the pheromone blend characteristically included both inhibitory and excitatory stages of various strengths. To observe the activity of larger groups of neurons, we recorded responses extracellularly in the macroglomerular complex of the antennal lobe. The macroglomerular complex is part of a specialized olfactory subsystem and the site of first-order central processing of sex-pheromonal information. Odors such as the pheromone blend and host-plant (tobacco) volatiles gave rise to evoked potentials that were reproducible upon repeated antennal stimulation. Evoked potentials showed overriding high-frequency oscillations when the antenna was stimulated with the pheromone blend or with either one of the two key pheromone components. The frequency of the oscillations was in the range of 30-50 Hz. Amplitude and frequency of the oscillations varied during the response to pheromonal stimulation. Recording intracellular and extracellular activity simultaneously revealed phase-locking of action potentials to potential oscillations. The results suggest that the activity of neurons of the macroglomerular complex was temporally synchronized, potentially to strengthen the pheromone signal and to improve olfactory perception. PMID:9631552

  11. Coding of odors by temporal binding within a model network of the locust antennal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mainak J.; Rangan, Aaditya V.; Cai, David

    2013-01-01

    The locust olfactory system interfaces with the external world through antennal receptor neurons (ORNs), which represent odors in a distributed, combinatorial manner. ORN axons bundle together to form the antennal nerve, which relays sensory information centrally to the antennal lobe (AL). Within the AL, an odor generates a dynamically evolving ensemble of active cells, leading to a stimulus-specific temporal progression of neuronal spiking. This experimental observation has led to the hypothesis that an odor is encoded within the AL by a dynamically evolving trajectory of projection neuron (PN) activity that can be decoded piecewise to ascertain odor identity. In order to study information coding within the locust AL, we developed a scaled-down model of the locust AL using Hodgkin–Huxley-type neurons and biologically realistic connectivity parameters and current components. Using our model, we examined correlations in the precise timing of spikes across multiple neurons, and our results suggest an alternative to the dynamic trajectory hypothesis. We propose that the dynamical interplay of fast and slow inhibition within the locust AL induces temporally stable correlations in the spiking activity of an odor-dependent neural subset, giving rise to a temporal binding code that allows rapid stimulus detection by downstream elements. PMID:23630495

  12. Local interneurons and projection neurons in the antennal lobe from a spiking point of view.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Anneke; Galizia, C Giovanni; Nawrot, Martin Paul

    2013-11-01

    Local computation in microcircuits is an essential feature of distributed information processing in vertebrate and invertebrate brains. The insect antennal lobe represents a spatially confined local network that processes high-dimensional and redundant peripheral input to compute an efficient odor code. Social insects can rely on a particularly rich olfactory receptor repertoire, and they exhibit complex odor-guided behaviors. This corresponds with a high anatomical complexity of their antennal lobe network. In the honeybee, a large number of glomeruli that receive sensory input are interconnected by a dense network of local interneurons (LNs). Uniglomerular projection neurons (PNs) integrate sensory and recurrent local network input into an efficient spatio-temporal odor code. To investigate the specific computational roles of LNs and PNs, we measured several features of sub- and suprathreshold single-cell responses to in vivo odor stimulation. Using a semisupervised cluster analysis, we identified a combination of five characteristic features as sufficient to separate LNs and PNs from each other, independent of the applied odor-stimuli. The two clusters differed significantly in all these five features. PNs showed a higher spontaneous subthreshold activation, assumed higher peak response rates and a more regular spiking pattern. LNs reacted considerably faster to the onset of a stimulus, and their responses were more reliable across stimulus repetitions. We discuss possible mechanisms that can explain our results, and we interpret cell-type-specific characteristics with respect to their functional relevance. PMID:24004530

  13. Excitatory Local Circuits and Their Implications for Olfactory Processing in the Fly Antennal Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Yuhua; Claridge-Chang, Adam; Sjulson, Lucas; Pypaert, Marc; Miesenböck, Gero

    2007-01-01

    Summary Conflicting views exist of how circuits of the antennal lobe, the insect equivalent of the olfactory bulb, translate input from olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) into projection neuron (PN) output. Synaptic connections between ORNs and PNs are one-to-one, yet PNs are more broadly tuned to odors than ORNs. The basis for this difference in receptive range remains unknown. Analyzing a Drosophila mutant lacking ORN input to one glomerulus, we show that some of the apparent complexity in the antennal lobe’s output arises from lateral, interglomerular excitation of PNs. We describe a previously unidentified population of cholinergic local neurons (LNs) with multiglomerular processes. These excitatory LNs respond broadly to odors but exhibit little glomerular specificity in their synaptic output, suggesting that PNs are driven by a combination of glomerulus-specific ORN afferents and diffuse LN excitation. Lateral excitation may boost PN signals and enhance their transmission to third-order neurons in a mechanism akin to stochastic resonance. PMID:17289577

  14. Responses of cockroach antennal lobe projection neurons to pulsatile olfactory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Lemon, W C; Getz, W M

    1998-11-30

    Behavioral evidence indicates that insects preferentially orient toward pulses of odorants as they occur downwind from a point source. Our recent results have shown that cockroach olfactory receptor neurons are able to reliably resolve 10-Hz pulses of the general "green' odorant 1-hexanol, but it is unknown to what extent the central olfactory pathway is able to resolve temporal aspects of a general odor stimulus. In the present study, temporal response characteristics were measured in antennal lobe projection neurons of female American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana in response to series of short odor pulses (2.5-20 Hz). Odor pulses were delivered to olfactory sensilla in a moving airstream controlled by electromagnetic valves and quantified by replacing the odorant with oil smoke and measuring the concentration of smoke passing through a light beam. The responses of projection neurons were recorded with an intracellular microelectrode placed in the projection neuron cell body. A variety of time courses of responses were recorded. Response patterns were consistent among identical stimuli within a neuron and varied among neurons. Some neurons increased spike frequency with stimulus onset while others decreased spike frequency. The latency to the change in spike frequency and the duration of the response also varied among neurons. Regardless of the temporal characteristics of the responses, nearly all projection neurons were able to resolve pulses of 1-hexanol presented at 5 Hz and some could resolve 10-Hz pulses. Thus, responses of antennal lobe projection neurons can reflect fine structures of non-uniform distributions of general odorants in a turbulent odor plume. In addition, the variety of temporal response characteristics to identical stimuli suggests that odor quality is coded by a temporal code expressed across a population of projection neurons. PMID:10049232

  15. Olfactory Sensor Processing in Neural Networks: Lessons from Modeling the Fruit Fly Antennal Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Proske, J. Henning; Wittmann, Marco; Galizia, C. Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    The insect olfactory system can be a model for artificial olfactory devices. In particular, Drosophila melanogaster due to its genetic tractability has yielded much information about the design and function of such systems in biology. In this study we investigate possible network topologies to separate representations of odors in the primary olfactory neuropil, the antennal lobe. In particular we compare networks based on stochastic and homogeneous connection weight distributions to connectivities that are based on the input correlations between the glomeruli in the antennal lobe. We show that moderate homogeneous inhibition implements a soft winner-take-all mechanism when paired with realistic input from a large meta-database of odor responses in receptor cells (DoOR database). The sparseness of representations increases with stronger inhibition. Excitation, on the other hand, pushes the representation of odors closer together thus making them harder to distinguish. We further analyze the relationship between different inhibitory network topologies and the properties of the receptor responses to different odors. We show that realistic input from the DoOR database has a relatively high entropy of activation values over all odors and receptors compared to the theoretical maximum. Furthermore, under conditions in which the information in the input is artificially decreased, networks with heterogeneous topologies based on the similarity of glomerular response profiles perform best. These results indicate that in order to arrive at the most beneficial representation for odor discrimination it is important to finely tune the strength of inhibition in combination with taking into account the properties of the available sensors. PMID:22347182

  16. Stimulus and Network Dynamics Collide in a Ratiometric Model of the Antennal Lobe Macroglomerular Complex

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Kwok Ying; Capurro, Alberto; Karout, Salah; Pearce, Timothy Charles

    2012-01-01

    Time is considered to be an important encoding dimension in olfaction, as neural populations generate odour-specific spatiotemporal responses to constant stimuli. However, during pheromone mediated anemotactic search insects must discriminate specific ratios of blend components from rapidly time varying input. The dynamics intrinsic to olfactory processing and those of naturalistic stimuli can therefore potentially collide, thereby confounding ratiometric information. In this paper we use a computational model of the macroglomerular complex of the insect antennal lobe to study the impact on ratiometric information of this potential collision between network and stimulus dynamics. We show that the model exhibits two different dynamical regimes depending upon the connectivity pattern between inhibitory interneurons (that we refer to as fixed point attractor and limit cycle attractor), which both generate ratio-specific trajectories in the projection neuron output population that are reminiscent of temporal patterning and periodic hyperpolarisation observed in olfactory antennal lobe neurons. We compare the performance of the two corresponding population codes for reporting ratiometric blend information to higher centres of the insect brain. Our key finding is that whilst the dynamically rich limit cycle attractor spatiotemporal code is faster and more efficient in transmitting blend information under certain conditions it is also more prone to interference between network and stimulus dynamics, thus degrading ratiometric information under naturalistic input conditions. Our results suggest that rich intrinsically generated network dynamics can provide a powerful means of encoding multidimensional stimuli with high accuracy and efficiency, but only when isolated from stimulus dynamics. This interference between temporal dynamics of the stimulus and temporal patterns of neural activity constitutes a real challenge that must be successfully solved by the nervous system

  17. Optical Imaging of Odor-Evoked Glomerular Activity Patterns in the Antennal Lobes of the Ant Camponotus rufipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galizia, C. G.; Menzel, R.; Hölldobler, B.

    Ants have a well developed olfactory sense, which they need both for the perception of environmental chemicals, and for a highly sophisticated intraspecific communication system based on pheromones. The question arises therefore as to how different odors are coded in the antennal lobe, the first central neuropil to process olfactory information. We measured odor-evoked activity patterns using in vivo neuropil calcium recording in the antennal lobe of the ant Camponotus rufipes. We found that (a) odors elicit focal activity spots (diameter ca. 20μm) which most probably represent the olfactory glomeruli; (b) different odors are coded in odor specific patterns of such activated spots, and a particular spot can participate in the pattern for different odors; (c) calcium increased in the activated spots within the 2-s stimulation period and slowly declined thereafter.

  18. Olfactory pathway of the hornet Vespa velutina: New insights into the evolution of the hymenopteran antennal lobe.

    PubMed

    Couto, Antoine; Lapeyre, Benoit; Thiéry, Denis; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2016-08-01

    In the course of evolution, eusociality has appeared several times independently in Hymenoptera, within different families such as Apidae (bees), Formicidae (ants), and Vespidae (wasps and hornets), among others. The complex social organization of eusocial Hymenoptera relies on sophisticated olfactory communication systems. Whereas the olfactory systems of several bee and ant species have been well characterized, very little information is as yet available in Vespidae, although this family represents a highly successful insect group, displaying a wide range of life styles from solitary to eusocial. Using fluorescent labeling, confocal microscopy, and 3D reconstructions, we investigated the organization of the olfactory pathway in queens, workers, and males of the eusocial hornet Vespa velutina. First, we found that caste and sex dimorphism is weakly pronounced in hornets, with regard to both whole-brain morphology and antennal lobe organization, although several male-specific macroglomeruli are present. The V. velutina antennal lobe contains approximately 265 glomeruli (in females), grouped in nine conspicuous clusters formed by afferent tract subdivisions. As in bees and ants, hornets display a dual olfactory pathway, with two major efferent tracts, the medial and the lateral antennal lobe tracts (m- and l-ALT), separately arborizing two antennal lobe hemilobes and projecting to partially different regions of higher order olfactory centers. Finally, we found remarkable anatomical similarities in the glomerular cluster organizations among hornets, ants, and bees, suggesting the possible existence of homologies in the olfactory pathways of these eusocial Hymenoptera. We propose a common framework for describing AL compartmentalization across Hymenoptera and discuss possible evolutionary scenarios. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2335-2359, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26850231

  19. Novel antennal lobe substructures revealed in the small hive beetle Aethina tumida.

    PubMed

    Kollmann, Martin; Rupenthal, Anna Lena; Neumann, Peter; Huetteroth, Wolf; Schachtner, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    The small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, is an emerging pest of social bee colonies. A. tumida shows a specialized life style for which olfaction seems to play a crucial role. To better understand the olfactory system of the beetle, we used immunohistochemistry and 3-D reconstruction to analyze brain structures, especially the paired antennal lobes (AL), which represent the first integration centers for odor information in the insect brain. The basic neuroarchitecture of the A. tumida brain compares well to the typical beetle and insect brain. In comparison to other insects, the AL are relatively large in relationship to other brain areas, suggesting that olfaction is of major importance for the beetle. The AL of both sexes contain about 70 olfactory glomeruli with no obvious size differences of the glomeruli between sexes. Similar to all other insects including beetles, immunostaining with an antiserum against serotonin revealed a large cell that projects from one AL to the contralateral AL to densely innervate all glomeruli. Immunostaining with an antiserum against tachykinin-related peptides (TKRP) revealed hitherto unknown structures in the AL. Small TKRP-immunoreactive spherical substructures are in both sexes evenly distributed within all glomeruli. The source for these immunoreactive islets is very likely a group of about 80 local AL interneurons. We offer two hypotheses on the function of such structures. PMID:26496732

  20. Fast Odor Learning Improves Reliability of Odor Responses in the Locust Antennal Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Bazhenov, Maxim; Stopfer, Mark; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Laurent, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Summary Recordings in the locust antennal lobe (AL) reveal activity-dependent, stimulus-specific changes in projection neuron (PN) and local neuron response patterns over repeated odor trials. During the first few trials, PN response intensity decreases, while spike time precision increases, and coherent oscillations, absent at first, quickly emerge. We examined this “fast odor learning” with a realistic computational model of the AL. Activity-dependent facilitation of AL inhibitory synapses was sufficient to simulate physiological recordings of fast learning. In addition, in experiments with noisy inputs, a network including synaptic facilitation of both inhibition and excitation responded with reliable spatiotemporal patterns from trial to trial despite the noise. A network lacking fast plasticity, however, responded with patterns that varied across trials, reflecting the input variability. Thus, our study suggests that fast olfactory learning results from stimulus-specific, activity-dependent synaptic facilitation and may improve the signal-to-noise ratio for repeatedly encountered odor stimuli. PMID:15882647

  1. Neuronal Processing of Complex Mixtures Establishes a Unique Odor Representation in the Moth Antennal Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Kuebler, Linda S.; Olsson, Shannon B.; Weniger, Richard; Hansson, Bill S.

    2011-01-01

    Animals typically perceive natural odor cues in their olfactory environment as a complex mixture of chemically diverse components. In insects, the initial representation of an odor mixture occurs in the first olfactory center of the brain, the antennal lobe (AL). The contribution of single neurons to the processing of complex mixtures in insects, and in particular moths, is still largely unknown. Using a novel multicomponent stimulus system to equilibrate component and mixture concentrations according to vapor pressure, we performed intracellular recordings of projection and interneurons in an attempt to quantitatively characterize mixture representation and integration properties of single AL neurons in the moth. We found that the fine spatiotemporal representation of 2–7 component mixtures among single neurons in the AL revealed a highly combinatorial, non-linear process for coding host mixtures presumably shaped by the AL network: 82% of mixture responding projection neurons and local interneurons showed non-linear spike frequencies in response to a defined host odor mixture, exhibiting an array of interactions including suppression, hypoadditivity, and synergism. Our results indicate that odor mixtures are represented by each cell as a unique combinatorial representation, and there is no general rule by which the network computes the mixture in comparison to single components. On the single neuron level, we show that those differences manifest in a variety of parameters, including the spatial location, frequency, latency, and temporal pattern of the response kinetics. PMID:21772814

  2. Synaptic organization of the Drosophila antennal lobe and its regulation by the Teneurins

    PubMed Central

    Mosca, Timothy J; Luo, Liqun

    2014-01-01

    Understanding information flow through neuronal circuits requires knowledge of their synaptic organization. In this study, we utilized fluorescent pre- and postsynaptic markers to map synaptic organization in the Drosophila antennal lobe, the first olfactory processing center. Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) produce a constant synaptic density across different glomeruli. Each ORN within a class contributes nearly identical active zone number. Active zones from ORNs, projection neurons (PNs), and local interneurons have distinct subglomerular and subcellular distributions. The correct number of ORN active zones and PN acetylcholine receptor clusters requires the Teneurins, conserved transmembrane proteins involved in neuromuscular synapse organization and synaptic partner matching. Ten-a acts in ORNs to organize presynaptic active zones via the spectrin cytoskeleton. Ten-m acts in PNs autonomously to regulate acetylcholine receptor cluster number and transsynaptically to regulate ORN active zone number. These studies advanced our ability to assess synaptic architecture in complex CNS circuits and their underlying molecular mechanisms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03726.001 PMID:25310239

  3. Modelling Odor Decoding in the Antennal Lobe by Combining Sequential Firing Rate Models with Bayesian Inference

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas Rivera, Dario; Bitzer, Sebastian; Kiebel, Stefan J.

    2015-01-01

    The olfactory information that is received by the insect brain is encoded in the form of spatiotemporal patterns in the projection neurons of the antennal lobe. These dense and overlapping patterns are transformed into a sparse code in Kenyon cells in the mushroom body. Although it is clear that this sparse code is the basis for rapid categorization of odors, it is yet unclear how the sparse code in Kenyon cells is computed and what information it represents. Here we show that this computation can be modeled by sequential firing rate patterns using Lotka-Volterra equations and Bayesian online inference. This new model can be understood as an ‘intelligent coincidence detector’, which robustly and dynamically encodes the presence of specific odor features. We found that the model is able to qualitatively reproduce experimentally observed activity in both the projection neurons and the Kenyon cells. In particular, the model explains mechanistically how sparse activity in the Kenyon cells arises from the dense code in the projection neurons. The odor classification performance of the model proved to be robust against noise and time jitter in the observed input sequences. As in recent experimental results, we found that recognition of an odor happened very early during stimulus presentation in the model. Critically, by using the model, we found surprising but simple computational explanations for several experimental phenomena. PMID:26451888

  4. Modelling Odor Decoding in the Antennal Lobe by Combining Sequential Firing Rate Models with Bayesian Inference.

    PubMed

    Cuevas Rivera, Dario; Bitzer, Sebastian; Kiebel, Stefan J

    2015-10-01

    The olfactory information that is received by the insect brain is encoded in the form of spatiotemporal patterns in the projection neurons of the antennal lobe. These dense and overlapping patterns are transformed into a sparse code in Kenyon cells in the mushroom body. Although it is clear that this sparse code is the basis for rapid categorization of odors, it is yet unclear how the sparse code in Kenyon cells is computed and what information it represents. Here we show that this computation can be modeled by sequential firing rate patterns using Lotka-Volterra equations and Bayesian online inference. This new model can be understood as an 'intelligent coincidence detector', which robustly and dynamically encodes the presence of specific odor features. We found that the model is able to qualitatively reproduce experimentally observed activity in both the projection neurons and the Kenyon cells. In particular, the model explains mechanistically how sparse activity in the Kenyon cells arises from the dense code in the projection neurons. The odor classification performance of the model proved to be robust against noise and time jitter in the observed input sequences. As in recent experimental results, we found that recognition of an odor happened very early during stimulus presentation in the model. Critically, by using the model, we found surprising but simple computational explanations for several experimental phenomena. PMID:26451888

  5. Glomerular identification in the antennal lobe of the male moth Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin-Cheng; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Guo, Pei; Xie, Gui-Ying; Tang, Qing-Bo; Guo, Xian-Ru; Berg, Bente G

    2016-10-15

    This study investigates anatomical organization of the antennal lobe (AL) glomeruli of the male cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera by synaptic antibody staining combined with three-dimensional reconstruction. To identify all glomeruli, their boundaries were accurately determined by means of several additional staining techniques visualizing the neuron categories forming the characteristic spherical neuropils. In total, 78-80 glomeruli were identified in the male H. armigera. The number of glomeruli was considerably larger than that previously reported in this species. Thus, compared with previous studies, we identified 15 new glomeruli, G63-G77. Most of them are located in the posterior part of the AL, which was previously considered to be a part of the protocerebrum. From the general anatomical organization of the AL glomeruli of H. armigera, we classified these neuropil structures into four groups, the macroglomerular complex, posterior complex, labial-palp pit organ glomerulus, and ordinary glomeruli. The complete identification of glomeruli is important for future studies seeking to explore further the coding mechanisms residing within the primary olfactory center of the moth brain. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2993-3013, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27018863

  6. Projection neurons originating from thermo- and hygrosensory glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the cockroach.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Shingo; Yamazaki, Yoshiyuki; Nishikawa, Michiko; Yokohari, Fumio; Mizunami, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    Most insects are equipped with specialized thermo- and hygroreceptors to locate a permissible range of ambient temperature and distant water sources, respectively. In the cockroach, Periplaneta americana, cold, moist, and dry receptor cells in the antennae send axons to particular sets of two or three glomeruli in the dorsocentral part of the antennal lobe (primary olfactory center), designated DC1-3 glomeruli. However, it is not known how thermo- and hygrosensory signals from these glomeruli are represented in higher-order centers, the protocerebrum, in any insect species. With the use of intracellular recording and staining techniques, we identified a new class of interneurons with dendrites almost exclusively in the DC1, DC2, or DC3 glomeruli and axons projecting to the protocerebrum in the cockroach. Remarkably, terminals of all these projection neurons (PNs) covered almost identical areas in the lateral protocerebrum (LP), although their termination areas outside the LP differed from neuron to neuron. The termination areas within the LP were distinct from, but close to, those of uniglomerular and macroglomerular PNs that transmitted signals concerning general odors and female sex pheromones, respectively. PNs originating from DC1, DC2, and DC3 glomeruli exhibited excitatory responses to cold, moist, and dry stimuli, respectively, probably due to excitatory synaptic input from cold, moist, and dry receptor cells, respectively, whereas their responses were often modulated by olfactory stimuli. These findings suggested that dorsocentral PNs participate in neural pathways that lead to behavioral responses to temperature or humidity changes. PMID:12454995

  7. Calcium current diversity in physiologically different local interneuron types of the antennal lobe.

    PubMed

    Husch, Andreas; Paehler, Moritz; Fusca, Debora; Paeger, Lars; Kloppenburg, Peter

    2009-01-21

    Behavioral and physiological studies show that neuronal interactions among the glomeruli in the insect antennal lobe (AL) take place during the processing of odor information. These interactions are mediated by a complex network of inhibitory and excitatory local interneurons (LNs) that restructure the olfactory representation in the AL, thereby regulating the tuning profile of projection neurons. In Periplaneta americana, we characterized two LN types with distinctive physiological properties: (1) type I LNs that generated Na(+)-driven action potentials on odor stimulation and exhibited GABA-like immunoreactivity (GLIR) and (2) type II LNs, in which odor stimulation evoked depolarizations, but no Na(+)-driven action potentials (APs). Type II LNs did not express voltage-dependent transient Na(+) currents and accordingly would not trigger transmitter release by Na(+)-driven APs. Ninety percent of type II LNs did not exhibit GLIR. The distinct intrinsic firing properties were reflected in functional parameters of their voltage-activated Ca(2+) currents (I(Ca)). Consistent with graded synaptic release, we found a shift in the voltage for half-maximal activation of I(Ca) to more hyperpolarized membrane potentials in the type II LNs. These marked physiological differences between the two LN types imply consequences for their computational capacity, synaptic output kinetics, and thus their function in the olfactory circuit. PMID:19158298

  8. Pheromone responsiveness threshold depends on temporal integration by antennal lobe projection neurons

    PubMed Central

    Tabuchi, Masashi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Namiki, Shigehiro; Minegishi, Ryo; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Uchino, Keiro; Sezutsu, Hideki; Tamura, Toshiki; Haupt, Stephan Shuichi; Nakatani, Kei; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2013-01-01

    The olfactory system of male moths has an extreme sensitivity with the capability to detect and recognize conspecific pheromones dispersed and greatly diluted in the air. Just 170 molecules of the silkmoth (Bombyx mori) sex pheromone bombykol are sufficient to induce sexual behavior in the male. However, it is still unclear how the sensitivity of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) is relayed through the brain to generate high behavioral responsiveness. Here, we show that ORN activity that is subthreshold in terms of behavior can be amplified to suprathreshold levels by temporal integration in antennal lobe projection neurons (PNs) if occurring within a specific time window. To control ORN inputs with high temporal resolution, channelrhodopsin-2 was genetically introduced into bombykol-responsive ORNs. Temporal integration in PNs was only observed for weak inputs, but not for strong inputs. Pharmacological dissection revealed that GABAergic mechanisms inhibit temporal integration of strong inputs, showing that GABA signaling regulates PN responses in a stimulus-dependent fashion. Our results show that boosting of the PNs’ responses by temporal integration of olfactory information occurs specifically near the behavioral threshold, effectively defining the lower bound for behavioral responsiveness. PMID:24006366

  9. A giant local interneuron modulates the rhythmic activities of the antennal lobe in Pupae Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanyang; Yan, Ying; He, Mintong; Liao, Zhiheng; Ran, Dongzhi; Sun, Xicui; Liu, Yulou; Wang, Xutian; Huang, Yingcheng; Xu, Hanhong; Gu, Huaiyu

    2015-10-01

    In Drosophila, olfaction is tightly related to feeding and reproduction. There are three classes of neurons forming synapses in the olfactory circuit: the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), projection neurons (PNs), and local interneurons (LNs). Here, we showed that giant local interneurons named GLNs, which were different from the classical neurons in the olfactory circuits, displayed distinctive rhythmic activities in the dorsolateral side of antennal lobe (AL) in Drosophila Pupae. Anatomically, GLNs were much larger than ipsilateral LNs and extended arborizations throughout the AL. Electrophysiologically, GLN exhibited typical 4-phased rhythmic spontaneous membrane activities, and the surrounding cells were dye-coupled when biocytin was injected into the cell body of GLN. Our study demonstrated that spontaneous activities of GLNs correlated with that of LNs and PNs. After the GLNs were damaged, the membrane activities of ipsilateral LNs and PNs became smaller, but faster. By depressing the firing frequencies of PNs and LNs, GLNs modulated the synchronization of AL and might play an important role as a "modulator" in the local circuit. PMID:26200249

  10. Optic glomeruli and their inputs in Drosophila share an organizational ground pattern with the antennal lobes.

    PubMed

    Mu, Laiyong; Ito, Kei; Bacon, Jonathan P; Strausfeld, Nicholas J

    2012-05-01

    Studying the insect visual system provides important data on the basic neural mechanisms underlying visual processing. As in vertebrates, the first step in visual processing in insects is through a series of retinotopic neurons. Recent studies on flies have found that these converge onto assemblies of columnar neurons in the lobula, the axons of which segregate to project to discrete optic glomeruli in the lateral protocerebrum. This arrangement is much like the fly's olfactory system, in which afferents target uniquely identifiable olfactory glomeruli. Here, whole-cell patch recordings show that even though visual primitives are unreliably encoded by single lobula output neurons because of high synaptic noise, they are reliably encoded by the ensemble of outputs. At a glomerulus, local interneurons reliably code visual primitives, as do projection neurons conveying information centrally from the glomerulus. These observations demonstrate that in Drosophila, as in other dipterans, optic glomeruli are involved in further reconstructing the fly's visual world. Optic glomeruli and antennal lobe glomeruli share the same ancestral anatomical and functional ground pattern, enabling reliable responses to be extracted from converging sensory inputs. PMID:22553013

  11. Apis mellifera octopamine receptor 1 (AmOA1) expression in antennal lobe networks of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) and fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)

    PubMed Central

    Sinakevitch, Irina T.; Smith, Adrian N.; Locatelli, Fernando; Huerta, Ramon; Bazhenov, Maxim; Smith, Brian H.

    2013-01-01

    Octopamine (OA) underlies reinforcement during appetitive conditioning in the honey bee and fruit fly, acting via different subtypes of receptors. Recently, antibodies raised against a peptide sequence of one honey bee OA receptor, AmOA1, were used to study the distribution of these receptors in the honey bee brain (Sinakevitch et al., 2011). These antibodies also recognize an isoform of the AmOA1 ortholog in the fruit fly (OAMB, mushroom body OA receptor). Here we describe in detail the distribution of AmOA1 receptors in different types of neurons in the honey bee and fruit fly antennal lobes. We integrate this information into a detailed anatomical analysis of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), uni- and multi-glomerular projection neurons (uPNs, and mPNs) and local interneurons (LNs) in glomeruli of the antennal lobe. These neurons were revealed by dye injection into the antennal nerve, antennal lobe, medial and lateral antenno-protocerbral tracts (m-APT and l-APT), and lateral protocerebral lobe (LPL) by use of labeled cell lines in the fruit fly or by staining with anti-GABA. We found that ORN receptor terminals and uPNs largely do not show immunostaining for AmOA1. About seventeen GABAergic mPNs leave the antennal lobe through the ml-APT and branch into the LPL. Many, but not all, mPNs show staining for AmOA1. AmOA1 receptors are also in glomeruli on GABAergic processes associated with LNs. The data suggest that in both species one important action of OA in the antennal lobe involves modulation of different types of inhibitory neurons via AmOA1 receptors. We integrated this new information into a model of circuitry within glomeruli of the antennal lobes of these species. PMID:24187534

  12. Synaptic circuitry of identified neurons in the antennal lobe of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rybak, Jürgen; Talarico, Giovanni; Ruiz, Santiago; Arnold, Christopher; Cantera, Rafael; Hansson, Bill S

    2016-06-15

    In Drosophila melanogaster olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) establish synapses with projection neurons (PNs) and local interneurons within antennal lobe (AL) glomeruli. Substantial knowledge regarding this circuitry has been obtained by functional studies, whereas ultrastructural evidence of synaptic contacts is scarce. To fill this gap, we studied serial sections of three glomeruli using electron microscopy. Ectopic expression of a membrane-bound peroxidase allowed us to map synaptic sites along PN dendrites. Our data prove for the first time that each of the three major types of AL neurons is both pre- and postsynaptic to the other two types, as previously indicated by functional studies. PN dendrites carry a large proportion of output synapses, with approximately one output per every three input synapses. Detailed reconstructions of PN dendrites showed that these synapses are distributed unevenly, with input and output sites partially segregated along a proximal-distal gradient and the thinnest branches carrying solely input synapses. Moreover, our data indicate synapse clustering, as we found evidence of dendritic tiling of PN dendrites. PN output synapses exhibited T-shaped presynaptic densities, mostly arranged as tetrads. In contrast, output synapses from putative OSNs showed elongated presynaptic densities in which the T-bar platform was supported by several pedestals and contacted as many as 20 postsynaptic profiles. We also discovered synaptic contacts between the putative OSNs. The average synaptic density in the glomerular neuropil was about two synapses/µm(3) . These results are discussed with regard to current models of olfactory glomerular microcircuits across species. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1920-1956, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26780543

  13. The anatomical basis for modulatory convergence in the antennal lobe of Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Lizbinski, Kristyn M; Metheny, Jackie D; Bradley, Samual P; Kesari, Aditya; Dacks, Andrew M

    2016-06-15

    The release of neuromodulators by widely projecting neurons often allows sensory systems to alter how they process information based on the physiological state of an animal. Neuromodulators alter network function by changing the biophysical properties of individual neurons and the synaptic efficacy with which individual neurons communicate. However, most, if not all, sensory networks receive multiple neuromodulatory inputs, and the mechanisms by which sensory networks integrate multiple modulatory inputs are not well understood. Here we characterized the relative glomerular distribution of two extrinsic neuromodulators associated with distinct physiological states, serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA), in the antennal lobe (AL) of the moth Manduca sexta. By using immunocytochemistry and mass dye fills, we characterized the innervation patterns of both 5-HT- and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive processes relative to each other, to olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), to projection neurons (PNs), and to several subsets of local interneurons (LNs). 5-HT immunoreactivity had nearly complete overlap with PNs and LNs, yet no overlap with ORNs, suggesting that 5-HT may modulate PNs and LNs directly but not ORNs. TH immunoreactivity overlapped with PNs, LNs, and ORNs, suggesting that dopamine has the potential to modulate all three cell types. Furthermore, the branching density of each neuromodulator differed, with 5-HT exhibiting denser arborizations and TH-ir processes being sparser. Our results suggest that 5-HT and DA extrinsic neurons target partially overlapping glomerular regions, yet DA extends further into the region occupied by ORNs. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1859-1875, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26560074

  14. Distinct antennal lobe phenotypes in the leaf-cutting ant (Atta vollenweideri).

    PubMed

    Kuebler, L S; Kelber, C; Kleineidam, C J

    2010-02-01

    Leaf-cutting ants (Atta vollenweideri) express a remarkable size polymorphism across the two sexual castes (queens and males) but in particular within the worker caste. Worker size is related to behavior (alloethism), separating workers into behavioral subcastes. The neuronal mechanisms underlying differences in behavior within the worker caste are still unknown. In this study, we first compared selected neuropils, in particular, the antennal lobes (AL) in males, queens, and workers. The males' ALs contain three extremely large, sex-specific glomeruli (macroglomeruli; MGs) and in total comprise fewer glomeruli (242) than the ALs of queens (about 346 glomeruli). In contrast to males, the queen ALs contain only one large glomerulus at a lateral position. The largest number of glomeruli was found in workers (396-442). In a previous paper, we described an MG in the workers' AL, and, in the second part of this study, we show that within workers two distinct, size-related AL phenotypes exist: the MG phenotype (containing a macroglomerulus) and the RG phenotype, with all glomeruli of regular size. This neuroanatomical polyphenism is established during pupal development and separates the worker caste into two neuroanatomical subcastes. Third, we investigate the functional significance of the MG in workers. By using calcium imaging to monitor activity of AL projection neurons, we show that the releaser component of the trail pheromone is represented in the same region as the MG. We propose that phenotypic trait variation in the organization of the ALs leads to differences in odor information processing that finally result in size-related differences in trail-following behavior. PMID:19950119

  15. Digital in vivo 3D atlas of the antennal lobe of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Grabe, Veit; Strutz, Antonia; Baschwitz, Amelie; Hansson, Bill S; Sachse, Silke

    2015-02-15

    As a model for primary olfactory perception, the antennal lobe (AL) of Drosophila melanogaster is among the most thoroughly investigated and well-understood neuronal structures. Most studies investigating the functional properties and neuronal wiring of the AL are conducted in vivo, although so far the AL morphology has been mainly analyzed in vitro. Identifying the morphological subunits of the AL-the olfactory glomeruli-is usually done using in vitro AL atlases. However, the dissection and fixation procedure causes not only strong volumetric but also geometrical modifications; the result is unpredictable dislocation and a distortion of the AL glomeruli between the in vitro and in vivo brains. Hence, to characterize these artifacts, which are caused by in vitro processing, and to reliably identify glomeruli for in vivo applications, we generated a transgenic fly that expresses the red fluorescent protein DsRed directly fused to the presynaptic protein n-synaptobrevin, under the control of the pan-neuronal promotor elav to label the neuropil in the live animal. Using this fly line, we generated a digital 3D atlas of the live Drosophila AL; this atlas, the first of its kind, provides an excellent geometric match for in vivo studies. We verified the identity of 63% of AL glomeruli by mapping the projections of 34 GAL4-lines of individual chemosensory receptor genes. Moreover, we characterized the innervation patterns of the two most frequently used GAL4-lines in olfactory research: Orco- and GH146-GAL4. The new in vivo AL atlas will be accessible online to the neuroscience community. PMID:25327641

  16. Intrinsic and Network Mechanisms Constrain Neural Synchrony in the Moth Antennal Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Hong; Yu, Yanxue; Zhu, Shuifang; Rangan, Aaditya V.

    2016-01-01

    Projection-neurons (PNs) within the antennal lobe (AL) of the hawkmoth respond vigorously to odor stimulation, with each vigorous response followed by a ~1 s period of suppression—dubbed the “afterhyperpolarization-phase,” or AHP-phase. Prior evidence indicates that this AHP-phase is important for the processing of odors, but the mechanisms underlying this phase and its function remain unknown. We investigate this issue. Beginning with several physiological experiments, we find that pharmacological manipulation of the AL yields surprising results. Specifically, (a) the application of picrotoxin (PTX) lengthens the AHP-phase and reduces PN activity, whereas (b) the application of Bicuculline-methiodide (BIC) reduces the AHP-phase and increases PN activity. These results are curious, as both PTX and BIC are inhibitory-receptor antagonists. To resolve this conundrum, we speculate that perhaps (a) PTX reduces PN activity through a disinhibitory circuit involving a heterogeneous population of local-neurons, and (b) BIC acts to hamper certain intrinsic currents within the PNs that contribute to the AHP-phase. To probe these hypotheses further we build a computational model of the AL and benchmark our model against our experimental observations. We find that, for parameters which satisfy these benchmarks, our model exhibits a particular kind of synchronous activity: namely, “multiple-firing-events” (MFEs). These MFEs are causally-linked sequences of spikes which emerge stochastically, and turn out to have important dynamical consequences for all the experimentally observed phenomena we used as benchmarks. Taking a step back, we extract a few predictions from our computational model pertaining to the real AL: Some predictions deal with the MFEs we expect to see in the real AL, whereas other predictions involve the runaway synchronization that we expect when BIC-application hampers the AHP-phase. By examining the literature we see support for the former, and we

  17. Physiology and pharmacology of acetylcholinergic responses of interneurons in the antennal lobes of the moth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Waldrop, B; Hildebrand, J G

    1989-01-01

    1. Neurons in the antennal lobe (AL) of the moth Manduca sexta respond to the application, via pressure injection into the neuropil, of acetylcholine (ACh). When synaptic transmission is not blocked, both excitatory (Fig. 2) and inhibitory (Fig. 3) responses are seen. 2. Responses to ACh appear to be receptor-mediated, as they are associated with an increase in input conductance (Figs. 2B and 3B) and are dose-dependent (Fig. 2 C). 3. All neurons responsive to ACh are also excited by nicotine. Responses to nicotine are stronger and more prolonged than responses to ACh (Fig. 4C). No responses are observed to the muscarinic agonist, oxotremorine (Fig. 4 B). 4. Curare blocks responses of AL neurons to applied ACh, while atropine and dexetimide are only weakly effective at reducing ACh responses (Figs. 5 and 6). 5. Curare is also more effective than atropine or dexetimide at reducing synaptically-mediated responses of AL neurons (Fig. 7). 6. In one AL neuron, bicuculline methiodide (BMI) blocked the IPSP produced by electrical stimulation of the antennal nerve, but it did not reduce the inhibitory response to application of ACh (Fig. 8). PMID:2926690

  18. A macroglomerulus in the antennal lobe of leaf-cutting ant workers and its possible functional significance.

    PubMed

    Kleineidam, C J; Obermayer, M; Halbich, W; Rössler, W

    2005-06-01

    Ants have a well-developed olfactory system, and pheromone communication is essential for regulating social life within their colonies. We compared the organization of primary olfactory centers (antennal lobes, ALs) in the brain of two closely related species of leaf-cutting ants (Atta vollenweideri, Atta sexdens). Both species express a striking size polymorphism associated with polyethism. We discovered that the ALs of large workers contain a substantially enlarged glomerulus (macroglomerulus, MG) at the entrance of the antennal nerve. This is the first description of an MG in non-sexual individuals of an insect. The location of the MG is laterally reversed in the two species, and workers of different size express a disproportional allometry of glomerular volumes. While ALs of large workers contain an MG, glomeruli in small workers are all similar in size. We further compared electroantennogram (EAG) responses to two common trail pheromone components of leaf-cutting ants: 4-methylpyrrol-2-carboxylate and 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine. At high concentrations the ratio of the EAG signals to 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine versus 4-methylpyrrol-2-carboxylate was significantly smaller in A. vollenweideri compared with the ratio of EAG signals to the same two components in A. sexdens. The differences in EAG signals and the species specific MG location in large workers provide correlative evidence that the MG may be involved in the detection of the trail pheromone. PMID:15843501

  19. Temporal Features of Spike Trains in the Moth Antennal Lobe Revealed by a Comparative Time-Frequency Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Capurro, Alberto; Baroni, Fabiano; Kuebler, Linda S.; Kárpáti, Zsolt; Dekker, Teun; Lei, Hong; Hansson, Bill S.; Pearce, Timothy C.; Olsson, Shannon B.

    2014-01-01

    The discrimination of complex sensory stimuli in a noisy environment is an immense computational task. Sensory systems often encode stimulus features in a spatiotemporal fashion through the complex firing patterns of individual neurons. To identify these temporal features, we have developed an analysis that allows the comparison of statistically significant features of spike trains localized over multiple scales of time-frequency resolution. Our approach provides an original way to utilize the discrete wavelet transform to process instantaneous rate functions derived from spike trains, and select relevant wavelet coefficients through statistical analysis. Our method uncovered localized features within olfactory projection neuron (PN) responses in the moth antennal lobe coding for the presence of an odor mixture and the concentration of single component odorants, but not for compound identities. We found that odor mixtures evoked earlier responses in biphasic response type PNs compared to single components, which led to differences in the instantaneous firing rate functions with their signal power spread across multiple frequency bands (ranging from 0 to 45.71 Hz) during a time window immediately preceding behavioral response latencies observed in insects. Odor concentrations were coded in excited response type PNs both in low frequency band differences (2.86 to 5.71 Hz) during the stimulus and in the odor trace after stimulus offset in low (0 to 2.86 Hz) and high (22.86 to 45.71 Hz) frequency bands. These high frequency differences in both types of PNs could have particular relevance for recruiting cellular activity in higher brain centers such as mushroom body Kenyon cells. In contrast, neurons in the specialized pheromone-responsive area of the moth antennal lobe exhibited few stimulus-dependent differences in temporal response features. These results provide interesting insights on early insect olfactory processing and introduce a novel comparative approach for

  20. Antennal lobe representations are optimized when olfactory stimuli are periodically structured to simulate natural wing beat effects

    PubMed Central

    Houot, Benjamin; Burkland, Rex; Tripathy, Shreejoy; Daly, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Animals use behaviors to actively sample the environment across a broad spectrum of sensory domains. These behaviors discretize the sensory experience into unique spatiotemporal moments, minimize sensory adaptation, and enhance perception. In olfaction, behaviors such as sniffing, antennal flicking, and wing beating all act to periodically expose olfactory epithelium. In mammals, it is thought that sniffing enhances neural representations; however, the effects of insect wing beating on representations remain unknown. To determine how well the antennal lobe (AL) produces odor dependent representations when wing beating effects are simulated, we used extracellular methods to record neural units and local field potentials (LFPs) from moth AL. We recorded responses to odors presented as prolonged continuous stimuli or periodically as 20 and 25 Hz pulse trains designed to simulate the oscillating effects of wing beating around the antennae during odor guided flight. Using spectral analyses, we show that ~25% of all recorded units were able to entrain to “pulsed stimuli”; this includes pulsed blanks, which elicited the strongest overall entrainment. The strength of entrainment to pulse train stimuli was dependent on molecular features of the odorants, odor concentration, and pulse train duration. Moreover, units showing pulse tracking responses were highly phase locked to LFPs during odor stimulation, indicating that unit-LFP phase relationships are stimulus-driven. Finally, a Euclidean distance-based population vector analysis established that AL odor representations are more robust, peak more quickly, and do not show adaptation when odors were presented at the natural wing beat frequency as opposed to prolonged continuous stimulation. These results suggest a general strategy for optimizing olfactory representations, which exploits the natural rhythmicity of wing beating by integrating mechanosensory and olfactory cues at the level of the AL. PMID:24971052

  1. Organization of the olfactory pathway and odor processing in the antennal lobe of the ant Camponotus floridanus.

    PubMed

    Zube, Christina; Kleineidam, Christoph Johannes; Kirschner, Sebastian; Neef, Jakob; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2008-01-20

    Ants rely heavily on olfaction for communication and orientation. Here we provide the first detailed structure-function analyses within an ant's central olfactory system asking whether in the carpenter ant, Camponotus floridanus, the olfactory pathway exhibits adaptations to processing many pheromonal and general odors. Using fluorescent tracing, confocal microscopy, and 3D-analyses we demonstrate that the antennal lobe (AL) contains up to approximately 460 olfactory glomeruli organized in seven distinct clusters innervated via seven antennal sensory tracts. The AL is divided into two hemispheres regarding innervation of glomeruli by either projection neurons (PNs) with axons leaving via the medial (m) or lateral (l) antennocerebral tract (ACT). M- and l-ACT PNs differ in their target areas in the mushroom-body calyx and lateral horn. Three additional ACTs project to the lateral protocerebrum only. We analyzed odor processing in AL glomeruli by retrograde loading of PNs with Fura-2 dextran and fluorimetric calcium imaging. Odor responses were reproducible and comparable across individuals. Calcium responses to pheromonal and nonpheromonal odors were very sensitive (10(-11) dilution) and patterns were partly overlapping, indicating that processing of both odor classes is not spatially segregated within the AL. Response patterns to the main trail-pheromone component nerolic acid remained stable over a wide range of intensities (7-8 log units), while response durations increased indicating that odor quality is maintained by a stable pattern and intensity is mainly encoded in response durations. The structure-function analyses contribute new insights into important aspects of odor processing in a highly advanced insect olfactory system. PMID:18041786

  2. Sensillum-specific, topographic projection patterns of olfactory receptor neurons in the antennal lobe of the cockroach Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hidehiro; Haupt, S Shuichi; Nishino, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Michiko; Yokohari, Fumio

    2012-06-01

    In vertebrates and many invertebrates, olfactory signals detected by peripheral olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) are conveyed to a primary olfactory center with glomerular organization in which odor-specific activity patterns are generated. In the cockroach, Periplaneta americana, ORNs in antennal olfactory sensilla project to 205 unambiguously identifiable antennal lobe (AL) glomeruli that are classified into 10 glomerular clusters (T1-T10 glomeruli) innervated by distinct sensory tracts. In this study we employed single sensillum staining techniques and investigated the topographic projection patterns of individual ORNs to elucidate the relationship between sensillum types and glomerular organization in the AL. Axons of almost all ORNs projected to individual glomeruli. Axons of ORNs in perforated basiconic sensilla selectively innervated the anterodorsal T1-T4 glomeruli, whereas those in trichoid and grooved basiconic sensilla innervated the posteroventral T5-T9 glomeruli. About 90% of stained ORNs in trichoid sensilla sent axons to the T5 glomeruli and more than 90% of ORNs in grooved basiconic sensilla innervated the T6, T8, and T9 glomeruli. The T5 and T9 glomeruli exclusively receive sensory inputs from the trichoid and grooved basiconic sensilla, respectively. All investigated glomeruli received convergent input from a single type of sensillum except F11 glomerulus in the T6 glomeruli, which was innervated from both trichoid and grooved basiconic sensilla. These results suggest that ORNs in distinct sensillum types project to glomeruli in distinct glomerular clusters. Since ORNs in distinct sensillum types are each tuned to distinct subsets of odorant molecules, the AL is functionally compartmentalized into groups of glomeruli. PMID:22121009

  3. Identification of olfactory volatiles using gas chromatography-multi-unit recordings (GCMR) in the insect antennal lobe.

    PubMed

    Byers, Kelsey J R P; Sanders, Elischa; Riffell, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    All organisms inhabit a world full of sensory stimuli that determine their behavioral and physiological response to their environment. Olfaction is especially important in insects, which use their olfactory systems to respond to, and discriminate amongst, complex odor stimuli. These odors elicit behaviors that mediate processes such as reproduction and habitat selection(1-3). Additionally, chemical sensing by insects mediates behaviors that are highly significant for agriculture and human health, including pollination(4-6), herbivory of food crops(7), and transmission of disease(8,9). Identification of olfactory signals and their role in insect behavior is thus important for understanding both ecological processes and human food resources and well-being. To date, the identification of volatiles that drive insect behavior has been difficult and often tedious. Current techniques include gas chromatography-coupled electroantennogram recording (GC-EAG), and gas chromatography-coupled single sensillum recordings (GC-SSR)(10-12). These techniques proved to be vital in the identification of bioactive compounds. We have developed a method that uses gas chromatography coupled to multi-channel electrophysiological recordings (termed 'GCMR') from neurons in the antennal lobe (AL; the insect's primary olfactory center)(13,14). This state-of-the-art technique allows us to probe how odor information is represented in the insect brain. Moreover, because neural responses to odors at this level of olfactory processing are highly sensitive owing to the degree of convergence of the antenna's receptor neurons into AL neurons, AL recordings will allow the detection of active constituents of natural odors efficiently and with high sensitivity. Here we describe GCMR and give an example of its use. Several general steps are involved in the detection of bioactive volatiles and insect response. Volatiles first need to be collected from sources of interest (in this example we use flowers

  4. Odour-evoked responses to queen pheromone components and to plant odours using optical imaging in the antennal lobe of the honey bee drone Apis mellifera L.

    PubMed

    Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2006-09-01

    The primordial functional role of honey bee males (drones) is to mate with virgin queens, a behaviour relying heavily on the olfactory detection of queen pheromone. In the present work I studied olfactory processing in the drone antennal lobe (AL), the primary olfactory centre of the insect brain. In drones, the AL consists of about 103 ordinary glomeruli and four enlarged glomeruli, the macroglomeruli (MG). Two macroglomeruli (MG1 and MG2) and approximately 20 ordinary glomeruli occupy the anterior surface of the antennal lobe and are thus accessible to optical recordings. Calcium imaging was used to measure odour-evoked responses to queen pheromonal components and plant odours. MG2 responded specifically to the main component of the queen mandibular pheromone, 9-ODA. The secondary components HOB and HVA each triggered activity in one, but not the same, ordinary glomerulus. MG1 did not respond to any of the tested stimuli. Plant odours induced signals only in ordinary glomeruli in a combinatorial manner, as in workers. This study thus shows that the major queen pheromonal component is processed in the most voluminous macroglomerulus of the drone antennal lobe, and that plant odours, as well as some queen pheromonal components, are processed in ordinary glomeruli. PMID:16943499

  5. Rapid and slow chemical synaptic interactions of cholinergic projection neurons and GABAergic local interneurons in the insect antennal lobe.

    PubMed

    Warren, Ben; Kloppenburg, Peter

    2014-09-24

    The antennal lobe (AL) of insects constitutes the first synaptic relay and processing center of olfactory information, received from olfactory sensory neurons located on the antennae. Complex synaptic connectivity between olfactory neurons of the AL ultimately determines the spatial and temporal tuning profile of (output) projection neurons to odors. Here we used paired whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in the cockroach Periplaneta americana to characterize synaptic interactions between cholinergic uniglomerular projection neurons (uPNs) and GABAergic local interneurons (LNs), both of which are key components of the insect olfactory system. We found rapid, strong excitatory synaptic connections between uPNs and LNs. This rapid excitatory transmission was blocked by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor blocker mecamylamine. IPSPs, elicited by synaptic input from a presynaptic LN, were recorded in both uPNs and LNs. IPSPs were composed of both slow, sustained components and fast, transient components which were coincident with presynaptic action potentials. The fast IPSPs were blocked by the GABAA receptor chloride channel blocker picrotoxin, whereas the slow sustained IPSPs were blocked by the GABAB receptor blocker CGP-54626. This is the first study to directly show the predicted dual fast- and slow-inhibitory action of LNs, which was predicted to be key in shaping complex odor responses in the AL of insects. We also provide the first direct characterization of rapid postsynaptic potentials coincident with presynaptic spikes between olfactory processing neurons in the AL. PMID:25253851

  6. Data-driven inference of network connectivity for modeling the dynamics of neural codes in the insect antennal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Shlizerman, Eli; Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Kutz, J. Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The antennal lobe (AL), olfactory processing center in insects, is able to process stimuli into distinct neural activity patterns, called olfactory neural codes. To model their dynamics we perform multichannel recordings from the projection neurons in the AL driven by different odorants. We then derive a dynamic neuronal network from the electrophysiological data. The network consists of lateral-inhibitory neurons and excitatory neurons (modeled as firing-rate units), and is capable of producing unique olfactory neural codes for the tested odorants. To construct the network, we (1) design a projection, an odor space, for the neural recording from the AL, which discriminates between distinct odorants trajectories (2) characterize scent recognition, i.e., decision-making based on olfactory signals and (3) infer the wiring of the neural circuit, the connectome of the AL. We show that the constructed model is consistent with biological observations, such as contrast enhancement and robustness to noise. The study suggests a data-driven approach to answer a key biological question in identifying how lateral inhibitory neurons can be wired to excitatory neurons to permit robust activity patterns. PMID:25165442

  7. Homomeric RDL and heteromeric RDL/LCCH3 GABA receptors in the honeybee antennal lobes: two candidates for inhibitory transmission in olfactory processing.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, Julien Pierre; Bazelot, Michaël; Barbara, Guillaume Stéphane; Paute, Sandrine; Gauthier, Monique; Raymond-Delpech, Valérie

    2010-01-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel receptors are abundant in the CNS, where their physiological role is to mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission. In insects, this inhibitory transmission plays a crucial role in olfactory information processing. In an effort to understand the nature and properties of the ionotropic receptors involved in these processes in the honeybee Apis mellifera, we performed a pharmacological and molecular characterization of GABA-gated channels in the primary olfactory neuropile of the honeybee brain-the antennal lobe (AL)-using whole cell patch-clamp recordings coupled with single-cell RT-PCR. Application of GABA onto AL cells at -110 mV elicited fast inward currents, demonstrating the existence of ionotropic GABA-gated chloride channels. Molecular analysis of the GABA-responding cells revealed that both subunits RDL and LCCH3 were expressed out of the three orthologs of Drosophila melanogaster GABA-receptor subunits encoded within the honeybee genome (RDL, resistant to dieldrin; GRD, GABA/glycine-like receptor of Drosophila; LCCH3, ligand-gated chloride channel homologue 3), opening the door to possible homo- and/or heteromeric associations. The resulting receptors were activated by insect GABA-receptor agonists muscimol and CACA and blocked by antagonists fipronil, dieldrin, and picrotoxin, but not bicuculline, displaying a typical RDL-like pharmacology. Interestingly, increasing the intracellular calcium concentration potentiated GABA-elicited currents, suggesting a modulating effect of calcium on GABA receptors possibly through phosphorylation processes that remain to be determined. These results indicate that adult honeybee AL cells express typical RDL-like GABA receptors whose properties support a major role in synaptic inhibitory transmission during olfactory information processing. PMID:19906878

  8. Representation of pheromones, interspecific signals, and plant odors in higher olfactory centers; mapping physiologically identified antennal-lobe projection neurons in the male heliothine moth

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin-Cheng; Kvello, Pål; Løfaldli, Bjarte B.; Lillevoll, Siri C.; Mustaparta, Hanna; Berg, Bente G.

    2014-01-01

    The arrangement of anatomically separated systems for information about general and pheromone odorants is well documented at the initial levels of the olfactory pathway both in vertebrates and insects. In the primary olfactory center of the moth brain, for example, a few enlarged glomeruli situated dorsally, at the entrance of the antennal nerve, are devoted to information about female-produced substances whereas a set of more numerous ordinary glomeruli (OG) receives input about general odorants. Heliothine moths are particularly suitable for studying central chemosensory mechanisms not only because of their anatomically separated systems for plant odors and pheromones but also due to their use of female-produced substances in communication across the species. Thus, the male-specific system of heliothine moths includes two sub-arrangements, one ensuring attraction and mating behavior by carrying information about pheromones released by conspecifics, and the other inhibition of attraction via signal information emitted from heterospecifics. Based on previous tracing experiments, a general chemotopic organization of the male-specific glomeruli has been demonstrated in a number of heliothine species. As compared to the well explored organization of the moth antennal lobe (AL), demonstrating a non-overlapping representation of the biologically relevant stimuli, less is known about the neural arrangement residing at the following synaptic level, i.e., the mushroom body calyces and the lateral horn. In the study presented here, we have labeled physiologically characterized antennal-lobe projection neurons in males of the two heliothine species, Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa assulta, for the purpose of mapping their target regions in the protocerebrum. In order to compare the representation of plant odors, pheromones, and interspecific signals in the higher brain regions of each species, we have created standard brain atlases and registered three-dimensional models

  9. Synchronous firing of antennal-lobe projection neurons encodes the behaviorally effective ratio of sex-pheromone components in male Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Joshua P.; Lei, Hong; Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Hildebrand, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory stimuli that are essential to an animal's survival and reproduction are often complex mixtures of volatile organic compounds in characteristic proportions. Here, we investigated how these proportions are encoded in the primary olfactory processing center, the antennal lobe (AL), of male Manduca sexta moths. Two key components of the female's sex pheromone, present in an approximately 2:1 ratio, are processed in each of two neighboring glomeruli in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) of males of this species. In wind-tunnel flight experiments, males exhibited behavioral selectivity for ratios approximating the ratio released by conspecific females. The ratio between components was poorly represented, however, in the firing-rate output of uniglomerular MGC projection neurons (PNs). PN firing rate was mostly insensitive to the ratio between components, and individual PNs did not exhibit a preference for a particular ratio. Recording simultaneously from pairs of PNs in the same glomerulus, we found that the natural ratio between components elicited the most synchronous spikes, and altering the proportion of either component decreased the proportion of synchronous spikes. The degree of synchronous firing between PNs in the same glomerulus thus selectively encodes the natural ratio that most effectively evokes the natural behavioral response to pheromone. PMID:24002682

  10. Liver lobe torsion in three adult rabbits.

    PubMed

    Wenger, S; Barrett, E L; Pearson, G R; Sayers, I; Blakey, C; Redrobe, S

    2009-06-01

    This paper describes three cases of liver lobe torsion in rabbits presenting with anorexia, lethargy, jaundice and abdominal pain. This condition was associated with anaemia and elevation of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Abnormal radiological findings included hepatomegaly, gas-filled intestinal loops consistent with gastrointestinal ileus and ascites. Ultrasonographic findings included heterogeneous liver parenchyma, free abdominal fluid and reduced bowel motility. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination of the liver in all three cases. PMID:19527423

  11. Ensemble Response in Mushroom Body Output Neurons of the Honey Bee Outpaces Spatiotemporal Odor Processing Two Synapses Earlier in the Antennal Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Strube-Bloss, Martin F.; Herrera-Valdez, Marco A.; Smith, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    Neural representations of odors are subject to computations that involve sequentially convergent and divergent anatomical connections across different areas of the brains in both mammals and insects. Furthermore, in both mammals and insects higher order brain areas are connected via feedback connections. In order to understand the transformations and interactions that this connectivity make possible, an ideal experiment would compare neural responses across different, sequential processing levels. Here we present results of recordings from a first order olfactory neuropile – the antennal lobe (AL) – and a higher order multimodal integration and learning center – the mushroom body (MB) – in the honey bee brain. We recorded projection neurons (PN) of the AL and extrinsic neurons (EN) of the MB, which provide the outputs from the two neuropils. Recordings at each level were made in different animals in some experiments and simultaneously in the same animal in others. We presented two odors and their mixture to compare odor response dynamics as well as classification speed and accuracy at each neural processing level. Surprisingly, the EN ensemble significantly starts separating odor stimuli rapidly and before the PN ensemble has reached significant separation. Furthermore the EN ensemble at the MB output reaches a maximum separation of odors between 84–120 ms after odor onset, which is 26 to 133 ms faster than the maximum separation at the AL output ensemble two synapses earlier in processing. It is likely that a subset of very fast PNs, which respond before the ENs, may initiate the rapid EN ensemble response. We suggest therefore that the timing of the EN ensemble activity would allow retroactive integration of its signal into the ongoing computation of the AL via centrifugal feedback. PMID:23209711

  12. Spatio-temporal activity patterns of odor-induced synchronized potentials revealed by voltage-sensitive dye imaging and intracellular recording in the antennal lobe of the cockroach.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hidehiro; Ai, Hiroyuki; Yokohari, Fumio

    2012-01-01

    In animals, odor qualities are represented as both spatial activity patterns of glomeruli and temporal patterns of synchronized oscillatory signals in the primary olfactory centers. By optical imaging of a voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) and intracellular recording from secondary olfactory interneurons, we examined possible neural correlates of the spatial and temporal odor representations in the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), of the cockroach Periplaneta americana. Voltage-sensitive dye imaging revealed that all used odorants induced odor-specific temporal patterns of depolarizing potentials in specific combinations of anterior glomeruli of the AL. The depolarizing potentials evoked by different odorants were temporally synchronized across glomeruli and were termed "synchronized potentials." These observations suggest that odor qualities are represented by spatio-temporal activity patterns of the synchronized potentials across glomeruli. We also performed intracellular recordings and stainings from secondary olfactory interneurons, namely projection neurons and local interneurons. We analyzed the temporal structures of enanthic acid-induced action potentials of secondary olfactory interneurons using simultaneous paired intracellular recording from two given neurons. Our results indicated that the multiple local interneurons synchronously fired in response to the olfactory stimulus. In addition, all stained enanthic acid-responsive projection neurons exhibited dendritic arborizations within the glomeruli where the synchronized potentials were evoked. Since multiple local interneurons are known to synapse to a projection neuron in each glomerulus in the cockroach AL, converging inputs from local interneurons to the projection neurons appear to contribute the odorant specific spatio-temporal activity patterns of the synchronized potentials. PMID:22848191

  13. Neuropsychological profile of adult patients with nonsymptomatic occipital lobe epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Bilo, Leonilda; Santangelo, Gabriella; Improta, Ilaria; Vitale, Carmine; Meo, Roberta; Trojano, Luigi

    2013-02-01

    To explore the neuropsychological and neurobehavioral profile in adult patients affected by nonsymptomatic (cryptogenic and idiopathic) occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE), with normal intelligence, we enrolled 20 adult patients with nonsymptomatic OLE and 20 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy subjects. All participants underwent neuropsychiatric assessment scales, and standardized neuropsychological tests tapping memory, executive functions, constructional, visuospatial and visuoperceptual skills. After Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, patients performed significantly worse than controls on several tests tapping complex visuospatial skills and frontal lobe functions. The analysis of single patients' performance revealed that a significantly higher number of OLE patients achieved age- and education-adjusted pathological scores on three tests (Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test, Freehand Copying of Drawings Test, color-word interference task of Stroop test) with respect to controls. Patients did not differ from control subjects on neuropsychiatric aspects. The direct comparison between OLE subtypes showed that cryptogenetic OLE patients tended to achieve lower scores than idiopathic OLE patients on most tests, but no difference between the two groups was fully significant. In summary, patients with nonsymptomatic OLE can be affected by clinically relevant impairments in selected neuropsychological domains: complex visuospatial skills and executive functions. It could be speculated that frontal and visuospatial cognitive deficits might be the result of epileptic activity spreading within a neural network that includes structures far beyond the occipital lobe. PMID:22903808

  14. Differential antennal proteome comparison of adult honeybee drone, worker and queen (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Fang, Yu; Song, Feifei; Zhang, Lan; Aleku, Dereje Woltedji; Han, Bin; Feng, Mao; Li, Jianke

    2012-01-01

    To understand the olfactory mechanism of honeybee antennae in detecting specific volatile compounds in the atmosphere, antennal proteome differences of drone, worker and queen were compared using 2-DE, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. Therefore, 107 proteins were altered their expressions in the antennae of drone, worker and queen bees. There were 54, 21 and 32 up-regulated proteins in the antennae of drone, worker and queen, respectively. Proteins upregulated in the drone antennae were involved in fatty acid metabolism, antioxidation, carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, protein folding and cytoskeleton. Proteins upregulated in the antennae of worker and queen bees were related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production while molecular transporters were upregulated in the queen antennae. Our results explain the role played by the antennae of drone is to aid in perceiving the queen sexual pheromones, in the worker antennae to assist for food search and social communication and in the queen antennae to help pheromone communication with the worker and the drone during the mating flight. This first proteomic study significantly extends our understanding of honeybee olfactory activities and the possible mechanisms played by the antennae in response to various environmental, social, biological and biochemical signals. PMID:21982827

  15. Accessory liver lobe of the gallbladder in adults.

    PubMed

    Handra-Luca, Adriana

    2016-09-01

    The accessory liver lobe (ALL) of the gallbladder wall is rare, mentioned by Meckel since 1822. We present two cases of ALL occurring in two adult women. The ALLs were diagnosed at microscopic examination of cholecystectomy specimens for lithiasic cholecystitis and were located at the gallbladder body level. They measured 0.5 and 1.1 cm and were pediculated from the gallbladder serosa. Luschka duct complexes were seen in the adjacent subserosa in one of the cases. The main clinical relevance of ALL of the gallbladder resides in the differential diagnosis with a lymph node and in the risk of peroperative hemorragia or bile leakage by sectioning of the connecting blood vessels and/or bile duct. Intraparietal ALL may interfere with dysmotility, possibly resulting in bile stagnation and stone formation. PMID:27147442

  16. New Approach to Evaluate the Antennal Response of an Adult Predator Insect to Different Volatile Chemical Compounds by using Electroantennogram Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shonouda, Mourad L.

    The antennal response of adult syrphid flies to selected plant volatile chemical compounds was investigated in the present study. The main chemical classes and their chemical compounds were aldehydes (nonanal and benzaldehyde), monoterpene-alcohols (linalool and alpha-terpineol), ketones (6-methyl-5-heptene-2-one and 2-undecanone), hydrocarbons (tetradecane) and benzoids (methyl salicylate). Electroantennogram (EAG) records showed that the syrphid antennae were strongly responded to linalool, 6-methyl-5-heptene-2-one and methyl salicylate even at low concentrations, in addition to the high dose concentration of nonanal comparably to the other chemical compounds. The antennae of old syrphid adults were more responsive and elicited higher levels of responses to all compounds rather than young syrphid adults. The antennal sensitivity may differ from one compound to another according to the sex. The difference in responses could be attributed to the sensitivity of olfactory receptors and/or the characterization of binding protein(s). The quality of biocontrol agent could be improved if the chemical interaction between beneficial natural enemies and the surrounding environment is intensively studied and we clearly understand the chemical ecology of each natural enemy.

  17. Adult clinical neuropsychology: lessons from studies of the frontal lobes.

    PubMed

    Stuss, Donald T; Levine, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Clinical neuropsychologists have adopted numerous (and sometimes conflicting) approaches to the assessment of brain-behavior relationships. We review the historical development of these approaches and we advocate an approach to clinical neuropsychology that is informed by recent findings from cognitive neuroscience. Clinical assessment of executive and emotional processes associated with the frontal lobes of the human brain has yet to incorporate the numerous experimental neuroscience findings on this topic. We review both standard and newer techniques for assessment of frontal lobe functions, including control operations involved in language, memory, attention, emotions, self-regulation, and social functioning. Clinical and experimental research has converged to indicate the fractionation of frontal subprocesses and the initial mapping of these subprocesses to discrete frontal regions. One anatomical distinction consistent in the literature is that between dorsal and ventral functions, which can be considered cognitive and affective, respectively. The frontal lobes, in particular the frontal poles, are involved in uniquely human capacities, including self-awareness and mental time travel. PMID:11752491

  18. Accessory lobe of the right liver mocking a pulmonary tumor in an adult woman.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Yuka; Sakakura, Noriaki; Uchida, Tatsuo; Suyama, Motokazu

    2012-08-01

    We report a rare case of an accessory lobe of the liver in the right thoracic cavity with the past history of breast cancer. A 66-year-old woman underwent thoracotomy owing to a slowly growing suspected lung tumor identified by computed tomography. The intraoperative findings revealed an accessory lobe of the liver. If this possibility had been considered, the correct diagnosis could have been achieved using computed tomography with multi-directional scanning, so that an unnecessary operation could have been avoided. PMID:22618988

  19. Central Projection of Antennal Sensory Neurons in the Central Nervous System of the Mirid Bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür).

    PubMed

    Xie, Gui-Ying; Zhao, Xin-Cheng; Ma, Bai-Wei; Guo, Pei; Li, Guo-Ping; Feng, Hong-Qiang; Wu, Guo-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The mirid bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür), a polyphagous pest, is dependent on olfactory cues to locate various host plant species and mates. In this study, we traced the projection pathway of the antennal sensory neurons and visualized their projection patterns in the central nervous system of A. lucorum through confocal microscopy and digital reconstructions. We also examined the glomerular organization of the primary olfactory center of the brain, the antennal lobe, and created a three-dimensional model of the glomeruli. We found that the axons of the sensory neurons project into the brain via the ipsilateral antennal nerve, and descend further into the gnathal ganglion, prothoracic ganglion, mesothoracic ganglion, and metathoracic ganglion, and reach as far as to the abdominal ganglion. Such a projection pattern indicates that antennal sensory neurons of A. lucorum may be potentially directly connected to motor neurons. The antennal lobe, however, is the major target area of antennal sensory neurons. The antennal lobe is composed of a large number of glomeruli, i.e. 70-80 glomeruli in one AL of A. lucorum. The results of this study which provide information about the basic anatomical arrangement of the brain olfactory center of A. lucorum, are important for further investigations of chemosensory encoding mechanisms of the mirid bug. PMID:27478892

  20. Central Projection of Antennal Sensory Neurons in the Central Nervous System of the Mirid Bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür)

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Gui-Ying; Zhao, Xin-Cheng; Ma, Bai-Wei; Guo, Pei; Li, Guo-Ping; Feng, Hong-Qiang; Wu, Guo-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The mirid bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür), a polyphagous pest, is dependent on olfactory cues to locate various host plant species and mates. In this study, we traced the projection pathway of the antennal sensory neurons and visualized their projection patterns in the central nervous system of A. lucorum through confocal microscopy and digital reconstructions. We also examined the glomerular organization of the primary olfactory center of the brain, the antennal lobe, and created a three-dimensional model of the glomeruli. We found that the axons of the sensory neurons project into the brain via the ipsilateral antennal nerve, and descend further into the gnathal ganglion, prothoracic ganglion, mesothoracic ganglion, and metathoracic ganglion, and reach as far as to the abdominal ganglion. Such a projection pattern indicates that antennal sensory neurons of A. lucorum may be potentially directly connected to motor neurons. The antennal lobe, however, is the major target area of antennal sensory neurons. The antennal lobe is composed of a large number of glomeruli, i.e. 70–80 glomeruli in one AL of A. lucorum. The results of this study which provide information about the basic anatomical arrangement of the brain olfactory center of A. lucorum, are important for further investigations of chemosensory encoding mechanisms of the mirid bug. PMID:27478892

  1. Assessment of executive functioning in children and young adults treated for frontal lobe tumours using ecologically valid tests.

    PubMed

    Longaud-Valès, A; Chevignard, M; Dufour, C; Grill, J; Puget, S; Sainte-Rose, C; Valteau-Couanet, D; Dellatolas, G

    2016-08-01

    There is a lack of studies assessing executive functions (EF) using ecologically valid tests in children with frontal lobe lesions. This study aimed to (1) evaluate EF in children, adolescents and young adults treated for childhood frontal lobe tumours, (2) identify factors influencing performance, such as age at diagnosis or type of treatment, and (3) examine correlations between intellectual ability and classical and ecological tests of EF. Twenty-one patients, aged 8-27 years, treated for a childhood benign or malignant frontal lobe tumour, and 42 healthy controls (matched for gender, age and socio-economic status) were assessed using classical tests of EF, and the BADS-C ecological battery. Patients also underwent assessment of intellectual ability and parent and teacher ratings of the BRIEF questionnaire. IQ scores ranged from 45 to 125 (mean FSIQ = 84) and were lower in case of epilepsy, hydrocephalus and lower parental education. Patients displayed deficits in most, but not all measures of EF. Most classical and ecological measures of EF were strongly correlated to IQ. This study confirms the frequency of EF deficits in this population; it also highlights the utility of ecological measures of EF and some limitations of classical tests of EF in children. PMID:26272265

  2. RBANS Memory Indices Are Related to Medial Temporal Lobe Volumetrics in Healthy Older Adults and Those with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    England, Heather B.; Gillis, M. Meredith; Hampstead, Benjamin M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study (i) determined whether NeuroQuant® volumetrics are reflective of differences in medial temporal lobe (MTL) volumes between healthy older adults and those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and (ii) examined the relationship between RBANS indices and MTL volumes. Forty-three healthy older adults and 57 MCI patients completed the RBANS and underwent structural MRI. Hippocampal and inferior lateral ventricle (ILV) volumes were obtained using NeuroQuant®. Results revealed significantly smaller hippocampal and larger ILV volumes in MCI patients. MTL volumes were significantly related to the RBANS Immediate and Delayed Memory and Language indices but not the Attention or Visuoconstruction indices; findings that demonstrate anatomical specificity. Following discriminant function analysis, we calculated a cutpoint that may prove clinically useful for integrating MTL volumes into the diagnosis of MCI. These findings demonstrate the potential clinical utility of NeuroQuant® and are the first to document the relationship between RBANS indices and MTL volumes. PMID:24709384

  3. RBANS memory indices are related to medial temporal lobe volumetrics in healthy older adults and those with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    England, Heather B; Gillis, M Meredith; Hampstead, Benjamin M

    2014-06-01

    The current study (i) determined whether NeuroQuant(®) volumetrics are reflective of differences in medial temporal lobe (MTL) volumes between healthy older adults and those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and (ii) examined the relationship between RBANS indices and MTL volumes. Forty-three healthy older adults and 57 MCI patients completed the RBANS and underwent structural MRI. Hippocampal and inferior lateral ventricle (ILV) volumes were obtained using NeuroQuant(®). Results revealed significantly smaller hippocampal and larger ILV volumes in MCI patients. MTL volumes were significantly related to the RBANS Immediate and Delayed Memory and Language indices but not the Attention or Visuoconstruction indices; findings that demonstrate anatomical specificity. Following discriminant function analysis, we calculated a cutpoint that may prove clinically useful for integrating MTL volumes into the diagnosis of MCI. These findings demonstrate the potential clinical utility of NeuroQuant(®) and are the first to document the relationship between RBANS indices and MTL volumes. PMID:24709384

  4. Antennal lobe organization and pheromone usage in bombycid moths

    PubMed Central

    Namiki, Shigehiro; Daimon, Takaaki; Iwatsuki, Chika; Shimada, Toru; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the neuroanatomy of the macroglomerular complex (MGC), which is involved in sex pheromone processing, in five species in the subfamily Bombycinae, including Ernolatia moorei, Trilocha varians, Rondotia menciana, Bombyx mandarina and Bombyx mori. The glomerulus located at the dorsal-most part of the olfactory centre shows the largest volume in moth species examined to date. Such normal glomerular organization has been observed in E. moorei and T. varians, which use a two-component mixture and includes the compound bombykal as a mating signal. By contrast, the other three species, which use another component as a single attractant, exhibited a modified arrangement of the MGC. This correlation between pheromone usage and neural organization may be useful for understanding the process of speciation. PMID:24759369

  5. Left lobe graft poses a potential risk of hepatic venous outflow obstruction in adult living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Toshihiro; Kaido, Toshimi; Iida, Taku; Yagi, Shintaro; Fujimoto, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Kohei; Mori, Akira; Okajima, Hideaki; Imamine, Rinpei; Shibata, Toshiya; Uemoto, Shinji

    2016-06-01

    Hepatic venous outflow obstruction (HVOO) is a critical complication after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of HVOO and the risk factors for HVOO in adults. From 2005 to 2015, 430 adult LDLT patients (right lobe [RL] graft, 270 patients; left lobe [LL] graft, 160 patients) were enrolled and divided into no HVOO (n = 413) and HVOO (n = 17) groups. Patient demographics and surgical data were compared, and risk factors for HVOO were analyzed. Furthermore, the longterm outcomes of percutaneous interventions as treatment for HVOO were assessed. HVOO occurred in 17 (4.0%) patients. The incidence of HVOO in patients receiving a LL graft was significantly higher than in those receiving a RL graft (8.1% versus 1.5%; P = 0.001). The body weight and caliber of hepatic vein anastomosis in the HVOO group were significantly lower compared with the no HVOO group (P = 0.02 and P = 0.008, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that only LL graft was an independent risk factor for HVOO (OR, 4.782; 95% CI, 1.387-16.488; P = 0.01). Among 17 patients with HVOO, 7 patients were treated with single balloon angioplasty, and 9 patients who developed recurrence were treated with repeated interventions. Overall, 6 patients underwent stent placement: 1 at the initial procedure, 3 at the second procedure for early recurrence, and 2 following repeated balloon angioplasty (≥3 interventions). These 6 patients experienced no recurrence. Overall graft survival was not significantly different between the HVOO and no HVOO groups (P = 0.99). In conclusion, the use of a LL graft was associated with HVOO, and percutaneous interventions were effective for treating adult HVOO after LDLT. Liver Transplantation 22 785-795 2016 AASLD. PMID:26785423

  6. Moderating effect of optimism on emotional distress and seizure control in adults with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Kiely M; Schefft, Bruce K; Howe, Steven R; Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Yeh, Hwa-shain; Privitera, Michael D

    2010-08-01

    Stress is a commonly reported seizure precipitant among individuals with epilepsy. Yet, the relationship between stress and seizure susceptibility remains unclear. This study examined the relationship between emotional distress and lifetime seizure load in individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), as well as the potential moderating effect of explanatory style on this relationship. Data were collected from 148 individuals with TLE. Scales 2 and 7 of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory were used as a measure of emotional distress, and explanatory style was measured using the Revised Optimism-Pessimism Scale. Elevated Scale 2 scores were associated with an increase in seizure load only in subjects with Full Scale IQ scores> or =92. An interaction between emotional distress and explanatory style was not observed. Thus, for individuals with higher levels of intelligence, depression may be an important pathway in linking emotional distress to poor seizure control. PMID:20542740

  7. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO ESTROGENIC COMPOUNDS AND THE SUBSEQUENT EFFECTS ON THE PROSTRATE OF THE ADULT RAT: EVALUATION OF INFLAMMATION IN THE VENTRAL AND LATERAL LOBES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perinatal exposure to estrogenic compounds and the subsequent effects on the prostate of the adult rat: evaluation of inflammation in the ventral and lateral lobes.

    Stoker TE, Robinette CL, Cooper RL.

    Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National ...

  8. Occurrence of antennal glands in ants.

    PubMed

    Renthal, Robert; Velasquez, Daniel; Olmos, David; Vinson, S Bradleigh

    2008-11-01

    A previous report of the discovery of exocrine glands in the antennal club of queens and workers of Solenopsis invicta Buren, 1972 left open the question of the extent to which similar glands occur in the Formicidae family. We wanted to know if these antennal glands are unique to Solenopsis, or they are found in a wider taxonomic group. Using scanning electron microscopy, we examined the antennae of 41 ant species. Presence of the antennal glands was indicated by a characteristic circumferential ring of pores in a distal antennal segment of workers. Pores were found in the 9th antennal segment of all 26 species of Solenopsis examined. Pores were absent in the following: Monomorium minimum, M. pharaonis, Pheidole sp., Crematogaster sp., Linepithema humile, Forelius sp., Dorymyrmex sp., Paratrechina sp., Oecophylla smaragdina, Campanotus sp., Ectatomma ruidum, E. tuberlatum, and Pseudomyrmex ferruginea. However, pores were found in the antennal club of Tetramorium bicarinatum workers and queens. After KOH digestion of T. bicarinatum antennae, internal canals were observed in both workers and queens, and the canals are connected to spherical reservoirs in queens. T. bicarinatum was the only non-Solenopsis species examined, which showed evidence for antennal glands in the distal funiculus. PMID:18655135

  9. The Frontal Lobes and Theory of Mind: Developmental Concepts from Adult Focal Lesion Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuss, Donald T.; Anderson, Vicki

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective in this paper is to present a framework to understand the structure of consciousness. We argue that consciousness has been difficult to define because there are different kinds of consciousness, hierarchically organized, which need to be differentiated. Our framework is based on evidence from adult focal lesion research. The…

  10. Enriched Environment Altered Aberrant Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Improved Long-Term Consequences After Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Liu, Tingting; Zhou, Zhike; Mu, Xiaopeng; Song, Chengguang; Xiao, Ting; Zhao, Mei; Zhao, Chuansheng

    2015-06-01

    Abnormal hippocampal neurogenesis is thought to contribute to cognitive impairments in chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its specific receptor CXCR4 play important roles in neurogenesis. We investigated whether enriched environment (EE) might be beneficial for TLE. Adult rats were randomly assigned as control rats, rats subjected to status epilepticus (SE), or post-SE rats treated with EE for 30 days. We used immunofluorescence staining to analyze the hippocampal neurogenesis and Nissl staining to evaluate hippocampal damage. Electroencephalography was used to measure the duration of spontaneous seizures. Cognitive function was evaluated by Morris water maze. Western blot was used to measure the expression of SDF-1 and CXCR4 in the hippocampus. In the present study, we found the TLE model resulted in aberrant neurogenesis such as reduced proliferation, intensified dendritic development of newborn neurons, as well as spontaneous seizures and cognitive impairments. More importantly, EE treatment significantly increased the cell proliferation and survival, extended the apical dendrites, and delayed the attenuation of the expression of SDF-1 and CXCR4, accompanied by decreased long-term seizure activity and improved cognitive impairments in adult rats after TLE. These results provided morphological evidence that EE might be beneficial for treating TLE. PMID:25946980

  11. Segmentation of center brains and optic lobes in 3D confocal images of adult fruit fly brains.

    PubMed

    Lam, Shing Chun Benny; Ruan, Zongcai; Zhao, Ting; Long, Fuhui; Jenett, Arnim; Simpson, Julie; Myers, Eugene W; Peng, Hanchuan

    2010-02-01

    Automatic alignment (registration) of 3D images of adult fruit fly brains is often influenced by the significant displacement of the relative locations of the two optic lobes (OLs) and the center brain (CB). In one of our ongoing efforts to produce a better image alignment pipeline of adult fruit fly brains, we consider separating CB and OLs and align them independently. This paper reports our automatic method to segregate CB and OLs, in particular under conditions where the signal to noise ratio (SNR) is low, the variation of the image intensity is big, and the relative displacement of OLs and CB is substantial. We design an algorithm to find a minimum-cost 3D surface in a 3D image stack to best separate an OL (of one side, either left or right) from CB. This surface is defined as an aggregation of the respective minimum-cost curves detected in each individual 2D image slice. Each curve is defined by a list of control points that best segregate OL and CB. To obtain the locations of these control points, we derive an energy function that includes an image energy term defined by local pixel intensities and two internal energy terms that constrain the curve's smoothness and length. Gradient descent method is used to optimize this energy function. To improve both the speed and robustness of the method, for each stack, the locations of optimized control points in a slice are taken as the initialization prior for the next slice. We have tested this approach on simulated and real 3D fly brain image stacks and demonstrated that this method can reasonably segregate OLs from CBs despite the aforementioned difficulties. PMID:19698789

  12. Antennal sensilla of the green bottle fly, Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, D; Liu, X H; Li, X Y; Zhang, M; Li, K

    2013-11-01

    Lucilia sericata (Meigen) is a cosmopolitan synanthropic fly of forensic and medical importance, which can work as a mechanic vector of pathogens or cause myiasis of both human and sheep. As essential olfactory organs, antennae of adult L. sericata were examined with stereoscopic microscope, scanning electron microscope, and laser scanning confocal microscope. On antennal scape and pedicel, both microtirchiae and several bristles are detected, while another two structures, setiferous plaques and pedicellar buttons, are also found on the antennal pedicel. Seven subtypes of antennal sensilla are observed on antennal funiculus including one subtype of trichoid sensilla, two subtypes of basiconic sensilla, two subtypes of coeloconic sensilla, and two subtypes of sensory pits. Size and density of the former four types of sensilla on antennal funiculus are measured. Three distinctive sensillar characters of L. sericata are detected, which may contribute to greater olfactory sensitivity of this species and their wide distribution throughout the world. Unlike the common poreless pedicellar button with mechanoreceptor function, every pedicellar button in L. sericata is perforated by three pores, which might indicate potential chemoreceptor function of this structure. Besides, another unique feature is greater number of setiferous plaques in genus Lucilia than calliphorids of other genera. Expect for the common sensory pits with basiconic or basiconic-like sensilla in them, sensory pits filled with rarely described coeloconic-like sensilla are founded in L. sericata as well. After comparison with previous equivalent findings, the functions of these specific structures are discussed according to the life history of this calliphorid. PMID:23955594

  13. Antennal and locomotor responses to attractive and aversive odors in the searching cockroach.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Katsuhiro; Okada, Jiro; Toh, Yoshihiro

    2007-09-01

    The behavioral responses to attractive and aversive odors were examined in blinded adult male cockroaches under tethered-walking conditions. A sex pheromone-like stimulant derived from adult virgin females and artificially synthesized limonene were used as attractive and aversive odor sources, respectively. When a searching animal was stimulated with the attractive female-derived odor, the horizontal deflections of both the antennae were increased, and in most cases the vertical antennal positions were shifted downward. The stimulation also significantly decreased the walking speed of the animal. These behavioral changes imply a careful search in the immediate surroundings. The aftereffect of the sex pheromone was more pronounced on locomotion than on antennal movement. On the other hand, stimulation with the aversive odor (limonene) tended to suppress active antennal movement, and also increased the walking speed. Immediately after the withdrawal of the aversive odor, the active movement of the antennae was resumed, and the walking speed rapidly decreased to a level approximately the same as that of the control period. These results indicate that the responses to the qualitatively opposite types of odor are reciprocal to each other with regard to both antennal movement and locomotion. PMID:17609964

  14. Grating lobes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The radiation patterns characteristic of an indefinite planar array of isotropic antennas was investigated. Particular emphasis was given to the grating lobe scatter from the rectenna. It is shown that an idealy arrayed rectenna of indefinite extent would produce grating lobes which are impulsive. It is further shown that a shift to finite extent or introduction of typical variations in element placement should generate more typical patterns.

  15. Antennal Sensilla in the Parasitoid Sclerodermus sp. (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chang-Xiang; Sun, Xiao; Mi, Feng; Chen, Jingyuan; Wang, Man-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Parasitoid wasps of the genus Sclerodermus (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) are an important natural enemy of the Japanese pine sawyer beetle Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy to examine the external morphology of the antennal sensilla of Sclerodermus sp. Antennae of females and males comprised the scape, pedicel, and 11 flagellomere segments. Based on the morphology of the sensilla in each sex, seven types of sensillum were identified: sensilla trichodea (Tr.1, Tr.2 and Tr.3), sensilla basiconica (Ba.1, Ba.2, and Ba.3), sensilla styloconica (St.1 and St.2), sensilla placodea, sensilla coeloconica, sensilla squamiforma, and Bohm’s bristles. Tr.2, Ba.1, and St.1 were only found in females, whereas Ba.2, Ba.3, and St.2 were only observed in males. Sensilla placodea were the most common, given that they occur on the antennae of many parasitoid Hymenoptera, whereas sensilla Tr were the most abundant, being distributed over the entire antennal surface. These sensilla are likely to have roles in the host locating and habitat searching behavior of adult Sclerodermus wasps. Therefore, our findings provide a basis for further studies of the host location behavior of this and other species of parasitic wasp. PMID:25843589

  16. A retroactive spatial cue improved VSTM capacity in mild cognitive impairment and medial temporal lobe amnesia but not in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Rachel N; Duarte, Audrey; Pun, Carson; Smith, Victoria M; Ferber, Susanne; Barense, Morgan D

    2015-10-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is a vital cognitive ability, connecting visual input with conscious awareness. VSTM performance declines with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and medial temporal lobe (MTL) amnesia. Many studies have shown that providing a spatial retrospective cue ("retrocue") improves VSTM capacity estimates for healthy young adults. However, one study has demonstrated that older adults are unable to use a retrocue to inhibit irrelevant items from memory. It is unknown whether patients with MCI and MTL amnesia will be able to use a retrocue to benefit their memory. We administered a retrocue and a baseline (simultaneous cue, "simucue") task to young adults, older adults, MCI patients, and MTL cases. Consistent with previous findings, young adults showed a retrocue benefit, whereas healthy older adults did not. In contrast, both MCI patients and MTL cases showed a retrocue benefit--the use of a retrocue brought patient performance up to the level of age-matched controls. We speculate that the patients were able to use the spatial information from the retrocue to reduce interference and facilitate binding items to their locations. PMID:26300388

  17. Airflow and optic flow mediate antennal positioning in flying honeybees.

    PubMed

    Roy Khurana, Taruni; Sane, Sanjay P

    2016-01-01

    To maintain their speeds during navigation, insects rely on feedback from their visual and mechanosensory modalities. Although optic flow plays an essential role in speed determination, it is less reliable under conditions of low light or sparse landmarks. Under such conditions, insects rely on feedback from antennal mechanosensors but it is not clear how these inputs combine to elicit flight-related antennal behaviours. We here show that antennal movements of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, are governed by combined visual and antennal mechanosensory inputs. Frontal airflow, as experienced during forward flight, causes antennae to actively move forward as a sigmoidal function of absolute airspeed values. However, corresponding front-to-back optic flow causes antennae to move backward, as a linear function of relative optic flow, opposite the airspeed response. When combined, these inputs maintain antennal position in a state of dynamic equilibrium. PMID:27097104

  18. Airflow and optic flow mediate antennal positioning in flying honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Roy Khurana, Taruni; Sane, Sanjay P

    2016-01-01

    To maintain their speeds during navigation, insects rely on feedback from their visual and mechanosensory modalities. Although optic flow plays an essential role in speed determination, it is less reliable under conditions of low light or sparse landmarks. Under such conditions, insects rely on feedback from antennal mechanosensors but it is not clear how these inputs combine to elicit flight-related antennal behaviours. We here show that antennal movements of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, are governed by combined visual and antennal mechanosensory inputs. Frontal airflow, as experienced during forward flight, causes antennae to actively move forward as a sigmoidal function of absolute airspeed values. However, corresponding front-to-back optic flow causes antennae to move backward, as a linear function of relative optic flow, opposite the airspeed response. When combined, these inputs maintain antennal position in a state of dynamic equilibrium. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14449.001 PMID:27097104

  19. Eph receptor and ephrin signaling in developing and adult brain of the honeybee (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Vidovic, Maria; Nighorn, Alan; Koblar, Simon; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2007-02-01

    Roles for Eph receptor tyrosine kinase and ephrin signaling in vertebrate brain development are well established. Their involvement in the modulation of mammalian synaptic structure and physiology is also emerging. However, less is known of their effects on brain development and their function in adult invertebrate nervous systems. Here, we report on the characterization of Eph receptor and ephrin orthologs in the honeybee, Apis mellifera (Am), and their role in learning and memory. In situ hybridization for mRNA expression showed a uniform distribution of expression of both genes across the developing pupal and adult brain. However, in situ labeling with Fc fusion proteins indicated that the AmEphR and Amephrin proteins were differentially localized to cell body regions in the mushroom bodies and the developing neuropiles of the antennal and optic lobes. In adults, AmEphR protein was localized to regions of synaptic contacts in optic lobes, in the glomeruli of antennal lobes, and in the medial lobe of the mushroom body. The latter two regions are involved in olfactory learning and memory in the honeybee. Injections of EphR-Fc and ephrin-Fc proteins into the brains of adult bees, 1 h before olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex, significantly reduced memory 24 h later. Experimental amnesia in the group injected with ephrin-Fc was apparent 1 h post-training. Experimental amnesia was also induced by post-training injections with ephrin-Fc suggesting a role in recall. This is the first demonstration that Eph molecules function to regulate the formation of memory in insects. PMID:17443785

  20. Eph Receptor and Ephrin Signaling in Developing and Adult Brain of the Honeybee (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Vidovic, Maria; Nighorn, Alan; Koblar, Simon; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2007-01-01

    Roles for Eph receptor tyrosine kinase and ephrin signaling in vertebrate brain development are well established. Their involvement in the modulation of mammalian synaptic structure and physiology is also emerging. However, less is known of their effects on brain development and their function in adult invertebrate nervous systems. Here, we report on the characterization of Eph receptor and ephrin orthologs in the honeybee, Apis mellifera (Am), and their role in learning and memory. In situ hybridization for mRNA expression showed a uniform distribution of expression of both genes across the developing pupal and adult brain. However, in situ labeling with Fc fusion proteins indicated that the AmEphR and Amephrin proteins were differentially localized to cell body regions in the mushroom bodies and the developing neuropiles of the antennal and optic lobes. In adults, AmEphR protein was localized to regions of synaptic contacts in optic lobes, in the glomeruli of antennal lobes, and in the medial lobe of the mushroom body. The latter two regions are involved in olfactory learning and memory in the honeybee. Injections of EphR-Fc and ephrin-Fc proteins into the brains of adult bees, 1 h before olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex, sig-nificantly reduced memory 24 h later. Experimental amnesia in the group injected with ephrin-Fc was apparent 1 h post-training. Experimental amnesia was also induced by post-training injections with ephrin-Fc suggesting a role in recall. This is the first demonstration that Eph molecules function to regulate the formation of memory in insects. PMID:17443785

  1. Coarse topographic organization of pheromone-sensitive afferents from different antennal surfaces in the American cockroach.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Kamimura, Itsuro; Yokohari, Fumio; Mizunami, Makoto

    2015-05-19

    In contrast to visual, auditory, taste, and mechanosensory neuropils, in which sensory afferents are topographically organized on the basis of their peripheral soma locations, axons of cognate sensory neurons from different locations of the olfactory sense organ converge onto a small spherical neuropil (glomerulus) in the first-order olfactory center. In the cockroach Periplaneta americana, sex pheromone-sensitive afferents with somata in the antero-dorsal and postero-ventral surfaces of a long whip-like antenna are biased toward the anterior and posterior regions of a macroglomerulus, respectively. In each region, afferents with somata in the more proximal antenna project to more proximal region, relative to the axonal entry points. However, precise topography of afferents in the macroglomerulus has remained unknown. Using single and multiple neuronal stainings, we showed that afferents arising from anterior, dorsal, ventral and posterior surfaces of the proximal regions of an antenna were biased progressively from the anterior to posterior region of the macroglomerulus, reflecting chiasmatic axonal re-arrangements that occur immediately before entering the antennal lobe. Morphologies of individual afferents originating from the proximal antenna matched results of mass neuronal stainings, but their three-dimensional origins in the antenna were hardly predictable on the basis of the projection patterns. Such projection biases made by neuronal populations differ from strict somatotopic projections of antennal mechanosensory neurons in the same species, suggesting a unique sensory mechanism to process information about odor location and direction on a single antenna. PMID:25849528

  2. Spike-Wave Discharges in Adult Sprague-Dawley Rats and Their Implications for Animal Models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Patrice S.; Friedman, Daniel; LaFrancois, John J.; Iyengar, Sloka S.; Fenton, André A.; MacLusky, Neil J.; Scharfman, Helen E

    2014-01-01

    Spike-wave discharges (SWDs) are thalamocortical oscillations that are often considered to be the EEG correlate of absence seizures. GAERS and Wag/Rij rat strains exhibit SWDs and are considered to be genetic animal models of absence epilepsy. However, it has been reported that other rat strains have SWDs, suggesting that SWDs may vary in their prevalence but all rats have a predisposition for them. This is important because many of these rat strains are used to study temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), where it is assumed that there is no seizure-like activity in controls. In the course of other studies about the Sprague-Dawley rat, a common rat strain for animal models of TLE, we found that approximately 19% of 2–3 month old naïve female Sprague-Dawley rats exhibited SWDs spontaneously during periods of behavioral arrest and they continued for months. Males exhibited SWDs only after 3 months of age, consistent with previous reports [1]. Housing in atypical lighting during early life appeared to facilitate the incidence SWDs. SWDs were often accompanied by behaviors similar to stage 1–2 limbic seizures. Therefore, additional analyses were made to address the similarity. We observed that the frequency of SWDs was similar to theta rhythm during exploration for a given animal, typically 7–8 Hz. Therefore, activity in the frequency of theta rhythm that occurs during frozen behavior may not reflect seizures necessarily. Hippocampal recordings exhibited high frequency oscillations (>250 Hz) during SWDs, suggesting neuronal activity in hippocampus occurs during SWDs, i.e., it is not a passive structure. The data also suggest that high frequency oscillations, if rhythmic, may reflect SWDs. We also confirmed that SWDs were present in a common animal model of TLE, the pilocarpine model, using female Sprague-Dawley rats. Therefore, damage and associated changes to thalamic, hippocampal and cortical neurons in does not prevent SWDs, at least in this animal model. The results

  3. Antennal mechanosensory neurons mediate wing motor reflexes in flying Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Mamiya, Akira; Dickinson, Michael H

    2015-05-20

    Although many behavioral studies have shown the importance of antennal mechanosensation in various aspects of insect flight control, the identities of the mechanosensory neurons responsible for these functions are still unknown. One candidate is the Johnston's organ (JO) neurons that are located in the second antennal segment and detect phasic and tonic rotations of the third antennal segment relative to the second segment. To investigate how different classes of JO neurons respond to different types of antennal movement during flight, we combined 2-photon calcium imaging with a machine vision system to simultaneously record JO neuron activity and the antennal movement from tethered flying fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster). We found that most classes of JO neurons respond strongly to antennal oscillation at the wing beat frequency, but not to the tonic deflections of the antennae. To study how flies use input from the JO neurons during flight, we genetically ablated specific classes of JO neurons and examined their effect on the wing motion. Tethered flies flying in the dark require JO neurons to generate slow antiphasic oscillation of the left and right wing stroke amplitudes. However, JO neurons are not necessary for this antiphasic oscillation when visual feedback is available, indicating that there are multiple pathways for generating antiphasic movement of the wings. Collectively, our results are consistent with a model in which flying flies use JO neurons to detect increases in the wing-induced airflow and that JO neurons are involved in a response that decreases contralateral wing stoke amplitude. PMID:25995481

  4. Skin conductance biofeedback training in adults with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy and stress-triggered seizures: a proof-of-concept study.

    PubMed

    Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Kotwas, Iliana; Lanteaume, Laura; Berthet, Christelle; Bastien, Mireille; Vion-Dury, Jean; McGonigal, Aileen; Bartolomei, Fabrice

    2014-12-01

    The present proof-of-concept study investigated the feasibility of skin conductance biofeedback training in reducing seizures in adults with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), whose seizures are triggered by stress. Skin conductance biofeedback aims to increase levels of peripheral sympathetic arousal in order to reduce cortical excitability. This might seem somewhat counterintuitive, since such autonomic arousal may also be associated with increased stress and anxiety. Thus, this sought to verify that patients with TLE and stress-triggered seizures are not worsened in terms of stress, anxiety, and negative emotional response to this nonpharmacological treatment. Eleven patients with drug-resistant TLE with seizures triggered by stress were treated with 12 sessions of biofeedback. Patients did not worsen on cognitive evaluation of attentional biases towards negative emotional stimuli (P>.05) or on psychometric evaluation with state anxiety inventory (P = .059); in addition, a significant improvement was found in the Negative Affect Schedule (P = .014) and in the Beck Depression Inventory (P = .009). Biofeedback training significantly reduced seizure frequency with a mean reduction of -48.61% (SD = 27.79) (P = .005). There was a correlation between the mean change in skin conductance activity over the biofeedback treatment and the reduction of seizure frequency (r(11) = .62, P = .042). Thus, the skin conductance biofeedback used in the present study, which teaches patients to achieve an increased level of peripheral sympathetic arousal, was a well-tolerated nonpharmacological treatment. Further, well-controlled studies are needed to confirm the therapeutic value of this nonpharmacological treatment in reducing seizures in adults with drug-resistant TLE with seizures triggered by stress. PMID:25461224

  5. Ischaemic preconditioning of the graft in adult living related right lobe liver transplantation: impact on ischaemia–reperfusion injury and clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Andreani, Paola; Hoti, Emir; de la Serna, Sofia; degli Esposti, Davide; Sebagh, Mylène; Lemoine, Antoinette; Ichai, Philippe; Saliba, Fauzi; Castaing, Denis; Azoulay, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Background Ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) of the right liver graft in the donor has not been studied in adult-to-adult living related liver transplantation (LRLT). Objective To assess the IPC effect of the graft on ischaemia reperfusion injury in the recipient and compare recipient and donor outcomes with and without preconditioned grafts. Patients and methods Alternate patients were transplanted with right lobe grafts that were (n =22; Group Precond) or were not (n =22; Group Control) subjected to IPC in the living donor. Liver ischaemia–reperfusion injury, liver/kidney function, morbidity/mortality rates and outcomes were compared. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors predictive of the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) peak and minimum prothrombin time. Results Both groups had similar length of hospital stay, morbidity/mortality, primary non-function and acute rejection rates. Post-operative AST (P =0.8) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) peaks (P =0.6) were similar in both groups (307 ± 189 and 437 ± 302 vs. 290 ± 146 and 496 ± 343, respectively). In univariate analysis, only pre-operative AST and warm ischemia time (WIT) were significantly associated with post-operative AST peak (in recipients). In multivariate analysis, the graft/recipient weight ratio (P =0.003) and pre-operative bilirubin concentration (P =0.004) were significantly predictive of minimum prothrombin time post-transplantation. Conclusions Graft IPC in the living related donor is not associated with any benefit for the recipient or the donor and its clinical value remains uncertain. PMID:20815852

  6. Treating autism by targeting the temporal lobes.

    PubMed

    Chi, Richard P; Snyder, Allan W

    2014-11-01

    Compelling new findings suggest that an early core signature of autism is a deficient left anterior temporal lobe response to language and an atypical over-activation of the right anterior temporal lobe. Intriguingly, our recent results from an entirely different line of reasoning and experiments also show that applying cathodal stimulation (suppressing) at the left anterior temporal lobe together with anodal stimulation (facilitating) at the right anterior temporal lobe, by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), can induce some autistic-like cognitive abilities in otherwise normal adults. If we could briefly induce autistic like cognitive abilities in healthy individuals, it follows that we might be able to mitigate some autistic traits by reversing the above stimulation protocol, in an attempt to restore the typical dominance of the left anterior temporal lobe. Accordingly, we hypothesize that at least some autistic traits can be mitigated, by applying anodal stimulation (facilitating) at the left anterior temporal lobe together with cathodal stimulation (suppressing) at the right anterior temporal lobe. Our hypothesis is supported by strong convergent evidence that autistic symptoms can emerge and later reverse due to the onset and subsequent recovery of various temporal lobe (predominantly the left) pathologies. It is also consistent with evidence that the temporal lobes (especially the left) are a conceptual hub, critical for extracting meaning from lower level sensory information to form a coherent representation, and that a deficit in the temporal lobes underlies autistic traits. PMID:25227333

  7. Behavioral and Antennal Responses of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to Volatiles From Fruit Extracts.

    PubMed

    Abraham, John; Zhang, Aijun; Angeli, Sergio; Abubeker, Sitra; Michel, Caryn; Feng, Yan; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar

    2015-04-01

    Native to Southeast Asia, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), has become a serious pest of soft-skinned fruit crops since its introduction into North America and Europe in 2008. Current monitoring strategies use baits based on fermentation products; however, to date, no fruit-based volatile blends attractive to this fly have been identified. This is particularly important because females are able to cut into the epicarp of ripening fruit for oviposition. Thus, we conducted studies to: 1) investigate the behavioral responses of adult D. suzukii to volatiles from blueberry, cherry, raspberry, and strawberry fruit extracts; 2) identify the antennally active compounds from the most attractive among the tested extracts (raspberry) using gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry and coupled gas chromatography -electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD); and 3) test a synthetic blend containing the EAD-active compounds identified from raspberry extract on adult attraction. In olfactometer studies, both female and male D. suzukii were attracted to all four fruit extracts. The attractiveness of the fruit extracts ranks as: raspberry ≥ strawberry > blueberry ≥ cherry. GC analyses showed that the fruit extracts emit distinct volatile compounds. In GC-EAD experiments, 11 raspberry extract volatiles consistently elicited antennal responses in D. suzukii. In choice test bioassays, a synthetic EAD-active blend attracted more D. suzukii than a blank control, but was not as attractive as the raspberry extract. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a behaviorally and antennally active blend of host fruit volatiles attractive to D. suzukii, offering promising opportunities for the development of improved monitoring and behaviourally based management tools. PMID:26313190

  8. The Sox gene Dichaete is expressed in local interneurons and functions in development of the Drosophila adult olfactory circuit

    PubMed Central

    Melnattur, Krishna V.; Berdnik, Daniela; Rusan, Zeid; Ferreira, Christopher J.; Nambu, John R.

    2012-01-01

    In insects, the primary sites of integration for olfactory sensory input are the glomeruli in the antennal lobes. Here, axons of olfactory receptor neurons synapse with dendrites of the projection neurons that relay olfactory input to higher brain centers, such as the mushroom bodies and lateral horn. Interactions between olfactory receptor neurons and projection neurons are modulated by excitatory and inhibitory input from a group of local interneurons. While significant insight has been gleaned into the differentiation of olfactory receptor and projection neurons, much less is known about the development and function of the local interneurons. We have found that Dichaete, a conserved Sox HMG box gene, is strongly expressed in a cluster of LAAL cells located adjacent to each antennal lobe in the adult brain. Within these clusters, Dichaete protein expression is detected in both cholinergic and GABAergic local interneurons. In contrast, Dichaete expression is not detected in mature or developing projection neurons, or developing olfactory receptor neurons. Analysis of novel viable Dichaete mutant alleles revealed misrouting of specific projection neuron dendrites and axons, and alterations in glomeruli organization. These results suggest non-cell autonomous functions of Dichaete in projection neuron differentiation as well as a potential role for Dichaete-expressing local interneurons in development of the adult olfactory circuitry. PMID:22648855

  9. The sox gene Dichaete is expressed in local interneurons and functions in development of the Drosophila adult olfactory circuit.

    PubMed

    Melnattur, Krishna V; Berdnik, Daniela; Rusan, Zeid; Ferreira, Christopher J; Nambu, John R

    2013-02-01

    In insects, the primary sites of integration for olfactory sensory input are the glomeruli in the antennal lobes. Here, axons of olfactory receptor neurons synapse with dendrites of the projection neurons that relay olfactory input to higher brain centers, such as the mushroom bodies and lateral horn. Interactions between olfactory receptor neurons and projection neurons are modulated by excitatory and inhibitory input from a group of local interneurons. While significant insight has been gleaned into the differentiation of olfactory receptor and projection neurons, much less is known about the development and function of the local interneurons. We have found that Dichaete, a conserved Sox HMG box gene, is strongly expressed in a cluster of LAAL cells located adjacent to each antennal lobe in the adult brain. Within these clusters, Dichaete protein expression is detected in both cholinergic and GABAergic local interneurons. In contrast, Dichaete expression is not detected in mature or developing projection neurons, or developing olfactory receptor neurons. Analysis of novel viable Dichaete mutant alleles revealed misrouting of specific projection neuron dendrites and axons, and alterations in glomeruli organization. These results suggest noncell autonomous functions of Dichaete in projection neuron differentiation as well as a potential role for Dichaete-expressing local interneurons in development of the adult olfactory circuitry. PMID:22648855

  10. The hermit crab's nose—antennal transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Groh, Katrin C.; Vogel, Heiko; Stensmyr, Marcus C.; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Hansson, Bill S.

    2014-01-01

    In the course of evolution, crustaceans adapted to a large variety of habitats. Probably the most extreme habitat shift was the transition from water to land, which occurred independently in at least five crustacean lineages. This substantial change in life style required adaptations in sensory organs, as the medium conveying stimuli changed in both chemical and physical properties. One important sensory organ in crustaceans is the first pair of antennae, housing their sense of smell. Previous studies on the crustacean transition from water to land focused on morphological, behavioral, and physiological aspects but did not analyze gene expression. Our goal was to scrutinize the molecular makeup of the crustacean antennulae, comparing the terrestrial Coenobita clypeatus and the marine Pagurus bernhardus. We sequenced and analyzed the antennal transcriptomes of two hermit crab species. Comparison to previously published datasets of similar tissues revealed a comparable quality and GO annotation confirmed a highly similar set of expressed genes in both datasets. The chemosensory gene repertoire of both species displayed a similar set of ionotropic receptors (IRs), most of them belonging to the divergent IR subtype. No binding proteins, gustatory receptors (GRs) or insect-like olfactory receptors (ORs) were present. Additionally to their olfactory function, the antennules were equipped with a variety of pathogen defense mechanisms, producing relevant substances on site. The overall similarity of both transcriptomes is high and does not indicate a general shift in genetic makeup connected to the change in habitat. IRs seem to perform the task of olfactory detection in both hermit crab species studied. PMID:24478616

  11. De novo Sequencing, Assembly and Characterization of Antennal Transcriptome of Anomala corpulenta Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Rutelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haoliang; Lin, Lulu; Xie, Minghui; Zhang, Guangling; Su, Weihua

    2014-01-01

    Background Anomala corpulenta is an important insect pest and can cause enormous economic losses in agriculture, horticulture and forestry. It is widely distributed in China, and both larvae and adults can cause serious damage. It is difficult to control this pest because the larvae live underground. Any new control strategy should exploit alternatives to heavily and frequently used chemical insecticides. However, little genetic research has been carried out on A. corpulenta due to the lack of genomic resources. Genomic resources could be produced by next generation sequencing technologies with low cost and in a short time. In this study, we performed de novo sequencing, assembly and characterization of the antennal transcriptome of A. corpulenta. Results Illumina sequencing technology was used to sequence the antennal transcriptome of A. corpulenta. Approximately 76.7 million total raw reads and about 68.9 million total clean reads were obtained, and then 35,656 unigenes were assembled. Of these unigenes, 21,463 of them could be annotated in the NCBI nr database, and, among the annotated unigenes, 11,154 and 6,625 unigenes could be assigned to GO and COG, respectively. Additionally, 16,350 unigenes could be annotated in the Swiss-Prot database, and 14,499 unigenes could map onto 258 pathways in the KEGG Pathway database. We also found 24 unigenes related to OBPs, 6 to CSPs, and in total 167 unigenes related to chemodetection. We analyzed 4 OBPs and 3CSPs sequences and their RT-qPCR results agreed well with their FPKM values. Conclusion We produced the first large-scale antennal transcriptome of A. corpulenta, which is a species that has little genomic information in public databases. The identified chemodetection unigenes can promote the molecular mechanistic study of behavior in A. corpulenta. These findings provide a general sequence resource for molecular genetics research on A. corpulenta. PMID:25461610

  12. Dendritic patterning by Dscam and synaptic partner matching in the Drosophila antennal lobe.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haitao; Hummel, Thomas; Clemens, James C; Berdnik, Daniela; Zipursky, S Lawrence; Luo, Liqun

    2006-03-01

    In the olfactory system of Drosophila melanogaster, axons of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and dendrites of second-order projection neurons typically target 1 of approximately 50 glomeruli. Dscam, an immunoglobulin superfamily protein, acts in ORNs to regulate axon targeting. Here we show that Dscam acts in projection neurons and local interneurons to control the elaboration of dendritic fields. The removal of Dscam selectively from projection neurons or local interneurons led to clumped dendrites and marked reduction in their dendritic field size. Overexpression of Dscam in projection neurons caused dendrites to be more diffuse during development and shifted their relative position in adulthood. Notably, the positional shift of projection neuron dendrites caused a corresponding shift of its partner ORN axons, thus maintaining the connection specificity. This observation provides evidence for a pre- and postsynaptic matching mechanism independent of precise glomerular positioning. PMID:16474389

  13. Excitatory Interactions Between Olfactory Processing Channels in the Drosophila Antennal Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Shawn R.; Bhandawat, Vikas; Wilson, Rachel I.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Each odorant receptor gene defines a unique type of olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) and a corresponding type of second-order neuron. Because each odor can activate multiple ORN types, information must ultimately be integrated across these processing channels to form a unified percept. Here we show that, in Drosophila, integration begins at the level of second-order projection neurons (PNs). We genetically silence all the ORNs that normally express a particular odorant receptor, and find that PNs postsynaptic to the silent glomerulus receive substantial lateral excitatory input from other glomeruli. Genetically confining odor-evoked ORN input to just one glomerulus reveals that most PNs postsynaptic to other glomeruli receive indirect excitatory input from the single ORN type that is active. Lateral connections between identified glomeruli vary in strength, and this pattern of connections is stereotyped across flies. Thus, a dense network of lateral connections distributes odor-evoked excitation between channels in the first brain region of the olfactory processing stream. PMID:17408580

  14. Multimodal efferent and recurrent neurons in the medial lobes of cockroach mushroom bodies.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Strausfeld, N J

    1999-07-12

    Previous electrophysiological studies of cockroach mushroom bodies demonstrated the sensitivity of efferent neurons to multimodal stimuli. The present account describes the morphology and physiology of several types of efferent neurons with dendrites in the medial lobes. In general, efferent neurons respond to a variety of modalities in a context-specific manner, responding to specific combinations or specific sequences of multimodal stimuli. Efferent neurons that show endogenous activity have dendritic specializations that extend to laminae of Kenyon cell axons equipped with many synaptic vesicles, termed "dark" laminae. Efferent neurons that are active only during stimulation have dendritic specializations that branch mainly among Kenyon cell axons having few vesicles and forming the "pale" laminae. A new category of "recurrent" efferent neuron has been identified that provides feedback or feedforward connections between different parts of the mushroom body. Some of these neurons are immunopositive to antibodies raised against the inhibitory transmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid. Feedback pathways to the calyces arise from satellite neuropils adjacent to the medial lobes, which receive axon collaterals of efferent neurons. Efferent neurons are uniquely identifiable. Each morphological type occurs at the same location in the mushroom bodies of different individuals. Medial lobe efferent neurons terminate in the lateral protocerebrum among the endings of antennal lobe projection neurons. It is suggested that information about the sensory context of olfactory (or other) stimuli is relayed by efferent neurons to the lateral protocerebrum where it is integrated with information about odors relayed by antennal lobe projection neurons. PMID:10376745

  15. Human Fetal Brain-Derived Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells Grafted into the Adult Epileptic Brain Restrain Seizures in Rat Models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haejin; Yun, Seokhwan; Kim, Il-Sun; Lee, Il-Shin; Shin, Jeong Eun; Park, Soo Chul; Kim, Won-Joo; Park, Kook In

    2014-01-01

    Cell transplantation has been suggested as an alternative therapy for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) because this can suppress spontaneous recurrent seizures in animal models. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of human neural stem/progenitor cells (huNSPCs) for treating TLE, we transplanted huNSPCs, derived from an aborted fetal telencephalon at 13 weeks of gestation and expanded in culture as neurospheres over a long time period, into the epileptic hippocampus of fully kindled and pilocarpine-treated adult rats exhibiting TLE. In vitro, huNSPCs not only produced all three central nervous system neural cell types, but also differentiated into ganglionic eminences-derived γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons and released GABA in response to the depolarization induced by a high K+ medium. NSPC grafting reduced behavioral seizure duration, afterdischarge duration on electroencephalograms, and seizure stage in the kindling model, as well as the frequency and the duration of spontaneous recurrent motor seizures in pilocarpine-induced animals. However, NSPC grafting neither improved spatial learning or memory function in pilocarpine-treated animals. Following transplantation, grafted cells showed extensive migration around the injection site, robust engraftment, and long-term survival, along with differentiation into β-tubulin III+ neurons (∼34%), APC-CC1+ oligodendrocytes (∼28%), and GFAP+ astrocytes (∼8%). Furthermore, among donor-derived cells, ∼24% produced GABA. Additionally, to explain the effect of seizure suppression after NSPC grafting, we examined the anticonvulsant glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) levels in host hippocampal astrocytes and mossy fiber sprouting into the supragranular layer of the dentate gyrus in the epileptic brain. Grafted cells restored the expression of GDNF in host astrocytes but did not reverse the mossy fiber sprouting, eliminating the latter as potential mechanism. These results suggest that human fetal

  16. Antennal Development in the Praying Mantis (Tenodera aridifolia) Highlights Multitudinous Processes in Hemimetabolous Insect Species

    PubMed Central

    Carle, Thomas; Yamawaki, Yoshifumi; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Yokohari, Fumio

    2014-01-01

    Insects possess antennae equipped with a large number of segments (flagellomeres) on which sensory organs (sensilla) are located. Hemimetabolous insects grow by molting until they reach adulthood. In these species, the sensory structures develop and mature during each stage of development; new flagellomeres are generated at each molt elongating the antennae, and new sensilla appear. The praying mantis (Tenodera aridifolia) is a hemimetabolous insect with 7 different instars before it reaches adulthood. Because their antennae are provided with an atypical sensillar distribution, we previously suggested that their antennae develop with a different mechanism to other hemimetaboulous insect species. In the present study, we measured the number, length and width of flagellomeres along the antennae in nymph and adult mantis Tenodera aridifolia. For this study, we developed a new and innovative methodology to reconstruct the antennal development based on the length of flagellomeres. We observed and confirmed that the antennae of mantises develop with the addition of new segments at two distinct sites. In addition, we constructed a complete database of the features of the flagellum for each stage of development. From our data, we found that sexual dimorphism appears from the 6 instar (larger number and wider flagellomeres in males) in accordance with the appearance of their genital apparatus. The antennal sexual dimorphism completes at adulthood with longer flagellomeres and the emergence of a huge number of grooved peg sensilla in males during the last molting, which suggests once again their function as sex-pheromone receptive sensilla. PMID:24896610

  17. Antennal development in the praying mantis (Tenodera aridifolia) highlights multitudinous processes in hemimetabolous insect species.

    PubMed

    Carle, Thomas; Yamawaki, Yoshifumi; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Yokohari, Fumio

    2014-01-01

    Insects possess antennae equipped with a large number of segments (flagellomeres) on which sensory organs (sensilla) are located. Hemimetabolous insects grow by molting until they reach adulthood. In these species, the sensory structures develop and mature during each stage of development; new flagellomeres are generated at each molt elongating the antennae, and new sensilla appear. The praying mantis (Tenodera aridifolia) is a hemimetabolous insect with 7 different instars before it reaches adulthood. Because their antennae are provided with an atypical sensillar distribution, we previously suggested that their antennae develop with a different mechanism to other hemimetaboulous insect species. In the present study, we measured the number, length and width of flagellomeres along the antennae in nymph and adult mantis Tenodera aridifolia. For this study, we developed a new and innovative methodology to reconstruct the antennal development based on the length of flagellomeres. We observed and confirmed that the antennae of mantises develop with the addition of new segments at two distinct sites. In addition, we constructed a complete database of the features of the flagellum for each stage of development. From our data, we found that sexual dimorphism appears from the 6 instar (larger number and wider flagellomeres in males) in accordance with the appearance of their genital apparatus. The antennal sexual dimorphism completes at adulthood with longer flagellomeres and the emergence of a huge number of grooved peg sensilla in males during the last molting, which suggests once again their function as sex-pheromone receptive sensilla. PMID:24896610

  18. Ras/MEK/MAPK-mediated regulation of heparin sulphate proteoglycans promotes retinal fate in the Drosophila eye-antennal disc.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Vilaiwan M; Pradhan-Sundd, Tirthadipa; Blaquiere, Jessica A; Verheyen, Esther M

    2015-06-01

    Generating cellular heterogeneity is crucial to the development of complex organs. Organ-fate selector genes and signalling pathways generate cellular diversity by subdividing and patterning naïve tissues to assign them regional identities. The Drosophila eye-antennal imaginal disc is a well-characterised system in which to study regional specification; it is first divided into antennal and eye fates and subsequently retinal differentiation occurs within only the eye field. During development, signalling pathways and selector genes compete with and mutually antagonise each other to subdivide the tissue. Wingless (Wg) signalling is the main inhibitor of retinal differentiation; it does so by promoting antennal/head-fate via selector factors and by antagonising Hedgehog (Hh), the principal differentiation-initiating signal. Wg signalling must be suppressed by JAK/STAT at the disc posterior in order to initiate retinal differentiation. Ras/MEK/MAPK signalling has also been implicated in initiating retinal differentiation but its mode of action is not known. We find that compromising Ras/MEK/MAPK signalling in the early larval disc results in expanded antennal/head cuticle at the expense of the compound eye. These phenotypes correspond both to perturbations in selector factor expression, and to de-repressed wg. Indeed, STAT activity is reduced due to decreased mobility of the ligand Unpaired (Upd) along with a corresponding loss in Dally-like protein (Dlp), a heparan sulphate proteoglycan (HSPG) that aids Upd diffusion. Strikingly, blocking HSPG biogenesis phenocopies compromised Ras/MEK/MAPK, while restoring HSPG expression rescues the adult phenotype significantly. This study identifies a novel mode by which the Ras/MEK/MAPK pathway regulates regional-fate specification via HSPGs during development. PMID:25848695

  19. Stability of lobed balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagitz, M.; Xu, Y.; Pellegrino, S.

    This paper presents a computational study of the stability of simple lobed balloon structures. The particular structure that is investigated is a stack of pumpkin-shaped envelopes with a common axis of symmetry, and hence forming a kind of lobed cylinder. The number of the pumpkin envelopes is one of the variables that is investigated; a number of shape imperfections are also considered. This lobed cylinder is an axi-symmetric, idealised version of the lobed pumpkin balloons that have occasionally deployed into anomalous, clefted configurations. By studying in detail the behaviour of lobed cylinder we are able to draw some preliminary conclusions about general features of the behaviour of lobed pumpkin balloons.

  20. Frontal lobe function in temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Stretton, J.; Thompson, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is typically associated with long-term memory dysfunction. The frontal lobes support high-level cognition comprising executive skills and working memory that is vital for daily life functioning. Deficits in these functions have been increasingly reported in TLE. Evidence from both the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literature suggests both executive function and working memory are compromised in the presence of TLE. In relation to executive impairment, particular focus has been paid to set shifting as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task. Other discrete executive functions such as decision-making and theory of mind also appear vulnerable but have received little attention. With regard to working memory, the medial temporal lobe structures appear have a more critical role, but with emerging evidence of hippocampal dependent and independent processes. The relative role of underlying pathology and seizure spread is likely to have considerable bearing upon the cognitive phenotype and trajectory in TLE. The identification of the nature of frontal lobe dysfunction in TLE thus has important clinical implications for prognosis and surgical management. Longitudinal neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies assessing frontal lobe function in TLE patients pre- and postoperatively will improve our understanding further. PMID:22100147

  1. Antennal phenotype of Mexican haplogroups of the Triatoma dimidiata complex, vectors of Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    May-Concha, Irving; Guerenstein, Pablo G; Ramsey, Janine M; Rojas, Julio C; Catalá, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille) is a species complex that spans North, Central, and South America and which is a key vector of all known discrete typing units (DTU) of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Morphological and genetic studies indicate that T. dimidiata is a species complex with three principal haplogroups (hg) in Mexico. Different markers and traits are still inconclusive regarding if other morphological differentiation may indicate probable behavioral and vectorial divergences within this complex. In this paper we compared the antennae of three Mexican haplogroups (previously verified by molecular markers ND4 and ITS-2) and discussed possible relationships with their capacity to disperse and colonized new habitats. The abundance of each type of sensillum (bristles, basiconics, thick- and thin-walled trichoids) on the antennae of the three haplogroups, were measured under light microscopy and compared using Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric and multivariate non-parametric analyses. Discriminant analyses indicate significant differences among the antennal phenotype of haplogroups either for adults and some nymphal stages, indicating consistency of the character to analyze intraspecific variability within the complex. The present study shows that the adult antennal pedicel of the T. dimidiata complex have abundant chemosensory sensilla, according with good capacity for dispersal and invasion of different habitats also related to their high capacity to adapt to conserved as well as modified habitats. However, the numerical differences among the haplogroups are suggesting variations in that capacity. The results here presented support the evidence of T. dimidiata as a species complex but show females and males in a different way. Given the close link between the bug's sensory system and its habitat and host-seeking behavior, AP characterization could be useful to complement genetic, neurological and ethological studies of the closely

  2. Multiple List Learning in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Parallels with Frontal Lobe Damage or Further Evidence of Diminished Relational Processing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowler, Dermot M.; Gaigg, Sebastian B.; Gardiner, John M.

    2010-01-01

    To test the effects of providing relational cues at encoding and/or retrieval on multi-trial, multi-list free recall in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 16 adults with ASD and 16 matched typical adults learned a first followed by a second categorised list of 24 words. Category labels were provided at encoding,…

  3. The evolution of antennal courtship in diplazontine parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Diplazontinae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background As predicted by theory, traits associated with reproduction often evolve at a comparatively high speed. This is especially the case for courtship behaviour which plays a central role in reproductive isolation. On the other hand, courtship behavioural traits often involve morphological and behavioural adaptations in both sexes; this suggests that their evolution might be under severe constraints, for instance irreversibility of character loss. Here, we use a recently proposed method to retrieve data on a peculiar courtship behavioural trait, i.e. antennal coiling, for 56 species of diplazontine parasitoid wasps. On the basis of a well-resolved phylogeny, we reconstruct the evolutionary history of antennal coiling and associated morphological modifications to study the mode of evolution of this complex character system. Results Our study reveals a large variation in shape, location and ultra-structure of male-specific modifications on the antennae. As for antennal coiling, we find either single-coiling, double-coiling or the absence of coiling; each state is present in multiple genera. Using a model comparison approach, we show that the possession of antennal modifications is highly correlated with antennal coiling behaviour. Ancestral state reconstruction shows that both antennal modifications and antennal coiling are highly congruent with the molecular phylogeny, implying low levels of homoplasy and a comparatively low speed of evolution. Antennal coiling is lost on two independent occasions, and never reacquired. A zero rate of regaining antennal coiling is supported by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. Conclusions Our study provides the first comparative evidence for a tight correlation between male-specific antennal modifications and the use of the antennae during courtship. Antennal coiling in Diplazontinae evolved at a comparatively low rate, and was never reacquired in any of the studied taxa. This suggests that the

  4. The functional organisation of glia in the adult brain of Drosophila and other insects

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Tara N.; Meinertzhagen, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    This review annotates and categorises the glia of adult Drosophila and other model insects and describes the developmental origins of these in the Drosophila optic lobe. The functions of glia in the adult vary depending upon their sub-type and location in the brain. The task of annotating glia is essentially complete only for the glia of the fly's lamina, which comprise: two types of surface glia - the pseudocartridge and fenestrated glia; two types of cortex glia - the distal and proximal satellite glia; and two types of neuropile glia - the epithelial and marginal glia. We advocate that the term subretinal glia, as used to refer to both pseudocartridge and fenestrated glia, be abandoned. Other neuropiles contain similar glial subtypes, but other than the antennal lobes these have not been described in detail. Surface glia form the blood brain barrier, regulating the flow of substances into and out of the nervous system, both for the brain as a whole and the optic neuropiles in particular. Cortex glia provide a second level of barrier, wrapping axon fascicles and isolating neuronal cell bodies both from neighbouring brain regions and from their underlying neuropiles. Neuropile glia can be generated in the adult and a subtype, ensheathing glia, are responsible for cleaning up cellular debris during Wallerian degeneration. Both the neuropile ensheathing and astrocyte-like glia may be involved in clearing neurotransmitters from the extracellular space, thus modifying the levels of histamine, glutamate and possibly dopamine at the synapse to ultimately affect behaviour. PMID:20109517

  5. Wiring stability of the adult Drosophila olfactory circuit after lesion.

    PubMed

    Berdnik, Daniela; Chihara, Takahiro; Couto, Africa; Luo, Liqun

    2006-03-29

    Neuronal wiring plasticity in response to experience or injury has been reported in many parts of the adult nervous system. For instance, visual or somatosensory cortical maps can reorganize significantly in response to peripheral lesions, yet a certain degree of stability is essential for neuronal circuits to perform their dedicated functions. Previous studies on lesion-induced neuronal reorganization have primarily focused on systems that use continuous neural maps. Here, we assess wiring plasticity in a discrete neural map represented by the adult Drosophila olfactory circuit. Using conditional expression of toxins, we genetically ablated specific classes of neurons and examined the consequences on their synaptic partners or neighboring classes in the adult antennal lobe. We find no alteration of connection specificity between olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and their postsynaptic targets, the projection neurons (PNs). Ablating an ORN class maintains PN dendrites within their glomerular borders, and ORN axons normally innervating an adjacent target do not expand. Likewise, ablating PN classes does not alter their partner ORN axon connectivity. Interestingly, an increase in the contralateral ORN axon terminal density occurs in response to the removal of competing ipsilateral ORNs. Therefore, plasticity in this circuit can occur but is confined within a glomerulus, thereby retaining the wiring specificity of ORNs and PNs. We conclude that, although adult olfactory neurons can undergo plastic changes in response to the loss of competition, the olfactory circuit overall is extremely stable in preserving segregated information channels in this discrete map. PMID:16571743

  6. Transcriptome Pyrosequencing of the Parasitoid Wasp Cotesia vestalis: Genes Involved in the Antennal Odorant-Sensory System

    PubMed Central

    Yazawa, Shigenobu; Maffei, Massimo E.; Arimura, Gen-ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Cotesia vestalis is an endoparasitic wasp that attacks larvae of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), a herbivore of cruciferous plants. Females of C. vestalis use herbivore-induced plant odorants released from plants infested by P. xylostella as a host-searching cue. Transcriptome pyrosequencing was used to identify genes in the antennae of C. vestalis adult females coding for odorant receptors (ORs) and odorant binding proteins (OBPs) involved in insect olfactory perception. Quantitative gene expression analyses showed that a few OR and OBP genes were expressed exclusively in the antenna of C. vestalis adult females whereas most other classes of genes were expressed in the antennae of both males and females, indicating their diversity in importance for the olfactory sensory system. Together, transcriptome profiling of C. vestalis genes involved in the antennal odorant-sensory system helps in detecting genes involved in host- and food-search behaviors through infochemically-mediated interactions. PMID:23226348

  7. Standardized surgical techniques for adult living donor liver transplantation using a modified right lobe graft: a video presentation from bench to reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Shin; Ha, Tae-Yong; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Moon, Deok-Bog; Kim, Ki-Hun; Song, Gi-Won; Jung, Dong-Hwan; Park, Gil-Chun; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2016-08-01

    After having experienced more than 2,000 cases of adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), we established the concepts of right liver graft standardization. Right liver graft standardization intends to provide hemodynamics-based and regeneration-compliant reconstruction of vascular inflow and outflow. Right liver graft standardization consists of the following components: Right hepatic vein reconstruction includes a combination of caudal-side deep incision and patch venoplasty of the graft right hepatic vein to remove the acute angle between the graft right hepatic vein and the inferior vena cava; middle hepatic vein reconstruction includes interposition of a uniform-shaped conduit with large-sized homologous or prosthetic grafts; if the inferior right hepatic vein is present, its reconstruction includes funneling and unification venoplasty for multiple short hepatic veins; if donor portal vein anomaly is present, its reconstruction includes conjoined unification venoplasty for two or more portal vein orifices. This video clip that shows the surgical technique from bench to reperfusion was a case presentation of adult LDLT using a modified right liver graft from the patient's son. Our intention behind proposing the concept of right liver graft standardization is that it can be universally applicable and may guarantee nearly the same outcomes regardless of the surgeon's experience. We believe that this reconstruction model would be primarily applied to a majority of adult LDLT cases. PMID:27621745

  8. Bridging the Gap between Evidence and Practice for Adults with Medically Refractory Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Is a Change in Funding Policy Needed to Stimulate a Shift in Practice?

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Alireza; Aldakkan, Abdulrahman; Kosicka, Magda J.; Tarride, Jean-Eric; Valiante, Taufik A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Surgery for medically refractory epilepsy (MRE) in adults has been shown to be effective but underutilized. Comprehensive health economic evaluations of surgery compared with continued medical management are limited. Policy changes may be necessary to influence practice shift. Methods. A critical review of the literature on health economic analyses for adults with MRE was conducted. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CRD, and EconLit databases were searched using relevant subject headings and keywords pertaining to adults, epilepsy, and health economic evaluations. The screening was conducted independently and in duplicate. Results. Four studies were identified (1 Canadian, 2 American, and 1 French). Two were cost-utility analyses and 2 were cost-effectiveness evaluations. Only one was conducted after the effectiveness of surgery was established through a randomized trial. All suggested surgery to be favorable in the medium to long term (7-8 years and beyond). The reduction of medication use was the major cost-saving parameter in favor of surgery. Conclusions. Although updated evaluations that are more generalizable across settings are necessary, surgery appears to be a favorable option from a health economic perspective. Given the limited success of knowledge translation endeavours, funder-level policy changes such as quality-based purchasing may be necessary to induce a shift in practice. PMID:26770822

  9. Standardized surgical techniques for adult living donor liver transplantation using a modified right lobe graft: a video presentation from bench to reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Tae-Yong; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Moon, Deok-Bog; Kim, Ki-Hun; Song, Gi-Won; Jung, Dong-Hwan; Park, Gil-Chun; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    After having experienced more than 2,000 cases of adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), we established the concepts of right liver graft standardization. Right liver graft standardization intends to provide hemodynamics-based and regeneration-compliant reconstruction of vascular inflow and outflow. Right liver graft standardization consists of the following components: Right hepatic vein reconstruction includes a combination of caudal-side deep incision and patch venoplasty of the graft right hepatic vein to remove the acute angle between the graft right hepatic vein and the inferior vena cava; middle hepatic vein reconstruction includes interposition of a uniform-shaped conduit with large-sized homologous or prosthetic grafts; if the inferior right hepatic vein is present, its reconstruction includes funneling and unification venoplasty for multiple short hepatic veins; if donor portal vein anomaly is present, its reconstruction includes conjoined unification venoplasty for two or more portal vein orifices. This video clip that shows the surgical technique from bench to reperfusion was a case presentation of adult LDLT using a modified right liver graft from the patient's son. Our intention behind proposing the concept of right liver graft standardization is that it can be universally applicable and may guarantee nearly the same outcomes regardless of the surgeon's experience. We believe that this reconstruction model would be primarily applied to a majority of adult LDLT cases. PMID:27621745

  10. 3D Standard Brain of the Red Flour Beetle Tribolium Castaneum: A Tool to Study Metamorphic Development and Adult Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, David; Vitt, Holger; Dippel, Stefan; Goetz, Brigitte; el Jundi, Basil; Kollmann, Martin; Huetteroth, Wolf; Schachtner, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is emerging as a further standard insect model beside Drosophila. Its genome is fully sequenced and it is susceptible for genetic manipulations including RNA-interference. We use this beetle to study adult brain development and plasticity primarily with respect to the olfactory system. In the current study, we provide 3D standard brain atlases of freshly eclosed adult female and male beetles (A0). The atlases include eight paired and three unpaired neuropils including antennal lobes (ALs), optic lobe neuropils, mushroom body calyces and pedunculi, and central complex. For each of the two standard brains, we averaged brain areas of 20 individual brains. Additionally, we characterized eight selected olfactory glomeruli from 10 A0 female and male beetles respectively, which we could unequivocally recognize from individual to individual owing to their size and typical position in the ALs. In summary, comparison of the averaged neuropil volumes revealed no sexual dimorphism in any of the reconstructed neuropils in A0 Tribolium brains. Both, the female and male 3D standard brain are also used for interspecies comparisons, and, importantly, will serve as future volumetric references after genetical manipulation especially regarding metamorphic development and adult plasticity. PMID:20339482

  11. Ultrastructure of the Antennal Sensillae of Male and Female Peach Fruit Fly, Bactrocera zonata

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Azza A.; Ali, Nashat A.; Mohamed, Hend O.

    2014-01-01

    Antennal morphology and funicular sensillae of male and female peach fruit flies, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae), were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This study focused on the sensillae found on the antennal segments (scape, pedicel, and flagellum or funiculus that bears the arista) of B. zonata. Antennal segments of females tended to be larger than those of the males. The first two antennal segments, scape and pedicel, were heavily covered with microtrichia and bear bristles. Numerous microtrichia as well as trichoid (I, II), basiconic, clavate, and coeloconic sensillae were observed on the funiculus. SEM studies showed some differences in size and also in position of some sensillae on the antennae of the females of B. zonata. The sensillae found on the funiculus, such as trichoid and basiconic sensillae, were significantly larger in females. PMID:25373192

  12. Antennal and Abdominal Transcriptomes Reveal Chemosensory Genes in the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhongzhen; Zhang, He; Bin, Shuying; Chen, Lei; Han, Qunxin; Lin, Jintian

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri is the principal vector of the highly destructive citrus disease called Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening, which is a major threat to citrus cultivation worldwide. More effective pest control strategies against this pest entail the identification of potential chemosensory proteins that could be used in the development of attractants or repellents. However, the molecular basis of olfaction in the Asian citrus psyllid is not completely understood. Therefore, we performed this study to analyze the antennal and abdominal transcriptome of the Asian citrus psyllid. We identified a large number of transcripts belonging to nine chemoreception-related gene families and compared their expression in male and female adult antennae and terminal abdomen. In total, 9 odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 12 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 46 odorant receptors (ORs), 20 gustatory receptors (GRs), 35 ionotropic receptors (IRs), 4 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) and 4 different gene families encoding odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs): 80 cytochrome P450s (CYPs), 12 esterase (ESTs), and 5 aldehyde dehydrogenases (ADE) were annotated in the D. citri antennal and abdominal transcriptomes. Our results revealed that a large proportion of chemosensory genes exhibited no distinct differences in their expression patterns in the antennae and terminal abdominal tissues. Notably, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data and quantitative real time-PCR (qPCR) analyses showed that 4 DictOBPs, 4 DictCSPs, 4 DictIRs, 1 DictSNMP, and 2 DictCYPs were upregulated in the antennae relative to that in terminal abdominal tissues. Furthermore, 2 DictOBPs (DictOBP8 and DictOBP9), 2 DictCSPs (DictOBP8 and DictOBP12), 4 DictIRs (DictIR3, DictIR6, DictIR10, and DictIR35), and 1 DictCYP (DictCYP57) were expressed at higher levels in the male antennae than in the female antennae. Our study provides the first insights into the molecular basis of chemoreception in this insect

  13. Antennal and Abdominal Transcriptomes Reveal Chemosensory Genes in the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongzhen; Zhang, He; Bin, Shuying; Chen, Lei; Han, Qunxin; Lin, Jintian

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri is the principal vector of the highly destructive citrus disease called Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening, which is a major threat to citrus cultivation worldwide. More effective pest control strategies against this pest entail the identification of potential chemosensory proteins that could be used in the development of attractants or repellents. However, the molecular basis of olfaction in the Asian citrus psyllid is not completely understood. Therefore, we performed this study to analyze the antennal and abdominal transcriptome of the Asian citrus psyllid. We identified a large number of transcripts belonging to nine chemoreception-related gene families and compared their expression in male and female adult antennae and terminal abdomen. In total, 9 odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 12 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 46 odorant receptors (ORs), 20 gustatory receptors (GRs), 35 ionotropic receptors (IRs), 4 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) and 4 different gene families encoding odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs): 80 cytochrome P450s (CYPs), 12 esterase (ESTs), and 5 aldehyde dehydrogenases (ADE) were annotated in the D. citri antennal and abdominal transcriptomes. Our results revealed that a large proportion of chemosensory genes exhibited no distinct differences in their expression patterns in the antennae and terminal abdominal tissues. Notably, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data and quantitative real time-PCR (qPCR) analyses showed that 4 DictOBPs, 4 DictCSPs, 4 DictIRs, 1 DictSNMP, and 2 DictCYPs were upregulated in the antennae relative to that in terminal abdominal tissues. Furthermore, 2 DictOBPs (DictOBP8 and DictOBP9), 2 DictCSPs (DictOBP8 and DictOBP12), 4 DictIRs (DictIR3, DictIR6, DictIR10, and DictIR35), and 1 DictCYP (DictCYP57) were expressed at higher levels in the male antennae than in the female antennae. Our study provides the first insights into the molecular basis of chemoreception in this insect

  14. Putative Chemosensory Receptors of the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella, Identified by Antennal Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bengtsson, Jonas M.; Trona, Federica; Montagné, Nicolas; Anfora, Gianfranco; Ignell, Rickard; Witzgall, Peter; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2012-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is an important fruit pest worldwide. As nocturnal animals, adults depend to a large extent on olfactory cues for detection of food and mates, and, for females, oviposition sites. In insects, odor detection is mediated by odorant receptors (ORs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs), which ensure the specificity of the olfactory sensory neuron responses. In this study, our aim was to identify chemosensory receptors in the codling moth as a means to uncover new targets for behavioral interference. Using next-generation sequencing techniques, we identified a total of 43 candidate ORs, one gustatory receptor and 15 IRs in the antennal transcriptome. Through Blast and sequence similarity analyses we annotated the insect obligatory co-receptor ORco, five genes clustering in a conserved clade containing sex pheromone receptors, one homolog of the Bombyx mori female-enriched receptor BmorOR30 (but no homologs of the other B. mori female-enriched receptors) and one gene clustering in the sugar receptor family. Among the candidate IRs, we identified homologs of the two highly conserved co-receptors IR8a and IR25a, and one homolog of an IR involved in phenylethyl amine detection in Drosophila. Our results open for functional characterization of the chemosensory receptors of C. pomonella, with potential for new or refined applications of semiochemicals for control of this pest insect. PMID:22363688

  15. Ultrastructure of antennal sensory organs of horse nasal-myiasis fly, Rhinoestrus purpureus (Diptera: Oestridae).

    PubMed

    Liu, X H; Li, X Y; Li, K; Zhang, D

    2015-07-01

    Rhinoestrus purpureus (Brauer, 1858) (Diptera: Oestridae) is an economically important parasite that can cause severe nasal myiasis in equids or even attacking humans. The antennae of R. purpureus were examined using stereoscopic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The general morphology was provided detailedly, together with distribution, type, size, and ultrastructure of antennal sensilla. All the three antennal segments, antennal scape, pedicel, and funiculus, are interspersed by microtrichiae. Only mechanoreceptors are detected on antennal scape and pedicel. On antennal funiculus, three types of sensilla were observed, including basiconic sensilla, coeloconic sensilla and clavate sensilla. Two features are characterized of this host-specific bot fly: (1) numerous sensory pits with branched basiconic sensilla on antennal funiculus and (2) the absence of trichoid sensilla. The function of these distinctive traits are discussed in association with the life history. We suggest that more sensory pits with branched sensilla could increase the sensitivity of olfactory system for host orientation, while the capability of pheromone identification might be reduced due to the absence of trichoid sensilla. Besides, we support both thermo- and chemo-functions of coeloconic sensilla. PMID:25859927

  16. Antennal proteome comparison of sexually mature drone and forager honeybees.

    PubMed

    Feng, Mao; Song, Feifei; Aleku, Dereje Woltedji; Han, Bin; Fang, Yu; Li, Jianke

    2011-07-01

    Honeybees have evolved an intricate system of chemical communication to regulate their complex social interactions. Specific proteins involved in odorant detection most likely supported this chemical communication. Odorant reception takes place mainly in the antennae within hairlike structures called olfactory sensilla. Antennal proteomes of sexually mature drone and forager worker bees (an age group of bees assigned to perform field tasks) were compared using two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and bioinformatics. Sixty-one differentially expressed proteins were identified in which 67% were highly upregulated in the drones' antennae whereas only 33% upregulated in the worker bees' antennae. The antennae of the worker bees strongly expressed carbohydrate and energy metabolism and molecular transporters signifying a strong demand for metabolic energy and odorant binding proteins for their foraging activities and other olfactory responses, while proteins related to fatty acid metabolism, antioxidation, and protein folding were strongly upregulated in the drones' antennae as an indication of the importance for the detection and degradation of sex pheromones during queen identification for mating. On the basis of both groups of altered antenna proteins, carbohydrate metabolism and energy production and molecular transporters comprised more than 80% of the functional enrichment analysis and 45% of the constructed biological interaction networks (BIN), respectively. This suggests these two protein families play crucial roles in the antennal olfactory function of sexually mature drone and forager worker bees. Several key node proteins in the BIN were validated at the transcript level. This first global proteomic comparative analysis of antennae reveals sex-biased protein expression in both bees, indicating that odorant response mechanisms are sex-specific because of natural selection for different olfactory

  17. Stability of Lobed Balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, Danny (Technical Monitor); Pagitz, M.; Pellegrino, Xu S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a computational study of the stability of simple lobed balloon structures. Two approaches are presented, one based on a wrinkled material model and one based on a variable Poisson s ratio model that eliminates compressive stresses iteratively. The first approach is used to investigate the stability of both a single isotensoid and a stack of four isotensoids, for perturbations of in.nitesimally small amplitude. It is found that both structures are stable for global deformation modes, but unstable for local modes at su.ciently large pressure. Both structures are stable if an isotropic model is assumed. The second approach is used to investigate the stability of the isotensoid stack for large shape perturbations, taking into account contact between di.erent surfaces. For this structure a distorted, stable configuration is found. It is also found that the volume enclosed by this con.guration is smaller than that enclosed by the undistorted structure.

  18. Lobed composite flexbeam

    SciTech Connect

    Noebren, W.L.; Hibyan, E.S.; Byrnes, F.E.

    1988-05-24

    A flexbeam having a hub portion, a flap flexure portion outboard of the hub portion, a lag-torsion flexure portion outboard of the flap flexure portion, and a blade attachment portion outboard of the lag-torsion portion, and having fibers of composite material extending longitudinally the length of the flexbeam is described, characterized by: longitudinal lobes defined by a radiused grooves, extending into the lag-torsion flexure portion of the flexbeam from the upper and lower surfaces of the lag-torsion flexure portion to a central planar portion of the lag-torsion flexure portion, the grooves being radiused at their bases to enhance the torsion flexure characteristics of the lag-torsion flexure portion.

  19. Antennal gustatory perception and behavioural responses in Trissolcus brochymenae females.

    PubMed

    Iacovone, Alessia; Salerno, Gianandrea; French, Alice Sarah; Conti, Eric; Marion-Poll, Frédéric

    2015-07-01

    Trissolcus brochymenae (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) is an egg parasitoid that could be used to control stink bugs like Murgantia histrionica (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), a pest of brassicaceous crops. Before laying their eggs, parasitoid females spend considerable time examining the substrate with their antennae, which are also used during feeding and mating behaviours. This suggests that contact chemoreception plays a prominent role in many aspects of parasitoid ecology. Therefore, we examined the sensitivity of antennal taste sensilla chaetica to several classical tastants including those that are appetitive or aversive. In addition we studied the taste preferences of wasps when presented with these chemicals alone or mixed. The sensilla chaetica of T. brochymenae responded to serial concentrations of sucrose, salts, and quinine, but no concentration-dependent effect was observed when testing sinigrin, a secondary metabolite found in many brassicaceae. However, both sinigrin and quinine inhibited responses to 0.1 M sucrose when mixed with this sugar. Behavioural taste preference assays confirmed that wasps showed a dose dependent preference for sucrose over agarose. In addition, a behavioural avoidance of sucrose solutions containing quinine was observed. This effect was not observed when sinigrin was used as a feeding deterrent. In the two-choice tests the wasp did not discriminate between sucrose solutions mixed with salts and sucrose alone. Further no preference for salts or sinigrin compared to agarose alone was observed. This work represents the first step towards the identification of gustatory receptor neurons implicated in the detection of different types of chemical cues in egg parasitoids. PMID:25937056

  20. Salivary conditioning with antennal gustatory unconditioned stimulus in an insect.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hidehiro; Sato, Chihiro; Kuramochi, Tomokazu; Nishino, Hiroshi; Mizunami, Makoto

    2008-07-01

    Classical conditioning of olfactory conditioning stimulus (CS) with gustatory unconditioned stimulus (US) in insects has been used as a pertinent model for elucidation of neural mechanisms underlying learning and memory. However, a conditioning system in which stable intracellular recordings from brain neurons are feasibly obtained while monitoring the conditioning effect has remained to be established. Recently, we found classical conditioning of salivation in cockroaches Periplaneta americana, in which an odor was associated with sucrose solution applied to the mouth, and this conditioning could be monitored by activities of salivary neurons. Application of gustatory US to the mouth, however, leads to feeding movement accompanying a movement of the brain that prevents stable recordings from brain neurons. Here we investigated whether a gustatory stimulus presented to an antenna could serve as an effective US for producing salivary conditioning. Presentation of sucrose or sodium chloride solution to an antenna induced salivation and also increased activities of salivary neurons. A single pairing trial of an odor with antennal presentation of sucrose or sodium chloride solution produced conditioning of salivation or of activities of salivary neurons. Five pairing trials led to a conditioning effect that lasted for one day. Water or tactile stimulus presented to an antenna was not effective for producing conditioning. The results demonstrate that gustatory US presented to an antenna is as effective as that presented to the mouth for producing salivary conditioning. This conditioning system provides a useful model for studying the neural basis of learning at the level of singly identifiable neurons. PMID:18467133

  1. Pioneer neurons of the antennal nervous system project to protocerebral pioneers in the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria.

    PubMed

    Boyan, George; Ehrhardt, Erica

    2015-11-01

    The twin nerve tracts of the antenna of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria are established early in embryogenesis by sibling pairs of pioneers which delaminate from the epithelium into the lumen at the antennal tip. These cells can be uniquely identified via their co-expression of the neuronal labels horseradish peroxidase and the lipocalin Lazarillo. The apical pioneers direct axons toward the antennal base where they encounter guidepost-like cells called base pioneers which transiently express the same molecular labels as the apical pioneers. To what extent the pioneer growth cones then progress into the brain neuropil proper, and what their targets there might be, has remained unclear. In this study, we show that the apical antennal pioneers project centrally beyond the antennal base first into the deutocerebral, and then into the protocerebral brain neuropils. In the protocerebrum, we identify their target circuitry as being identified Lazarillo-positive cells which themselves pioneer the primary axon scaffold of the brain. The apical and base antennal pioneers therefore form part of a molecularly contiguous pathway from the periphery to an identified central circuit of the embryonic grasshopper brain. PMID:26553379

  2. Antennal regulation of migratory flight in the neotropical moth Urania fulgens.

    PubMed

    Sane, Sanjay P; Srygley, Robert B; Dudley, Robert

    2010-06-23

    Migrating insects use their sensory systems to acquire local and global cues about their surroundings. Previous research on tethered insects suggests that, in addition to vision and cephalic bristles, insects use antennal mechanosensory feedback to maintain their airspeeds. Owing to the large displacements of migratory insects and difficulties inherent in tracking single individuals, the roles of these sensory inputs have never been tested in freely migrating insects. We tracked individual uraniid moths (Urania fulgens) as they migrated diurnally over the Panama Canal, and measured airspeeds and orientation for individuals with either intact or amputated flagella. Consistent with prior observations that antennal input is necessary for flight control, 59 per cent of the experimental moths could not fly after flagella amputation. The remaining fraction (41%) was flight-capable and maintained its prior airspeeds despite severe reduction in antennal input. Thus, maintenance of airspeeds may not involve antennal input alone, and is probably mediated by other modalities. Moths with amputated flagella could not recover their proper migratory orientations, suggesting that antennal integrity is necessary for long-distance navigation. PMID:20181558

  3. CCAP and FMRFamide-like peptides accelerate the contraction rate of the antennal accessory pulsatile organs (auxiliary hearts) of mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Suggs, Julia M; Jones, Talitha H; Murphree, Steven C; Hillyer, Julián F

    2016-08-01

    Insects rely on specialized accessory pulsatile organs (APOs), also known as auxiliary hearts, to propel hemolymph into their antennae. In most insects, this is accomplished via the pulsations of a pair of ampulla located in the head, each of which propels hemolymph across an antenna via an antennal vessel. Once at the distal end of the appendage, hemolymph returns to the head via the antennal hemocoel. Although the structure of the antennal hearts has been elucidated in various insect orders, their hormonal modulation has only been studied in cockroaches and other hemimetabolous insects within the superorder Polyneoptera, where proctolin and FMRFamide-like peptides accelerate the contraction rate of these auxiliary hearts. Here, we assessed the hormonal modulation of the antennal APOs of mosquitoes, a group of holometabolous (Endopterygota) insects within the order Diptera. We show that crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), FMRFamide and SALDKNFMRFamide increase the contraction rate of the antennal APOs and the heart of Anopheles gambiae Both antennal hearts are synchronously responsive to these neuropeptides, but their contractions are asynchronous with the contraction of the heart. Furthermore, we show that these neuropeptides increase the velocity and maximum acceleration of hemolymph within the antennal space, suggesting that each contraction is also more forceful. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that hormones of a holometabolous insect modulate the contraction dynamics of an auxiliary heart, and the first report that shows that the hormones of any insect accelerate the velocity of hemolymph in the antennal space. PMID:27247317

  4. Massive Temporal Lobe Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Waidyasekara, Pasan; Dowthwaite, Samuel A.; Stephenson, Ellison; Bhuta, Sandeep; McMonagle, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Intracranial extension of cholesteatoma is rare. This may occur de novo or recur some time later either contiguous with or separate to the site of the original cholesteatoma. Presentation of Case. A 63-year-old female presented to a tertiary referral hospital with a fluctuating level of consciousness, fever, headache, and right-sided otorrhoea, progressing over several days. Her past medical history included surgery for right ear cholesteatoma and drainage of intracranial abscess 23 years priorly. There had been no relevant symptoms in the interim until 6 weeks prior to this presentation. Imaging demonstrated a large right temporal lobe mass contiguous with the middle ear and mastoid cavity with features consistent with cholesteatoma. The patient underwent a combined transmastoid/middle fossa approach for removal of the cholesteatoma and repair of the tegmen dehiscence. The patient made an uneventful recovery and remains well over 12 months later. Conclusion. This case presentation details a large intracranial cholesteatoma which had extended through a tegmen tympani dehiscence from recurrent right ear cholesteatoma treated by modified radical mastoidectomy over two decades priorly. There was a completely asymptomatic progression of disease until several weeks prior to this presentation. PMID:25821620

  5. Post-embryonic development of the antennal sensilla in Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Dihego de Oliveira; Matiello-Guss, Cirlei Pereira; Rönnau, Milton; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2008-03-01

    The sensilla are sensory organs formed by cuticular and cellular structures specialized in reception of chemical and physical stimuli from the environment and transmission to the insect's central nervous system. In function of the great concentration of sensilla, the antennae are the main organs for interaction between bees and with the environment. This work studied the presence of antennal sensilla in the different phases of pupal development of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides by means of scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. The results showed that antennal sensilla begin their development in the transition of the prepupae to the white-eyed pupae and finish it in the pigmented-body pupae phase. The antennal sensilla were exposed to the environment in the black-eyed pupae when the old cuticle is completely digested, suggesting that only in the final pupal phases can these bees perceive the environmental stimuli. PMID:17992691

  6. Antennal phenotype of Triatoma dimidiata populations and its relationship with species of phyllosoma and protracta complexes.

    PubMed

    Catalá, S; Sachetto, C; Moreno, M; Rosales, R; Salazar-Schetrino, P M; Gorla, D

    2005-09-01

    Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille 1811) Reduviidae Triatominae is the main vector of Chagas disease in several countries of Latin America. As for other vector species, the characterization of T. dimidiata subpopulations within particular geographical regions or occupying different habitats could help in better planning of vector control actions. A first objective in this study was to evaluate the antennal phenotype as a phenetic marker to characterize populations of T. dimidiata collected in different geographic areas and domestic and sylvatic habitats. A second objective was to evaluate the phenetic relationships of T. dimidiata with other species of the phyllosoma complex: longipennis, pallidipennis, and phyllosoma. The antennal sensilla of T. dimidiata specimens collected in Mexico, Central America, and Colombia were analyzed and compared with the antennal sensilla of T. longipennis, T. pallidipennis, and T. phyllosoma. T. barberi was used as an outgroup in the analysis. For each specimen, the ventral side of the three distal segments of the antennae was drawn, identifying and counting four types of sensilla. In T. dimidiata, univariate and multivariate analysis showed differences between sexes, among populations collected in different habitats within the same region, and among populations collected in different geographic regions. Two types of antennal sensilla showed a latitudinal variation. Domestic specimens showed intermediate characteristics of the antennal phenotype, between sylvatic cave- and sylvatic forest-collected specimens. The antennal phenotypes show high similarities among T. pallidipennis, T. phyllosoma, and T. longipennis, with a better differentiation of T. pallidipennis. T. dimidiata is separated from the other members of the complex by a similar distance to T. barberi, of the protracta complex. PMID:16363154

  7. Charting the Maturation of the Frontal Lobe: An Electrophysiological Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segalowitz, S. J.; Davies, Patricia L.

    2004-01-01

    Tracking the functional development of specific regions of the prefrontal cortex in children using event-related potentials (ERPs) is challenging for both technical and conceptual reasons. In this paper we outline our strategy for studying frontal lobe development and present preliminary results from children aged 7-17 years and young adults using…

  8. Atrophy of the parietal lobe in preclinical dementia.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Heidi I L; Van Boxtel, Martin P J; Uylings, Harry B M; Gronenschild, Ed H B M; Verhey, Frans R; Jolles, Jelle

    2011-03-01

    Cortical grey matter atrophy patterns have been reported in healthy ageing and Alzheimer disease (AD), but less consistently in the parietal regions of the brain. We investigated cortical grey matter volume patterns in parietal areas. The grey matter of the somatosensory cortex, superior and inferior parietal lobule was measured in 75 older adults (38 cognitively stable and 37 individuals with cognitive decline after 3 years). Dementia screening 6 years after scanning resulted in nine AD cases from the cognitively stable (n=3) and cognitive decline group (n=6), who were assigned to a third group, the preclinical AD group. When regional differences in cortical volume in the parietal lobe areas were compared between groups, significant differences were found between either the cognitive decline or stable group on the one hand and preclinical AD individuals on the other hand in the inferior parietal lobule. Group membership was best predicted by the grey matter volume of the inferior parietal lobule, compared to the other parietal lobe areas. The parietal lobe was characterised by a differential atrophy pattern based on cognitive status, which is in agreement with the 'last-developed-first-atrophied' principle. Future studies should investigate the surplus value of the inferior parietal lobe as a potential marker for the diagnosis of AD compared to other brain regions, such as the medial temporal lobe and the prefrontal lobe. PMID:21130554

  9. Neuropathology of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Al Sufiani, Fahd; Ang, Lee Cyn

    2012-01-01

    Pathologic findings in surgical resections from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy include a wide range of diagnostic possibilities that can be categorized into different groups on the basis of etiology. This paper outlines the various pathologic entities described in temporal lobe epilepsy, including some newly recognized epilepsy-associated tumors, and briefly touch on the recent classification of focal cortical dysplasia. This classification takes into account coexistent pathologic lesions in focal cortical dysplasia. PMID:22957233

  10. Recent advances in insect olfaction, specifically regarding the morphology and sensory physiology of antennal sensilla of the female sphinx moth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Shields, V D; Hildebrand, J G

    2001-12-01

    The antennal flagellum of female Manduca sexta bears eight sensillum types: two trichoid, two basiconic, one auriculate, two coeloconic, and one styliform complex sensilla. The first type of trichoid sensillum averages 34 microm in length and is innervated by two sensory cells. The second type averages 26 microm in length and is innervated by either one or three sensory cells. The first type of basiconic sensillum averages 22 microm in length, while the second type averages 15 microm in length. Both types are innervated by three bipolar sensory cells. The auriculate sensillum averages 4 microm in length and is innervated by two bipolar sensory cells. The coeloconic type-A and type-B both average 2 microm in length. The former type is innervated by five bipolar sensory cells, while the latter type, by three bipolar sensory cells. The styliform complex sensillum occurs singly on each annulus and averages 38-40 microm in length. It is formed by several contiguous sensilla. Each unit is innervated by three bipolar sensory cells. A total of 2,216 sensilla were found on a single annulus (annulus 21) of the flagellum. Electrophysiological responses from type-A trichoid sensilla to a large panel of volatile odorants revealed three different subsets of olfactory receptor cells (ORCs). Two subsets responded strongly to only a narrow range of odorants, while the third responded strongly to a broad range of odorants. Anterograde labeling of ORCs from type-A trichoid sensilla revealed that their axons projected mainly to two large female glomeruli of the antennal lobe. PMID:11754510

  11. Recent Advances in Insect Olfaction, Specifically Regarding the Morphology and Sensory Physiology of Antennal Sensilla of the Female Sphinx Moth Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    SHIELDS, VONNIE D.C.; HILDEBRAND, JOHN G.

    2008-01-01

    The antennal flagellum of female Manduca sexta bears eight sensillum types: two trichoid, two basiconic, one auriculate, two coeloconic, and one styliform complex sensilla. The first type of trichoid sensillum averages 34 μm in length and is innervated by two sensory cells. The second type averages 26 μm in length and is innervated by either one or three sensory cells. The first type of basiconic sensillum averages 22 μm in length, while the second type averages 15 μm in length. Both types are innervated by three bipolar sensory cells. The auriculate sensillum averages 4 μm in length and is innervated by two bipolar sensory cells. The coeloconic type-A and type-B both average 2 μm in length. The former type is innervated by five bipolar sensory cells, while the latter type, by three bipolar sensory cells. The styliform complex sensillum occurs singly on each annulus and averages 38-40 μm in length. It is formed by several contiguous sensilla. Each unit is innervated by three bipolar sensory cells. A total of 2,216 sensilla were found on a single annulus (annulus 21) of the flagellum. Electrophysiological responses from type-A trichoid sensilla to a large panel of volatile odorants revealed three different subsets of olfactory receptor cells (ORCs). Two subsets responded strongly to only a narrow range of odorants, while the third responded strongly to a broad range of odorants. Anterograde labeling of ORCs from type-A trichoid sensilla revealed that their axons projected mainly to two large female glomeruli of the antennal lobe. PMID:11754510

  12. Azygos lobe in a South African cadaveric population.

    PubMed

    Rauf, Abdul; Rauf, Waqar-Un Nisa; Navsa, Nadia; Ashraf, Khizar Tauseef Ahmad

    2012-04-01

    Knowledge of the prevalence, morphology, and location of the azygos lobe is essential for diagnostic and surgical procedures of the lungs related to mediastinal pathologies, especially to minimize intraoperative vascular injuries, shock, possible thoracotomy, and even the possibility of pulmonary torsion. Reports on the prevalence of the azygos lobe vary between 0.11% and 1.06%. The aim of this study was to record the prevalence and morphological description of the azygos lobe in the South African cadaveric population. A total of 704 adult cadavers dissected over a 10-year period by students in the Department of Human Anatomy at the Medunsa Campus, University of Limpopo, were studied. The prevalence and dimensions of the azygos lobe were determined with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results indicate that an azygos lobe was present in the right lung in only four cases (prevalence 0.57%, 95% CI: 0.2%-1.6%). The mean height and width were 6.7 cm (95% CI: 4.4-9.2) and 4.5 cm (95% CI: 3.7-5.2), respectively. Observations on the morphology of the azygos lobe showed that it was rectangular (n = 3) and triangular (n = 1) in shape with smooth margins. In conclusion, the azygos lobe is a rare anomaly in the South African cadaveric population. The present results are comparable with those reported in the literature for other populations. Future radiological studies on the azygos lobe on living subjects in South Africa will be useful for further understanding of this rare but significant anomaly. PMID:21800377

  13. Antennal Transcriptome Analysis and Comparison of Chemosensory Gene Families in Two Closely Related Noctuidae Moths, Helicoverpa armigera and H. assulta

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Wang, Bing; Dong, Shuanglin; Cao, Depan; Dong, Junfeng; Walker, William B.; Liu, Yang; Wang, Guirong

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the olfactory mechanisms in the two lepidopteran pest model species, the Helicoverpa armigera and H. assulta, we conducted transcriptome analysis of the adult antennae using Illumina sequencing technology and compared the chemosensory genes between these two related species. Combined with the chemosensory genes we had identified previously in H. armigera by 454 sequencing, we identified 133 putative chemosensory unigenes in H. armigera including 60 odorant receptors (ORs), 19 ionotropic receptors (IRs), 34 odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 18 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs). Consistent with these results, 131 putative chemosensory genes including 64 ORs, 19 IRs, 29 OBPs, 17 CSPs, and 2 SNMPs were identified through male and female antennal transcriptome analysis in H. assulta. Reverse Transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was conducted in H. assulta to examine the accuracy of the assembly and annotation of the transcriptome and the expression profile of these unigenes in different tissues. Most of the ORs, IRs and OBPs were enriched in adult antennae, while almost all the CSPs were expressed in antennae as well as legs. We compared the differences of the chemosensory genes between these two species in detail. Our work will surely provide valuable information for further functional studies of pheromones and host volatile recognition genes in these two related species. PMID:25659090

  14. Frontal lobe tuberculoma

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Noella Maria Delia; Shah, Ira; Biyani, Naresh; Shah, Forum

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculomas are usually infratentorial in children, and supratentorial lesions predominate in adults. We present a 4-year-old girl with multiple seizures, papilloedema and brisk reflexes. On investigation, she was found to have a large left parafalcine tuberculoma. She was treated with antitubercular treatment (ATT) and steroids. The child improved, seizures stopped and the papilloedema gradually disappeared. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging brain after 8 months showed a mild reduction in the size of the lesion. Child is on regular follow-up. PMID:26835150

  15. [Right lobe hemihepatectomy as living donor : video article].

    PubMed

    Settmacher, U; Wurst, C

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this article is to demonstrate a right lobe hemihepatectomy to obtain a partial liver transplant for an adult organ recipient. Partial liver resection is carried out in the form of an ultrasound dissection of the parenchyma via a conventional (open) approach with a completely retained perfusion during the resection phase. The gall ducts are separated in the parenchymal phase and the peripheral segment of the middle hepatic vein is resected with the donor liver lobe. The surgical technique is demonstrated in detail with the help of a video of the operation that is available online. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of the technique are discussed. PMID:25732903

  16. Antennally active macrolide from the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis emitted predominantly by females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide was identified from the emissions of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, feeding on ash foliage. The compound was detected from both sexes but was at least 8 times more abundant from females. It was readily sensed by both male and female antenn...

  17. Differences in Antennal Sensillae of Male and Female Peach Fruit Flies in Relation to Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Azza A.; Mohamed, Hend O.; Ali, Nashat A.

    2015-01-01

    Antennal sensillae of male and female peach fruit flies, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae), obtained from three different host fruit species (guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae); peach, Prunus persica (L.) Stokes (Rosales: Rosaceae); and orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Sapindales: Rutaceae)), were studied with scanning electron microscopy. This study was carried out to describe the different types of sensillae present on the three antennal segments (scape, pedicel, and flagellum or funiculus) of both sexes of B. zonata on different host fruit. The antennal segments of females tended to be larger than those of males feeding on peach and guava fruit. On orange, both sexes were similar (no significant differences were found). The first two antennal segments, scape and pedicel, are reinforced by some bristles and have different types of sensillae, including trichoid I, II, S; basiconic II; and sensilla chaetica in different numbers on different host fruit species. Numerous microtrichia, as well as trichoid (I, II), basiconic (I), clavate, and coeloconic (I, II) sensillae were observed on the funiculus with a great variation in number and length. As a result of feeding on different hosts, differences were found between sexes and some plasticity in size, number, distribution, and position of some sensillae, including trichoid, basiconic, chaetica, and clavate on the antennae of the female B. zonata. These sensillae were significantly larger in females. Also, some morphological and morphemetric differences have been found according to their feeding on different host fruit. PMID:25688086

  18. Differences in antennal sensillae of male and female peach fruit flies in relation to hosts.

    PubMed

    Awad, Azza A; Mohamed, Hend O; Ali, Nashat A

    2015-01-01

    Antennal sensillae of male and female peach fruit flies, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae), obtained from three different host fruit species (guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae); peach, Prunus persica (L.) Stokes (Rosales: Rosaceae); and orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Sapindales: Rutaceae)), were studied with scanning electron microscopy. This study was carried out to describe the different types of sensillae present on the three antennal segments (scape, pedicel, and flagellum or funiculus) of both sexes of B. zonata on different host fruit. The antennal segments of females tended to be larger than those of males feeding on peach and guava fruit. On orange, both sexes were similar (no significant differences were found). The first two antennal segments, scape and pedicel, are reinforced by some bristles and have different types of sensillae, including trichoid I, II, S; basiconic II; and sensilla chaetica in different numbers on different host fruit species. Numerous microtrichia, as well as trichoid (I, II), basiconic (I), clavate, and coeloconic (I, II) sensillae were observed on the funiculus with a great variation in number and length. As a result of feeding on different hosts, differences were found between sexes and some plasticity in size, number, distribution, and position of some sensillae, including trichoid, basiconic, chaetica, and clavate on the antennae of the female B. zonata. These sensillae were significantly larger in females. Also, some morphological and morphemetric differences have been found according to their feeding on different host fruit. PMID:25688086

  19. Antennal sensilla patterns indicate geographic and ecotopic variability among Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) populations.

    PubMed

    Catalá, S; Dujardin, J P

    2001-05-01

    Antennal sensilla patterns were used to explore intraspecific variability among Triatoma infestans (Klug) from domestic habitats in Argentina and Bolivia, and from sylvatic habitats in Bolivia. The sensilla pattern was effective in distinguishing individuals at sexual, ecotopic, and geographic levels, and supported the idea of a lack of gene flow between sylvatic and domestic habitats. PMID:11372968

  20. A Java Interface for Roche Lobe Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, D. A.; Leahy, J. C.

    2015-09-01

    A JAVA interface for calculating various properties of the Roche lobe has been created. The geometry of the Roche lobe is important for studying interacting binary stars, particularly those with compact objects which have a companion which fills the Roche lobe. There is no known analytic solution to the Roche lobe problem. Here the geometry of the Roche lobe is calculated numerically to high accuracy and made available to the user for arbitrary input mass ratio, q.

  1. Morphology and Distribution of Antennal Sensilla of the Bean Bug Riptortus pedestris (Hemiptera: Alydidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongmin; Park, Kye Chung; Roh, Hyun Sik; Kim, Junheon; Oh, Hyun Woo; Kim, Ji-Ae; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2016-06-01

    The bean bug, Riptortus pedestris is a major pest of bean pods and some tree fruits in north-east Asian countries. Scanning electron microscopy was conducted to investigate the morphology and distribution of antennal sensilla of R. pedestris to help in understanding the sensory mechanisms of the bug. Average antennal lengths of male and female R. pedestris were 11.00 mm and 9.84 mm, respectively, consisting of four distinct segments, scape, pedicel, basiflagellum, and distiflagellum. Based on the gross appearance, the antennal sensilla were classified into four major types (trichodea, basiconica, chaetica, and coeloconica), which could be further classified into four trichoid, three basiconic, four chaotic, and two coeloconic subtypes, based on their size, tip shape, presence of socket, and surface structure. Among them, two subtypes of trichoid sensilla, all three subtypes of basiconic sensilla, four subtypes of chaetic sensilla and two subtypes of coeloconic sensilla had numerous pores along the surface, suggesting their olfactory function. Nine subtypes (2 trichoid, 1 basiconic, 4 chaetic, and 2 coeloconic subtypes) showed a distinct socket structure at the base. Among the four antennal segments, the distiflagellum possessed highest number of sensilla. Trichoid sensilla were most abundant, followed by basiconic, chaetic, and coeloconic sensilla. Each subtype of sensilla exhibited distinct distribution profile along the four antennal segments. Two subtypes of trichoid sensilla, one subtype of basiconic sensilla and one subtype of chaetica sensilla were distributed on scape, pedicel, and basiflagellum, whereas distribution of other subtypes of sensilla was confined to basiflagellum and distiflagellum. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:501-511, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27087138

  2. Left lobe amoebic liver abscess

    PubMed Central

    Rasaretnam, Rudra; Wijetilaka, Shelton E.

    1976-01-01

    For reasons which are not quite clear amoebic liver abscesses in the left lobe are relatively uncommon. On account of the lesser bulk of the left lobe, and the potentially greater space under the left hemidiaphragm, expansive lesions within it remain less obtrusive than corresponding lesions in the right. Sixteen such cases are analysed and five distinct modes of clinical presentation have been found. Eight of the patients presented late with perforation into either the peritoneal or pleural cavities. In seven of eight remaining cases, an abdominal mass suggestive of a left lobe lesion was present. Anaemia, leucocytosis and a raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate were usually present, and in the five cases seen in the last year a positive reaction was obtained to the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Confirmatory radiological features were present only in advanced cases. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:959101

  3. Hemolymph circulation in insect sensory appendages: functional mechanics of antennal accessory pulsatile organs (auxiliary hearts) in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Boppana, Sushma; Hillyer, Julián F

    2014-09-01

    Mosquito antennae provide sensory input that modulates host-seeking, mating and oviposition behaviors. Thus, mosquitoes must ensure the efficient transport of molecules into and out of these appendages. To accomplish this, mosquitoes and other insects have evolved antennal accessory pulsatile organs (APOs) that drive hemolymph into the antennal space. This study characterizes the structural mechanics of hemolymph propulsion throughout the antennae of Anopheles gambiae. Using intravital video imaging, we show that mosquitoes possess paired antennal APOs that are located on each side of the head's dorsal midline. They are situated between the frons and the vertex in an area that is dorsal to the antenna but ventral to the medial-most region of the compound eyes. Antennal APOs contract in synchrony at 1 Hz, which is 45% slower than the heart. By means of histology and intravital imaging, we show that each antennal APO propels hemolymph into the antenna through an antennal vessel that traverses the length of the appendage and has an effective diameter of 1-2 μm. When hemolymph reaches the end of the appendage, it is discharged into the antennal hemocoel and returns to the head. Because a narrow vessel empties into a larger cavity, hemolymph travels up the antenna at 0.2 mm s(-1) but reduces its velocity by 75% as it returns to the head. Finally, treatment of mosquitoes with the anesthetic agent FlyNap (triethylamine) increases both antennal APO and heart contraction rates. In summary, this study presents a comprehensive functional characterization of circulatory physiology in the mosquito antennae. PMID:24948635

  4. Identification of Putative Olfactory Genes from the Oriental Fruit Moth Grapholita molesta via an Antennal Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yiping; Wu, Junxiang

    2015-01-01

    Background The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta, is an extremely important oligophagous pest species of stone and pome fruits throughout the world. As a host-switching species, adult moths, especially females, depend on olfactory cues to a large extent in locating host plants, finding mates, and selecting oviposition sites. The identification of olfactory genes can facilitate investigation on mechanisms for chemical communications. Methodology/Principal Finding We generated transcriptome of female antennae of G.molesta using the next-generation sequencing technique, and assembled transcripts from RNA-seq reads using Trinity, SOAPdenovo-trans and Abyss-trans assemblers. We identified 124 putative olfactory genes. Among the identified olfactory genes, 118 were novel to this species, including 28 transcripts encoding for odorant binding proteins, 17 chemosensory proteins, 48 odorant receptors, four gustatory receptors, 24 ionotropic receptors, two sensory neuron membrane proteins, and one odor degrading enzyme. The identified genes were further confirmed through semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR for transcripts coding for 26 OBPs and 17 CSPs. OBP transcripts showed an obvious antenna bias, whereas CSP transcripts were detected in different tissues. Conclusion Antennal transcriptome data derived from the oriental fruit moth constituted an abundant molecular resource for the identification of genes potentially involved in the olfaction process of the species. This study provides a foundation for future research on the molecules involved in olfactory recognition of this insect pest, and in particular, the feasibility of using semiochemicals to control this pest. PMID:26540284

  5. Post-embryonic development of circadian oscillations within and outside the optic lobe in the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Uryu, Outa; Tomioka, Kenji

    2014-04-01

    The adult cricket Gryllus bimaculatus has a central clock in the optic lobe that regulates overt activity rhythms and secondary oscillators in the tissue outside the optic lobe. Here we investigated properties of the rhythmic expression of clock genes in the optic lobe and extra-optic lobe tissues in nymphs, and compared them with those of adults. In the optic lobe, mRNA of the clock genes period (per), timeless (tim), cycle (cyc) and Clock (Clk) were expressed in patterns similar to those in adult profiles, but at significantly lower levels. Among the extra-optic lobe tissues, the brain and TAG showed a rhythmic expression of per and tim, the mid-gut only in tim, and the anterior-stomach in none of the genes studied. The mRNA levels of clock genes were again significantly lower than those in adults. Unlike in adults, the brain and mid-gut lost their rhythms of clock gene expression in DD, and when the optic lobes were bilaterally removed. These results suggest that the rhythms outside the optic lobe are weak in nymphs, and may become robust after the imaginal molt. PMID:24694226

  6. Historical evolution of the frontal lobe syndrome.

    PubMed

    Krudop, Welmoed A; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L

    2015-01-01

    The function of the frontal lobes and the related frontal lobe syndrome have not been described in detail until relatively late in history. Slowly, the combination of knowledge from animal models, the detailed examination of symptoms after traumatic frontal lobe injuries, and the rise and fall of psychosurgery has led to increasing insight into frontal lobe function. The frontosubcortical circuits have been described and increasingly related to clinical syndromes, confirmed by the latest developments in functional connectivity networks. PMID:25997476

  7. Ultrastructure of antennal sensilla of four skipper butterflies in Parnara sp. and Pelopidas sp. (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Xiangqun, Yuan; Ke, Gao; Feng, Yuan; Yalin, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Most species of Parnara and Pelopidas (Hesperiidae) are important pests of rice. In this study, the antennal morphology, types of sensilla, and their distribution of four skipper butterflies, including Parnara guttata (Bremer & Grey), Pa. bada (Moore), Pelopidas mathias (Fabricius) and Pe. agna (Moore), were observed using a scanning electron microscope. Six distinct morphological types of sensilla were found on the antennae of all of these species: sensilla squamiformia, sensilla trichodea, sensilla chaetica, sensilla auricillica, sensilla coeloconica, and Böhm sensilla. The sensilla trichodea are the most abundant sensilla among the four skipper butterflies, and the sensilla auricillica are confirmed on the antennae of butterflies for the second time. In addition, the possible functions of these sensilla are discussed in the light of previously reported lepidopteran insects, which may provide useful information for further study of the function of these antennal sensilla and for related pests control by applying sex pheromones. PMID:24843250

  8. Identification of candidate aldehyde oxidases from the silkworm Bombyx mori potentially involved in antennal pheromone degradation.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Julien; Bozzolan, Françoise; Solvar, Marthe; François, Marie-Christine; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Maïbèche-Coisne, Martine

    2007-12-01

    Signal inactivation is a crucial step in the dynamic of olfactory process and involves various Odorant-Degrading Enzymes. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, one of the best models for studying olfaction in insects, the involvement of an antennal-specific aldehyde oxidase in the degradation of the sex pheromone component bombykal has been demonstrated over the three past decades by biochemical studies. However, the corresponding enzyme has never been characterized at the molecular level. Bioinformatic screening of B. mori genome and molecular approaches have been used to isolate several candidate sequences of aldehyde oxidases. Two interesting antennal-expressed genes have been further characterized and their putative functions are discussed in regard to their respective expression pattern and to our knowledge on aldehyde oxidase properties. Interestingly, one gene appeared as specifically expressed in the antennae of B. mori and associated in males with the bombykal-sensitive sensilla, strongly suggesting that it could encode for the previously biochemically characterized enzyme. PMID:17904312

  9. Identification of Candidate Olfactory Genes in Chilo suppressalis by Antennal Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Depan; Liu, Yang; Wei, Jinjin; Liao, Xinyan; Walker, William B.; Li, Jianhong; Wang, Guirong

    2014-01-01

    Antennal olfaction, which is extremely important for insect survival, mediates key behaviors such as host preference, mate choice, and oviposition site selection. In insects, odor detection is mediated by multiple proteins in the antenna, especially the odorant receptors (ORs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs), which ensure the specificity of the olfactory sensory neuron responses. In this study, we identified the olfactory gene repertoire of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, an economically important agricultural pest, which inflicts great damage to the rice yield in south and east part of Asia, especially in Southern China. By Illumina sequencing of male and female antennal transcriptomes, we identified 47 odorant receptors, 20 ionotropic receptors, 26 odorant binding proteins, 21 chemosensory proteins and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins. Our findings make it possible for future research of the olfactory system of C. suppressalis at the molecular level. PMID:25076861

  10. Ultrastructure of antennal sensilla of four skipper butterflies in Parnara sp. and Pelopidas sp. (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Xiangqun, Yuan; Ke, Gao; Feng, Yuan; Yalin, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Most species of Parnara and Pelopidas (Hesperiidae) are important pests of rice. In this study, the antennal morphology, types of sensilla, and their distribution of four skipper butterflies, including Parnara guttata (Bremer & Grey), Pa. bada (Moore), Pelopidas mathias (Fabricius) and Pe. agna (Moore), were observed using a scanning electron microscope. Six distinct morphological types of sensilla were found on the antennae of all of these species: sensilla squamiformia, sensilla trichodea, sensilla chaetica, sensilla auricillica, sensilla coeloconica, and Böhm sensilla. The sensilla trichodea are the most abundant sensilla among the four skipper butterflies, and the sensilla auricillica are confirmed on the antennae of butterflies for the second time. In addition, the possible functions of these sensilla are discussed in the light of previously reported lepidopteran insects, which may provide useful information for further study of the function of these antennal sensilla and for related pests control by applying sex pheromones. PMID:24843250

  11. Antennal movements reveal associative learning in the American cockroach Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Lent, David D; Kwon, Hyung-Wook

    2004-01-01

    Using antennal movements as an indicator of learning and retention, an associative learning paradigm has been developed to investigate associative memory between visual and olfactory stimuli. Experiments were performed on the restrained cockroach Periplaneta americana, which normally moves its antennae towards a localized odor source. Such "antennal projection responses" (APRs) are exploited to demonstrate long-term memory, where an APR is elicited by a conditioned stimulus (CS; green light point source) paired with a spatially coincident odor [the unconditioned stimulus (US)]. Association of the CS with the US is established after five trials. Before training, a visual cue alone does not elicit an APR. This behavior is elicited by a visual cue only after pairing it with an odor stimulus. The acquired APR to the green light cue persists for up to 72 h, indicative of long-term memory. This paradigm is thus suitable for future studies of neural correlates of learning and memory on restrained animals. PMID:14668320

  12. Gravity Perception in a Cladoceran-zooplankter: Anatomy of Antennal Socket Setae of Daphnia Magna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    Night orientation in Daphnia magna was recently associated with setae on the basal socket of the swimming antennae. Daphnids are suspected of maintaining nocturnal equilibrium by monitoring the gravity vector through upward setal deflections caused by sinking between antennal swimming strokes. Setae appear to be hydrodynamic rheoceptors that sense the gravity vector indirectly by mechanoreceptivity to the direction and velocity of water currents. Neuroanatomical stains have revealed cell bodies at the base of the setal shafts, dendritic connections through to the distal ends of the shafts, and axonal tracts around the antennal socket connecting with an additional cell body and continuing toward the brain. These anatomical observations combined with previous scanning electron microscopy studies suggest that the setae are similar to mechanoreceptors and propreceptors used by higher crustaceans to sense water currents and gravity, and maintained balance.

  13. Electrophysiological and behavioural characterization of gustatory responses to antennal 'bitter' taste in honeybees.

    PubMed

    de Brito Sanchez, Maria Gabriela; Giurfa, Martin; de Paula Mota, Theo Rolla; Gauthier, Monique

    2005-12-01

    We combined behavioural and electrophysiological experiments to study whether bitter taste is perceived at the antennal level in honeybees, Apis mellifera. Our behavioural studies showed that neither quinine nor salicin delivered at one antenna at different concentrations induced a retraction of the proboscis once it was extended in response to 1 M sucrose solution delivered to the opposite antenna. Bees that extended massively their proboscis to 1 M sucrose responded only partially when stimulated with a mixture of 1 M sucrose and 100 mM quinine. The mixture of 1 m sucrose and 100 mM salicin had no such suppressive effect. No behavioural suppression was found for mixtures of salt solution and either bitter substance. Electrophysiological recordings of taste sensillae at the antennal tip revealed sensillae that responded specifically either to sucrose or salt solutions, but none responded to the bitter substances quinine and salicin at the different concentrations tested. The electrophysiological responses of sensillae to 15 mM sucrose solution were inhibited by a mixture of 15 mM sucrose and 0.1 mM quinine, but not by a mixture of 15 mM sucrose and 0.1 mM salicin. The responses of sensillae to 50 mM NaCl were reduced by a mixture of 50 mm NaCl and 1 mM quinine but not by a mixture of 50 mM NaCl and 1 mM salicin. We concluded that no receptor cells for the bitter substances tested, exist at the level of the antennal tip of the honeybee and that antennal bitter taste is not represented as a separate perceptual quality. PMID:16367782

  14. Antennal Transcriptome Analysis of Odorant Reception Genes in the Red Turpentine Beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shuang-Lin; Zhang, Long-Wa

    2015-01-01

    Background The red turpentine beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), is a destructive invasive pest of conifers which has become the second most important forest pest nationwide in China. Dendroctonus valens is known to use host odors and aggregation pheromones, as well as non-host volatiles, in host location and mass-attack modulation, and thus antennal olfaction is of the utmost importance for the beetles’ survival and fitness. However, information on the genes underlying olfaction has been lacking in D. valens. Here, we report the antennal transcriptome of D. valens from next-generation sequencing, with the goal of identifying the olfaction gene repertoire that is involved in D. valens odor-processing. Results We obtained 51 million reads that were assembled into 61,889 genes, including 39,831 contigs and 22,058 unigenes. In total, we identified 68 novel putative odorant reception genes, including 21 transcripts encoding for putative odorant binding proteins (OBP), six chemosensory proteins (CSP), four sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP), 22 odorant receptors (OR), four gustatory receptors (GR), three ionotropic receptors (IR), and eight ionotropic glutamate receptors. We also identified 155 odorant/xenobiotic degradation enzymes from the antennal transcriptome, putatively identified to be involved in olfaction processes including cytochrome P450s, glutathione-S-transferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Predicted protein sequences were compared with counterparts in Tribolium castaneum, Megacyllene caryae, Ips typographus, Dendroctonus ponderosae, and Agrilus planipennis. Conclusion The antennal transcriptome described here represents the first study of the repertoire of odor processing genes in D. valens. The genes reported here provide a significant addition to the pool of identified olfactory genes in Coleoptera, which might represent novel targets for insect management. The results from our study also will

  15. Physiological organization and topographic mapping of the antennal olfactory sensory neurons in female hawkmoths, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Ghaninia, Majid; Olsson, Shannon B; Hansson, Bill S

    2014-10-01

    The hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, has been a keystone system for developmental, neurobiological, and ecological studies for several decades. Because many of its behaviors are driven by olfactory cues, a thorough understanding of the Manduca olfactory system is essential to studying its biology. With the aim of functionally characterizing single antennal olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and determining their detailed topographic location, we performed systematic single-sensillum recordings on 4 morphological types of olfactory sensilla: trichoid-A and -B and basiconic-A and -B. We were able to unambiguously differentiate the colocalized cells associated with single sensilla based on their spike amplitudes. Using a panel of 61 biologically relevant compounds established in behavioral and gas chromatography-electrophysiology experiments, we made 223 recordings from these sensilla. Based on the response spectra of 187 responding OSNs, the sensilla fell into 12 distinct functional classes encompassing 29 OSNs. Selectivity of the 25 responding OSNs varied from narrowly tuned (responding to only one or a subset of compounds), to very broadly tuned (responding to multiple compounds), in a concentration-dependent manner. Four OSNs, however, did not respond to the tested components. Topographic mapping of the sensilla revealed that some physiological sensillum types are confined to particular locations on the antennal surface while other classes are more or less irregularly scattered all over the antennal annuli. Such information will prove beneficial for future receptor deorphanization, in situ hybridization, and molecular manipulation experiments. PMID:25092901

  16. Species Specificity of the Putative Male Antennal Aphrodisiac Pheromone in Leptopilina heterotoma, Leptopilina boulardi, and Leptopilina victoriae

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Ingmar; Ruther, Joachim; Stökl, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Male antennal aphrodisiac pheromones have been suggested to elicit female receptiveness in several parasitic Hymenoptera, including Leptopilina boulardi. None of the proposed pheromones, however, has been fully identified to date. It is also unknown whether these antennal pheromones are species specific, because the species specificity of mate recognition and courtship elicitation in Leptopilina prevented such experiments. In this study we present an experimental design that allows the investigation of the species specificity of the putative male aphrodisiac pheromone of L. heterotoma, L. boulardi, and L. victoriae. This is achieved by chemical manipulation of the odour profile of heterospecific females, so that males perceive them as conspecifics and show antennal courtship behaviour. Males courted the manipulated heterospecific females and antennal contact between the male and the female was observed. However, males elicited receptiveness only in conspecific females, never in the manipulated heterospecific females. Chemical analysis showed the presence of species specific unsaturated hydrocarbons on the antennae of males. Only trace amounts of these hydrocarbons are found on the antennae of females. Our results are an important step towards the understanding and identification of antennal pheromones of parasitic wasps. PMID:26839881

  17. Species Specificity of the Putative Male Antennal Aphrodisiac Pheromone in Leptopilina heterotoma, Leptopilina boulardi, and Leptopilina victoriae.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Ingmar; Ruther, Joachim; Stökl, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Male antennal aphrodisiac pheromones have been suggested to elicit female receptiveness in several parasitic Hymenoptera, including Leptopilina boulardi. None of the proposed pheromones, however, has been fully identified to date. It is also unknown whether these antennal pheromones are species specific, because the species specificity of mate recognition and courtship elicitation in Leptopilina prevented such experiments. In this study we present an experimental design that allows the investigation of the species specificity of the putative male aphrodisiac pheromone of L. heterotoma, L. boulardi, and L. victoriae. This is achieved by chemical manipulation of the odour profile of heterospecific females, so that males perceive them as conspecifics and show antennal courtship behaviour. Males courted the manipulated heterospecific females and antennal contact between the male and the female was observed. However, males elicited receptiveness only in conspecific females, never in the manipulated heterospecific females. Chemical analysis showed the presence of species specific unsaturated hydrocarbons on the antennae of males. Only trace amounts of these hydrocarbons are found on the antennae of females. Our results are an important step towards the understanding and identification of antennal pheromones of parasitic wasps. PMID:26839881

  18. The antennal sensilla of the praying mantis Tenodera aridifolia: a new flagellar partition based on the antennal macro-, micro- and ultrastructures.

    PubMed

    Carle, Thomas; Toh, Yoshihiro; Yamawaki, Yoshifumi; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Yokohari, Fumio

    2014-03-01

    In insects, the antenna consists of a scapus, a pedicellus, and a flagellum comprising many segments (flagellomeres). These segments possess many morphological types of sensory organs (sensilla) to process multimodal sensory information. We observed the sensilla on flagellomeres in praying mantis (Tenodera aridifolia) with both scanning and transmission electron microscopes. We classified the sensilla into six types: chaetic, campaniform, coelocapitular, basiconic, trichoid and grooved peg sensilla, and inferred their presumptive functions on the basis of their external and internal structures. In addition, based on their distribution, we newly divided the flagellum into 6 distinct parts. This new division leads to a better understanding about the sexual dimorphism and the antennal development in the mantises. The sexual difference in distribution of the grooved peg sensilla suggests that this type of sensilla may play a role in sex-pheromone detection in mantis, which is a rare case of double-walled sensilla mediating this function. PMID:24231672

  19. Spike voltage topography in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Asadollahi, Marjan; Shimamoto, Shoichi; Lorenzo, Matthew; Sperling, Michael R

    2016-07-15

    We investigated the voltage topography of interictal spikes in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to see whether topography was related to etiology for TLE. Adults with TLE, who had epilepsy surgery for drug-resistant seizures from 2011 until 2014 at Jefferson Comprehensive Epilepsy Center were selected. Two groups of patients were studied: patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) on MRI and those with other MRI findings. The voltage topography maps of the interictal spikes at the peak were created using BESA software. We classified the interictal spikes as polar, basal, lateral, or others. Thirty-four patients were studied, from which the characteristics of 340 spikes were investigated. The most common type of spike orientation was others (186 spikes; 54.7%), followed by lateral (146; 42.9%), polar (5; 1.5%), and basal (3; 0.9%). Characteristics of the voltage topography maps of the spikes between the two groups of patients were somewhat different. Five spikes in patients with MTS had polar orientation, but none of the spikes in patients with other MRI findings had polar orientation (odds ratio=6.98, 95% confidence interval=0.38 to 127.38; p=0.07). Scalp topographic mapping of interictal spikes has the potential to offer different information than visual inspection alone. The present results do not allow an immediate clinical application of our findings; however, detecting a polar spike in a patient with TLE may increase the possibility of mesial temporal sclerosis as the underlying etiology. PMID:27288809

  20. Developmental consequences of childhood frontal lobe damage.

    PubMed

    Eslinger, P J; Grattan, L M; Damasio, H; Damasio, A R

    1992-07-01

    A 33-year-old woman underwent neurologic and neuropsychological studies 26 years after she sustained damage to the frontal lobe. The findings of the neurologic examination were normal, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lesion in left prefrontal cortex and deep white matter. Cerebral blood flow studies showed an abnormal pattern in both left and right frontal regions. The patient exhibited striking neuropsychological defects in higher cognition, most notably in self-regulation of emotion and affect and in social behavior. Analysis of her behavioral development failed to yield a pattern of abrupt onset of defect immediately after the lesion occurred. On the contrary, there was a delayed onset of defects, followed by a period of seeming progression, and finally an arrest of development in adolescence. We suggest that this peculiar pattern is the natural consequence of the varied changes that occurred in brain development and social cognition during the patient's formative years. While certain long-term neuropsychological deficits in our case are similar to those following frontal damage in adults, the delayed onset and progression of deficits are different. PMID:1497505

  1. Low cost techniques for fabricating lobed bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuller, F. T.

    1968-01-01

    New low cost technique utilizes shims to create the lobes in bearing. Conventional methods of manufacture require accurate off-center grinding of the inside diameter of a bearing in a housing at various arc lengths depending on the number of lobes required.

  2. The antennal sensilla of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini): a study of different sexes and castes.

    PubMed

    Ravaiano, Samira Veiga; Ferreira, Ríudo de Paiva; Campos, Lucio Antonio de Oliveira; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira

    2014-08-01

    The sensilla of insects are integumental units that play a role as sensory structures and are crucial for the perception of stimuli and for communication. In this study, we compared the antennal sensilla of females (workers and queens), males (haploid (n) and diploid (2n)), and queen-like males (QLMs, resulting from 2n males after juvenile hormone (JH) treatment) in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata. Images of the dorsal antenna surfaces were acquired using a scanning electron microscope. As reported for other hymenopterans, this species exhibits a heterogeneous sensillar distribution along the antennae. Thirteen different types of sensilla were found in the antennae of M. quadrifasciata: trichodea (subtypes I to VI), chaetica (subtypes I and II), placodea, basiconica, ampullacea, coeloconica, and coelocapitula. Sensilla trichodea I were the most abundant, followed by sensilla placodea, which might function in olfactory perception. Sensilla basiconica, sensilla chaetica I, sensilla coeloconica, and sensilla ampullacea were found exclusively in females. In terms of the composition and size of the sensilla, the antennae of QLMs most closely resemble those of the 2n male, although QLMs exhibit a queen phenotype. This study represents the first comparative analysis of the antennal sensilla of M. quadrifasciata. The differences found in the type and amount of sensilla between the castes and sexes are discussed based on the presumed sensillary functions. PMID:24861136

  3. The antennal sensilla of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini): a study of different sexes and castes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravaiano, Samira Veiga; Ferreira, Ríudo de Paiva; Campos, Lucio Antonio de Oliveira; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira

    2014-08-01

    The sensilla of insects are integumental units that play a role as sensory structures and are crucial for the perception of stimuli and for communication. In this study, we compared the antennal sensilla of females (workers and queens), males (haploid (n) and diploid (2n)), and queen-like males (QLMs, resulting from 2n males after juvenile hormone (JH) treatment) in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata. Images of the dorsal antenna surfaces were acquired using a scanning electron microscope. As reported for other hymenopterans, this species exhibits a heterogeneous sensillar distribution along the antennae. Thirteen different types of sensilla were found in the antennae of M. quadrifasciata: trichodea (subtypes I to VI), chaetica (subtypes I and II), placodea, basiconica, ampullacea, coeloconica, and coelocapitula. Sensilla trichodea I were the most abundant, followed by sensilla placodea, which might function in olfactory perception. Sensilla basiconica, sensilla chaetica I, sensilla coeloconica, and sensilla ampullacea were found exclusively in females. In terms of the composition and size of the sensilla, the antennae of QLMs most closely resemble those of the 2n male, although QLMs exhibit a queen phenotype. This study represents the first comparative analysis of the antennal sensilla of M. quadrifasciata. The differences found in the type and amount of sensilla between the castes and sexes are discussed based on the presumed sensillary functions.

  4. Observation of antennal sensilla in Xylotrechus grayii (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) with scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Min; Qiao, Hai-Li; Chen, Jun; Xu, Chang-Qing; Liu, Sai; Lian, Zhen-Min; Guo, Kun

    2014-04-01

    The longicorn beetle Xylotrechus grayii (White, 1855) has been spreading rapidly in China, causing mass mortality of honeysuckle which is economically and medicinally important. In order to elucidate the mechanisms of mate and host location and to advance efficient control methods, antennal sensilla features were investigated in both sexes of X. grayii using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The filiform antennae of both sexes consist of scape, pedicel, and nine flagellomeres (f1-9). Five types of sensilla were observed: sensilla chaetica (5 subtypes, SC1-5), sensilla basiconica (4 subtypes, SB1-4), Böhm bristles (Bm), grooved peg sensilla (Gp), and sensilla campaniformia (Ca). SC were most common on the antennae, followed by SB and Bm. No significant sexual differences in the type, amounts, and distribution of antennal sensilla were found except for the distribution of SB clusters and Ca. SB clusters and Ca occurred on f1-8 of male antennae but were absent on those segments in females, suggesting a potential function as receptors for female sex pheromones. The putative functions of other sensilla are discussed based on their characteristics in related species. This study provides an important foundation for further research on sensory mechanisms and control measures of X. grayii. PMID:24458796

  5. Adaptation of antennal neurons in moths is associated with cessation of pheromone-mediated upwind flight.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, T C; Hansson, B S; Löfstedt, C; Löfqvist, J

    1988-01-01

    A wind-borne plume of sex pheromone from a female moth or a synthetic source has a fine, filamentous structure that creates steep and rapid fluctuations in concentration for a male moth flying up the plume's axis. The firing rates from single antennal neurons on Agrotis segetum antennae decreased to nearly zero within seconds after the antennae were placed in a pheromone plume 70 cm downwind of a high-concentration source known from previous studies to cause in-flight arrestment of upwind progress. In a separate experiment, the fluctuating output from chilled neurons on Grapholita molesta antennae became attenuated in response to repetitive, experimentally delivered pheromone pulses. The attenuation was correlated with a previously reported higher percentage of in-flight arrestment exhibited by moths flying at cooler compared to warmer temperatures. These results indicate that two peripheral processes related to excessive concentration, complete adaptation of antennal neurons, or merely the attenuation of fluctuations in burst frequency, are important determinants of when upwind progress by a moth flying in a pheromone plume stops and changes to station keeping. Also, adaptation and attenuation may affect the sensation of blend quality by preferentially affecting cells sensitive to the most abundant components in airborne pheromone blends. PMID:3200859

  6. Identification and Expression Analysis of Putative Chemosensory Receptor Genes in Microplitis mediator by Antennal Transcriptome Screening

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shan-Ning; Peng, Yong; Lu, Zi-Yun; Dhiloo, Khalid Hussain; Gu, Shao-Hua; Li, Rui-Jun; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Guo, Yu-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Host-seeking, ovipositional behavior and mating of insects are controlled mainly by odor perception through sensory organs such as antennae. Antennal chemoreception is extremely important for insect survival. Several antennal chemosensory receptors are involved in mediating the odor detection in insects, especially the odorant receptors (ORs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs), to ensure the specificity of the olfactory sensory neuron responses. In the present study, we identified the chemosensory receptor gene repertoire of the parasitoid wasp Microplitis mediator, a generalist endoparasitoid that infests more than 40 types of Lepidopterous larvae and is widely distributed in the Palaearctic region. By transcriptome sequencing of male and female antennae we identified 60 candidate odorant receptors, six candidate ionotropic receptors and two gustatory receptors in M. mediator. The full-length sequences of these putative chemosensory receptor genes were obtained by using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR (RACE-PCR) method. We also conducted reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) combined with real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for investigating the expression profiles of these chemosensory receptor genes in olfactory and non-olfactory tissues. The tissue- and sex-biased expression patterns may provide insights into the roles of the chemosensory receptor in M. mediator. Our findings support possible future study of the chemosensory behavior of M. mediator at the molecular level. PMID:26078716

  7. Insight Into the Ultrastructure of Antennal Sensilla of Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xiang-Qian; Zhang, Shu; Lv, Liang; Wang, Man-Qun

    2015-01-01

    The oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walk), is one of the most serious pests of cereals in Asia and Australasia. The structure and distribution of the antennal sensilla of M. separata were studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that antennae of both female and male M. separata are filiform in shape. Three groups and seven morphological sensillum types were recorded in both sexes, including uniporous sensilla (sensilla chaetica), multiporous sensilla (sensilla trichodea, basiconica, coeloconica, and styloconica), and aporous sensilla (sensilla squamiformia and Böhm bristles). S. trichodea, which were the most abundant sensilla, was made of three subtypes (ST I, ST II, and ST III) according to external features and two subtypes of s. basiconica (SB I and SB II) and s. coeloconica (SCo I and SCo II) were identified, respectively. Sexual dimorphisms in sensilla of M. separata were mainly perceived as the variations in the numbers of several sensilla subtypes. Also, the possible functions of the antennal sensilla were discussed. These results contribute to our understanding of the function of antennae in the behavior of M. separata. PMID:26363060

  8. Adaptation of antennal neurons in moths is associated with cessation of pheromone-mediated upwind flight.

    PubMed

    Baker, T C; Hansson, B S; Löfstedt, C; Löfqvist, J

    1988-12-01

    A wind-borne plume of sex pheromone from a female moth or a synthetic source has a fine, filamentous structure that creates steep and rapid fluctuations in concentration for a male moth flying up the plume's axis. The firing rates from single antennal neurons on Agrotis segetum antennae decreased to nearly zero within seconds after the antennae were placed in a pheromone plume 70 cm downwind of a high-concentration source known from previous studies to cause in-flight arrestment of upwind progress. In a separate experiment, the fluctuating output from chilled neurons on Grapholita molesta antennae became attenuated in response to repetitive, experimentally delivered pheromone pulses. The attenuation was correlated with a previously reported higher percentage of in-flight arrestment exhibited by moths flying at cooler compared to warmer temperatures. These results indicate that two peripheral processes related to excessive concentration, complete adaptation of antennal neurons, or merely the attenuation of fluctuations in burst frequency, are important determinants of when upwind progress by a moth flying in a pheromone plume stops and changes to station keeping. Also, adaptation and attenuation may affect the sensation of blend quality by preferentially affecting cells sensitive to the most abundant components in airborne pheromone blends. PMID:3200859

  9. Behavioral response to antennal tactile stimulation in the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Okada, Jiro; Akamine, Seiryo

    2012-07-01

    We examined behavioral responses of the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus to tactile stimuli to the antennae. Three stimulants of similar shape and size but different textures were used: a tibia from the hunting spider Heteropoda venatoria (potential predator), a tibia from the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi (less likely predator), and a glass rod. Each stimulus session comprised a first gentle contact and a second strong contact. The evoked behavioral responses were classified into four categories: aversion, aggression, antennal search, and no response. Regardless of the stimulants, the crickets exhibited antennal search and aversion most frequently in response to the first and second stimuli, respectively. The frequency of aversion was significantly higher to the tibia of H. venatoria than to other stimulants. The most striking observation was that aggressive responses were exclusive to the H. venatoria tibia. To specify the hair type that induced aggression, we manipulated two types of common hairs (bristle and fine) on the tibia of the predatory spider. When bristle hairs were removed from the H. venatoria tibia, aggression was significantly reduced. These results suggest that antennae can discriminate the tactile texture of external objects and elicit adaptive behavioral responses. PMID:22534774

  10. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES IN THE ANTENNAL GLAND, MIDGUT, HEPATOPANCREAS, AND GILL OF GRASS SHRIMP FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, were exposed for 1 month to subacute concentrations of hexavalent chromium (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 ppm) after which the gills, midgut, hepatopancreas, and antennal glands were examined for histopathological and ultrastructural changes. Pathological c...

  11. Antennal and behavioral response of the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) to degradation products of citrus volatiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) vectors the bacterial causal pathogen of the deadly citrus disease, Huanglongbing (citrus greening) which is a major threat to citrus industry worldwide. We studied antennal and behavioral responses to principal components of head...

  12. Automated lobe-based airway labeling.

    PubMed

    Gu, Suicheng; Wang, Zhimin; Siegfried, Jill M; Wilson, David; Bigbee, William L; Pu, Jiantao

    2012-01-01

    Regional quantitative analysis of airway morphological abnormalities is of great interest in lung disease investigation. Considering that pulmonary lobes are relatively independent functional unit, we develop and test a novel and efficient computerized scheme in this study to automatically and robustly classify the airways into different categories in terms of pulmonary lobe. Given an airway tree, which could be obtained using any available airway segmentation scheme, the developed approach consists of four basic steps: (1) airway skeletonization or centerline extraction, (2) individual airway branch identification, (3) initial rule-based airway classification/labeling, and (4) self-correction of labeling errors. In order to assess the performance of this approach, we applied it to a dataset consisting of 300 chest CT examinations in a batch manner and asked an image analyst to subjectively examine the labeled results. Our preliminary experiment showed that the labeling accuracy for the right upper lobe, the right middle lobe, the right lower lobe, the left upper lobe, and the left lower lobe is 100%, 99.3%, 99.3%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Among these, only two cases are incorrectly labeled due to the failures in airway detection. It takes around 2 minutes to label an airway tree using this algorithm. PMID:23093951

  13. Deployment Instabilities of Lobed-Pumpkin Balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashino, Kyoichi

    A lobed-pumpkin balloon, currently being developed in ISAS/JAXA as well as in NASA, is a promising vehicle for long duration scientific observations in the stratosphere. Recent ground and flight experiments, however, have revealed that the balloon has deployment instabilities under certain conditions. In order to overcome the instability problems, a next generation SPB called 'tawara' type balloon has been proposed, in which an additional cylindrical part is appended to the standard lobed-pumpkin balloon. The present study investigates the deployment stability of tawara type SPB in comparison to that of standard lobed-pumpkin SPB through eigenvalue analysis on the basis of finite element methods. Our numerical results show that tawara type SPB enjoys excellent deployment performance over the standard lobed-pumpkin SPBs.

  14. Human Frontal Lobes and AI Planning Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinson, Richard; Lum, Henry Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Human frontal lobes are essential for maintaining a self-regulating balance between predictive and reactive behavior. This paper describes a system that integrates prediction and reaction based on neuropsychological theories of frontal lobe function. In addition to enhancing our understanding of deliberate action in humans' the model is being used to develop and evaluate the same properties in machines. First, the paper presents some background neuropsychology in order to set a general context. The role of frontal lobes is then presented by summarizing three theories which formed the basis for this work. The components of an artificial frontal lobe are then discussed from both neuropsychological and AI perspectives. The paper concludes by discussing issues and methods for evaluating systems that integrate planning and reaction.

  15. Alterations of the occipital lobe in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Tohid, Hassaan; Faizan, Muhammad; Faizan, Uzma

    2015-01-01

    The relationship of the occipital lobe of the brain with schizophrenia is not commonly studied; however, this topic is considered an essential subject matter among clinicians and scientists. We conducted this systematic review to elaborate the relationship in depth. We found that most schizophrenic patients show normal occipital anatomy and physiology, a minority showed dwindled values, and some demonstrated augmented function and structure. The findings are laborious to incorporate within single disease models that present the involvement of the occipital lobe in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia progresses clinically in the mid-twenties and thirties and its prognosis is inadequate. Changes in the volume, the gray matter, and the white matter in the occipital lobe are quite evident; however, the mechanism behind this involvement is not yet fully understood. Therefore, we recommend further research to explore the occipital lobe functions and volumes across the different stages of schizophrenia. PMID:26166588

  16. Gravity receptors in a microcrustacean water flea - Sensitivity of antennal-socket setae in Daphnia magna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, D. G.; Farmer, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    Gravity receptors of Dephnia magna were discovered on the basal segment of the swimming antennae and were shown to respond to upward water currents that pass the animal as it sinks between swimming strokes. Sensitivity of the gravity perceiving mechanism was tested by subjecting daphnids to a series of five decreasingly dense aqueous solutions (neutral density to water) in darkness (to avoid visual cues). Three-dimensional, video analysis of body position (pitch, yaw and roll) and swimming path (hop and sink, vertical and horizontal patterns) revealed a gradual threshold that occurred near a density difference between the animal and its environment of less than 0.25%. Because daphnids do not sink but continue to slide after stroking in the increased density solutions, gravity perception appears to occur during a vertical swing of the longitudinal body axis to the vertical plane, about their center of gravity, and, thereby, implies a multidirectional sensitivity for the antennal-socket setae.

  17. Structural and functional classification of antennal sensilla of the cockroach, Leucophaea maderae.

    PubMed

    Schaller, L

    1982-01-01

    Antennal sensilla of Leucophaea maderae were investigated electrophysiologically, labeled and then examined with the scanning or transmission electron microscope. The sensilla can be classified into morphological types according to their external shape and the structure of their hair wall. Sensilla showing similar reaction spectra of their cells can be categorized into physiological groups. The morphological classification corresponds to the physiological grouping: one morphological type of sensillum comprises one or several groups of physiologically similar sensilla. In many of these groups constant combinations of physiologically different cells occur. The possible functional significance of the relationships found between the structural features of the sensilla and the physiological properties of their sensory cells is discussed. PMID:7116422

  18. Antennal circadian clocks coordinate sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies.

    PubMed

    Merlin, Christine; Gegear, Robert J; Reppert, Steven M

    2009-09-25

    During their fall migration, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated Sun compass to aid navigation to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. It has been assumed that the circadian clock that provides time compensation resides in the brain, although this assumption has never been examined directly. Here, we show that the antennae are necessary for proper time-compensated Sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies, that antennal clocks exist in monarchs, and that they likely provide the primary timing mechanism for Sun compass orientation. These unexpected findings pose a novel function for the antennae and open a new line of investigation into clock-compass connections that may extend widely to other insects that use this orientation mechanism. PMID:19779201

  19. The magnetospheric lobe at geosynchronous orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Thomsen, M.F.; Bame, S.J.; McComas, D.J.

    1994-09-01

    On rare occasions, satellites at geosynchronous altitude enter the magnetospheric lobe, characterized by extremely low ion fluxes between 1 eV and 40 keV and electron fluxes above a few hundred eV. One year of plasma observations from two simultaneously operating spacecraft at synchronous orbit is surveyed for lobe encounters. A total of 34 full encounters and 56 apparent near encounters are identified, corresponding to {approximately}0.06% of the total observation time. Unlike energetic particle (E>40 keV) dropouts studied earlier, there is a strong tendency for the lobe encounters to occur postmidnight, as late as 07 local time. The two spacecraft encounter the lobe with different rates and in different seasons. These occurrence properties are not simply explicable in terms of the orbital geometry in either the solar magnetic or the geocentric solar magnetospheric coordinate system. A composite coordinate system which previously organized more energetic particle dropouts is somewhat more successful in organizing the lobe encounters, suggesting that solar wind distortion of the magnetic equatorial plane away from the dipole location and toward the antisolar direction may be largely responsible for these dropouts. The authors results further suggest that this distortion persists even sunward of the dawn-dusk terminator. However, a simple dawn-dusk symmetric distortion does not fully account for all the seasonal and local time asymmetries in the occurrence of the lobe encounters; thus there is probably an additional dawn-dusk asymmetry in the distorted field. The lobe encounters are strongly associated with magnetospheric activity and tend to occur in association with rare magnetosheath encounters at synchronous orbit. It thus appears that the presence of the lobe at geosynchronous orbit is the result of major, probably asymmetric modifications of the magnetospheric field geometry in times of strong disturbance. 19 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Morphology and Ultrastructure of Antennal Sensilla in Male and Female Agrilus mali (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Yi, Zhihao; Liu, Deguang; Cui, Xiaoning; Shang, Zheming

    2016-01-01

    The apple buprestid beetle, Agrilus mali Matsumura, is an invasive pest causing significant damages to rare wild apple forests of Xinjiang. The morphology, abundance and distribution of antennal sensilla in both sexes of this pest were examined. We found that the antennae of A. mali females were longer than those of males. Five types of antennal sensilla were characterized, including trichodea (subtypes Tr.1, Tr.2, and Tr.3), chaetica (subtypes Sc.1, Sc.2, Sc.3, and Sc.4), basiconica (subtypes Ba. 1, Ba. 2, Ba. 3 and Ba.4), Böhm bristles (subtypes BB. 1, and BB. 2), and multiporous grooved sensilla. The most abundant sensilla of Ba.2 tended to occur mainly on flagellomeres 5-8 in both sexes. The last three flagellomeres tended to have the most abundant Tr.1 in both sexes. Overall, the abundance and distribution of these sensilla appeared to be highly conserved in both sexes, and their olfactory organs seemed to cluster on flagellomeres 6-8. However, some sex dimorphisms were also observed. Tr.3 and BB.2 were found only in females. Sensilla of Sc.2 were found on the pedicel and first two flagellomeres only in males. When compared with males, females showed a higher number of Sc.3, but a lower number of Sc.4 on the pedicel. These results indicate that contact cues could be important in intersexual communication in A. mali. The functional roles of these sensilla and their implications in A. mali behaviors are discussed, and further studies of identified chemosensitive sensilla can provide a foundation for developing semiochemical-based management strategies. PMID:27620559

  1. Antennal tactile learning in the honeybee: effect of nicotinic antagonists on memory dynamics.

    PubMed

    Dacher, M; Lagarrigue, A; Gauthier, M

    2005-01-01

    Restrained worker honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) are able to learn to associate antennal-scanning of a metal plate with a sucrose reinforcement delivered to the mouthparts. Learning occurs reliably in a single association of the two sensory stimuli. The involvement of nicotinic pathways in memory formation and retrieval processes was tested by injecting, into the whole brain through the median ocellus, either mecamylamine (0.6 microg per bee) or alpha-bungarotoxin (2.4 ng per bee). Saline served as a control. Mecamylamine injected 10 min before the retrieval test impairs the retention level tested 3 h and 24 h after single- or multi-trial learning. Retrieval tests performed at various times after the injection show that the blocking effect of mecamylamine lasts about 1 h. The drug has no effect on the reconsolidation or extinction processes. Mecamylamine injected 10 min before conditioning impairs single-trial learning but has no effect on five-trial learning and on the consolidation process. By contrast, alpha-bungarotoxin only impairs the formation of long-term memory (24 h) induced by the five-trial learning and has no effect on medium-term memory (3 h), on single-trial learning or on the retrieval process. Hence, owing to previous data, at least two kinds of nicotinic receptors seem to be involved in honeybee memory, an alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive and an alpha-bungarotoxin-insensitive receptor. Our results extend to antennal mechanosensory conditioning the role of the cholinergic system that we had previously described for olfactory conditioning in the honeybee. Moreover, we describe here in this insect a pharmacological dissociation between alpha-bungarotoxin sensitive long-term memory and alpha-bungarotoxin insensitive medium-term memory, the last one being affected by mecamylamine. PMID:15561423

  2. Morphology and Ultrastructure of Antennal Sensilla in Male and Female Agrilus mali (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Zhihao; Liu, Deguang; Cui, Xiaoning; Shang, Zheming

    2016-01-01

    The apple buprestid beetle, Agrilus mali Matsumura, is an invasive pest causing significant damages to rare wild apple forests of Xinjiang. The morphology, abundance and distribution of antennal sensilla in both sexes of this pest were examined. We found that the antennae of A. mali females were longer than those of males. Five types of antennal sensilla were characterized, including trichodea (subtypes Tr.1, Tr.2, and Tr.3), chaetica (subtypes Sc.1, Sc.2, Sc.3, and Sc.4), basiconica (subtypes Ba. 1, Ba. 2, Ba. 3 and Ba.4), Böhm bristles (subtypes BB. 1, and BB. 2), and multiporous grooved sensilla. The most abundant sensilla of Ba.2 tended to occur mainly on flagellomeres 5–8 in both sexes. The last three flagellomeres tended to have the most abundant Tr.1 in both sexes. Overall, the abundance and distribution of these sensilla appeared to be highly conserved in both sexes, and their olfactory organs seemed to cluster on flagellomeres 6–8. However, some sex dimorphisms were also observed. Tr.3 and BB.2 were found only in females. Sensilla of Sc.2 were found on the pedicel and first two flagellomeres only in males. When compared with males, females showed a higher number of Sc.3, but a lower number of Sc.4 on the pedicel. These results indicate that contact cues could be important in intersexual communication in A. mali. The functional roles of these sensilla and their implications in A. mali behaviors are discussed, and further studies of identified chemosensitive sensilla can provide a foundation for developing semiochemical-based management strategies. PMID:27620559

  3. Comparison of the Antennal Sensilla Ultrastructure of Two Cryptic Species in Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Man; Wang, Su; Li, Shu; Luo, Chen; Li, Yuan-Xi; Zhang, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci is an important agricultural pest with worldwide distribution and host preference. Therefore, understanding the biology of this pest is important to devise specific pest control strategies. The antennae of herbivorous insects play an important role in the identification of hosts using plant volatiles. To understand the features of antennae in B. tabaci MEAM 1(formerly known as biotype ‘B’) and MED (formerly known as biotype ‘Q’), the morphology and distribution of the antennal sensilla were examined using scanning electron micrographs. The results showed that the average antennae length in MEAM 1 was longer than MED. No differences were observed in the number and distribution of antennal sensilla in MEAM 1 and MED antennae; each antenna had nine different types of sensilla. Both cryptic species possessed Microtrichia, Grooved surface trichodea sensilla, Chaetae sensilla, Coeloconic sensillaⅠandⅡ, Basiconic sensilla Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ and Finger-like sensilla. This is the first report of Grooved surface trichodea sensilla and Basiconic sensilla Ⅱ on B. tabaci flies. The numbers of Chaetae sensilla were different in the females and males of MEAM 1 and MED, which females having 5 and males containing 7. The surface structure of Basiconic sensilla Ⅰ was different with MEAM 1 showing a multiple-pitted linen surface and MED showing a multiple-pitted pocking surface. Basiconic sensillaⅡ were double in one socket with the longer one having a multiple-pitted surface and the shorter one with a smooth surface. Basiconic Ⅲ and Finger-like sensillae were longer in MEAM 1 antennae than in MED antennae. Our results are expected to further the studies that link morphological characteristics to insect behavior and help devise strategies to control insect pests. PMID:25822843

  4. Robust pulmonary lobe segmentation against incomplete fissures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Suicheng; Zheng, Qingfeng; Siegfried, Jill; Pu, Jiantao

    2012-03-01

    As important anatomical landmarks of the human lung, accurate lobe segmentation may be useful for characterizing specific lung diseases (e.g., inflammatory, granulomatous, and neoplastic diseases). A number of investigations showed that pulmonary fissures were often incomplete in image depiction, thereby leading to the computerized identification of individual lobes a challenging task. Our purpose is to develop a fully automated algorithm for accurate identification of individual lobes regardless of the integrity of pulmonary fissures. The underlying idea of the developed lobe segmentation scheme is to use piecewise planes to approximate the detected fissures. After a rotation and a global smoothing, a number of small planes were fitted using local fissures points. The local surfaces are finally combined for lobe segmentation using a quadratic B-spline weighting strategy to assure that the segmentation is smooth. The performance of the developed scheme was assessed by comparing with a manually created reference standard on a dataset of 30 lung CT examinations. These examinations covered a number of lung diseases and were selected from a large chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) dataset. The results indicate that our scheme of lobe segmentation is efficient and accurate against incomplete fissures.

  5. Lobe cell convection and polar cap precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, S.; Peria, W. J.; Bonnell, J. W.; Su, Y.-J.; Ergun, R. E.; Tung, Y.-K.; Parks, G. K.; Carlson, C. W.

    2003-05-01

    The characteristic electric and magnetic field signature of lobe cells as observed by the low-altitude FAST satellite in 55 dawn-dusk passes are compared with Polar ultraviolet images of polar cap auroral activity. Initial results from 34 events of UV image coverage suggest that there is an intimate coupling between the sunward convection flow of the lobe cell and transpolar auroral arcs or diffuse polar cap precipitation in ˜62% of these cases. However, in some cases where the field signatures are suggestive of lobe cell convection, there is no detectable particle precipitation either in Polar UVI or the FAST data sets. Moreover, the presence of lobe cells coincide with UV data intensifications in the premidnight 2000-2400 MLT sector and/or the postnoon 1500 MLT region in ˜59% of all cases with UVI coverage. The magnetic local time dependence of the lobe cells and polar cap precipitation on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) are examined using the upstream Wind monitor. The relative importance of the IMF By and Bz components are investigated and compared with the predictions of the antiparallel merging model and strongly suggests a connection with the magnetospheric sash, as is further implied by the mapping of magnetic field lines using the [2002] (T01) model. It was also noted that a majority of lobe cell events occurred during enhanced AE index substorm-like conditions and that generally stronger AE indices are measured for stronger IMF By magnitudes during these events.

  6. Immunological perspectives of temporal lobe seizures.

    PubMed

    Liimatainen, Suvi; Lehtimäki, Kai; Kai, Lehtimäki; Palmio, Johanna; Johanna, Palmio; Alapirtti, Tiina; Tiina, Alapirtti; Peltola, Jukka; Jukka, Peltola

    2013-10-15

    The temporal lobes are affected in many different neurological disorders, such as neurodegenerative diseases, viral and immunological encephalitides, and epilepsy. Both experimental and clinical evidence suggests a different inflammatory response to seizures in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in comparison to those with extra-TLE (XTLE). Proinflammatory cytokines and several autoantibodies have been shown to be associated with TLE compared to other epilepsy types suggesting the specific role and structure of the temporal lobe. Abundant experience suggests that activation of both innate and adaptive immunity is associated with epilepsy, particularly refractory focal epilepsy. Limbic encephalitis often triggers temporal lobe seizures, and a proportion of these disorders are immune-mediated. Histological evidence shows activation of specific inflammatory pathways in resected temporal lobes of epileptic patients, and certain epileptic disorders have shown increased incidence in patients with autoimmune diseases. Rapid activation of proinflammatory cytokines is observed after single seizures, but there is also evidence of chronic overproduction of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators in patients with TLE, suggesting a neuromodulatory role of inflammation in epilepsy. In this review we summarize current data on the presence and the role of immunological factors in temporal lobe seizures, and their possible involvement in epileptogenesis. PMID:23998423

  7. Drosophila CtBP regulates proliferation and differentiation of eye precursors and complexes with Eyeless, Dachshund, Dan and Danr during eye and antennal development

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Chinh Q.; Burnett, Micheal E.; Curtiss, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Specification factors regulate cell fate in part by interacting with transcriptional co-regulators like CtBP to regulate gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that CtBP forms a complex or complexes with the Drosophila melanogaster Pax6 homolog Eyeless (Ey), and with Distal antenna (Dan), Distal antenna related (Danr) and Dachshund to promote eye and antennal specification. Phenotypic analysis together with molecular data indicates that CtBP interacts with Ey to prevent overproliferation of eye precursors. In contrast CtBP,dan,danr triple mutant adult eyes have significantly fewer ommatidia than CtBP single or dan,danr double mutants, suggesting that the CtBP/Dan/Danr complex functions to recruit ommatidia from the eye precursor pool. Further, CtBP single and to a greater extent CtBP,dan,danr triple mutants affect the establishment and maintenance of the R8 precursor, which is the founding ommatidial cells. Thus, CtBP interacts with different eye specification factors to regulate gene expression appropriate for proliferative versus differentiative stages of eye development. PMID:20730908

  8. Rheoceptive mediators of graviperception in a water flea: Morphological implications of antennal-socket setae in daphnia magna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    Aquatic microcrustaceans of the genus Daphnia are known to orient to light during the day. At night, in the absence of visual cues, daphnids were suspected of maintaining equilibrium by monitoring the direction of gravity through their swimming antennae. Recent investigations using simulated, weightlessness conditions coupled with absence of illumination revealed hair like structures or setae on the basal, articulating socket of the antennae that, when surgically removed, resulted in disorientation. Given the simulated weightlessness or neutrally buoyant condition that eliminated sinking of the normally negatively buoyant Daphnia, it was proposed that the antennal socket setae function as rheoceptors stimulated by the upward rush of water currents during gravity induced, sinking phase of daphnid swimming movements. This rheoceptively mediated, gravity perception hypothesis is further supported by morphological investigations. Scanning electron micrographs indicate that antennal socket setae are anatomically similar to proprioceptors used by higher crustaceans to monitor gravitational direction.

  9. Mixing Enhancement in a Lobed Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L. L.; Majamaki, A. J.; Lam, I. T.; Delabroy, O.; Karagozian, A. R.; Marble, F. E.; Smith, O. I.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the non-reactive mixing processes associated with a lobed fuel injector in a coflowing air stream is presented. The lobed fuel injector is a device which generates streamwise vorticity, producing high strain rates which can enhance the mixing of reactants while delaying ignition in a controlled manner. The lobed injectors examined in the present study consist of two corrugated plates between which a fuel surrogate, CO2, is injected into coflowing air. Acetone is seeded in the CO2 supply as a fuel marker. Comparison of two alternative lobed injector geometries is made with a straight fuel injector to determine net differences in mixing and strain fields due to streamwise vorticity generation. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of the seeded acetone yields two-dimensional images of the scalar concentration field at various downstream locations, from which local mixing and scalar dissipation rates are computed. It is found that the lobed injector geometry can enhance molecular mixing and create a highly strained flowfield, and that the strain rates generated by scalar energy dissipation can potentially delay ignition in a reacting flowfield.

  10. Diverse Filters to Sense: Great Variability of Antennal Morphology and Sensillar Equipment in Gall-Wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

    PubMed Central

    Polidori, Carlo; Nieves-Aldrey, José L.

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies on antennal sensillar equipment in insects are largely lacking, despite their potential to provide insights into both ecological and phylogenetic relationships. Here we present the first comparative study on antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in female Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera), a large and diverse group of wasps, with special reference to the so-called gall-wasps (Cynipidae). A SEM analysis was conducted on 51 species from all extant cynipoid families and all cynipid tribes, and spanning all known life-histories in the superfamily (gall-inducers, gall-inquilines, and non-gall associated parasitoids). The generally filiform, rarely clavate, antennal flagellum of Cynipoidea harbours overall 12 types of sensilla: s. placoidea (SP), two types of s. coeloconica (SCo-A, SCo-B), s. campaniformia (SCa), s. basiconica (SB), five types of s. trichoidea (ST-A, B, C, D, E), large disc sensilla (LDS) and large volcano sensilla (LVS). We found a great variability in sensillar equipment both among and within lineages. However, few traits seem to be unique to specific cynipid tribes. Paraulacini are, for example, distinctive in having apical LVS; Pediaspidini are unique in having ≥3 rows of SP, each including 6–8 sensilla per flagellomere, and up to 7 SCo-A in a single flagellomere; Eschatocerini have by far the largest SCo-A. Overall, our data preliminarily suggest a tendency to decreased numbers of SP rows per flagellomere and increased relative size of SCo-A during cynipoid evolution. Furthermore, SCo-A size seems to be higher in species inducing galls in trees than in those inducing galls in herbs. On the other hand, ST seem to be more abundant on the antennae of herb-gallers than wood-gallers. The antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in Cynipoidea are the complex results of different interacting pressures that need further investigations to be clarified. PMID:25003514

  11. How many lobes do you see?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Accessory fissures represent a variation of the normal lung anatomy. Incomplete development or even the absence of the major or minor fissures can lead to confusion in distinguishing adjacent lobes. This report aims to present a rare intraoperative finding of an anatomic malformation of the right lung in a 19-year old male patient with recurrent pneumothorax who underwent a surgical repair. An accessory fissure which was separating the superior segment of the lower lobe from the basal segments gave to the whole lung the unique image of a four-lobed one. A profound knowledge of the accessory fissures, even if they are incidentally discovered, is of pivotal importance for the thoracic surgeon and leads to optimal operative assessment and strategic planning. PMID:22029481

  12. Automated MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Ranta, Marin E.; Chen, Min; Crocetti, Deana; Prince, Jerry L.; Subramaniam, Krish; Fischl, Bruce; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of associations between specific disorders and physical properties of functionally relevant frontal lobe sub-regions is a fundamental goal in neuropsychiatry. Here we present and evaluate automated methods of frontal lobe parcellation with the programs FreeSurfer(FS) and TOADS-CRUISE(T-C), based on the manual method described in Ranta et al. (2009) in which sulcal-gyral landmarks were used to manually delimit functionally relevant regions within the frontal lobe: i.e., primary motor cortex, anterior cingulate, deep white matter, premotor cortex regions (supplementary motor complex, frontal eye field and lateral premotor cortex) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions (medial PFC, dorsolateral PFC, inferior PFC, lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and medial OFC). Dice's coefficient, a measure of overlap, and percent volume difference were used to measure the reliability between manual and automated delineations for each frontal lobe region. For FS, mean Dice's coefficient for all regions was 0.75 and percent volume difference was 21.2%. For T-C the mean Dice's coefficient was 0.77 and the mean percent volume difference for all regions was 20.2%. These results, along with a high degree of agreement between the two automated methods (mean Dice's coefficient = 0.81, percent volume difference = 12.4%) and a proof-of-principle group difference analysis that highlights the consistency and sensitivity of the automated methods, indicate that the automated methods are valid techniques for parcellation of the frontal lobe into functionally relevant sub-regions. Thus, the methodology has the potential to increase efficiency, statistical power and reproducibility for population analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders with hypothesized frontal lobe contributions. PMID:23897577

  13. The gyri of the octopus vertical lobe have distinct neurochemical identities.

    PubMed

    Shigeno, Shuichi; Ragsdale, Clifton W

    2015-06-15

    The cephalopod vertical lobe is the largest learning and memory structure known in invertebrate nervous systems. It is part of the visual learning circuit of the central brain, which also includes the superior frontal and subvertical lobes. Despite the well-established functional importance of this system, little is known about neuropil organization of these structures and there is to date no evidence that the five longitudinal gyri of the vertical lobe, perhaps the most distinctive morphological feature of the octopus brain, differ in their connections or molecular identities. We studied the histochemical organization of these structures in hatchling and adult Octopus bimaculoides brains with immunostaining for serotonin, octopus gonadotropin-releasing hormone (oGNRH), and octopressin-neurophysin (OP-NP). Our major finding is that the five lobules forming the vertical lobe gyri have distinct neurochemical signatures. This is most prominent in the hatchling brain, where the median and mediolateral lobules are enriched in OP-NP fibers, the lateral lobule is marked by oGNRH innervation, and serotonin immunostaining heavily labels the median and lateral lobules. A major source of input to the vertical lobe is the superior frontal lobe, which is dominated by a neuropil of interweaving fiber bundles. We have found that this neuropil also has an intrinsic neurochemical organization: it is partitioned into territories alternately enriched or impoverished in oGNRH-containing fascicles. Our findings establish that the constituent lobes of the octopus superior frontal-vertical system have an intricate internal anatomy, one likely to reflect the presence of functional subsystems within cephalopod learning circuitry. PMID:25644267

  14. Temporal lobe surgery in childhood and neuroanatomical predictors of long-term declarative memory outcome.

    PubMed

    Skirrow, Caroline; Cross, J Helen; Harrison, Sue; Cormack, Francesca; Harkness, William; Coleman, Rosie; Meierotto, Ellen; Gaiottino, Johanna; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Baldeweg, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The temporal lobes play a prominent role in declarative memory function, including episodic memory (memory for events) and semantic memory (memory for facts and concepts). Surgical resection for medication-resistant and well-localized temporal lobe epilepsy has good prognosis for seizure freedom, but is linked to memory difficulties in adults, especially when the removal is on the left side. Children may benefit most from surgery, because brain plasticity may facilitate post-surgical reorganization, and seizure cessation may promote cognitive development. However, the long-term impact of this intervention in children is not known. We examined memory function in 53 children (25 males, 28 females) who were evaluated for epilepsy surgery: 42 underwent unilateral temporal lobe resections (25 left, 17 right, mean age at surgery 13.8 years), 11 were treated only pharmacologically. Average follow-up was 9 years (range 5-15). Post-surgical change in visual and verbal episodic memory, and semantic memory at follow-up were examined. Pre- and post-surgical T1-weighted MRI brain scans were analysed to extract hippocampal and resection volumes, and evaluate post-surgical temporal lobe integrity. Language lateralization indices were derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging. There were no significant pre- to postoperative decrements in memory associated with surgery. In contrast, gains in verbal episodic memory were seen after right temporal lobe surgery, and visual episodic memory improved after left temporal lobe surgery, indicating a functional release in the unoperated temporal lobe after seizure reduction or cessation. Pre- to post-surgical change in memory function was not associated with any indices of brain structure derived from MRI. However, better verbal memory at follow-up was linked to greater post-surgical residual hippocampal volumes, most robustly in left surgical participants. Better semantic memory at follow-up was associated with smaller resection

  15. Temporal lobe surgery in childhood and neuroanatomical predictors of long-term declarative memory outcome

    PubMed Central

    Skirrow, Caroline; Cross, J. Helen; Harrison, Sue; Cormack, Francesca; Harkness, William; Coleman, Rosie; Meierotto, Ellen; Gaiottino, Johanna; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-01-01

    The temporal lobes play a prominent role in declarative memory function, including episodic memory (memory for events) and semantic memory (memory for facts and concepts). Surgical resection for medication-resistant and well-localized temporal lobe epilepsy has good prognosis for seizure freedom, but is linked to memory difficulties in adults, especially when the removal is on the left side. Children may benefit most from surgery, because brain plasticity may facilitate post-surgical reorganization, and seizure cessation may promote cognitive development. However, the long-term impact of this intervention in children is not known. We examined memory function in 53 children (25 males, 28 females) who were evaluated for epilepsy surgery: 42 underwent unilateral temporal lobe resections (25 left, 17 right, mean age at surgery 13.8 years), 11 were treated only pharmacologically. Average follow-up was 9 years (range 5–15). Post-surgical change in visual and verbal episodic memory, and semantic memory at follow-up were examined. Pre- and post-surgical T1-weighted MRI brain scans were analysed to extract hippocampal and resection volumes, and evaluate post-surgical temporal lobe integrity. Language lateralization indices were derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging. There were no significant pre- to postoperative decrements in memory associated with surgery. In contrast, gains in verbal episodic memory were seen after right temporal lobe surgery, and visual episodic memory improved after left temporal lobe surgery, indicating a functional release in the unoperated temporal lobe after seizure reduction or cessation. Pre- to post-surgical change in memory function was not associated with any indices of brain structure derived from MRI. However, better verbal memory at follow-up was linked to greater post-surgical residual hippocampal volumes, most robustly in left surgical participants. Better semantic memory at follow-up was associated with smaller resection

  16. Right Liver Lobe Hypoplasia and Related Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Alicioglu, Banu

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Hypoplasia and agenesis of the liver lobe is a rare abnormality. It is associated with biliary system abnormalities, high location of the right kidney, and right colon interposition. These patients are prone to gallstones, portal hypertension and possible surgical complications because of anatomical disturbance. Case Report Magnetic resonance imaging features of a rare case of hypoplasia of the right lobe of the liver in a sigmoid cancer patient are presented. Conclusions Hypoplasia of the right liver should not be confused with liver atrophy; indeed, associations with other coexistent abnormalities are also possible. Awareness and familiarity with these anomalies are necessary to avoid fatal surgical and interventional complications. PMID:26634012

  17. Graph theory findings in the pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Sharon; Haneef, Zulfi

    2014-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of adult epilepsy. Accumulating evidence has shown that TLE is a disorder of abnormal epileptogenic networks, rather than focal sources. Graph theory allows for a network-based representation of TLE brain networks, and has potential to illuminate characteristics of brain topology conducive to TLE pathophysiology, including seizure initiation and spread. We review basic concepts which we believe will prove helpful in interpreting results rapidly emerging from graph theory research in TLE. In addition, we summarize the current state of graph theory findings in TLE as they pertain its pathophysiology. Several common findings have emerged from the many modalities which have been used to study TLE using graph theory, including structural MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, surface EEG, intracranial EEG, magnetoencephalography, functional MRI, cell cultures, simulated models, and mouse models, involving increased regularity of the interictal network configuration, altered local segregation and global integration of the TLE network, and network reorganization of temporal lobe and limbic structures. As different modalities provide different views of the same phenomenon, future studies integrating data from multiple modalities are needed to clarify findings and contribute to the formation of a coherent theory on the pathophysiology of TLE. PMID:24831083

  18. Graph theory findings in the pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Sharon; Haneef, Zulfi

    2014-07-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of adult epilepsy. Accumulating evidence has shown that TLE is a disorder of abnormal epileptogenic networks, rather than focal sources. Graph theory allows for a network-based representation of TLE brain networks, and has potential to illuminate characteristics of brain topology conducive to TLE pathophysiology, including seizure initiation and spread. We review basic concepts which we believe will prove helpful in interpreting results rapidly emerging from graph theory research in TLE. In addition, we summarize the current state of graph theory findings in TLE as they pertain its pathophysiology. Several common findings have emerged from the many modalities which have been used to study TLE using graph theory, including structural MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, surface EEG, intracranial EEG, magnetoencephalography, functional MRI, cell cultures, simulated models, and mouse models, involving increased regularity of the interictal network configuration, altered local segregation and global integration of the TLE network, and network reorganization of temporal lobe and limbic structures. As different modalities provide different views of the same phenomenon, future studies integrating data from multiple modalities are needed to clarify findings and contribute to the formation of a coherent theory on the pathophysiology of TLE. PMID:24831083

  19. Subregional Mesiotemporal Network Topology Is Altered in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Boris C; Bernasconi, Neda; Hong, Seok-Jun; Dery, Sebastian; Bernasconi, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most frequent drug-resistant epilepsy in adults and commonly associated with variable degrees of mesiotemporal atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Analyses of inter-regional connectivity have unveiled disruptions in large-scale cortico-cortical networks; little is known about the topological organization of the mesiotemporal lobe, the limbic subnetwork central to the disorder. We generated covariance networks based on high-resolution MRI surface-shape descriptors of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and amygdala in 134 TLE patients and 45 age- and sex-matched controls. Graph-theoretical analysis revealed increased path length and clustering in patients, suggesting a shift toward a more regularized arrangement; findings were reproducible after split-half assessment and across 2 parcellation schemes. Analysis of inter-regional correlations and module participation showed increased within-structure covariance, but decreases between structures, particularly with regards to the hippocampus and amygdala. While higher clustering possibly reflects topological consequences of axonal sprouting, decreases in interstructure covariance may be a consequence of disconnection within limbic circuitry. Preoperative network parameters, specifically the segregation of the ipsilateral hippocampus, predicted long-term seizure freedom after surgery. PMID:26223262

  20. Burner Emissions Associated with Lobed and Non-Lobed Fuel Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, M. G.; Smith, L. L.; Karagozian, A. R.; Smith, O. I.

    1998-01-01

    The present experimental study examines NO(sub x), and CO emissions associated with three alternative fuel-injector geometries. These injectors mix fuel and air and strain their interfaces to differing extents and thus create different local equivalence ratios within flow regions upstream of flame ignition and stabilization. Two of the devices studied are lobed fuel injectors, in which molecular mixing of reactants is associated with streamwise vorticity generation, while the third one is a non-lobed fuel injector. Results show that rapid mixing allowed both lobed injector geometries to produce very lean premixed flame structures, with a lower achievable turn-down or fuel/air mass flux ratio than for the analogous non-lobed injector, which largely, produced distinct diffusion flames. All three injectors exhibited some level of sooting near walls and in the far-field region, with the non-lobed injector sooting to the greatest extent. At low fuel flow rates, in which the lobed injectors created locally very lean premixed conditions, there resulted lower NO(sub x) emissions as compared with non-lobed injector emissions. Yet at higher fuel-air mass flux ratios, NO(sub x) emissions from the lobed injectors were actually higher than for the nonlobed injector, likely due to reduced sooting and hence reduced radiative heat losses associated with enhanced mixing. For both lobed injector geometries examined here, CO emissions became high for low values of the fuel/air mass flux ratio, again consistent with locally premixed combustion behavior, despite the fact that fuel was injected separately from air directly into the burner test section. The present study demonstrates that, for fuel-air mixing enhancement devices, control of the local equivalence ratio is critical in order to optimize burner emissions.

  1. Recurrent diarrhea as a manifestation of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Murai, Tomohiko; Tohyama, Teruhiko; Kinoshita, Masako

    2014-01-01

    A woman with temporal lobe epilepsy manifesting with repeated episodes of sudden diarrhea and loss of consciousness is reported. A 63-year-old, right-handed female presented with chief complaints of sudden diarrhea and loss of consciousness for almost three decades. The first attack occurred in her 30s, and similar attacks repeated several times in a year. Her attacks comprised abrupt abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, sudden emergence of old memories relating to when she had played with her brother in her childhood, and loss of consciousness during defecation. She had no convulsion or automatism and fully recovered in a few minutes. Every time she was transferred to emergency hospital by ambulance, she had examinations such as blood test, head computed tomography, electrocardiogram, abdominal ultrasound, and electroencephalography (EEG), but no specific diagnosis was made. On admission to our hospital, vital signs, neurological examination, and blood tests did not show abnormal findings. During long-term video-EEG monitoring for 40 h, she had no habitual event. Interictal EEG showed intermittent irregular delta waves and sharp regional transients in the left anterio-midtemporal area. Sharp transients were not as outstanding from background activities as to be defined as epileptiform discharges, but they were reproducible in morphology and distribution and appeared not only in sleep but also in wakefulness. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was unremarkable. Single-photon emission computed tomography showed a decrease of blood flow in the left frontal and temporal lobes. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III showed a decline of verbal comprehension. We concluded that the patient was suffering from partial epilepsy originating from the left temporal lobe. Carbamazepine markedly improved her seizures. Temporal lobe epilepsy can manifest with diverse autonomic symptoms and signs. Abdominal sensations often herald the onset of epileptic seizures. Among them is an uncommon

  2. Morphology, Ultrastructure and Possible Functions of Antennal Sensilla of Sitodiplosis mosellana Géhin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Li, Dan; Liu, Yang; Li, Xue-Jiao; Cheng, Wei-Ning; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the olfactory receptive mechanisms involved in host selection and courtship behavior of Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), one of the most important pests of wheat, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the external morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. The moniliform antennae exhibit obvious sexual dimorphism: antennae of the males are markedly longer than those of the females. Furthermore, each male flagellomere consists of two globular nodes, whereas each female flagellomere is cylindrical. Seven types of sensilla were identified in both sexes. Two types of s. chaetica have a lumen without dendrites and thick walls, suggesting that they are mechanoreceptors. S. trichodea and s. circumfila are typical chemoreceptors, possessing thin multiporous walls encircling a lumen with multiple dendrites. There are significantly more s. trichodea in female than in male, which may be related to host plant localization. In contrast, male s. circumfila are highly elongated compared to those of females, perhaps for pheromone detection. Peg-shaped s. coeloconica are innervated with unbranched dendrites extending from the base to the distal tip. Type 1 s. coeloconica, which have deep longitudinal grooves and finger-like projections on the surface, may serve as olfactory or humidity receptors, whereas type 2 s. coeloconica, smooth with a terminal pore, may be contact chemoreceptors. Also, this is the first report of Böhm’ bristles at proximal scape on antennae of Cecidomyiid species potentially functioning as mechanoreceptors. PMID:27623751

  3. Lateralized antennal control of aggression and sex differences in red mason bees, Osmia bicornis.

    PubMed

    Rogers, L J; Frasnelli, E; Versace, E

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of lateralization in social and non-social bees tests the hypothesis that population-level, directional asymmetry has evolved as an adjunct to social behaviour. Previous research has supported this hypothesis: directional bias of antennal use in responding to odours and learning to associate odours with a food reward is absent in species that feed individually, such as mason bees, whereas it is clearly present in eusocial honeybees and stingless bees. Here we report that, when mason bees engage in agonistic interactions, a species-typical interactive behaviour, they do exhibit a directional bias according to which antenna is available to be used. Aggression was significantly higher in dyads using only their left antennae (LL) than it was in those using only their right antennae (RR). This asymmetry was found in both males and females but it was stronger in females. LL dyads of a male and a female spent significantly more time together than did other dyadic combinations. No asymmetry was present in non-aggressive contacts, latency to first contact or body wiping. Hence, population-level lateralization is present only for social interactions common and frequent in the species' natural behaviour. This leads to a refinement of the hypothesis linking directional lateralization to social behaviour. PMID:27388686

  4. Size determines antennal sensitivity and behavioral threshold to odors in bumblebee workers.

    PubMed

    Spaethe, Johannes; Brockmann, Axel; Halbig, Christine; Tautz, Jürgen

    2007-09-01

    The eusocial bumblebees exhibit pronounced size variation among workers of the same colony. Differently sized workers engage in different tasks (alloethism); large individuals are found to have a higher probability to leave the colony and search for food, whereas small workers tend to stay inside the nest and attend to nest duties. We investigated the effect of size variation on morphology and physiology of the peripheral olfactory system and the behavioral response thresholds to odors in workers of Bombus terrestris. Number and density of olfactory sensilla on the antennae correlate significantly with worker size. Consistent with these morphological changes, we found that antennal sensitivity to odors increases with body size. Antennae of large individuals show higher electroantennogram responses to a given odor concentration than those of smaller nestmates. This finding indicates that large antennae exhibit an increased capability to catch odor molecules and thus are more sensitive to odors than small antennae. We confirmed this prediction in a dual choice behavioral experiment showing that large workers indeed are able to respond correctly to much lower odor concentrations than small workers. Learning performance in these experiments did not differ between small and large bumblebees. Our results clearly show that, in the social bumblebees, variation in olfactory sensilla number due to size differences among workers strongly affects individual odor sensitivity. We speculate that superior odor sensitivity of large workers has favored size-related division of labor in bumblebee colonies. PMID:17479233

  5. An antennal circadian clock and circadian rhythms in peripheral pheromone reception in the moth Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Merlin, Christine; Lucas, Philippe; Rochat, Didier; François, Marie-Christine; Maïbèche-Coisne, Martine; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2007-12-01

    Circadian rhythms are observed in mating behaviors in moths: females emit sex pheromones and males are attracted by these pheromones in rhythmic fashions. In the moth Spodoptera littoralis, we demonstrated the occurrence of a circadian oscillator in the antenna, the peripheral olfactory organ. We identified different clock genes, period (per), cryptochrome1 (cry1) and cryptochrome2 (cry2), in this organ. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), we found that their corresponding transcripts cycled circadianly in the antenna as well as in the brain. Electroantennogram (EAG) recordings over 24 h demonstrated for the first time a circadian rhythm in antennal responses of a moth to sex pheromone. qPCR showed that out of one pheromone-binding protein (PBP), one olfactory receptor (OR), and one odorant-degrading enzyme (ODE), all putatively involved in the pheromone reception, only the ODE transcript presented a circadian rhythm that may be related to rhythms in olfactory signal resolution. Peripheral or central circadian clock control of olfaction is then discussed in light of recent data. PMID:18057325

  6. The antennal sensory array of the nocturnal bull ant Myrmecia pyriformis.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Esquivel, Fiorella; Zeil, Jochen; Narendra, Ajay

    2014-11-01

    Insects use antennal sensilla to not only detect chemical and mechanical cues but also to sense changes in temperature, humidity and CO(2) levels. Very little is known about the variation in numbers, size and structure of sensilla in ants. Here we describe in detail the array of sensilla on the apical segment of the antennae of the nocturnal Australian bull ant Myrmecia pyriformis. Using scanning electron microscopy techniques we identified eight types of sensilla: trichodea curvata, basiconica, trichodea, coelocapitular, chaetica, trichoid II, ampullacea and coeloconica. Mapping the spatial location of each sensillum revealed distinct distribution patterns for different types of sensilla which were consistent across different individuals. We found, in most cases, the number of sensilla increases with the size of the apical antennomere, which in turn increases with body size. Conversely, the size of sensilla did not appreciably increase with the size of the apical antennomere. We discuss the size, numbers and distribution of sensilla of M. pyriformis compared to other ant species. Lastly, given the inconsistent use of sensillum nomenclature and difficulties associated in reliable identification we have attempted to consolidate the ant sensilla literature to make possible interspecific comparisons. PMID:25102426

  7. Antennal-expressed ammonium transporters in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Pitts, R Jason; Derryberry, Stephen L; Pulous, Fadi E; Zwiebel, Laurence J

    2014-01-01

    The principal Afrotropical malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae remains a significant threat to human health. In this anthropophagic species, females detect and respond to a range of human-derived volatile kairomones such as ammonia, lactic acid, and other carboxylic acids in their quest for blood meals. While the molecular underpinnings of mosquito olfaction and host seeking are becoming better understood, many questions remain unanswered. In this study, we have identified and characterized two candidate ammonium transporter genes, AgAmt and AgRh50 that are expressed in the mosquito antenna and may contribute to physiological and behavioral responses to ammonia, which is an important host kairomone for vector mosquitoes. AgAmt transcripts are highly enhanced in female antennae while a splice variant of AgRh50 appears to be antennal-specific. Functional expression of AgAmt in Xenopus laevis oocytes facilitates inward currents in response to both ammonium and methylammonium, while AgRh50 is able to partially complement a yeast ammonium transporter mutant strain, validating their conserved roles as ammonium transporters. We present evidence to suggest that both AgAmt and AgRh50 are in vivo ammonium transporters that are important for ammonia sensitivity in An. gambiae antennae, either by clearing ammonia from the sensillar lymph or by facilitating sensory neuron responses to environmental exposure. Accordingly, AgAmt and AgRh50 represent new and potentially important targets for the development of novel vector control strategies. PMID:25360676

  8. Size determines antennal sensitivity and behavioral threshold to odors in bumblebee workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaethe, Johannes; Brockmann, Axel; Halbig, Christine; Tautz, Jürgen

    2007-09-01

    The eusocial bumblebees exhibit pronounced size variation among workers of the same colony. Differently sized workers engage in different tasks (alloethism); large individuals are found to have a higher probability to leave the colony and search for food, whereas small workers tend to stay inside the nest and attend to nest duties. We investigated the effect of size variation on morphology and physiology of the peripheral olfactory system and the behavioral response thresholds to odors in workers of Bombus terrestris. Number and density of olfactory sensilla on the antennae correlate significantly with worker size. Consistent with these morphological changes, we found that antennal sensitivity to odors increases with body size. Antennae of large individuals show higher electroantennogram responses to a given odor concentration than those of smaller nestmates. This finding indicates that large antennae exhibit an increased capability to catch odor molecules and thus are more sensitive to odors than small antennae. We confirmed this prediction in a dual choice behavioral experiment showing that large workers indeed are able to respond correctly to much lower odor concentrations than small workers. Learning performance in these experiments did not differ between small and large bumblebees. Our results clearly show that, in the social bumblebees, variation in olfactory sensilla number due to size differences among workers strongly affects individual odor sensitivity. We speculate that superior odor sensitivity of large workers has favored size-related division of labor in bumblebee colonies.

  9. Morphology, Ultrastructure and Possible Functions of Antennal Sensilla of Sitodiplosis mosellana Géhin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Li, Dan; Liu, Yang; Li, Xue-Jiao; Cheng, Wei-Ning; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the olfactory receptive mechanisms involved in host selection and courtship behavior of Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), one of the most important pests of wheat, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the external morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. The moniliform antennae exhibit obvious sexual dimorphism: antennae of the males are markedly longer than those of the females. Furthermore, each male flagellomere consists of two globular nodes, whereas each female flagellomere is cylindrical. Seven types of sensilla were identified in both sexes. Two types of s. chaetica have a lumen without dendrites and thick walls, suggesting that they are mechanoreceptors. S. trichodea and s. circumfila are typical chemoreceptors, possessing thin multiporous walls encircling a lumen with multiple dendrites. There are significantly more s. trichodea in female than in male, which may be related to host plant localization. In contrast, male s. circumfila are highly elongated compared to those of females, perhaps for pheromone detection. Peg-shaped s. coeloconica are innervated with unbranched dendrites extending from the base to the distal tip. Type 1 s. coeloconica, which have deep longitudinal grooves and finger-like projections on the surface, may serve as olfactory or humidity receptors, whereas type 2 s. coeloconica, smooth with a terminal pore, may be contact chemoreceptors. Also, this is the first report of Böhm' bristles at proximal scape on antennae of Cecidomyiid species potentially functioning as mechanoreceptors. PMID:27623751

  10. Identification of candidate chemosensory genes in the antennal transcriptome of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Su; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Li, Mao-Ye; Feng, Ming-Feng; He, Meng-Zhu; Li, Shi-Guang

    2015-03-01

    We present the first antennal transcriptome sequencing information for the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Analysis of the transcriptome dataset obtained 52,216,616 clean reads, from which 35,363 unigenes were assembled. Of these, 18,820 unigenes showed significant similarity (E-value <10(-5)) to known proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Gene ontology (GO) and Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) analyses were used for functional classification of these unigenes. We identified 19 putative odorant-binding protein (OBP) genes, 12 chemosensory protein (CSP) genes, 20 olfactory receptor (OR) genes, 6 ionotropic receptor (IR) genes and 2 sensory neuron membrane protein (SNMP) genes. BLASTX best hit results indicated that these chemosensory genes were most identical to their respective orthologs from Tribolium castaneum. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed that the T. molitor OBPs and CSPs are closely related to those of T. castaneum. Real-time quantitative PCR assays showed that eight TmolOBP genes were antennae-specific. Of these, TmolOBP5, TmolOBP7 and TmolOBP16 were found to be predominantly expressed in male antennae, while TmolOBP17 was expressed mainly in the legs of males. Several other genes were identified that were neither tissue-specific nor sex-specific. These results establish a firm foundation for future studies of the chemosensory genes in T. molitor. PMID:25665775

  11. Tactile conditioning and movement analysis of antennal sampling strategies in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Mujagić, Samir; Würth, Simon Michael; Hellbach, Sven; Dürr, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are eusocial insects and well known for their complex division of labor and associative learning capability(1, 2). The worker bees spend the first half of their life inside the dark hive, where they are nursing the larvae or building the regular hexagonal combs for food (e.g. pollen or nectar) and brood(3). The antennae are extraordinary multisensory feelers and play a pivotal role in various tactile mediated tasks(4), including hive building(5) and pattern recognition(6). Later in life, each single bee leaves the hive to forage for food. Then a bee has to learn to discriminate profitable food sources, memorize their location, and communicate it to its nest mates(7). Bees use different floral signals like colors or odors(7, 8), but also tactile cues from the petal surface(9) to form multisensory memories of the food source. Under laboratory conditions, bees can be trained in an appetitive learning paradigm to discriminate tactile object features, such as edges or grooves with their antennae(10, 11, 12, 13). This learning paradigm is closely related to the classical olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER) in harnessed bees(14). The advantage of the tactile learning paradigm in the laboratory is the possibility of combining behavioral experiments on learning with various physiological measurements, including the analysis of the antennal movement pattern. PMID:23271329

  12. Synthesis of trifluoromethyl ketones as inhibitors of antennal esterases of insects.

    PubMed

    Parrilla, A; Villuendas, I; Guerrero, A

    1994-04-01

    A variety of long chain aliphatic and aromatic trifluoromethyl ketones I-XIV has been conveniently prepared, many of them for the first time, from the corresponding Grignard or organolithium derivatives. Two of them, (Z)-1,1,1-trifluoro-15-octadecen-13-yn-2-one (XV) and (Z)-1,1,1-trifluoro-16-nonadecen-14-yn-2-one (XVI), structurally-closed analogues of (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynyl acetate, the sex pheromone of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa, have been stereospecifically synthesized in excellent yield by a convenient new method. The procedure involves lithiation of the corresponding iododerivative XXIX and XXX with one equivalent of tert-BuLi to obviate addition of the reagent to the enyne system. Some of the compounds have already been tested and found to be good inhibitors of antennal esterases in the Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis and the pheromone action in the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa. beta-Thiotrifluoromethyl ketones XVII-XX, which are expected to enhance the inhibition activity of the parent ketones due to their higher hydration constants, have also been prepared in good yields. PMID:7922135

  13. Lateralized antennal control of aggression and sex differences in red mason bees, Osmia bicornis

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, L. J.; Frasnelli, E.; Versace, E.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of lateralization in social and non-social bees tests the hypothesis that population-level, directional asymmetry has evolved as an adjunct to social behaviour. Previous research has supported this hypothesis: directional bias of antennal use in responding to odours and learning to associate odours with a food reward is absent in species that feed individually, such as mason bees, whereas it is clearly present in eusocial honeybees and stingless bees. Here we report that, when mason bees engage in agonistic interactions, a species-typical interactive behaviour, they do exhibit a directional bias according to which antenna is available to be used. Aggression was significantly higher in dyads using only their left antennae (LL) than it was in those using only their right antennae (RR). This asymmetry was found in both males and females but it was stronger in females. LL dyads of a male and a female spent significantly more time together than did other dyadic combinations. No asymmetry was present in non-aggressive contacts, latency to first contact or body wiping. Hence, population-level lateralization is present only for social interactions common and frequent in the species’ natural behaviour. This leads to a refinement of the hypothesis linking directional lateralization to social behaviour. PMID:27388686

  14. St Paul and temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed Central

    Landsborough, D

    1987-01-01

    Evidence is offered to suggest a neurological origin for Paul's ecstatic visions. Paul's physical state at the time of his conversion is discussed and related to these ecstatic experiences. It is postulated that both were manifestations of temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:3302109

  15. Centrifugal acceleration in the magnetotail lobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, H.; Engwall, E.; Eriksson, A.; Puhl-Quinn, P. A.; Arvelius, S.

    2010-02-01

    Combined Cluster EFW and EDI measurements have shown that cold ion outflow in the magnetospheric lobes dominates the hydrogen ion outflow from the Earth's atmosphere. The ions have too low kinetic energy to be measurable with particle instruments, at least for the typical spacecraft potential of a sunlit spacecraft in the tenuous lobe plasmas outside a few RE. The measurement technique yields both density and bulk velocity, which can be combined with magnetic field measurements to estimate the centrifugal acceleration experienced by these particles. We present a quantitative estimate of the centrifugal acceleration, and the velocity change with distance which we would expect due to centrifugal acceleration. It is found that the centrifugal acceleration is on average outward with an average value of about of 5 m s-2. This is small, but acting during long transport times and over long distances the cumulative effect is significant, while still consistent with the relatively low velocities estimated using the combination of EFW and EDI data. The centrifugal acceleration should accelerate any oxygen ions in the lobes to energies observable by particle spectrometers. The data set also put constraints on the effectiveness of any other acceleration mechanisms acting in the lobes, where the total velocity increase between 5 and 19 RE geocentric distance is less than 5 km s-1.

  16. Action sequencing deficit following frontal lobe lesion.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Sergio; Rumiati, Raffaella I; Shallice, Tim

    2002-01-01

    Frontal lobe patients carried out temporal sequencing tasks related to actions that differed in terms of their abstractness using both verbal and pictorial presentations. A generalized impairment was found: neither a type of action effect nor a modality of item presentation effect was present. The patients also carried out a corresponding action production task and produced actions quickly and without errors. The frontal lobe patients were also spared in generating verbal descriptions of actions: they were as accurate as normal controls both in terms of the details reported and in maintaining the temporal sequence. It has been argued that the difficulty in processing the temporal dimensions of actions following frontal lobe lesions is due to some form of disruption of the action representation. However, no action representational deficits were present in our frontal lobe patients. Thus, they cannot account for our findings. On the contrary, we suggest that the action sequencing deficit was a consequence of the difficulties patients experienced in rejecting wrong alternatives presented by the stimulus situation. PMID:11997488

  17. Congenital polyalveolar lobe in three foals.

    PubMed

    Hong, C B

    1996-07-01

    Three cases of congenital polyalveolar lobe (pulmonary hamartoma) were diagnosed in female Thoroughbred foals. Foal 1 was born at full term but died shortly afterwards. Foal 2 was aborted at the seventh month of gestation. Parturition was induced at the tenth month of gestation in foal 3 because it developed hydrops of the amnion and ascites. In all three foals, the polyalveolar lobe occurred on the right side and affected the entire right lung. In each case, the right lung formed a tumour-like mass, and expanded into the left chest cavity. The lung masses were pink to dark red and spongy to rubbery, with marked lobular patterns on the pleural and cut surfaces. The left lung was compressed and small. The right and left lungs weighed 0.9-6.3 kg and 80 g-0.3 kg, respectively. Microscopically, the polyalveolar lobe consisted of normal alveoli, bronchioli and blood vessels, but the alveolus:artery ratio was greater than normal. In the polyalveolar lobe of two foals the numbers of alveoli per artery were 65.2 and 52.5; in contrast, the corresponding values for three control lungs were 26.9, 26.5 and 27.6. Chronic passive congestion with generalized oedema was observed in foals 2 and 3. PMID:8878754

  18. Hepatic lobe torsion in a horse

    PubMed Central

    Bentz, Kristin J.; Burgess, Brandy A.; Lohmann, Katharina L.; Shahriar, Farshid

    2009-01-01

    A 4-year-old Belgian mare was presented with a 1-week history of fever, suspected of being caused by peritonitis. The mare died before the diagnostic procedures had been completed; postmortem examination revealed torsion of the left medial lobe of the liver, resulting in diffuse necrosis of liver tissue and severe peritoneal effusion. PMID:19436480

  19. A case of bilateral temporal lobe agenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lang, C; Lehrl, S; Huk, W

    1981-01-01

    A 76-year-old man with bilateral temporal lobe agenesis producing clinical features resembling the Robinson syndrome is described. The malformation was discovered during a routine CT examination after the appearance of a homonymous visual field defect. The patient was examined by (neuro) psychological testing. The findings are compared with other reported cases and discussed with regard to cerebral localisation. Images PMID:7288451

  20. Lobe Cell Convection and Polar cap Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, S.; Peria, W. J.; Su, Y.; Ergun, R. E.; Tung, Y.; Parks, G.; Carlson, C. W.

    2002-12-01

    The characteristic electric and magnetic field signature of lobe cells as observed by the low-altitude FAST satellite are compared with Polar ultraviolet images of polar cap auroral activity. Initial results from 55 events suggest that there is an intimate coupling between the sunward convection flow of the lobe cell and transpolar auroral arcs or diffuse polar cap precipitation. Moreover, the presence of lobe cells coincide with UV data intensifications in the premidnight 2100-2400 MLT sector and/or the postnoon 1500 MLT region in ~54% of all cases with UVI coverage. The magnetic local time dependence of the lobe cells and polar cap precipitation on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) are examined using the upstream Wind monitor. The relative importance of the IMF By and Bz components are investigated and compared with the predictions of the antiparallel merging model and strongly suggests a connection with the magnetospheric sash, as is further implied by the mapping of magnetic field lines using the Tsyganenko [2002] (T01) model. It was also noted that a majority of events occurred during enhanced AE index substorm-like conditions and that generally stronger AE indices are measured for stronger IMF By magnitudes.

  1. Peri-ictal vegetative symptoms in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Janszky, J; Fogarasi, A; Toth, V; Magalova, V; Gyimesi, C; Kovacs, N; Schulz, R; Ebner, A

    2007-08-01

    We investigated peri-ictal vegetative symptoms (PIVS) in 141 patients with adult temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and assessed frequency, gender effect, and lateralizing value of peri-ictal autonomic signs. We recorded abdominal auras in 62%, goosebumps in 3%, hypersalivation in 12%, spitting in 1%, cold shivering in 3%, urinary urge in 3%, water drinking in 7%, postictal nose wiping (PNW) in 44%, and postictal coughing in 16%. At least one vegetative sign appeared in 86% of the patients. The presence of PIVS did not have a significant lateralizing value. PNW occurred in 52% of women and in 33% of men, whereas any PIVS was present in 93% of women and 77% of men. In summary, contradictory to previous studies, the presence of PIVS has no lateralizing value, which may be linked to a low frequency of occurrence of PIVS. PIVS, especially PNW, occurred more frequently in women, supporting the gender differences in epilepsy. PMID:17584534

  2. Use of Extended-Criteria Lungs on a Lobe-by-Lobe Basis Through Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion Assessment.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Kentaroh; Oto, Takahiro; Konishi, Yusuke; Hirano, Yutaka; Okada, Masanori; Iga, Norichika; Hirayama, Shin; Sugimoto, Seiichiro; Yamane, Masaomi; Kobayashi, Motomu; Miyoshi, Shinichiro

    2015-01-01

    Initially rejected and extended-criteria lungs were partially used through an ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) assessment that was first clinically applied in Asia. The truly injured lobe (left lower lobe) was identified during 89-minute normothermic EVLP and was excised, and the remaining lobes were successfully transplanted into a patient with lymphangioleiomyomatosis. The lung lobes showed heterogeneous changes on the ex vivo rig, and a brief duration of EVLP helped differentiate lung quality on a lobe-by-lobe basis. PMID:25952220

  3. Semantic memory is impaired in patients with unilateral anterior temporal lobe resection for temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Ehsan, Sheeba; Baker, Gus A.; Rogers, Timothy T.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary clinical and basic neuroscience studies have increasingly implicated the anterior temporal lobe regions, bilaterally, in the formation of coherent concepts. Mounting convergent evidence for the importance of the anterior temporal lobe in semantic memory is found in patients with bilateral anterior temporal lobe damage (e.g. semantic dementia), functional neuroimaging and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation studies. If this proposal is correct, then one might expect patients with anterior temporal lobe resection for long-standing temporal lobe epilepsy to be semantically impaired. Such patients, however, do not present clinically with striking comprehension deficits but with amnesia and variable anomia, leading some to conclude that semantic memory is intact in resection for temporal lobe epilepsy and thus casting doubt over the conclusions drawn from semantic dementia and linked basic neuroscience studies. Whilst there is a considerable neuropsychological literature on temporal lobe epilepsy, few studies have probed semantic memory directly, with mixed results, and none have undertaken the same type of systematic investigation of semantic processing that has been conducted with other patient groups. In this study, therefore, we investigated the semantic performance of 20 patients with resection for chronic temporal lobe epilepsy with a full battery of semantic assessments, including more sensitive measures of semantic processing. The results provide a bridge between the current clinical observations about resection for temporal lobe epilepsy and the expectations from semantic dementia and other neuroscience findings. Specifically, we found that on simple semantic tasks, the patients’ accuracy fell in the normal range, with the exception that some patients with left resection for temporal lobe epilepsy had measurable anomia. Once the semantic assessments were made more challenging, by probing specific-level concepts, lower frequency

  4. Tussive syncope in a pug with lung-lobe torsion

    PubMed Central

    Davies, John A.; Snead, Elisabeth C.R.; Pharr, John W.

    2011-01-01

    The most common presenting clinical signs of lung-lobe torsion include dyspnea, tachypnea, lethargy, and anorexia. Tussive syncope secondary to lung-lobe torsion has not been documented. This article describes the presentation, diagnosis, management, and outcome of a pug with tussive syncope secondary to lung-lobe torsion. PMID:22131584

  5. Distinct lobes of Limulus ventral photoreceptors. II. Structure and ultrastructure

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    The structure of Limulus ventral photoreceptors fixed in situ has been investigated using light and electron microscopy and computer-assisted reconstruction and planimetry. Photoreceptors occur singly and in clusters. All photoreceptors have two types of lobes. The rhabdomeral lobe (R lobe) appears to be specialized for light sensitivity, containing the rhabdomere, which completely covers its external surface and forms infoldings into the lobe. The structure of the external rhabdom differs from that within infoldings. The other main structures of the R lobe are the palisades along the rhabdom, multivesicular bodies, lamellar bodies, and mitochondria. The arhabdomeral lobe (A lobe) bears the axon and contains the nucleus, clusters of residual bodies, lamellar arrays of endoplasmic reticulum, masses of glycogen, lipid droplets, and Golgi complexes. The R lobe and A lobe are analogous to the outer and inner segments of vertebrae photoreceptors. In single photoreceptors A and R lobes are separated by an indentation filled with glial processes. Computer reconstructions of cell clusters reveal that each cell has both types of lobes and an axon. Most of the rhabdom is formed from abutting arrays of external rhabdom from the R lobes of different members of the cluster. Efferent fibers containing characteristic angular granules penetrate single cells and clusters in glial invaginations. The main, if not exclusive, target of the efferent fibers is the internal rhabdom. PMID:7175491

  6. Criminal Responsibility of the Frontal Lobe Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sener, Mustafa Talip; Ozcan, Halil; Sahingoz, Sadik; Ogul4, Hayri

    2015-01-01

    Neurological and/or psychiatric symptoms might be detected due to damage of frontal lobes as detected in damages of many brain regions. Frontal lobe syndrome (FLS) occurs as a result of damage in prefrontal region due to various causes. Symptoms due to prefrontal region damage, varies according to the size and location of the lesion. In most of the cases; executive dysfunctions, attention deficits, inconsistencies in social life, impulse control problems, obsessive behaviors and violence behaviors are common clinical signs. Behavioral symptoms seen in FLS can be confused with personality disorders and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. FLS is a neuropsychiatric disorder rarely assessed in forensic psychiatry and in terms of detection of criminal responsibility. In this case report, criminal responsibility in FLS was assessed through a FLS case in which an offense of “threat” was committed and investigated in terms of criminal responsibility. PMID:26644774

  7. Anomalous right upper lobe venous drainage.

    PubMed

    Tarazi, M; Mayooran, N; Philip, B; Anjum, M N; O'Regan, K; Doddakula, K

    2016-01-01

    Lung resections are usually not associated with significant bleeding, but can be fatal, especially in cases of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Anomalous vascular structures could be a major reason for unexpected bleeding in such surgeries. We present a case of an aberrant upper lobe pulmonary vein that was encountered posterior to the right upper lobe bronchus during a right upper lobectomy via thoracotomy. The anomalous pulmonary vein was identified preoperatively on a computed tomography (CT) scan and hence was looked for before dividing the bronchus. Many centres are adopting the VATS approach for performing lung resections. If an anomalous vein is present posterior to the bronchus, it might be in a blind spot and could be damaged inadvertently, leading to profuse and potentially fatal bleeding. We conclude that the identification of anomalous vascular structures prior to surgery with the help of CT helps in avoiding adverse outcomes. PMID:27016516

  8. Anomalous right upper lobe venous drainage

    PubMed Central

    Tarazi, M.; Mayooran, N.; Philip, B.; Anjum, M.N.; O'Regan, K.; Doddakula, K.

    2016-01-01

    Lung resections are usually not associated with significant bleeding, but can be fatal, especially in cases of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Anomalous vascular structures could be a major reason for unexpected bleeding in such surgeries. We present a case of an aberrant upper lobe pulmonary vein that was encountered posterior to the right upper lobe bronchus during a right upper lobectomy via thoracotomy. The anomalous pulmonary vein was identified preoperatively on a computed tomography (CT) scan and hence was looked for before dividing the bronchus. Many centres are adopting the VATS approach for performing lung resections. If an anomalous vein is present posterior to the bronchus, it might be in a blind spot and could be damaged inadvertently, leading to profuse and potentially fatal bleeding. We conclude that the identification of anomalous vascular structures prior to surgery with the help of CT helps in avoiding adverse outcomes. PMID:27016516

  9. Criminal Responsibility of the Frontal Lobe Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sener, Mustafa Talip; Ozcan, Halil; Sahingoz, Sadik; Ogul, Hayri

    2015-10-01

    Neurological and/or psychiatric symptoms might be detected due to damage of frontal lobes as detected in damages of many brain regions. Frontal lobe syndrome (FLS) occurs as a result of damage in prefrontal region due to various causes. Symptoms due to prefrontal region damage, varies according to the size and location of the lesion. In most of the cases; executive dysfunctions, attention deficits, inconsistencies in social life, impulse control problems, obsessive behaviors and violence behaviors are common clinical signs. Behavioral symptoms seen in FLS can be confused with personality disorders and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. FLS is a neuropsychiatric disorder rarely assessed in forensic psychiatry and in terms of detection of criminal responsibility. In this case report, criminal responsibility in FLS was assessed through a FLS case in which an offense of "threat" was committed and investigated in terms of criminal responsibility. PMID:26644774

  10. Cephalic aura after frontal lobe resection.

    PubMed

    Kakisaka, Yosuke; Jehi, Lara; Alkawadri, Rafeed; Wang, Zhong I; Enatsu, Rei; Mosher, John C; Dubarry, Anne-Sophie; Alexopoulos, Andreas V; Burgess, Richard C

    2014-08-01

    A cephalic aura is a common sensory aura typically seen in frontal lobe epilepsy. The generation mechanism of cephalic aura is not fully understood. It is hypothesized that to generate a cephalic aura extensive cortical areas need to be excited. We report a patient who started to have cephalic aura after right frontal lobe resection. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) showed interictal spike and ictal change during cephalic aura, both of which were distributed in the right frontal region, and the latter involved much more widespread areas than the former on MEG sensors. The peculiar seizure onset pattern may indicate that surgical modification of the epileptic network was related to the appearance of cephalic aura. We hypothesize that generation of cephalic aura may be associated with more extensive cortical involvement of epileptic activity than that of interictal activity, in at least a subset of cases. PMID:24613491

  11. Southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, antennal and behavioral responses to nonhost leaf and bark volatiles.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, William P; Sullivan, Brian T

    2013-04-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that bark beetles detect and avoid release points of volatile compounds associated with nonhost species, and thus such nonhost volatiles may have potential utility in the management of bark beetles. We used a coupled gas chromatograph-electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD) to assay the olfactory sensitivity of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, to volatiles from leaves and bark of eight species of nonhost angiosperm trees that are common in the range of D. frontalis. Tree species sampled were red maple (Acer rubrum L.), mockernut hickory [Carya alba (L.) Nutt. ex Ell.], sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), black tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.), black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), southern red oak (Quercus falcata Michx.), blackjack oak [Quercus marilandica (L.) Muenchh.], and water oak (Quercus nigra L.). Beetle antennae responded to a total of 28 identifiable compounds in these samples. The relative olfactory responsiveness to 14 of these, as well as to nonanoic acid and four additional volatiles reported to be associated with nonhost angiosperms, was assessed in GC-EAD analyses of synthetic dilutions spanning six orders of magnitude. The largest response voltage amplitudes were obtained with trans-conophthorin, nonanoic acid, terpinen-4-ol, phenylethyl alcohol, and eucalyptol, whereas the lowest response thresholds were to nonanoic acid, nonanal, linalool, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, and phenylethyl alcohol. Funnel traps baited with various combinations of eleven antennally-active angiosperm volatiles along with a standard attractant captured significantly fewer male and female D. frontalis than traps baited with the standard attractant alone. Our data suggest that a diversity of semiochemicals may be involved in host species discrimination by D. frontalis, and several may have utility in their management. PMID:23460417

  12. Proline transport by brush-border membrane vesicles of lobster antennal glands

    SciTech Connect

    Behnke, R.D.; Wong, R.K.; Huse, S.M.; Reshkin, S.J.; Ahearn, G.A. )

    1990-02-01

    Purified brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of lobster antennal gland labyrinth and bladder were separately formed by a magnesium precipitation technique. L-(3H)proline uptake was stimulated by a transmembrane NaCl gradient (outside (o) greater than inside (i)) to a greater extent in BBMV from labyrinth than those from the bladder. Detailed study of the labyrinth proline-transport processes revealed a specific dependence on NaCl, with negligible stimulatory effects by NaSCN, Na-gluconate, or KCl. A transmembrane proton gradient (o greater than i) was without stimulatory effect on proline transport. A transmembrane potential difference alone, in the presence of equilibrated NaCl and L-(3H)proline, led to net influx of the labeled amino acid, suggesting that the uptake process was electrogenic and capable of bringing about the net transfer of positive charge to the vesicle interior. Although a transmembrane Na gradient alone, in the presence of equilibrated Cl and L-(3H)proline, was able to bring about the net influx of the amino acid, a transmembrane Cl gradient alone under Na- and L-(3H)proline-equilibrated conditions was not, suggesting that only the Na gradient could energize the carrier process through cotransport, while the anion served an essential activating role. Proline influx by these vesicles occurred by the combination of at least one saturable Michaelis-Menten carrier system (apparent Kt = 0.37 mM; apparent JM = 1.19 nmol.mg protein-1.10 s-1) and apparent diffusion (P = 0.33 nmol.mg protein-1.10 s-1.mM-1). Static head analysis of the transport process suggested a cotransport stoichiometry of 2 Na:1 proline with essential activation by Cl ion.

  13. Morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla of Sitophilus granarius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Ali, S A I; Diakite, M M; Ali, S; Wang, M-Q

    2016-08-01

    Sensilla are sense organs in insects, typically consisting of a group of cuticle or epidermal cells that appear as hairs or rod-shaped structures. Sensilla serve as the functional elements of sensory systems. The goal of this study was to determine the type and distribution of sensilla in the antennae of Sitophilus granarius (L.) using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This is one of the first studies in which the morphology and distribution patterns of sensilla on antennal segments of male and female S. granarius have been investigated using SEM, followed by TEM. Different morphological sensilla types, including two sensilla basiconica (SB) types, with two subtypes, four sensilla coeloconica (SC) types and five sensilla chaetica (SCH) types, with one subtype, have been identified on S. granarius antennae, whose external structure and shape are peculiar. TEM micrographs of SB on the antennae of S. granarius are characterized by strongly corrugated pores around the cuticle, while micrographs of SC longitudinal sections showed flat-tipped and smooth-surfaced pegs bearing an apical pore that is suggestive of a gustatory function. TEM micrographs of SCH longitudinal sections showed dendrite branches and cuticular pore arrow heads that may be involved in the perception of humidity, temperature, heat and CO2. Because SCH of different sizes were distributed around the head and rostrum, these may function as contact-chemoreceptors .These results are discussed in relation to the possible roles of the sensilla types in the host location behavior of S. granarius. PMID:27019274

  14. Sexual dimorphism in antennal morphology and sensilla ultrastructure of a pupal endoparasitoid Tetrastichus howardi (Olliff) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yihua; Zheng, Lixia; Liao, Yonglin; Wu, Weijian

    2016-05-01

    Tetrastichus howardi (Olliff) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a pupal parasitoid of a great number of Lepidoptera pests, has a great potential for biological control. To investigate the olfactory system of this parasitoid, we examined the morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla of both male and female T. howardi using scanning and transmission electron microscopic techniques. Antennae of male and female T. howardi were geniculate in shape, which consisted of scape, pedicel and flagellum with 5 and 4 flagellomeres, respectively. The sexual differences were recorded in the types, structure, distribution and abundance of antennal sensilla of T. howardi. Fourteen morphologically distinct types of antennal sensilla were found on the female antennae, while seventeen on the male antennae. They were: multiporous plate sensilla (MPS1-4), chaetica sensilla (CH1-3), multiporous trichodea sensilla (MTS), aporous trichodea sensilla (ATS1-5), multiporous grooved peg sensilla (MGPS), coeloconic sensilla (COS), campaniform sensilla (CAS), terminal finger-like hairy sensilla (TFI), cuticular pore (CP), and ventral sensory plaque (VSP). MPS4, ATS (3-5), and VSP only occurred on the male antennae, while MPS2 and MPS3 only on the female antennae. The MPSs, MTS, MGPS, TFI, and CP may function as olfactory sensilla involving in detecting odor stimuli whereas the ATSs, CHs, and CAS may serve as mechanoreceptors. COS were presumed to play a role as chemo-, thermo- or hygro-receptor. The results could facilitate future studies on the biology of olfaction in T. howardi. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:374-384, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26919727

  15. Frontal lobe astrocytoma following radiotherapy for medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.S.; Kushner, M.J.; Dell, S.

    1981-05-01

    A young woman had a frontal lobe astrocytoma 14 years after successful treatment of a posterior fossa medulloblastoma by surgery and whole-neuraxis irradiation. The association of these two tumors is rare, and it is unlikely that the second tumor was the result of metastasis and differentiation of residual or recurrent medulloblastoma. We review the evidence supporting this view and also the likelihood that the astrocytoma was induced by the prior radiation.

  16. Human frontal lobes are not relatively large.

    PubMed

    Barton, Robert A; Venditti, Chris

    2013-05-28

    One of the most pervasive assumptions about human brain evolution is that it involved relative enlargement of the frontal lobes. We show that this assumption is without foundation. Analysis of five independent data sets using correctly scaled measures and phylogenetic methods reveals that the size of human frontal lobes, and of specific frontal regions, is as expected relative to the size of other brain structures. Recent claims for relative enlargement of human frontal white matter volume, and for relative enlargement shared by all great apes, seem to be mistaken. Furthermore, using a recently developed method for detecting shifts in evolutionary rates, we find that the rate of change in relative frontal cortex volume along the phylogenetic branch leading to humans was unremarkable and that other branches showed significantly faster rates of change. Although absolute and proportional frontal region size increased rapidly in humans, this change was tightly correlated with corresponding size increases in other areas and whole brain size, and with decreases in frontal neuron densities. The search for the neural basis of human cognitive uniqueness should therefore focus less on the frontal lobes in isolation and more on distributed neural networks. PMID:23671074

  17. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Surgery Failures: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Harroud, Adil; Bouthillier, Alain; Weil, Alexander G.; Nguyen, Dang Khoa

    2012-01-01

    Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are refractory to antiepileptic drugs in about 30% of cases. Surgical treatment has been shown to be beneficial for the selected patients but fails to provide a seizure-free outcome in 20–30% of TLE patients. Several reasons have been identified to explain these surgical failures. This paper will address the five most common causes of TLE surgery failure (a) insufficient resection of epileptogenic mesial temporal structures, (b) relapse on the contralateral mesial temporal lobe, (c) lateral temporal neocortical epilepsy, (d) coexistence of mesial temporal sclerosis and a neocortical lesion (dual pathology); and (e) extratemporal lobe epilepsy mimicking TLE or temporal plus epilepsy. Persistence of epileptogenic mesial structures in the posterior temporal region and failure to distinguish mesial and lateral temporal epilepsy are possible causes of seizure persistence after TLE surgery. In cases of dual pathology, failure to identify a subtle mesial temporal sclerosis or regions of cortical microdysgenesis is a likely explanation for some surgical failures. Extratemporal epilepsy syndromes masquerading as or coexistent with TLE result in incomplete resection of the epileptogenic zone and seizure relapse after surgery. In particular, the insula may be an important cause of surgical failure in patients with TLE. PMID:22934162

  18. Human frontal lobes are not relatively large

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Robert A.; Venditti, Chris

    2013-01-01

    One of the most pervasive assumptions about human brain evolution is that it involved relative enlargement of the frontal lobes. We show that this assumption is without foundation. Analysis of five independent data sets using correctly scaled measures and phylogenetic methods reveals that the size of human frontal lobes, and of specific frontal regions, is as expected relative to the size of other brain structures. Recent claims for relative enlargement of human frontal white matter volume, and for relative enlargement shared by all great apes, seem to be mistaken. Furthermore, using a recently developed method for detecting shifts in evolutionary rates, we find that the rate of change in relative frontal cortex volume along the phylogenetic branch leading to humans was unremarkable and that other branches showed significantly faster rates of change. Although absolute and proportional frontal region size increased rapidly in humans, this change was tightly correlated with corresponding size increases in other areas and whole brain size, and with decreases in frontal neuron densities. The search for the neural basis of human cognitive uniqueness should therefore focus less on the frontal lobes in isolation and more on distributed neural networks. PMID:23671074

  19. Expression patterns of nicotinic subunits α2, α7, α8, and β1 affect the kinetics and pharmacology of ACh-induced currents in adult bee olfactory neuropiles.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, Julien Pierre; Gauthier, Monique; Raymond-Delpech, Valérie

    2011-10-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is the main excitatory neurotransmitter of the insect brain, where nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate fast cholinergic synaptic transmission. In the honeybee Apis mellifera, nAChRs are expressed in diverse structures including the primary olfactory centers of the brain, the antennal lobes (ALs) and the mushroom bodies (MBs), where they participate in olfactory information processing. To understand the nature and properties of the nAChRs involved in these processes, we performed a pharmacological and molecular characterization of nAChRs on cultured Kenyon cells of the MBs, using whole cell patch-clamp recordings combined with single-cell RT-PCR. In all cells, applications of ACh as well as nicotinic agonists such as nicotine and imidacloprid induced inward currents with fast desensitization. These currents were fully blocked by saturating doses of the antagonists α-bungarotoxin (α-BGT), dihydroxy-β-erythroidine (DHE), and methyllycaconitine (MLA) (MLA ≥ α-BGT ≥ DHE). Molecular analysis of ACh-responding cells revealed that of the 11 nicotinic receptor subunits encoded within the honeybee genome, α2, α8, and β1 subunits were expressed in adult Kenyon cells. Comparison with the expression pattern of adult AL cells revealed the supplementary presence of subunit α7, which could be responsible for the kinetic and pharmacological differences observed when comparing ACh-induced currents from AL and Kenyon cells. Together, our data demonstrate the existence of functional nAChRs on adult MB Kenyon cells that differ from nAChRs on AL cells in both their molecular composition and pharmacological properties, suggesting that changing receptor subsets could mediate different processing functions depending on the brain structure within the olfactory pathway. PMID:21734106

  20. Sublingual pyramidal lobe. Complications of subtotal thyroidectomy for Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Sternberg, J.L.

    1986-11-01

    A potential complication of subtotal thyroidectomy where a large pyramidal lobe is present is described. The pyramidal lobe normally is immobilized inferiorly by its attachment to the thyroidal isthmus. When the isthmus is removed and the pyramidal lobe is left in situ during subtotal thyroidectomy its superior attachments will allow the pyramidal lobe to become situated sublingually. This may produce gagging and nausea. To avoid the complication, it is recommended that the pyramidal lobe be removed during subtotal thyroidectomy. If the patient also is thyrotoxic, I-131 can be used to treat this complication successfully.

  1. Impaired Facial Expression Recognition in Children with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Impact of Early Seizure Onset on Fear Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golouboff, Nathalie; Fiori, Nicole; Delalande, Olivier; Fohlen, Martine; Dellatolas, Georges; Jambaque, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    The amygdala has been implicated in the recognition of facial emotions, especially fearful expressions, in adults with early-onset right temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The present study investigates the recognition of facial emotions in children and adolescents, 8-16 years old, with epilepsy. Twenty-nine subjects had TLE (13 right, 16 left) and…

  2. Developmental Differences in Medial Temporal Lobe Function During Memory Encoding

    PubMed Central

    Ghetti, Simona; DeMaster, Dana M.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Bunge, Silvia A.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to recollect details about past events improves during childhood. Most researchers favor the view that this improvement depends largely on the development of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which is thought to have a protracted course of development relative to the medial temporal lobes (MTL). The primary goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the development of detail recollection is also associated with changes in MTL function. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data during an incidental encoding task in 80 participants, divided equally across four age groups: 8-year-olds, 10- to 11-year-olds, 14-year-olds, and young adults. Developmental differences in MTL activation profiles were observed. 14-year-olds and adults engaged regions of the hippocampus and posterior parahippocampal gyrus selectively for subsequent detail recollection, whereas 8- and 10- to 11-year-olds did not. In 8-year-olds, these regions were recruited indiscriminately for detail recollection and item recognition, and in 10- to 11-year-olds, activation in these regions did not consistently predict subsequent memory. These results suggest changes in the functional organization of the MTL, such that the hippocampus and posterior parahippocampal gyrus become increasingly specialized for recollection; these changes may be in part responsible for long-term memory improvements during childhood. PMID:20631183

  3. Peri-ictal water drinking: a rare automatic behaviour in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Pietrafusa, Nicola; Trivisano, Marina; de Palma, Luca; Serino, Domenico; Moavero, Romina; Benvenga, Antonella; Cappelletti, Simona; Boero, Giovanni; Vigevano, Federico; La Neve, Angela; Specchio, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    Peri-ictal water drinking (PIWD) has been reported as the action of drinking during or within two minutes of an electroclinical seizure. It is considered a peri-ictal vegetative symptom, evident both during childhood and adulthood epilepsy. The aim of this paper was to describe the clinical and electroencephalographic features of two new adult subjects suffering from symptomatic temporal lobe epilepsy with episodes of PIWD recorded by VIDEO-EEG and to review literature data in order to better define this peculiar event during seizures, a rare and probably underestimated semiological sign. To date, 51 cases with focal epilepsy and seizures associated with PIWD have been reported. All patients presented with temporal lobe epilepsy. All cases but one had symptomatic epilepsy. Most of the patients had an involvement of the right hemisphere. Water drinking was reported as an ictal sign in the majority of patients, and less frequently was reported as postictal. We believe that PIWD might be considered a rare automatic behaviour, like other automatisms. Automatisms are more frequently described in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. PIWD was reported also to have lateralizing significance in the non-dominant temporal lobe, however, because of its rarity, this finding remains unclear. PMID:26586166

  4. Blood meal-induced changes to antennal transcriptome profiles reveal shifts in odor sensitivities in Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Rinker, David C.; Pitts, R. Jason; Zhou, Xiaofan; Suh, Eunho; Rokas, Antonis; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory-driven behaviors are central to the lifecycle of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae and are initiated by peripheral signaling in the antenna and other olfactory tissues. To continue gaining insight into the relationship between gene expression and olfaction, we have performed cohort comparisons of antennal transcript abundances at five time points after a blood meal, a key event in both reproduction and disease transmission cycles. We found that more than 5,000 transcripts displayed significant abundance differences, many of which were correlated by cluster analysis. Within the chemosensory gene families, we observed a general reduction in the level of chemosensory gene transcripts, although a subset of odorant receptors (AgOrs) was modestly enhanced in post–blood-fed samples. Integration of AgOr transcript abundance data with previously characterized AgOr excitatory odorant response profiles revealed potential changes in antennal odorant receptivity that coincided with the shift from host-seeking to oviposition behaviors in blood-fed female mosquitoes. Behavioral testing of ovipositing females to odorants highlighted by this synthetic analysis identified two unique, unitary oviposition cues for An. gambiae, 2-propylphenol and 4-methylcyclohexanol. We posit that modest, yet cumulative, alterations of AgOr transcript levels modulate peripheral odor coding resulting in biologically relevant behavioral effects. Moreover, these results demonstrate that highly quantitative, RNAseq transcript abundance data can be successfully integrated with functional data to generate testable hypotheses. PMID:23630291

  5. Antennal transcriptome and differential expression of olfactory genes in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiao-Jian; Wang, Hai-Xiang; Yan, Zeng-Guang; Zhang, Min-Zhao; Wei, Chun-Hua; Qin, Xiao-Chun; Ji, Wei-Rong; Falabella, Patrizia; Du, Yan-Li

    2016-01-01

    The yellow peach moth (YPM), Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée), is a multivoltine insect pest of crops and fruits. Antennal-expressed receptors are important for insects to detect olfactory cues for host finding, mate attraction and oviposition site selection. However, few olfactory related genes were reported in YPM until now. In the present study, we sequenced and characterized the antennal transcriptomes of male and female YPM. In total, 15 putative odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 46 putative odorant receptors (ORs) and 7 putative ionotropic receptors (IRs) were annotated and identified as olfactory-related genes of C. punctiferalis. Further analysis of RT-qPCR revealed that all these olfactory genes are primarily or uniquely expressed in male and female antennae. Among which, 3 OBPs (OBP4, OBP8 and PBP2) and 4 ORs (OR22, OR26, OR44 and OR46) were specially expressed in male antennae, whereas 4 ORs (OR5, OR16, OR25 and OR42) were primarily expressed in female antennae. The predicted protein sequences were compared with homologs in other lepidopteran species and model insects, which showed high sequence homologies between C. punctiferalis and O. furnacalis. Our work allows for further functional studies of pheromone and general odorant detection genes, which might be meaningful targets for pest management. PMID:27364081

  6. Antennal uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glycosyltransferases in a pest insect: diversity and putative function in odorant and xenobiotics clearance.

    PubMed

    Bozzolan, F; Siaussat, D; Maria, A; Durand, N; Pottier, M-A; Chertemps, T; Maïbèche-Coisne, M

    2014-10-01

    Uridine diphosphate UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are detoxification enzymes widely distributed within living organisms. They are involved in the biotransformation of various lipophilic endogenous compounds and xenobiotics, including odorants. Several UGTs have been reported in the olfactory organs of mammals and involved in olfactory processing and detoxification within the olfactory mucosa but, in insects, this enzyme family is still poorly studied. Despite recent transcriptomic analyses, the diversity of antennal UGTs in insects has not been investigated. To date, only three UGT cDNAs have been shown to be expressed in insect olfactory organs. In the present study, we report the identification of eleven putative UGTs expressed in the antennae of the model pest insect Spodoptera littoralis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these UGTs belong to five different families, highlighting their structural diversity. In addition, two genes, UGT40R3 and UGT46A6, were either specifically expressed or overexpressed in the antennae, suggesting specific roles in this sensory organ. Exposure of male moths to the sex pheromone and to a plant odorant differentially downregulated the transcription levels of these two genes, revealing for the first time the regulation of insect UGTs by odorant exposure. Moreover, the specific antennal gene UGT46A6 was upregulated by insecticide topical application on antennae, suggesting its role in the protection of the olfactory organ towards xenobiotics. This work highlights the structural and functional diversity of UGTs within this highly specialized tissue. PMID:24698447

  7. Evolution of herbivory in Drosophilidae linked to loss of behaviors, antennal responses, odorant receptors, and ancestral diet

    PubMed Central

    Goldman-Huertas, Benjamin; Mitchell, Robert F.; Lapoint, Richard T.; Faucher, Cécile P.; Hildebrand, John G.; Whiteman, Noah K.

    2015-01-01

    Herbivory is a key innovation in insects, yet has only evolved in one-third of living orders. The evolution of herbivory likely involves major behavioral changes mediated by remodeling of canonical chemosensory modules. Herbivorous flies in the genus Scaptomyza (Drosophilidae) are compelling species in which to study the genomic architecture linked to the transition to herbivory because they recently evolved from microbe-feeding ancestors and are closely related to Drosophila melanogaster. We found that Scaptomyza flava, a leaf-mining specialist on plants in the family (Brassicaceae), was not attracted to yeast volatiles in a four-field olfactometer assay, whereas D. melanogaster was strongly attracted to these volatiles. Yeast-associated volatiles, especially short-chain aliphatic esters, elicited strong antennal responses in D. melanogaster, but weak antennal responses in electroantennographic recordings from S. flava. We sequenced the genome of S. flava and characterized this species’ odorant receptor repertoire. Orthologs of odorant receptors, which detect yeast volatiles in D. melanogaster and mediate critical host-choice behavior, were deleted or pseudogenized in the genome of S. flava. These genes were lost step-wise during the evolution of Scaptomyza. Additionally, Scaptomyza has experienced gene duplication and likely positive selection in paralogs of Or67b in D. melanogaster. Olfactory sensory neurons expressing Or67b are sensitive to green-leaf volatiles. Major trophic shifts in insects are associated with chemoreceptor gene loss as recently evolved ecologies shape sensory repertoires. PMID:25624509

  8. Antennal transcriptome and differential expression of olfactory genes in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xiao-Jian; Wang, Hai-Xiang; Yan, Zeng-Guang; Zhang, Min-Zhao; Wei, Chun-Hua; Qin, Xiao-Chun; Ji, Wei-Rong; Falabella, Patrizia; Du, Yan-Li

    2016-01-01

    The yellow peach moth (YPM), Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée), is a multivoltine insect pest of crops and fruits. Antennal-expressed receptors are important for insects to detect olfactory cues for host finding, mate attraction and oviposition site selection. However, few olfactory related genes were reported in YPM until now. In the present study, we sequenced and characterized the antennal transcriptomes of male and female YPM. In total, 15 putative odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 46 putative odorant receptors (ORs) and 7 putative ionotropic receptors (IRs) were annotated and identified as olfactory-related genes of C. punctiferalis. Further analysis of RT-qPCR revealed that all these olfactory genes are primarily or uniquely expressed in male and female antennae. Among which, 3 OBPs (OBP4, OBP8 and PBP2) and 4 ORs (OR22, OR26, OR44 and OR46) were specially expressed in male antennae, whereas 4 ORs (OR5, OR16, OR25 and OR42) were primarily expressed in female antennae. The predicted protein sequences were compared with homologs in other lepidopteran species and model insects, which showed high sequence homologies between C. punctiferalis and O. furnacalis. Our work allows for further functional studies of pheromone and general odorant detection genes, which might be meaningful targets for pest management. PMID:27364081

  9. Identification and Expression Analysis of Candidate Odorant-Binding Protein and Chemosensory Protein Genes by Antennal Transcriptome of Sitobion avenae

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Wenxin; Fan, Jia; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Qingxuan; Han, Zongli; Sun, Jingrui; Chen, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) of aphids are thought to be responsible for the initial molecular interactions during olfaction that mediate detection of chemical signals. Analysis of the diversity of proteins involved comprises critical basic research work that will facilitate the development of sustainable pest control strategies. To help us better understand differences in the olfactory system between winged and wingless grain aphids, we constructed an antennal transcriptome from winged and wingless Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), one of the most serious pests of cereal fields worldwide. Among the 133,331 unigenes in the antennal assembly, 13 OBP and 5 CSP putative transcripts were identified with 6 OBP and 3 CSP sequences representing new S. avenae annotations. We used qPCR to examine the expression profile of these genes sets across S. avenae development and in various tissues. We found 7 SaveOBPs and 1 SaveCSP were specifically or significantly elevated in antennae compared with other tissues, and that some transcripts (SaveOBP8, SaveCSP2 and SaveCSP5) were abundantly expressed in the legs of winged or wingless aphids. The expression levels of the SaveOBPs and SaveCSPs varied depending on the developmental stage. Possible physiological functions of these genes are discussed. Further molecular and functional studies of these olfactory related genes will explore their potential as novel targets for controlling S. avenae. PMID:27561107

  10. Identification and Expression Analysis of Candidate Odorant-Binding Protein and Chemosensory Protein Genes by Antennal Transcriptome of Sitobion avenae.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wenxin; Fan, Jia; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Qingxuan; Han, Zongli; Sun, Jingrui; Chen, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) of aphids are thought to be responsible for the initial molecular interactions during olfaction that mediate detection of chemical signals. Analysis of the diversity of proteins involved comprises critical basic research work that will facilitate the development of sustainable pest control strategies. To help us better understand differences in the olfactory system between winged and wingless grain aphids, we constructed an antennal transcriptome from winged and wingless Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), one of the most serious pests of cereal fields worldwide. Among the 133,331 unigenes in the antennal assembly, 13 OBP and 5 CSP putative transcripts were identified with 6 OBP and 3 CSP sequences representing new S. avenae annotations. We used qPCR to examine the expression profile of these genes sets across S. avenae development and in various tissues. We found 7 SaveOBPs and 1 SaveCSP were specifically or significantly elevated in antennae compared with other tissues, and that some transcripts (SaveOBP8, SaveCSP2 and SaveCSP5) were abundantly expressed in the legs of winged or wingless aphids. The expression levels of the SaveOBPs and SaveCSPs varied depending on the developmental stage. Possible physiological functions of these genes are discussed. Further molecular and functional studies of these olfactory related genes will explore their potential as novel targets for controlling S. avenae. PMID:27561107

  11. Sustained lobe reconnection in Saturn's magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, M. F.; Jackman, C. M.; Mitchell, D. G.; Hospodarsky, G.; Kurth, W. S.; Hansen, K. C.

    2015-12-01

    The degree to which solar wind driving may affect Saturn's magnetosphere is not yet fully understood. We present observations that suggest that under some conditions the solar wind does govern the character of the plasma sheet in Saturn's outer magnetosphere. On 16 September 2006, the Cassini spacecraft, at a radial distance of 37 Rs near local midnight, observed a sunward flowing ion population for ~5 h, which was accompanied by enhanced Saturn Kilometric Radiation emissions. We interpret this beam as the outflow from a long-lasting episode of Dungey-type reconnection, i.e., reconnection of previously open flux containing magnetosheath material. The beam occurred in the middle of a several-day interval of SKR activity and enhanced lobe magnetic field strength, apparently caused by the arrival of a solar wind compression region with significantly higher than average dynamic pressure. The arrival of the high-pressure solar wind also marked a change in the composition of the plasma-sheet plasma, from water-group-dominated material clearly of inner-magnetosphere origin to material dominated by light-ion composition, consistent with captured magnetosheath plasma. This event suggests that under the influence of prolonged high solar wind dynamic pressure, the tail plasma sheet, which normally consists of inner-magnetospheric plasma, is eroded away by ongoing reconnection that then involves open lobe field lines. This process removes open magnetic flux from the lobes and creates a more Earth-like, Dungey-style outer plasma sheet dominantly of solar wind origin. This behavior is potentially a recurrent phenomenon driven by repeating high-pressure streams (corotating interaction regions) in the solar wind, which also drive geomagnetic storms at Earth.

  12. Forced mixer lobes in ejector designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presz, W. M., Jr.; Morin, B. L.; Gousy, R. G.

    1986-01-01

    Forced mixer lobes in augmentor primary ejectors obtain a 100-percent increase in pumping over conventional design, together with nearly complete mixing in very short mixing ducts, through the generation of large scale axial vorticity in the mixing duct. The vorticity causes rapid mixing of the primary and secondary flows with low losses; since mixing length is minimized, wall friction losses are reduced, allowing more secondary flow to be pumped for a given total pressure in the primary flow. Analytical results are presented that are judged to have significant implications for future ejector test work.

  13. Computational studies of lobed forced mixer flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, H.; Wu, S. S.; Yu, S. C. M.

    1998-03-01

    Full Navier-Stokes Analyses have been conducted for the flows behind the trailing edge of a lobed forced mixer. The governing equations are derived from the time-dependent compressible Navier-Stokes equations and discretized in the finite-difference form. A simple two-layer eddy viscosity model has also been used to account for the turbulence. Computed results are compared with some of the velocity measurements using a laser-Doppler anemometer (Yu and Yip (1997)). In general, good agreement can be obtained in the streamwise mean velocity distribution but the decay of the streamwise circulation is underpredicted. Some suggestions to the discrepancy are proposed.

  14. Temporal Lobe Sclerosis Associated with Hippocampal Sclerosis in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Neuropathological Features

    PubMed Central

    Thom, Maria; Eriksson, Sofia; Martinian, Lillian; Caboclo, Luis O.; McEvoy, Andrew W.; Duncan, John S.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.

    2009-01-01

    Widespread changes involving neocortical as well as mesial temporal lobe structures can be present in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and hippocampal sclerosis (HS). The incidence, pathology and clinical significance of neocortical temporal lobe sclerosis (TLS) are not well characterized. We identified TLS in 30 out of 272 surgically treated cases of HS. TLS was defined by variable reduction of neurons from cortical layers II/III and laminar gliosis; it was typically accompanied by additional architectural abnormalities of layer II, i.e. abnormal neuronal orientation and aggregation. Quantitative analysis including tessellation methods for the distribution of layer II neurons supported these observations. In 40% of cases there was a gradient of TLS with more severe involvement towards the temporal pole, possibly signifying involvement of hippocampal projection pathways. There was a history of a febrile seizure as an initial precipitating injury in 73% of patients with TLS compared to 36% without TLS; no other clinical differences TLS and non-TLS cases were identified. TLS was not evident pre-operatively by neuroimaging. No obvious effect of TLS on seizure outcome was noted after temporal lobe resection; 73% became seizure-free at 2 year follow up. In conclusion, approximately 11% of surgically treated HS is accompanied by TLS. TLS is likely an acquired process with accompanying re-organizational dysplasia and an extension of mesial temporal sclerosis rather than a separate pathological entity. PMID:19606061

  15. Plasma transport in the magnetotail lobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haaland, S.; Lybekk, B.; Svenes, K.; Pedersen, A.; Förster, M.; Vaith, H.; Torbert, R.

    2009-09-01

    The Earth's magnetosphere is populated by particles originating from the solar wind and the terrestrial ionosphere. A substantial fraction of the plasma from these sources are convected through the magnetotail lobes. In this paper, we present a statistical study of convective plasma transport through the Earth's magnetotail lobes for various geomagnetic conditions. The results are based on a combination of density measurements from the Electric Field and Waves Experiment (EFW) and convection velocities from the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) on board the Cluster spacecraft. The results show that variations in the plasma flow is primarily attributed to changes in the convection velocity, whereas the plasma density remains fairly constant and shows little correlation with geomagnetic activity. During disturbed conditions there is also an increased abundance of heavier ions, which combined with enhanced convection, cause an accentuation of the mass flow. The convective transport is much slower than the field aligned transport. A substantial amount of plasma therefore escape downtail without ever reaching the central plasma sheet.

  16. Olfactory abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Desai, M; Agadi, J B; Karthik, N; Praveenkumar, S; Netto, A B

    2015-10-01

    We studied olfactory function in a cohort of 25 temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients and 25 healthy controls. Our objectives were to measure olfactory acuity in patients with right, left or bilateral TLE and compare them with age and sex matched controls, and to correlate olfactory acuity with duration of seizure, baseline seizure control and the number of drugs used. Olfactory impairment is common in neurological disorders and dysfunction of the temporo-limbic neural substrates involved in olfactory perception is noted in TLE. We measured olfactory acuity in 25 patients with TLE, nine with right, 10 with left and six with bilateral temporal lobe seizure activity, and compared them to the controls. Odor identification was assessed using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) which is a 40 item olfactory test used to diagnose olfactory deficits. Our results showed that patients with TLE exhibited significant impairment in UPSIT performance compared to the controls. There was no significant difference in scores between the right and left TLE patients. The severity of olfactory impairment did not correlate with the duration of seizures, baseline seizure control and number of drugs used. We concluded that significant olfactory impairment is seen in both right and left TLE patients, unrelated to the duration and baseline frequency of seizures or drugs used. PMID:26149406

  17. [Normal aging of frontal lobe functions].

    PubMed

    Calso, Cristina; Besnard, Jérémy; Allain, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Normal aging in individuals is often associated with morphological, metabolic and cognitive changes, which particularly concern the cerebral frontal regions. Starting from the "frontal lobe hypothesis of cognitive aging" (West, 1996), the present review is based on the neuroanatomical model developed by Stuss (2008), introducing four categories of frontal lobe functions: executive control, behavioural and emotional self-regulation and decision-making, energization and meta-cognitive functions. The selected studies only address the changes of one at least of these functions. The results suggest a deterioration of several cognitive frontal abilities in normal aging: flexibility, inhibition, planning, verbal fluency, implicit decision-making, second-order and affective theory of mind. Normal aging seems also to be characterised by a general reduction in processing speed observed during neuropsychological assessment (Salthouse, 1996). Nevertheless many cognitive functions remain preserved such as automatic or non-conscious inhibition, specific capacities of flexibility and first-order theory of mind. Therefore normal aging doesn't seem to be associated with a global cognitive decline but rather with a selective change in some frontal systems, conclusion which should be taken into account for designing caring programs in normal aging. PMID:27005339

  18. Pulmonary lobe segmentation with level sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Richberg, Alexander; Ehrhardt, Jan; Wilms, Matthias; Werner, René; Handels, Heinz

    2012-02-01

    Automatic segmentation of the separate human lung lobes is a crucial task in computer aided diagnostics and intervention planning, and required for example for determination of disease spreading or pulmonary parenchyma quantification. In this work, a novel approach for lobe segmentation based on multi-region level sets is presented. In a first step, interlobular fissures are detected using a supervised enhancement filter. The fissures are then used to compute a cost image, which is incorporated in the level set approach. By this, the segmentation is drawn to the fissures at places where structure information is present in the image. In areas with incomplete fissures (e.g. due to insufficient image quality or anatomical conditions) the smoothing term of the level sets applies and a closed continuation of the fissures is provided. The approach is tested on nine pulmonary CT scans. It is shown that incorporating the additional force term improves the segmentation significantly. On average, 83% of the left fissure is traced correctly; the right oblique and horizontal fissures are properly segmented to 76% and 48%, respectively.

  19. Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis in two pairs of identical twins.

    PubMed

    Karatas, H; Dericioglu, N; Saygi, S

    2012-01-01

    The most common pathology in adult patients with temporal lobe epilepsy is hippocampal sclerosis (HS), the etiology of which is not clear. There is a conflicting evidence in literature regarding whether HS is genetic or acquired. Twin studies can help to clarify the mechanisms of HS, but limited numbers of twins have been studied. We describe two monozygotic pairs, in whom the affected twin had mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and HS. The unaffected twin remained seizure free on long-term follow-up. HS was confirmed pathologically in one of the affected twins. Our data and other limited twin studies indicate that HS occurs as a consequence of prolonged repeated seizures or other events during childhood. In other words, some acquired factors may be more important than genetic ones in the etiology of HS (Fig. 2, Ref. 16). PMID:22794520

  20. Channel systems and lobe construction in the Mississippi Fan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, L. E.; Kenyon, Neil H.; Bouma, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    Morphological features on the Mississippi Fan in the eastern Gulf of Mexico were mapped using GLORIA II, a long-range side-scan sonar system. Prominent is a sinuous channel flanked by well-developed levees and occasional crevasse splays. The channel follows the axis and thickest part of the youngest fan lobe; seismic-reflection profiles offer evidence that its course has remained essentially constant throughout lobe development. Local modification and possible erosion of levees by currents indicates a present state of inactivity. Superficial sliding has affected part of the fan lobe, but does not appear to have been a factor in lobe construction. ?? 1982 A. M. Dowden, Inc.

  1. Inhibitory attentional control in patients with frontal lobe damage

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Mariana; Nakic, Marina; Elpern-Waxman, Jordan; Granetz, Joy; O'Grady, Joy; Phipps, Michael; Milne, Elizabeth; Logan, Gordon D.; Hasher, Lynn; Grafman, Jordan

    2006-01-01

    The performance of a group of frontal lobe lesion and a group of frontal lobe dementia patients was compared with the performance of their respective matched normal control groups on two tests of inhibitory attentional control—the stop-signal reaction time task and a negative priming task. Both patient groups responded significantly slower than their respective normal control groups, but they showed only marginally significant selective impairments on the measures of inhibition. The data suggest that the specific inhibitory processes evaluated by these two tests are, in general, spared in patients with focal frontal lobe lesions or frontal lobe degeneration. PMID:12821109

  2. fNIRS detects temporal lobe response to affective touch.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Randi H; Bolling, Danielle Z; Anderson, Laura C; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Kaiser, Martha D

    2014-04-01

    Touch plays a crucial role in social-emotional development. Slow, gentle touch applied to hairy skin is processed by C-tactile (CT) nerve fibers. Furthermore, 'social brain' regions, such as the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) have been shown to process CT-targeted touch. Research on the development of these neural mechanisms is scant, yet such knowledge may inform our understanding of the critical role of touch in development and its dysfunction in disorders involving sensory issues, such as autism. The aim of this study was to validate the ability of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), an imaging technique well-suited for use with infants, to measure temporal lobe responses to CT-targeted touch. Healthy adults received brushing to the right forearm (CT) and palm (non-CT) separately, in a block design procedure. We found significant activation in right pSTS and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to arm > palm touch. In addition, individual differences in autistic traits were related to the magnitude of peak activation within pSTS. These findings demonstrate that fNIRS can detect brain responses to CT-targeted touch and lay the foundation for future work with infant populations that will characterize the development of brain mechanisms for processing CT-targeted touch in typical and atypical populations. PMID:23327935

  3. fNIRS detects temporal lobe response to affective touch

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Randi H.; Bolling, Danielle Z.; Anderson, Laura C.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2014-01-01

    Touch plays a crucial role in social–emotional development. Slow, gentle touch applied to hairy skin is processed by C-tactile (CT) nerve fibers. Furthermore, ‘social brain’ regions, such as the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) have been shown to process CT-targeted touch. Research on the development of these neural mechanisms is scant, yet such knowledge may inform our understanding of the critical role of touch in development and its dysfunction in disorders involving sensory issues, such as autism. The aim of this study was to validate the ability of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), an imaging technique well-suited for use with infants, to measure temporal lobe responses to CT-targeted touch. Healthy adults received brushing to the right forearm (CT) and palm (non-CT) separately, in a block design procedure. We found significant activation in right pSTS and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to arm > palm touch. In addition, individual differences in autistic traits were related to the magnitude of peak activation within pSTS. These findings demonstrate that fNIRS can detect brain responses to CT-targeted touch and lay the foundation for future work with infant populations that will characterize the development of brain mechanisms for processing CT-targeted touch in typical and atypical populations. PMID:23327935

  4. An antennal carboxylesterase from Drosophila melanogaster, esterase 6, is a candidate odorant-degrading enzyme toward food odorants

    PubMed Central

    Chertemps, Thomas; Younus, Faisal; Steiner, Claudia; Durand, Nicolas; Coppin, Chris W.; Pandey, Gunjan; Oakeshott, John G.; Maïbèche, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Reception of odorant molecules within insect olfactory organs involves several sequential steps, including their transport through the sensillar lymph, interaction with the respective sensory receptors, and subsequent inactivation. Odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs) putatively play a role in signal dynamics by rapid degradation of odorants in the vicinity of the receptors, but this hypothesis is mainly supported by in vitro results. We have recently shown that an extracellular carboxylesterase, esterase-6 (EST-6), is involved in the physiological and behavioral dynamics of the response of Drosophila melanogaster to its volatile pheromone ester, cis-vaccenyl acetate. However, as the expression pattern of the Est-6 gene in the antennae is not restricted to the pheromone responding sensilla, we tested here if EST-6 could play a broader function in the antennae. We found that recombinant EST-6 is able to efficiently hydrolyse several volatile esters that would be emitted by its natural food in vitro. Electrophysiological comparisons of mutant Est-6 null flies and a control strain (on the same genetic background) showed that the dynamics of the antennal response to these compounds is influenced by EST-6, with the antennae of the null mutants showing prolonged activity in response to them. Antennal responses to the strongest odorant, pentyl acetate, were then studied in more detail, showing that the repolarization dynamics were modified even at low doses but without modification of the detection threshold. Behavioral choice experiments with pentyl acetate also showed differences between genotypes; attraction to this compound was observed at a lower dose among the null than control flies. As EST-6 is able to degrade various bioactive odorants emitted by food and plays a role in the response to these compounds, we hypothesize a role as an ODE for this enzyme toward food volatiles. PMID:26594178

  5. Sex-specific antennal sensory system in the ant Camponotus japonicus: structure and distribution of sensilla on the flagellum.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Aki; Nishino, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Yokohari, Fumio; Nishikawa, Michiko

    2009-10-01

    The antennae are a critically important component of the ant's highly elaborated chemical communication systems. However, our understanding of the organization of the sensory systems on the antennae of ants, from peripheral receptors to central and output systems, is poorly understood. Consequently, we have used scanning electron and confocal laser microscopy to create virtually complete maps of the structure, numbers of sensory neurons, and distribution patterns of all types of external sensilla on the antennal flagellum of all types of colony members of the carpenter ant Camponotus japonicus. Based on the outer cuticular structures, the sensilla have been classified into seven types: coelocapitular, coeloconic, ampullaceal, basiconic, trichoid-I, trichoid-II, and chaetic sensilla. Retrograde staining of antennal nerves has enabled us to count the number of sensory neurons housed in the different types of sensilla: three in a coelocapitular sensillum, three in a coeloconic sensillum, one in an ampullaceal sensillum, over 130 in a basiconic sensillum, 50-60 in a trichoid-I sensillum, and 8-9 in a trichoid-II sensillum. The basiconic sensilla, which are cuticular hydrocarbon-receptive in the ant, are present in workers and unmated queens but absent in males. Coelocapitular sensilla (putatively hygro- and thermoreceptive) have been newly identified in this study. Coelocapitular, coeloconic, and ampullaceal sensilla form clusters and show biased distributions on flagellar segments of antennae in all colony members. The total numbers of sensilla per flagellum are about 9000 in unmated queens, 7500 in workers, and 6000 in males. This is the first report presenting comprehensive sensillar maps of antennae in ants. PMID:19763622

  6. Lung lobe segmentation based on statistical atlas and graph cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimura, Yukitaka; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Honma, Hirotoshi; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Natori, Hiroshi; Mori, Kensaku

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a novel method that can extract lung lobes by utilizing probability atlas and multilabel graph cuts. Information about pulmonary structures plays very important role for decision of the treatment strategy and surgical planning. The human lungs are divided into five anatomical regions, the lung lobes. Precise segmentation and recognition of lung lobes are indispensable tasks in computer aided diagnosis systems and computer aided surgery systems. A lot of methods for lung lobe segmentation are proposed. However, these methods only target the normal cases. Therefore, these methods cannot extract the lung lobes in abnormal cases, such as COPD cases. To extract lung lobes in abnormal cases, this paper propose a lung lobe segmentation method based on probability atlas of lobe location and multilabel graph cuts. The process consists of three components; normalization based on the patient's physique, probability atlas generation, and segmentation based on graph cuts. We apply this method to six cases of chest CT images including COPD cases. Jaccard index was 79.1%.

  7. The Very Fast Evolution of Bi-Lobed Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gesicki, K.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Morisset, C.

    2015-12-01

    We study the kinematical ages of six Galactic bulge planetary nebulae selected purely on their bi-lobed morphology. The ages are derived from pseudo-3D photoionization and kinematical models, using HST images and UVES spectra and assuming axial symmetry. The bi-lobed nebulae show similar kinematical ages (˜1500 yrs), despite of their different sizes, expansion velocities and stellar temperatures.

  8. Ictal whistling: a rare automatism during temporal lobe seizures.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, Seetharam; Mirsattari, Seyed; McLachlan, Richard S

    2010-06-01

    One of the most unusual ictal automatisms reported is whistling. Two patients, both males, are described who had prominent whistling as a component of their complex partial seizures. Both had temporal lobe epilepsy with resolution of seizures after a temporal lobectomy. Ictal whistling appears to localize to the temporal lobe but may not be useful for lateralization. PMID:20478766

  9. Temporal lobe lesions and psychosis in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, R; Zigmond, A S

    2010-01-01

    Lesions in the temporal lobe are associated with psychiatric manifestations in multiple sclerosis. The authors describe this case of a young man with multiple sclerosis who presented with first-episode psychosis and had acute lesions in the temporal lobe. He was successfully treated with olanzapine and β-interferon. PMID:22789690

  10. Infantile Autism and the Temporal Lobe of the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzler, Bruce E.; Griffin, Judith L.

    1981-01-01

    Studies are reviewed that support the hypothesis that infantile autism results from a neuropathology of the temporal lobes of the brain. It is concluded that the main autistic symptoms are most consistent with a neurological model involving bilateral dysfunction of the temporal lobes. (Author)

  11. Rotating superconductor magnet for producing rotating lobed magnetic field lines

    DOEpatents

    Hilal, Sadek K.; Sampson, William B.; Leonard, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a rotating superconductor magnet for producing a rotating lobed magnetic field, comprising a cryostat; a superconducting magnet in the cryostat having a collar for producing a lobed magnetic field having oppositely directed adjacent field lines; rotatable support means for selectively rotating the superconductor magnet; and means for energizing the superconductor magnet.

  12. The Role of Medial Temporal Lobe Regions in Incidental and Intentional Retrieval of Item and Relational Information in Aging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Chun; Giovanello, Kelly S

    2016-06-01

    Considerable neuropsychological and neuroimaging work indicates that the medial temporal lobes are critical for both item and relational memory retrieval. However, there remain outstanding issues in the literature, namely the extent to which medial temporal lobe regions are differentially recruited during incidental and intentional retrieval of item and relational information, and the extent to which aging may affect these neural substrates. The current fMRI study sought to address these questions; participants incidentally encoded word pairs embedded in sentences and incidental item and relational retrieval were assessed through speeded reading of intact, rearranged, and new word-pair sentences, while intentional item and relational retrieval were assessed through old/new associative recognition of a separate set of intact, rearranged, and new word pairs. Results indicated that, in both younger and older adults, anterior hippocampus and perirhinal cortex indexed incidental and intentional item retrieval in the same manner. In contrast, posterior hippocampus supported incidental and intentional relational retrieval in both age groups and an adjacent cluster in posterior hippocampus was recruited during both forms of relational retrieval for older, but not younger, adults. Our findings suggest that while medial temporal lobe regions do not differentiate between incidental and intentional forms of retrieval, there are distinct roles for anterior and posterior medial temporal lobe regions during retrieval of item and relational information, respectively, and further indicate that posterior regions may, under certain conditions, be over-recruited in healthy aging. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26928884

  13. Lung lobe modeling and segmentation with individualized surface meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaffert, Thomas; Barschdorf, Hans; von Berg, Jens; Dries, Sebastian; Franz, Astrid; Klinder, Tobias; Lorenz, Cristian; Renisch, Steffen; Wiemker, Rafael

    2008-03-01

    An automated segmentation of lung lobes in thoracic CT images is of interest for various diagnostic purposes like the quantification of emphysema or the localization of tumors within the lung. Although the separating lung fissures are visible in modern multi-slice CT-scanners, their contrast in the CT-image often does not separate the lobes completely. This makes it impossible to build a reliable segmentation algorithm without additional information. Our approach uses general anatomical knowledge represented in a geometrical mesh model to construct a robust lobe segmentation, which even gives reasonable estimates of lobe volumes if fissures are not visible at all. The paper describes the generation of the lung model mesh including lobes by an average volume model, its adaptation to individual patient data using a special fissure feature image, and a performance evaluation over a test data set showing an average segmentation accuracy of 1 to 3 mm.

  14. Using the moon to probe the geomagnetic tail lobe plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Sonett, C. P.; Smith, B. F.; Colburn, D. S.; Schwartz, K.

    1975-01-01

    We have detected the presence of plasma in the lobes of the geomagnetic tail from observations of magnetic induction in the moon forced by time variations of the earth's magnetotail lobe field. The magnitude of the moon's tangential electromagnetic transfer function when the moon is in the lobes of the geomagnetic tail is less than that when the moon is in the solar wind or geomagnetic tail plasma sheet. The tangential transfer function when the moon is in the magnetotail lobes decreases at frequencies above about 8 mHz due to finite wavelength effects. This shows that the waves in the magnetotail lobes which drive the lunar magnetic induction must have speeds far less than the speed of light and wavelengths comparable to the size of the moon.

  15. Lateralization of the frontal lobe functions elicited by a cognitive bias task is a fundamental process. Lesion study.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Kakurou; Aihara, Masao; Goldberg, Elkhonon; Nakazawa, Shinpei

    2005-09-01

    Cognitive neuroscience researchers have hypothesized that context-dependent and context-independent response selection is associated with the left and right frontal lobe, respectively, in right-handed adult males. Patients with left frontal lobe lesions show context-independent reasoning in a cognitive bias task (CBT), while those with right frontal lesions show context-dependent reasoning. Young children show more context-independent responses in a modified CBT (mCBT), while adolescents and adults show more context-dependent responses. We investigated the cognitive bias of right-handed children with unilateral frontal lobe lesions/epileptic foci to explore the plasticity of lateralization in the frontal lobes. The study included eight children with left frontal lobe lesions/epileptic foci (LLF) and four children with right frontal lobe lesions/epileptic foci (RLF). Twenty-three right-handed age-matched males served as controls. A computer presented version of the original card-choice task that was simplified and modified for children was used (mCBT). Simple visual stimuli differed dichotomously in shape, color, number, and shading. A target object presented alone was followed by two choices from which subjects made selection based on preference. Considering all four characteristics, the degree of similarity between the target and the subjects' choice was scored for 30 trials. A high score indicated a context-dependent response selection bias and a low score indicated a context-independent bias. The RLF subjects had a higher converted score (mean: 26.8+/-2.2), while LLF subjects showed a lower converted score (mean: 7.75+/-6.3). There were highly significant differences between LLF subjects and the other groups (P<0.001 vs. controls or RLF subjects). No significant correlations were observed between the converted scores and the age at onset, time since insult, or IQ in either LLF or RLF subjects. These findings suggest that the lateralization of frontal lobe

  16. Reconsidering harbingers of dementia: progression of parietal lobe white matter hyperintensities predicts Alzheimer's disease incidence.

    PubMed

    Brickman, Adam M; Zahodne, Laura B; Guzman, Vanessa A; Narkhede, Atul; Meier, Irene B; Griffith, Erica Y; Provenzano, Frank A; Schupf, Nicole; Manly, Jennifer J; Stern, Yaakov; Luchsinger, José A; Mayeux, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence implicates small vessel cerebrovascular disease, visualized as white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, in the pathogenesis and diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cross-sectional volumetric measures of WMH, particularly in the parietal lobes, are associated with increased risk of AD. In the present study, we sought to determine whether the longitudinal regional progression of WMH predicts incident AD above-and-beyond traditional radiological markers of neurodegeneration (i.e., hippocampal atrophy and cortical thickness). Three hundred three nondemented older adults (mean age = 79.24 ± 5.29) received high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and then again 4.6 years (standard deviation = 1.01) later. Over the follow-up interval 26 participants progressed to AD. Using structural equation modeling, we calculated latent difference scores of parietal and nonparietal WMH, hippocampus volumes, and cortical thickness values in AD-related regions. Within the structural equation modeling framework, we determined whether baseline or change scores or both predicted AD conversion, while controlling for several time-invariant relevant variables. Smaller baseline hippocampus volume, change in hippocampus volume (i.e., atrophy), higher baseline parietal lobe WMH, and increasing parietal lobe WMH volume but not WMH in other regions or measures of cortical thickness, independently predicted progression to AD. The findings provide strong evidence that regionally accumulating WMH predict AD onset in addition to hallmark neurodegenerative changes typically associated with AD. PMID:25155654

  17. [Cytophysiology of the glandular lobe of the corpora cardiaca: ergastoplasmic granules and their significance].

    PubMed

    Lafon-Cazal, M; Michel, R

    1977-01-01

    The number of ergastoplasmic granules in the glandular lobe of the corpora cardiaca is counted in Locusta migratoria migratorioides R. and F. and Schistocerca gregaria Forsk., male adults of different ages, grouped or isolated, having flown or not, and reared in various conditions of hygrometry and temperature. A good correlation was found between the number of ergastoplasmic granules and the utilization of the adipokinetic hormone. Ergastoplasmic granules may représent an original mechanism of hormonal storage used in view of heavy metabolic requirements. PMID:615543

  18. Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Waldbaum, Simon; Patel, Manisha

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction are contributing factors to various neurological disorders. Recently, there has been increasing evidence supporting the association between mitochondrial oxidative stress and epilepsy. Although certain inherited epilepsies are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, little is known about its role in acquired epilepsies such as temporal lobe epilepsy. Mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction are emerging as key factors that not only result from seizures, but may also contribute to epileptogenesis. The occurrence of epilepsy increases with age, and mitochondrial oxidative stress is a leading mechanism of aging and age-related degenerative disease, suggesting a further involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in seizure generation. Mitochondria have critical cellular functions that effect neuronal excitability including production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), fatty acid oxidation, control of apoptosis and necrosis, regulation of amino acid cycling, neurotransmitter biosynthesis, and regulation of cytosolic Ca2+ homeostasis. Mitochondria are the primary site of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production making them uniquely vulnerable to oxidative stress and damage which can further affect cellular macromolecule function, the ability of the electron transport chain to produce ATP, antioxidant defenses, mitochondrial DNA stability, and synaptic glutamate homeostasis. Oxidative damage to one or more of these cellular targets may affect neuronal excitability and increase seizure susceptibility. The specific targeting of mitochondrial oxidative stress, dysfunction, and bioenergetics with pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments may be a novel avenue for attenuating epileptogenesis and seizure initiation. PMID:19850449

  19. Social Cognition and the Anterior Temporal Lobes

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Lars A.; Olson, Ingrid R.

    2009-01-01

    Two distinct literatures have emerged on the functionality of the anterior temporal lobes (ATL): in one field, the ATLs are conceived of as a repository for semantic or conceptual knowledge. In another field, the ATLs are thought to play some undetermined role in social-emotional functions such as Theory of Mind. Here we attempted to reconcile these distinct functions by assessing whether social semantic processing can explain ATL activation in other social cognitive tasks. Social semantic functions refer to knowledge about social concepts and rules. In a first experiment we tested the idea that social semantic representations can account for activations in the ATL to social attribution stimuli such as Heider and Simmel animations. Left ATL activations to Heider and Simmel stimuli overlapped with activations to social words. In a second experiment we assessed the putative roles of the ATLs in the processing of narratives and theory of mind content and found evidence for a role of the ATLs in the processing of theory of mind but not narrative per se. These findings indicate that the ATLs are part of a neuronal network supporting social cognition and that they are engaged when tasks demand access to social conceptual knowledge. PMID:19931397

  20. Lobed Mixer Optimization for Advanced Ejector Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waitz, Ian A.

    1996-01-01

    The overall objectives are: 1) to pursue analytical, computational, and experimental studies that enhance basic understanding of forced mixing phenomena relevant to supersonic jet noise reduction, and 2) to integrate this enhanced understanding (analytical, computational, and empirical) into a design-oriented model of a mixer-ejector noise suppression system. The work is focused on ejector geometries and flow conditions typical of those being investigated in the NASA High Speed Research Program (HSRP). The research will be carried out in collaboration with the NASA HSRP Nozzle Integrated Technology Development (ITD) Team, and will both contribute to, and benefit from, the results of other HSRP research. The noise suppressor system model that is being developed under this grant is distinct from analytical tools developed by industry because it directly links details of lobe geometry to mixer-ejector performance. In addition, the model provides a 'technology road map to define gaps in the current understanding of various phenomena related to mixer-ejector design and to help prioritize research areas. This report describes research completed in the past year, as well as work proposed for the following year.

  1. Dust Temperatures in the Galactic Center Lobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinchilla-Garcia, Luis G.; Morris, Mark

    2016-06-01

    The Galactic Center Lobe (GCL), located toward positive latitudes above the Galactic center and extending to a distance of ~150 pc, is apparently a bubble of hot gas that is manifested at all wavelengths from radio to X-rays. In mid- to far-infrared dust emission, the GCL shows several superposed, elongated structures oriented perpendicular to the Galactic plane. Among them are the dust ridge centered on AFGL5376 and another defining the Double Helix Nebula (DHN). Using temperature maps constructed from a combination of archival WISE and SPITZER data, we have found that these features exhibit dramatic spatial variations in their dust temperatures, with the DHN and the AFGL5376 ridge being much warmer, and therefore substantially brighter in the 20 - 25 µm range, than several other linear features. Furthermore, the cooler linear structures tend to have rather constant dust temperatures, in sharp contrast to the highly variable emission within the warmer features. We will summarize the implications of these results for the nature of the dust heating sources. The candidate heating mechanisms are direct photon heating by stars in the central cluster, thermal heating by exposure to a hot coronal gas, and the impact of ions driven by magnetosonic waves or shocks.

  2. Resting state networks in temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Cataldi, Mauro; Avoli, Massimo; de Villers-Sidani, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Summary Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is typically described as a neurologic disorder affecting a cerebral network comprising the hippocampus proper and several anatomically related extrahippocampal regions. A new level of complexity was recently added to the study of this disorder by the evidence that TLE also appears to chronically alter the activity of several brain-wide neural networks involved in the control of higher order brain functions and not traditionally linked to epilepsy. Recently developed brain imaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis of resting state connectivity, have greatly contributed to these observations by allowing the precise characterization of several brain networks with distinct functional signatures in the resting brain, and therefore also known as “resting state networks.” These significant advances in imaging represent an opportunity to investigate the still elusive origins of the disabling cognitive and psychiatric manifestations of TLE, and could have important implications for its pathophysiology and, perhaps, its therapy. Herein we review recent studies in this field by focusing on resting state networks that have been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and cognitive impairment in patients with epilepsy: the default mode network, the attention network, and the reward/emotion network. PMID:24117098

  3. Lobe dynamics applied to barotropic Rossby-wave breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Tieh-Yong; Plumb, R. Alan

    2000-06-01

    We applied the methods of lobe dynamics to the problem of transport across the edge of a barotropic vortex patch. The model used captures the essential dynamics of filament shedding in the wintertime stratospheric polar vortex. Two approaches were adopted for the problem: (1) the dominant periodic component of the vortical flow was identified and conventional lobe dynamics methods for periodic dynamical systems were applied to it; (2) the full aperiodic, dynamically consistent flow was retained and a modified brand of lobe dynamics was used to quantify the transport. Our results show that in the periodic case, much reversible transport occurs across the lobe dynamical boundary due to overlapping intruding and extruding lobes. In the aperiodic case, a small amount of intrusion was noted, contrary to the well-established fact that potential vorticity shedding in barotropic vortices is uniquely outwards. In our discussion, we argue that while lobe dynamics provides a rigorous framework for quantifying transport across the lobe dynamical boundary, this boundary may not be appropriate for quantifying transport across internal transport barriers, such as the stratospheric polar vortex edge.

  4. Emissions Measurements from a Lobed Fuel Injector/Burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, M. G.; Smith, L. L.; Karagozian, A. R.; Smith, O. I.

    1998-01-01

    The present experimental study examines NO(x) and CO emissions associated with alternative fuel injector geometries. These injectors mix fuel and air to differing extents and thus create different local equivalence ratios upstream of flame ignition and stabilization. Two of the devices studied are lobed fuel injectors, in which mixing of reactants is associated with stream wise vorticity generation and straining of fuel-air interfaces, while the third is a non-lobed fuel injector which creates relatively little fuel-air mixing prior to ignition.Results show that one lobed injector geometry appears to produce locally lean premixed flame structures, resulting in low NO. emissions when compared with non-lobed injector emissions. The other lobed injector geometry appears to produce a local fuel-air mixture which is closer to stoichiometric conditions, with NO(x) emissions that are actually higher than for the non-lobed injector. For both lobed injector geometries examined here, CO emissions become high for over-all lean operating conditions, consistent with premixed combustion behavior. The present study demonstrates the importance of control of the local equivalence ratio in minimizing burner emissions.

  5. Presurgical connectome and postsurgical seizure control in temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Helpern, Joseph A.; Sainju, Rup; Nesland, Travis; Edwards, Jonathan C.; Glazier, Steven S.; Tabesh, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether patients with surgically refractory medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) exhibit a distinct pattern of structural network organization involving the temporal lobes and extratemporal regions. Methods: We retrospectively studied 18 healthy controls and 20 patients with medication refractory unilateral MTLE who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy for treatment of seizures. Patients were classified as seizure-free or not seizure-free at least 1 year after surgery. The presurgical brain connectome was calculated through probabilistic connectivity from MRI–diffusion tensor imaging from 83 anatomically defined regions of interest encompassing the whole brain. The connectivity patterns were analyzed regarding group differences in regional connectivity and network graph properties. Results: Compared with controls, patients exhibited a decrease in connectivity involving ipsilateral thalamocortical regions, with a pathologic increase in ipsilateral medial temporal lobe, insular, and frontal connectivity. Among patients, those not seizure-free exhibited a higher connectivity between structures in 1) the ipsilateral medial and lateral temporal lobe, 2) the ipsilateral medial temporal and parietal lobe, and 3) the contralateral temporal pole and parietal lobe. Patients not seizure-free also exhibited lower small-worldness in the subnetwork within the ipsilateral temporal lobe, with higher subnetwork integration at the expense of segregation. Conclusions: MTLE is associated with network rearrangement within, but not restricted to, the temporal lobe ipsilateral to the onset of seizures. Networks involving key components of the medial temporal lobe and structures traditionally not removed during surgery may be associated with seizure control after surgical treatment of MTLE. PMID:24107863

  6. Dendrocerus mexicali (Hymenoptera, Ceraphronoidea, Megaspilidae): Novel antennal morphology, first description of female, and expansion of known range into the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Kyle N.; Mikó, István; Deans, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dendrocerus mexicali has been described by Paul Dessart from a single male specimen collected in Mexico. Using 87 newly identified specimens we expand the known range to include the Southwestern United States and Florida, provide an expanded description of the species, and provide the first record of the female. We also use confocal laser scanning microscopy and in vitro hydrostatic pressure changes to investigate the functional morphology of apparently unique basally flexible antennal branches. PMID:27110150

  7. Concomitant requirement for Notch and Jak/Stat signaling during neuro-epithelial differentiation in the Drosophila optic lobe.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Kathy T; Wang, Jay; Junker, Markus; Kriz, Steve; Vo, Gloria; Asem, Bobby; Olson, John M; Banerjee, Utpal; Hartenstein, Volker

    2010-10-15

    The optic lobe forms a prominent compartment of the Drosophila adult brain that processes visual input from the compound eye. Neurons of the optic lobe are produced during the larval period from two neuroepithelial layers called the outer and inner optic anlage (OOA, IOA). In the early larva, the optic anlagen grow as epithelia by symmetric cell division. Subsequently, neuroepithelial cells (NE) convert into neuroblasts (NB) in a tightly regulated spatio-temporal progression that starts at the edges of the epithelia and gradually move towards its centers. Neuroblasts divide at a much faster pace in an asymmetric mode, producing lineages of neurons that populate the different parts of the optic lobe. In this paper we have reconstructed the complex morphogenesis of the optic lobe during the larval period, and established a role for the Notch and Jak/Stat signaling pathways during the NE-NB conversion. After an early phase of complete overlap in the OOA, signaling activities sort out such that Jak/Stat is active in the lateral OOA which gives rise to the lamina, and Notch remains in the medial cells that form the medulla. During the third instar, a wave front of enhanced Notch activity progressing over the OOA from medial to lateral controls the gradual NE-NB conversion. Neuroepithelial cells at the medial edge of the OOA, shortly prior to becoming neuroblasts, express high levels of Delta, which activates the Notch pathway and thereby maintains the OOA in an epithelial state. Loss of Notch signaling, as well as Jak/Stat signaling, results in a premature NE-NB conversion of the OOA, which in turn has severe effects on optic lobe patterning. Our findings present the Drosophila optic lobe as a useful model to analyze the key signaling mechanisms controlling transitions of progenitor cells from symmetric (growth) to asymmetric (differentiative) divisions. PMID:20692248

  8. Concomitant requirement for Notch and Jak/Stat signaling during neuro-epithelial differentiation in the Drosophila optic lobe

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Kathy T.; Wang, Jay; Junker, Markus; Kriz, Steve; Vo, Gloria; Asem, Bobby; Olson, John M.; Banerjee, Utpal; Hartenstein, Volker

    2012-01-01

    The optic lobe forms a prominent compartment of the Drosophila adult brain that processes visual input from the compound eye. Neurons of the optic lobe are produced during the larval period from two neuroepithelial layers called the outer and inner optic anlage (OOA, IOA). In the early larva, the optic anlagen grow as epithelia by symmetric cell division. Subsequently, neuroepithelial cells (NE) convert into neuroblasts (NB) in a tightly regulated spatio-temporal progression that starts at the edges of the epithelia and gradually move towards its centers. Neuroblasts divide at a much faster pace in an asymmetric mode, producing lineages of neurons that populate the different parts of the optic lobe. In this paper we have reconstructed the complex morphogenesis of the optic lobe during the larval period, and established a role for the Notch and Jak/Stat signaling pathways during the NE-NB conversion. After an early phase of complete overlap in the OOA, signaling activities sort out such that Jak/Stat is active in the lateral OOA which gives rise to the lamina, and Notch remains in the medial cells that form the medulla. During the third instar, a wave front of enhanced Notch activity progressing over the OOA from medial to lateral controls the gradual NE-NB conversion. Neuroepithelial cells at the medial edge of the OOA, shortly prior to becoming neuroblasts, express high levels of Delta, which activates the Notch pathway and thereby maintains the OOA in an epithelial state. Loss of Notch signaling, as well as Jak/Stat signaling, results in a premature NE-NB conversion of the OOA, which in turn has severe effects on optic lobe patterning. Our findings present the Drosophila optic lobe as a useful model to analyze the key signaling mechanisms controlling transitions of progenitor cells from symmetric (growth) to asymmetric (differentiative) divisions. PMID:20692248

  9. Decreased frontal lobe function in people with Internet addiction disorder

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Esmail, Fatema; Li, Lingjiang; Kou, Zhifeng; Li, Weihui; Gao, Xueping; Wang, Zhiyuan; Tan, Changlian; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Shunke

    2013-01-01

    In our previous studies, we showed that frontal lobe and brainstem functions were abnormal in on-line game addicts. In this study, 14 students with Internet addiction disorder and 14 matched healthy controls underwent proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure cerebral function. Results demonstrated that the ratio of N-acetylaspartate to creatine decreased, but the ratio of cho-line-containing compounds to creatine increased in the bilateral frontal lobe white matter in people with Internet addiction disorder. However, these ratios were mostly unaltered in the brainstem, suggesting that frontal lobe function decreases in people with Internet addiction disorder. PMID:25206643

  10. Decreased frontal lobe function in people with Internet addiction disorder.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Esmail, Fatema; Li, Lingjiang; Kou, Zhifeng; Li, Weihui; Gao, Xueping; Wang, Zhiyuan; Tan, Changlian; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Shunke

    2013-12-01

    In our previous studies, we showed that frontal lobe and brainstem functions were abnormal in on-line game addicts. In this study, 14 students with Internet addiction disorder and 14 matched healthy controls underwent proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure cerebral function. Results demonstrated that the ratio of N-acetylaspartate to creatine decreased, but the ratio of cho-line-containing compounds to creatine increased in the bilateral frontal lobe white matter in people with Internet addiction disorder. However, these ratios were mostly unaltered in the brainstem, suggesting that frontal lobe function decreases in people with Internet addiction disorder. PMID:25206643

  11. Stability of water-lubricated three-lobe journals mated with plain bearings at zero load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuller, F. T.

    1972-01-01

    Tests were conducted with plain bearings running with three types of three-lobe journals. The bearings, with a nominal 3.8-centimeter (1.5-in.) diameter and L/D of 1, were tested at 300 K (80 F) under stable conditions to 5400 rpm. The lobed configurations tested, in order of diminishing stability, were a tilted-lobe journal with grooves, a tilted-lobe journal without grooves, and a centrally lobed journal without grooves. A previously tested three-tilted-lobe bearing with grooves, running with a plain journal, was somewhat more stable than the tilted-lobe or centrally lobed journals.

  12. LobeFinder: A Convex Hull-Based Method for Quantitative Boundary Analyses of Lobed Plant Cells1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tzu-Ching; Belteton, Samuel A.; Szymanski, Daniel B.; Umulis, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Dicot leaves are composed of a heterogeneous mosaic of jigsaw puzzle piece-shaped pavement cells that vary greatly in size and the complexity of their shape. Given the importance of the epidermis and this particular cell type for leaf expansion, there is a strong need to understand how pavement cells morph from a simple polyhedral shape into highly lobed and interdigitated cells. At present, it is still unclear how and when the patterns of lobing are initiated in pavement cells, and one major technological bottleneck to addressing the problem is the lack of a robust and objective methodology to identify and track lobing events during the transition from simple cell geometry to lobed cells. We developed a convex hull-based algorithm termed LobeFinder to identify lobes, quantify geometric properties, and create a useful graphical output of cell coordinates for further analysis. The algorithm was validated against manually curated images of pavement cells of widely varying sizes and shapes. The ability to objectively count and detect new lobe initiation events provides an improved quantitative framework to analyze mutant phenotypes, detect symmetry-breaking events in time-lapse image data, and quantify the time-dependent correlation between cell shape change and intracellular factors that may play a role in the morphogenesis process. PMID:27288363

  13. LobeFinder: A Convex Hull-Based Method for Quantitative Boundary Analyses of Lobed Plant Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tzu-Ching; Belteton, Samuel A; Pack, Jessica; Szymanski, Daniel B; Umulis, David M

    2016-08-01

    Dicot leaves are composed of a heterogeneous mosaic of jigsaw puzzle piece-shaped pavement cells that vary greatly in size and the complexity of their shape. Given the importance of the epidermis and this particular cell type for leaf expansion, there is a strong need to understand how pavement cells morph from a simple polyhedral shape into highly lobed and interdigitated cells. At present, it is still unclear how and when the patterns of lobing are initiated in pavement cells, and one major technological bottleneck to addressing the problem is the lack of a robust and objective methodology to identify and track lobing events during the transition from simple cell geometry to lobed cells. We developed a convex hull-based algorithm termed LobeFinder to identify lobes, quantify geometric properties, and create a useful graphical output of cell coordinates for further analysis. The algorithm was validated against manually curated images of pavement cells of widely varying sizes and shapes. The ability to objectively count and detect new lobe initiation events provides an improved quantitative framework to analyze mutant phenotypes, detect symmetry-breaking events in time-lapse image data, and quantify the time-dependent correlation between cell shape change and intracellular factors that may play a role in the morphogenesis process. PMID:27288363

  14. Antennal transcriptome analysis and comparison of olfactory genes in two sympatric defoliators, Dendrolimus houi and Dendrolimus kikuchii (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sufang; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Hongbin; Kong, Xiangbo

    2014-09-01

    The Yunnan pine and Simao pine caterpillar moths, Dendrolimus houi Lajonquière and Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), are two closely related and sympatric pests of coniferous forests in southwestern China, and olfactory communication systems of these two insects have received considerable attention because of their economic importance. However, there is little information on the molecular aspect of odor detection about these insects. Furthermore, although lepidopteran species have been widely used in studies of insect olfaction, few work made comparison between sister moths on the olfactory recognition mechanisms. In this study, next-generation sequencing of the antennal transcriptome of these two moths were performed to identify the major olfactory genes. After comparing the antennal transcriptome of these two moths, we found that they exhibit highly similar transcripts-associated GO terms. Chemosensory gene families were further analyzed in both species. We identified 23 putative odorant binding proteins (OBP), 17 chemosensory proteins (CSP), two sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP), 33 odorant receptors (OR), and 10 ionotropic receptors (IR) in D. houi; and 27 putative OBPs, 17 CSPs, two SNMPs, 33 ORs, and nine IRs in D. kikuchii. All these transcripts were full-length or almost full-length. The predicted protein sequences were compared with orthologs in other species of Lepidoptera and model insects, including Bombyx mori, Manduca sexta, Heliothis virescens, Danaus plexippus, Sesamia inferens, Cydia pomonella, and Drosophila melanogaster. The sequence homologies of the orthologous genes in D. houi and D. kikuchii are very high. Furthermore, the olfactory genes were classed according to their expression level, and the highly expressed genes are our target for further function investigation. Interestingly, many highly expressed genes are ortholog gene of D. houi and D. kikuchii. We also found that the Classic OBPs were

  15. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain are involved in many critical functions, including reasoning, planning, judgment, and problem-solving. It is unclear ... E, Montagna P. Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. A clinical and polygraphic overview of 100 consecutive cases. Brain. ...

  16. Image guided audit of surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed Central

    Kitchen, N D; Cook, M J; Shorvon, S D; Fish, D R; Thomas, D G

    1994-01-01

    Studies on surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy are hampered by lack of information about the actual surgery that has taken place. A method is described for accurately measuring the volumes of resection by MRI after surgery. Ten cases of surgically treated temporal lobe epilepsy (nine non-tailored resections, one selective amygdalohippocampectomy) are presented to show the technique. Indices of extent of resection in both the mesiobasal and lateral temporal lobe compartments have been measured, compared, and evaluated. By comparison with identical preoperative volumetric MRI the hippocampal resections have been correlated with the demonstrated hippocampal volume loss, thought to be of relevance in the aetiology of temporal lobe epilepsy. Detailed postoperative audit in this manner is vital in providing a rational basis for follow up studies of outcome. Images PMID:7931384

  17. Comparison of temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis and temporal lobe epilepsies due to other etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A.; Tajvarpour, Marziyeh; Vedadinezhad, Bahareh; Emami, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study compares the clinical characteristics of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (mTLE-HS) with those who have temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) due to other etiologies. Methods: In this retrospective study all patients with a clinical diagnosis of TLE were recruited in a referral outpatient epilepsy clinic at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences from September 2008 to May 2013. We classified the patients with TLE as having mesial temporal sclerosis if they had clear signs of mesial temporal sclerosis and/or atrophy in their MRI and others who had any other MRI abnormality. Results: A total of 174 patients were studied (including 105 patients with mTLE-HS and 69 patients with TLE due to other etiologies). Frequency of seizure types was not significantly different between these two groups. Earlier age at epilepsy onset (p= 0.005), a past history of febrile seizures (p= 0.010) and presence of affective auras (p= 0.008) were commonly seen in patients with mTLEHS, while auditory auras (p= 0.020) were more frequent in those with TLE due to other etiologies. Conclusion: The mainstay for making a correct diagnosis, when evaluating a patient with seizure, is having a standardized approach, particularly with regard to taking a detailed clinical history. One may find important clues in the clinical history (e.g., age at disease onset, detailed seizure description and past history) to make a correct diagnosis. PMID:26793654

  18. Topographic and Stochastic Influences on Pahoehoe Lava Lobe Emplacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Christopher W.; Glaze, Lori S.; James, Mike R.; Baloga, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed understanding of pahoehoe emplacement is necessary for developing accurate models of flow field development, assessing hazards, and interpreting the significance of lava morphology on Earth and other planetary surfaces. Active pahoehoe lobes on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, were examined on 21-26 February 2006 using oblique time-series stereo-photogrammetry and differential global positioning system (DGPS) measurements. During this time, the local discharge rate for peripheral lava lobes was generally constant at 0.0061 +/- 0.0019 m3/s, but the areal coverage rate of the lobes exhibited a periodic increase every 4.13 +/- 0.64 minutes. This periodicity is attributed to the time required for the pressure within the liquid lava core to exceed the cooling induced strength of its margins. The pahoehoe flow advanced through a series of down slope and cross-slope breakouts, which began as approximately 0.2 m-thick units (i.e., toes) that coalesced and inflated to become approximately meter-thick lobes. The lobes were thickest above the lowest points of the initial topography and above shallow to reverse facing slopes, defined relative to the local flow direction. The flow path was typically controlled by high-standing topography, with the zone directly adjacent to the final lobe margin having an average relief that was a few centimeters higher than the lava inundated region. This suggests that toe-scale topography can, at least temporarily, exert strong controls on pahoehoe flow paths by impeding the lateral spreading of the lobe. Observed cycles of enhanced areal spreading and inflated lobe morphology are also explored using a model that considers the statistical likelihood of sequential breakouts from active flow margins and the effects of topographic barriers.

  19. Arginine vasopressin in the pathogenesis of febrile convulsion and temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gulec, Guldal; Noyan, Behzat

    2002-11-15

    We aimed to investigate the possible convulsant action of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in both a febrile convulsion model in rat pups and a temporal lobe epilepsy model in adult rats and to define the receptor type which mediates this effect. In rat pups, 125 ng V2 receptor antagonist significantly prevented hyperthermic seizures, but did not affect seizure latency. In adult rats, the only effective dose and agent was 125 ng V2 receptor antagonist, which prevented pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, extended the status epilepticus latency and improved the 24 h survival rate. These data suggest that AVP has a convulsant activity in febrile convulsions and also in seizures independent of fever, and this effect is mediated by V2 receptors. PMID:12438923

  20. Tail Lobe Revisited: Magnetic Field Modeling Based on Plasma Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlsson, S. B. P.; Tsyganenko, N. A.

    1999-01-01

    Plasma data from the ISEE-1 and -2 spacecraft during 1977-1980 have been used to determine the distribution of data points in the magnetotail in the range of distances -20 < XGSM < --15, i.e. which of the records that were located in the current sheet, in the tail lobe, in the magnetosheath and in the boundary layers respectively. The ISEE-1 and -2 magnetic field data for the records in the tail lobe were then used to model the tail lobe magnetic field dependence on the solar wind dynamic pressure, on the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) and on the Dst index. The tail lobe magnetic field was assumed to be dependent on the square root of the dynamic pressure based on the balance between the total magnetic pressure in the tail lobes and the dynamic pressure of the solar wind. The IMF dependent terms, added to the pressure term, were sought in many different forms while the Dst dependence of the tail lobe magnetic field was assumed to be linear. The field shows a strong dependence on the square root of the dynamic pressure and the different IMF dependent terms all constitute a significant contribution to the total field. However, the dependence on the Dst index turned out to be very weak at those down-tail distances. The results of this study are intended to be used for parameterizing future versions of the data-based models of the global magnetospheric magnetic field.

  1. Transient simulation in interior flow field of lobe pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. B.; Sang, X. H.; Meng, Q. W.; Shen, H.; Jia, K.

    2013-12-01

    The subject of this paper is mainly focused on the development and control of the double folium and trifolium lobe pump profiles by using the principle of involute engagement and use CAD to get an accurate involute profile. We use the standard k-ε turbulence model and PISO algorithm based on CFD software FLUENT. The dynamic mesh and UDF technology is introduced to simulate the interior flow field inside a lobe pump, and the variation of interior flow field under the condition of the lobe rotating is analyzed. We also analyse the influence produced by the difference in lobes, and then reveal which lobe is best. The results show that dynamic variation of the interior flow field is easily obtained by dynamic mesh technology and the distribution of its pressure and velocity. Because of the small gaps existing between the rotors and pump case, the higher pressure area will flow into the lower area though the small gaps which cause the working area keep with higher pressure all the time. Both of the double folium and trifolium are existing the vortex during the rotting time and its position, size and shape changes all the time. The vortexes even disappear in a circle period and there are more vortexes in double folium lobe pump. The velocity and pressure pulsation of trifolium pump are lower than that of the double folium.

  2. Antennal RNA-sequencing analysis reveals evolutionary aspects of chemosensory proteins in the carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Hojo, Masaru K.; Ishii, Kenichi; Sakura, Midori; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2015-01-01

    Chemical communication is essential for the coordination of complex organisation in ant societies. Recent comparative genomic approaches have revealed that chemosensory genes are diversified in ant lineages, and suggest that this diversification is crucial for social organisation. However, how such diversified genes shape the peripheral chemosensory systems remains unknown. In this study, we annotated and analysed the gene expression profiles of chemosensory proteins (CSPs), which transport lipophilic compounds toward chemosensory receptors in the carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus. Transcriptome analysis revealed 12 CSP genes and phylogenetic analysis showed that 3 of these are lineage-specifically expanded in the clade of ants. RNA sequencing and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that, among the ant specific CSP genes, two of them (CjapCSP12 and CjapCSP13) were specifically expressed in the chemosensory organs and differentially expressed amongst ant castes. Furthermore, CjapCSP12 and CjapCSP13 had a ratio of divergence at non-synonymous and synonymous sites (dN/dS) greater than 1, and they were co-expressed with CjapCSP1, which is known to bind cuticular hydrocarbons. Our results suggested that CjapCSP12 and CjapCSP13 were functionally differentiated for ant-specific chemosensory events, and that CjapCSP1, CjapCSP12, and CjapCSP13 work cooperatively in the antennal chemosensilla of worker ants. PMID:26310137

  3. The Evolution of Body Size, Antennal Size and Host Use in Parasitoid Wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea): A Phylogenetic Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Symonds, Matthew R. E.; Elgar, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Chalcidoid wasps represent one of the most speciose superfamilies of animals known, with ca. 23,000 species described of which many are parasitoids. They are extremely diverse in body size, morphology and, among the parasitoids, insect hosts. Parasitic chalcidoids utilise a range of behavioural adaptations to facilitate exploitation of their diverse insect hosts, but how host use might influence the evolution of body size and morphology is not known in this group. We used a phylogenetic comparative analysis of 126 chalcidoid species to examine whether body size and antennal size showed evolutionary correlations with aspects of host use, including host breadth (specificity), host identity (orders of insects parasitized) and number of plant associates. Both morphological features and identity of exploited host orders show strong phylogenetic signal, but host breadth does not. Larger body size in these wasps was weakly associated with few plant genera, and with more specialised host use, and chalcidoid wasps that parasitize coleopteran hosts tend to be larger. Intriguingly, chalcidoid wasps that parasitize hemipteran hosts are both smaller in size in the case of those parasitizing the suborder Sternorrhyncha and have relatively larger antennae, particularly in those that parasitize other hemipteran suborders. These results suggest there are adaptations in chalcidoid wasps that are specifically associated with host detection and exploitation. PMID:24205189

  4. Identification of honeybee antennal proteins/genes expressed in a sex- and/or caste selective manner.

    PubMed

    Kamikouchi, Azusa; Morioka, Mizue; Kubo, Takeo

    2004-01-01

    We identified three candidate proteins/genes involved in caste and/or sex-specific olfactory processing in the honeybee Apis mellifera L., that are differentially expressed between the antennae of the worker, queen, and drone honeybees using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or the differential display method. A protein was identified, termed D-AP1, that was expressed preferentially in drone antennae when compared to those of workers. cDNA cloning revealed that D-AP1 is homologous to carboxylesterases. Enzymatic carboxylesterase activity in the drone antennae was higher than in the workers, suggesting its dominant function in the drone antennae. In contrast, two proteins encoded by genes termed W-AP1 and Amwat were expressed preferentially in worker antennae when compared to those of queens. W-AP1 is homologous to insect chemosensory protein, and Amwat encodes a novel secretory protein. W-AP1 is expressed selectively in worker antennae, while Amwat is expressed both in the antennae and legs of the workers. These findings suggest that these proteins are involved in the antennal function characteristic to drone or worker honeybees. PMID:14745104

  5. Morphological characterization of the antennal sensilla of t he earwig Anisolabis maritima (Dermaptera: Carcinophoridae) with reference to their probable functions

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dosary, Mona Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    The earwig, Anisolabis maritima (Dermaptera: Carcinophoridae), is one of the most significant insects in KSA because, it was recorded in Saudi Arabia as a beneficial predator on eggs and newly hatched larvae of the red palm weevil, Rhyncophorus ferrugineus. We examined the external morphology of the antennal sensilla of males and females of A. maritima using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The filiform antennae of A. maritima were of the conventional type comprising a basal scape, pedicle and a long, thread-like flagellum, which was composed of 12 flagellomeres of males and 16 flagellomeres of females. Six morphologically unique sensillar types were found and described on the antennae of males and females of A. maritima. Of those identified, there were three types of porous trichoid sensilla (long, curved and arcuate), and two types of basiconic sensilla (short and curved), and one type of aporous trichoid sensilla. The shape, external morphology and array of sensilla on the antennae of males and females of A. maritima were similar. PMID:23961038

  6. The fine structure of the vertical lobe of octopus brain.

    PubMed

    Gray, E G

    1970-07-30

    Although much is known about the structural organization and connexions of the various lobes of the octopus brain from light microscopy, this is the first attempt at a detailed analysis of one of the lobes- the vertical lobe, with the electron microscope. The vertical lobe consists of five lobules. The median superior frontal (MSF) axons enter each lobule from the MSF lobe. The MSF axons contain both microtubules and neurofilaments. The varicosities of the MSF axons contain both agranular and dense-cored vesicles and synapse with trunks of the amacrine cells. These trunks run together in bundles termed amacrine tracts into the centres of the lobules. The amacrine trunks contain microtubules but no neurofilaments. The trunks contain large and small agranular synaptic vesicles and synapse with what are in all probability branches of the trunks of the large cells. These trunks contain microtubules but no neurofilaments. They run out through the bases of the lobules probably without forming synaptic contacts within the lobule. Fibres signalling 'pain' (nocifensor) enter the lobules from below. They can be recognized by their content of neurofilaments. Their terminals contain numerous very small synaptic vesicles and a few larger and dense-cored ones. These 'pain' fibres appear to synapse mostly with processes of the large cells. J. Z. Young has shown that the vertical lobe is especially concerned with the integrative action of the visual system, linked with the chemo-tactile system. Electron microscopy supports Young's suggestion that the superior frontal and interconnected vertical lobe systems constitute a loop which could sustain a positive feed-back mechanism (MSF -- amacrine -- large cell -- lateral superior frontal -- MSF) while the 'pain' (nocifensor) input could exert a suppressor (inhibitory) effect on the loop by its action on the large cells. PMID:22408833

  7. Quantifying interictal metabolic activity in human temporal lobe epilepsy

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, T.R.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Engel, J. Jr.; Christenson, P.D.; Zhang, J.X.; Phelps, M.E.; Kuhl, D.E. )

    1990-09-01

    The majority of patients with complex partial seizures of unilateral temporal lobe origin have interictal temporal hypometabolism on (18F)fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) studies. Often, this hypometabolism extends to ipsilateral extratemporal sites. The use of accurately quantified metabolic data has been limited by the absence of an equally reliable method of anatomical analysis of PET images. We developed a standardized method for visual placement of anatomically configured regions of interest on FDG PET studies, which is particularly adapted to the widespread, asymmetric, and often severe interictal metabolic alterations of temporal lobe epilepsy. This method was applied by a single investigator, who was blind to the identity of subjects, to 10 normal control and 25 interictal temporal lobe epilepsy studies. All subjects had normal brain anatomical volumes on structural neuroimaging studies. The results demonstrate ipsilateral thalamic and temporal lobe involvement in the interictal hypometabolism of unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy. Ipsilateral frontal, parietal, and basal ganglial metabolism is also reduced, although not as markedly as is temporal and thalamic metabolism.

  8. Giant lipoma arising from deep lobe of the parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Che-Wei; Chi, Hung-Pin; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Hsu, Ying-Che; Chan, Leong-Perng; Kuo, Wen-Rei

    2006-01-01

    Background Lipomas are common benign soft tissue neoplasms but they are found very rarely in the deep lobe of parotid gland. Surgical intervention in these tumors is challenging because of the proximity of the facial nerve, and thus knowledge of the anatomy and meticulous surgical technique are essential. Case presentation A 71-year-old female presented with a large asymptomatic mass, which had occupied the left facial area for over the past fifteen years, and she requested surgical excision for a cosmetically better facial appearance. The computed tomography (CT) scan showed a well-defined giant lipoma arising from the left deep parotid gland. The lipoma was successfully enucleated after full exposure and mobilization of the overlying facial nerve branches. The surgical specimen measured 9 × 6 cm in size, and histopathology revealed fibrolipoma. The patient experienced an uneventful recovery, with a satisfying facial contour and intact facial nerve function. Conclusion Giant lipomas involving the deep parotid lobe are extremely rare. The high-resolution CT scan provides an accurate and cost-effective preoperative investigative method. Surgical management of deep lobe lipoma should be performed by experienced surgeons due to the need for meticulous dissection of the facial nerve branches. Superficial parotidectomy before deep lobe lipoma removal may be unnecessary in selected cases because preservation of the superficial lobe may contribute to a better aesthetic and functional result. PMID:16740172

  9. Adult living donor liver imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Larry; Yeh, Benjamin M.; Westphalen, Antonio C.; Roberts, John P.; Wang, Zhen J.

    2016-01-01

    Adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is increasingly used for the treatment of end-stage liver disease. The three most commonly harvested grafts for LDLT are left lateral segment, left lobe, and right lobe grafts. The left lateral segment graft, which includes Couinaud’s segments II and III, is usually used for pediatric recipients or small size recipients. Most of the adult recipients need either a left or a right lobe graft. Whether a left or right lobe graft should be harvested from the donors depends on estimated graft and donor remnant liver volume, as well as biliary and vascular anatomy. Detailed preoperative assessment of the potential donor liver volumetrics, biliary and vascular anatomy, and liver parenchyma is vital to minimize risks to the donors and maximize benefits to the recipients. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are currently the imaging modalities of choice in the preoperative evaluation of potential donors. This review provides an overview of key surgical considerations in LDLT that the radiologists must be aware of, and imaging findings on CT and MRI that the radiologists must convey to the surgeons when evaluating potential donors for LDLT. PMID:26912106

  10. Adult living donor liver imaging.

    PubMed

    Cai, Larry; Yeh, Benjamin M; Westphalen, Antonio C; Roberts, John P; Wang, Zhen J

    2016-01-01

    Adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is increasingly used for the treatment of end-stage liver disease. The three most commonly harvested grafts for LDLT are left lateral segment, left lobe, and right lobe grafts. The left lateral segment graft, which includes Couinaud's segments II and III, is usually used for pediatric recipients or small size recipients. Most of the adult recipients need either a left or a right lobe graft. Whether a left or right lobe graft should be harvested from the donors depends on estimated graft and donor remnant liver volume, as well as biliary and vascular anatomy. Detailed preoperative assessment of the potential donor liver volumetrics, biliary and vascular anatomy, and liver parenchyma is vital to minimize risks to the donors and maximize benefits to the recipients. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are currently the imaging modalities of choice in the preoperative evaluation of potential donors. This review provides an overview of key surgical considerations in LDLT that the radiologists must be aware of, and imaging findings on CT and MRI that the radiologists must convey to the surgeons when evaluating potential donors for LDLT. PMID:26912106

  11. Elemental Spatial and Temporal Association Formation in Left Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Christopher F. A.; Saling, Michael M.; Wood, Amanda G.; Reutens, David C.

    2014-01-01

    The mesial temporal lobe (MTL) is typically understood as a memory structure in clinical settings, with the sine qua non of MTL damage in epilepsy being memory impairment. Recent models, however, understand memory as one of a number of higher cognitive functions that recruit the MTL through their reliance on more fundamental processes, such as “self-projection” or “association formation”. We examined how damage to the left MTL influences these fundamental processes through the encoding of elemental spatial and temporal associations. We used a novel fMRI task to image the encoding of simple visual stimuli, either rich or impoverished, in spatial or spatial plus temporal information. Participants included 14 typical adults (36.4 years, sd. 10.5 years) and 14 patients with left mesial temporal lobe damage as evidenced by a clinical diagnosis of left temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and left MTL impairment on imaging (34.3 years, sd. 6.6 years). In-scanner behavioral performance was equivalent across groups. In the typical group whole-brain analysis revealed highly significant bilateral parahippocampal activation (right > left) during spatial associative processing and left hippocampal/parahippocampal deactivation in joint spatial-temporal associative processing. In the left TLE group identical analyses indicated patients used MTL structures contralateral to the seizure focus differently and relied on extra-MTL regions to a greater extent. These results are consistent with the notion that epileptogenic MTL damage is followed by reorganization of networks underlying elemental associative processes. In addition, they provide further evidence that task-related fMRI deactivation can meaningfully index brain function. The implications of these findings for clinical and cognitive neuropsychological models of MTL function in TLE are discussed. PMID:24978828

  12. Improved Proper Name Recall in Aging after Electrical Stimulation of the Anterior Temporal Lobes

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Lars A.; McCoy, David; Coslett, H. Branch; Olson, Ingrid R.; Wolk, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychology suggests that portions of the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) play a critical role in proper name retrieval. We previously found that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the ATLs improved retrieval of proper names in young adults (Ross et al., 2010). Here we extend that finding to older adults who tend to experience greater proper-naming deficits than young adults. The task was to look at pictures of famous faces or landmarks and verbally recall the associated proper name. Our results show a numerical improvement in face naming after left or right ATL stimulation, but a statistically significant effect only after left-lateralized stimulation. The magnitude of the enhancing effect was similar in older and younger adults but the lateralization of the effect differed depending on age. The implications of these findings for the use of tDCS as tool for rehabilitation of age-related loss of name recall are discussed. PMID:22016735

  13. Fine Structure of Antennal Sensilla of Paysandisia archon and Electrophysiological Responses to Volatile Compounds Associated with Host Palms

    PubMed Central

    Ruschioni, Sara; Riolo, Paola; Verdolini, Elisa; Peri, Ezio; Guarino, Salvatore; Colazza, Stefano; Romani, Roberto; Isidoro, Nunzio

    2015-01-01

    Paysandisia archon (Lepidoptera: Castniidae) is a serious pest of palm trees. A comprehensive knowledge of the insect olfactory system is essential for the development of efficient semiochemical-based control methods. The olfactory sensilla are located particularly on the antennae, and these can detect plant volatiles that provide important cues for the insects in the search for their host plants. To date, the fine structure of P. archon antennal sensilla studies and their role in host-plant perception have not been investigated in great detail. Using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy, the antennae of both sexes of P. archon are described here in detail, according to the different types, quantities and distributions of the sensilla. Six types of sensilla were identified. The most widespread are sensilla trichoidea, sensilla basiconica and sensilla auricilica, which are associated with olfactory function. These have cuticular shafts characterised by numerous pores, and they are innervated by two or three sensory neurons. Sensilla coeloconica, sensilla chaetica and sensilla ampullacea are associated with olfactory or olfactory-thermoreception, mechano-gustatory, and thermo-hygroreception functions, respectively. Moreover, the role of P. archon antennae in locating of the host palms was evaluated using electroantennograms, to monitor responses to ester and terpene compounds previously identified as volatiles of damaged/fermenting palm tissues. P. archon showed responses to all of the synthetic chemicals tested, with greater responses in the females, providing a significant sex*dose effect. Among the compounds tested, ethyl isobutyrate elicited the strongest antenna responses. The fine structure of the cuticular and cellular components of the P. archon antenna sensory equipment is described for the first time. The results of this study form an important starting point and complement physiological and behavioural studies, to provide

  14. Changes associated with laboratory rearing in antennal sensilla patterns of Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius prolixus, and Rhodnius pallescens (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Catalá, S S; Maida, D M; Caro-Riaño, H; Jaramillo, N; Moreno, J

    2004-02-01

    We examined changes in the array of antennal sensilla of three species of Triatominae (Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius prolixus, and R. pallescens) following their establishment for different periods in laboratory culture. In each case, the laboratory colonies were compared with conspecific samples taken directly from the field, by quantitative analysis of the sensilla arrays on the three distal segments of the antenna in terms of the densities of three types of chemoreceptors (basiconics and thick and thin walled trichoids) and one type of mechanoreceptor (bristles). Sensilla densities were compared by ANOVA or non-parametric tests, and by multivariate discriminant analysis. Strains of the same species reared in different laboratories showed significant differences in their sensilla arrays, especially when compared to field-collected material from the same geographic origin. A Bolivian strain of T. infestans reared in the laboratory for 15 years and fed at monthly intervals, showed greatest differences from its conspecific wild forms, especially in terms of reductions in the number of chemoreceptors. By contrast, an Argentine strain of T. infestans reared for 25 years in the laboratory and fed weekly, showed a relative increase in the density of mechanoreceptors. A Colombian strain of R. prolixus reared for 20 years and fed weekly or fortnightly, showed only modest differences in the sensilla array when compared to its wild populations from the same area. However, a Colombian strain of R. pallescens reared for 12 years and fed fortnightly, did show highly significant reductions in one form of chemoreceptor compared to its conspecific wild populations. For all populations, multivariate analysis clearly discriminated between laboratory and field collected specimens, suggesting that artificial rearing can lead to modifications in the sensory array. This not only supports the idea of morphological plasticity in these species, but also suggests caution in the use of long

  15. Unusual Ictal Foreign Language Automatisms in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Soe, Naing Ko; Lee, Sang Kun

    2014-01-01

    The distinct brain regions could be specifically involved in different languages and the differences in brain activation depending on the language proficiency and on the age of language acquisition. Speech disturbances are observed in the majority of temporal lobe complex motor seizures. Ictal verbalization had significant lateralization value: 90% of patients with this manifestation had seizure focus in the non-dominant temporal lobe. Although, ictal speech automatisms are usually uttered in the patient’s native language, ictal speech foreign language automatisms are unusual presentations of non-dominent temporal lobe epilepsy. The release of isolated foreign language area could be possible depending on the pattern of ictal spreading of non-dominant hemisphere. Most of the case reports in ictal speech foreign language automatisms were men. In this case report, we observed ictal foreign language automatisms in middle age Korean woman. PMID:25625093

  16. Altered cortical anatomical networks in temporal lobe epilepsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Bin; He, Huiguang; Lu, Jingjing; Li, Wenjing; Dai, Dai; Li, Meng; Jin, Zhengyu

    2011-03-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is one of the most common epilepsy syndromes with focal seizures generated in the left or right temporal lobes. With the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), many evidences have demonstrated that the abnormalities in hippocampal volume and the distributed atrophies in cortical cortex. However, few studies have investigated if TLE patients have the alternation in the structural networks. In the present study, we used the cortical thickness to establish the morphological connectivity networks, and investigated the network properties using the graph theoretical methods. We found that all the morphological networks exhibited the small-world efficiency in left TLE, right TLE and normal groups. And the betweenness centrality analysis revealed that there were statistical inter-group differences in the right uncus region. Since the right uncus located at the right temporal lobe, these preliminary evidences may suggest that there are topological alternations of the cortical anatomical networks in TLE, especially for the right TLE.

  17. Atypical language representation in children with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Maulisova, Alice; Korman, Brandon; Rey, Gustavo; Bernal, Byron; Duchowny, Michael; Niederlova, Marketa; Krsek, Pavel; Novak, Vilem

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated language organization in children with intractable epilepsy caused by temporal lobe focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) alone or dual pathology (temporal lobe FCD and hippocampal sclerosis, HS). We analyzed clinical, neurological, fMRI, neuropsychological, and histopathologic data in 46 pediatric patients with temporal lobe lesions who underwent excisional epilepsy surgery. The frequency of atypical language representation was similar in both groups, but children with dual pathology were more likely to be left-handed. Atypical receptive language cortex correlated with lower intellectual capacity, verbal abstract conceptualization, receptive language abilities, verbal working memory, and a history of status epilepticus but did not correlate with higher seizure frequency or early seizure onset. Histopathologic substrate had only a minor influence on neuropsychological status. Greater verbal comprehension deficits were noted in children with atypical receptive language representation, a risk factor for cognitive morbidity. PMID:27064828

  18. Effect of lobe pumping on human albumin: development of a lobe pump simulator using smoothed particle hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Gomme, Peter T; Prakash, Mahesh; Hunt, Ben; Stokes, Nick; Cleary, Paul; Tatford, Owen C; Bertolini, Joseph

    2006-02-01

    Using SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics), the motion of a lobe pump under load was simulated in order to predict the level of shear stress experienced by a protein solution. By varying the gap size between the lobes and pump housing, variations in pump efficiency and shear stress were determined. The simulations indicated that pump shear was dependent on gap size, with shear stress levels (0-40 Pa) correlating with those estimated in previous albumin-pumping studies. As gap size increased, the number of fluid particles experiencing low shear (<10 Pa) increased, whereas those experiencing high shear (>20 Pa) showed a decreasing trend. The pump efficiency, however, decreased with gap size, requiring more lobe revolutions to pass a unit volume. Taken together, these observations indicate that lobe pumps operated with increased gaps between the rotors and the housing result in larger number of particles within the fluid experiencing shear stresses. Moreover, the simulations indicate that it is best to use larger lobe pumps operated at high efficiency to transfer protein-containing solutions. PMID:16246177

  19. Thalamotemporal alteration and postoperative seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Mark P.; Schoene‐Bake, Jan‐Christoph; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Elkommos, Samia; Kreilkamp, Barbara; Goh, Yee Yen; Marson, Anthony G.; Elger, Christian; Weber, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Objective There are competing explanations for persistent postoperative seizures after temporal lobe surgery. One is that 1 or more particular subtypes of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) exist that are particularly resistant to surgery. We sought to identify a common brain structural and connectivity alteration in patients with persistent postoperative seizures using preoperative quantitative magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods We performed a series of studies in 87 patients with mTLE (47 subsequently rendered seizure free, 40 who continued to experience postoperative seizures) and 80 healthy controls. We investigated the relationship between imaging variables and postoperative seizure outcome. All patients had unilateral temporal lobe seizure onset, had ipsilateral hippocampal sclerosis as the only brain lesion, and underwent amygdalohippocampectomy. Results Quantitative imaging factors found not to be significantly associated with persistent seizures were volumes of ipsilateral and contralateral mesial temporal lobe structures, generalized brain atrophy, and extent of resection. There were nonsignificant trends for larger amygdala and entorhinal resections to be associated with improved outcome. However, patients with persistent seizures had significant atrophy of bilateral dorsomedial and pulvinar thalamic regions, and significant alterations of DTI‐derived thalamotemporal probabilistic paths bilaterally relative to those patients rendered seizure free and controls, even when corrected for extent of mesial temporal lobe resection. Interpretation Patients with bihemispheric alterations of thalamotemporal structural networks may represent a subtype of mTLE that is resistant to temporal lobe surgery. Increasingly sensitive multimodal imaging techniques should endeavor to transform these group‐based findings to individualize prediction of patient outcomes. Ann Neurol 2015;77:760–774 PMID:25627477

  20. Infarction of the lingula following left upper lobe trisegmentectomy.

    PubMed

    Brunswicker, Annemarie; Farid, Shakil; Van Tornout, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical segmentectomy has emerged as the procedure of choice for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer, especially in the presence of poor cardiopulmonary reserve. The most common postoperative complications are pneumonia, persistent air leak, and rarely, vascular compromise of the remaining lobe. We report the case of a 74-year-old woman who underwent thoracotomy and left upper lobe trisegmentectomy for T1bN0Mo squamous cell carcinoma and subsequently developed infarction and hepatization of the remaining lingula. A completion left upper lobectomy was performed and the patient made a full recovery. PMID:26438406

  1. [A Case of Musicophilia with Right Predominant Temporal Lobe Atrophy].

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Shunichiro; Nakayama, Kazuhiko

    2015-11-01

    A 68-year-old woman exhibiting musicophilia with right predominant temporal lobe atrophy happened to visit our clinic. She had no musical background, but beginning two years ago, she acquired a strong preference for especially popular music and sometimes sang at home. She did not exhibit obvious semantic aphasia or facial agnosia, and showed only mild behavioral changes including apathy. Her musicophilia can be explained as an instance of stereotypical behavior. Her right temporal lobe atrophy may have caused changes in her emotional and reward systems, resulting in her music specific behaviors. PMID:26560960

  2. Radiosurgery in the Management of Intractable Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Peñagarícano, José; Serletis, Demitre

    2015-09-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) describes recurrent seizure activity originating from the depths of the temporal lobe. MTLE patients who fail two trials of medication now require testing for surgical candidacy at an epilepsy center. For these individuals, temporal lobectomy offers the greatest likelihood for seizure-freedom (up to 80-90%); unfortunately, this procedure remains largely underutilized. Moreover, for select patients unable to tolerate open surgery, novel techniques are emerging for selective ablation of the mesial temporal structures, including stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). We present here a review of SRS as a potential therapy for MTLE, when open surgery is not an option. PMID:26390538

  3. Isolated Hyperreligiosity in a Patient with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Santibanez, Rocio; Sarva, Harini

    2015-01-01

    A 40-year-old man with history of temporal lobe epilepsy presented to the emergency department with hyperreligiosity after medication noncompliance. After medications were resumed, he returned to baseline. Many famous prophets are believed to have suffered epilepsy. Waxman and Geschwind described a group of traits in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy consisting of hyperreligiosity, hypergraphia, altered sexual behavior, aggressiveness, preoccupation with details, and circumstantiality. The incidence of religious experiences ranges from 0.3 to 3.1 percent in patients with epilepsy. Religious experiences can be ictal, interictal, or postictal. Treatment is aimed at the underlying seizure etiology. PMID:26351599

  4. Contributions of frontal and medial temporal lobe functioning to the errorless learning advantage.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nicole D; Guild, Emma B; Cyr, Andrée-Ann; Roberts, Judith; Clare, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Among individuals with episodic memory impairments, trial-and-error learning is less successful than when errors are avoided. This "errorless learning advantage" has been replicated numerous times, but its neurocognitive mechanism is uncertain, with existing evidence pointing to both medial temporal lobe (MTL) and frontal lobe (FL) involvement. To test the relative contribution of MTL and FL functioning to the errorless learning advantage, 51 healthy older adults were pre-experimentally assigned to one of four groups based on their neuropsychological test performance: Low MTL-Low FL, Low MTL-High FL, High MTL-Low FL, High MTL-High FL. Participants learned two word lists under errorless learning conditions, and two word lists under errorful learning conditions, and memory was tested via free recall, cued recall, and source recognition. Performance on all three tests was better for those with High relative to Low MTL functioning. An errorless learning advantage was found in free and cued recall, in cued recall marginally more so for those with Low than High MTL functioning. Participants with Low MTL functioning were also more likely to misclassify learning errors as target words. Overall, these results are consistent with a MTL locus of the errorless learning advantage. The results are discussed in terms of the multi-componential nature of neuropsychological tests and the impact of demographic and mood variables on cognitive functioning. PMID:22248376

  5. Connectivity disruptions in resting-state functional brain networks in children with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Mankinen, Katariina; Jalovaara, Paula; Paakki, Jyri-Johan; Harila, Marika; Rytky, Seppo; Tervonen, Osmo; Nikkinen, Juha; Starck, Tuomo; Remes, Jukka; Rantala, Heikki; Kiviniemi, Vesa

    2012-06-01

    Functional resting-state connectivity has been shown to be altered in certain adult epilepsy populations, but few connectivity studies have been performed on pediatric epilepsy patients. Here functional connectivity was measured in pediatric, non-lesional temporal lobe epilepsy patients with normal intelligence and compared with that in age and gender-matched healthy controls using the independent component analysis method. We hypothesized that children with non-lesional temporal lobe epilepsy have disrupted functional connectivity within resting-state networks. Significant differences were demonstrated between the two groups, pointing to a decrease in connectivity. When the results were analyzed according to the interictal electroencephalogram findings, however, the connectivity disruptions were seen in different networks. In addition, increased connectivity and abnormally anti-correlated thalamic activity was detected only in the patients with abnormal electroencephalograms. In summary, connectivity disruptions are already to be seen at an early stage of epilepsy, and epileptiform activity seems to affect connectivity differently. The results indicate that interictal epileptiform activity may lead to reorganization of the resting-state brain networks, but further studies would be needed in order to understand the pathophysiology behind this phenomenon. PMID:22418271

  6. Factors affecting bilateral temporal lobe hypometabolism on 18F-FDG PET brain scan in unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tepmongkol, Supatporn; Srikijvilaikul, Teeradej; Vasavid, Pataramon

    2013-11-01

    Bilateral temporal lobe hypometabolism (BTH) on (18)F-FDG PET brain scan is frequently seen in unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). This study aimed to identify the factors that influence BTH in patients with mTLE in order to minimize the significant factor(s) prior to performing a FDG-PET brain scan. Forty patients with unilateral mTLE who underwent (18)F-FDG PET scan for presurgical epilepsy workup were included. Bilateral temporal lobe hypometabolism of the anterior and medial parts of the temporal lobe was identified by a semiquantitative visual scale. Lateralization of TLE was identified by either intracranial EEG (22/40 cases) and/or improvement of seizure 2 years after temporal lobectomy (37/40 cases). The factors analyzed included basic demographic characteristics (age, sex, occupation, years of education, and handedness), history related to seizure (age at epilepsy onset and epilepsy duration, history of febrile seizure and head injury, frequency of seizure with impaired cognition in the last 3 months, presence of secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure, automatism side, presence of postictal confusion, and side of MRI temporal abnormality), information during video-EEG monitoring (clinical lateralization, interictal scalp EEG lateralization (interictal epileptiform discharge), and ictal scalp EEG lateralization), and information during the FDG-PET study (duration from the last seizure (≤2 days or >2 days), last seizure type, and the presence of slow waves or sharp waves during the FDG uptake period). Significant factors related to BTH were analyzed using multivariate analysis. Only the ≤2-day duration from the last seizure to the PET scan shows a significant effect (p=0.021) on BTH finding with 15 times greater incidence compared to a duration >2 days. Bilateral temporal lobe hypometabolism, which causes conflict in lateralizing the epileptogenic zone in temporal lobe epilepsy, can be avoided by performing PET scan more than 2 days

  7. [Unilateral auditory hallucinations due to left temporal lobe ischemia: a case report].

    PubMed

    Anegawa, T; Hara, K; Yamamoto, K; Matsuda, M

    1995-10-01

    . The Wechsler adult intelligence scale revealed a verbal IQ of 91 and a performance IQ of 100. Pure tone audiometry revealed bilateral, mild peripheral sensorineural hearing loss. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials were unrevealing. The EEG showed slow activities in the left temporoparietal region. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain failed to reveal any relevant abnormalities except for an old hemorrhagic parietal infarct. The SPECT with Tc99m-HMPAO, however, showed reduced blood flow in the left temporal lobe including the first temporal convolution as well as in the left parietal lobe. Based on the SPECT findings, unilateral auditory hallucinations in our patient are considered to have resulted from the left temporal lobe ischemia. Our case indicates that unilateral auditory hallucinations may have a clinicoanatomical correlation with contralateral temporal lobe lesions. PMID:8821499

  8. Neuroblast lineage-specific origin of the neurons of the Drosophila larval olfactory system

    PubMed Central

    Das, Abhijit; Gupta, Tripti; Davla, Sejal; Godino, Laura Lucia Prieto; Diegelmann, Sören; Reddy, O. Venkateswara; VijayRaghavan, K.; Reichert, Heinrich; Lovick, Jennifer; Hartenstein, Volker

    2014-01-01

    The complete neuronal repertoire of the central brain of Drosophila originates from only approximately 100 pairs of neural stem cells, or neuroblasts. Each neuroblast produces a highly stereotyped lineage of neurons which innervate specific compartments of the brain. Neuroblasts undergo two rounds of mitotic activity: embryonic divisions produce lineages of primary neurons that build the larval nervous system; after a brief quiescence, the neuroblasts go through a second round of divisions in larval stage to produce secondary neurons which are integrated into the adult nervous system. Here we investigate the lineages that are associated with the larval antennal lobe, one of the most widely studied neuronal systems in fly. We find that the same five neuroblasts responsible for the adult antennal lobe also produce the antennal lobe of the larval brain. However, there are notable differences in the composition of larval (primary) lineages and their adult (secondary) counterparts. Significantly, in the adult, two lineages (lNB/BAlc and adNB/BAmv3) produce uniglomerular projection neurons connecting the antennal lobe with the mushroom body and lateral horn; another lineage, vNB/BAla1, generates multiglomerular neurons reaching the lateral horn directly. lNB/BAlc, as well as a fourth lineage, vlNB/BAla2, generate a diversity of local interneurons. We describe a fifth, previously unknown lineage, BAlp4, which connects the posterior part of the antennal lobe and the neighboring tritocerebrum (gustatory center) with a higher brain center located adjacent to the mushroom body. In the larva, only one of these lineages, adNB/BAmv3, generates all uniglomerular projection neurons. Also as in the adult, lNB/BAlc and vlNB/BAla2 produce local interneurons which, in terms of diversity in architecture and transmitter expression, resemble their adult counterparts. In addition, lineages lNB/BAlc and vNB/BAla1, as well as the newly described BAlp4, form numerous types of projection

  9. Neuroblast lineage-specific origin of the neurons of the Drosophila larval olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Das, Abhijit; Gupta, Tripti; Davla, Sejal; Prieto-Godino, Lucia L; Diegelmann, Sören; Reddy, O Venkateswara; Raghavan, K Vijay; Reichert, Heinrich; Lovick, Jennifer; Hartenstein, Volker

    2013-01-15

    The complete neuronal repertoire of the central brain of Drosophila originates from only approximately 100 pairs of neural stem cells, or neuroblasts. Each neuroblast produces a highly stereotyped lineage of neurons which innervate specific compartments of the brain. Neuroblasts undergo two rounds of mitotic activity: embryonic divisions produce lineages of primary neurons that build the larval nervous system; after a brief quiescence, the neuroblasts go through a second round of divisions in larval stage to produce secondary neurons which are integrated into the adult nervous system. Here we investigate the lineages that are associated with the larval antennal lobe, one of the most widely studied neuronal systems in fly. We find that the same five neuroblasts responsible for the adult antennal lobe also produce the antennal lobe of the larval brain. However, there are notable differences in the composition of larval (primary) lineages and their adult (secondary) counterparts. Significantly, in the adult, two lineages (lNB/BAlc and adNB/BAmv3) produce uniglomerular projection neurons connecting the antennal lobe with the mushroom body and lateral horn; another lineage, vNB/BAla1, generates multiglomerular neurons reaching the lateral horn directly. lNB/BAlc, as well as a fourth lineage, vlNB/BAla2, generate a diversity of local interneurons. We describe a fifth, previously unknown lineage, BAlp4, which connects the posterior part of the antennal lobe and the neighboring tritocerebrum (gustatory center) with a higher brain center located adjacent to the mushroom body. In the larva, only one of these lineages, adNB/BAmv3, generates all uniglomerular projection neurons. Also as in the adult, lNB/BAlc and vlNB/BAla2 produce local interneurons which, in terms of diversity in architecture and transmitter expression, resemble their adult counterparts. In addition, lineages lNB/BAlc and vNB/BAla1, as well as the newly described BAlp4, form numerous types of projection

  10. Medial Temporal Lobe Memory in Childhood: Developmental Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Elise L.; Richmond, Jenny L.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K.; Thomas, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The medial temporal lobes (MTL) support declarative memory and mature structurally and functionally during the postnatal years in humans. Although recent work has addressed the development of declarative memory in early childhood, less is known about continued development beyond this period of time. The purpose of this investigation was to explore…

  11. Sub-Centimeter Language Organization in the Human Temporal Lobe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinker, A.; Chang, E. F.; Barbaro, N. M.; Berger, M. S.; Knight, R. T.

    2011-01-01

    The human temporal lobe is well known to be critical for language comprehension. Previous physiological research has focused mainly on non-invasive neuroimaging and electrophysiological techniques with each approach requiring averaging across many trials and subjects. The results of these studies have implicated extended anatomical regions in…

  12. Time Ordering in Frontal Lobe Patients: A Stochastic Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magherini, Anna; Saetti, Maria Cristina; Berta, Emilia; Botti, Claudio; Faglioni, Pietro

    2005-01-01

    Frontal lobe patients reproduced a sequence of capital letters or abstract shapes. Immediate and delayed reproduction trials allowed the analysis of short- and long-term memory for time order by means of suitable Markov chain stochastic models. Patients were as proficient as healthy subjects on the immediate reproduction trial, thus showing spared…

  13. Confabulation and Delusional Denial: Frontal Lobe and Lateralized Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses various forms of confabulation, and conditions that often give rise to these disorders. Asserts that confabulatory states frequently are associated with cerebral damage that involves the right hemisphere, notably, the frontal (often bilaterally) and parietal lobes - areas intimately involved in arousal, attention, information regulation,…

  14. "No Longer Gage": Frontal Lobe Dysfunction and Emotional Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuss, Donald T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reviews changes in emotional response and personality occurring after damage to frontal systems, proposes operational definitions, and analyzes reports according to these definitions. Summarizes neurological causes of frontal lobe damage and associations of frontal dysfunction with psychiatric disturbances. Proposes that primary change after…

  15. Memory, Metamemory and Their Dissociation in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Charlotte E.; Andres, Pilar; Broks, Paul; Noad, Rupert; Sadler, Martin; Coker, Debbie; Mazzoni, Giuliana

    2010-01-01

    Patients with temporal-lobe epilepsy (TLE) present with memory difficulties. The aim of the current study was to determine to what extent these difficulties could be related to a metamemory impairment. Fifteen patients with TLE and 15 matched healthy controls carried out a paired-associates learning task. Memory recall was measured at intervals of…

  16. Brain Regions Underlying Word Finding Difficulties in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trebuchon-Da Fonseca, Agnes; Guedj, Eric; Alario, F-Xavier; Laguitton, Virginie; Mundler, Olivier; Chauvel, Patrick; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Word finding difficulties are often reported by epileptic patients with seizures originating from the language dominant cerebral hemisphere, for example, in temporal lobe epilepsy. Evidence regarding the brain regions underlying this deficit comes from studies of peri-operative electro-cortical stimulation, as well as post-surgical performance.…

  17. Role of Electroencephalography in Presurgical Evaluation of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Raghavendra, Seetharam; Nooraine, Javeria; Mirsattari, Seyed M.

    2012-01-01

    Surgery remains a therapeutic option for patients with medically refractory epilepsy. Comprehensive presurgical evaluation includes electroencephalography (EEG) and video EEG in identifying patients who are likely to benefit from surgery. Here, we discuss in detail the utility of EEG in presurgical evaluation of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy along with illustrative cases. PMID:23198144

  18. The anterior temporal lobes support residual comprehension in Wernicke's aphasia.

    PubMed

    Robson, Holly; Zahn, Roland; Keidel, James L; Binney, Richard J; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2014-03-01

    Wernicke's aphasia occurs after a stroke to classical language comprehension regions in the left temporoparietal cortex. Consequently, auditory-verbal comprehension is significantly impaired in Wernicke's aphasia but the capacity to comprehend visually presented materials (written words and pictures) is partially spared. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural basis of written word and picture semantic processing in Wernicke's aphasia, with the wider aim of examining how the semantic system is altered after damage to the classical comprehension regions. Twelve participants with chronic Wernicke's aphasia and 12 control participants performed semantic animate-inanimate judgements and a visual height judgement baseline task. Whole brain and region of interest analysis in Wernicke's aphasia and control participants found that semantic judgements were underpinned by activation in the ventral and anterior temporal lobes bilaterally. The Wernicke's aphasia group displayed an 'over-activation' in comparison with control participants, indicating that anterior temporal lobe regions become increasingly influential following reduction in posterior semantic resources. Semantic processing of written words in Wernicke's aphasia was additionally supported by recruitment of the right anterior superior temporal lobe, a region previously associated with recovery from auditory-verbal comprehension impairments. Overall, the results provide support for models in which the anterior temporal lobes are crucial for multimodal semantic processing and that these regions may be accessed without support from classic posterior comprehension regions. PMID:24519979

  19. Arousal Enhanced Memory Retention Is Eliminated Following Temporal Lobe Resection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahs, Fredrik; Kumlien, Eva; Fredrikson, Mats

    2010-01-01

    The amygdala, situated in the anterior medial temporal lobe (MTL), is involved in the emotional enhancement of memory. The present study evaluated whether anterior MTL-resections attenuated arousal induced memory enhancement for pictures. Also, the effect of MTL-resections on response latencies at retrieval was assessed. Thirty-one patients with…

  20. Medial Temporal Lobe Structures Contribute to On-Line Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, David

    2009-01-01

    For the last five decades, the medial temporal lobes have been generally understood to facilitate enduring representation of certain kinds of information. In particular, knowledge about the relations among items and concepts appears to rely on that region of the brain. Recent results suggest that those same structures also play a subtle role in…

  1. Memory Functions following Surgery for Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambaque, Isabelle; Dellatolas, Georges; Fohlen, Martine; Bulteau, Christine; Watier, Laurence; Dorfmuller, Georg; Chiron, Catherine; Delalande, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Surgical treatment appears to improve the cognitive prognosis in children undergoing surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The beneficial effects of surgery on memory functions, particularly on material-specific memory, are more difficult to assess because of potentially interacting factors such as age range, intellectual level,…

  2. Double Lobed Radio Sources in Cl1604 at z .9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirisky, Stephen; Gal, R.

    2010-05-01

    We present findings from the Observations of Redshift Evolution in Large-Scale Environments (ORELSE) super cluster survey. The super cluster Cl1604 residing at z 9 is one of only a few such large scale structures discovered at high redshift. The structure has been imaged in a variety of wavelengths, including radio, optical, infrared, and x-ray, and spectroscopic measurements have been taken using DEIMOS and LRIS on Keck. Using the 1.4 GHz VLA maps and HST optical imaging of Cl 1604 to visually inspect for double radio sources with associated optical host galaxies, we have confirmed three double lobed radio sources within the large scale structure. From the observations of these sources, we calculate radio luminosities and lobe separations using data from previously discovered double lobes at similar redshifts in the VVDS and FIRST surveys. Furthermore, we examine the host galaxy properties, including optical colors, morphologies, spectra, and each of their specific locations within the constituent cluster and the broader super cluster. Although the low number of sources limits statistical analysis, we find that the double lobes only appear in the large scale structure, and within the large scale structure only in areas of high galactic density.

  3. NOx Emissions from a Lobed Fuel Injector/Burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, M. G.; Smith, L. L.; Karagozian, A. R.; Smith, O. I.

    1996-01-01

    The present experimental study examines the performance of a novel fuel injector/burner configuration with respect to reduction in nitrogen oxide NOx emissions. The lobed injector/burner is a device in which very rapid initial mixing of reactants can occur through strong streamwise vorticity generation, producing high fluid mechanical strain rates which can delay ignition and thus prevent the formation of stoichiometric diffusion flames. Further downstream of the rapid mixing region. this flowfield produces a reduced effective strain rate, thus allowing ignition to occur in a premixed mode, where it is possible for combustion to take place under locally lean conditions. potentially reducing NOx emissions from the burner. The present experiments compare NO/NO2/NOx emissions from a lobed fuel injector configuration with emissions from a straight fuel injector to determine the net effect of streamwise vorticity generation. Preliminary results show that the lobed injector geometry can produce lean premixed flame structures. while for comparable flow conditions, a straight fuel injector geometry produces much longer. sooting diffusion flames or slightly rich pre-mixed flames. NO measurements show that emissions from a lobed fuel injector/burner can be made significantly lower than from a straight fuel injector under comparable flow conditions.

  4. Reversible antisocial behavior in ventromedial prefrontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Trebuchon, Agnès; Bartolomei, Fabrice; McGonigal, Aileen; Laguitton, Virginie; Chauvel, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Frontal lobe dysfunction is known to be associated with impairment in social behavior. We investigated the link between severe pharmacoresistant frontal lobe epilepsy and antisocial trait. We studied four patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy involving the prefrontal cortex, presenting abnormal interictal social behavior. Noninvasive investigations (video-EEG, PET, MRI) and intracerebral recording (stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG)) were performed as part of a presurgical assessment. Comprehensive psychiatric and cognitive evaluation was performed pre- and postoperatively for frontal lobe epilepsy, with at least 7years of follow-up. All patients shared a characteristic epilepsy pattern: (1) chronic severe prefrontal epilepsy with daily seizures and (2) an epileptogenic zone as defined by intracerebral recording involving the anterior cingulate cortex, ventromedial PFC, and the posterior part of the orbitofrontal cortex, with early propagation to contralateral prefrontal and ipsilateral medial temporal structures. All patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria (DSM-IV) of antisocial personality disorder, which proved to be reversible following seizure control. Pharmacoresistant epilepsy involving a prefrontal network is associated with antisocial personality. We hypothesize that the occurrence of frequent seizures in this region over a prolonged period produces functional damage leading to impaired prefrontal control of social behavior. This functional damage is reversible since successful epilepsy surgery markedly improved antisocial behavior in these patients. The results are in line with previous reports of impairment of social and moral behavior following ventromedial frontal lobe injury. PMID:24074892

  5. The kainic acid model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Lévesque, Maxime; Avoli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The kainic acid model of temporal lobe epilepsy has greatly contributed to the understanding of the molecular, cellular and pharmacological mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis and ictogenesis. This model presents with neuropathological and electroencephalographic features that are seen in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. It is also characterized by a latent period that follows the initial precipitating injury (i.e., status epilepticus) until the appearance of recurrent seizures, as observed in the human condition. Finally, the kainic acid model can be reproduced in a variety of species using either systemic, intrahippocampal or intra-amygdaloid administrations. In this review, we describe the various methodological procedures and evaluate their differences with respect to the behavioral, electroencephalographic and neuropathological correlates. In addition, we compare the kainic acid model with other animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy such as the pilocarpine and the kindling model. We conclude that the kainic acid model is a reliable tool for understanding temporal lobe epilepsy, provided that the differences existing between methodological procedures are taken into account. PMID:24184743

  6. Imaging of biliary complications in recipients of right-lobe living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Park, So Hyun; Kim, Kyoung Won; Kim, Bohyun; Lee, So Jung; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Song, Gi-Won; Lee, Sung-Gyu; Jeong, Woo Kyoung

    2016-04-01

    Right-lobe living donor liver transplantation (RL-LDLT) is a common method devised in order to fulfill the demands of donor organ shortage in adult patients with end-stage liver diseases. However, biliary complications remain as the "Achilles' heel" of RL-LDLT, with wide variety of incidence among transplantation centers. Patients with biliary complications after RL-LDLT may have similar clinical presentations to those with other causes of graft dysfunction. Therefore, radiological evaluation plays a key role for differential diagnosis of such complications. In this article, we discuss the various methods of biliary reconstruction and imaging findings of common and uncommon biliary complications in recipients of RL-LDLT. PMID:25972371

  7. H-coil repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Gersner, R.; Oberman, L.; Sanchez, M.J.; Chiriboga, N.; Kaye, H.L.; Pascual-Leone, A.; Libenson, M.; Roth, Y.; Zangen, A.; Rotenberg, A.

    2016-01-01

    Low frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS) of a cortical seizure focus is emerging as an antiepileptic treatment. While conventional rTMS stimulators activate only superficial cortical areas, reaching deep epileptic foci, for example in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), is possible using specially designed H-coils. We report the results of rTMS in a young adult with pharmacoresistant bilateral TLE who underwent three courses (of 10, 15, and 30 daily sessions) of unilateral rTMS over the hemisphere from which seizures originated most often. Seizure frequency was assessed before and after each block of rTMS sessions, as was the tolerability of the procedure. Seizure frequency declined significantly, by 50 to 70% following each rTMS course. All sessions were well-tolerated. PMID:27114902

  8. H-coil repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy: A case report.

    PubMed

    Gersner, R; Oberman, L; Sanchez, M J; Chiriboga, N; Kaye, H L; Pascual-Leone, A; Libenson, M; Roth, Y; Zangen, A; Rotenberg, A

    2016-01-01

    Low frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS) of a cortical seizure focus is emerging as an antiepileptic treatment. While conventional rTMS stimulators activate only superficial cortical areas, reaching deep epileptic foci, for example in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), is possible using specially designed H-coils. We report the results of rTMS in a young adult with pharmacoresistant bilateral TLE who underwent three courses (of 10, 15, and 30 daily sessions) of unilateral rTMS over the hemisphere from which seizures originated most often. Seizure frequency was assessed before and after each block of rTMS sessions, as was the tolerability of the procedure. Seizure frequency declined significantly, by 50 to 70% following each rTMS course. All sessions were well-tolerated. PMID:27114902

  9. Remote infarct of the temporal lobe with coexistent hippocampal sclerosis in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gales, Jordan M; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    In patients undergoing surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy, hippocampal sclerosis remains the most commonly observed pathology. In addition to hippocampal sclerosis, 5% to 30% of these resections on magnetic resonance imaging contain a second independently epileptogenic lesion, commonly referred to as dual pathology. A second etiology of seizure activity, as seen in dual pathology, may serve as an important cause of treatment failure in striving for post-operative seizure control. Dual pathology, consisting of hippocampal sclerosis and a remote infarct of the adjacent cortex, has been rarely reported. Cases of pathologically confirmed hippocampal sclerosis diagnosed between January 2000 and December 2012 (n = 349) were reviewed, and 7 cases of coexistent infarct (2%) formed the study group. Seven individuals (mean age, 29years; range, 5-47 years) with a mean epilepsy duration of 12.5years (3.3-25 years) and a mean pre-surgery frequency of 15 seizures per week (range, 0.5-56 seizures/week) were followed up postoperatively for a mean duration of 64months (range, 3-137 months). Pathologically, the most common form of hippocampal sclerosis observed was International League against Epilepsy type Ib or severe variant (n = 4). Four of the six individuals with post-surgery follow-up were seizure free at last encounter. The reported incidence of dual pathology, including hippocampal sclerosis and remote infarct, is low (2% in the present study) but may indicate a slightly increased risk of developing hippocampal sclerosis in the setting of a remote infarct. Surgical intervention for such cases anecdotally appears effective in achieving seizure control. PMID:26614397

  10. Grating lobes analysis based on blazed grating theory for liquid crystal optical-phased array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Cui, Guolong; Kong, Lingjiang; Xiao, Feng; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Xiaoguang

    2013-09-01

    The grating lobes of the liquid crystal optical-phased array (LCOPA) based on blazed grating theory is studied. Using the Fraunhofer propagation principle, the analytical expressions of the far-field intensity distribution are derived. Subsequently, we can obtain both the locations and the intensities of the grating lobes. The derived analytical functions that provide an insight into single-slit diffraction and multislit interference effect on the grating lobes are discussed. Utilizing the conventional microwave-phased array technique, the intensities of the grating lobes and the main lobe are almost the same. Different from this, the derived analytical functions demonstrate that the intensities of the grating lobes are less than that of the main lobe. The computer simulations and experiments show that the proposed method can correctly estimate the locations and the intensities of the grating lobes for a LCOPA simultaneously.

  11. The Structural Plasticity of White Matter Networks Following Anterior Temporal Lobe Resection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yogarajah, Mahinda; Focke, Niels K.; Bonelli, Silvia B.; Thompson, Pamela; Vollmar, Christian; McEvoy, Andrew W.; Alexander, Daniel C.; Symms, Mark R.; Koepp, Matthias J.; Duncan, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior temporal lobe resection is an effective treatment for refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. The structural consequences of such surgery in the white matter, and how these relate to language function after surgery remain unknown. We carried out a longitudinal study with diffusion tensor imaging in 26 left and 20 right temporal lobe epilepsy…

  12. Oncocytoma of the Deep Lobe of the Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Popovski, Vladimir; Benedetti, Alberto; Monevska, Danica Popovik; Grcev, Aleksandar; Serafimovski, Predrag; Pecanovski, Ruse; Stamatoski, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oncocytoma or oxyphilic adenoma is uncommon salivary gland tumour, occurs predominantly in the in patients older than 60 years of age. Clinically oncocytoma resemble other salivary tumours while histology is typically consisting of oncocytes with many hyperplastic mitochondria. It usually occurs in the parotid gland. Because the features of oncocytoma are similar to those of other benign and low-grade malignant salivary tumours, clinical diagnosis is often challenging. CASE PRESENTATION: This report presents the pathologic and imaging findings of an oncocytoma arising in the deep lobe of the right parotid gland in a 74-year-old male. Oncocytoma was diagnosed on the basis of histological, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), scintigraphic findings and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). CONCLUSION: This case was unique because in the literature there are few articles about the rare presentation and deep lobe location of this type of parotid oncocytoma. PMID:27335603

  13. STIS optical spectroscopy of the lobes of CRL 618

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riera, A.; Raga, A. C.; Velázquez, P. F.; Haro-Corzo, S. A. R.; Kajdic, P.

    2011-09-01

    Context. Many proto-planetary nebulae show collimated structures sometimes showing multiple outflows. Aims: We present the results of new optical spectroscopic observations (both medium (with a dispersion of 0.56 Å pixel-1) and low (2.73 and 4.92 Å pixel-1 for the G430L and G750L gratings) spectral resolution) of the lobes of the proto-planetary nebula CRL 618 obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board of the Hubble Space Telescope. Methods: We analyse the density structure and the excitation conditions of the lobes of CRL 618. The spectra obtained at medium spectral resolution (~50 km s-1) allow us to quote the fraction of unscattered (intrinsic) Hα emission. We have also obtained de-reddened emission line ratios of several features from the low spectral resolution spectra. Results: We find that most of the analysed line ratios are reproduced by planar shocks moving through a dense medium (with pre-shock densities ~104 cm-3) with shock velocities from 30 to 40 km s-1 (except the [O III]/Hβ line ratios which require shock velocities of 80 to 90 km s-1). We find that the [S II]-weighted ionization fraction ranges from 0.015 to 0.06. The total densities derived from the electron density and the ionization fraction are ~105 to 106 cm-3. Conclusions: We conclude that the spectra of the lobes of CRL 618 can be margially reproduced by steady plane-parallel shock models for shock velocities which are significantly lower than the velocities at which the jet moves outwards (~200 km s-1). These results are consistent with the predictions of a jet with a variable ejection velocity. The mirror-symmetry, the luminosity asymmetry between both lobes and the ejection velocity variability suggest that its central source may host a binary system.

  14. Impairments in proverb interpretation following focal frontal lobe lesions.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Patrick; Shallice, Tim; Robinson, Gail; MacPherson, Sarah E; Turner, Martha; Woollett, Katherine; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2013-09-01

    The proverb interpretation task (PIT) is often used in clinical settings to evaluate frontal "executive" dysfunction. However, only a relatively small number of studies have investigated the relationship between frontal lobe lesions and performance on the PIT. We compared 52 patients with unselected focal frontal lobe lesions with 52 closely matched healthy controls on a proverb interpretation task. Participants also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, including a fluid intelligence task (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices). Lesions were firstly analysed according to a standard left/right sub-division. Secondly, a finer-grained analysis compared the performance of patients with medial, left lateral and right lateral lesions with healthy controls. Thirdly, a contrast of specific frontal subgroups compared the performance of patients with medial lesions with patients with lateral frontal lesions. The results showed that patients with left frontal lesions were significantly impaired on the PIT, while in patients with right frontal lesions the impairments approached significance. Medial frontal patients were the only frontal subgroup impaired on the PIT, relative to healthy controls and lateral frontal patients. Interestingly, an error analysis indicated that a significantly higher number of concrete responses were found in the left lateral subgroup compared to healthy controls. We found no correlation between scores on the PIT and on the fluid intelligence task. Overall our results suggest that specific regions of the frontal lobes contribute to the performance on the PIT. PMID:23850600

  15. Octopamine Regulates Antennal Sensory Neurons via Daytime-Dependent Changes in cAMP and IP3 Levels in the Hawkmoth Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Schendzielorz, Thomas; Schirmer, Katja; Stolte, Paul; Stengl, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The biogenic amine octopamine (OA) mediates reward signals in olfactory learning and memory as well as circadian rhythms of sleep and activity. In the crepuscular hawkmoth Manduca sexta, OA changed pheromone detection thresholds daytime-dependently, suggesting that OA confers circadian control of olfactory transduction. Thus, with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays we searched hawkmoth antennae for daytime-dependent changes in the concentration of OA and its respective second messengers. Antennal stimulation with OA raised cAMP- and IP3 levels. Furthermore, antennae expressed daytime-dependent changes in the concentration of OA, with maxima at Zeitgebertime (ZT) 20 when moths were active and also maximal concentrations of cAMP occurred. Maximal IP3 levels at ZT 18 and 23 correlated with maximal flight activity of male moths, while minimal IP3 levels at dusk correlated with peaks of feeding activity. Half maximal effective concentration (EC50) for activation of the OA-receptor decreased during the moth’s activity phase suggesting daytime-dependent changes in OA receptor sensitivity. With an antiserum against tyramine, the precursor of OA, two centrifugal neurons were detected projecting out into the sensory cell layer of the antenna, possibly mediating more rapid stimulus-dependent OA actions. Indeed, in fast kinetic assays OA receptor stimulation increased cAMP concentrations within 50 msec. Thus, we hypothesize that fast, stimulus-dependent centrifugal control of OA-release in the antenna occurs. Additional slow systemic OA actions might be based upon circadian release of OA into the hemolymph mediating circadian rhythms of antennal second messenger levels. The resulting rhythms of odor sensitivity are suggested to underlie circadian rhythms in odor-mediated behavior. PMID:25785721

  16. An evaluation of lateralizing signs in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ataoğlu, Esra Erkoç; Yıldırım, İrem; Bilir, Erhan

    2015-06-01

    Resective epilepsy surgery has been accepted as an effective treatment for patients with medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to control the seizures and to limit cognitive dysfunction. Complete resection of the epileptic zone, and therefore the success of the surgery, depends on the identification of the seizure focus. Reliable lateralizing semiologic signs, together with other presurgical assessments, are of great importance for an accurate identification of the seizure focus. In this respect, this study evaluated the frequency of semiologic signs in medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) together with the lateralizing values and variations according to the age and gender groups. Two hundred seventy-three seizures of 55 patients of the Adult Epilepsy Monitoring Unit of Gazi University Faculty of Medicine with the diagnosis of medically intractable TLE, whose epileptic foci were detected through noninvasive presurgical procedures and seizures were controlled successfully after anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL), were analyzed retrospectively. Seizure semiologies of the patients were evaluated in terms of lateralizing values, and it was inquired whether age/gender causes any variation. Versive head rotation, unilateral dystonic limb posturing, asymmetric tonic limb posturing, and the combination of unilateral hand automatisms and dystonic posturing were determined as the semiologic signs with the highest lateralizing values (90-100%). While hand automatisms were observed frequently in the group with early seizure-onset age (onset age ≤ 2), asymmetric tonic limb posturing was detected as more frequent in the group with later seizure-onset age (onset age > 2; p < .005). In addition to this, semiologic signs were noted to be different between male and female groups; psychic and autonomic auras and ictal emotional signs were associated with women (p < .005). PMID:25989878

  17. Electrographic Waveform Structure Predicts Laminar Focus Location in a Model of Temporal Lobe Seizures In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Christopher; Adams, Natalie E.; Traub, Roger D.; Whittington, Miles A.

    2015-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is the most common form of partial-onset epilepsy and accounts for the majority of adult epilepsy cases in most countries. A critical role for the hippocampus (and to some extent amygdala) in the pathology of these epilepsies is clear, with selective removal of these regions almost as effective as temporal lobectomy in reducing subsequent seizure risk. However, there is debate about whether hippocampus is ‘victim’ or ‘perpetrator’: The structure is ideally placed to ‘broadcast’ epileptiform activity to a great many other brain regions, but removal often leaves epileptiform events still occurring in cortex, particularly in adjacent areas, and recruitment of the hippocampus into seizure-like activity has been shown to be difficult in clinically-relevant models. Using a very simple model of acute epileptiform activity with known, single primary pathology (GABAA Receptor partial blockade), we track the onset and propagation of epileptiform events in hippocampus, parahippocampal areas and neocortex. In this model the hippocampus acts as a potential seizure focus for the majority of observed events. Events with hippocampal focus were far more readily propagated throughout parahippocampal areas and into neocortex than vice versa. The electrographic signature of events of hippocampal origin was significantly different to those of primary neocortical origin – a consequence of differential laminar activation. These data confirm the critical role of the hippocampus in epileptiform activity generation in the temporal lobe and suggest the morphology of non-invasive electrical recording of neocortical interictal events may be useful in confirming this role. PMID:25799020

  18. Effect of number of lobes and length-diameter ratio on stability of tilted-lobe hydrodynamic journal bearings at zero load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuller, F. T.

    1975-01-01

    Hydrodynamic journal stability tests were conducted with tilted-lobe bearings. The bearings had three, five, and seven lobes and length to diameter (L/D) ratios from 0.2 to 1.0. They were tested in water and MIL-L-7808G oil at 294 K (70 F) at speeds to 5400 rpm with zero load. Stability was not appreciably affected by the number of lobes and decreased with a decrease in L/D ratio. However, a three-tilted-lobe bearing with an offset factor of 0.76 and an L/D of 0.5 was more stable than a three centrally lobed bearing with an offset factor of 0.50 and an L/D of 1.0.

  19. Working memory network plasticity after anterior temporal lobe resection: a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Stretton, Jason; Sidhu, Meneka K; Winston, Gavin P; Bartlett, Philippa; McEvoy, Andrew W; Symms, Mark R; Koepp, Matthias J; Thompson, Pamela J; Duncan, John S

    2014-05-01

    Working memory is a crucial cognitive function that is disrupted in temporal lobe epilepsy. It is unclear whether this impairment is a consequence of temporal lobe involvement in working memory processes or due to seizure spread to extratemporal eloquent cortex. Anterior temporal lobe resection controls seizures in 50-80% of patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy and the effect of surgery on working memory are poorly understood both at a behavioural and neural level. We investigated the impact of temporal lobe resection on the efficiency and functional anatomy of working memory networks. We studied 33 patients with unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy (16 left) before, 3 and 12 months after anterior temporal lobe resection. Fifteen healthy control subjects were also assessed in parallel. All subjects had neuropsychological testing and performed a visuospatial working memory functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm on these three separate occasions. Changes in activation and deactivation patterns were modelled individually and compared between groups. Changes in task performance were included as regressors of interest to assess the efficiency of changes in the networks. Left and right temporal lobe epilepsy patients were impaired on preoperative measures of working memory compared to controls. Working memory performance did not decline following left or right temporal lobe resection, but improved at 3 and 12 months following left and, to a lesser extent, following right anterior temporal lobe resection. After left anterior temporal lobe resection, improved performance correlated with greater deactivation of the left hippocampal remnant and the contralateral right hippocampus. There was a failure of increased deactivation of the left hippocampal remnant at 3 months after left temporal lobe resection compared to control subjects, which had normalized 12 months after surgery. Following right anterior temporal lobe resection there was a

  20. Intrinsic controls on the range of volumes, morphologies, and dimensions of submarine lobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prélat, A.; Covault, J. A.; Hodgson, D. M.; Fildani, A.; Flint, S. S.

    2010-12-01

    Submarine lobe dimensions from six different systems are compared: 1) the exhumed Permian Fan 3 lobe complex of the Tanqua Karoo, South Africa; 2) the modern Amazon fan channel-mouth lobe complex, offshore Brazil; 3) a portion of the modern distal Zaïre fan, offshore Angola/Congo; 4) a Pleistocene fan of the Kutai basin, subsurface offshore Indonesia; 5) the modern Golo system, offshore east Corsica, France; and 6) a shallow subsurface lobe complex , offshore Nigeria. These six systems have significantly different source-to-sink configurations (shelf dimension and slope topography), sediment supply characteristics (available grain size range and supply rate), tectonic settings, (palaeo) latitude, and delivery systems. Despite these differences, lobe deposits share similar geometric and dimensional characteristics. Lobes are grouped into two distinct populations of geometries that can be related to basin floor topography. The first population corresponds to areally extensive but thin lobes (average width 14 km × length 35 km × thickness 12 m) that were deposited onto low relief basin floor areas. Examples of such systems include the Tanqua Karoo, the Amazon, and the Zaïre systems. The second population corresponds to areally smaller but thicker lobes (average width 5 km × length 8 km × thickness 30 m) that were deposited into settings with higher amplitude of relief, like in the Corsican trough, the Kutai basin, and offshore Nigeria. The two populations of lobe types, however, share similar volumes (a narrow range around 1 or 2 km 3), which suggests that there is a control to the total volume of sediment that individual lobes can reach before they shift to a new locus of deposition. This indicates that the extrinsic processes control the number of lobes deposited per unit time rather than their dimensions. Two alternative hypotheses are presented to explain the similarities in lobe volumes calculated from the six very different systems. The first states that

  1. CT/99mTc-GSA SPECT fusion images demonstrate functional differences between the liver lobes

    PubMed Central

    Sumiyoshi, Tatsuaki; Shima, Yasuo; Tokorodani, Ryoutarou; Okabayashi, Takehiro; Kozuki, Akihito; Hata, Yasuhiro; Noda, Yoshihiro; Murata, Yoriko; Nakamura, Toshio; Uka, Kiminori

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the functional differences between the 2 liver lobes in non-cirrhotic patients by using computed tomography/99mTc-galactosyl human serum albumin (CT/99mTc-GSA) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) fusion images. METHODS: Between December 2008 and March 2012, 264 non-cirrhotic patients underwent preoperative liver function assessment using CT/99mTc-GSA SPECT fusion images. Of these, 30 patients, in whom the influence of a tumor on the liver parenchyma was estimated to be negligible, were selected. Specifically, the selected patients were required to meet either of the following criteria: (1) the presence of an extrahepatic tumor; or (2) presence of a single small intrahepatic tumor. These 30 patients were retrospectively analyzed to calculate the percentage volume (%Volume) and the percentage function (%Function) of each lobe. The ratio between the %Function and %Volume (function-to-volume ratio) of each lobe was also calculated, and the ratios were compared between the 2 lobes. Furthermore, the correlations between the function-to-volume ratio and each of 2 liver parameters [lobe volume and diameter ratio of the left portal vein to the right portal vein (LPV-to-RPV diameter ratio)] were investigated. RESULTS: The median values of %Volume and %Function were 62.6% and 67.1% in the right lobe, with %Function being significantly higher than %Volume (P < 0.01). The median values of %Volume and %Function were 31.0% and 28.7% in the left lobe, with %Function being significantly lower than %Volume (P < 0.01). The function-to-volume ratios of the right lobe (1.04-1.14) were significantly higher than those of the left lobe (0.74-0.99) (P < 0.01). The function-to-volume ratio showed no significant correlation between the lobe volume in either lobe. In contrast, the function-to-volume ratio showed significant correlations with the LPV-to-RPV diameter ratio in both lobes (right lobe: negative correlation, rs = -0.37, P = 0.048; left lobe: positive

  2. Detailed analysis of methane hydrate concentrated zone of lobe type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Saeki, T.; Inamori, T.; Fujii, T.; Shimoda, N.

    2007-12-01

    Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (hereinafter called JOGMEC), as a member of MH21 Research Consortium, takes charge of a study of the Research for Resources Assessment, and is pursuing a possibility that methane hydrate, which is presumed to be distributed around ocean area of Japan, will be energy resources. JOGMEC is currently conducting analysis of seismic data which was acquired by 3D seismic survey conducted from Tokai-Oki to Kumano-nada in the eastern Nankai Trough by METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) in 2002 under the national program of assessment for methane hydrates as energy resources. It was understood that methane hydrate was correlated to high resistivity and high velocity based on the results of drilling surveys and velocity analysis, and that methane hydrate concentrated zones can be roughly classified into the channels and lobes in seismic geomorphology because they were characterized with reserves consisting turbidite sand bodies. In this study, the detailed analysis of the inner structure of the methane hydrate concentrated zone of lobe type was conducted to understand the occurrence configurations of methane hydrates. The reflected waves that construct the methane hydrate concentrated zones in the seismic data were extracted and those reflected waves were classified into some groups every one reflector. As the result, some reflectors that construct the methane hydrate concentrated zones were revealed. Those reflectors show the layers including methane hydrates, and the detailed distribution of the methane hydrates in those layers was revealed by the intensity distribution of the amplitude. This time, we introduce the example of the detailed analysis of the methane hydrate concentrated zone in the lobe of submarine fan.

  3. Decreased frontal lobe phosphocreatine levels in methamphetamine users

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Young-Hoon; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.; Shi, Xian-Feng; Kondo, Douglas G.; Lundberg, Kelly J.; McGlade, Erin C.; Hellem, Tracy L.; Huber, Rebekah S.; Fiedler, Kristen K.; Harrell, Renee E.; Nickerson, Bethany R.; Kim, Seong-Eun; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mitochondria-related mechanisms have been suggested to mediate methamphetamine (METH) toxicity. However, changes in brain energetics associated with highenergy phosphate metabolism have not been investigated in METH users. Phosphorus-31 (31P) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to evaluate changes in mitochondrial high energy phosphates, including phosphocreatine (PCr) and β-nucleoside triphosphate (β-NTP, primarily ATP in brain) levels. We hypothesized that METH users would have decreased high-energy PCr levels in the frontal gray matter. METHODS Study participants consisted of 51 METH (age=32.8±6.7) and 23 healthy comparison (age=31.1±7.5) subjects. High-energy phosphate metabolite levels were compared between the groups and potential gender differences were explored. RESULTS METH users had lower ratios of PCr to total pool of exchangeable phosphate (PCr/TPP) in the frontal lobe as compared to the healthy subjects (p=0.001). The lower PCr levels in METH subjects were significantly associated with lifetime amount of METH use (p=0.003). A sub-analysis for gender differences revealed that female METH users, who had lower daily amounts (1.1±1.0 gram) of METH use than males (1.4±1.7 gram), had significantly lower PCr/TPP ratios than male METH users, controlling for the amount of METH use (p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS The present findings suggest that METH compromises frontal lobe high-energy phosphate metabolism in a dose-responsive manner. Our findings also suggest that the abnormality in frontal lobe high-energy phosphate metabolism might be more prominent in female than in male METH users. This is significant as decreased PCr levels have been associated with depressive symptoms, and poor responses to antidepressant treatment have been reported in those with decreased PCr levels. PMID:23084413

  4. Distinct frontal lobe morphology in girls and boys with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Dirlikov, Benjamin; Shiels Rosch, Keri; Crocetti, Deana; Denckla, Martha B.; Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether frontal lobe cortical morphology differs for boys and girls with ADHD (ages 8–12 years) in comparison to typically developing (TD) peers. Method Participants included 226 children between the ages of 8–12 including 93 children with ADHD (29 girls) and 133 TD children (42 girls) for which 3T MPRAGE MRI scans were obtained. A fully automated frontal lobe atlas was used to generate functionally distinct frontal subdivisions, with surface area (SA) and cortical thickness (CT) assessed in each region. Analyses focused on overall diagnostic differences as well as examinations of the effect of diagnosis within boys and girls. Results Girls, but not boys, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total prefrontal cortex (PFC) SA. Localization revealed that girls showed widely distributed reductions in the bilateral dorsolateral PFC, left inferior lateral PFC, right medial PFC, right orbitofrontal cortex, and left anterior cingulate; and boys showed reduced SA only in the right anterior cingulate and left medial PFC. In contrast, boys, but not girls, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total premotor cortex (PMC) SA. Further localization revealed that in boys, premotor reductions were observed in bilateral lateral PMC regions; and in girls reductions were observed in bilateral supplementary motor complex. In line with diagnostic group differences, PMC and PFC SAs were inversely correlated with symptom severity in both girls and boys with ADHD. Conclusions These results elucidate sex-based differences in cortical morphology of functional subdivisions of the frontal lobe and provide additional evidence of associations among SA and symptom severity in children with ADHD. PMID:25610784

  5. Psychosis and temporal lobe epilepsy-role of electroconvulsive therapy.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Naomi Mifflen; Gadit, Amin

    2012-01-01

    A 49-year-old female presented for admission with features of being withdrawn, inability to comprehend questions, auditory hallucinations and disorganised thoughts. She also had a previous diagnosis of temporal lobe epilepsy. She did not respond well to psychotropic medications. During her sleep deprived EEG, she had a brief episode of seizures. Following this, she showed improvement in psychosis for a day or so. Based on this finding, it was decided to initiate a course of electroconvulsive therapy. She improved remarkably on six treatments. At the time of discharge, she was in a stable condition. PMID:22729342

  6. Anton's Syndrome due to Bilateral Ischemic Occipital Lobe Strokes

    PubMed Central

    Zukić, Sanela; Sinanović, Osman; Hodžić, Renata; Mujagić, Svjetlana; Smajlović, Edina

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a patient with Anton's syndrome (i.e., visual anosognosia with confabulations), who developed bilateral occipital lobe infarct. Bilateral occipital brain damage results in blindness, and patients start to confabulate to fill in the missing sensory input. In addition, the patient occasionally becomes agitated and talks to himself, which indicates that, besides Anton's syndrome, he might have had Charles Bonnet syndrome, characterized by both visual loss and hallucinations. Anton syndrome, is not so frequent condition and is most commonly caused by ischemic stroke. In this particular case, the patient had successive bilateral occipital ischemia as a result of massive stenoses of head and neck arteries. PMID:25530893

  7. Anton's Syndrome due to Bilateral Ischemic Occipital Lobe Strokes.

    PubMed

    Zukić, Sanela; Sinanović, Osman; Zonić, Lejla; Hodžić, Renata; Mujagić, Svjetlana; Smajlović, Edina

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a patient with Anton's syndrome (i.e., visual anosognosia with confabulations), who developed bilateral occipital lobe infarct. Bilateral occipital brain damage results in blindness, and patients start to confabulate to fill in the missing sensory input. In addition, the patient occasionally becomes agitated and talks to himself, which indicates that, besides Anton's syndrome, he might have had Charles Bonnet syndrome, characterized by both visual loss and hallucinations. Anton syndrome, is not so frequent condition and is most commonly caused by ischemic stroke. In this particular case, the patient had successive bilateral occipital ischemia as a result of massive stenoses of head and neck arteries. PMID:25530893

  8. "Old" tail lobes provide significant additional substorm power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishin, V.; Mishin, V. V.; Karavaev, Y.

    2012-12-01

    In each polar cap (PC) we mark out "old PC" observed during quiet time before the event under consideration, and "new PC" that emerges during rounding the old one and expanding the PC total area. Old and new PCs correspond in the magnetosphere to the old and new tail lobes, respectively. The new lobe variable magnetic flux Ψ1 is usually assumed to be active, i.e. it provides transport of the electromagnetic energy flux (Poynting flux) ɛ' from solar wind into the magnetosphere. The old lobe magnetic flux Ψ2 is usually supposed to be passive, i.e. it remains constant during the disturbance and does not participate in the transporting process which would mean the old PC electric field absolute screening from the convection electric field created by the magnetopause reconnection. In fact, screening is observed, but it is far from absolute. We suggest a model of screening and determine its quantitative characteristics in the selected superstorm. The coefficient of a screening is the β = Ψ2/Ψ02, where Ψ02 = const is open magnetic flux through the old PC measured prior to the substorm, and Ψ2 is variable magnetic flux during the substorm. We consider three various regimes of disturbance. In each, the coefficient β decreased during the loading phase and increased at the unloading phase, but the rates and amplitudes of variations exhibited a strong dependence on the regime. We interpreted decrease in β as a result of involving the old PC magnetic flux Ψ2, which was considered to be constant earlier, to the ' transport process of the Poynting flux from the solar wind into the magnetosphere. A weakening of the transport process at the subsequent unloading phase creates increase in β. Estimates showed that coefficient β during each regime and the computed Poynting flux varied manifolds. In general, unlike the existing substorm conception, the new scenario describes an unknown earlier tail lobe activation process during a substorm growth phase that effectively

  9. Ear lobe crease: a marker of coronary artery disease?

    PubMed Central

    Agouridis, Aris P.; Elisaf, Moses S.; Nair, Devaki R.

    2015-01-01

    The ear lobe crease (ELC) has been defined as a deep wrinkle that extends backwards from the tragus to the auricle. It has been proposed that ELC is a predictor of coronary artery disease (CAD). In this review, we consider the possible association between ELC and CAD. Our aim is to systematically address all the relevant evidence in this field. There are many studies that support an association between ELC and CAD. However, other studies did not find such an association. A recent meta-analysis supports the hypothesis that ELC could be a marker of CAD. However, several limitations raise doubts as to whether we should accept this link. PMID:26788075

  10. Cardiac Asystole Triggered by Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with Amygdala Enlargement.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Junko; Nagai, Tomoo; Takasaki, Hiroshi; Sugano, Hidenori; Hamabe, Akira; Tahara, Mai; Mori, Hitoshi; Takase, Yoshiyuki; Gatate, Youdou; Togashi, Naohiko; Takiguchi, Shunichi; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ishigami, Norio; Tabata, Hirotsugu; Fukushima, Kouji; Katsushika, Shuichi

    2016-01-01

    A 25-year-old previously healthy man was hospitalized for syncope. While standing, he suddenly lost consciousness, followed by a generalized tonic clonic seizure. An electrocardiogram demonstrated asystole. No cardiac abnormalities were detected on the echocardiogram, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography, or a coronary angiogram. An electrophysiological study showed normal sinus node and atrioventricular node function. An electroencephalogram revealed small spike waves in the fronto-temporal region. Brain MRI demonstrated a left-sided amygdala enlargement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of temporal lobe epilepsy with an amygdala enlargement that induced cardiac asystole. PMID:27250053

  11. Right upper lobe lung cancer: Resection through left anterior mediastinotomy.

    PubMed

    Sirois, Marco; Abu Arab, Walid; Turcotte, Eric; Poulin, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    There is sparse information concerning approaches to metachronous lung cancer in patients who had a previous pneumonectomy for lung carcinoma. We describe the case of a 55-year-old woman who underwent a left pneumonectomy for lung carcinoma. Four years later, a radiological examination revealed a hypermetabolic nodule in the right upper lobe, which was located in the left hemithorax because of right lung hyperinflation and a mediastinal shift to the left. Wedge resection was carried out through a left anterior mediastinotomy. We believe that an anterior mediastinotomy represents a valuable option for the management of recurrent lung cancer after previous surgery. PMID:26124429

  12. Are the dimensions of submarine lobe systems independent of allogenic factors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prélat, A.; Covault, J. A.; Hodgson, D. M.; Fildani, A.; Flint, S. S.

    2010-05-01

    Submarine lobe dimensions from six different systems are compared: 1) the exhumed Permian Fan 3 lobe complex of the Tanqua Karoo, South Africa; 2) the modern Amazon fan channel-mouth lobe complex, offshore Brazil; 3) a portion of the modern distal Zaïre fan, offshore Angola / Congo; 4) a Pleistocene fan of the Kutai Basin, subsurface offshore Indonesia; 5) the modern Golo system, offshore east Corsica, France; and 6) a lobe complex deposited in the shallow subsurface, offshore Nigeria. These six systems have significantly different source-to-sink configurations (shelf dimension and slope topography), sediment supply characteristics (calibre and rate), tectonic settings, (palaeo) latitude, and delivery systems. Despite these differences, the lobe deposits share similar geometric and dimensional characteristics. Lobes are grouped into two distinct populations of geometries that can be related to basin-floor topography. The first population corresponds to areally extensive but thin lobes (average width 14 km × length 35 km × thickness 12 m) that were deposited onto low relief basin floor areas, like the Tanqua Karoo, the Amazon and the Zaïre systems. The second population corresponds to areally smaller but thicker lobes (average width 5 km × length 8 km × thickness 30 m) that were deposited into settings with higher amplitude of relief, like in the Corsican trough, the Kutai basin, and offshore Nigeria. Basin floor topography confining the lobes can be very subtle, and only occur on one side of the system. The two populations of lobe types, however, share similar volumes, in the order of 1 or 2 km3. The largest lobes are observed in the Zaïre fan, where the average lobe volume reaches 3.3 km3 and the smallest lobes are observed in the Corsican trough where the average lobe volume is 0.4 km3. This variation in lobe volume is minor when compared to the variation observed in present-day up-dip drainage systems, which provide sediment to the deep-water depositional

  13. Structure and Function of the Superior Temporal Plane in Adult Males with Cleft Lip and Palate: Pathologic Enlargement with No Relationship to Childhood Hearing Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, A. S.; Canady, J.; Richman, L.; Andreasen, N. C.; Nopoulos, P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In a previous study from our lab, adult males with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCLP) were shown to have significantly lower temporal lobe gray matter volume than matched controls. The current study was designed to begin a regional analysis of specific subregions of the temporal lobe. The superior temporal plane (STP) is a…

  14. Novel assessment of global metabolism by 18F-FDG-PET for localizing affected lobe in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Peter, Jonah; Houshmand, Sina; Werner, Thomas J; Rubello, Domenico; Alavi, Abass

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel method of global quantitative analysis for use in the diagnosis and treatment evaluation of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We studied 16 patients diagnosed with TLE who underwent fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-PET (F-FDG-PET) and MRI at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. To quantify temporal lobe hypometabolism, we averaged the mean standardized uptake value across regions of interest (ROIs) encompassing each lobe in its entirety and calculated the metabolic ratios and lateralization indices for each patient on the basis of global measurements. For comparison, we carried out a traditional 'punch biopsy' ROI analysis by averaging the mean standardized uptake value within 1 cm diameter ROIs across select slices. Both techniques were performed twice by the same rater to test intraobserver variability. An expert observer carried out visual analyses of both F-FDG-PET and MRI for reference. The global quantitative analysis identified a seizure focus lateralization in agreement with clinical evaluations for 91% of patients on both trials, with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.97 and 0.92 for metabolic ratios and lateralization indices, respectively. The punch biopsy analysis was in agreement for 91 and 82% of patients on respective trials, with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.90 and 0.75. Expert visual analyses carried out on F-FDG-PET and MRI were in agreement for 64 and 9% of patients, respectively. The global quantitative analysis proved to be the most accurate and reliable of the methods tested. This technique has the potential to improve metabolic analysis in TLE and other neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27092666

  15. Autonomous learning in gesture recognition by using lobe component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jian; Weng, Juyang

    2007-02-01

    Gesture recognition is a new human-machine interface method implemented by pattern recognition(PR).In order to assure robot safety when gesture is used in robot control, it is required to implement the interface reliably and accurately. Similar with other PR applications, 1) feature selection (or model establishment) and 2) training from samples, affect the performance of gesture recognition largely. For 1), a simple model with 6 feature points at shoulders, elbows, and hands, is established. The gestures to be recognized are restricted to still arm gestures, and the movement of arms is not considered. These restrictions are to reduce the misrecognition, but are not so unreasonable. For 2), a new biological network method, called lobe component analysis(LCA), is used in unsupervised learning. Lobe components, corresponding to high-concentrations in probability of the neuronal input, are orientation selective cells follow Hebbian rule and lateral inhibition. Due to the advantage of LCA method for balanced learning between global and local features, large amount of samples can be used in learning efficiently.

  16. The Contribution of the Parietal Lobes to Speaking and Writing

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Richard J. S.

    2010-01-01

    The left parietal lobe has been proposed as a major language area. However, parietal cortical function is more usually considered in terms of the control of actions, contributing both to attention and cross-modal integration of external and reafferent sensory cues. We used positron emission tomography to study normal subjects while they overtly generated narratives, both spoken and written. The purpose was to identify the parietal contribution to the modality-specific sensorimotor control of communication, separate from amodal linguistic and memory processes involved in generating a narrative. The majority of left and right parietal activity was associated with the execution of writing under visual and somatosensory control irrespective of whether the output was a narrative or repetitive reproduction of a single grapheme. In contrast, action-related parietal activity during speech production was confined to primary somatosensory cortex. The only parietal area with a pattern of activity compatible with an amodal central role in communication was the ventral part of the left angular gyrus (AG). The results of this study indicate that the cognitive processing of language within the parietal lobe is confined to the AG and that the major contribution of parietal cortex to communication is in the sensorimotor control of writing. PMID:19531538

  17. Connectome Reorganization Associated With Surgical Outcome in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Gong-Jun; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xu, Qiang; Wei, Wei; Wang, Jue; Wang, Zhengge; Yang, Fang; Sun, Kangjian; Jiao, Qing; Liao, Wei; Lu, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To identify the distinct pattern of anatomical network reorganization in surgically refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) patients using a longitudinal design. We collected longitudinal diffusion-weighted images of 19 MTLE patients before and after anterior temporal lobectomy. Patients were classified as seizure-free (SF) or nonseizure-free (NSF) at least 1 year after surgery. We constructed whole-brain anatomical networks derived from white matter tractography and evaluated network connectivity measures by graph theoretical analysis. The reorganization trajectories of network measures in SF and NSF patients were investigated by two-way mixed analysis of variance, with factors “group” (SF vs NSF) and “treatment” (presurgery vs postsurgery). Widespread brain structures showed opposite reorganization trajectories in FS and NSF groups (interaction effect). Most of them showed group difference before surgery and then converge after surgery, suggesting that surgery remodeled these structures into a similar status. Conversly, contralateral amygdala-planum-temporale and thalamic-parietal tracts showed higher connectivity strength in NSF than in SF patients after surgery, indicating maladaptive neuroplastic responses to surgery in NSF patients. Our findings suggest that surgical outcomes are associated not only with the preoperative pattern of anatomical connectivity, but also with connectome reconfiguration following surgery. The reorganization of contralateral temporal lobe and corticothalamic tracts may be particularly important for seizure control in MTLE. PMID:26448031

  18. Altered serial position learning after frontal lobe lesion.

    PubMed

    Eslinger, P J; Grattan, L M

    1994-06-01

    The serial position function is a powerful and highly reliable feature of human learning, with well-described primacy and recency effects. We tested the hypothesis that frontal lobe lesions in patients would disrupt the serial position function since such patients are known to have disturbed temporal ordering, learning in the presence of interference, encoding and organizational approaches to learning. Performance was compared in patients with focal, acquired lesions of frontal and non-frontal cortices, using a standardized paradigm of verbal list learning. Results indicated a similar pattern of performance on first trial learning for the two groups. However, across learning trials, frontal lesion subjects failed to maintain significant primacy and recency effects. Non-frontal lesion subjects consistently showed the expected U-shaped serial position curve across all trials. Subjective organization in learning was particularly deficient in the dorsolateral frontal lesion subjects. We propose that serial position effects are qualitatively different after frontal lobe lesion, being transitory and prone to alteration by the cumulative effects of disturbed temporal-spatial processing across learning trials. PMID:8084427

  19. Cerebellar atrophy and prognosis after temporal lobe resection.

    PubMed Central

    Specht, U; May, T; Schulz, R; Rohde, M; Ebner, A; Schmidt, R C; Schütz, M; Wolf, P

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Experimental data indicate inhibitory effects of the cerebellum on seizure activity. Structural damage such as cerebellar atrophy, which is a common finding in patients with chronic epilepsy, may reduce these effects. METHODS: Outcome after temporal lobectomy was studied in 78 consecutive patients, with or without cerebellar atrophy diagnosed by MRI. RESULTS: Thirty five patients (45%) showed cerebellar atrophy. At a mean follow up of 14.6 (range, 6-40) months, 50 patients (64%) had no postoperative seizures. In these patients, the frequency of cerebellar atrophy was significantly lower (34%) than in patients who relapsed (64%, p < 0.01). Occurrence of generalised tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) within two years before surgery, occurrence of GTCS at any time preoperatively, long duration of epilepsy, and older age at surgery were also associated with recurrence of seizures. Multiple logistic regression analysis suggested occurrence of GTCS within two years before surgery and cerebellar atrophy as the main predictive indicators. When both factors were present, the percentage of patients remaining seizure free since surgery fell to 30%, compared with 60% when only GTCS were present, 78.6% when only cerebellar atrophy was present, and 87.5% when both factors were absent. CONCLUSIONS: Cerebellar atrophy shown by MRI was a frequent finding in surgically treated patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The presence of cerebellar atrophy seems to worsen the prognosis after temporal lobe resection. Images PMID:9153610

  20. Cryptococcosis, silicosis, and tuberculous pseudotumor in the same pulmonary lobe*

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Geruza Alves; Brandão, Daniel Ferracioli; Vianna, Elcio Oliveira; de Sá, João Batista Carlos; Baddini-Martinez, José

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis and cryptococcosis are infectious diseases that can result in the formation of single or multiple nodules in immunocompetent patients. Exposure to silica is known to raise the risk of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We report the case of an elderly man with no history of opportunistic infections and no clinical evidence of immunodeficiency but with a six-month history of dry cough and nocturnal wheezing. A chest X-ray revealed a mass measuring 5.0 × 3.5 cm in the right upper lobe. The diagnostic approach of the mass revealed tuberculosis. The histopathological analysis of the surrounding parenchyma reveled silicosis and cryptococcosis. Cryptococcosis was also found in masses identified in the mediastinal lymph nodes. The surgical approach was indicated because of the degree of pleuropulmonary involvement, the inconclusive results obtained with the invasive and noninvasive methods applied, and the possibility of malignancy. This case illustrates the difficulty inherent to the assessment of infectious or inflammatory pulmonary pseudotumors, the differential diagnosis of which occasionally requires a radical surgical approach. Despite the presence of respiratory symptoms for six months, the first chest X-ray was performed only at the end of that period. We discuss the possible pathogenic mechanisms that might have led to the combination of three types of granulomatous lesions in the same lobe, and we emphasize the need for greater awareness of atypical presentations of pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:24310636

  1. Confabulation and delusional denial: frontal lobe and lateralized influences.

    PubMed

    Joseph, R

    1986-05-01

    Various forms of confabulation, including denial of illness (e.g., paralysis, blindness), and conditions that often give rise to these disorders, such as cerebral disconnection, disinhibitory states, incomplete information reception, and "gap filling" are discussed. On the basis of clinical observation and a review of a number of studies, it appears that confabulatory states frequently are associated with cerebral damage that involves the right hemisphere, notably, the frontal (often bilaterally) and parietal lobes--areas intimately involved in arousal, attention, information regulation, and integration. With certain forms of injury, initially there appear disturbances in the organization, integration, and assimilation of ideas and associations, such that large gaps appear in the information transmitted to and received by the language axis of the left hemisphere. It is argued that in these instances, the language areas act so as to fill these "gaps" with information that, although inappropriate, is linked in some manner to the fragments received. In contrast, frontal lobe damage sometimes results in gross disinhibition and cortical overresponsiveness and, thus, speech release due to the flooding of the language axis (and other cortical regions) with tangential, fantastical, and grandiose associations. Other forms of confabulation also are reviewed briefly. PMID:3519686

  2. Cervical lung lobe herniation in dogs identified by fluoroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nafe, Laura A; Robertson, Ian D; Hawkins, Eleanor C

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency of cervical lung lobe herniation (CLLH) in dogs evaluated fluoroscopically and to identify associated characteristics. Reports of diagnostic procedures and patient summaries from 2008 to 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Signalment, body weight, duration of cough, presence of heart murmur and airway collapse, and radiographic findings were compared between dogs with and without CLLH. Of the 121 dogs that were examined, CLLH occurred in 85 (70%). The extra-thoracic trachea kinked during herniation in 33 (39%) dogs with CLLH. Collapse of the intra-thoracic trachea (assessed fluoroscopically or bronchoscopically) and collapse of major bronchi (assessed fluoroscopically) were strongly associated with CLLH. Although redundant dorsal tracheal membrane on radiographs was associated with CLLH, extra-thoracic tracheal collapse, assessed fluoroscopically or bronchoscopically, was not. No other associations were found. Cervical lung lobe herniation was present in most dogs evaluated during cough and was associated with intra-thoracic large airway collapse, but not duration of cough. PMID:24155415

  3. Optic Radiation Tractography and Vision in Anterior Temporal Lobe Resection

    PubMed Central

    Winston, Gavin P; Daga, Pankaj; Stretton, Jason; Modat, Marc; Symms, Mark R; McEvoy, Andrew W; Ourselin, Sebastien; Duncan, John S

    2012-01-01

    Objective Anterior temporal lobe resection (ATLR) is an effective treatment for refractory temporal lobe epilepsy but may result in a contralateral superior visual field deficit (VFD) that precludes driving in the seizure-free patient. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography can delineate the optic radiation preoperatively and stratify risk. It would be advantageous to incorporate display of tracts into interventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to guide surgery. Methods We studied 20 patients undergoing ATLR. Structural MRI scans, DTI, and visual fields were acquired before and 3 to 12 months following surgery. Tractography of the optic radiation was performed on preoperative images and propagated onto postoperative images. The anteroposterior extent of the damage to Meyer's loop was determined, and visual loss was quantified using Goldmann perimetry. Results Twelve patients (60%) suffered a VFD (10–92% of upper quadrant; median, 39%). Image registration took <3 minutes and predicted that Meyer's loop was 4.4 to 18.7mm anterior to the resection margin in these patients, but 0.0 to 17.6mm behind the resection margin in the 8 patients without VFD. The extent of damage to Meyer's loop significantly correlated with the degree of VFD and explained 65% of the variance in this measure. Interpretation The optic radiation can be accurately delineated by tractography and propagated onto postoperative images. The technique is fast enough to propagate accurate preoperative tractography onto intraoperative scans acquired during neurosurgery, with the potential to reduce the risk of VFD. ANN NEUROL 2012; PMID:22451201

  4. Lobe dynamics and homoclinic tangles in atmospheric flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, S.; Ross, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, dynamical system theorists have been developing methods to study structures that govern the dynamics of atmospheric and oceanic flows. The primary concern for these flows are the finite time nature and the arbitrary time dependence in contrast to classical dynamical systems. Recent work on 2D quasi-horizontal approximations of atmospheric motion have demonstrated that there are aperiodic, finite-time analogs of homoclinic tangles and lobe dynamics, e.g., around hurricane boundaries. The tools used have been coherent structure boundaries based on ridges of the finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field calculated from integrated particle trajectories. There are some ambiguities in the FTLE-based approach which suggests other methods should be attempted. In this work, we apply methods based on Lagrangian descriptors (due to Mancho and co-workers) to locate distinguished hyperbolic trajectories (DHTs) and generate corresponding finite-time stable and unstable manifolds to study lobe dynamics, as applied to atmospheric flow as well as fluid experiments. We compare the Lagrangian descriptor approach with the FTLE-based approach.

  5. DC potentials of temporal lobe seizures in the monkey.

    PubMed

    Mayanagi, Y; Walker, A E

    1975-07-01

    In 8 monkeys, made epileptic by alum or penicillin injection into temporal lobe structures, 40 seizures were studied by both DC cortical potential and subcortical EEG recordings. Eighteen seizures of lateral temporal origin had an abrupt negative DC potential shift of 0.5 to 2.0 mV in and around the focus. The frontal, parietal and occipital cortices did not develop DC potential changes, perhaps due to the limited propagation of the neocortical seizures. Twenty-two seizures of medial temporal origin showed a negative shift of the anterior, inferior or lateral temporal cortex in 85% of seizures. The other 15% had a positive or no shift. In hippocampal seizures, a positive displacement was sometimes seen prior to the main negative shift in the lateral temporal cortex. The remote cortex developed only a minimal positive shift in 30% of the mediotemporal seizures. A marked negative shift in the frontocentral cortex was the first sign of impending generalization, which may result from a series of chain reactions with seizure propagation, involving more and more structures of the brain. Registration of DC potentials in temporal lobe seizures may give insight into the nature of abnormal EEG activities and to some extent into the origin of seizures. PMID:51061

  6. Alzheimer's disease: the downside of a highly evolved parietal lobe?

    PubMed

    Bruner, Emiliano; Jacobs, Heidi I L

    2013-01-01

    Clinical grade Alzheimer's disease (AD) is only described in humans. Recent imaging studies in early AD patients showed that the parietal areas display the most prominent metabolic impairments. So far, neuroimaging studies have not been able to explain why the medial parietal regions possess this hub characteristic in AD. Paleoneurological and neuroanatomical studies suggest that our species, Homo sapiens, has a unique and derived organization of the parietal areas, which are involved in higher cognitive functions. Combining evidence from neuroimaging, paleontology, and comparative anatomy, we suggest that the vulnerability of the parietal lobe to neurodegenerative processes may be associated with the origin of our species. The species-specific parietal morphology in modern humans largely influenced the brain spatial organization, and it involved changes in vascularization and energy management, which may underlie the sensitivity of these areas to metabolic impairment. Metabolic constraints and anatomical evolutionary changes in the medial parietal regions of modern humans may be important in early AD onset. Taking into account the species-specific adaptations of the modern human parietal areas and their association with AD, we hypothesize that AD can be the evolutionary drawback of the specialized structure of our parietal lobes. The cognitive advantage is associated with increased sensitivity to neurodegenerative processes which, being limited to the post-reproductive period, have a minor effect on the overall genetic fitness. The changes of energy requirements associated with form and size variations at the parietal areas may support the hypothesis of AD as a metabolic syndrome. PMID:23435412

  7. Childhood allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis presenting as a middle lobe syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ashok; Gera, Kamal; Panjabi, Chandramani

    2016-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is infrequently documented in children with asthma. Although collapse is not uncommon, middle lobe syndrome (MLS) as a presentation of ABPA is rather a rarity. A 9-year-old female child with asthma presented with increase in intensity of symptoms along with a right midzone patchy consolidation on a chest radiograph. In addition, an ill-defined opacity abutting the right cardiac border with loss of cardiac silhouette was noted. A right lateral view confirmed a MLS, which was further corroborated by high resolution computed tomography. Central bronchiectasis was also observed, which prompted a work-up for ABPA. The child met 7/8 major diagnostic criteria for ABPA. She was then initiated on oral prednisolone that resulted in a marked clinical improvement within a fortnight. Radiological clearance occurred at 3 months with inflation of the middle lobe. ABPA presenting with MLS in a child is yet to be reported. A high index of suspicion is required to establish the diagnosis of ABPA in a child presenting with MLS. This would obviate the invasive investigations usually done to ascertain the cause of MLS. PMID:26844222

  8. Prostate brachytherapy in patients with median lobe hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Wallner, K; Smathers, S; Sutlief, S; Corman, J; Ellis, W

    2000-06-20

    Our aim was to document the technical and clinical course of prostate brachytherapy patients with radiographic evidence of median lobe hyperplasia (MLH). Eight patients with MLH were identified during our routine brachytherapy practice, representing 9% of the 87 brachytherapy patients treated during a 6-month period. No effort was made to avoid brachytherapy in patients noted to have MLH on diagnostic work-up. Cystoscopic evaluation was not routinely performed. Postimplant axial computed tomographic (CT) images of the prostate were obtained at 0.5 cm intervals. Preimplant urinary obstructive symptoms were quantified by the criteria of the American Urologic Association (AUA). Each patient was contacted during the writing of this report to update postimplant morbidity information. There was no apparent association between the degree of MLH and preimplant prostate volume or AUA score. Intraoperatively, we were able to visualize MLH by transrectal ultrasound and did not notice any particular difficulty placing sources in the MLH tissue or migration of sources out of the tissue. The prescription isodose covered from 81% to 99% of the postimplant CT-defined target volume, achieving adequate dose to the median lobe tissue in all patients. Two of the eight patients developed acute, postimplant urinary retention. The first patient required intermittent self-catheterization for 3 months and then resumed spontaneous urination. MLH does not appear to be a strong contraindication to prostate brachytherapy, and prophylactic resection of hypertrophic tissue in such patients is probably not warranted. Int. J. Cancer (Radiat. Oncol. Invest.) 90, 152-156 (2000). PMID:10900427

  9. Forgetting in temporal lobe epilepsy: When does it become accelerated?

    PubMed

    Cassel, Anneli; Morris, Robin; Koutroumanidis, Michael; Kopelman, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The notion of 'accelerated long-term forgetting' has often been attributed to disrupted 'late' memory consolidation. Nevertheless, methodological issues in the literature have left this theory unproven, leading some to suggest such findings may be reflective of subtle acquisition or early retention deficits. This study attempts to address such issues, and also to explore which pathophysiological variables are associated with forgetting rates. Eighteen participants with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and eighteen matched controls completed background neuropsychological measurement of immediate and short-delay memory that showed comparable performance, both on verbal and visual tests. Using two novel experimental tasks to measure long-term forgetting, cued recall of verbal and visuospatial material was tested 30 sec, 10 min, one day, and one week after learning. Forgetting of verbal material was found to be progressively faster during the course of a week in the TLE group. For visuospatial memory, participants in the TLE group exhibited faster early forgetting in the first 10 min after learning, as indicated by planned comparisons, with comparable forgetting rates thereafter. Our findings provide evidence for two patterns of disruption to 'early' memory consolidation in this population, occurring either at the initial delay only or continuing progressively through time. Differences in how soon after learning accelerated forgetting was detectable were related to factors associated with greater severity of epilepsy, such as presence of medial temporal lobe sclerosis (MTS) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and use of multiple anti-epileptic agents. PMID:27010834

  10. Graded specialization within and between the anterior temporal lobes.

    PubMed

    Rice, Grace E; Hoffman, Paul; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2015-11-01

    Considerable evidence from different methodologies has identified the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) as key regions for the representation of semantic knowledge. Research interest is now shifting to investigate the roles of different ATL subregions in semantic representation, with particular emphasis on the functions of the left versus right ATLs. In this review, we provide evidence for graded specializations both between and within the ATLs. We argue (1) that multimodal, pan-category semantic representations are supported jointly by both left and right ATLs, yet (2) that the ATLs are not homogeneous in their function. Instead, subtle functional gradations both between and within the ATLs emerge as a consequence of differential connectivity with primary sensory/motor/limbic regions. This graded specialization account of semantic representation provides a compromise between theories that posit no differences between the functions of the left and right ATLs and those that posit that the left and right ATLs are entirely segregated in function. Evidence for this graded account comes from converging sources, and its benefits have been exemplified in formal computational models. We propose that this graded principle is not only a defining feature of the ATLs but is also a more general neurocomputational principle found throughout the temporal lobes. PMID:26502375

  11. Electroencephalography in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Javidan, Manouchehr

    2012-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) has an important role in the diagnosis and classification of epilepsy. It can provide information for predicting the response to antiseizure drugs and to identify the surgically remediable epilepsies. In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) seizures could originate in the medial or lateral neocortical temporal region, and many of these patients are refractory to medical treatment. However, majority of patients have had excellent results after surgery and this often relies on the EEG and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in presurgical evaluation. If the scalp EEG data is insufficient or discordant, invasive EEG recording with placement of intracranial electrodes could identify the seizure focus prior to surgery. This paper highlights the general information regarding the use of EEG in epilepsy, EEG patterns resembling epileptiform discharges, and the interictal, ictal and postictal findings in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy using scalp and intracranial recordings prior to surgery. The utility of the automated seizure detection and computerized mathematical models for increasing yield of non-invasive localization is discussed. This paper also describes the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of EEG for seizure recurrence after withdrawal of medications following seizure freedom with medical and surgical therapy. PMID:22957235

  12. Bottom-up Visual Integration in the Medial Parietal Lobe.

    PubMed

    Pflugshaupt, Tobias; Nösberger, Myriam; Gutbrod, Klemens; Weber, Konrad P; Linnebank, Michael; Brugger, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Largely based on findings from functional neuroimaging studies, the medial parietal lobe is known to contribute to internally directed cognitive processes such as visual imagery or episodic memory. Here, we present 2 patients with behavioral impairments that extend this view. Both had chronic unilateral lesions of nearly the entire medial parietal lobe, but in opposite hemispheres. Routine neuropsychological examination conducted >4 years after the onset of brain damage showed little deficits of minor severity. In contrast, both patients reported persistent unusual visual impairment. A comprehensive series of tachistoscopic experiments with lateralized stimulus presentation and comparison with healthy participants revealed partial visual hemiagnosia for stimuli presented to their contralesional hemifield, applying inferential single-case statistics to evaluate deficits and dissociations. Double dissociations were found in 4 experiments during which participants had to integrate more than one visual element, either through comparison or formation of a global gestalt. Against the background of recent neuroimaging findings, we conclude that of all medial parietal structures, the precuneus is the most likely candidate for a crucial involvement in such bottom-up visual integration. PMID:25331599

  13. MRI parcellation of ex vivo medial temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Augustinack, Jean C; Magnain, Caroline; Reuter, Martin; van der Kouwe, André J W; Boas, David; Fischl, Bruce

    2014-06-01

    Recent advancements in radio frequency coils, field strength and sophisticated pulse sequences have propelled modern brain mapping and have made validation to biological standards - histology and pathology - possible. The medial temporal lobe has long been established as a pivotal brain region for connectivity, function and unique structure in the human brain, and reveals disconnection in mild Alzheimer's disease. Specific brain mapping of mesocortical areas affected with neurofibrillary tangle pathology early in disease progression provides not only an accurate description for location of these areas but also supplies spherical coordinates that allow comparison between other ex vivo cases and larger in vivo datasets. We have identified several cytoarchitectonic features in the medial temporal lobe with high resolution ex vivo MRI, including gray matter structures such as the entorhinal layer II 'islands', perirhinal layer II-III columns, presubicular 'clouds', granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus as well as lamina of the hippocampus. Localization of Brodmann areas 28 and 35 (entorhinal and perirhinal, respectively) demonstrates MRI based area boundaries validated with multiple methods and histological stains. Based on our findings, both myelin and Nissl staining relate to contrast in ex vivo MRI. Precise brain mapping serves to create modern atlases for cortical areas, allowing accurate localization with important applications to detecting early disease processes. PMID:23702414

  14. Cervical lung lobe herniation in dogs identified by fluoroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nafe, Laura A.; Robertson, Ian D.; Hawkins, Eleanor C.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency of cervical lung lobe herniation (CLLH) in dogs evaluated fluoroscopically and to identify associated characteristics. Reports of diagnostic procedures and patient summaries from 2008 to 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Signalment, body weight, duration of cough, presence of heart murmur and airway collapse, and radiographic findings were compared between dogs with and without CLLH. Of the 121 dogs that were examined, CLLH occurred in 85 (70%). The extra-thoracic trachea kinked during herniation in 33 (39%) dogs with CLLH. Collapse of the intra-thoracic trachea (assessed fluoroscopically or bronchoscopically) and collapse of major bronchi (assessed fluoroscopically) were strongly associated with CLLH. Although redundant dorsal tracheal membrane on radiographs was associated with CLLH, extra-thoracic tracheal collapse, assessed fluoroscopically or bronchoscopically, was not. No other associations were found. Cervical lung lobe herniation was present in most dogs evaluated during cough and was associated with intra-thoracic large airway collapse, but not duration of cough. PMID:24155415

  15. Left inferior parietal lobe engagement in social cognition and language.

    PubMed

    Bzdok, Danilo; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Reid, Andrew; Laird, Angela R; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2016-09-01

    Social cognition and language are two core features of the human species. Despite distributed recruitment of brain regions in each mental capacity, the left parietal lobe (LPL) represents a zone of topographical convergence. The present study quantitatively summarizes hundreds of neuroimaging studies on social cognition and language. Using connectivity-based parcellation on a meta-analytically defined volume of interest (VOI), regional coactivation patterns within this VOI allowed identifying distinct subregions. Across parcellation solutions, two clusters emerged consistently in rostro-ventral and caudo-ventral aspects of the parietal VOI. Both clusters were functionally significantly associated with social-cognitive and language processing. In particular, the rostro-ventral cluster was associated with lower-level processing facets, while the caudo-ventral cluster was associated with higher-level processing facets in both mental capacities. Contrarily, in the (less stable) dorsal parietal VOI, all clusters reflected computation of general-purpose processes, such as working memory and matching tasks, that are frequently co-recruited by social or language processes. Our results hence favour a rostro-caudal distinction of lower- versus higher-level processes underlying social cognition and language in the left inferior parietal lobe. PMID:27241201

  16. [Circulatory disturbance of middle lobe by bending of lobar pedicle after right upper lobectomy].

    PubMed

    Yurugi, Yohei; Maeta, Hiroyuki; Ohno, Takashi; Hosoya, Keiko; Matsumura, Azumi; Nishimura, Kengo; Miyasaka, Shigeto; Morimoto, Keisuke

    2013-11-01

    A 66-year-old man was diagnosed as lung cancer. We performed right upper lobectomy and lymphnode dissection. On the 1st postoperative day, a chest radiograph showed an opacification in the right upper lung field. Computed tomography (CT) showed a stenosis of the middle lobe bronchus and infiltrative shadow of the middle lobe on the 3rd postoperative day. Fiber optic bronchoscopic examination also revealed a bend and stenosis of the middle lobe bronchus, but tortion was not demonstrated. On the 6th postoperative day, chest radiographic findings was worsened. Torsion of the middle lobe was suspected, and rethoracotomy was performed on the 7th postoperative day. The right middle lobe was not rotated, but the lobar pedicle bend toward cranial. The middle lobe was highly congested necessitating lobectomy. PMID:24322317

  17. The morphology of the cephalic lobes and anterior pectoral fins in six species of batoids.

    PubMed

    Mulvany, Samantha; Motta, Philip J

    2013-09-01

    Many benthic batoids utilize their pectoral fins for both undulatory locomotion and feeding. Certain derived, pelagic species of batoids possess cephalic lobes, which evolved from the anterior pectoral fins. These species utilize the pectoral fins for oscillatory locomotion while the cephalic lobes are used for feeding. The goal of this article was to compare the morphology of the cephalic lobes and anterior pectoral fins in species that possess and lack cephalic lobes. The skeletal elements (radials) of the cephalic lobes more closely resembled the radials in the pectoral fin of undulatory species. Second moment of area (I), calculated from cephalic lobe radial cross sections, and the number of joints revealed greater flexibility and resistance to bending in multiple directions as compared to pectoral fin radials of oscillatory species. The cephalic lobe musculature was more complex than the anterior pectoral fin musculature, with an additional muscle on the dorsal side, with fiber angles running obliquely to the radials. In Rhinoptera bonasus, a muscle presumably used to help elevate the cephalic lobes is described. Electrosensory pores were found on the cephalic lobes (except Mobula japonica) and anterior pectoral fins of undulatory swimmers, but absent from the anterior pectoral fins of oscillatory swimmers. Pore distributions were fairly uniform except in R. bonasus, which had higher pore numbers at the edges of the cephalic lobes. Overall, the cephalic lobes are unique in their anatomy but are more similar to the anterior pectoral fins of undulatory swimmers, having more flexibility and maneuverability compared to pectoral fins of oscillatory swimmers. The maneuverable cephalic lobes taking on the role of feeding may have allowed the switch to oscillatory locomotion and hence, a more pelagic lifestyle. PMID:23801572

  18. Scorpius X-1: Energy Transfer from the Core to the Radio Lobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomalont, E. B.; Geldzahler, B. J.; Bradshaw, C. F.

    2001-05-01

    The evolution of the radio emission from Scorpius X-1 is determined from a 56 hr continuous VLBI observation and from shorter observations over a 4 yr period. The radio source consists of a variable core near the binary and two variable compact radio lobes, which form near the core, move diametrically outward, and then fade away. Subsequently, a new lobe pair form near the core and the behavior repeats. The differences in the radio properties of the two lobes are consistent with the delay and Doppler boosting associated with an average space velocity of 0.45c at 44° to the line of sight. Four lobe speeds, between 0.32c and 0.57c, were measured for several lobe pairs on different days. The speed during each epoch remained constant over many hours. The direction of motion of the lobes over all epochs remained constant to a few degrees. Two core flares are contemporaneous with two lobe flares after removal of the delay associated with an energy burst moving with speed βj>0.95 in a twin beam from the core to each lobe. This is the first direct measurement of the speed of energy flow within an astrophysical jet. The similarity of the core and lobe flares suggests that the twin-beam flow is symmetric and that the core is located near the base of the beam.

  19. Effect of display polarity and luminance contrast on visual lobe shape characteristics.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Steve N H; Chan, Alan H S; Yu, R F

    2012-01-01

    The effect of display polarity and luminance contrast on visual lobe (effective visual field) shape characteristics was studied using three levels of luminance contrast with combinations of positive and negative polarities. The binocular effective visual field for a detection task, with a peripherally presented target (V) embedded in a homogeneous competing background (Xs), was mapped on 24 imaginary axes passing through the fixation point. The results showed that visual lobes mapped using positive polarity were statistically larger in area, rounder and more regular in shape than those for negative polarity. The medium contrast condition lobes were more symmetric and regular than low contrast condition lobes, and lobe area and perimeter increased with increasing luminance contrast ratio. Under the interaction of positive polarity and high luminance contrast, visual lobes were found to be larger, smoother and rounder. The high level of luminance and contrast however resulted in a higher degree of visual discomfort. The results indicated that positive polarity and contrast of medium (26:1) to high (41:1) levels are possible display settings for better visual lobe characteristics and better anticipated search performance. Practitioner Summary: The effect of display polarity and luminance contrast on visual lobe shape characteristics was examined with uniform stimulus materials in this study. The results help to identify the optimum display settings for luminance contrast and display polarity to enhance lobe shape characteristics and hence search performance in industrial inspection tasks. PMID:22676836

  20. Usefulness of CT imaging for segmental lung lobe torsion without typical radiographic imaging in a Pomeranian.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mihyun; Lee, Namsoon; Keh, Seoyeon; Choi, Heeyeon; Yim, Yoonji; Kim, Hyunwook; Jung, Joohyun; Choi, Mincheol

    2015-02-01

    A 3-year-old, intact female Pomeranian presented with a 1-month history of coughing. Thoracic radiography showed focal infiltration of the left cranial lung lobe and widening of the cranial mediastinum. Subsequent computed tomography revealed torsion of the caudal segment of the left cranial lung lobe, which was confirmed by exploratory thoracotomy. There was no apparent underlying etiology for the condition. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of lung lobe torsion in this breed and the first detailed CT imaging report for segmental lung lobe torsion. PMID:25728251

  1. First evidence of the use of olfaction in Odonata behaviour.

    PubMed

    Piersanti, Silvana; Frati, Francesca; Conti, Eric; Gaino, Elda; Rebora, Manuela; Salerno, Gianandrea

    2014-03-01

    Dragonflies and damselflies are among the most ancient winged insects. Adults belonging to this order are visually oriented and are considered anosmic on the basis of neuroanatomical investigations. As a consequence, the chemical ecology of these predatory insects has long been neglected. Morphological and electrophysiological data demonstrated that dragonfly antennae possess olfactory sensilla. Additionally, a neuroanatomical study revealed the presence of spherical knots in the aglomerular antennal lobe that could allow for the perception of odour. However, the biological role of the antennal olfactory sensilla remains unknown, and no bioassay showing the use of olfaction in Odonata has been performed thus far. Here, we demonstrate through behavioural assays that adults of Ischnura elegans are attracted by olfactory cues emitted by prey; furthermore, using electrophysiological single-cell recordings, we prove that the antennal olfactory sensilla of I. elegans respond to prey odour. Our results clearly demonstrate the involvement of antennal olfactory sensilla in Odonata predation, thus showing, for the first time, the use of olfaction in Odonata biology. This finding indicates that the nervous system of Odonata is able to receive and process olfactory information, suggesting that the simple organisation of the antennal lobe does not prevent the use of olfaction in insects. PMID:24486162

  2. Cassini observations of ionospheric plasma in Saturn's magnetotail lobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felici, M.; Arridge, C. S.; Coates, A. J.; Badman, S. V.; Dougherty, M. K.; Jackman, C. M.; Kurth, W. S.; Melin, H.; Mitchell, D. G.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Sergis, N.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of Saturn's magnetosphere with the Cassini mission have established the importance of Enceladus as the dominant mass source for Saturn's magnetosphere. It is well known that the ionosphere is an important mass source at Earth during periods of intense geomagnetic activity, but lesser attention has been dedicated to study the ionospheric mass source at Saturn. In this paper we describe a case study of data from Saturn's magnetotail, when Cassini was located at ≃ 2200 h Saturn local time at 36 RS from Saturn. During several entries into the magnetotail lobe, tailward flowing cold electrons and a cold ion beam were observed directly adjacent to the plasma sheet and extending deeper into the lobe. The electrons and ions appear to be dispersed, dropping to lower energies with time. The composition of both the plasma sheet and lobe ions show very low fluxes (sometimes zero within measurement error) of water group ions. The magnetic field has a swept-forward configuration which is atypical for this region, and the total magnetic field strength is larger than expected at this distance from the planet. Ultraviolet auroral observations show a dawn brightening, and upstream heliospheric models suggest that the magnetosphere is being compressed by a region of high solar wind ram pressure. We interpret this event as the observation of ionospheric outflow in Saturn's magnetotail. We estimate a number flux between (2.95 ± 0.43) × 109 and (1.43 ± 0.21) × 1010 cm-2 s-1, 1 or about 2 orders of magnitude larger than suggested by steady state MHD models, with a mass source between 1.4 ×102 and 1.1 ×103 kg/s. After considering several configurations for the active atmospheric regions, we consider as most probable the main auroral oval, with associated mass source between 49.7 ±13.4 and 239.8 ±64.8 kg/s for an average auroral oval, and 10 ±4 and 49 ±23 kg/s for the specific auroral oval morphology found during this event. It is not clear how much of this mass is

  3. Correlations between Limbic White Matter and Cognitive Function in Temporal-Lobe Epilepsy, Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Ryan P. D.; Concha, Luis; Snyder, Thomas J.; Beaulieu, Christian; Gross, Donald William

    2014-01-01

    The limbic system is presumed to have a central role in cognitive performance, in particular memory. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between limbic white matter microstructure and neuropsychological function in temporal-lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Twenty-one adult TLE patients, including 7 non-lesional (nlTLE) and 14 with unilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (uTLE), were studied with both DTI and hippocampal T2 relaxometry. Correlations were performed between fractional anisotropy (FA) of the bilateral fornix and cingulum, hippocampal T2, neuropsychological tests. Positive correlations were observed in the whole group for the left fornix and processing speed index. In contrast, memory tests did not show significant correlations with DTI findings. Subgroup analysis demonstrated an association between the left fornix and processing speed in nlTLE but not uTLE. No correlations were observed between hippocampal T2 and test scores in either the TLE group as a whole or after subgroup analysis. Our findings suggest that integrity of the left fornix specifically is an important anatomical correlate of cognitive function in TLE patients, in particular patients with nlTLE. PMID:25071551

  4. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Alters Auditory-motor Integration For Voice Control

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weifeng; Chen, Ziyi; Yan, Nan; Jones, Jeffery A.; Guo, Zhiqiang; Huang, Xiyan; Chen, Shaozhen; Liu, Peng; Liu, Hanjun

    2016-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common drug-refractory focal epilepsy in adults. Previous research has shown that patients with TLE exhibit decreased performance in listening to speech sounds and deficits in the cortical processing of auditory information. Whether TLE compromises auditory-motor integration for voice control, however, remains largely unknown. To address this question, event-related potentials (ERPs) and vocal responses to vocal pitch errors (1/2 or 2 semitones upward) heard in auditory feedback were compared across 28 patients with TLE and 28 healthy controls. Patients with TLE produced significantly larger vocal responses but smaller P2 responses than healthy controls. Moreover, patients with TLE exhibited a positive correlation between vocal response magnitude and baseline voice variability and a negative correlation between P2 amplitude and disease duration. Graphical network analyses revealed a disrupted neuronal network for patients with TLE with a significant increase of clustering coefficients and path lengths as compared to healthy controls. These findings provide strong evidence that TLE is associated with an atypical integration of the auditory and motor systems for vocal pitch regulation, and that the functional networks that support the auditory-motor processing of pitch feedback errors differ between patients with TLE and healthy controls. PMID:27356768

  5. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Alters Auditory-motor Integration For Voice Control.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifeng; Chen, Ziyi; Yan, Nan; Jones, Jeffery A; Guo, Zhiqiang; Huang, Xiyan; Chen, Shaozhen; Liu, Peng; Liu, Hanjun

    2016-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common drug-refractory focal epilepsy in adults. Previous research has shown that patients with TLE exhibit decreased performance in listening to speech sounds and deficits in the cortical processing of auditory information. Whether TLE compromises auditory-motor integration for voice control, however, remains largely unknown. To address this question, event-related potentials (ERPs) and vocal responses to vocal pitch errors (1/2 or 2 semitones upward) heard in auditory feedback were compared across 28 patients with TLE and 28 healthy controls. Patients with TLE produced significantly larger vocal responses but smaller P2 responses than healthy controls. Moreover, patients with TLE exhibited a positive correlation between vocal response magnitude and baseline voice variability and a negative correlation between P2 amplitude and disease duration. Graphical network analyses revealed a disrupted neuronal network for patients with TLE with a significant increase of clustering coefficients and path lengths as compared to healthy controls. These findings provide strong evidence that TLE is associated with an atypical integration of the auditory and motor systems for vocal pitch regulation, and that the functional networks that support the auditory-motor processing of pitch feedback errors differ between patients with TLE and healthy controls. PMID:27356768

  6. Neural Stem Cell Grafting in an Animal Model of Chronic Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Hattiangady, Bharathi; Shetty, Ashok K.

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation into the hippocampus could offer an alternative therapy to hippocampal resection in patients with drug-resistant chronic epilepsy, which afflicts ~30% of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) cases. Multipotent, self-renewing NSCs could be expanded from multiple regions of the developing and adult brain, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). However, to provide a comprehensive methodology involved in testing the efficacy of transplantation of NSCs in a rat model of chronic TLE, NSCs derived from the embryonic medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) are taken as an example in this article. The topics comprise description of the required materials, reagents and equipment, and protocols for expanding MGE-NSCs in culture, generating chronically epileptic rats, the intrahippocampal grafting, the post-grafting evaluation of the effects of NSC grafts on spontaneous recurrent seizures and cognitive impairments, analyses of the yield and the fate of graft-derived cells, and the effects of NSC grafts on the host hippocampus. PMID:21913169

  7. Converging language streams in the human temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Spitsyna, Galina; Warren, Jane E; Scott, Sophie K; Turkheimer, Federico E; Wise, Richard J S

    2006-07-12

    There is general agreement that, after initial processing in unimodal sensory cortex, the processing pathways for spoken and written language converge to access verbal meaning. However, the existing literature provides conflicting accounts of the cortical location of this convergence. Most aphasic stroke studies localize verbal comprehension to posterior temporal and inferior parietal cortex (Wernicke's area), whereas evidence from focal cortical neurodegenerative syndromes instead implicates anterior temporal cortex. Previous functional imaging studies in normal subjects have failed to reconcile these opposing positions. Using a functional imaging paradigm in normal subjects that used spoken and written narratives and multiple baselines, we demonstrated common activation during implicit comprehension of spoken and written language in inferior and lateral regions of the left anterior temporal cortex and at the junction of temporal, occipital, and parietal cortex. These results indicate that verbal comprehension uses unimodal processing streams that converge in both anterior and posterior heteromodal cortical regions in the left temporal lobe. PMID:16837579

  8. Changes in social emotion recognition following traumatic frontal lobe injury☆

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Ana Teresa; Faísca, Luis; Esteves, Francisco; Simão, Cláudia; Justo, Mariline Gomes; Muresan, Angélica; Reis, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Changes in social and emotional behaviour have been consistently observed in patients with traumatic brain injury. These changes are associated with emotion recognition deficits which represent one of the major barriers to a successful familiar and social reintegration. In the present study, 32 patients with traumatic brain injury, involving the frontal lobe, and 41 age- and education-matched healthy controls were analyzed. A Go/No-Go task was designed, where each participant had to recognize faces representing three social emotions (arrogance, guilt and jealousy). Results suggested that ability to recognize two social emotions (arrogance and jealousy) was significantly reduced in patients with traumatic brain injury, indicating frontal lesion can reduce emotion recognition ability. In addition, the analysis of the results for hemispheric lesion location (right, left or bilateral) suggested the bilateral lesion sub-group showed a lower accuracy on all social emotions. PMID:25767483

  9. Autism in siblings with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Tomoko; Kumada, Tomohiro; Saito, Keiko; Fujii, Tatsuya

    2013-02-01

    In 1999, Hirose et al. reported a Japanese family with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) associated with a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α4 subunit mutation (S252L). We followed the siblings of this family, and found that the elder brother had Asperger's disorder without mental retardation (MR) and the younger brother had autistic disorder with profound MR. The clinical epileptic features of the siblings were very similar, and both had deficits in socialization, but their cognitive development differed markedly. It thus seems that epilepsy is the direct phenotype of the S252L mutation, whereas other various factors modulate the cognitive and social development. No patients with ADNFLE have previously been reported to have autism spectrum disorder or profound MR. PMID:22883468

  10. Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy Presenting as Excessive Daytime Sleepiness

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jocelyn Y.; Wallace, Douglas M.; Lopez, Maria R.; Carrazana, Enrique J.

    2013-01-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is common in the general population. Etiologies include insufficient sleep and primary sleep disorders. Due to its high prevalence, physicians often overlook EDS as a significant problem. However, EDS may also be the presenting symptom of seizures, in particular Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy (NFLE). Due to the clinical similarity between the nocturnal behaviors of NFLE and parasomnias, and poor patient-related history, NFLE remains a challenging diagnosis. We report the case of a patient with NFLE who presented with a primary complaint of EDS, and discuss the differential diagnosis and evaluation of patients with EDS associated with nocturnal behaviors. In the context of a patient presenting with EDS and stereotyped nocturnal events, clinical suspicion should be high for NFLE. PMID:24479058

  11. Plasmonic Roche lobe in metal-dielectric-metal structure

    SciTech Connect

    Shiu, Ruei-Cheng; Lan, Yung-Chiang

    2013-07-15

    This study investigates a plasmonic Roche lobe that is based on a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) structure using finite-difference time-domain simulations and theoretical analyses. The effective refractive index of the MDM structure has two centers and is inversely proportional to the distance from the position of interest to the centers, in a manner that is analogous to the gravitational potential in a two-star system. The motion of surface plasmons (SPs) strongly depends on the ratio of permittivities at the two centers. The Lagrange point is an unstable equilibrium point for SPs that propagate in the system. After the SPs have passed through the Lagrange point, their spread drastically increases.

  12. The Medial Temporal Lobe Supports Conceptual Implicit Memory

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Chun; Lazzara, Michele M.; Ranganath, Charan; Knight, Robert T.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The medial temporal lobe (MTL) is generally thought to be critical for explicit, but not implicit, memory. Here, we demonstrate that the perirhinal cortex (PRc), within the MTL, plays a role in conceptually-driven implicit memory. Amnesic patients with MTL lesions that converged on the left PRc exhibited deficits on two conceptual implicit tasks (i.e., exemplar generation and semantic decision). A separate functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in healthy subjects indicated that PRc activation during encoding of words was predictive of subsequent exemplar generation. Moreover, across subjects, the magnitude of the fMRI and behavioral conceptual priming effects were directly related. Additionally, the PRc region implicated in the fMRI study was the same region of maximal lesion overlap in the patients with impaired conceptual priming. These patient and imaging results converge to suggest that the PRc plays a critical role in conceptual implicit memory, and possibly conceptual processing in general. PMID:21144998

  13. Elliptical lobe shape gerotor pump design to minimize wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamooz Ravari, Mohammad Reza

    2011-12-01

    The gerotor pumps are the most important parts of mechanical equipment that have a vast number of applications in industries and automobiles. Because the gerotor pumps cannot be adjusted for wear so it is important to reduce the wear as much as possible. In this paper first mathematical equations for elliptical lobe shape rotors profile and curvature of them have been derived and then Specific flow and wear rate proportional factor (WRPF) have been formulated. To reach the minimum wear in rotors teeth, the ellipse shape factor is changed for each value of number of outer rotor teeth in a feasible range and wear rate proportional factor has been resulted. Also in order to have better comparison specific flow has been presented. The obtained results have been compared with circular pumps with similar geometrical parameters and show the significant improvement in wear of the rotors with negligible changes in the specific flow.

  14. [Microtumor presenting with temporal lobe epilepsy--a case report].

    PubMed

    Ide, M; Jimbo, M; Yamamoto, M; Tanaka, N; Takeyama, E; Kubo, O

    1988-04-01

    A 15-year-old girl was admitted to our clinic on July 16, 1985 with the epilepsy which had been resistant to various anticonvulsant therapies. At the age of 10 years automatism seizure, characterized by purposeless movement of arms and head of which the patient was unaware, began to occur and became as frequent as two to three times each day. From the age of 13 years, there were also grand mal seizures several times a year in spite of medical treatment. She had normal delivery and no history of febrile convulsion. There was no family history of epilepsy or mental disease. When examined on admission, she had normal personality and intelligence. There was no neurological abnormality. She complained of sleepiness and hirsutiness. Fit of automatism occurred two to three times a day during admission, though the blood levels of anticonvulsant drugs such as phenobarbital, phenytoin and carbamazepine reached to therapeutic concentration. EEG examination including infratemporal lead recording showed right temporal spike focus. But all the neuroradiological studies such as skull X-rays, CT, cerebral angiography and magnetic resonance imaging failed to show abnormal finding. Right temporal lobectomy was carried out under general anesthesia on Aug 22, 1985, and anterior two-thirds of the middle and the inferior temporal gyri were resected deeply to anterior hippocampus. To the naked eye, no abnormal finding was noted during the operation. In the surgical specimen, macroscopically nothing abnormal was found. Microscopically, serial sections of the lobe revealed clusters of oligodendroglial cells in cortical to subcortical region of the medial basal part of the temporal lobe.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3386783

  15. Double Lobed Radio Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    SciTech Connect

    de Vries, W H; Becker, R H; White, R L

    2005-11-10

    We have combined a sample of 44 984 quasars, selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 3, with the FIRST radio survey. Using a novel technique where the optical quasar position is matched to the complete radio environment within 450'', we are able to characterize the radio morphological make-up of what is essentially an optically selected quasar sample, regardless of whether the quasar (nucleus) itself has been detected in the radio. About 10% of the quasar population have radio cores brighter than 0.75 mJy at 1.4 GHz, and 1.7% have double lobed FR2-like radio morphologies. About 75% of the FR2 sources have a radio core (> 0.75mJy). A significant fraction ({approx}40%) of the FR2 quasars are bent by more than 10 degrees, indicating either interactions of the radio plasma with the ICM or IGM. We found no evidence for correlations with redshift among our FR2 quasars: radio lobe flux densities and radio source diameters of the quasars have similar distributions at low (mean 0.77) and high (mean 2.09) redshifts. Using a smaller high reliability FR2 sample of 422 quasars and two comparison samples of radio-quiet and non-FR2 radio-loud quasars, matched in their redshift distributions, we constructed composite optical spectra from the SDSS spectroscopic data. Based on these spectra we can conclude that the FR2 quasars have stronger high-ionization emission lines compared to both the radio quiet and non-FR2 radio loud sources. This is consistent with the notion that the emission lines are brightened by ongoing shock ionization of ambient gas in the quasar host as the radio source expands.

  16. Multimodality medical image database for temporal lobe epilepsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siadat, Mohammad-Reza; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Fotouhi, Farshad A.; Elisevich, Kost

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents the development of a human brain multi-modality database for surgical candidacy determination in temporal lobe epilepsy. The focus of the paper is on content-based image management, navigation and retrieval. Several medical image-processing methods including our newly developed segmentation method are utilized for information extraction/correlation and indexing. The input data includes T1-, T2-Weighted and FLAIR MRI and ictal/interictal SPECT modalities with associated clinical data and EEG data analysis. The database can answer queries regarding issues such as the correlation between the attribute X of the entity Y and the outcome of a temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. The entity Y can be a brain anatomical structure such as the hippocampus. The attribute X can be either a functionality feature of the anatomical structure Y, calculated with SPECT modalities, such as signal average, or a volumetric/morphological feature of the entity Y such as volume or average curvature. The outcome of the surgery can be any surgery assessment such as non-verbal Wechsler memory quotient. A determination is made regarding surgical candidacy by analysis of both textual and image data. The current database system suggests a surgical determination for the cases with relatively small hippocampus and high signal intensity average on FLAIR images within the hippocampus. This indication matches the neurosurgeons expectations/observations. Moreover, as the database gets more populated with patient profiles and individual surgical outcomes, using data mining methods one may discover partially invisible correlations between the contents of different modalities of data and the outcome of the surgery.

  17. Subcortical mapping of calculation processing in the right parietal lobe.

    PubMed

    Della Puppa, Alessandro; De Pellegrin, Serena; Lazzarini, Anna; Gioffrè, Giorgio; Rustemi, Oriela; Cagnin, Annachiara; Scienza, Renato; Semenza, Carlo

    2015-05-01

    Preservation of calculation processing in brain surgery is crucial for patients' quality of life. Over the last decade, surgical electrostimulation was used to identify and preserve the cortical areas involved in such processing. Conversely, subcortical connectivity among different areas implicated in this function remains unclear, and the role of surgery in this domain has not been explored so far. The authors present the first 2 cases in which the subcortical functional sites involved in calculation were identified during right parietal lobe surgery. Two patients affected by a glioma located in the right parietal lobe underwent surgery with the aid of MRI neuronavigation. No calculation deficits were detected during preoperative assessment. Cortical and subcortical mapping were performed using a bipolar stimulator. The current intensity was determined by progressively increasing the amplitude by 0.5-mA increments (from a baseline of 1 mA) until a sensorimotor response was elicited. Then, addition and multiplication calculation tasks were administered. Corticectomy was performed according to both the MRI neuronavigation data and the functional findings obtained through cortical mapping. Direct subcortical electrostimulation was repeatedly performed during tumor resection. Subcortical functional sites for multiplication and addition were detected in both patients. Electrostimulation interfered with calculation processing during cortical mapping as well. Functional sites were spared during tumor removal. The postoperative course was uneventful, and calculation processing was preserved. Postoperative MRI showed complete resection of the tumor. The present preliminary study shows for the first time how functional mapping can be a promising method to intraoperatively identify the subcortical functional sites involved in calculation processing. This report therefore supports direct electrical stimulation as a promising tool to improve the current knowledge on

  18. Space to ground sequential lobe tracking of aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, P. D.; Kwon, D. W.; Polites, M.

    Growing demand for satellite communications capability coupled with shrinking government budgets, has spurred acquisition and repurposing of commercial satellite systems for government missions. One subset of these satellites provides high bandwidth communication with aerial vehicles from geosynchronous orbit. Automated tracking by these satellites of aerial vehicles improves link margin, but is not a typical function of commercial product lines. Additional tracking hardware and flight software development are required to give these commercial products tracking capability. This leads to an inefficient design from a cost and mass standpoint for a large number of slow flying aerial vehicles. Therefore, a need was identified to design a low cost tracking system that minimizes tracking specific spacecraft hardware and flight software development. This paper outlines a sequential lobe tracking system to auto track aerial vehicles and analyzes the algorithm's accuracy and sensitivity in tracking aerial vehicles using their pre-existing uplink signal. The tracking scheme consists of a satellite based RF power meter, automated ground based control of antenna pointing, and ground based processing of the tracking telemetry. The aerial vehicle was modeled as a high altitude, relatively slow moving Ka-band aircraft. To identify and evaluate a feasible design, a MATLAB model was developed to simulate an aerial vehicle, the vehicle's primary uplink signal and its variance, communication and processing latency in the design, and tracking telemetry processing. In addition, the effect on the spacecraft antenna actuators was modeled. The primary output of the model is tracking accuracy and Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine 1, 2, and 3 sigma results. Overall, this paper demonstrates the viability of a sequential lobe scheme with ground based processing as a low cost alternative for Space-to-Ground tracking of slow flying aerial vehicles.

  19. Attentional control in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Hudson, John M; Flowers, Kenneth A; Walster, Kerri L

    2014-03-01

    Across different studies, patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) demonstrate impairments on numerous measures of attentional control that are classically associated with frontal lobe functioning. One aspect of attentional control that has not been examined in TLE is the ability to execute two modality-specific tasks concurrently. We sought to examine the status of dual-task coordination in TLE. We further examined the cohorts' performance on a range of traditional measures of attentional control. Eighteen TLE patients and 22 healthy controls participated in the study. Dual-task performance involved comparing the capacity to execute a tracking and a digit recall task simultaneously with the capacity to execute the tasks separately. We also administered measures of: set shifting (odd-man-out test), sustained attention (elevator counting), selective attention (elevator counting with distraction), and divided attention (trail making test). We found that the proportional decrement in dual-task performance relative to single-task performance did not vary between the groups (TLE = 92.48%; controls = 93.70%), nor was there a significant difference in sustained attention (p > .10). Patients with TLE did demonstrate marked deficits in selective attention (p < .0001), divided attention (p < .01), and set shifting (p < .01). These findings add to the knowledge about cognitive dysfunction in TLE, indicating that impairments in attentional control in TLE tend to be selective. The greatest deficits appear to be on tasks that invoke a high level of processing resources. In contrast, sustained attention is less compromised and the capacity to allocate cognitive resources appears to be normal in patients with TLE. PMID:23323970

  20. Feasibility of the Medial Temporal lobe Atrophy index (MTAi) and derived methods for measuring atrophy of the medial temporal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Conejo Bayón, Francisco; Maese, Jesús; Fernandez Oliveira, Aníbal; Mesas, Tamara; Herrera de la Llave, Estibaliz; Álvarez Avellón, Tania; Menéndez-González, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Medial Temporal-lobe Atrophy index (MTAi), 2D-Medial Temporal Atrophy (2D-MTA), yearly rate of MTA (yrRMTA) and yearly rate of relative MTA (yrRMTA) are simple protocols for measuring the relative extent of atrophy in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in relation to the global brain atrophy. Albeit preliminary studies showed interest of these methods in the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), frontotemporal lobe degeneration (FTLD) and correlation with cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease (PD), formal feasibility and validity studies remained pending. As a first step, we aimed to assess the feasibility. Mainly, we aimed to assess the reproducibility of measuring the areas needed to compute these indices. We also aimed to assess the efforts needed to start using these methods correctly. Methods: A series of 290 1.5T-MRI studies from 230 subjects ranging 65–85 years old who had been studied for cognitive impairment were used in this study. Six inexperienced tracers (IT) plus one experienced tracer (ET) traced the three areas needed to compute the indices. Finally, tracers underwent a short survey on their experience learning to compute the MTAi and experience of usage, including items relative to training time needed to understand and apply the MTAi, time to perform a study after training and overall satisfaction. Results: Learning to trace the areas needed to compute the MTAi and derived methods is quick and easy. Results indicate very good intrarater Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) for the MTAi, good intrarater ICC for the 2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRMTA and also good interrater ICC for the MTAi, 2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRMTA. Conclusion: Our data support that MTAi and derived methods (2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRTMA) have good to very good intrarater and interrater reproducibility and may be easily implemented in clinical practice even if new users have no experience tracing the area of regions of interest. PMID:25414666

  1. Frontal Lobe Involvement in a Task of Time-Based Prospective Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Craig P.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

    2009-01-01

    Time-based prospective memory (PM) has been found to be negatively affected by aging, possibly as a result of declining frontal lobe (FL) function. Despite a clear retrospective component to PM tasks, the medial temporal lobes (MTL) are thought to play only a secondary role in successful task completion. The present study investigated the role of…

  2. Presynaptic inhibition of gamma lobe neurons is required for olfactory learning in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shixing; Roman, Gregg

    2013-12-16

    The loss of heterotrimeric G(o) signaling through the expression of pertussis toxin (PTX) within either the α/β or γ lobe mushroom body neurons of Drosophila results in the impaired aversive olfactory associative memory formation. Herein, we focus on the cellular effects of G(o) signaling in the γ lobe mushroom body neurons during memory formation. Expression of PTX in the γ lobes specifically inhibits G(o) activation, leading to poor olfactory learning and an increase in odor-elicited synaptic vesicle release. In the γ lobe neurons, training decreases synaptic vesicle release elicited by the unpaired conditioned stimulus -, while leaving presynaptic activation by the paired conditioned stimulus + unchanged. PTX expression in γ lobe neurons inhibits the generation of this differential synaptic activation by conditioned stimuli after negative reinforcement. Hyperpolarization of the γ lobe neurons or the inhibition of presynaptic activity through the expression of dominant negative dynamin transgenes ameliorated the memory impairment caused by PTX, indicating that the disinhibition of these neurons by PTX was responsible for the poor memory formation. The role for γ lobe inhibition, carried out by G(o) activation, indicates that an inhibitory circuit involving these neurons plays a positive role in memory acquisition. This newly uncovered requirement for inhibition of odor-elicited activity within the γ lobes is consistent with these neurons serving as comparators during learning, perhaps as part of an odor salience modification mechanism. PMID:24291093

  3. Frontal Lobe Activity and Affective Behavior of Infants of Mothers with Depressive Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Geraldine; And Others

    1992-01-01

    In comparison to infants of mothers who had no symptoms of depression, infants of mothers with symptoms exhibited reduced left frontal lobe activity during play and failed to exhibit increased right frontal lobe activity during distress. Infants of symptomatic mothers showed less distress during maternal separation than infants of nonsymptomatic…

  4. Characteristics and treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy with a history of complicated febrile convulsion.

    PubMed

    Kanemoto, K; Takuji, N; Kawasaki, J; Kawai, I

    1998-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the close correlation between complicated febrile convulsions (CFC) and medial temporal lobe epilepsy and to delineate characteristics of temporal lobe epilepsy with CFC. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy were divided into those with a prior episode of CFC (n=52), those with febrile convulsions other than CFC, and those without either (n=345). Clinical constellations, neuroimaging, drug resistance, and effects of temporal lobectomy of the three groups were compared. A close association between CFC and temporal lobe epilepsy was confirmed. The salient features of temporal lobe epilepsy with CFC were early age at onset of habitual seizures (about 10 years), the predominance of autonomic auras, and a high incidence of MRI evidence of unilateral medial temporal sclerosis. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with prior CFC had an excellent outcome after surgery, by contrast with an unfavourable response to drug therapy. The surgical results were discouraging in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy without history of any febrile convulsions and without solid brain tumours. These results indicate surgical intervention as the choice of therapy in a substantial number of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with a history of CFC. PMID:9489540

  5. Characteristics and treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy with a history of complicated febrile convulsion

    PubMed Central

    Kanemoto, K.; Takuji, N.; Kawasaki, J.; Kawai, I.

    1998-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the close correlation between complicated febrile convulsions (CFC) and medial temporal lobe epilepsy and to delineate characteristics of temporal lobe epilepsy with CFC. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy were divided into those with a prior episode of CFC (n=52), those with febrile convulsions other than CFC, and those witout either (n=345). Clinical constellations, neuroimaging, drug resistance, and effects of temporal lobectomy of the three groups were compared. A close association between CFC and temporal lobe epilepsy was confirmed. The salient features of temporal lobe epilepsy with CFC were early age at onset of habitual seizures (about 10 years), the predominance of autonomic auras, and a high incidence of MRI evidence of unilateral medial temporal sclerosis. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with prior CFC had an excellent outcome after surgery, by contrast with an unfavourable response to drug therapy. The surgical results were discouraging in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy without history of any febrile convulsions and without solid brain tumours. These results indicate surgical intervention as the choice of therapy in a substantial number of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with a history of CFC.

 PMID:9489540

  6. Multiple-lobed bifurcation of rotating liquid drops levitated by ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Y. J.; Xie, W. J.; Wei, B.

    2010-01-01

    It is previously predicted that the equilibrium shape of a rotating liquid drop evolves from the axisymmetric to the two-, three-, and four-lobed morphologies as the angular velocity increases. Although the two- and three-lobed shape bifurcations have been observed in experiments, the four-lobed equilibrium shape is scarcely reported. Here, we investigate the multiple-lobed shape bifurcations of rotating drops by using acoustic levitation, and in particular, follow the evolution of the four-lobed equilibrium shape. A new shape family of rotating drops characterized by five-lobed bifurcation is also observed, which is unexpected in the theoretical predictions. A numerical method is employed to simulate the shape evolution of acoustically levitated and rotating drops. And the results validate the existence of bifurcation point shifts among all the lobed-shape families due to the initial drop flattening induced by the acoustic radiation pressure, which plays a decisive role in the emergence of the five-lobed shape.

  7. Clinothem Lobe Growth and Possible Ties to Downslope Processes in the Gulf of Papua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, E. A. Y.; Driscoll, N. W.; Milliman, J. D.; Slingerland, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Gulf of Papua is fed by the large-floodplain Fly River and small mountainous rivers to the north, thus creating an ideal environment where end-member cases of river systems and their deltas (e.g. the large-floodplain Brazos River and the narrow-shelved Eel River) can be studied. Input from five rivers into the gulf has constructed a three-dimensional mid-shelf clinothem composed of three depositional lobes, with a central lobe downlapped by two younger lobes to the north and south. This geometry suggests that the three lobes are not syndepositional but rather that clinoform depocenters have shifted 60 km, thus bypassing adjacent accommodation. Newly examined CHIRP (Compressed High Intensity Radar Pulse) seismic lines and XRF analysis of piston cores from the 2004 NSF MARGINS program reveal distinct lobes offshore that exhibit increased complexity moving shoreward. Evidence of shoreward complexity and lobe interfingering cause us to question the originally proposed mechanism for depocenter shift involving circulation changes. An alternative hypothesis that stems from distinct lobe architecture farther offshore suggests that channelized downslope processes and nearshore storage may play important roles in lobe growth.

  8. Noise Reduction with Lobed Mixers: Nozzle-Length and Free-Jet Speed Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengle, Vinod G.; Dalton, William N.; Bridges, James C.; Boyd, Kathy C.

    1997-01-01

    Acoustic test results are presented for 1/4th-scaled nozzles with internal lobed mixers used for reduction of subsonic jet noise of turbofan engines with bypass ratio above 5 and jet speeds up to 830 ft/s. One coaxial and three forced lobe mixers were tested with variations in lobe penetration, cut-outs in lobe-sidewall, lobe number and nozzle-length. Measured exit flow profiles and thrusts are used to assist the inferences from acoustic data. It is observed that lobed mixers reduce the low-frequency noise due to more uniformly mixed exit flow; but they may also increase the high-frequency noise at peak perceived noise (PNL) angle and angles upstream of it due to enhanced mixing inside the nozzle. Cut-outs and low lobe penetration reduce the annoying portion of the spectrum but lead to less uniform exit flow. Due to the dominance of internal duct noise in unscalloped, high-penetration mixers their noise is not reduced as much with increase in free-jet speed as that of coaxial or cut-out lobed mixers. The latter two mixers also show no change in PNL over the wide range of nozzle-lengths tested because most of their noise sources are outside the nozzle; whereas, the former show an increase in noise with decrease in nozzle-length.

  9. Flow simulation of the effects of pressure angle to lobe pump rotor meshing characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. B.; Jia, K.; Meng, Q. W.; Shen, H.; Sang, X. H.

    2013-12-01

    Lobe pump rotor profiles' radius of base circle, addendum circle and root circle are closely connected with pressure angle. The change of pressure angle has some effect on lobe pump performance. This paper focuses on two-dimensional profile lobe pump and introduces involute rotor profiles and pressure angle parameter equation. We used geometry and two rotor mesh characteristics to establish lobe pump models of different pressure angles. Monitored the lobe pump's pressure and velocity of input and output cross section. We used the K-Epsilon turbulence model and the dynamic meshes to compute the two-dimensional turbulence flow field of the lobe pump and obtained the pressure and velocity pulsation picture of different models and speeds. The results show with increasing pressure angle, the velocity of output decreases. The fluctuation of velocity is kept almost constant. When the pressure angle is 45°, the lobe pump has good comprehensive properties. The increasing of rotor speed makes the output flow and the oil absorption pressure increase. But the pressure fluctuation is acute. The lobe pump has vortex and leakage phenomenon in work progress. It will cause energy losses and decrease efficiency.

  10. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Reveals Correlated Inter-Lobe Motion in Protein Lysine Methyltransferase SMYD2

    PubMed Central

    Spellmon, Nicholas; Sun, Xiaonan; Sirinupong, Nualpun; Edwards, Brian; Li, Chunying; Yang, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    SMYD proteins are an exciting field of study as they are linked to many types of cancer-related pathways. Cardiac and skeletal muscle development and function also depend on SMYD proteins opening a possible avenue for cardiac-related treatment. Previous crystal structure studies have revealed that this special class of protein lysine methyltransferases have a bilobal structure, and an open–closed motion may regulate substrate specificity. Here we use the molecular dynamics simulation to investigate the still-poorly-understood SMYD2 dynamics. Cross-correlation analysis reveals that SMYD2 exhibits a negative correlated inter-lobe motion. Principle component analysis suggests that this correlated dynamic is contributed to by a twisting motion of the C-lobe with respect to the N-lobe and a clamshell-like motion between the lobes. Dynamical network analysis defines possible allosteric paths for the correlated dynamics. There are nine communities in the dynamical network with six in the N-lobe and three in the C-lobe, and the communication between the lobes is mediated by a lobe-bridging β hairpin. This study provides insight into the dynamical nature of SMYD2 and could facilitate better understanding of SMYD2 substrate specificity. PMID:26717235

  11. Purkinje Cell Activity in the Cerebellar Anterior Lobe after Rabbit Eyeblink Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, John T.; Steinmetz, Joseph E.

    2005-01-01

    The cerebellar anterior lobe may play a critical role in the execution and proper timing of learned responses. The current study was designed to monitor Purkinje cell activity in the rabbit cerebellar anterior lobe after eyeblink conditioning, and to assess whether Purkinje cells in recording locations may project to the interpositus nucleus.…

  12. Material-Specific Lateralization of Working Memory in the Medial Temporal Lobe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Dylan D.; Sziklas, Viviane; Garver, Krista E.; Jones-Gotman, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    Mnemonic deficits in patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage arising from temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are traditionally constrained to long-term episodic memory, sparing short-term and working memory (WM). This view of WM as being independent of MTL structures has recently been challenged by a small number of patient and neuroimaging…

  13. Anatomy of the antennal dorsal organ in female of Neodryinus typhlocybae (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae): A peculiar sensory structure possibly involved in perception of host vibration.

    PubMed

    Riolo, Paola; Isidoro, Nunzio; Ruschioni, Sara; Minuz, Roxana L; Bin, Ferdinando; Romani, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Neodryinus typhlocybae (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae) is a natural enemy of the planthopper Metcalfa pruinosa, which was introduced from North America into Europe and has become established in various regions as a pest species. Vibrational signals play a crucial role in the communication of M. pruinosa, which appears to be exploited by N. typhlocybae. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy have shown that the antennae of N. typhlocybae females have peculiar and complex sensory structures: deep longitudinal grooves that house long sensilla trichodea, termed here "Antennal Dorsal Organs." Such structures were not present on male antennae. These sensilla extend for the length of the grooves, without contact with the groove cuticle. Their hair shaft is empty and aporous, and inserted into a specialized socket, underneath which there is a cuticular ampulla-like chamber. Each sensillum is associated with two sensory neurons: one terminates at the proximal end of the dendritic sheath; the other continues into the sensillum sinus and is enclosed in the dendritic sheath. This second sensory neuron then enters the ampulla-like chamber through the circular opening, and then terminates with a conspicuous tubular body at the shaft base. The possible involvement of this peculiar structure in the context of host recognition mechanism is discussed. PMID:26460191

  14. Identification of putative odorant binding protein genes in Asecodes hispinarum, a parasitoid of coconut leaf beetle (Brontispa longissima) by antennal RNA-Seq analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Keming; Yang, Xiangbing; Xu, Guiying; Cao, Yang; Lu, Baoqian; Peng, Zhengqiang

    2015-11-20

    Asecodes hispinarum (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an endoparasitoid and an efficient biological control agent which attacks larvae of Brontispa longissima, a serious insect pest of Palmae plants in China. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are believed to be important for transporting semiochemicals through the aqueous sensillar lymph to the olfactory receptor cells within the insect antennal sensilla. No previous study has reported on OBPs in A. hispinarum. In this study, we conducted the large-scale identification of OBP genes from the antennae of A. hispinarum by using transcriptome sequencing. Approximately 28.4 million total raw reads and about 27.3 million total clean reads were obtained, and then 46,363 unigenes were assembled. Of these unigenes, a total of 21,263 can be annotated in the NCBI non-redundant database. Among the annotated unigenes, 16,623 of them can be assigned to GO (Gene Ontology). Furthermore, we identified 8 putative OBP genes, and a phylogenetic tree analysis was performed to characterize the 8 OBP genes. In addition, the expression of the 8 OBP genes in different A. hispinarum body tissues was analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The results indicated that the 8 OBP genes were expressed accordingly to sexes and tissues, but all highly expressed in antennae. The finding of this study will lay the foundation for unraveling molecular mechanisms of A. hispinarum chemoperception. PMID:26454175

  15. Increased expression of interleukin 17 in the cortex and hippocampus from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    He, Jiao-Jiang; Sun, Fei-Ji; Wang, Yu; Luo, Xiao-Qin; Lei, Peng; Zhou, Jie; Zhu, Di; Li, Zhi-Yun; Yang, Hui

    2016-09-15

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is the most common form of focal epilepsies in adults and proinflammatory cytokines have long been thought to play an important role in pathogenesis and epileptogenicity. In the present study, we investigated the levels and expression patterns of the interleukin 17 (IL-17) system in temporal neocortex and hippocampus from 24 patients with MTLE and 8 control (Ctr) samples. We found that IL-17 and IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) were clearly upregulated in MTLE at both mRNA and protein levels, compared with Ctr. Immunostaining indicated that neurons, astrocytes, microglia and endothelial cells of blood vessels are the major sources of IL-17. These findings suggest that IL-17 system may be involved in the pathogenesis and epileptogenicity of MTLE. PMID:27609289

  16. Temporal-lobe morphology differs between healthy adolescents and those with early-onset of depression

    PubMed Central

    Ramezani, Mahdi; Johnsrude, Ingrid; Rasoulian, Abtin; Bosma, Rachael; Tong, Ryan; Hollenstein, Tom; Harkness, Kate; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has previously been linked to structural changes in several brain regions, particularly in the medial temporal lobes (Bellani, Baiano, Brambilla, 2010; Bellani, Baiano, Brambilla, 2011). This has been determined using voxel-based morphometry, segmentation algorithms, and analysis of shape deformations (Bell-McGinty et al., 2002; Bergouignan et al., 2009; Posener et al., 2003; Vasic et al., 2008; Zhao et al., 2008): these are methods in which information related to the shape and the pose (the size, and anatomical position and orientation) of structures is lost. Here, we incorporate information about shape and pose to measure structural deformation in adolescents and young adults with and without depression (as measured using the Beck Depression Inventory and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria). As a hypothesis-generating study, a significance level of p < 0.05, uncorrected for multiple comparisons, was used, so that subtle morphological differences in brain structures between adolescent depressed individuals and control participants could be identified. We focus on changes in cortical and subcortical temporal structures, and use a multi-object statistical pose and shape model to analyze imaging data from 16 females (aged 16–21) and 3 males (aged 18) with early-onset MDD, and 25 female and 1 male normal control participants, drawn from the same age range. The hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, putamen, and superior, inferior and middle temporal gyri in both hemispheres of the brain were automatically segmented using the LONI Probabilistic Brain Atlas (Shattuck et al., 2008) in MNI space. Points on the surface of each structure in the atlas were extracted and warped to each participant's structural MRI. These surface points were analyzed to extract the pose and shape features. Pose differences were detected between the two groups, particularly in the left and right putamina, right hippocampus, and left

  17. Preserving lung after traumatic transection of left lower lobe bronchus from bullet injury.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Muhammad Shoaib; Mishwani, A H; Oparka, J; Buchan, K

    2015-06-01

    A 22-year-old soldier was shot in the left chest by a bullet from close range. He was found to have a left haemothorax and remained shocked despite aggressive resuscitation. Due to difficult terrain and night time movement restrictions, there were limitations to the transfer of patient. So he was attended at a peripheral hospital. At emergency thoracotomy, three segmental arteries to left upper lobe were ligated and haemostasis was secured. The level of transection of left lower lobe bronchus was identified to be below the origin of the apical segmental bronchus. The lower lobe bronchus was successfully re-attached and followed up with a daily bronchoscopic clearance of distal airway. The patient made a full recovery. Anastomosis of left lower lobe bronchus after traumatic transection is a viable option for preserving an amputated lobe, in trauma settings, provided haemostatic control has been adequately achieved. PMID:24515083

  18. Gnathosomal interlocking apparatus and remarks on functional morphology of frontal lobes of eriophyoid mites (Acariformes, Eriophyoidea).

    PubMed

    Chetverikov, Philipp E; Craemer, Charnie

    2015-06-01

    Comparative study of eriophyoid mite gnathosomata using different microscopic techniques shows presence of new dorsoproximal structures (here described as "interlocking apparatus"), which could consolidate mouthparts in rest (non-feeding) position and during feeding actions. Four types of the interlocking apparatus are described. Differences in the interlocking mechanisms coincide with the results of recent molecular phylogenetic studies of Eriophyoidea and provide additional support for the major clades revealed in those studies. Comparative analysis on the morphology of the frontal lobe of the prodorsal shield shows that mechanical protection of the motivator surrounding area and interlocking apparatus are possibly the primary function of the frontal lobe. Unusual shapes of the frontal lobe in selected eriophyoids (elongated, broadened, notched lobes) might result from additional functions that the frontal lobe can perform, e.g. providing additional guide for palps and stylets, or hermeticity of the space between dorsoproximal palpcoxae during feeding. PMID:25894425

  19. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic findings in three dogs with lung lobe torsion

    PubMed Central

    CAIVANO, Domenico; BIRETTONI, Francesco; BUFALARI, Antonello; MONTE, Valentina DE; ANGELI, Giovanni; GIORGI, Maria Elena; PATATA, Valentina; PORCIELLO, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Lung lobe torsion is rare but life-threatening condition in the dog. Thoracic radiographs and conventional ultrasonography cannot be conclusive for the diagnosis, and computed tomography is useful but is limited by cost and availability. This report describes the findings of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in 3 dogs with lung lobe torsion. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography showed the absence or reduction of pulmonary vascularization secondary to twisting of the lung lobe around its bronchovascular pedicle in all three dogs. Moreover, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography distinguished partial pulmonary atelectasis from a lung lobe torsion. These preliminary results suggest that contrast-enhanced ultrasonography can improve the accuracy of conventional ultrasonography for detection of pulmonary blood flow compromise in dogs with lung lobe torsion. PMID:26498403

  20. Constraining the sedimentology and stratigraphy of submarine intraslope lobe deposits using exhumed examples from the Karoo Basin, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spychala, Y. T.; Hodgson, D. M.; Flint, S. S.; Mountney, N. P.

    2015-06-01

    Intraslope lobe deposits provide a process record of the infill of accommodation on submarine slopes and their recognition enables the accurate reconstruction of the stratigraphic evolution of submarine slope systems. Extensive exposures of discrete sand-prone packages in Units D/E and E, Fort Brown Formation, Karoo Basin, South Africa, permit analysis of the sedimentology and stacking patterns of three intraslope lobe complexes and their palaeogeographic reconstruction via bed-scale analysis and physical correlation of key stratal surfaces. The sand-prone packages comprise tabular, aggradationally to slightly compensationally stacked lobe deposits with constituent facies associations that can be attributed to lobe axis, lobe off-axis, lobe-fringe and distal lobe-fringe environments. Locally, intraslope lobe deposits are incised by low aspect ratio channels that mark basinward progradation of the deepwater system. The origin of accommodation on the slope for lobe deposition is interpreted to be due to differential compaction or healing of scars from mass wasting processes. The stacking patterns and sedimentary facies arrangement identified in this study are distinct from those of more commonly recognized basin-floor lobe deposits, thereby enabling the establishment of recognition criteria for intraslope lobe deposits in other less well exposed and studied fine-grained systems. Compared to basin floor lobes, intraslope lobes are smaller in volume, influenced by higher degrees of confinement, and tend to show aggradational stacking patterns.

  1. Expression of SNMP1 and SNMP2 genes in antennal sensilla of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner).

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengcheng; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Yang; Wang, Guirong; Dong, Shuanglin

    2014-02-01

    Sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) are olfactory-specific, two-transmembrane proteins. Previous publications reported that SNMP1 is expressed on the dendrite membrane of pheromone-sensitive neurons in Heliothis virescens and is an essential cofactor for pheromone detection in Drosophila. In this study, we cloned two SNMP genes (GenBank accession nos. JX469106 and JX469107) from the antenna of the beet armyworm moth Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Hübner). These SNMP genes are classified into two highly conserved subclades, indicating their importance in physiological activity of lepidopteran insects. SexiSNMP1 is antenna-specific in male and female adults, while SexiSNMP2 is antenna-abundant but also expressed in other chemosensory tissues, particularly proboscises and maxillary palps of adults both sexes. In situ hybridization revealed that both SNMPs are broadly expressed in long and short trichoid and basiconic sensilla. We infer that SNMP1 and SNMP2 act in the detection of the sex pheromone and general odorants. PMID:24436214

  2. Morphology, ultrastructure and functional role of antennal sensilla in off-host aggregation by the bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Olson, Joelle F; Moon, Roger D; Kells, Stephen A; Mesce, Karen A

    2014-03-01

    After blood feeding on a host, bed bugs, Cimex lectularius, assemble in aggregation sites away from the host. Off-host aggregation is mediated by a combination of mechanical and chemical stimuli associated with bug feces. Partial antennectomies indicated removal of flagellomeres did not affect aggregation, but removal of the whole pedicel or its distal half significantly reduced (P < 0.01) aggregation, suggesting that sensilla related to off-host aggregation occur on the distal half of the pedicel. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that serrated hairs were distributed throughout the pedicel, but newly described smooth hairs were present mainly on the distal half, and a distinct patch of grooved pegs, smooth pegs and immersed cones was present on the posterior edge of the distal half of the pedicel in adults, but not in nymphs. Numbers of different types of sensilla increased significantly during metamorphosis from first instar to adult (P < 0.05), but were similar between genders (P = 0.11) and between females from a laboratory and field strain of bugs (P = 0.19). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that cuticular pores were present in the two types of pegs, indicating that the pegs have an olfactory function. The smooth hairs resembled gustatory sensilla previously described in Cimex hemipterus F. The existence of both olfactory and gustatory sensilla on the distal half of the pedicel suggests those sensilla may be the sensory basis of off-host aggregation behavior. PMID:24412653

  3. Neuropsychological status in older adults influences susceptibility to false memories.

    PubMed

    Meade, Michelle L; Geraci, Lisa D; Roediger, Henry L

    2012-01-01

    In 2 experiments we examined the influence of frontal lobe function on older adults' susceptibility to false memory in a categorized list paradigm. Using a neuropsychological battery of tests developed by Glisky, Polster, and Routhieaux (1995), we designated older adults as having high- or low-frontal function. Young and older adults studied and were tested on categorized lists using free report cued recall and forced report cued recall instructions, with the latter requiring participants to produce responses even if they had to guess. Under free report cued recall instructions, frontal lobe function was a strong predictor of false memories in older adults: Older adults who scored low on tests of frontal functioning demonstrated much higher levels of false recall than younger adults, whereas levels of false recall in high-frontal older adults were more similar to those of young adults. However, after forced report cued recall, high- and low-frontal older adults performed similarly to each other, and both demonstrated higher levels of false recall than young adults. On a final recognition test, high-frontal older adults in both the free report cued recall and forced report cued recall conditions were more successful than low-frontal older adults in using source information to reduce memory errors. The results indicate that older adults show higher levels of false recall than younger adults, but type of test (free report or forced report) and neuropsychological status of older adults mediate these effects. Low-frontal older adults are particularly susceptible to producing false memories on free report tests that entail source monitoring. PMID:23350303

  4. Association between prefrontal activity and volume change in prefrontal and medial temporal lobes in aging and dementia: a review.

    PubMed

    Maillet, David; Rajah, M Natasha

    2013-03-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have consistently reported age-related changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity during a variety of cognitive tasks, including episodic memory. These changes are often interpreted within the context of one of the following three neural models of age-related changes in brain function: dedifferentiation, neural inefficiency, and neural plasticity and compensation models. Distinguishing between these competing models has proven difficult when interpreting results using functional imaging data alone. In this paper we suggest that a more accurate interpretation of age-related changes in PFC activity requires consideration of age-related differences in gray matter volume (GMv) in PFC and the medial temporal lobes (MTL). We review fMRI studies of cognitive aging that have directly examined the relationship between PFC activity and both local (PFC) and distal (MTL) GMv in older versus younger adults. We also considered how structure-function relationships may be further modified in pathological aging (i.e. mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD)). We found that when task performance was matched between age-groups there was a negative association between regional PFC volume and activity in older adults. However, when older adults performed worse than young adults we observed a positive association between volume and activity in right lateral PFC. Additionally during memory tasks, several studies revealed that PFC activity is positively related to GM volume in MTL in healthy older adults, but negatively related in MCI and AD patients. We conclude that PFC activity is related to age-related changes in local and distal GM volume reductions and that consideration of these structural measures aids the interpretation of fMRI results. Furthermore, the study of structure-function relationships may provide important insights into the biological mechanisms underlying healthy versus pathological aging. PMID:23183352

  5. Intrinsic controls on the range of volumes, morphologies, and dimensions of submarine lobes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prelat, A.; Covault, J.A.; Hodgson, D.M.; Fildani, A.; Flint, S.S.

    2010-01-01

    Submarine lobe dimensions from six different systems are compared: 1) the exhumed Permian Fan 3 lobe complex of the Tanqua Karoo, South Africa; 2) the modern Amazon fan channel-mouth lobe complex, offshore Brazil; 3) a portion of the modern distal Za??re fan, offshore Angola/Congo; 4) a Pleistocene fan of the Kutai basin, subsurface offshore Indonesia; 5) the modern Golo system, offshore east Corsica, France; and 6) a shallow subsurface lobe complex , offshore Nigeria. These six systems have significantly different source-to-sink configurations (shelf dimension and slope topography), sediment supply characteristics (available grain size range and supply rate), tectonic settings, (palaeo) latitude, and delivery systems. Despite these differences, lobe deposits share similar geometric and dimensional characteristics. Lobes are grouped into two distinct populations of geometries that can be related to basin floor topography. The first population corresponds to areally extensive but thin lobes (average width 14km??length 35km??thickness 12m) that were deposited onto low relief basin floor areas. Examples of such systems include the Tanqua Karoo, the Amazon, and the Za??re systems. The second population corresponds to areally smaller but thicker lobes (average width 5km??length 8km??thickness 30m) that were deposited into settings with higher amplitude of relief, like in the Corsican trough, the Kutai basin, and offshore Nigeria. The two populations of lobe types, however, share similar volumes (a narrow range around 1 or 2km3), which suggests that there is a control to the total volume of sediment that individual lobes can reach before they shift to a new locus of deposition. This indicates that the extrinsic processes control the number of lobes deposited per unit time rather than their dimensions. Two alternative hypotheses are presented to explain the similarities in lobe volumes calculated from the six very different systems. The first states that the wide range of

  6. Rotational polarities of sudden impulses in the magnetotail lobe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawano, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Kokubun, S.; Lepping, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    A sudden impulse (SI) is a sudden change in the magnetic field strength which is caused by a change in the solar wind pressure and is observed throughout the magnetosphere. In this report we have examined the rotations of the magnetic field vectors at times of SIs in the magnetotail lobe, by using IMP 6, 7, and 8 magnetometer data. The following properties have been found: (1) at the time of SI the arrowhead of the magnetic vector tends to rotate in one plane; (2) the plane of rotation tends to include the unperturbed magnetic field vector; (3) the plane of rotation tends to be aligned with the radial direction from the magnetotail axis; and (4) the magnetic vectors have a particular rotational polarity: when the plane of rotation is viewed so that the Sun is to the right of the viewed plane and the magnetotail axis is to the bottom, the arrowhead of the vector tends to rotate counterclockwise in this plane. These magnetic vector properties are consistent with those expected when part of an increase in solar wind lateral pressure squeezes the magnetotail axisymmetrically while moving tailward.

  7. Investigation of three lobes roots blower with special ejector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizgalov, S. V.; Chekushkin, G. N.; Volkov, M. V.

    2015-08-01

    A volumetric Roots type blower with spur three or two lobes rotors has a high performance at a small unit size and is used mainly at the pressure ratio in the range of 1,4 - 1,6. A significant limitation of this parameter is due to the nature of the compressor working process, in particular a rapid, almost instantaneous increase in the pressure in the working chamber because of back flow. This leads to a decrease in performance and efficiency, and increase of the compressor noise level. One of the ways to overcome this drawback is the use of bypassing of part of compressed and cooled gas at injection through the ejector into the working chamber that is simultaneously disconnected from both discharge and suction. Due to this, the pressure increase process becomes more gradual as related to the rotor angle of rotation, and additional suction of portions of gas from the suction line by ejection effect becomes possible, which increases the efficiency and performance of the compressor. Experimental data confirm the efficacy of this method. Research of the Roots blower combined action with an ejector attachments based on the developed mathematical model has been presented.

  8. Seizure-Induced Oxidative Stress in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    An insult to the brain (such as the first seizure) causes excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation, and production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). ROS and RNS produced during status epilepticus (SE) overwhelm the mitochondrial natural antioxidant defense mechanism. This leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and damage to the mitochondrial DNA. This in turn affects synthesis of various enzyme complexes that are involved in electron transport chain. Resultant effects that occur during epileptogenesis include lipid peroxidation, reactive gliosis, hippocampal neurodegeneration, reorganization of neural networks, and hypersynchronicity. These factors predispose the brain to spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS), which ultimately establish into temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). This review discusses some of these issues. Though antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are beneficial to control/suppress seizures, their long term usage has been shown to increase ROS/RNS in animal models and human patients. In established TLE, ROS/RNS are shown to be harmful as they can increase the susceptibility to SRS. Further, in this paper, we review briefly the data from animal models and human TLE patients on the adverse effects of antiepileptic medications and the plausible ameliorating effects of antioxidants as an adjunct therapy. PMID:25650148

  9. Content representation in the human medial temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jackson C; Wagner, Anthony D; Preston, Alison R

    2013-01-01

    Current theories of medial temporal lobe (MTL) function focus on event content as an important organizational principle that differentiates MTL subregions. Perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices may play content-specific roles in memory, whereas hippocampal processing is alternately hypothesized to be content specific or content general. Despite anatomical evidence for content-specific MTL pathways, empirical data for content-based MTL subregional dissociations are mixed. Here, we combined functional magnetic resonance imaging with multiple statistical approaches to characterize MTL subregional responses to different classes of novel event content (faces, scenes, spoken words, sounds, visual words). Univariate analyses revealed that responses to novel faces and scenes were distributed across the anterior-posterior axis of MTL cortex, with face responses distributed more anteriorly than scene responses. Moreover, multivariate pattern analyses of perirhinal and parahippocampal data revealed spatially organized representational codes for multiple content classes, including nonpreferred visual and auditory stimuli. In contrast, anterior hippocampal responses were content general, with less accurate overall pattern classification relative to MTL cortex. Finally, posterior hippocampal activation patterns consistently discriminated scenes more accurately than other forms of content. Collectively, our findings indicate differential contributions of MTL subregions to event representation via a distributed code along the anterior-posterior axis of MTL that depends on the nature of event content. PMID:22275474

  10. The Necessity of the Medial Temporal Lobe for Statistical Learning

    PubMed Central

    Schapiro, Anna C.; Gregory, Emma; Landau, Barbara; McCloskey, Michael; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.

    2014-01-01

    The sensory input that we experience is highly patterned, and we are experts at detecting these regularities. Although the extraction of such regularities, or statistical learning (SL), is typically viewed as a cortical process, recent studies have implicated the medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the hippocampus. These studies have employed fMRI, leaving open the possibility that the MTL is involved but not necessary for SL. Here, we examined this issue in a case study of LSJ, a patient with complete bilateral hippocampal loss and broader MTL damage. In Experiments 1 and 2, LSJ and matched control participants were passively exposed to a continuous sequence of shapes, syllables, scenes, or tones containing temporal regularities in the co-occurrence of items. In a subsequent test phase, the control groups exhibited reliable SL in all conditions, successfully discriminating regularities from recombinations of the same items into novel foil sequences. LSJ, however, exhibited no SL, failing to discriminate regularities from foils. Experiment 3 ruled out more general explanations for this failure, such as inattention during exposure or difficulty following test instructions, by showing that LSJ could discriminate which individual items had been exposed. These findings provide converging support for the importance of the MTL in extracting temporal regularities. PMID:24456393

  11. Impaired recognition of scary music following unilateral temporal lobe excision.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, Nathalie; Peretz, Isabelle; Noulhiane, Marion; Hasboun, Dominique; Beckett, Christine; Baulac, Michel; Samson, Séverine

    2005-03-01

    Music constitutes an ideal means to create a sense of suspense in films. However, there has been minimal investigation into the underlying cerebral organization for perceiving danger created by music. In comparison, the amygdala's role in recognition of fear in non-musical contexts has been well established. The present study sought to fill this gap in exploring how patients with amygdala resection recognize emotional expression in music. To this aim, we tested 16 patients with left (LTR; n = 8) or right (RTR; n = 8) medial temporal resection (including amygdala) for the relief of medically intractable seizures and 16 matched controls in an emotion recognition task involving instrumental music. The musical selections were purposely created to induce fear, peacefulness, happiness and sadness. Participants were asked to rate to what extent each musical passage expressed these four emotions on 10-point scales. In order to check for the presence of a perceptual problem, the same musical selections were presented to the participants in an error detection task. None of the patients was found to perform below controls in the perceptual task. In contrast, both LTR and RTR patients were found to be impaired in the recognition of scary music. Recognition of happy and sad music was normal. These findings suggest that the anteromedial temporal lobe (including the amygdala) plays a role in the recognition of danger in a musical context. PMID:15699060

  12. Crystal storing histiocytosis presenting as a temporal lobe mass lesion

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mahlon; Mazariegos, Juan; Lewis, P. Jeffery; Pomakova, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Background: Crystal storing histiocytosis (CSH) is a disorder characterized by local or diffuse infiltration of histiocytes containing crystalline inclusions most commonly of immunoglobulin light chain. Involvement of the central nervous system is extremely rare. CSH may be misdiagnosed as an infection or tumor. In patients with involvement of other organs, it is frequently associated with lymphoplasmacytic diseases. Case Description: A 20-year-old female was evaluated for 2 weeks of progressively worsening headaches. At presentation, she had no history of fevers but reported a sore throat without cough 3-4 days prior. Her past medical history was unremarkable. She denied intravenous drug use or sexually transmitted diseases but lived with an individual with a history of fungal meningitis. On examination she was afebrile, alert, and oriented with a blood pressure of 110/70 mmHg. She had no adenopathy or neurological deficits. Her white blood cell count was minimally elevated. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 3.5 × 1.3 × 1.9 cm contrast enhancing lesion of the left temporal lobe with a mild midline shift. Evaluation by multiple specialists suggested a differential diagnosis of an infectious or neoplastic process. Cultures for infectious agents were negative. The biopsy showed CSH. Postoperatively and at 1 month follow up, she was neurologically intact. Conclusion: Radiographically and intraoperatively, CSH may mimic an infectious process or neoplasm. Its recognition is critical to facilitate appropriate therapy and prompt screening for an occult lymphoplasmacytic neoplasm, plasma cell dyscrasia or other underlying disease. PMID:24032087

  13. Hsp60 response in experimental and human temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gammazza, Antonella Marino; Colangeli, Roberto; Orban, Gergely; Pierucci, Massimo; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Bello, Margherita Lo; D'Aniello, Alfredo; Bucchieri, Fabio; Pomara, Cristoforo; Valentino, Mario; Muscat, Richard; Benigno, Arcangelo; Zummo, Giovanni; de Macario, Everly Conway; Cappello, Francesco; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe; Macario, Alberto J. L.

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial chaperonin Hsp60 is a ubiquitous molecule with multiple roles, constitutively expressed and inducible by oxidative stress. In the brain, Hsp60 is widely distributed and has been implicated in neurological disorders, including epilepsy. A role for mitochondria and oxidative stress has been proposed in epileptogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Here, we investigated the involvement of Hsp60 in TLE using animal and human samples. Hsp60 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus, measured by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, was increased in a rat model of TLE. Hsp60 was also increased in the hippocampal dentate gyrus neurons somata and neuropil and hippocampus proper (CA3, CA1) of the epileptic rats. We also determined the circulating levels of Hsp60 in epileptic animals and TLE patients using ELISA. The epileptic rats showed circulating levels of Hsp60 higher than controls. Likewise, plasma post-seizure Hsp60 levels in patients were higher than before the seizure and those of controls. These results demonstrate that Hsp60 is increased in both animals and patients with TLE in affected tissues, and in plasma in response to epileptic seizures, and point to it as biomarker of hippocampal stress potentially useful for diagnosis and patient management. PMID:25801186

  14. Semantic Processing Impairment in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Jaimes-Bautista, Amanda G.; Rodríguez-Camacho, Mario; Martínez-Juárez, Iris E.; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Yaneth

    2015-01-01

    The impairment in episodic memory system is the best-known cognitive deficit in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Recent studies have shown evidence of semantic disorders, but they have been less studied than episodic memory. The semantic dysfunction in TLE has various cognitive manifestations, such as the presence of language disorders characterized by defects in naming, verbal fluency, or remote semantic information retrieval, which affects the ability of patients to interact with their surroundings. This paper is a review of recent research about the consequences of TLE on semantic processing, considering neuropsychological, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging findings, as well as the functional role of the hippocampus in semantic processing. The evidence from these studies shows disturbance of semantic memory in patients with TLE and supports the theory of declarative memory of the hippocampus. Functional neuroimaging studies show an inefficient compensatory functional reorganization of semantic networks and electrophysiological studies show a lack of N400 effect that could indicate that the deficit in semantic processing in patients with TLE could be due to a failure in the mechanisms of automatic access to lexicon. PMID:26257956

  15. Increased temporolimbic cortical folding complexity in temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Voets, N.L.; Bernhardt, B.C.; Kim, H.; Yoon, U.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Converging evidence suggests that abnormalities of brain development may play a role in the pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). As sulco-gyral patterns are thought to be a footprint of cortical development, we set out to quantitatively map folding complexity across the neocortex in TLE. Additionally, we tested whether there was a relationship between cortical complexity and features of hippocampal maldevelopment, commonly referred to as malrotation. Methods: To quantify folding complexity, we obtained whole-brain surface-based measures of absolute mean cortical curvature from MRI scans acquired in 43 drug-resistant patients with TLE with unilateral hippocampal atrophy, and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. In patients, we correlated changes in cortical curvature with 3-dimensional measures of hippocampal positioning. Results: We found increased folding complexity in the temporolimbic cortices encompassing parahippocampal, temporopolar, insular, and fronto-opercular regions. Increased complexity was observed ipsilateral to the seizure focus in patients with left TLE (LTLE), whereas these changes were bilateral in patients with right TLE (RTLE). In both TLE groups, increased temporolimbic complexity was associated with increased hippocampal malrotation. We found tendencies for increased complexity in bilateral posterior temporal cortices in LTLE and contralateral parahippocampal cortices in RTLE to be predictive of unfavorable seizure outcome after surgery. Conclusion: The anatomic distribution of increased cortical complexity overlapping with limbic seizure networks in TLE and its association with hippocampal maldevelopment further imply that neurodevelopmental factors may play a role in the epileptogenic process of TLE. PMID:21148116

  16. Longitudinal progression of frontal and temporal lobe changes in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Cobia, Derin J; Smith, Matthew J; Wang, Lei; Csernansky, John G

    2012-08-01

    Cortical abnormalities are considered a neurobiological characteristic of schizophrenia. However, the pattern of such deficits as they progress over the illness remains poorly understood. The goal of this project was to assess the progression of cortical thinning in frontal and temporal cortical regions in schizophrenia, and determine whether relationships exist between them and neuropsychological and clinical symptom profiles. As part of a larger longitudinal 2-year follow-up study, schizophrenia (n=20) and healthy participants (n=20) group-matched for age, gender, and recent-alcohol use, were selected. Using MRI, estimates of gray matter thickness were derived from primary anatomical gyri of the frontal and temporal lobes using surface-based algorithms. These values were entered into repeated-measures analysis of variance models to determine group status and time effects. Change values in cortical regions were correlated with changes in neuropsychological functioning and clinical symptomatology. Results revealed exaggerated cortical thinning of the middle frontal, superior temporal, and middle temporal gyri in schizophrenia participants. These thickness changes strongly influenced volumetric reductions, but were not related to shrinking surface area. Neuropsychological and clinical symptom profiles were stable in the schizophrenia participants despite these neuroanatomic changes. Overall it appears that ongoing abnormalities in the cerebral cortex continue after initial onset of schizophrenia, particularly the lateral aspects of frontal and temporal regions, and do not relate to neuropsychological or clinical measures over time. Maintenance of neuropsychological performance and clinical stability in the face of changing neuroanatomical structure suggests the involvement of alternative compensatory mechanisms. PMID:22647883

  17. Functional connectivity homogeneity correlates with duration of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Haneef, Zulfi; Chiang, Sharon; Yeh, Hsiang J; Engel, Jerome; Stern, John M

    2015-05-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is often associated with progressive changes to seizures, memory, and mood during its clinical course. However, the cerebral changes related to this progression are not well understood. Because the changes may be related to changes in brain networks, we used functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) to determine whether brain network parameters relate to the duration of TLE. Graph theory-based analysis of the sites of reported regions of TLE abnormality was performed on resting-state fMRI data in 48 subjects: 24 controls, 13 patients with left TLE, and 11 patients with right TLE. Various network parameters were analyzed including betweenness centrality (BC), clustering coefficient (CC), path length (PL), small-world index (SWI), global efficiency (GE), connectivity strength (CS), and connectivity diversity (CD). These were compared for patients with TLE as a group, compared to controls, and for patients with left and right TLE separately. The association of changes in network parameters with epilepsy duration was also evaluated. We found that CC, CS, and CD decreased in subjects with TLE compared to control subjects. Analyzed according to epilepsy duration, patients with TLE showed a progressive reduction in CD. In conclusion, we found that several network parameters decreased in patients with TLE compared to controls, which suggested reduced connectivity in TLE. Reduction in CD associated with epilepsy duration suggests a homogenization of connections over time in TLE, indicating a reduction of the normal repertoire of stronger and weaker connections to other brain regions. PMID:25873437

  18. Decoding Representations of Scenes in the Medial Temporal Lobes

    PubMed Central

    Bonnici, Heidi M; Kumaran, Dharshan; Chadwick, Martin J; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Hassabis, Demis; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2012-01-01

    Recent theoretical perspectives have suggested that the function of the human hippocampus, like its rodent counterpart, may be best characterized in terms of its information processing capacities. In this study, we use a combination of high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging, multivariate pattern analysis, and a simple decision making task, to test specific hypotheses concerning the role of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in scene processing. We observed that while information that enabled two highly similar scenes to be distinguished was widely distributed throughout the MTL, more distinct scene representations were present in the hippocampus, consistent with its role in performing pattern separation. As well as viewing the two similar scenes, during scanning participants also viewed morphed scenes that spanned a continuum between the original two scenes. We found that patterns of hippocampal activity during morph trials, even when perceptual inputs were held entirely constant (i.e., in 50% morph trials), showed a robust relationship with participants' choices in the decision task. Our findings provide evidence for a specific computational role for the hippocampus in sustaining detailed representations of complex scenes, and shed new light on how the information processing capacities of the hippocampus may influence the decision making process. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:21656874

  19. Selective attention in the honeybee optic lobes precedes behavioral choices

    PubMed Central

    Paulk, Angelique C.; Stacey, Jacqueline A.; Pearson, Thomas W. J.; Taylor, Gavin J.; Moore, Richard J. D.; Srinivasan, Mandyam V.; van Swinderen, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Attention allows animals to respond selectively to competing stimuli, enabling some stimuli to evoke a behavioral response while others are ignored. How the brain does this remains mysterious, although it is increasingly evident that even animals with the smallest brains display this capacity. For example, insects respond selectively to salient visual stimuli, but it is unknown where such selectivity occurs in the insect brain, or whether neural correlates of attention might predict the visual choices made by an insect. Here, we investigate neural correlates of visual attention in behaving honeybees (Apis mellifera). Using a closed-loop paradigm that allows tethered, walking bees to actively control visual objects in a virtual reality arena, we show that behavioral fixation increases neuronal responses to flickering, frequency-tagged stimuli. Attention-like effects were reduced in the optic lobes during replay of the same visual sequences, when bees were not able to control the visual displays. When bees were presented with competing frequency-tagged visual stimuli, selectivity in the medulla (an optic ganglion) preceded behavioral selection of a stimulus, suggesting that modulation of early visual processing centers precedes eventual behavioral choices made by these insects. PMID:24639490

  20. Memory for emotional material in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Múnera, Claudia P; Lomlomdjian, Carolina; Terpiluk, Verónica; Medel, Nancy; Solís, Patricia; Kochen, Silvia

    2015-11-01

    Several studies suggest that highly emotional information could facilitate long-term memory encoding and consolidation processes via an amygdala-hippocampal network. Our aim was to assess emotional perception and episodic memory for emotionally arousing material in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) who are candidates for surgical treatment. We did this by using an audiovisual paradigm. Forty-six patients with medically resistant TLE (26 with left TLE and 20 with right TLE) and 19 healthy controls were assessed with a standard narrative test of emotional memory. The experimental task consisted of sequential picture slides with an accompanying narrative depicting a story that has an emotional central section. Subjects were asked to rate their emotional arousal reaction to each stimulus after the story was shown, while emotional memory (EM) was assessed a week later with a multiple choice questionnaire and a visual recognition task. Our results showed that ratings for emotional stimuli for the patients with TLE were significantly higher than for neutral stimuli (p=0.000). It was also observed that patients with TLE recalled significantly less information from each slide compared with controls, with a trend to lower scores on the questionnaire task for the group with LTLE, as well as poorer performance on the visual recognition task for the group with RLTE. Emotional memory was preserved in patients with RTLE despite having generally poorer memory performance compared with controls, while it was found to be impaired in patients with LTLE. PMID:26409130

  1. The diffeomorphometry of temporal lobe structures in preclinical Alzheimer's disease☆

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Michael I.; Younes, Laurent; Ratnanather, J. Tilak; Brown, Timothy; Trinh, Huong; Postell, Elizabeth; Lee, David S.; Wang, Mei-Cheng; Mori, Susumu; O'Brien, Richard; Albert, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines morphometry of MRI biomarkers derived from the network of temporal lobe structures including the amygdala, entorhinal cortex and hippocampus in subjects with preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). Based on template-centered population analysis, it is demonstrated that the structural markers of the amygdala, hippocampus and entorhinal cortex are statistically significantly different between controls and those with preclinical AD. Entorhinal cortex is the most strongly significant based on the linear effects model (p < .0001) for the high-dimensional vertex- and Laplacian-based markers corresponding to localized atrophy. The hippocampus also shows significant localized high-dimensional change (p < .0025) and the amygdala demonstrates more global change signaled by the strength of the low-dimensional volume markers. The analysis of the three structures also demonstrates that the volume measures are only weakly discriminating between preclinical and control groups, with the average atrophy rates of the volume of the entorhinal cortex higher than amygdala and hippocampus. The entorhinal cortex thickness also exhibits an atrophy rate nearly a factor of two higher in the ApoE4 positive group relative to the ApoE4 negative group providing weak discrimination between the two groups. PMID:24363990

  2. Semantic Processing Impairment in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Jaimes-Bautista, Amanda G; Rodríguez-Camacho, Mario; Martínez-Juárez, Iris E; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Yaneth

    2015-01-01

    The impairment in episodic memory system is the best-known cognitive deficit in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Recent studies have shown evidence of semantic disorders, but they have been less studied than episodic memory. The semantic dysfunction in TLE has various cognitive manifestations, such as the presence of language disorders characterized by defects in naming, verbal fluency, or remote semantic information retrieval, which affects the ability of patients to interact with their surroundings. This paper is a review of recent research about the consequences of TLE on semantic processing, considering neuropsychological, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging findings, as well as the functional role of the hippocampus in semantic processing. The evidence from these studies shows disturbance of semantic memory in patients with TLE and supports the theory of declarative memory of the hippocampus. Functional neuroimaging studies show an inefficient compensatory functional reorganization of semantic networks and electrophysiological studies show a lack of N400 effect that could indicate that the deficit in semantic processing in patients with TLE could be due to a failure in the mechanisms of automatic access to lexicon. PMID:26257956

  3. Crucial role of astrocytes in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Steinhäuser, C; Grunnet, M; Carmignoto, G

    2016-05-26

    Astrocytes sense and respond to synaptic activity through activation of different neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. Astrocytes are also coupled by gap junctions, which allow these cells to redistribute through the glial network the K(+) ions excessively accumulated at sites of intense neuronal activity. Work over the past two decades has revealed important roles for astrocytes in brain physiology, and it is therefore not surprising that recent studies unveiled their involvement in the etiology of neurological disorders such as epilepsy. Investigation of specimens from patients with pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy and epilepsy models revealed alterations in expression, localization and function of astrocytic connexins, K(+) and water channels. In addition, disturbed gliotransmission as well as malfunction of glutamate transporters and of the astrocytic glutamate- and adenosine-converting enzymes - glutamine synthetase and adenosine kinase, respectively - have been observed in epileptic tissues. Accordingly, increasing evidence indicates that dysfunctional astrocytes are crucially involved in processes leading to epilepsy. These new insights might foster the search for new targets for the development of new, more efficient anti-epileptogenic therapies. PMID:25592426

  4. Recurrent nightmares and disorders of arousal in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Rosalia; Bromfield, Edward

    2004-06-30

    Sleep is known to be severely altered in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Furthermore, sleep deprivation is one of the key factors contributing to cognitive deficits and drug resistance in TLE. In the past, "non-ictal" parasomnias, as well as parasomnia-like nocturnal episodes ultimately diagnosed as seizures, have been documented in epileptic patients. However, recurrence of possibly "ictal" parasomnias in TLE has not been adequately appreciated. Through questionnaires and diaries distributed to TLE patients and their families in a tertiary center for epilepsy, 20 out of 168 patients seen in the last 2 years have been identified as, probands and extensively recorded during sleep. Patients presented with confusional arousals were 16, 14 with nightmares, and 2 with sleep walking episodes. Episodes (25) corresponding to clinical or subclinical seizures have been video-polygraphically recorded in 10/20 patients. Therapy optimization, pharmacological or surgical, resolved the episodes in 17/20 patients. A better seizure control with improved quality of life can be achieved by increasing and extending the practice of nocturnal recording in TLE patients. PMID:15245763

  5. On-line, voluntary control of human temporal lobe neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cerf, Moran; Thiruvengadam, Nikhil; Mormann, Florian; Kraskov, Alexander; Quiroga, Rodrigo Quian; Koch, Christof; Fried, Itzhak

    2010-01-01

    Daily life continually confronts us with an exuberance of external, sensory stimuli competing with a rich stream of internal deliberations, plans and ruminations. The brain must select one or more of these for further processing. How this competition is resolved across multiple sensory and cognitive regions is not known; nor is it clear how internal thoughts and attention regulate this competition1–4. Recording from single neurons in patients implanted with intracranial electrodes for clinical reasons5–9, here we demonstrate that humans can regulate the activity of their neurons in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) to alter the outcome of the contest between external images and their internal representation. Subjects looked at a hybrid superposition of two images representing familiar individuals, landmarks, objects or animals and had to enhance one image at the expense of the other, competing one. Simultaneously, the spiking activity of their MTL neurons in different subregions and hemispheres was decoded in real time to control the content of the hybrid. Subjects reliably regulated, often on the first trial, the firing rate of their neurons, increasing the rate of some while simultaneously decreasing the rate of others. They did so by focusing onto one image, which gradually became clearer on the computer screen in front of their eyes, and thereby overriding sensory input. On the basis of the firing of these MTL neurons, the dynamics of the competition between visual images in the subject's mind was visualized on an external display. PMID:20981100

  6. The Selectivity and Functional Connectivity of the Anterior Temporal Lobes

    PubMed Central

    Reddish, Mark; Bellgowan, Patrick S. F.; Martin, Alex

    2010-01-01

    One influential account asserts that the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) is a domain-general hub for semantic memory. Other evidence indicates it is part of a domain-specific social cognition system. Arbitrating these accounts using functional magnetic resonance imaging has previously been difficult because of magnetic susceptibility artifacts in the region. The present study used parameters optimized for imaging the ATL, and had subjects encode facts about unfamiliar people, buildings, and hammers. Using both conjunction and region of interest analyses, person-selective responses were observed in both the left and right ATL. Neither building-selective, hammer-selective nor domain-general responses were observed in the ATLs, although they were observed in other brain regions. These findings were supported by “resting-state” functional connectivity analyses using independent datasets from the same subjects. Person-selective ATL clusters were functionally connected with the brain's wider social cognition network. Rather than serving as a domain-general semantic hub, the ATLs work in unison with the social cognition system to support learning facts about others. PMID:19620621

  7. Functional Connectivity Homogeneity Correlates with Duration of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Haneef, Zulfi; Chiang, Sharon; Yeh, Hsiang J.; Engel, Jerome; Stern, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) often is associated with progressive changes to seizures, memory, and mood during its clinical course. However, the cerebral changes related to this progression are not well understood. Because the changes may be related to changes in brain networks, we used functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) to determine whether brain network parameters relate to the duration of TLE. Graph theory based analysis of the sites of reported regions of TLE abnormality, was performed on resting state fMRI data in 48 subjects: 24 controls, 13 patients with left TLE, and 11 patients with right TLE. Various network parameters were analyzed including betweenness centrality (BC), clustering coefficient (CC), path length (PL), small-world index (SWI), global efficiency (GE), connectivity strength (CS), and connectivity diversity (CD). These were compared for TLE as a group, compared to controls, and for left and right TLE separately. Association of changes in network parameters with epilepsy duration was also evaluated. We found that CC, CS and CD were decreased in TLE, compared to control subjects. Analyzed according to epilepsy duration, TLE showed a progressive reduction in CD. In conclusion, we found that several network parameters were decreased in TLE compared to controls, which suggested reduced connectivity in TLE. Reduction in CD associated with epilepsy duration suggests a homogenization of connections over time in TLE, indicating a reduction of the normal repertoire of stronger and weaker connections to other brain regions. PMID:25873437

  8. Turbofan forced mixer lobe flow modeling. 1: Experimental and analytical assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, T.; Paterson, R. W.; Skebe, S. A.

    1988-01-01

    A joint analytical and experimental investigation of three-dimensional flowfield development within the lobe region of turbofan forced mixer nozzles is described. The objective was to develop a method for predicting the lobe exit flowfield. In the analytical approach, a linearized inviscid aerodynamical theory was used for representing the axial and secondary flows within the three-dimensional convoluted mixer lobes and three-dimensional boundary layer analysis was applied thereafter to account for viscous effects. The experimental phase of the program employed three planar mixer lobe models having different waveform shapes and lobe heights for which detailed measurements were made of the three-dimensional velocity field and total pressure field at the lobe exit plane. Velocity data was obtained using Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and total pressure probing and hot wire anemometry were employed to define exit plane total pressure and boundary layer development. Comparison of data and analysis was performed to assess analytical model prediction accuracy. As a result of this study a planar mixed geometry analysis was developed. A principal conclusion is that the global mixer lobe flowfield is inviscid and can be predicted from an inviscid analysis and Kutta condition.

  9. Sex Differences in Parietal Lobe Morphology: Relationship to Mental Rotation Performance

    PubMed Central

    Koscik, Tim; O’Leary, Dan; Moser, David J.; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Nopoulos, Peg

    2009-01-01

    Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the human brain have reported evidence for sexual dimorphism. In addition to sex differences in overall cerebral volume, differences in the proportion of gray matter (GM) to white matter (WM) volume have been observed, particularly in the parietal lobe. To our knowledge there have been no studies examining the relationship between the sex differences in parietal lobe structure and function. The parietal lobe is thought to be involved in spatial ability, and particularly involved in mental rotation. The purpose of this study is to examine whether sex differences in parietal lobe structure are present, and if present to relate these differences to performance on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT). We found that women had proportionately greater gray matter volume in the parietal lobe compared to men, and this morphologic difference was disadvantageous for women in terms of performance on the MRT. In contrast, we found that men compared to women had proportionately greater parietal lobe surface area, and this morphologic difference was associated with a performance advantage for men on mental rotation. These findings support the possibility that the sexual dimorphism in the structure of the parietal lobe is a neurobiological substrate for the sex difference in performance on the Mental Rotations Test. PMID:18980790

  10. Temporal lobe signs: electroencephalographic validity and enhanced scores in special populations.

    PubMed

    Makarec, K; Persinger, M A

    1985-06-01

    Internal and external validity tests were completed for an inventory that has been used to infer signs of temporal lobe lability. Strong, positive correlations were reported for a normal (reference) population between the numbers of responses that referred to paranormal experiences (including feelings of a "presence") and separately to religious beliefs and the numbers of spikes per minute within electroencephalographic recordings from the temporal lobe. Numbers of spikes were also correlated with the subjects' scores on the hysteria, schizophrenia, and psychasthenia scales from the MMPI. These clusters of items were not correlated with electrical activity from the occipital lobe (the comparison region). Numbers of responses to control clusters of mundane experiences were not correlated with the temporal lobe measures. A group of student poets scored higher on different subclusters of temporal lobe signs and on the schizophrenia and mania scales of the MMPI than the reference group. For both groups, there were positive correlations between the amount of alpha activity in the temporal lobe only and answers to items such as "hearing inner voices" and "feeling as if things were not real." These results demonstrate that quantitative measures of electrical changes in the temporal lobe are correlated with (or with the report of) specific experiences that are prevalent during surgical or epileptic stimulation of this brain region. PMID:3927256

  11. The mismatch negativity (MMN) potential as a tool for the functional mapping of temporal lobe epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ricardo; Simões, Mário R; Ferraz, Luís; Leal, Alberto J R

    2014-04-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsies are associated with cognitive dysfunctions in memory which are important clues currently used clinically for the lateralization of the epileptic focus in evaluations for epilepsy surgery. Because these lobes also contain the primary auditory cortex, the study of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) is a candidate, not yet established, complementary method to characterize epilepsy-induced dysfunction. We aimed to establish the clinical usefulness of auditory evoked potentials for the study of pediatric symptomatic temporal lobe epilepsies. A group of 17 patients (ages 4-16) with symptomatic epilepsies undergoing evaluation for epilepsy surgery epilepsy was submitted to auditory evoked potentials using 35-channel scalp EEG recordings. A control group of 10 healthy volunteers was studied with the same protocol. The P100 and mismatch negativity (MMN) potential latencies and normalized amplitudes were studied. We also performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) to determine the anatomical areas associated with changes in the AEPs. Eleven patients had temporal lobe epilepsy, three had frontal lobe epilepsy, and three had occipital lobe epilepsy. Latencies for the P100 were normal in 15/17 and in 11/17 for the MMN, with no consistent correlation with the epilepsy type. The MMN amplitude was abnormal in 7/17 patients, all with temporal lobe epilepsies (sensitivity of 64%). Of these patients, four had a decreased MMN associated with a Heschl's gyrus lesion in the VLSM, and three had an increased MMN associated with hippocampal lesion. No extratemporal epilepsy showed MMN amplitude abnormalities (specificity of 100%). The P100 amplitude was abnormal in 3/17, two with temporal and one with frontal lobe epilepsies. The auditory MMN has a high specificity but a low sensitivity for temporal lobe epilepsy in symptomatic pediatric epilepsies. Amplitude decreases of the MMN are associated with homolateral Heschl's gyrus lesions, and MMN increases

  12. Interictal mood and personality disorders in temporal lobe epilepsy and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    PubMed Central

    Perini, G I; Tosin, C; Carraro, C; Bernasconi, G; Canevini, M P; Canger, R; Pellegrini, A; Testa, G

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mood disorders have been described as the commonest psychiatric disorders in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Secondary depression in temporal lobe epilepsy could be interpreted either as an adjustment reaction to a chronic disease or as a limbic dysfunction. To clarify this issue, a controlled study of psychiatric disorders was conducted in different forms of epileptic and non-epileptic chronic conditions. METHODS: Twenty outpatients with temporal lobe epilepsy, 18 outpatients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy--a primary generalised seizure disorder--20 matched type I diabetic patients, and 20 matched normal controls were assessed by a structured interview (SADS) and by self rating scales (Beck depression inventory (BDI) and the state and trait anxiety scales STAIX1 and STAIX2). RESULTS: Sixteen (80%) patients with temporal lobe epilepsy fulfilled the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis at the SADS interview with a significantly higher frequency than patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (22%) and diabetic patients (10%) (P < 0.0001). The most frequent disorder in temporal lobe epilepsy was a mood disorder: 11 (55%) patients with temporal lobe epilepsy had depression compared with three patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and two diabetic patients (P < 0.001). Eight patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with an affective disorder also had a comorbid personality or anxiety disorder. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy scored significantly higher on BDI, STAIX1, and STAIX2 than the three control groups (P < 0.001, P < 0.01, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy have a higher incidence of affective and personality disorders, often in comorbidity, than patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and diabetic patients suggesting that these psychiatric disorders are not an adjustment reaction to a chronic disease but rather reflect a limbic dysfunction. PMID:8971108

  13. Impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures: role of cortical slow activity

    PubMed Central

    Englot, Dario J.; Yang, Li; Hamid, Hamada; Danielson, Nathan; Bai, Xiaoxiao; Marfeo, Anthony; Yu, Lissa; Gordon, Aliza; Purcaro, Michael J.; Motelow, Joshua E.; Agarwal, Ravi; Ellens, Damien J.; Golomb, Julie D.; Shamy, Michel C. F.; Zhang, Heping; Carlson, Chad; Doyle, Werner; Devinsky, Orrin; Vives, Kenneth; Spencer, Dennis D.; Spencer, Susan S.; Schevon, Catherine; Zaveri, Hitten P.

    2010-01-01

    Impaired consciousness requires altered cortical function. This can occur either directly from disorders that impair widespread bilateral regions of the cortex or indirectly through effects on subcortical arousal systems. It has therefore long been puzzling why focal temporal lobe seizures so often impair consciousness. Early work suggested that altered consciousness may occur with bilateral or dominant temporal lobe seizure involvement. However, other bilateral temporal lobe disorders do not impair consciousness. More recent work supports a ‘network inhibition hypothesis’ in which temporal lobe seizures disrupt brainstem–diencephalic arousal systems, leading indirectly to depressed cortical function and impaired consciousness. Indeed, prior studies show subcortical involvement in temporal lobe seizures and bilateral frontoparietal slow wave activity on intracranial electroencephalography. However, the relationships between frontoparietal slow waves and impaired consciousness and between cortical slowing and fast seizure activity have not been directly investigated. We analysed intracranial electroencephalography recordings during 63 partial seizures in 26 patients with surgically confirmed mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Behavioural responsiveness was determined based on blinded review of video during seizures and classified as impaired (complex-partial seizures) or unimpaired (simple-partial seizures). We observed significantly increased delta-range 1–2 Hz slow wave activity in the bilateral frontal and parietal neocortices during complex-partial compared with simple-partial seizures. In addition, we confirmed prior work suggesting that propagation of unilateral mesial temporal fast seizure activity to the bilateral temporal lobes was significantly greater in complex-partial than in simple-partial seizures. Interestingly, we found that the signal power of frontoparietal slow wave activity was significantly correlated with the temporal lobe fast seizure

  14. Experimental investigation of the mixing performance of a lobed jet flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meslem, Amina; Nastase, Ilinca; Abed-Meraim, Kamel

    2008-01-01

    An experimental investigation of flow in a turbulent isothermal air lobed jet is presented. A lobed jet is compared, in the near field, with an isothermal axisymmetric jet with the same exit Reynolds number in terms of dynamics and mixing enhancement. It was found that the streamwise variation of the volumetric flow rate is characterized by a slope is more than twice larger than that for the reference circular jet. This high entrainment rate is governed, at the same time, by the turbulent structures generated by the asymmetric shape of the nozzle and by the high convection in these structures induced by the inner and outer penetration angles of their lobes.

  15. Complete video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy of the left lower lobe and lung lymph node dissection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fengxia; Huang, Xiuming

    2015-01-01

    We describe herein a case of complete video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy of the left lower lobe and lung lymph node dissection. The patient was a 67-year-old man. A physical examination revealed a nodule in the left lower lobe that had been present for 7 years. According to the chest computed tomography (CT) report recently, a diagnosis of lung cancer was not excluded. Due to the surgical indications, he was underwent complete video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy of the left lower lobe and lung lymph node dissection. The frozen pathology report was consistent with adenocarcinoma. He recovered smoothly, without any perioperative complications. PMID:26793364

  16. Impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures: role of cortical slow activity.

    PubMed

    Englot, Dario J; Yang, Li; Hamid, Hamada; Danielson, Nathan; Bai, Xiaoxiao; Marfeo, Anthony; Yu, Lissa; Gordon, Aliza; Purcaro, Michael J; Motelow, Joshua E; Agarwal, Ravi; Ellens, Damien J; Golomb, Julie D; Shamy, Michel C F; Zhang, Heping; Carlson, Chad; Doyle, Werner; Devinsky, Orrin; Vives, Kenneth; Spencer, Dennis D; Spencer, Susan S; Schevon, Catherine; Zaveri, Hitten P; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2010-12-01

    Impaired consciousness requires altered cortical function. This can occur either directly from disorders that impair widespread bilateral regions of the cortex or indirectly through effects on subcortical arousal systems. It has therefore long been puzzling why focal temporal lobe seizures so often impair consciousness. Early work suggested that altered consciousness may occur with bilateral or dominant temporal lobe seizure involvement. However, other bilateral temporal lobe disorders do not impair consciousness. More recent work supports a 'network inhibition hypothesis' in which temporal lobe seizures disrupt brainstem-diencephalic arousal systems, leading indirectly to depressed cortical function and impaired consciousness. Indeed, prior studies show subcortical involvement in temporal lobe seizures and bilateral frontoparietal slow wave activity on intracranial electroencephalography. However, the relationships between frontoparietal slow waves and impaired consciousness and between cortical slowing and fast seizure activity have not been directly investigated. We analysed intracranial electroencephalography recordings during 63 partial seizures in 26 patients with surgically confirmed mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Behavioural responsiveness was determined based on blinded review of video during seizures and classified as impaired (complex-partial seizures) or unimpaired (simple-partial seizures). We observed significantly increased delta-range 1-2 Hz slow wave activity in the bilateral frontal and parietal neocortices during complex-partial compared with simple-partial seizures. In addition, we confirmed prior work suggesting that propagation of unilateral mesial temporal fast seizure activity to the bilateral temporal lobes was significantly greater in complex-partial than in simple-partial seizures. Interestingly, we found that the signal power of frontoparietal slow wave activity was significantly correlated with the temporal lobe fast seizure activity in

  17. Interleukin-6 levels are increased in temporal lobe epilepsy but not in extra-temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Liimatainen, Suvi; Fallah, Mahdi; Kharazmi, Elham; Peltola, Maria; Peltola, Jukka

    2009-05-01

    Previous studies have reported activation of inflammatory cytokines in seizures, but clinical characteristics of epilepsy associated with cytokine activation have not been well established. In this study, serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) were measured, and clinical characteristics of epilepsy were assessed in 86 well-evaluated patients with refractory focal epilepsy and in 5 patients with controlled focal epilepsy. Epilepsy was evaluated based on patient histories, electroclinical findings, and high-resolution brain MRI scans. Sixty-three healthy blood donors served as controls. IL-6 concentrations were chronically increased in epilepsy patients (11%) compared with healthy controls (0%) (P = 0.007). Increased levels of IL-6 were more prevalent in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) compared to patients with extra-TLE (P = 0.028). Also the mean and the median serum levels of IL-6 were higher in patients with TLE than in patients with extra-TLE (P = 0.042). Concentrations of IL-1RA were not significantly different in patients compared with controls. Indicated by increased levels of IL-6 in TLE, epilepsy type is important in determining chronic overproduction of cytokines in refractory focal epilepsy. The results may reflect a chronic immunological process in the brain in patients with refractory epilepsy. PMID:19252806

  18. Nonlocal regularization for active appearance model: Application to medial temporal lobe segmentation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shiyan; Coupé, Pierrick; Pruessner, Jens C; Collins, D Louis

    2014-02-01

    The human medial temporal lobe (MTL) is an important part of the limbic system, and its substructures play key roles in learning, memory, and neurodegeneration. The MTL includes the hippocampus (HC), amygdala (AG), parahippocampal cortex (PHC), entorhinal cortex, and perirhinal cortex--structures that are complex in shape and have low between-structure intensity contrast, making them difficult to segment manually in magnetic resonance images. This article presents a new segmentation method that combines active appearance modeling and patch-based local refinement to automatically segment specific substructures of the MTL including HC, AG, PHC, and entorhinal/perirhinal cortex from MRI data. Appearance modeling, relying on eigen-decomposition to analyze statistical variations in image intensity and shape information in study population, is used to capture global shape characteristics of each structure of interest with a generative model. Patch-based local refinement, using nonlocal means to compare the image local intensity properties, is applied to locally refine the segmentation results along the structure borders to improve structure delimitation. In this manner, nonlocal regularization and global shape constraints could allow more accurate segmentations of structures. Validation experiments against manually defined labels demonstrate that this new segmentation method is computationally efficient, robust, and accurate. In a leave-one-out validation on 54 normal young adults, the method yielded a mean Dice κ of 0.87 for the HC, 0.81 for the AG, 0.73 for the anterior parts of the parahippocampal gyrus (entorhinal and perirhinal cortex), and 0.73 for the posterior parahippocampal gyrus. PMID:22987811

  19. Upregulation of adenosine kinase in astrocytes in experimental and human temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Aronica, Eleonora; Zurolo, Emanuele; Iyer, Anand; de Groot, Marjolein; Anink, Jasper; Carbonell, Caterina; van Vliet, Erwin A.; Baayen, Johannes C.; Boison, Detlev; Gorter, Jan A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Adenosine kinase (ADK) represents the key metabolic enzyme for the regulation of extracellular adenosine levels in the brain. In adult brain, ADK is primarily present in astrocytes. Several lines of experimental evidence support a critical role of ADK in different types of brain injury associated with astrogliosis, which is also a prominent morphological feature of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We hypothesized that dysregulation of ADK is an ubiquitous pathological hallmark of TLE. Methods Using immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis, we investigated ADK protein expression in a rat model of TLE during epileptogenesis and the chronic epileptic phase and compared those findings with tissue resected from TLE patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). Key findings In rat control hippocampus and cortex, a low baseline expression of ADK was found with mainly nuclear localization. One week after the electrical induction of status epilepticus (SE), prominent up-regulation of ADK became evident in astrocytes with a characteristic cytoplasmic localization. This increase in ADK persisted at least for 3-4 months after SE in rats developing a progressive form of epilepsy. In line with the findings from the rat model, expression of astrocytic ADK was also found to be increased in the hippocampus and temporal cortex of TLE patients. In addition, in vitro experiments in human astrocyte cultures showed that ADK expression was increased by several pro-inflammatory molecules (interleukin-1β and LPS). Significance These results suggest that dysregulation of ADK in astrocytes is a common pathological hallmark of TLE. Moreover, in vitro data suggest the existence of an additional layer of modulatory crosstalk between the astrocyte-based adenosine cycle and inflammation. Whether this interaction also can play role in vivo needs to be further investigated. PMID:21635241

  20. Gene expression variance in hippocampal tissue of temporal lobe epilepsy patients corresponds to differential memory performance.

    PubMed

    Bungenberg, Julia; Surano, Natascha; Grote, Alexander; Surges, Rainer; Pernhorst, Katharina; Hofmann, Andrea; Schoch, Susanne; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Becker, Albert J

    2016-02-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a severe brain disorder affecting particularly young adults. TLE is frequently associated with memory deterioration and neuronal damage of the hippocampal formation. It thereby reveals striking parallels to neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). TLE patients differ with respect to their cognitive performance, but currently little is known about relevant molecular-genetic factors. Here, we correlated differential memory performance of pharmacoresistant TLE patients undergoing neurosurgery for seizure control with in-vitro findings of their hippocampal tissues. We analyzed mRNA transcripts and subsequently promoter variants specifically altered in brain tissue of individuals with 'very severe' memory impairment. TLE patients (n=79) were stratified according to preoperative memory impairment using an established four-tiered grading system ranging from 'average' to 'very severely'. Multimodal cluster analyses revealed molecules specifically associated with synaptic function and abundantly expressed in TLE patients with very impaired memory performance. In a subsequent promoter analysis, we found the single nucleotide polymorphism rs744373 C-allele to be associated with high mRNA levels of bridging integrator 1 (BIN1)/Amphiphysin 2, i.e. a major component of the endocytotic machinery and located in a crucial genetic AD risk locus. Using in vitro luciferase transfection assays, we found that BIN1 promoter activation is genotype dependent and strongly increased by reduced binding of the transcriptional repressor TGIF. Our data indicate that poor memory performance in patients with TLE strongly corresponds to distinctly altered neuronal transcript signatures, which - as demonstrated for BIN1 - can correlate with a particular allelic promoter variant. Our data suggest aberrant transcriptional signaling to significantly impact synaptic dynamics in TLE resulting in impaired memory performance and may serve as basis for

  1. Real-Time Magnetic Resonance-Guided Stereotactic Laser Amygdalohippocampotomy for Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Willie, Jon T.; Laxpati, Nealen G.; Drane, Daniel L.; Gowda, Ashok; Appin, Christina; Hao, Chunhai; Brat, Daniel J.; Helmers, Sandra L.; Saindane, Amit; Nour, Sherif G.; Gross, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Open surgery effectively treats mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), but carries risks of neurocognitive deficits, which may be reduced with minimally invasive alternatives. Objective To describe technical and clinical outcomes of stereotactic laser amygdalohippocampotomy (SLAH) with real-time magnetic resonance thermal imaging (MRTI) guidance. Methods Under general anesthesia and utilizing standard stereotactic methods, 13 adult patients with intractable MTLE (with and without mesial temporal sclerosis, MTS) prospectively underwent insertion of a saline-cooled fiber-optic laser applicator into amygdalohippocampal structures from an occipital trajectory. Computer-controlled laser ablation was performed during continuous MRTI followed by confirmatory contrast-enhanced anatomic imaging and volumetric reconstruction. Clinical outcomes were determined from seizure diaries. Results A mean 60% volume of the amygdalohippocampal complex was ablated in 13 patients (9 with MTS) undergoing 15 procedures. Median hospitalization was one day. With follow-up ranging from 5-26 (median 14) months, 77% (10/13) of patients achieved meaningful seizure reduction, of which 54% (7/13) were free of disabling seizures. Of patients with preoperative MTS, 67% (6/9) achieved seizure freedom. All recurrences were observed by<6 months. Variances in ablation volume and length did not account for individual clinical outcomes. Whereas no complications of laser therapy itself were observed, one significant complication, a visual field defect, resulted from deviated insertion of a stereotactic aligning rod, which was corrected prior to ablation. Conclusion Real-time MR-guided SLAH is a technically novel, safe, and effective alternative to open surgery. Further evaluation with larger cohorts over time is warranted. PMID:24618797

  2. Angiogenesis is associated with blood-brain barrier permeability in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Rigau, Valérie; Morin, Mélanie; Rousset, Marie-Claude; de Bock, Frédéric; Lebrun, Aurore; Coubes, Philippe; Picot, Marie-Christine; Baldy-Moulinier, Michel; Bockaert, Joël; Crespel, Arielle; Lerner-Natoli, Mireille

    2007-07-01

    Previous studies from our group, focusing on neuro-glial remodelling in human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), have shown the presence of immature vascular cells in various areas of the hippocampus. Here, we investigated angiogenic processes in hippocampi surgically removed from adult patients suffering from chronic intractable TLE, with various aetiologies. We compared hippocampi from TLE patients to hippocampi obtained after surgery or autopsy from non-epileptic patients (NE). We quantified the vascular density, checked for the expression of angiogenic factors and their receptors and looked for any blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage. We used a relevant model of rat limbic epilepsy, induced by lithium-pilocarpine treatment, to understand the sequence of events. In humans, the vessel density was significantly higher in TLE than in NE patients. This was neither dependent on the aetiology nor on the degree of neuronal loss, but was positively correlated with seizure frequency. In the whole hippocampus, we observed many complex, tortuous microvessels. In the dentate gyrus, when the granular layer was dispersed, long microvessels appeared radially orientated. Vascular endothelial factor (VEGF) and tyrosine kinase receptors were detected in different types of cells. An impairment of the BBB was demonstrated by the loss of tight junctions and by Immunoglobulines G (IgG) leakage and accumulation in neurons. In the rat model of TLE, VEGF over-expression and BBB impairment occurred early after status epilepticus, followed by a progressive increase in vascularization. In humans and rodents, angiogenic processes and BBB disruption were still obvious in the chronic focus, probably activated by recurrent seizures. We suggest that the persistent leakage of serum IgG in the interstitial space and their uptake by neurons may participate in hypoperfusion and in neuronal dysfunction occurring in TLE. PMID:17533168

  3. A review of the genus Spanagonicus Berg (Hemiptera: Miridae: Phylinae: Nasocorini) with the description of novel antennal characters, the description of a new species from Central America, and a key to currently known taxa.

    PubMed

    Menard, Katrina L

    2015-01-01

    The New World genus Spanagonicus Berg, 1883 is reviewed. A new species, Spanagonicus schusterus sp. nov. is described from Central America. A key to all known species, as well as redescriptions for all species but S. tiquiensis Carvalho & Carpintero (which was unavailable for inspection), are provided. Characterization of the sexual dimorphism, morphology, and possible function of the newly discovered spatulate setae on the ventral surface of male antennae is also discussed. Color digital habitus images and genitalic illustrations are provided for both male and female specimens of Spanagonicus. Scanning electron and transmission electron micrographs of the second antennal segment of male and female specimens of S. albofasciatus are also included. PMID:26249716

  4. Clinical characteristics of patients with benign nonlesional temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyeon; Kim, Seong Hoon; Lim, Sung Chul; Kim, Woojun; Shon, Young-Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the evolution of nonlesional temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE-NL) in patients treated exclusively with antiepileptic drugs and to elucidate clinical phenotypes related to the prognosis of these patients. Methods Clinical, radiological, and electroencephalographic (EEG) findings in 84 patients with TLE-NL were reviewed. A good response group (GRG) and a poor response group (PRG) were defined if the duration of their seizure-free period was >1 year, or <1 year, respectively. Results There were 46 (54.8%) patients in the GRG and 38 (45.2%) patients in the PRG. The number of antiepileptic drugs administered was significantly lower in the GRG than that in the PRG (1.3±0.8 vs 2.8±1.0, respectively; P<0.05). The GRG had a significantly older age of onset than the PRG and a lower occurrence of initial precipitating events, such as febrile seizures, central nervous system infection, and head trauma (P<0.05). The prevalence of EEG abnormality, presence of aura, generalized seizures, and automatism was less frequently observed in the GRG (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of automatism and initial precipitating events were significantly associated with a poor prognosis (P<0.05). Conclusion In contrast to the commonly assumed intractability of TLE, we found that more than 54% of patients with TLE-NL achieved a long seizure-free period. Older age at onset of TLE-NL was associated with a better prognosis. However, the presence of automatism and initial precipitating events were related to a poor prognosis. Future prospective studies with a much larger population are warranted. PMID:27555776

  5. Abstract categories of functions in anterior parietal lobe.

    PubMed

    Leshinskaya, Anna; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge of function is critical for selecting objects to meet action goals, even when the affordances of those objects are not mechanical-for instance, both a painting and a vase can decorate a room. To identify neural representations of such abstract function concepts, we asked participants in an fMRI scanner to view a variety of objects and evaluate their utility to each of four goals (two Decoration goals: dress up for a night out and decorate a house, and two Protection goals: protect your body from the cold and keep objects dry in a flooded basement). These task conditions differed in the kind of functional evaluation participants had to perform over objects, but did not vary in the objects themselves. We performed a searchlight multivariate pattern analysis to identify cortical representations in which neural patterns were more similar for the pairs of similar-goal than dissimilar-goal task conditions (Decorate vs. Protect). We report such effects in anterior inferior parietal lobe (aIPL) close to regions typically reported for processing tool-related actions, and thought to be important for representing how they are manipulated. However, the current study design fully controlled for manipulation similarity, which predicted orthogonal relationships among the conditions. We conclude that the aIPL likely has nearby, but distinct, representations of both manipulation and function knowledge, and thereby may have a broader role in understanding how objects can be used, representing not just physical affordances but also abstract functional criteria such as esthetic value or purpose categories such as decorate. This pattern of localization has implications for how semantic knowledge is organized in the brain. PMID:25592369

  6. An MRI-based parcellation method for the temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Kim, J J; Crespo-Facorro, B; Andreasen, N C; O'Leary, D S; Zhang, B; Harris, G; Magnotta, V A

    2000-04-01

    The temporal lobe has long been a focus of attention with regard to the underlying pathology of several major psychiatric illnesses. Previous postmortem and imaging studies describing regional volume reductions or perfusion defects in temporal subregions have shown inconsistent findings, which are in part due to differences in the definition of the subregions and the methodology of measurement. The development of precise reproducible parcellation systems on magnetic resonance images may help improve uniformity of results in volumetric MR studies and unravel the complex activation patterns seen in functional neuroimaging studies. The present study describes detailed guidelines for the parcellation of the temporal neocortex. It parcels the entire temporal neocortex into 16 subregions: temporal pole, heschl's gyrus, planum temporale, planum polare, superior temporal gyrus (rostral and caudal), middle temporal gyrus (rostral, intermediate, and caudal), inferior temporal gyrus (rostral, intermediate, and caudal), occipitotemporal gyrus (rostral and caudal), and parahippocampal gyrus (rostral and caudal). Based upon topographic landmarks of individual sulci, every subregion was consecutively traced on a set of serial coronal slices. In spite of the huge variability of sulcal topography, the sulcal landmarks could be identified reliably due to the simultaneous display of three orthogonal (transaxial, coronal, and sagittal) planes, triangulated gray matter isosurface, and a 3-D-rendered image. The reliability study showed that the temporal neocortex could be parceled successfully and reliably; intraclass correlation coefficient for each subregion ranged from 0.62 to 0.99. Ultimately, this method will permit us to detect subtle morphometric impairments or to find abnormal patterns of functional activation in the temporal subregions that might reflect underlying neuropathological processes in psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia. PMID:10725184

  7. Frontolimbic Brain Networks Predict Depressive Symptoms in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kemmotsu, Nobuko; Kucukboyaci, N. Erkut; Leyden, Kelly M.; Cheng, Christopher E.; Girard, Holly M.; Iragui, Vicente J.; Tecoma, Evelyn S.; McDonald, Carrie R.

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric co-morbidities in epilepsy are of great concern. The current study investigated the relative contribution of structural and functional connectivity (FC) between medial temporal (MT) and prefrontal regions in predicting levels of depressive symptoms in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Twenty-one patients with TLE [11 left TLE (LTLE); 10 right TLE (RTLE)] and 20 controls participated. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed to obtain fractional anisotropy (FA) of the uncinate fasciculus (UF), and mean diffusivity (MD) of the amygdala (AM) and hippocampus (HC). Functional MRI was performed to obtain FC strengths between the AM and HC and prefrontal regions of interest including anterior prefrontal (APF), orbitofrontal, and inferior frontal regions. Participants self-reported depression symptoms on the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Greater depressive symptoms were associated with stronger FC of ipsilateral HC-APF, lower FA of the bilateral UF, and higher MD of the ipsilateral HC in LTLE, and with lower FA of the contralateral UF in RTLE. Regression analyses indicated that FC of the ipsilateral HC-APF was the strongest contributor to depression in LTLE, explaining 68.7 % of the variance in depression scores. Both functional and microstructural measures of frontolimbic dysfunction were associated with depressive symptoms. These connectivity variables may be moderating which patients present with depression symptoms. In particular, FC MRI may provide a more sensitive measure of depression-related dysfunction, at least in patients with LTLE. Employing sensitive measures of frontolimbic network dysfunction in TLE may help provide new insight into mood disorders in epilepsy that could eventually guide treatment planning. PMID:25223729

  8. Dissociated multimodal hubs and seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Douw, Linda; DeSalvo, Matthew N; Tanaka, Naoaki; Cole, Andrew J; Liu, Hesheng; Reinsberger, Claus; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Objective Brain connectivity at rest is altered in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), particularly in “hub” areas such as the posterior default mode network (DMN). Although both functional and anatomical connectivity are disturbed in TLE, the relationships between measures as well as to seizure frequency remain unclear. We aim to clarify these associations using connectivity measures specifically sensitive to hubs. Methods Connectivity between 1000 cortical surface parcels was determined in 49 TLE patients and 23 controls with diffusion and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Two types of hub connectivity were investigated across multiple brain modules (the DMN, motor system, etcetera): (1) within-module connectivity (a measure of local importance that assesses a parcel's communication level within its own subnetwork) and (2) between-module connectivity (a measure that assesses connections across multiple modules). Results In TLE patients, there wa