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Sample records for adult apparent survival

  1. Multiple Weather Factors Affect Apparent Survival of European Passerine Birds

    PubMed Central

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  2. Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  3. A historical estimate of apparent survival of American oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) in Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nol, Erica; Murphy, Sean P.; Cadman, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Using mark-recapture models, apparent survival was estimated from older banding and re-sighting data (1978–1983) of American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) nesting on beaches and in salt marshes of coastal Virginia, USA. Oystercatchers nesting in salt marshes exhibited higher apparent survival (0.94 ±0.03) than birds nesting on beaches (0.81 ±0.06), a difference due to variation in mortality, permanent emigration, or both. Nesting on exposed barrier beaches may subject adults and young to higher risk of predation. These early estimates of adult survival for a species that is heavily monitored along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts can be used to (1) develop demographic models to determine population stability, (2) compare with estimates of adult survival from populations that have reached carrying capacity, and (3) compare with estimates of survival from other oystercatcher populations and species.

  4. Adult Survival Skills Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsko, Gregory M.

    The purpose of this instrument is to supplement data from the Adult Basic Learning Examination in assessing the functional level of adults in daily situations. It may also be used as a teaching tool for adults requesting tutoring in specific concepts and skills presented in the instrument. This instrument is an informal assessment instrument and…

  5. Detection and apparent survival of PIT-tagged stream fish in winter.

    PubMed

    Weber, Christine; Scheuber, Hannes; Nilsson, Christer; Alfredsen, Knut T

    2016-04-01

    Environmental fluctuations exert strong control on behavior, survival, and fitness of stream biota. Technical improvements increasingly allow for tracking the response of large numbers of individuals to environmental fluctuations, for instance, by remote detection of animals equipped with PIT (passive integrated transponder) tags. PIT tags were implanted into 393 juvenile and adult brown trout Salmo trutta L. and European sculpin Cottus gobio L. in a boreal stream subjected to considerable ice formation. With weekly trackings over 6 months, we quantified apparent survival and detection probability in relation to biological, environmental, and methodological factors. Individuals with a higher physical condition in autumn showed a higher apparent survival; this pattern was consistent across all species and age classes. Detection probability decreased with increasing thickness of the surface ice layer; this effect was most pronounced for juvenile trout and benthic-living sculpin, both tagged with smaller-sized tags. Detection probability was reduced in structurally complex habitats. Our study demonstrates that apparent survival and particularly detection probability may show pronounced spatiotemporal variation. In order to compare results from different sampling occasions and sites, a good knowledge of the study site and of the regulating factors is crucial.

  6. A new approach to the "apparent survival" problem: estimating true survival rates from mark-recapture studies.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, James J; Virzi, Thomas; Boulton, Rebecca L; Lockwood, Julie L

    2012-07-01

    Survival estimates generated from live capture-mark-recapture studies may be negatively biased due to the permanent emigration of marked individuals from the study area. In the absence of a robust analytical solution, researchers typically sidestep this problem by simply reporting estimates using the term "apparent survival." Here, we present a hierarchical Bayesian multistate model designed to estimate true survival by accounting for predicted rates of permanent emigration. Initially we use dispersal kernels to generate spatial projections of dispersal probability around each capture location. From these projections, we estimate emigration probability for each marked individual and use the resulting values to generate bias-adjusted survival estimates from individual capture histories. When tested using simulated data sets featuring variable detection probabilities, survival rates, and dispersal patterns, the model consistently eliminated negative biases shown by apparent survival estimates from standard models. When applied to a case study concerning juvenile survival in the endangered Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis), bias-adjusted survival estimates increased more than twofold above apparent survival estimates. Our approach is applicable to any capture-mark-recapture study design and should be particularly valuable for organisms with dispersive juvenile life stages.

  7. Effects of fat reserves on annual apparent survival of blackbirds Turdus merula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.W.; Aradis, A.; Landucci, G.

    2003-01-01

    1. Fat reserves are stored energy that may help birds survive periods of harsh winter weather. This hypothesis predicts that annual apparent survival is higher for birds with large fat reserves than for birds with few or no fat reserves in winter. 2. Blackbirds (Turdus merula Linnaeus) were ringed in central Italy from 16 November to 20 February during 1990-2001. Fat scores were recorded for each bird. We used these capture-mark-recapture data for 1703 blackbirds to estimate the effect of large fat reserves on annual apparent survival, while controlling for transients, using computer programs surviv and mark. Probability of birds retaining large fat reserves, or retaining few fat reserves, over 2 successive years was also estimated. 3. Birds with large fat reserves did not have higher estimated annual apparent survival than birds with few fat reserves, inconsistent with our prediction. No effects of age, sex or year were detected on annual apparent survival. Birds with few fat reserves in any given year tended to have few fat reserves the following year. Birds with large fat reserves in any given year were unlikely to have large fat reserves the next year. 4. Large fat reserves may not increase annual survival of blackbirds wintering in central Italy. Winter weather in our study area may be too mild to effect survival. Alternatively, increased predation risk associated with large fat reserves may counteract any benefits of reduced starvation risk.

  8. Prehypertension and Its Determinants in Apparently Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Senthil, Sunandha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction High incidence of prehypertension is reported in medical undergraduates. Prehypertension may progress to hypertension and eventually cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, identifying the risk factors of hypertension in prehypertensive state may aid in effective control of blood pressure. Aim To find whether clustering of known risk factors of hypertension or certain individual risk factors alone affect blood pressure in young adults. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study done in 84 apparently healthy medical students of either sex aged between 18-23 years. It included students with at least one known risk factor of hypertension. Blood pressure levels of 120 to 139/80 to 89 mm Hg were defined as prehypertension. The risk factors considered were male gender, family history of cardiovascular disease, sedentary life, general and central obesity, sleep quality, perceived stress and dietary pattern. Clustering of risk factors was assessed based on collective scoring system in which each risk factor was scored appropriately. Statistical analysis was done by unpaired t, Chi-square and Pearson correlation coefficient tests. The p<0.05 was considered significant. Results There was a positive correlation between total risk factor score and systolic blood pressure (r = 0.266, p = 0.015). Among the risk factors, frequency of males with systolic and diastolic prehypertension was higher compared to females (p <0.0001,= 0.022 respectively). Body mass index was higher in systolic and diastolic prehypertensives compared to normotensives (p <0.001, 0.002, respectively). Waist circumference was higher in systolic and diastolic prehypertensives compared to normotensives (p< 0.0001). Conclusion In apparently healthy young adults, male gender and obesity are the major risk factors of elevated blood pressure. PMID:27790426

  9. Do Chinese Adult Immigrants Need Survival English?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Shelley Diane

    A survey of 211 adult Chinese immigrants in a community school in Los Angeles, California reports on the adults' need and desire for survival English instruction. The study investigated: the situations and contexts for which English instruction was needed; individuals' desire to increase the range of transactions in which they can function in…

  10. Survival analysis for apparent diffusion coefficient measures in children with embryonal brain tumours.

    PubMed

    Grech-Sollars, Matthew; Saunders, Dawn E; Phipps, Kim P; Clayden, Jonathan D; Clark, Chris A

    2012-10-01

    Embryonal brain tumors constitute a large and important subgroup of pediatric brain tumors. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measures have been previously used in the analysis of these tumors. We investigated a newly described ADC-derived parameter, the apparent transient coefficient in tumor (ATCT), a measure of the gradient change of ADC from the peri-tumoral edema into the tumor core, to study whether ATCT correlates with survival outcome. Sixty-one patients with histologically proven embryonal brain tumors and who had diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) as part of their clinical imaging were enrolled in a retrospective study correlating ADC measures with survival. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed for extent of surgical resection, age <3 years at diagnosis, tumor type, and metastasis at presentation. A multivariate survival analysis was performed that took into consideration ATCT and variables found to be significant in the Kaplan-Meier analysis as covariates. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ATCT was the only significant covariate (P < .001). Survival analysis using Kaplan-Meier curves, dividing the patients into 4 groups of increasing values of ATCT, showed that more negative values of ATCT were significantly associated with a poorer prognosis (P < .001). A statistically significant difference was observed for survival data with respect to the change in ADC from edema into the tumor volume. Results show that more negative ATCT values are significantly associated with a poorer survival among children with embryonal brain tumors, irrespective of tumor type, extent of resection, age <3 years at diagnosis, and metastasis at presentation.

  11. Winter fidelity and apparent survival of lesser snow goose populations in the Pacific flyway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, C.K.; Samuel, M.D.; Baranyuk, Vasily V.; Cooch, E.G.; Kraege, Donald K.

    2008-01-01

    The Beringia region of the Arctic contains 2 colonies of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) breeding on Wrangel Island, Russia, and Banks Island, Canada, and wintering in North America. The Wrangel Island population is composed of 2 subpopulations from a sympatric breeding colony but separate wintering areas, whereas the Banks Island population shares a sympatric wintering area in California, USA, with one of the Wrangel Island subpopulations. The Wrangel Island colony represents the last major snow goose population in Russia and has fluctuated considerably since 1970, whereas the Banks Island population has more than doubled. The reasons for these changes are unclear, but hypotheses include independent population demographics (survival and recruitment) and immigration and emigration among breeding or wintering populations. These demographic and movement patterns have important ecological and management implications for understanding goose population structure, harvest of admixed populations, and gene flow among populations with separate breeding or wintering areas. From 1993 to 1996, we neckbanded molting birds at their breeding colonies and resighted birds on the wintering grounds. We used multistate mark-recapture models to evaluate apparent survival rates, resighting rates, winter fidelity, and potential exchange among these populations. We also compared the utility of face stain in Wrangel Island breeding geese as a predictor of their wintering area. Our results showed similar apparent survival rates between subpopulations of Wrangel Island snow geese and lower apparent survival, but higher emigration, for the Banks Island birds. Males had lower apparent survival than females, most likely due to differences in neckband loss. Transition between wintering areas was low (<3%), with equal movement between northern and southern wintering areas for Wrangel Island birds and little evidence of exchange between the Banks and northern Wrangel Island

  12. Basic & Survival Consumer Economics for Adult Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlston, Peter G.

    Prepared to help teachers address the basic and survival level consumer needs of adult Vietnamese and Laotian refugees, this instructional guide consists of five units of instructional materials. Topics of the individual units are (1) how the monetary system works (cash, checks, postal money orders, banking); (2) the family consumer (personal and…

  13. Survival Prognosis in Very Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thinggaard, Mikael; McGue, Matt; Jeune, Bernard; Osler, Merete; Vaupel, James W.; Christensen, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine whether simple functional indicators are predictors of survival prognosis in very old adults. DESIGN In-person survey conducted over a 3-month period in 1998; assessment of survival over a 15-year follow-up period. SETTING Denmark. PARTICIPANTS All 3,600 Danes born in 1905 and living in Denmark in 1998, were invited to participate regardless of residence and health; 2,262 (63%) participated in the survey: 1,814 (80.2%) in person and 448 (19.8%) through a proxy. MEASUREMENTS Socioeconomic factors, medications and diseases, activities of daily living, physical performance, cognition, depression symptomatology, self-rated health, and all-cause mortality, evaluated as average remaining lifespan and chance of surviving to 100 years. RESULTS Men aged 92 to 93 had an overall 6.0% chance of surviving to 100 years, whereas the chance for women was 11.4%. Being able to rise without use of hands increased the chance for men to 11.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 7.7–14.7) and for women to 22.0% (95% CI = 18.9–25.1). When combining this with a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores from 28 to 30, the chances were 21.7% (95% CI = 11.5–31.9) for men and 34.2% (95% CI = 24.8–43.5) for women. CONCLUSION Chair stand score combined with MMSE score is a quick and easy way to estimate overall chance of survival in very old adults, which is particularly relevant when treatment with potential side effects for nonacute diseases is considered. J Am Geriatr Soc 64:81–88, 2016. PMID:26782855

  14. Apparent Survival Rates of Forest Birds in Eastern Ecuador Revisited: Improvement in Precision but No Change in Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Blake, John G.; Loiselle, Bette A.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of survival rates of Neotropical landbirds remains limited, with estimates of apparent survival available from relatively few sites and species. Previously, capture-mark-recapture models were used to estimate apparent survival of 31 species (30 passerines, 1 Trochilidae) from eastern Ecuador based on data collected from 2001 to 2006. Here, estimates are updated with data from 2001-2012 to determine how additional years of data affect estimates; estimates for six additional species are provided. Models assuming constant survival had highest support for 19 of 31 species when based on 12 years of data compared to 27 when based on six; models incorporating effects of transients had the highest support for 12 of 31 species compared to four when based on 12 and six years, respectively. Average apparent survival based on the most highly-supported model (based on model averaging, when appropriate) was 0.59 (± 0.02 SE) across 30 species of passerines when based on 12 years and 0.57 (± 0.02) when based on six. Standard errors of survival estimates based on 12 years were approximately half those based on six years. Of 31 species in both data sets, estimates of apparent survival were somewhat lower for 13, somewhat higher for 17, and remained unchanged for one; confidence intervals for estimates based on six and 12 years of data overlapped for all species. Results indicate that estimates of apparent survival are comparable but more precise when based on longer-term data sets; standard error of the estimates was negatively correlated with numbers of captures (rs = −0.72) and recaptures (rs = −0.93, P<0.001 in both cases). Thus, reasonable estimates of apparent survival may be obtained with relatively few years of data if sample sizes are sufficient. PMID:24312519

  15. Apparent survival rates of forest birds in eastern Ecuador revisited: improvement in precision but no change in estimates.

    PubMed

    Blake, John G; Loiselle, Bette A

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of survival rates of Neotropical landbirds remains limited, with estimates of apparent survival available from relatively few sites and species. Previously, capture-mark-recapture models were used to estimate apparent survival of 31 species (30 passerines, 1 Trochilidae) from eastern Ecuador based on data collected from 2001 to 2006. Here, estimates are updated with data from 2001-2012 to determine how additional years of data affect estimates; estimates for six additional species are provided. Models assuming constant survival had highest support for 19 of 31 species when based on 12 years of data compared to 27 when based on six; models incorporating effects of transients had the highest support for 12 of 31 species compared to four when based on 12 and six years, respectively. Average apparent survival based on the most highly-supported model (based on model averaging, when appropriate) was 0.59 (± 0.02 SE) across 30 species of passerines when based on 12 years and 0.57 (± 0.02) when based on six. Standard errors of survival estimates based on 12 years were approximately half those based on six years. Of 31 species in both data sets, estimates of apparent survival were somewhat lower for 13, somewhat higher for 17, and remained unchanged for one; confidence intervals for estimates based on six and 12 years of data overlapped for all species. Results indicate that estimates of apparent survival are comparable but more precise when based on longer-term data sets; standard error of the estimates was negatively correlated with numbers of captures (rs  = -0.72) and recaptures (rs  = -0.93, P<0.001 in both cases). Thus, reasonable estimates of apparent survival may be obtained with relatively few years of data if sample sizes are sufficient.

  16. Effect of current reproduction on apparent survival, breeding dispersal, and future reproduction in barn swallows assessed by multistate capture-recapture models.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Michael; von Hirschheydt, Johann

    2009-05-01

    1. Theoretical models predict a negative effect of current reproduction on breeding dispersal, survival and future reproduction, and many studies confirm these predictions. Yet, results of most previous studies may be difficult to interpret because the fate of the affected individuals cannot always be observed. Detection is almost always imperfect and some individuals emigrate from the study area, resulting in biased estimates of both survival and dispersal. 2. Most studies bypass these problems with strong assumptions. We use a multistate capture-recapture model that does not require these assumptions. States are defined based on classes of reproductive success and on observed dispersal events within the study area. By accounting for imperfect detection within the study area, the model allows estimation of the effect of reproductive success on apparent survival, dispersal probabilities within the study area and the annual transition probabilities among classes of reproductive success. Based on an assumption about the estimate of real survival, the model allows the estimation of total dispersal that is not specific to a fixed study area. 3. We applied this model to capture-recapture data of 2262 adult barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) sampled from 1997-2004 in eight local populations in Switzerland. 4. We found that dispersal within the study area decreased with increasing reproductive success in both sexes, that reproductive success was not affected by preceding dispersal and that apparent survival of females but not of males increased with increasing reproductive success. Apparent survival of females with high reproductive success was identical to apparent survival of males suggesting that this estimate of apparent survival (0.48) was close to true survival. Total breeding dispersal was generally higher in females and it increased with decreasing reproductive success in both sexes. Current reproductive success depended on reproductive success in the preceding year

  17. Levels of serum immunoglobulins in apparently healthy children and adults in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obiandu, C; Okerengwo, A A; Dapper, D V

    2013-06-30

    Serum levels of the immunoglobulins: IgG, IgA and IgM were determined by the single radial immunodiffusion technique of Mancini in a total of 122 apparently healthy subjects consisting of 43 children (20 males; 23 females) aged 5-12 years and 79 adults (39 males; 40 females) aged 18-65 years resident in Port Harcourt, southeastern Nigeria. The effects of age and sex on the serum levels of the various immunoglobulin types were also determined. The mean values and ranges for the various immunoglobulin types are presented for both children and adults. Although, female children were found to have significantly lower mean values of IgA compared to male children (p<0.05), there were no significant differences in the mean values of both IgG and IgM between male and female children involved in the present study (p>0.05). However, female adults had significantly higher mean values of IgG and significantly lower mean values of IgA compared to male adults (p<0.05); suggesting a significant gender difference in the value of both IgG and IgA amongst adult subjects. No significant differences were observed in the mean values of any of the various types of immunoglobulin between adults and children. The present study reports mean values of the various types of immunoglobulin in apparently healthy children and adults resident in Port Harcourt, southeastern Nigeria. Significant gender differences were observed for some of the immunoglobulin types only amongst adults. Our results suggest that these gender differences amongst adults were apparently a gradual build-up from childhood. The results also confirm suggestions that levels of some immunoglobulin types seen amongst African adults may have possibly been attained during childhood. Our study could be of value since previous reports in this regard have been relatively scanty especially in this part of Nigeria.

  18. The effect of hatchery release strategy on marine migratory behaviour and apparent survival of Seymour River steelhead smolts (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Balfry, Shannon; Welch, David W; Atkinson, Jody; Lill, Al; Vincent, Stephen

    2011-03-29

    Early marine migratory behaviour and apparent survival of hatchery-reared Seymour River steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts was examined over a four year period (2006-2009) to assess the impact of various management strategies on improving early marine survival. Acoustically tagged smolts were released to measure their survival using estuary and coastal marine receivers forming components of the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking (POST) array. Early marine survival was statistically indistinguishable between releases of summer run and winter run steelhead races, night and day releases, and groups released 10 days apart. In 2009, the survival of summer run steelhead released into the river was again trialed against groups released directly into the ocean at a distance from the river mouth. Apparent survival was improved significantly for the ocean released groups. The health and physiological status of the various release groups were monitored in years 2007-2009, and results indicate that the fish were in good health, with no clinical signs of disease at the time of release. The possibility of a disease event contributing to early marine mortality was further examined in 2009 by vaccinating half of the released fish against common fish diseases (vibriosis, furunculosis). The results suggest that marine survival may be enhanced using this approach, although not to the extent observed when the smolts were transported away from the river mouth before release. In summary, direct experimental testing of different release strategies using the POST array to measure ocean survival accelerated the scientific process by allowing rapid collection of data which enabled the rejection of several existing theories and allowed tentative identification of several new alternative approaches that might improve early marine survival of Seymour River steelhead.

  19. Enhancing tumor apparent diffusion coefficient histogram skewness stratifies the postoperative survival in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme patients undergoing salvage surgery.

    PubMed

    Zolal, Amir; Juratli, Tareq A; Linn, Jennifer; Podlesek, Dino; Sitoci Ficici, Kerim Hakan; Kitzler, Hagen H; Schackert, Gabriele; Sobottka, Stephan B; Rieger, Bernhard; Krex, Dietmar

    2016-05-01

    Objective To determine the value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram parameters for the prediction of individual survival in patients undergoing surgery for recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) in a retrospective cohort study. Methods Thirty-one patients who underwent surgery for first recurrence of a known GBM between 2008 and 2012 were included. The following parameters were collected: age, sex, enhancing tumor size, mean ADC, median ADC, ADC skewness, ADC kurtosis and fifth percentile of the ADC histogram, initial progression free survival (PFS), extent of second resection and further adjuvant treatment. The association of these parameters with survival and PFS after second surgery was analyzed using log-rank test and Cox regression. Results Using log-rank test, ADC histogram skewness of the enhancing tumor was significantly associated with both survival (p = 0.001) and PFS after second surgery (p = 0.005). Further parameters associated with prolonged survival after second surgery were: gross total resection at second surgery (p = 0.026), tumor size (0.040) and third surgery (p = 0.003). In the multivariate Cox analysis, ADC histogram skewness was shown to be an independent prognostic factor for survival after second surgery. Conclusion ADC histogram skewness of the enhancing lesion, enhancing lesion size, third surgery, as well as gross total resection have been shown to be associated with survival following the second surgery. ADC histogram skewness was an independent prognostic factor for survival in the multivariate analysis.

  20. Estimating true instead of apparent survival using spatial Cormack-Jolly-Seber models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaub, Michael; Royle, J. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Spatial CJS models enable study of dispersal and survival independent of study design constraints such as imperfect detection and size of the study area provided that some of the dispersing individuals remain in the study area. We discuss possible extensions of our model: alternative dispersal models and the inclusion of covariates and of a habitat suitability map.

  1. Integrating acoustic telemetry into mark-recapture models to improve the precision of apparent survival and abundance estimates.

    PubMed

    Dudgeon, Christine L; Pollock, Kenneth H; Braccini, J Matias; Semmens, Jayson M; Barnett, Adam

    2015-07-01

    Capture-mark-recapture models are useful tools for estimating demographic parameters but often result in low precision when recapture rates are low. Low recapture rates are typical in many study systems including fishing-based studies. Incorporating auxiliary data into the models can improve precision and in some cases enable parameter estimation. Here, we present a novel application of acoustic telemetry for the estimation of apparent survival and abundance within capture-mark-recapture analysis using open population models. Our case study is based on simultaneously collecting longline fishing and acoustic telemetry data for a large mobile apex predator, the broadnose sevengill shark (Notorhynchus cepedianus), at a coastal site in Tasmania, Australia. Cormack-Jolly-Seber models showed that longline data alone had very low recapture rates while acoustic telemetry data for the same time period resulted in at least tenfold higher recapture rates. The apparent survival estimates were similar for the two datasets but the acoustic telemetry data showed much greater precision and enabled apparent survival parameter estimation for one dataset, which was inestimable using fishing data alone. Combined acoustic telemetry and longline data were incorporated into Jolly-Seber models using a Monte Carlo simulation approach. Abundance estimates were comparable to those with longline data only; however, the inclusion of acoustic telemetry data increased precision in the estimates. We conclude that acoustic telemetry is a useful tool for incorporating in capture-mark-recapture studies in the marine environment. Future studies should consider the application of acoustic telemetry within this framework when setting up the study design and sampling program.

  2. Exploring Heterozygosity-Survival Correlations in a Wild Songbird Population: Contrasting Effects between Juvenile and Adult Stages

    PubMed Central

    Canal, David; Serrano, David; Potti, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between genetic diversity and fitness, a major issue in evolutionary and conservation biology, is expected to be stronger in traits affected by many loci and those directly influencing fitness. Here we explore the influence of heterozygosity measured at 15 neutral markers on individual survival, one of the most important parameters determining individual fitness. We followed individual survival up to recruitment and during subsequent adult life of 863 fledgling pied flycatchers born in two consecutive breeding seasons. Mark-recapture analyses showed that individual heterozygosity did not influence juvenile or adult survival. In contrast, the genetic relatedness of parents was negatively associated with the offspring’s survival during the adult life, but this effect was not apparent in the juvenile (from fledgling to recruitment) stage. Stochastic factors experienced during the first year of life in this long-distance migratory species may have swamped a relationship between heterozygosity and survival up to recruitment. PMID:25122217

  3. Reproductive ecology of Emperor Geese: Survival of adult females

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Margaret R.

    1992-01-01

    Life history theory predicts a decrease in survival with increased reproductive effort of individuals. This relationship, however, is highly variable among and within species. I studied the nesting success and survival of adult female Emperor Geese during 1982-1986 and found no direct evidence that differential reproductive effort as measured by the number of eggs laid or hatching success had a significant negative effect on survival to the next breeding season. Incubated clutch size, hatched clutch size, number of parasitic eggs, nest initiation date, hatch date, and mass at hatch were not related to subsequent survival. Of the factors I examined, only an attempt to nest the previous season was related to survival of a female. I suggest that the higher probability of survival among non-nesting adult female Emperor Geese was primarily related to hunting pressure on the nesting area between spring and fall migration. The probability of survival was increased for females with larger clutches, suggesting a positive relationship between brood size and survival.

  4. Survival of adult female northern pintails in Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Michael R.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Orthmeyer, Dennis L.; Newton, Wesley E.; Gilmer, David S.

    1995-01-01

    North American populations of northern pintails (Anas acuta) declined between 1979 and the early 1990s. To determine if low survival during winter contributed to declines, we estimated winter (last week of Aug-Feb 1987-90) survival for 190 adult (after hatching yr [AHY]) female radio-tagged pintails in late summer in Sacramento Valley (SACV), California. Survival rates did not vary by winter (P = 0.808), among preseason, hunting season, or postseason intervals (P = 0.579), or by body mass at time of capture (P = 0.127). Premolt (wing) pintails (n = 10) tended to survive at a lower rate (0.622, SE = 0.178) than pintails that had already replaced flight feathers (0.887, SE = 0.030) (P = 0.091). The pooled survival (all years) estimate for the 180-day winter was 0.874 (SE = 0.031). Hunting mortality rate (0.041-0.087) and nonhunting mortality rate (0.013-0.076) did not differ among years (P = 0.332) or within years (all P > 0.149). Legal hunting (n = 7), predation (n = 4), cholera (n = 2), illegal shooting (n = 2), botulism (n = 1), and unknown cause (n = 1) accounted for all mortality. Nonwintering survival (annu. survival/winter survival = 0.748) was lower than winter survival; thus, if gains in annual survival are desired for this population, managers should first examine the breeding-migration period for opportunities to achieve increases.

  5. ENSO, Nest Predation Risk, Food Abundance, and Male Status Fail to Explain Annual Variations in the Apparent Survival Rate of a Migratory Songbird

    PubMed Central

    Vernouillet, Alizée; Villard, Marc-André; Haché, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Adult mortality can be a major driver of population decline in species whose productivity is relatively low. Yet, little is known about the factors influencing adult survival rates in migratory bird species, nor do we know much about the longer-term effects of habitat disturbance on the fitness of individuals. The Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla) is one of the vertebrate species most sensitive to forest management, yet it is still common and widespread. We monitored the fate of 330 colour-banded Ovenbird males in four pairs of 25-ha plots during 9 successive breeding seasons. One plot of each pair was treated through selection harvesting (30–40% basal area removed) during the first winter. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) higher physiological costs in harvested plots as a result of lower food abundance will reduce apparent survival rate (ASR) relative to controls; (2) lower ASR following years with low nest survival and higher probability of renesting; (3) fluctuations in ASR reflecting El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO); and (4) higher ASR in returning males than in recruits (unbanded immigrants) owing to greater site familiarity in the former. We tested the relative importance of these hypotheses, or combinations thereof, by generating 23 models explaining variation in ASR. The year-dependent model received the most support, showing a 41% decrease in ASR from 2007 to 2014. The important year-to-year variation we observed in ASR (Σwi = 0.99) was not explained by variation in nest predation risk nor by ENSO. There was also little evidence for an effect of selection harvesting on ASR of Ovenbird males, despite a slight reduction in lifespan relative to males from control plots (2.7 vs 2.9 years). An avenue worth exploring to explain this intriguing pattern would be to determine whether conditions at migratory stopover sites or in the wintering area of our focal population have gradually worsened over the past decade. PMID:25419839

  6. ENSO, nest predation risk, food abundance, and male status fail to explain annual variations in the apparent survival rate of a migratory songbird.

    PubMed

    Vernouillet, Alizée; Villard, Marc-André; Haché, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Adult mortality can be a major driver of population decline in species whose productivity is relatively low. Yet, little is known about the factors influencing adult survival rates in migratory bird species, nor do we know much about the longer-term effects of habitat disturbance on the fitness of individuals. The Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla) is one of the vertebrate species most sensitive to forest management, yet it is still common and widespread. We monitored the fate of 330 colour-banded Ovenbird males in four pairs of 25-ha plots during 9 successive breeding seasons. One plot of each pair was treated through selection harvesting (30-40% basal area removed) during the first winter. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) higher physiological costs in harvested plots as a result of lower food abundance will reduce apparent survival rate (ASR) relative to controls; (2) lower ASR following years with low nest survival and higher probability of renesting; (3) fluctuations in ASR reflecting El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO); and (4) higher ASR in returning males than in recruits (unbanded immigrants) owing to greater site familiarity in the former. We tested the relative importance of these hypotheses, or combinations thereof, by generating 23 models explaining variation in ASR. The year-dependent model received the most support, showing a 41% decrease in ASR from 2007 to 2014. The important year-to-year variation we observed in ASR (Σw(i) = 0.99) was not explained by variation in nest predation risk nor by ENSO. There was also little evidence for an effect of selection harvesting on ASR of Ovenbird males, despite a slight reduction in lifespan relative to males from control plots (2.7 vs 2.9 years). An avenue worth exploring to explain this intriguing pattern would be to determine whether conditions at migratory stopover sites or in the wintering area of our focal population have gradually worsened over the past decade.

  7. Breeding productivity and adult survival in nongame birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Thomas E.; DeSante, David F.; Paine, Charles R.; Donovan, Therese M.; Dettmers, Randy; Manolis, J.C.; Burton, K.

    1995-01-01

    Demographic data (breeding productivity and adult survival) provide the kind of early warning signal that allows detection of unhealthy populations in terms of productivity or survival problems (Martin and Guepel 1993). In addition, demographic data can help determine whether population declines are the result of low breeding productivity or low survival in migration or winter. Breeding productivity data also can help identify habitat conditions associated with successful and failed breeding attempts. Such information is critical for developing habitat- and land-management practices (Martin 1992). Here, we provide examples of the kinds of information that can be obtained by broad-scale demographic studies.

  8. Fatal venous air embolism during anesthesia in an apparently healthy adult Chihuahua.

    PubMed

    Mouser, Pamela J; Wilson, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    An apparently healthy adult female Chihuahua was presented for elective ovariohysterectomy. After induction of general anesthesia, but prior to the start of the surgery, air was inadvertently administered to the patient via the i.v. fluid line. The patient convulsed, became apneic, arrested, and died despite attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation. At necropsy, the pericardial sac was incised and filled with water to entirely submerge the intact heart. The right ventricular free wall was punctured, releasing several air bubbles from the right ventricle. Death was attributed to venous air embolism based on the clinical history, gross findings, and paucity of underlying gross and microscopic pathology that might have predisposed the dog to an anesthetic-related death. The discussion of this case includes a review of previously reported veterinary cases of fatal venous air embolism, including the varied mechanisms of embolus formation, the potential impact of pre-existing cardiopulmonary disease, and the methods used to detect emboli. This report outlines the events of fatal iatrogenic venous air embolization and emphasizes the importance of considering this entity in the case of sudden death of a patient with an indwelling catheter in order to pursue either appropriate diagnostic tests or necropsy techniques to aid in the diagnosis.

  9. Effect of oral versus intramuscular Vitamin D replacement in apparently healthy adults with Vitamin D deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nitin; Farooqui, Khalid J.; Batra, Chandar M.; Marwaha, Raman K.; Mithal, Ambrish

    2017-01-01

    Context: A number of controversies exist regarding appropriate treatment strategy for Vitamin D deficiency. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of equivalent doses of oral cholecalciferol (60,000 IU weekly for 5 weeks) versus intramuscular (IM) cholecalciferol (300,000 IU) in correcting Vitamin D deficiency in apparently healthy volunteers working in a hospital. Settings and Design: Prospective randomized open-label single institution study. Subjects and Methods: This study enrolled 40 apparently healthy adults with Vitamin D deficiency into 2 arms. The oral cholecalciferol group (n = 20) received oral cholecalciferol 60,000 IU weekly for 5 weeks while the IM cholecalciferol group (n = 20) received a single injection of cholecalciferol 300,000 IU. The main outcome measure was serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks after the intervention. Statistical Analysis Used: Differences in serum 25OHD and other biochemical parameters at baseline and follow-up were analyzed using general linear model. Results: Mean 25OHD level at baseline was 5.99 ± 1.07 ng/mL and 7.40 ± 1.13 ng/mL (P = 0.332) in the oral cholecalciferol and IM cholecalciferol group, respectively. In the oral cholecalciferol group, serum 25OHD level was 20.20 ± 1.65 ng/mL at 6 weeks and 16.66 ± 1.36 ng/mL at 12 weeks. The corresponding serum 25OHD levels in the IM cholecalciferol group were 20.74 ± 1.81 ng/mL and 25.46 ± 1.37 ng/mL at 6 and 12 weeks, respectively. At 12 weeks, the mean 25OHD levels in IM cholecalciferol group was higher as compared to the oral cholecalciferol group (25.46 ± 1.37 vs. 16.66 ± 1.36 ng/mL; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Both oral and IM routes are effective for the treatment of Vitamin D deficiency. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in the IM cholecalciferol group showed a sustained increase from baseline. PMID:28217512

  10. Gender, literacy, and survival among Ethiopian adults, 1987 - 96.

    PubMed Central

    Berhane, Yemane; Hogberg, Ulf; Byass, Peter; Wall, Stig

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine relationships between gender, literacy and survival among adults in Meskan and Mareko district, Ethiopia. METHODS: On the basis of an established demographic surveillance system, an open-cohort analysis of 172726 person-years covering the period January 1987 to December 1996 was conducted in 10 randomly selected local communities. FINDINGS: The crude mortality rate was 11.2 per 1000 person-years among adults aged > or =15 years; the values for males and females were 11.9 and 10.6 per 1000 person-years, respectively. Kaplan - Meier estimates showed that literacy and being female were both favourable for survival throughout adulthood. Cox's regression models showed that age, gender, literacy and area (rural lowland, rural highland and urban) were significant factors in survival: younger, female, literate urban dwellers were the most favoured. Gender differences in mortality were small in the rural areas, possibly because of the harsh living conditions and the marginalization of women. Literacy was a more significant factor for survival in the rural areas, where mortality was highest, while gender was more important in the one urban area studied. The levels of literacy were lowest among rural females. CONCLUSION: Special attention should be given to raising literacy levels among rural women with a view to improving their survival. PMID:12378289

  11. Graded functional diffusion map-defined characteristics of apparent diffusion coefficients predict overall survival in recurrent glioblastoma treated with bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, Benjamin M; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Lai, Albert; Mischel, Paul S; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L; Lalezari, Shadi; Schmainda, Kathleen M; Pope, Whitney B

    2011-10-01

    Diffusion imaging has shown promise as a predictive and prognostic biomarker in glioma. We assessed the ability of graded functional diffusion maps (fDMs) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) characteristics to predict overall survival (OS) in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients treated with bevacizumab. Seventy-seven patients with recurrent GBMs were retrospectively examined. MRI scans were obtained before and approximately 6 weeks after treatment with bevacizumab. Graded fDMs were created by registering datasets to each patient's pretreatment scan and then performing voxel-wise subtraction between post- and pretreatment ADC maps. Voxels were categorized according to the degree of change in ADC within pretreatment fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and contrast-enhancing regions of interest (ROIs). We found that the volume of tissue showing decreased ADC within both FLAIR and contrast-enhancing regions stratified OS (log-rank, P < .05). fDMs applied to contrast-enhancing ROIs more accurately predicted OS compared with fDMs applied to FLAIR ROIs. Graded fDMs (showing voxels with decreased ADC between 0.25 and 0.4 µm(2)/ms) were more predictive of OS than traditional (single threshold) fDMs, and the predictive ability of graded fDMs could be enhanced even further by adding the ADC characteristics from the fDM-classified voxels to the analysis (log-rank, P < .001). These results demonstrate that spatially resolved diffusion-based tumor metrics are a powerful imaging biomarker of survival in patients with recurrent GBM treated with bevacizumab.

  12. Control of Cell Survival in Adult Mammalian Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, H Georg

    2015-10-28

    The fact that continuous proliferation of stem cells and progenitors, as well as the production of new neurons, occurs in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) raises several basic questions concerning the number of neurons required in a particular system. Can we observe continued growth of brain regions that sustain neurogenesis? Or does an elimination mechanism exist to maintain a constant number of cells? If so, are old neurons replaced, or are the new neurons competing for limited network access among each other? What signals support their survival and integration and what factors are responsible for their elimination? This review will address these and other questions regarding regulatory mechanisms that control cell-death and cell-survival mechanisms during neurogenesis in the intact adult mammalian brain.

  13. Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma Survival Improved With Treatment on Multimodality Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Naamit Kurshan; Wexler, Leonard H.; Singer, Samuel; Alektiar, Kaled M.; Keohan, Mary Louise; Shi, Weiji; Zhang, Zhigang; Wolden, Suzanne

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a pediatric sarcoma rarely occurring in adults. For unknown reasons, adults with RMS have worse outcomes than do children. Methods and Materials: We analyzed data from all patients who presented to Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1990 and 2011 with RMS diagnosed at age 16 or older. One hundred forty-eight patients met the study criteria. Ten were excluded for lack of adequate data. Results: The median age was 28 years. The histologic diagnoses were as follows: embryonal 54%, alveolar 33%, pleomorphic 12%, and not otherwise specified 2%. The tumor site was unfavorable in 67% of patients. Thirty-three patients (24%) were at low risk, 61 (44%) at intermediate risk, and 44 (32%) at high risk. Forty-six percent were treated on or according to a prospective RMS protocol. The 5-year rate of overall survival (OS) was 45% for patients with nonmetastatic disease. The failure rates at 5 years for patients with nonmetastatic disease were 34% for local failure and 42% for distant failure. Among patients with nonmetastatic disease (n=94), significant factors associated with OS were histologic diagnosis, site, risk group, age, and protocol treatment. On multivariate analysis, risk group and protocol treatment were significant after adjustment for age. The 5-year OS was 54% for protocol patients versus 36% for nonprotocol patients. Conclusions: Survival in adult patients with nonmetastatic disease was significantly improved for those treated on RMS protocols, most of which are now open to adults.

  14. Survival of adult female elk in yellowstone following wolf restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, S.B.; Mech, L.D.; White, P.J.; Sargeant, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Counts of northern Yellowstone elk (Cervus elaphus) in northwestern Wyoming and adjacent Montana, USA, have decreased at an average rate of 6-8% per year since wolves (Canis lupus) were reintroduced in 1995. Population growth rates of elk are typically sensitive to variations in adult female survival; populations that are stable or increasing exhibit high adult female survival. We used survival records for 85 radiocollared adult female elk 1-19 years old to estimate annual survival from March 2000 to February 2004. Weighted average annual survival rates were approximately 0.83 (95% CI = 0.77-0.89) for females 1-15 years old and 0.80 (95% CI = 0.73-0.86) for all females. Our estimates were much lower than the rate of 0.99 observed during 1969-1975 when fewer elk were harvested by hunters, wolves were not present, and other predators were less numerous. Of 33 documented deaths included in our analysis, we attributed 11 to hunter harvest, 14 to predation (10 wolf, 2 unknown, 1 cougar [Puma concolor], and 1 bear [Ursus sp.]), 6 to unknown causes, and 2 to winter-kill. Most deaths occurred from December through March. Estimates of cause-specific annual mortality rates were 0.09 (0.05-0.14) for all predators, 0.08 (0.04-0.13) for hunting, and 0.07 (0.03-0.11) for wolves specifically. Wolf-killed elk were typically older (median = 12 yr) than hunter-killed elk (median = 9 yr, P = 0.03). However, elk that winter outside the park where they were exposed to hunting were also younger (median = 7 yr) than elk that we did not observe outside the park (median = 9 yr, P < 0.01). Consequently, differences in ages of elk killed by wolves and hunters may reflect characteristics of elk exposed to various causes of mortality, as well as differences in susceptibility. Unless survival rates of adult females increase, elk numbers are likely to continue declining. Hunter harvest is the only cause of mortality that is amenable to management at the present time.

  15. Estimation of survival of adult Florida manatees in the Crystal River, at Blue Spring, and on the Atlantic Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Langtimm, Catherine A.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Ackerman, B.B.; Percival, H. Franklin

    1995-01-01

    We applied Cormack-Jolly-Seber open population models to manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) photo-identification databases to estimate adult survival probabilities. The computer programs JOLLY and RECAPCO were used to estimate survival of 677 individuals in three study areas: Crystal River (winters 1977-78 to 1990-91), Blue Spring (winters 1977-78 to 1990-91), and the Atlantic Coast (winters 1984-85 to 1990-91). We also estimated annual survival from observations of 111 manatees tagged for studies with radiotelemetry. Survival estimated from observations with telemetry had broader confidence intervals than survival estimated with the Cormack-Jolly-Seber models. Annual probabilities of capture based on photo-identification records were generally high. The mean annual adult survival estimated from sighting-resighting records was 0.959-0.962 in the Crystal River and 0.936-0.948 at Blue Spring and may be high enough to permit population growth, given the values of other life-history parameters. On the Atlantic Coast, the estimated annual adult survival (range of means = 0.877-0.885) may signify a declining population. However, for several reasons, interpretation of data from the latter study group should be tempered with caution. Adult survivorship seems to be constant with age in all three study groups. No strong differences were apparent between adult survival ofmales and females in the Crystal River or at Blue Spring; the basis of significant differences between sexes on the Atlantic Coast is unclear. Future research into estimating survival with photo-identification and the Cormack-Jolly-Seber models should be vigorously pursued. Estimates of annual survival can provide an additional indication of Florida manatee population status with a stronger statistical basis than aerial counts and carcass totals.

  16. Reproduction, preweaning survival, and survival of adult sea otters at Kodiak Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monson, Daniel H.; DeGange, Anthony R.

    1995-01-01

    Radiotelemetry methods were used to examine the demographic characteristics of sea otters inhabiting the leading edge of an expanding population on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Fifteen male and 30 female sea otters were instrumented and followed from 1986 to 1990. Twenty-one percent of females were sexually mature (had pupped) at age 2, 57% by age 3, 88% by age 4, and 100% by age 5. Fifteen females produced 26 pups, an overall reproduction rate of 94% for mature females. The reproduction rate was 17, 45, 66, and 100% for 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds, respectively. Eighty-five percent of observed pups survived to weaning (120 days), and the percentage of pups weaned ranged from 34% for pups of 2-year-olds to 100% for pups of 5-year-olds. At least three of four known pup losses occurred within a month of parturition. The mean pup dependency period for weaned pups was 153 days and the mean gestation period was 218 days. No synchrony in pupping activity was observed. Mean annual survival of adults was high. Estimates of survival ranged from 89 to 96% for females and 86 to 91% for males. Human harvest was the primary source of known mortality of adults. Our estimates of reproductive rates and survival of adults are at the high end of those reported for sea otters, but preweaning survival stands out as being particularly high. Abundant food resources and the availability of protected water presumably contributed to the high reproductive success observed in this recently established sea otter population.

  17. Seasonal and annual survival of adult Pacific brant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David H.; Rexstad, Eric A.; Sedinger, James S.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Dawe, Neil K.

    1997-01-01

    Declining mid-winter counts of Pacific brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) and reduced numbers of nesting birds on their main breeding grounds prompted us to assess factors that may be limiting recovery of this population. We estimated seasonal and annual survival rates of adult brant in 1986-93 from resightings of leg-banded birds. Brant were banded at a major colony on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska (Y-K Delta) in 1986-92, and resighted there in 1987-93 as well as at major fall and spring migration and wintering areas in 1990-93. Seasonal survival was the same for males and females. Mean monthly survival rate was lowest (P ≤ 0.05) in late spring migration (15 Apr-1 Jun), the period of greatest subsistence harvest on the breeding grounds, and highest in winter (1 Jan-1 Mar), the period of greatest sport harvest. Annual survival rate did not vary among years (F = 0.51; 5, 718 df; P = 0.91) and averaged 0.840 (SE = 0.031) from 1986 to 1993. Subsistence harvest has contributed to low population levels of Pacific brant.

  18. Posttournament survival and dispersal of adult striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a telemetry study from November 2004 to June 2005 at J. Strom Thurmond Reservoir in South Carolina and Georgia to quantify posttournament survival of striped bass and their dispersal from tournament weigh-in sites. During November-December 2004, 30 adult striped bass weighing 1.0-10.0 kg were angled, held in "striped bass tube" live-holding systems for 2-5 h, transported to a predetermined weigh-in and release site, and surgically implanted with telemetry transmitters. All striped bass survived transport, recovered from the surgical procedure, and were immediately released. The postrelease survival rate after 120 d was 87%. Surviving striped bass dispersed from the release site within 2-9 d. Fifty-four percent returned to their capture sites. Capture, holding, displacement, and weigh-in appeared to have no long-term adverse affects on behavior. Live release of striped bass may now be a viable option after tournaments during periods of cool water temperatures. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  19. Survival of adult Tiphia vernalis (Hymenoptera: Tiphiidae) after insecticide, fungicide, and herbicide exposure in laboratory bioassays.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Jason B; Reding, Michael E; Moyseenko, James J; Klein, Michael G; Mannion, Catharine M; Bishop, Bert

    2006-04-01

    Tiphia vernalis Rohwer is a hymenopteran ectoparasitoid of Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, larvae. The adult wasps feed on nectar or honeydew between mid-April and late June. Adults may contact pesticides when landing on foliage or when females hunt for grubs in the soil. The lethal effect of nursery, turf, and landscape pesticides was determined by exposing wasps to treated foliage in the laboratory. Pesticides tested at labeled rates were the insecticides bifenthrin, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, halofenozide, and imidacloprid; the herbicides oryzalin, pendimethalin, and a combination product with 2,4-D, dicamba, and mecoprop (multiherbicide); and the fungicides chlorothalonil and thiophanate-methyl. During 2001 and 2002, male and female T. vernalis were exposed to pesticides by using turf cores. For both years, bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and imidacloprid treatments lowered adult survival relative to the control, but halofenozide had minimal effect on mortality of males and females. More males than females died after exposure to carbaryl treatments. Survival of females was not reduced by exposure to herbicides or fungicides. Females were apparently more tolerant of pesticides than males. Mortality of males in response to herbicides and fungicides was more variable than for females; in 2002 trials, male mortality was higher after exposure to multiherbicide, oryzalin, pendimethalin, and thiophanate-methyl than the control. The fungicide chlorothalonil did not increase mortality of males or females in either year. Sublethal effects were not evaluated. The study indicates the choice of pesticide may be important for conserving T. vernalis in nursery, landscape, and turf settings.

  20. Prognostic evaluation of febrile neutropenia in apparently stable adult cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Carmona-Bayonas, A; Gómez, J; González-Billalabeitia, E; Canteras, M; Navarrete, A; Gonzálvez, M L; Vicente, V; Ayala de la Peña, F

    2011-01-01

    Background: Predictive models to identify low-risk febrile neutropenia (FN) have been developed with heterogeneous samples, which included stable and unstable patients, solid tumours, acute leukaemia and bone marrow transplantation. These models fail to recognise 5–15% of cases with unexpected complications, and literature specifically addressing apparently stable patients (ASPs) is scarce. Methods: We reviewed 861 episodes of FN in outpatients with solid tumours, including 692 (80%) episodes with apparent clinical stability. We aimed to investigate the prognosis of this latter group and explore the possibility of stratifying it according to the presenting features. A case–control study was performed and the MASCC index was evaluated. Results: The rates of complications and bacteraemia in ASPs were 7.3% and 6.2%, respectively. The MASCC index yielded a low sensitivity to detect complications (36%). Prognostic factors were identified: ECOG performance status ⩾2, chronic bronchitis, chronic heart failure, stomatitis NCI grade ⩾2, monocytes <200 mm−3 and stress hyperglycaemia. Conclusion: A very simple assessment is useful to classify the patients with FN according to the risk of complications. A few additional variables may predict the clinical course of the patients. We additionally show that the MASCC index applied to this specific group has a low sensitivity to predict complications. PMID:21811253

  1. The effect of excluding juveniles on apparent adult olive baboons (Papio anubis) social networks

    PubMed Central

    Fedurek, Piotr; Lehmann, Julia

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there has been much interest in investigating the social structure of group living animals using social network analysis. Many studies so far have focused on the social networks of adults, often excluding younger, immature group members. This potentially may lead to a biased view of group social structure as multiple recent studies have shown that younger group members can significantly contribute to group structure. As proof of the concept, we address this issue by investigating social network structure with and without juveniles in wild olive baboons (Papio anubis) at Gashaka Gumti National Park, Nigeria. Two social networks including all independently moving individuals (i.e., excluding dependent juveniles) were created based on aggressive and grooming behaviour. We used knockout simulations based on the random removal of individuals from the network in order to investigate to what extent the exclusion of juveniles affects the resulting network structure and our interpretation of age-sex specific social roles. We found that juvenile social patterns differed from those of adults and that the exclusion of juveniles from the network significantly altered the resulting overall network structure. Moreover, the removal of juveniles from the network affected individuals in specific age-sex classes differently: for example, including juveniles in the grooming network increased network centrality of adult females while decreasing centrality of adult males. These results suggest that excluding juveniles from the analysis may not only result in a distorted picture of the overall social structure but also may mask some of the social roles of individuals belonging to different age-sex classes. PMID:28323851

  2. The effect of excluding juveniles on apparent adult olive baboons (Papio anubis) social networks.

    PubMed

    Fedurek, Piotr; Lehmann, Julia

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there has been much interest in investigating the social structure of group living animals using social network analysis. Many studies so far have focused on the social networks of adults, often excluding younger, immature group members. This potentially may lead to a biased view of group social structure as multiple recent studies have shown that younger group members can significantly contribute to group structure. As proof of the concept, we address this issue by investigating social network structure with and without juveniles in wild olive baboons (Papio anubis) at Gashaka Gumti National Park, Nigeria. Two social networks including all independently moving individuals (i.e., excluding dependent juveniles) were created based on aggressive and grooming behaviour. We used knockout simulations based on the random removal of individuals from the network in order to investigate to what extent the exclusion of juveniles affects the resulting network structure and our interpretation of age-sex specific social roles. We found that juvenile social patterns differed from those of adults and that the exclusion of juveniles from the network significantly altered the resulting overall network structure. Moreover, the removal of juveniles from the network affected individuals in specific age-sex classes differently: for example, including juveniles in the grooming network increased network centrality of adult females while decreasing centrality of adult males. These results suggest that excluding juveniles from the analysis may not only result in a distorted picture of the overall social structure but also may mask some of the social roles of individuals belonging to different age-sex classes.

  3. Consuming a multi-ingredient thermogenic supplement for 28 days is apparently safe in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Roxanne M.; Joy, Jordan M.; Falcone, Paul H.; Mosman, Matt M.; Kim, Michael P.; Moon, Jordan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Thermogenic (TRM) supplements are often used by people seeking to decrease body weight. Many TRM supplements are formulated with multiple ingredients purported to increase energy expenditure and maximize fat loss. However, in the past some TRM ingredients have been deemed unsafe and removed from the market. Therefore, it is important to verify the safety of multi-ingredient TRM supplements with chronic consumption. Objective To assess the safety of daily consumption of a multi-ingredient TRM supplement over a 28-day period in healthy adults. Design Twenty-three recreationally active adults (11M, 12F; 27.1±5.4 years, 171.6±9.6 cm, 76.8±16.1 kg, 26±5 BMI) were randomly assigned either to consume a multi-ingredient TRM supplement (SUP; n=9) or remain unsupplemented (CRL; n=14) for 28 days. Participants maintained their habitual dietary and exercise routines for the duration of the study. Fasting blood samples, resting blood pressure, and heart rate were taken before and after the supplementation period. Samples were analyzed for complete blood counts, comprehensive metabolic, and lipid panels. Results Significant (p<0.05) group by time interactions were present for diastolic BP, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), chloride, CO2, globulin, albumin:globulin (A/G), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Dependent t-tests conducted on significant variables revealed significant (p<0.05) within-group differences in SUP for diastolic BP (+6.2±5.3 mmHG), creatinine (+0.09±0.05 mg/dL), eGFR (−11.2±5.8 mL/min/1.73), globulin (−0.29±0.24 g/dL), A/G (+0.27±0.23), and HDL (−5.0±5.5 mg/dL), and in CRL for CO2 (−1.9±1.5 mmol/L) between time points. Each variable remained within the accepted physiological range. Conclusion Results of the present study support the clinical safety of a multi-ingredient TRM containing caffeine, green tea extract, and cayenne powder. Although there were statistically significant (p<0.05) intragroup

  4. On the apparent failure of adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy to improve survival for women with uterine sarcomas confined to the uterus.

    PubMed

    Dusenbery, Kathryn E; Potish, Roger A; Argenta, Peter A; Judson, Patricia L

    2005-06-01

    Despite numerous studies documenting reduction of pelvic relapses after adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy stage I and II uterine sarcomas, improved survival remains unproven. This retrospective report analyzes patterns of failure, survival, and toxicity in 42 women with stage I and 7 patients with stage II uterine sarcomas treated from 1972 through 1998 to identify patients likely to benefit from pelvic or abdominal radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Four of these patients also received adjuvant chemotherapy. There were 20 leiomyosarcomas, 18 homologous mixed mullerian tumors, and 11 heterologous mixed mullerian tumors. Disease-free survivals for mixed mullerian tumors were 65% at 5 years and 61% at 15 years. Disease-free survivals for leiomyosarcomas were 40% at 5 years and 40% at 15 years. There were 14 distant only, 5 distant and abdominal, 1 abdominal, 1 distant and pelvic, and 2 unknown initial sites of failure. Acute toxicity was acceptable as measured by a median 1-kg weight loss from radiotherapy and a 2% rate of failure to complete therapy. Chronic toxicity consisted of 3 small bowel obstructions and 1 sigmoid colon obstruction. In conclusion, the efficacy of adjuvant pelvic radiation is demonstrated by the absence of any isolated pelvic failures. Although the frequent occurrence of peritoneal failures suggests a role for prophylactic abdominal radiation for mixed mullerian tumors, more effective systemic therapy is necessary to substantially increase the chance of cure for women with early-stage uterine sarcomas.

  5. Apparent improvement in survival for carcinoma of the cervix following the introduction of chemoradiation--a Will Rogers phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Foley, M E; Ryan, H; Kearney, E; Herlihy, A; Craig, H; Kelehan, P; Mooney, E; Lenehan, P; Flannelly, G

    2013-03-01

    The improved survival for bulky cervical cancers (> 4cm) reported with combination platinum based chemoradiation (1999) prompted a move away from surgery as these cases frequently received adjuvant radiotherapy and were exposed to the morbidity of multimodality treatment. The period pre-1999 (Group 1) was compared with post-1999 (Group 2) when chemoradiation was the preferred treatment for bulky operable cervical cancer. Significantly more cases were treated surgically among Group 1 compared with Group 2 (79% vs. 62%; P < 0.001). Switching from surgery to radiotherapy improved survival in both treatment categories (73% vs. 78% and 37% vs. 44%, respectively) but with no improvement in overall survival (70%/ov.s 70%). Survival (86%) was similar in both groups among surgically treated women with tumors < 4 cm, but significantly more in Group 2 with negative nodes received postoperative adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (Groups 1 vs. 2; 16% vs.37.5%: P < 0.001) and overall the surgically treated patients received more not less multimodality treatment (46.5% vs. 59%; P = 0.7).

  6. Adult survival and population growth rate in Colorado big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Ellison, L.E.; Stanley, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    We studied adult survival and population growth at multiple maternity colonies of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Fort Collins, Colorado. We investigated hypotheses about survival using information-theoretic methods and mark-recapture analyses based on passive detection of adult females tagged with passive integrated transponders. We constructed a 3-stage life-history matrix model to estimate population growth rate (??) and assessed the relative importance of adult survival and other life-history parameters to population growth through elasticity and sensitivity analysis. Annual adult survival at 5 maternity colonies monitored from 2001 to 2005 was estimated at 0.79 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.77-0.82). Adult survival varied by year and roost, with low survival during an extreme drought year, a finding with negative implications for bat populations because of the likelihood of increasing drought in western North America due to global climate change. Adult survival during winter was higher than in summer, and mean life expectancies calculated from survival estimates were lower than maximum longevity records. We modeled adult survival with recruitment parameter estimates from the same population. The study population was growing (?? = 1.096; 95% CI = 1.057-1.135). Adult survival was the most important demographic parameter for population growth. Growth clearly had the highest elasticity to adult survival, followed by juvenile survival and adult fecundity (approximately equivalent in rank). Elasticity was lowest for fecundity of yearlings. The relative importances of the various life-history parameters for population growth rate are similar to those of large mammals. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  7. Adaptive Memory: Survival Processing Increases Both True and False Memory in Adults and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otgaar, Henry; Smeets, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that processing information in a survival context can enhance the information's memorability. The current study examined whether survival processing can also decrease the susceptibility to false memories and whether the survival advantage can be found in children. In Experiment 1, adults rated semantically related words in a…

  8. Association of depression and anxiety status with 10-year cardiovascular disease incidence among apparently healthy Greek adults: The ATTICA Study.

    PubMed

    Kyrou, Ioannis; Kollia, Natasa; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Georgousopoulou, Ekavi; Chrysohoou, Christina; Tsigos, Constantine; Randeva, Harpal S; Yannakoulia, Mary; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Pitsavos, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic stress frequently manifests with anxiety and/or depressive symptomatology and may have detrimental cardiometabolic effects over time. As such, recognising the potential links between stress-related psychological disorders and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is becoming increasingly important in cardiovascular epidemiology research. The primary aim of this study was to explore prospectively potential associations between clinically relevant depressive symptomatology and anxiety levels and the 10-year CVD incidence among apparently healthy Greek adults. Design A population-based, health and nutrition prospective survey. Methods In the context of the ATTICA Study (2002-2012), 853 adult participants without previous CVD history (453 men (45 ± 13 years) and 400 women (44 ± 18 years)) underwent psychological evaluations through validated, self-reporting depression and anxiety questionnaires. Results After adjustment for multiple established CVD risk factors, both reported depression and anxiety levels were positively and independently associated with the 10-year CVD incidence, with depression markedly increasing the CVD risk by approximately fourfold (adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 3.6 (1.3, 11) for depression status; 1.03 (1.0, 1.1) for anxiety levels). Conclusions Our findings indicate that standardised psychological assessments focusing on depression and anxiety should be considered as an additional and distinct aspect in the context of CVD preventive strategies that are designed and implemented by health authorities at the general population level.

  9. A method for estimating fall adult sex ratios from production and survival data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wight, H.M.; Heath, R.G.; Geis, A.D.

    1965-01-01

    This paper presents a method of utilizing data relating to the production and survival of a bird population to estimate a basic fall adult sex ratio. This basic adult sex ratio is an average value derived from average production and survival rates. It is an estimate of the average sex ratio about which the fall adult ratios will fluctuate according to annual variations in production and survival. The basic fall adult sex ratio has been calculated as an asymptotic value which is the limit of an infinite series wherein average population characteristics are used as constants. Graphs are provided that allow the determination of basic sex ratios from production and survival data of a population. Where the respective asymptote has been determined, it may be possible to estimate various production and survival rates by use of variations of the formula for estimating the asymptote.

  10. Survival of spectacled eider adult females and ducklings during brood rearing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.; Grand, James B.

    1997-01-01

    We studied survival of adult female and duckling spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) during brood rearing on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska from 1993 to 1995. Duckling survival to 30 days of age averaged 34% with a 95% confidence interval from 25 to 47%. Half (49%) of radiomarked adult females had lost all their ducklings by 30 days after hatch. Most (74%) duckling mortality occurred in the first 10 days. Adult female survival during the first 30 days of brood rearing was 93 ± 3% (SE). Females died from lead poisoning, as a result of ingesting lead shot, and predation. Mortality of adult females during brood rearing is probably higher than during other times of the year. Low adult female survival during the breeding season may be contributing to the overall population decline of spectacled eiders.

  11. Postrelease movements and survival of adult and young black-footed ferrets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biggins, Dean E.; Godbey, Jerry L.; Livieri, Travis M.; Matchett, Marc R.; Bibles, Brent D.

    2006-01-01

    A successful captive breeding program for highly endangered black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) has resulted in surplus animals that have been released at multiple sites since 1991. Because reproductive output of captive ferrets declines after several years, many adult ferrets must be removed from captive breeding facilities annually to keep total production high. Adults are routinely released, with young-of-the-year, on prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) colonies. We evaluated postrelease movements and survival rates for 94 radio-tagged young and adult ferrets. Radio-tagged adult ferrets made longer movements than young ferrets during the night of release and had significantly lower survival rates for the first 14 days. Coyotes (Canis latrans) caused the largest number of ferret losses. A larger data set of 623 ferrets represented adults and young that were individually marked with passive integrated transponders but were not radio tagged. Minimum survival rates, calculated primarily from ferrets detected during spotlight searches and identified with tag readers, again were significantly lower for adults than for young ferrets at 30 days postrelease (10.1 percent and 45.5 percent survival, respectively) and at 150 days postrelease (5.7 percent and 25.9 percent). Assessment of known survival time by using linear modeling demonstrated a significant interaction between age and sex, with greater disparity between adults and kits for females than for males. Postrelease survival of adult ferrets might be increased if animals were given earlier and longer exposure to the quasinatural environments of preconditioning pens. 

  12. SynCAM 1 improves survival of adult-born neurons by accelerating synapse maturation.

    PubMed

    Doengi, Michael; Krupp, Alexander J; Körber, Nils; Stein, Valentin

    2016-03-01

    The survival of adult-born dentate gyrus granule cells critically depends on their synaptic integration into the existing neuronal network. Excitatory inputs are thought to increase the survival rate of adult born neurons. Therefore, whether enhancing the stability of newly formed excitatory synapses by overexpressing the synaptic cell adhesion molecule SynCAM 1 improves the survival of adult-born neurons was tested. Here it is shown that overexpression of SynCAM 1 improves survival of adult-born neurons, but has no effect on the proliferation rate of precursor cells. As expected, overexpression of SynCAM 1 increased the synapse density in adult-born granule neurons. While adult-born granule neurons have very few functional synapses 15 days after birth, it was found that at this age adult-born neurons in SynCAM 1 overexpressing mice exhibited around three times more excitatory synapses, which were stronger than synapses of adult-born neurons of control littermates. In summary, the data indicated that additional SynCAM 1 accelerated synapse maturation, which improved the stability of newly formed synapses and in turn increased the likelihood of survival of adult-born neurons.

  13. Survival improvements in adolescents and young adults after myeloablative allogeneic transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Wood, William A; Lee, Stephanie J; Brazauskas, Ruta; Wang, Zhiwei; Aljurf, Mahmoud D; Ballen, Karen K; Buchbinder, David K; Dehn, Jason; Freytes, Cesar O; Lazarus, Hillard M; Lemaistre, Charles F; Mehta, Paulette; Szwajcer, David; Joffe, Steven; Majhail, Navneet S

    2014-06-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs, ages 15 to 40 years) with cancer have not experienced survival improvements to the same extent as younger and older patients. We compared changes in survival after myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) among children (n = 981), AYAs (n = 1218), and older adults (n = 469) who underwent transplantation over 3 time periods: 1990 to 1995, 1996 to 2001, and 2002 to 2007. Five-year survival varied inversely with age group. Survival improved over time in AYAs and paralleled that seen in children; however, overall survival did not change over time for older adults. Survival improvements were primarily related to lower rates of early treatment-related mortality in the most recent era. For all cohorts, relapse rates did not change over time. A subset of 222 AYAs between the ages of 15 and 25 at 46 pediatric or 49 adult centers were also analyzed to describe differences by center type. In this subgroup, there were differences in transplantation practices among pediatric and adult centers, although HCT outcomes did not differ by center type. Survival for AYAs undergoing myeloablative allogeneic HCT for ALL improved at a similar rate as survival for children.

  14. Comparison of survival of adolescents and young adults with hematologic malignancies in Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakata-Yamada, Kayo; Inoue, Masami; Ioka, Akiko; Ito, Yuri; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Miyashiro, Isao; Masaie, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Jun; Hino, Masayuki; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    The survival gap between adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with hematological malignancies persists in many countries. To determine to what extent it does in Japan, we investigated survival and treatment regimens in 211 Japanese AYAs (15-29 years) in the Osaka Cancer Registry diagnosed during 2001-2005 with hematological malignancies, and compared adolescents (15-19 years) with young adults (20-29 years). AYAs with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) had a poor 5-year survival (44%), particularly young adults (29% vs. 64% in adolescents, p = 0.01). Additional investigation for patients with ALL revealed that only 19% of young adults were treated with pediatric treatment regimens compared with 45% of adolescents (p = 0.05). Our data indicate that we need to focus on young adults with ALL and to consider establishing appropriate cancer care system and guidelines for them in Japan.

  15. Predictors of survival among older adults with ependymoma.

    PubMed

    Amirian, E Susan; Armstrong, Terri S; Gilbert, Mark R; Scheurer, Michael E

    2012-03-01

    The biological process of aging encompasses a multitude of complex physiological and lifestyle changes that may alter the way typical prognostic factors affect survival among older ependymoma patients. Because very little is known about the clinical significance of traditional prognostic factors and the magnitude of their effects among older individuals, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between survival and demographic and tumor characteristics among patients with ependymoma who were 60 years of age or older. Using the 1973-2007 dataset from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program, we evaluated the impact of several factors on both overall and ependymoma-specific survival, utilizing multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. We identified 367 ependymoma cases who were 60 years of age or older at diagnosis and had complete data from SEER. Of these, 19 (5.2%) had anaplastic tumors; all others were low-grade tumors. Age, tumor site, extent of surgery, and tumor histology were found to be significant predictors of ependymoma prognosis. The strongest predictor of poor outcome was supratentorial tumor location (adjusted HR: 6.94, 95% CI: 3.19-15.08, compared to spinal cord tumors). Our study suggests that tumor location, tumor histology, and surgical margin may be key predictors of survival among older ependymoma patients. We believe our study is one of the first to assess the prognostic value of these factors for ependymoma survival exclusively in an older patient population.

  16. Adult survival and productivity of Northern Fulmars in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Scott A.

    1987-01-01

    The population dynamics of Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) were studied at the Semidi Islands in the western Gulf of Alaska. Fulmars occurred in a broad range of color phases, and annual survival was estimated from the return of birds in the rarer plumage classes. A raw estimate of mean annual survival over a 5-year period was 0.963, but a removal experiment indicated the raw value was probably biased downward. The estimate of annual survival adjusted accordingly was 0.969. Mortality during the breeding season was less than 10% of the annual total, and postbreeding mortality of failed breeders was three to four times higher than that of successful breeders. Breeding success averaged 41% over 9 years. About 5% of experienced birds failed to breed each year due to physical destruction of their breeding sites, mate-loss, or other causes. An estimated 30% of the birds near the colony in one year were of prebreeding age. A comparison of population parameters in Pacific and Atlantic fulmars indicates that higher survival in the prebreeding years is the likely basis for population growth in the northeastern Atlantic. The correlation of breeding success and survival suggests both parameters may decline with age.

  17. Long-Term Survival in Adult Neuroblastoma with Multiple Recurrences

    PubMed Central

    Vénat-Bouvet, L.; Le Brun-Ly, V.; Martin, J.; Gasnier, O.; Falkowsky, S.; Tubiana-Mathieu, N.

    2010-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) rarely occurs in adults, and less than 10% of the cases occur in patients older than 10 years. Currently, there are no standard treatment guidelines for adult NB patients. We report the case of a young man suffering from NB in adulthood with multiple recurrences. Treatment included multiple resections, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. This patient remains free of clinical disease more than 7 years after diagnosis. PMID:20740158

  18. Time for College: The Adult Student's Guide to Survival and Success! Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebert, Al; Gilpin, Bernadine

    This guide is designed to help adult students survive and succeed in their college studies. Its 15 chapters contain practical advice on the following topics: obtaining the help available to adult students, confronting and overcoming fears and concerns, enrolling in a program and financing its costs, getting acquainted with the campus during…

  19. Optimizing Survival Outcomes For Adult Patients With Nontraumatic Cardiac Arrest.

    PubMed

    Jung, Julianna

    2016-10-01

    Patient survival after cardiac arrest can be improved significantly with prompt and effective resuscitative care. This systematic review analyzes the basic life support factors that improve survival outcome, including chest compression technique and rapid defibrillation of shockable rhythms. For patients who are successfully resuscitated, comprehensive postresuscitation care is essential. Targeted temperature management is recommended for all patients who remain comatose, in addition to careful monitoring of oxygenation, hemodynamics, and cardiac rhythm. Management of cardiac arrest in circumstances such as pregnancy, pulmonary embolism, opioid overdose and other toxicologic causes, hypothermia, and coronary ischemia are also reviewed.

  20. Effects of yearling, juvenile and adult survival on reef manta ray (Manta alfredi) demography

    PubMed Central

    van der Ouderaa, Isabelle B.C.; Tibiriçá, Yara

    2016-01-01

    Background The trade in manta ray gill plates has considerably increased over the last two decades. The resulting increases in ray mortality, in addition to mortality caused by by-catch, has caused many ray populations to decrease in size. The aim of this study was to ascertain how yearling and juvenile growth and survival, and adult survival and reproduction affect reef manta ray (Manta alfredi) population change, to increase our understanding of manta ray demography and thereby improve conservation research and measures for these fish. Methods We developed a population projection model for reef manta rays, and used published life history data on yearling and juvenile growth and adult reproduction to parameterise the model. Because little is known about reef manta ray yearling and juvenile survival, we conducted our analyses using a range of plausible survival rate values for yearlings, juveniles and adults. Results The model accurately captured observed variation in population growth rate, lifetime reproductive success and cohort generation time in different reef manta ray populations. Our demographic analyses revealed a range of population consequences in response to variation in demographic rates. For example, an increase in yearling or adult survival rates always elicited greater responses in population growth rate, lifetime reproductive success and cohort generation time than the same increase in juvenile survival rate. The population growth rate increased linearly, but lifetime reproductive success and cohort generation time increased at an accelerating rate with increasing yearling or adult survival rates. Hence, even a small increase in survival rate could increase lifetime reproductive success by one pup, and cohort generation time by several years. Elasticity analyses revealed that, depending on survival rate values of all life stages, the population growth rate is either most sensitive to changes in the rate with which juveniles survive but stay

  1. Survival Analysis and Actuarial Parameters of Sternechus subsignatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Adults.

    PubMed

    Guillermina Socías, María; Van Nieuwenhove, Guido; Murúa, María Gabriela; Willink, Eduardo; Liljesthröm, Gerardo Gustavo

    2016-04-01

    The soybean stalk weevil, Sternechus subsignatus Boheman 1836 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a very serious soybean pest in the Neotropical region. Both adults and larvae feed on soybean, causing significant yield losses. Adult survival was evaluated during three soybean growing seasons under controlled environmental conditions. A survival analysis was performed using a parametric survival fit approach in order to generate survival curves and obtain information that could help optimize integrated management strategies for this weevil pest. Sex of the weevils, crop season, fortnight in which weevils emerged, and their interaction were studied regarding their effect on adult survival. The results showed that females lived longer than males, but both genders were actually long-lived, reaching 224 and 176 d, respectively. Mean lifetime (l50) was 121.88±4.56 d for females and 89.58±2.72 d for males. Although variations were observed in adult longevities among emergence fortnights and soybean seasons, only in December and January fortnights of the 2007–2008 season and December fortnights of 2009–2010 did the statistically longest and shortest longevities occur, respectively. Survivorship data (lx) of adult females and males were fitted to the Weibull frequency distribution model. The survival curve was type I for both sexes, which indicated that mortality corresponded mostly to old individuals.

  2. Adaptive memory: Survival processing increases both true and false memory in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Otgaar, Henry; Smeets, Tom

    2010-07-01

    Research has shown that processing information in a survival context can enhance the information's memorability. The current study examined whether survival processing can also decrease the susceptibility to false memories and whether the survival advantage can be found in children. In Experiment 1, adults rated semantically related words in a survival, moving, or pleasantness scenario. Even though the survival advantage was demonstrated for true recall, there also was an unexpected increase in false memories in the survival condition. Similarly, younger and older children in Experiment 2 displayed superior true recall but also higher rates of false memories in a survival condition. Experiment 3 showed that in adults false memories were also more likely to occur in the survival condition when categorized lists instead of Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM)-like word lists were used. In all three experiments, no survival recall advantage was found when net accuracy scores that take the total output into account were used. These findings question whether survival processing is an adaptive memory strategy per se, as such processing not only enriches true recall but simultaneously amplifies the vulnerability to false memories.

  3. Parent–offspring resemblance in colony-specific adult survival of cliff swallows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Charles R.; Roche, Erin A.; Brown, Mary Bomberger

    2015-01-01

    Survival is a key component of fitness. Species that occupy discrete breeding colonies with different characteristics are often exposed to varying costs and benefits associated with group size or environmental conditions, and survival is an integrative net measure of these effects. We investigated the extent to which survival probability of adult (≥1-year old) cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) occupying different colonies resembled that of their parental cohort and thus whether the natal colony had long-term effects on individuals. Individuals were cross-fostered between colonies soon after hatching and their presence as breeders monitored at colonies in the western Nebraska study area for the subsequent decade. Colony-specific adult survival probabilities of offspring born and reared in the same colony, and those cross-fostered away from their natal colony soon after birth, were positively and significantly related to subsequent adult survival of the parental cohort from the natal colony. This result held when controlling for the effect of natal colony size and the age composition of the parental cohort. In contrast, colony-specific adult survival of offspring cross-fostered to a site was unrelated to that of their foster parent cohort or to the cohort of non-fostered offspring with whom they were reared. Adult survival at a colony varied inversely with fecundity, as measured by mean brood size, providing evidence for a survival–fecundity trade-off in this species. The results suggest some heritable variation in adult survival, likely maintained by negative correlations between fitness components. The study provides additional evidence that colonies represent non-random collections of individuals.

  4. PERSONAL AND FAMILY SURVIVAL, CIVIL DEFENSE ADULT EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    TEN BASIC LESSON PLANS THAT CAN BE ADAPTED TO SUIT THE NEEDS OF THE STUDENTS AND EXPANDED TO FIT LOCAL SITUATIONS SERVE AS A GUIDE TO CIVIL DEFENSE ADULT EDUCATION TEACHERS AND REPRESENT THE STATE OF CIVIL DEFENSE AS OF PUBLICATION DATE. THE LESSONS ARE DESIGNED TO BE USED WITH SLIDES OR FILMSTRIPS, A MINIATURE ILLUSTRATION OF WHICH APPEARS AT THE…

  5. Personal and Family Survival. Civil Defense Adult Education; Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    A manual intended as an instructor's aid in presenting a Civil Defense Adult Education Course is presented. It contains 10 lesson plans: Course Introduction, Modern Weapons and Radioactive Fallout (Effects), Modern Weapons and Radioactive Fallout (Protection), National Civil Defense Program, National Shelter Program (Community Shelters), National…

  6. Estimates of annual survival probabilities for adult Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langtimm, C.A.; O'Shea, T.J.; Pradel, R.; Beck, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    The population dynamics of large, long-lived mammals are particularly sensitive to changes in adult survival. Understanding factors affecting survival patterns is therefore critical for developing and testing theories of population dynamics and for developing management strategies aimed at preventing declines or extinction in such taxa. Few studies have used modern analytical approaches for analyzing variation and testing hypotheses about survival probabilities in large mammals. This paper reports a detailed analysis of annual adult survival in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), an endangered marine mammal, based on a mark-recapture approach. Natural and boat-inflicted scars distinctively 'marked' individual manatees that were cataloged in a computer-based photographic system. Photo-documented resightings provided 'recaptures.' Using open population models, annual adult-survival probabilities were estimated for manatees observed in winter in three areas of Florida: Blue Spring, Crystal River, and the Atlantic coast. After using goodness-of-fit tests in Program RELEASE to search for violations of the assumptions of mark-recapture analysis, survival and sighting probabilities were modeled under several different biological hypotheses with Program SURGE. Estimates of mean annual probability of sighting varied from 0.948 for Blue Spring to 0.737 for Crystal River and 0.507 for the Atlantic coast. At Crystal River and Blue Spring, annual survival probabilities were best estimated as constant over the study period at 0.96 (95% CI = 0.951-0.975 and 0.900-0.985, respectively). On the Atlantic coast, where manatees are impacted more by human activities, annual survival probabilities had a significantly lower mean estimate of 0.91 (95% CI = 0.887-0.926) and varied unpredictably over the study period. For each study area, survival did not differ between sexes and was independent of relative adult age. The high constant adult-survival probabilities estimated

  7. Equal nonbreeding period survival in adults and juveniles of a long-distant migrant bird

    PubMed Central

    Grüebler, Martin U; Korner-Nievergelt, Fränzi; Naef-Daenzer, Beat

    2014-01-01

    In migrant birds, survival estimates for the different life-history stages between fledging and first breeding are scarce. First-year survival is shown to be strongly reduced compared with annual survival of adult birds. However, it remains unclear whether the main bottleneck in juvenile long-distant migrants occurs in the postfledging period within the breeding ranges or en route. Quantifying survival rates during different life-history stages and during different periods of the migration cycle is crucial to understand forces driving the evolution of optimal life histories in migrant birds. Here, we estimate survival rates of adult and juvenile barn swallows (Hirundo rusticaL.) in the breeding and nonbreeding areas using a population model integrating survival estimates in the breeding ranges based on a large radio-telemetry data set and published estimates of demographic parameters from large-scale population-monitoring projects across Switzerland. Input parameters included the country-wide population trend, annual productivity estimates of the double-brooded species, and year-to-year survival corrected for breeding dispersal. Juvenile survival in the 3-week postfledging period was low (S = 0.32; SE = 0.05), whereas in the rest of the annual cycle survival estimates of adults and juveniles were similarly high (S > 0.957). Thus, the postfledging period was the main survival bottleneck, revealing the striking result that nonbreeding period mortality (including migration) is not higher for juveniles than for adult birds. Therefore, focusing future research on sources of variation in postfledging mortality can provide new insights into determinants of population dynamics and life-history evolution of migrant birds. PMID:24683458

  8. Apparent diffusion coefficient histogram analysis stratifies progression-free and overall survival in patients with recurrent GBM treated with bevacizumab: a multi-center study.

    PubMed

    Pope, Whitney B; Qiao, Xin Joe; Kim, Hyun J; Lai, Albert; Nghiemphu, Phioanh; Xue, Xi; Ellingson, Benjamin M; Schiff, David; Aregawi, Dawit; Cha, Soonmee; Puduvalli, Vinay K; Wu, Jing; Yung, Wai-Kwan A; Young, Geoffrey S; Vredenburgh, James; Barboriak, Dan; Abrey, Lauren E; Mikkelsen, Tom; Jain, Rajan; Paleologos, Nina A; Rn, Patricia Lada; Prados, Michael; Goldin, Jonathan; Wen, Patrick Y; Cloughesy, Timothy

    2012-07-01

    We have tested the predictive value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis in stratifying progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in bevacizumab-treated patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) from the multi-center BRAIN study. Available MRI's from patients enrolled in the BRAIN study (n = 97) were examined by generating ADC histograms from areas of enhancing tumor on T1 weighted post-contrast images fitted to a two normal distribution mixture curve. ADC classifiers including the mean ADC from the lower curve (ADC-L) and the mean lower curve proportion (LCP) were tested for their ability to stratify PFS and OS by using Cox proportional hazard ratios and the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test. Mean ADC-L was 1,209 × 10(-6)mm(2)/s ± 224 (SD), and mean LCP was 0.71 ± 0.23 (SD). Low ADC-L was associated with worse outcome. The hazard ratios for 6-month PFS, overall PFS, and OS in patients with less versus greater than mean ADC-L were 3.1 (95 % confidence interval: 1.6, 6.1; P = 0.001), 2.3 (95 % CI: 1.3, 4.0; P = 0.002), and 2.4 (95 % CI: 1.4, 4.2; P = 0.002), respectively. In patients with ADC-L <1,209 and LCP >0.71 versus ADC-L >1,209 and LCP <0.71, there was a 2.28-fold reduction in the median time to progression, and a 1.42-fold decrease in the median OS. The predictive value of ADC histogram analysis, in which low ADC-L was associated with poor outcome, was confirmed in bevacizumab-treated patients with recurrent GBM in a post hoc analysis from the multi-center (BRAIN) study.

  9. Surviving Parents' Influence on Adult Children's Depressive Symptoms Following the Death of a First Parent.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jeffrey E

    2016-10-01

    Parents and children are linked across the life course, and they share common experiences. This article focuses on the bereavement experience of adult children's loss of a first parent during adulthood and examines the downward influence of emotional closeness with a surviving parent on adult children's depressive symptoms following loss. Analyses are based on adult children who experienced the death of a first parent (N = 227), drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Generations, a study of three-and four-generation families from Southern California. Multilevel lagged dependent variable models indicate that an emotionally close relationship with a surviving parent is related with fewer post-bereavement depressive symptoms when a mother survives a father, but not vice versa. This analysis extends the theory of linked lives and highlights the mutual influence parents and children exert, as well as the complex role of gender in shaping family relationships.

  10. Does Glucagon Improve Survival in a Porcine (Sus Scrofa) of Adult Asphyxial Cardiac Arrest in Addition to Standard Epinephrine Therapy?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-17

    UDIIILI: oa. I..UN I ItA!.. I NUMDI:It Does Glucagon improve survival in a porcine (Sus Scrofa ) of adult asphyxial cardiac arrest in addition to...EXPIRATION DATE: 25 Mar 13 PROTOCOL TITLE: Does Glucagon Improve Survival in a Porcine (Sus scrofa ) Model of Adult Asphyxial Cardiac Arrest in Addition...Additions: Deletions: 2 Protocol No: A-2007-03 Protocol Title: Does Glucagon Improve Survival in a Porcine (Sus scrofa ) Model of Adult Asphyxial

  11. A childhood chemotherapy protocol improves overall survival among adults with T-lymphoblastic lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Zhong-jun; Chen, Xiao-qin; Geng, Qi-rong; Wang, Wei-da; Wang, Liang; Lu, Yue

    2016-01-01

    A broadly accepted standard treatment for adult T-lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) has not yet been defined. To address that issue, we retrospectively compared three chemotherapy regimens used to treat 110 adult patients with newly diagnosed T-LBL. These included two adult regimens (ECOG2993 and hyper-CVAD) and a childhood regimen (BFM-90). These intensive drug regimens are mainly used to treat childhood and adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. They included induction, consolidation, and maintenance chemotherapy protocols and were administered over the course of 2 years. Seventy-five patients (80%) achieved a complete remission (CR). Within a median follow-up time of 31 months (range: 5–152 months), the 5-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 47.7% (95% CI, 35.0–69.8%) and 45.7% (95% CI, 27.6–56.6%), respectively. Shorter survival was associated with age > 40 years, poor ECOG PS and bone marrow involvement. Elevated lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) level, Ann Arbor stage and International Prognostic Index (IPI) score had no prognostic value. The childhood chemotherapy regimen improved CR and the overall survival rate more than the adult regimen in patients aged < 40 years. PMID:27150061

  12. Heat-stress survival in the pre-adult stage of the life cycle in an intercontinental set of recombinant inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sambucetti, P; Scannapieco, A C; Loeschcke, V; Norry, F M

    2013-08-01

    In insects, pre-adult stages of the life cycle are exposed to variation in temperature that may differ from that in adults. However, the genetic basis for adaptation to environmental temperature could be similar between the pre-adult and the adult stages of the life cycle. Here, we tested quantitative trait loci (QTL) for heat-stress survival in larvae of Drosophila melanogaster, with and without a mild-heat-stress pre-treatment. Two sets of recombinant inbred lines derived from lines artificially selected for high and low levels of knockdown resistance to high temperature in young flies were used as the mapping population. There was no apparent increase in heat-shock survival between heat-pretreated and non-pretreated larvae. There was a positive correlation between the two experimental conditions of heat-shock survival (with and without a heat pre-treatment) except for males from one set of lines. Several QTL were identified involving all three major chromosomes. Most QTL for larval thermotolerance overlapped with thermotolerance QTL identified in previous studies for adults, indicating that heat-stress resistance is not genetically independent between life cycle stages because of either linkage or pleiotropy. The sign of the effects of some QTL alleles differed both between the sexes and between life stages.

  13. Adult tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) survival on the polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated Housatonic River, Massachusetts, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Dummer, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were captured and banded at six sites that differed in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination levels in the Housatonic River watershed, western Massachusetts, USA, from 2000 through 2004 to test the prediction that apparent survival rates of females in more contaminated areas were lower than those from less contaminated areas. We also tested whether plumage coloration affected over-winter survival and whether concentrations of PCBs in eggs differed between birds that did and that did not return the following year. Apparent survival rates were calculated using mark?recapture methods and compared using Akaike's Information Criterion. Model-adjusted survival rates ranged from 0.365 to 0.467 for PCB-contaminated females and between 0.404 and 0.476 for reference females. Models with either survival or capture probability modeled as functions of treatment (degree of PCB contamination), year, and age received some support. The model-averaged parameter estimate reflecting a treatment effect for high-PCB birds was negative ( = -0.046, SE() = 0.0939). Fifty-four percent of the total model weights involved models in which survival was a function of PCB treatment. Eggs were collected for contaminant analyses from a random sample of females that did and that did not return the following year. Concentrations of total PCBs were the same or higher in the eggs of females that returned compared to the eggs of those that did not return at both the highly and the moderately contaminated PCB sites. This may have resulted from higher-quality females with higher lipid reserves being more likely than lower-quality females to return the following year. Percentage lipid was positively correlated with total PCBs in eggs. Survival rates were similar among swallows with brown versus blue plumage.

  14. Teaching Community Survival Skills to Mentally Retarded Adults: A Review and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James E.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The article reviews research on training mentally retarded adults in the following community survival skills: travel training, money management, meal preparation, clothing and personal care, telephone skill, housekeeping, self-medication, leisure skills, social skills, and conversation. Results are said to indicate the value of behavioral…

  15. Impact of Vapor Pressure Deficit on the Performance of Bemisia tabaci: Adult, Nymphal, and Egg Survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The B-biotype sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is a serious global pest with varying population dynamics among different ecosystems. An experiment was conducted to assess the impact of vapor pressure deficit (VPD) on the survival of adults, nymphs and eggs of B. tabaci. The insects were reared...

  16. Eszopiclone and fluoxetine enhance the survival of newborn neurons in the adult rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaowei W; Li, Xiao-Yuan; Banasr, Mounira; Duman, Ronald S

    2009-11-01

    Clinical research has shown that co-administration of eszopiclone, a sedative-hypnotic sleeping agent, and fluoxetine, a serotonin uptake inhibitor, exerts an additive antidepressant action in treating patients with both depression and insomnia. Preclinical studies demonstrate that the behavioural actions of antidepressants are linked to neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. To test the hypothesis that the additive effects of eszopiclone and fluoxetine could act via such a mechanism, the influence of combined administration of these agents on the proliferation and survival of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labelled newborn cells in the hippocampus of adult rats was determined. Chronic eszopiclone+fluoxetine co-administration significantly increased the survival, but not proliferation, of newborn neurons in dorsal hippocampus by approximately 50%, an effect greater than either drug alone. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that eszopiclone enhances the antidepressant action of fluoxetine, in part via a novel mechanism that increases the survival of newborn neurons.

  17. Survival of glucose phosphate isomerase null somatic cells and germ cells in adult mouse chimaeras.

    PubMed

    Keighren, Margaret A; Flockhart, Jean H; West, John D

    2016-05-15

    The mouse Gpi1 gene encodes the glycolytic enzyme glucose phosphate isomerase. Homozygous Gpi1(-/-) null mouse embryos die but a previous study showed that some homozygous Gpi1(-/-) null cells survived when combined with wild-type cells in fetal chimaeras. One adult female Gpi1(-/-)↔Gpi1(c/c) chimaera with functional Gpi1(-/-) null oocytes was also identified in a preliminary study. The aims were to characterise the survival of Gpi1(-/-) null cells in adult Gpi1(-/-)↔Gpi1(c/c) chimaeras and determine if Gpi1(-/-) null germ cells are functional. Analysis of adult Gpi1(-/-)↔Gpi1(c/c) chimaeras with pigment and a reiterated transgenic lineage marker showed that low numbers of homozygous Gpi1(-/-) null cells could survive in many tissues of adult chimaeras, including oocytes. Breeding experiments confirmed that Gpi1(-/-) null oocytes in one female Gpi1(-/-)↔Gpi1(c/c) chimaera were functional and provided preliminary evidence that one male putative Gpi1(-/-)↔Gpi1(c/c) chimaera produced functional spermatozoa from homozygous Gpi1(-/-) null germ cells. Although the male chimaera was almost certainly Gpi1(-/-)↔Gpi1(c/c), this part of the study is considered preliminary because only blood was typed for GPI. Gpi1(-/-) null germ cells should survive in a chimaeric testis if they are supported by wild-type Sertoli cells. It is also feasible that spermatozoa could bypass a block at GPI, but not blocks at some later steps in glycolysis, by using fructose, rather than glucose, as the substrate for glycolysis. Although chimaera analysis proved inefficient for studying the fate of Gpi1(-/-) null germ cells, it successfully identified functional Gpi1(-/-) null oocytes and revealed that some Gpi1(-/-) null cells could survive in many adult tissues.

  18. Intentional genetic introgression influences survival of adults and subadults in a small, inbred felid population.

    PubMed

    Benson, John F; Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Onorato, David P; Johnson, Warren E; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K

    2011-09-01

    1. Inbreeding and low genetic diversity can cause reductions in individual fitness and increase extinction risk in animal populations. Intentional introgression, achieved by releasing genetically diverse individuals into inbred populations, has been used as a conservation tool to improve demographic performance in endangered populations. 2. By the 1980s, Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi) had been reduced to a small, inbred population that appeared to be on the brink of extinction. In 1995, female pumas from Texas (P. c. stanleyana) were released in occupied panther range as part of an intentional introgression programme to restore genetic variability and improve demographic performance of panthers. 3. We used 25 years (1981-2006) of continuous radiotelemetry and genetic data to estimate and model subadult and adult panther survival and cause-specific mortality to provide rigorous sex and age class-specific survival estimates and evaluate the effect of the introgression programme on these parameters. 4. Genetic ancestry influenced annual survival of subadults and adults after introgression, as F(1) generation admixed panthers ( = 0·98) survived better than pre-introgression type panthers ( = 0·77) and other admixed individuals ( = 0·82). Furthermore, heterozygosity was higher for admixed panthers relative to pre-introgression type panthers and positively influenced survival. 5. Our results are consistent with hybrid vigour; however, extrinsic factors such as low density of males in some areas of panther range may also have contributed to higher survival of F(1) panthers. Regardless, improved survival of F(1) subadults and adults likely contributed to the numerical increase in panthers following introgression, and our results indicate that intentional admixture, achieved here by releasing individuals from another population, appears to have been successful in improving demographic performance in this highly endangered population.

  19. Comparison of Activity Type Classification Accuracy from Accelerometers Worn on the Hip, Wrists, and Thigh in Young, Apparently Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoye, Alexander H. K.; Pivarnik, James M.; Mudd, Lanay M.; Biswas, Subir; Pfeiffer, Karin A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare accuracy of activity type prediction models for accelerometers worn on the hip, wrists, and thigh. Forty-four adults performed sedentary, ambulatory, lifestyle, and exercise activities (14 total, 10 categories) for 3-10 minutes each in a 90-minute semi-structured laboratory protocol. Artificial neural…

  20. Adult survival selection in relation to multilocus heterozygosity and body size in a tropical bird species, the Zenaida dove, Zenaida aurita.

    PubMed

    Cézilly, Frank; Quinard, Aurélie; Motreuil, Sébastien; Pradel, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Both phenotypic and genetic quality can influence the survival of individuals through time, although their relative influences are rarely addressed simultaneously. Here we used capture-mark-recapture modelling to assess the influence of both multilocus heterozygosity (MLH) and body size on apparent adult survival in a tropical bird species, the Zenaida dove, Zenaida aurita, using a sample of 391 individuals genotyped at 11 microsatellites, while controlling for the effects of sex. No effect of body size on either adult survival or capture rate was found. In the best model, survival was a logit linear function of MLH, whereas detection probability was a sex-dependent logit linear function of the logarithm of field effort, increasing with time and affected by a random individual effect. Using a Bayesian approach, we found that MLH explained 1.14% of the total deviance, as expected from theory and previous studies of heterozygosity-fitness correlations, with no evidence for local effects. However, results from capture-mark-recapture modelling indicated that expected longevity varied from 4.8 years in the least heterozygous individuals (MLH = 0.37) to 10.6 years in the most heterozygous ones (MLH = 1), thus suggesting that MLH had potentially a substantial effect on survival. We discuss our results in relation to current hypotheses about the origin of heterozygosity-fitness correlations.

  1. Incidence and Survival of Pediatric Soft Tissue Sarcomas: Comparison between Adults and Children

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sun Min; Yoo, Cheol Joo; Han, Jung Woo; Cho, Yong Jin; Kim, Soo Hee; Ahn, Joong Bae; Rha, Sun Young; Shin, Sang Joon; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoo-Ho; Rho, Jae Kyung; Kim, Hyo Song

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pediatric-type sarcomas such as rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), Ewing sarcoma (EWS), primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), and desmoplastic small round-cell tumor (DSRCT) are rare in adults, with limited studies on their prognosis and optimal treatment strategies. We aimed to examine the outcome of children and adult patients with RMS, EWS, PNET, and DSRCT and relevant prognostic factors. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 220 pediatric-type sarcoma patients at a single institution between 1985 and 2011. Comparisons were made in order to examine differences in demographics, disease characteristics, and survival. Survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazards models. Results A total of 220 consecutive patients were identified at our institute. Median age was 15.6 years (range, 0 to 81 years) and there were 108 children (49%) and 112 adult patients (51%). According to histological classification, 106 patients (48.2%) had RMS, 60 (27.3%) had EWS, 50 (22.7%) had PNET, and 4 (1.8%) had DSRCT. With a median follow-up period of 6.6 years, the estimated median overall survival (OS) of all patients was 75 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 27.2 to 122.8 months) and median event-free survival (EFS) for all patients was 11 months (95% CI, 8.8 to 13.2 months). No significant difference in OS and EFS was observed between adults and children. In multivariate analysis, distant metastasis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.617; 95% CI, 1.022 to 2.557; p=0.040) and no debulking surgery (HR, 1.443; 95% CI, 1.104 to 1.812; p=0.012) showed independent association with worse OS. Conclusion Metastatic disease and no surgical treatment are poor prognostic factors for OS among pediatric-type sarcomas for both adults and children. PMID:25143049

  2. Quantifying the impact of longline fisheries on adult survival in the black-footed albatross

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veran, S.; Gimenez, O.; Flint, E.; Kendall, W.L.; Doherty, P.F.; Lebreton, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    1. Industrial longline fishing has been suspected to impact upon black-footed albatross populations Phoebastria nigripes by increasing mortality, but no precise estimates of bycatch mortality are available to ascertain this statement. We present a general framework for quantifying the relationship between albatross population and longline fishing in absence of reliable estimates of bycatch rate. 2. We analysed capture?recapture data of a population of black-footed albatross to obtain estimates of survival probability for this population using several alternative models to adequately take into account heterogeneity in the recapture process. Instead of trying to estimate the number of birds killed by using various extrapolations and unchecked assumptions, we investigate the potential relationship between annual adult survival and several measures of fishing effort. Although we considered a large number of covariates, we used principal component analysis to generate a few uncorrelated synthetic variables from the set and thus we maintained both power and robustness. 3. The average survival for 1997?2002 was 92%, a low value compared to estimates available for other albatross species. We found that one of the synthetic variables used to summarize industrial longline fishing significantly explained more than 40% of the variation in adult survival over 11 years, suggesting an impact by longline fishing on albatross? survival. 4. Our analysis provides some evidence of non-linear variation in survival with fishing effort. This could indicate that below a certain level of fishing effort, deaths due to incidental catch can be partially or totally compensated for by a decrease in natural mortality. Another possible explanation is the existence of a strong interspecific competition for accessing the baits, reducing the risk of being accidentally hooked. 5. Synthesis and applications. The suspicion of a significant impact of longline fishing on the black-footed albatross

  3. Factors Associated with Survival in a Contemporary Adult Sickle Cell Disease Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Elmariah, Hany; Garrett, Melanie E.; De Castro, Laura M.; Jonassaint, Jude; Ataga, Kenneth I.; Eckman, James; Ashley-Koch, Allison E.; Telen, Marilyn J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relationship of clinical differences among sickle cell disease (SCD) patients in order to understand the major contributors to early mortality in a contemporary cohort. Survival data were obtained for 542 adult subjects who were enrolled since 2002 at three university hospitals in the southeast United States. Subjects were followed for a median of 9.3 years. At enrollment, clinical parameters were collected, including hemoglobin (Hb) genotype, baseline laboratory values, comorbidities, and medication usage. Levels of soluble adhesion molecules were measured for a subset of 87 subjects. The relationship of clinical characteristics to survival was determined using regression analysis. Median age at enrollment was 32 years. Median survival was 61 years for all subjects. Median survival for Hb SS and Sβ0 was 58 years and for Hb SC and Sβ+ was 66 years. Elevated white blood count, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria, frequency of pain crises, pulmonary hypertension, cerebrovascular events, seizures, stroke, sVCAM-1 and short-acting narcotics use were significantly associated with decreased survival. 42% of subjects were on hydroxyurea therapy, which was not associated with survival. SCD continues to reduce life expectancy for affected individuals, particularly those with Hb Sβ0 and SS. Not only were comorbidities individually associated with decreased survival, but an additive effect was observed, so that those with a greater number of negative endpoints had worse survival (p<0.0001). The association of higher sVCAM-1 levels with decreased survival suggests that targeted therapies to reduce endothelial damage and inflammation may also be beneficial. PMID:24478166

  4. Novel estimates of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population size and adult survival based on Wolbachia releases.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Scott A; Montgomery, Brian L; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2013-05-01

    The size of Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquito populations and adult survival rates have proven difficult to estimate because of a lack of consistent quantitative measures to equate sampling methods, such as adult trapping, to actual population size. However, such estimates are critical for devising control methods and for modeling the transmission of dengue and other infectious agents carried by this species. Here we take advantage of recent releases of Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti coupled with the results of ongoing monitoring to estimate the size of adult Ae. aegypti populations around Cairns in far north Queensland, Australia. Based on the association between released adults infected with Wolbachia and data from Biogents Sentinel traps, we show that data from two locations are consistent with population estimates of approximately 5-10 females per house and daily survival rates of 0.7-0.9 for the released Wolbachia-infected females. Moreover, we estimate that networks of Biogents Sentinel traps at a density of one per 15 houses capture around 5-10% of the adult population per week, and provide a rapid estimate of the absolute population size of Ae. aegypti. These data are discussed with respect to release rates and monitoring in future Wolbachia releases and also the levels of suppression required to reduce dengue transmission.

  5. Genomic analysis of adult B-ALL identifies potential markers of shorter survival.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shiven; Mason, Clinton C; Glenn, Martha J; Paxton, Christian N; South, Sara T; Cessna, Melissa H; Asch, Julie; Cobain, Erin F; Bixby, Dale L; Smith, Lauren B; Reshmi, Shalini; Gastier-Foster, Julie M; Schiffman, Joshua D; Miles, Rodney R

    2017-05-01

    B lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) in adults has a higher risk of relapse and lower long-term survival than pediatric B-ALL, but data regarding genetic prognostic biomarkers are much more limited for adult patients. We identified 70 adult B-ALL patients from three institutions and performed genome-wide analysis via single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays on DNA isolated from their initial diagnostic sample and, when available, relapse bone marrow specimens to identify recurring copy number alterations (CNA). As B-cell developmental genes play a crucial role in this leukemia, we assessed such for recurrent deletions in diagnostic and relapse samples. We confirmed previous findings that the most prevalent deletions of these genes occur in CDKN2A, IKZF1, and PAX5, with several others at lower frequencies. Of the 16 samples having paired diagnostic and relapse samples, 5 showed new deletions in these recurrent B-cell related genes and 8 showed abolishment. Deletion of EBF1 heralded a significant negative prognostic impact on relapse free survival in univariate and multivariate analyses. The combination of both a CDKN2A/B deletion and an IKZF1 alteration (26% of cases) also showed a trend toward predicting worse overall survival compared to having only one or neither of these deletions. These findings add to the understanding of genomic influences on this comparably understudied disease cohort that upon further validation may help identify patients who would benefit from upfront treatment intensification.

  6. Estimating annual survival and movement rates of adults within a metapopulation of roseate terns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Hays, H.; Cormons, G.D.; Burger, J.; Safina, C.; Hines, J.E.; Gochfeld, M.

    1995-01-01

    Several multistratum capture-recapture models were used to test various hypotheses about possible geographic and temporal variation in survival, movement, and recapture/resighting probabilities of 2399 adult Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) color-banded from 1988 to 1992 at the sites of the four largest breeding colonies of this species in the northeastern USA. Linear-logistic ultrastructural models also were developed to investigate possible correlates of geographic variation in movement probabilities. Based on goodness-of-fit tests and comparisons of Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) values, the fully parameterized model (Model A) with time- and location-specific survival, movement, and capture probabilities, was selected as the most appropriate model for this metapopulation structure. With almost all movement accounted for, on average gt 90% of the surviving adults from each colony site returned to the same site the following year. Variations in movement probabilities were more closely associated with the identity of the destination colony site than with either the identity of the colony site of origin or the distance between colony sites. The average annual survival estimates (0.740.84) of terns from all four sites indicate a high rate of annual mortality relative to that of other species of marine birds.

  7. Relative influence of human harvest, carnivores, and weather on adult female elk survival across western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brodie, Jedediah; Johnson, Heather; Mitchell, Michael; Zager, Peter; Proffitt, Kelly; Hebblewhite, Mark; Kauffman, Matthew; Johnson, Bruce; Bissonette, John; Bishop, Chad; Gude, Justin; Herbert, Jeff; Hersey, Kent; Hurley, Mark; Lukacs, Paul M.; McCorquodale, Scott; McIntire, Eliot; Nowak, Josh; Sawyer, Hall; Smith, Douglas; White, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Well-informed management of harvested species requires understanding how changing ecological conditions affect demography and population dynamics, information that is lacking for many species. We have limited understanding of the relative influence of carnivores, harvest, weather and forage availability on elk Cervus elaphus demography, despite the ecological and economic importance of this species. We assessed adult female survival, a key vital rate for population dynamics, from 2746 radio-collared elk in 45 populations across western North America that experience wide variation in carnivore assemblage, harvest, weather and habitat conditions. Proportional hazard analysis revealed that 'baseline' (i.e. not related to human factors) mortality was higher with very high winter precipitation, particularly in populations sympatric with wolves Canis lupus. Mortality may increase via nutritional stress and heightened vulnerability to predation in snowy winters. Baseline mortality was unrelated to puma Puma concolor presence, forest cover or summer forage productivity. Cause-specific mortality analyses showed that wolves and all carnivore species combined had additive effects on baseline elk mortality, but only reduced survival by <2%. When human factors were included, ‘total’ adult mortality was solely related to harvest; the influence of native carnivores was compensatory. Annual total mortality rates were lowest in populations sympatric with both pumas and wolves because managers reduced female harvest in areas with abundant or diverse carnivores. Mortality from native carnivores peaked in late winter and early spring, while harvest-induced mortality peaked in autumn. The strong peak in harvest-induced mortality during the autumn hunting season decreased as the number of native carnivore species increased. Synthesis and applications. Elevated baseline adult female elk mortality from wolves in years with high winter precipitation could affect elk abundance as

  8. Physical Fitness Measures as Potential Markers of Low Cognitive Function in Japanese Community-Dwelling Older Adults without Apparent Cognitive Problems.

    PubMed

    Narazaki, Kenji; Matsuo, Eri; Honda, Takanori; Nofuji, Yu; Yonemoto, Koji; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2014-09-01

    Detecting signs of cognitive impairment as early as possible is one of the most urgent challenges in preventive care of dementia. It has still been unclear whether physical fitness measures can serve as markers of low cognitive function, a sign of cognitive impairment, in older people free from dementia. The aim of the present study was to examine an association between each of five physical fitness measures and global cognition in Japanese community-dwelling older adults without apparent cognitive problems. The baseline research of the Sasaguri Genkimon Study was conducted from May to August 2011 in Sasaguri town, Fukuoka, Japan. Of the 2,629 baseline subjects who were aged 65 years or older and not certified as individuals requiring nursing care by the town, 1,552 participants without apparent cognitive problems (Mini-Mental State Examination score ≥24) were involved in the present study (59.0% of the baseline subjects, median age: 72 years, men: 40.1%). Global cognitive function was measured by the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Handgrip strength, leg strength, sit-to-stand rate, gait speed, and one-leg stand time were examined as physical fitness measures. In multiple linear regression analyses, each of the five physical fitness measures was positively associated with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment score after adjusting for age and sex (p < 0.001). These associations were preserved after additional adjustment for years of formal education, body mass index, and other confounding factors (p < 0.001). The present study first demonstrated the associations between multiple aspects of physical fitness and global cognitive function in Japanese community-dwelling older people without apparent cognitive problems. These results suggest that each of the physical fitness measures has a potential as a single marker of low cognitive function in older populations free from dementia and thereby can be useful in community-based preventive care of

  9. Effects of food restriction across stages of juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and adult life history.

    PubMed

    Wong, J W Y; Kölliker, M

    2014-11-01

    Organisms have to allocate limited resources among multiple life-history traits, which can result in physiological trade-offs, and variation in environmental conditions experienced during ontogeny can influence reproduction later in life. Food restriction may lead to an adaptive reallocation of the limited resources among traits as a phenotypically plastic adjustment, or it can act as an overall constraint with detrimental effects throughout reproductive life. In this study, we investigated experimentally the effects of food restriction during different stages of the juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and reproductive success in females and males of the European earwig Forficula auricularia. Individuals either received limited or unlimited access to food across three different stages of development (fully crossed) allowing us to identify sensitive periods during development and to test both additive and interactive effects of food limitation across stages on development and reproduction. Food restriction during the early and late juvenile stage had additive negative effects on juvenile survival and adult body weight. With regard to reproductive success of females which produce up to two clutches in their lifetime, restriction specifically in the late juvenile stage led to smaller first and second clutch size, lower probability of second clutch production and reduced hatching success in the second clutch. Reproductive success of females was not significantly affected when their male mates experienced food restriction during their development. Our findings in general support the 'silver-spoon' hypothesis in that food restriction during juvenile development poses constraints on development and reproduction throughout life.

  10. Changes in the apparent survival of a tropical bird in response to the El Niño Southern Oscillation in mature and young forest in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Jared D; Ralph, C John; Elizondo, Pablo

    2015-07-01

    The effects of habitat alteration and climatic instability have resulted in the loss of bird populations throughout the globe. Tropical birds in particular may be sensitive to climate and habitat change because of their niche specialization, often sedentary nature, and unique life-cycle phenologies. Despite the potential influence of habitat and climatic interactions on tropical birds, we lack comparisons of avian demographics from variably aged forests subject to different climatic phenomena. Here, we measured relationships between forest type and climatic perturbations on White-collared Manakin (Manacus candei), a frugivorous tropical bird, by using 12 years of capture data in young and mature forests in northeastern Costa Rica. We used Cormack-Jolly-Seber models and an analysis of deviance to contrast the influence of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on manakin survival. We found that ENSO had little effect on manakin survival in mature forests. Conversely, in young forests, ENSO explained 79% of the variation where dry El Niño events negatively influenced manikin survival. We believe mature forest mitigated negative effects of dry El Niño periods and can serve as refugia for some species by buffering birds from climatic instability. Our results represent the first published documentation that ENSO influences the survival of a resident Neotropic landbird.

  11. Annual survival rates of adult and immature eastern population tundra swans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Bart, J.; Limpert, R.J.; Sladen, William J. L.; Hines, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus ) of the eastern population were neckbanded in Maryland, North Carolina, and Alaska from 1966 through 1990. These swans were resighted and recaptured during autumn, winter, and spring, 1966-1990. Although the original motivation for this study involved swan movements, we wanted to use the resulting data to test hypotheses about sources of variation in swan survival rates. Recaptures of legbanded and neckbanded swans permitted us to estimate neckband loss rates, which were found to vary with age and sex of swans, and number of years since initial application. Estimates of annual neckband retention rate ranged from about 0.50 for adult male swans greater than or equal to 2 years after initial neckbanding to > 0.96 for immature swans and adult females the first year following neckbanding. This variation in neckband loss rates prevented the simple correction of survival estimates to account for such loss. Consequently, we developed a series of multinomial models parameterized with survival, sighting, and neckband retention probabilities for use with the recapture and resighting data.

  12. High prevalence of “Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae” and apparent exclusion of Rickettsia parkeri in adult Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae) from Kansas and Oklahoma

    PubMed Central

    Paddock, Christopher D.; Denison, Amy M.; Dryden, Michael W.; Noden, Bruce H.; Lash, R. Ryan; Abdelghani, Sarah S.; Evans, Anna E.; Kelly, Aubree R.; Hecht, Joy A.; Karpathy, Sandor E.; Ganta, Roman R.; Little, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Amblyomma maculatum (the Gulf Coast tick), an aggressive, human-biting, Nearctic and Neotropical tick, is the principal vector of Rickettsia parkeri in the United States. This pathogenic spotted fever group Rickettsia species has been identified in 8–52% of questing adult Gulf Coast ticks in the southeastern United States. To our knowledge, R. parkeri has not been reported previously from adult specimens of A. maculatum collected in Kansas or Oklahoma. A total of 216 adult A. maculatum ticks were collected from 18 counties in Kansas and Oklahoma during 2011–2014 and evaluated by molecular methods for evidence of infection with R. parkeri. No infections with this agent were identified; however, 47% of 94 ticks collected from Kansas and 73% of 122 ticks from Oklahoma were infected with “Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae” a spotted fever group Rickettsia species of undetermined pathogenicity. These preliminary data suggest that “Ca. R. andeanae” is well-adapted to survival in populations of A. maculatum in Kansas and Oklahoma, and that its ubiquity in Gulf Coast ticks in these states may effectively exclude R. parkeri from their shared arthropod host, which could diminish markedly or preclude entirely the occurrence of R. parkeri rickettsiosis in this region of the United States. PMID:25773931

  13. Effects of low level laser treatment on the survival of axotomized retinal ganglion cells in adult Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    So, Kwok-Fai; Leung, Mason Chin Pang; Cui, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Injury to axons close to the neuronal bodies in the mammalian central nervous system causes a large proportion of parenting neurons to degenerate. It is known that optic nerve transection close to the eye in rodents leads to a loss of about half of retinal ganglion cells in 1 week and about 90% in 2 weeks. Using low level laser treatment in the present study, we demonstrated that treatment with helium-neon (660 nm) laser with 15 mW power could delay retinal ganglion cell death after optic nerve axotomy in adult hamsters. The effect was most apparent in the first week with a short period of treatment time (5 minutes) in which 65–66% of retinal ganglion cells survived the optic nerve axotomy whereas 45–47% of retinal ganglion cells did so in optic nerve axotomy controls. We also found that single dose and early commencement of laser irradiation were important in protecting retinal ganglion cells following optic nerve axotomy. These findings thus convincingly show that appropriate laser treatment may be neuroprotective to retinal ganglion cells. PMID:25558230

  14. Survival and other observations of adult female northern pintails molting in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.R.; Fleskes, J.P.; Orthmeyer, D.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    Survival rates of nine adult female Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) that became flightless after being radio-marked in the Sacramento Valley, California in August 1987-1989 were estimated. Seven of the radio-marked pintails molted in the Sacramento Valley, a nontraditional molting region, and two flew 280 km north to the Klamath Basin to molt. Molting marshes were dominated by emergent vegetation in both locations. Two ducks, while flightless in the Sacramento Valley, were killed by predators. Molting pintails remained sedentary (did not fly) for an average of 36 d, and the daily survival rate during this period was 0.9934. The resulting sedentary-period survival rate was 0.79. Primary feather 9 on two captive ducks grew an average of 4.2 mm per day. Mean body mass of molting ducks that died was lower than that for molting ducks that survived (P < 0.10). The number of pintails molting on Sacramento Valley refuges is probably <200.

  15. Adult survival of Black-legged Kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla in a Pacific colony

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Scott A.; Roberts, Bay D.; Fadely, Brian S.

    1993-01-01

    Breeding Black-legged Kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla survived at a mean annual rate of 0.926 in four years at a colony in Alaska. Survival rates observed in sexed males (0.930) and females (0.937) did not differ significantly. The rate of return among nonbreeding Kittiwakes (0.839) was lower than that of known breeders, presumably because more nonbreeders moved away from the study plots where they were marked. Individual nonbreeders frequented sites up to 5 km apart on the same island, while a few established breeders moved up to 2.5 km between years. Mate retention in breeding Kittiwakes averaged 69% in three years. Among pairs that split, the cause of changing mates was about equally divided between death (46%) and divorce (54%). Average adult life expectancy was estimated at 13.0 years. Combined with annual productivity averaging 0.17 chick per nest, the observed survival was insufficient for maintaining population size. Rather, an irregular decline observed in the study colony since 1981 is consistent with the model of a closed population with little or no recruitment. Compared to their Atlantic counterparts, Pacific Kittiwakes have low productivity and high survival. The question arises whether differences reflect phenotypic plasticity or genetically determined variation in population parameters.

  16. Production and survival of projection neurons in a forebrain vocal center of adult male canaries

    SciTech Connect

    Kirn, J.R.; Alvarez-Buylla, A.; Nottebohm, F. )

    1991-06-01

    Neurons are produced in the adult canary telencephalon. Many of these cells are incorporated into the high vocal center (nucleus HVC), which participates in the control of learned song. In the present work, 3H-thymidine and fluorogold were employed to follow the differentiation and survival of HVC neurons born in adulthood. We found that many HVC neurons born in September grow long axons to the robust nucleus of the archistriatum (nucleus RA) and thus become part of the efferent pathway for song control. Many of these new neurons have already established their connections with RA by 30 d after their birth. By 240 d, 75-80% of the September-born HVC neurons project to RA. Most of these new projection neurons survive at least 8 months. The longevity of HVC neurons born in September suggests that these cells remain part of the vocal control circuit long enough to participate in the yearly renewal of the song repertoire.

  17. Cancer incidence and survival in adolescents and young adults in France, 2000-2008.

    PubMed

    Desandes, Emmanuel; Lacour, Brigitte; Belot, Aurélien; Molinie, Florence; Delafosse, Patricia; Tretarre, Brigitte; Velten, Michel; Sauleau, Erik-André; Woronoff, Anne-Sophie; Guizard, Anne-Valérie; Ganry, Olivier; Bara, Simona; Grosclaude, Pascale; Troussard, Xavier; Bouvier, Véronique; Brugieres, Laurence; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to describe cancer incidence (2000-2008) and survival (2000-2004) in France in adolescents and young adults (AYA). All cases of cancer diagnosed in 15-24 years, recorded by all French population-based registries (14% of the French population), over the 2000-2008 period, were included. Incidence change over time was described with the conventional annual percentage change (cAPC). The survival of cases diagnosed (2000-2004) was estimated using Kaplan-Meier method. A total of 1022 in adolescents and 1396 in young adults were diagnosed. Overall incidence rates were 219.4/10(6) in 15-19 year olds and 293.1/10(6) in 20-24 year olds. The most frequently diagnosed cancers in male AYA were malignant gonadal germ-cell tumors and Hodgkin's disease, and were melanoma, thyroid carcinoma, and Hodgkin's disease in females. The age-standardized rates appeared stable over time in AYA, with a cAPC of +2.0% (P = 0.68). The 5-year overall survival for all cancers was different between genders and age groups, with 78.8% (95%CI: 75.6-82.0) for males and 85.2% (95%CI: 82.2-88.1) for females (P = 0.01), and 78.5% (95%CI: 75.0-82.1) in 15-19 year olds and 84.3% (95% CI: 81.6-87.0) in 20-24 year olds (P = 0.02). Noteworthy, the frequency and the distribution of tumor types in AYA are unique and different from the observed at any other age group. Survival in French AYA has improved over time. Epidemiological data might reflect major trends in the risk factors and preventive interventions. Thus, further research into etiology of cancers affecting AYA should become key priorities for cancer control among AYA.

  18. Epithelial magnesium transport by TRPM6 is essential for prenatal development and adult survival

    PubMed Central

    Chubanov, Vladimir; Ferioli, Silvia; Wisnowsky, Annika; Simmons, David G; Leitzinger, Christin; Einer, Claudia; Jonas, Wenke; Shymkiv, Yuriy; Bartsch, Harald; Braun, Attila; Akdogan, Banu; Mittermeier, Lorenz; Sytik, Ludmila; Torben, Friedrich; Jurinovic, Vindi; van der Vorst, Emiel PC; Weber, Christian; Yildirim, Önder A; Sotlar, Karl; Schürmann, Annette; Zierler, Susanna; Zischka, Hans; Ryazanov, Alexey G; Gudermann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Mg2+ regulates many physiological processes and signalling pathways. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the organismal balance of Mg2+. Capitalizing on a set of newly generated mouse models, we provide an integrated mechanistic model of the regulation of organismal Mg2+ balance during prenatal development and in adult mice by the ion channel TRPM6. We show that TRPM6 activity in the placenta and yolk sac is essential for embryonic development. In adult mice, TRPM6 is required in the intestine to maintain organismal Mg2+ balance, but is dispensable in the kidney. Trpm6 inactivation in adult mice leads to a shortened lifespan, growth deficit and metabolic alterations indicative of impaired energy balance. Dietary Mg2+ supplementation not only rescues all phenotypes displayed by Trpm6-deficient adult mice, but also may extend the lifespan of wildtype mice. Hence, maintenance of organismal Mg2+ balance by TRPM6 is crucial for prenatal development and survival to adulthood. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20914.001 PMID:27991852

  19. Survival Trends After Surgery for Acute Subdural Hematoma in Adults Over a 20-year Period

    PubMed Central

    Fountain, Daniel M.; Kolias, Angelos G.; Lecky, Fiona E.; Bouamra, Omar; Lawrence, Thomas; Adams, Hadie; Bond, Simon J.; Hutchinson, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine 30-day survival trends and prognostic factors following surgery for acute subdural hematomas (ASDHs) in England and Wales over a 20-year period. Summary of Background Data: ASDHs are still considered the most lethal type of traumatic brain injury. It remains unclear whether the adjusted odds of survival have improved significantly over time. Methods: Using the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) database, we analyzed ASDH cases in the adult population (>16 yrs) treated surgically between 1994 and 2013. Two thousand four hundred ninety-eight eligible cases were identified. Univariable and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed, using multiple imputation for missing data. Results: The cohort was 74% male with a median age of 48.9 years. Over half of patients were comatose at presentation (53%). Mechanism of injury was due to a fall (<2 m 34%, >2 m 24%), road traffic collision (25%), and other (17%). Thirty-six per cent of patients presented with polytrauma. Gross survival increased from 59% in 1994 to 1998 to 73% in 2009 to 2013. Under multivariable analysis, variables independently associated with survival were year of injury, Glasgow Coma Scale, Injury Severity Score, age, and pupil reactivity. The time interval from injury to craniotomy and direct admission to a neurosurgical unit were not found to be significant prognostic factors. Conclusions: A significant improvement in survival over the last 20 years was observed after controlling for multiple prognostic factors. Prospective trials and cohort studies are expected to elucidate the distribution of functional outcome in survivors. PMID:27172128

  20. Effects of ambient air temperature, humidity and rainfall on annual survival of adult little penguins Eudyptula minor in southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganendran, L. B.; Sidhu, L. A.; Catchpole, E. A.; Chambers, L. E.; Dann, P.

    2016-08-01

    Seabirds are subject to the influences of local climate variables during periods of land-based activities such as breeding and, for some species, moult; particularly if they undergo a catastrophic moult (complete simultaneous moult) as do penguins. We investigated potential relationships between adult penguin survival and land-based climate variables (ambient air temperature, humidity and rainfall) using 46 years of mark-recapture data of little penguins Eudyptula minor gathered at a breeding colony on Phillip Island in southeastern Australia. Our results showed that adult penguin survival had a stronger association with land-based climate variables during the moult period, when birds were unable to go to sea for up to 3 weeks, than during the breeding period, when birds could sacrifice breeding success in favour of survival. Annual adult survival probability was positively associated with humidity during moult and negatively associated with rainfall during moult. Prolonged heat during breeding and moult had a negative association with annual adult survival. Local climate projections suggest increasing days of high temperatures, fewer days of rainfall which will result in more droughts (and by implication, lower humidity) and more extreme rainfall events. All of these predicted climate changes are expected to have a negative impact on adult penguin survival.

  1. Knockout of Atg5 delays the maturation and reduces the survival of adult-generated neurons in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Y; Dhaliwal, J S; Ceizar, M; Vaculik, M; Kumar, K L; Lagace, D C

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved lysosomal degradation pathway that plays important roles in cell maintenance, expansion and differentiation. Removal of genes essential for autophagy from embryonic neural stem and precursor cells reduces the survival and inhibits neuronal differentiation of adult-generated neurons. No study has modified autophagy within the adult precursor cells, leaving the cell-autonomous role of autophagy in adult neurogenesis unknown. Here we demonstrate that autophagic flux exists in the adult dividing progenitor cells and their progeny in the dentate gyrus. To investigate the role of autophagy in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, we genetically deleted Autophagy-related gene 5 (Atg5) that reduced autophagic flux and the survival of the progeny of dividing progenitor cells. This significant reduction in survival of adult-generated neurons is accompanied by a delay in neuronal maturation, including a transient reduction in spine density in the absence of a change in differentiation. The delay in cell maturation and loss of progeny of the Atg5-null cells was not present in mice that lacked the essential pro-apoptotic protein Bax (Bcl-2-associated X protein), suggesting that Atg5-deficient cells die through a Bax-dependent mechanism. In addition, there was a loss of Atg5-null cells following exposure to running, suggesting that Atg5 is required for running-induced increases in neurogenesis. These findings highlight the cell-autonomous requirement of Atg5 in the survival of adult-generated neurons. PMID:26938300

  2. Evidence of reduced individual heterogeneity in adult survival of long-lived species.

    PubMed

    Péron, Guillaume; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Barbraud, Christophe; Bonenfant, Christophe; Charmantier, Anne; Choquet, Rémi; Coulson, Tim; Grosbois, Vladimir; Loison, Anne; Marzolin, Gilbert; Owen-Smith, Norman; Pardo, Déborah; Plard, Floriane; Pradel, Roger; Toïgo, Carole; Gimenez, Olivier

    2016-12-01

    The canalization hypothesis postulates that the rate at which trait variation generates variation in the average individual fitness in a population determines how buffered traits are against environmental and genetic factors. The ranking of a species on the slow-fast continuum - the covariation among life-history traits describing species-specific life cycles along a gradient going from a long life, slow maturity, and low annual reproductive output, to a short life, fast maturity, and high annual reproductive output - strongly correlates with the relative fitness impact of a given amount of variation in adult survival. Under the canalization hypothesis, long-lived species are thus expected to display less individual heterogeneity in survival at the onset of adulthood, when reproductive values peak, than short-lived species. We tested this life-history prediction by analysing long-term time series of individual-based data in nine species of birds and mammals using capture-recapture models. We found that individual heterogeneity in survival was higher in species with short-generation time (< 3 years) than in species with long generation time (> 4 years). Our findings provide the first piece of empirical evidence for the canalization hypothesis at the individual level from the wild.

  3. Multicenter study on caries risk assessment in adults using survival Classification and Regression Trees

    PubMed Central

    Arino, Masumi; Ito, Ataru; Fujiki, Shozo; Sugiyama, Seiichi; Hayashi, Mikako

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries is an important public health problem worldwide. This study aims to prove how preventive therapies reduce the onset of caries in adult patients, and to identify patients with high or low risk of caries by using Classification and Regression Trees based survival analysis (survival CART). A clinical data set of 732 patients aged 20 to 64 years in nine Japanese general practices was analyzed with the following parameters: age, DMFT, number of mutans streptococci (SM) and Lactobacilli (LB), secretion rate and buffer capacity of saliva, and compliance with a preventive program. Results showed the incidence of primary carious lesion was affected by SM, LB and compliance with a preventive program; secondary carious lesion was affected by DMFT, SM and LB. Survival CART identified high-risk patients for primary carious lesion according to their poor compliance with a preventive program and SM (≥106 CFU/ml) with a hazard ratio of 3.66 (p = 0.0002). In the case of secondary caries, patients with LB (≥105 CFU/ml) and DMFT (>15) were identified as high risk with a hazard ratio of 3.50 (p < 0.0001). We conclude that preventive programs can be effective in limiting the incidence of primary carious lesion. PMID:27381750

  4. Estimating the effect of hunting on annual survival rates of adult mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, Kenneth P.; White, Gary C.; Anderson, David R.

    1984-01-01

    Management programs for waterfowl populations include rationale for, and establishment of, hunting regulations. These programs rest partially on the results of scientific studies on the effect of harvest rates on annual survival rates. The evidence of this relationship has changed markedly since the mid-1970's, and it is not widely believed that a largely compensatory relationship exists between hunting mortality and other forms of mortality for the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). This paper employs a general probabilistic model formulated to include a parameter (b) representing a continuum between complete compensation (b=0) and total additivity (b=1). Maximum likelihood estimates of this parameter were computer for 47 data sets of adult mallards banded throughout North American before hunting commenced. We found additional evidence of a highly compensatory mortality process for adult male mallards, while the evidence for adults female mallards remains inconclusive. Effective harvest, land acquisition, and land management programs depend upon additional information on the chronology and mechanisms underlying a compensatory mortality process.

  5. Doublecortin (DCX) is not Essential for Survival and Differentiation of Newborn Neurons in the Adult Mouse Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Dhaliwal, Jagroop; Xi, Yanwei; Bruel-Jungerman, Elodie; Germain, Johanne; Francis, Fiona; Lagace, Diane C.

    2016-01-01

    In the adult brain, expression of the microtubule-associated protein Doublecortin (DCX) is associated with neural progenitor cells (NPCs) that give rise to new neurons in the dentate gyrus. Many studies quantify the number of DCX-expressing cells as a proxy for the level of adult neurogenesis, yet no study has determined the effect of removing DCX from adult hippocampal NPCs. Here, we use a retroviral and inducible mouse transgenic approach to either knockdown or knockout DCX from adult NPCs in the dentate gyrus and examine how this affects cell survival and neuronal maturation. Our results demonstrate that shRNA-mediated knockdown of DCX or Cre-mediated recombination in floxed DCX mice does not alter hippocampal neurogenesis and does not change the neuronal fate of the NPCs. Together these findings show that the survival and maturation of adult-generated hippocampal neurons does not require DCX. PMID:26793044

  6. Cancer Incidence and Survival among Adolescents and Young Adults in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eun-Kyeong; Park, Hyeon Jin; Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Kyu-Won; Shin, Hee Young; Park, Byung Kiu; Won, Young-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Background In Korea, cancer is the third leading cause of death among adolescents and young adults (AYAs). However, cancer incidence and survival trends among AYAs (15–29 years) have never been studied in Korea. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the incidence and relative survival rates and their trends among AYAs in Korea. Materials and Methods Cancer incidence data from 1999–2010 were obtained from the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR). Each cancer was classified into subgroups according to the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) AYA site recode. Percent distributions, age-specific incidence rates, age-standardized incidence rates per million, and annual percent changes (APCs) were calculated for AYAs according to sex. Five-year relative survival rates were estimated for cases diagnosed between 1993 and 2010 and followed up to 2011. Results The age-standardized incidence rates of all cancers combined were 196.4 and 367.8 per million for males and females, respectively (male-to-female (M/F) ratio: 0.5). The age-standardized incidence rates increased from 208.7 per million in 1999 to 396.4 per million in 2010, and the APC was 6.3% (P<0.001). The five most common cancers among AYAs were thyroid carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, stomach carcinoma, breast carcinoma, and acute myeloid leukemia. In males, the 5-year relative survival rate improved, from 46.5% in 1993–1995 to 75.9% in 2006–2010. In females, the 5-year relative survival rate also improved, from 66.7% in 1993–1995 to 89.1% in 2006–2010. Conclusions Our study showed increases in cancer incidence and improvements in the 5-year relative survival rate among Korean AYAs. This study also provides additional data regarding temporal and geographic trends in cancer that may enhance future efforts to identify factors affecting cancer incidence and responses to treatment among AYAs. PMID:24789075

  7. Global divergence in critical income for adult and childhood survival: analyses of mortality using Michaelis-Menten.

    PubMed

    Hum, Ryan J; Jha, Prabhat; McGahan, Anita M; Cheng, Yu-Ling

    2012-12-13

    Life expectancy has risen sharply in the last 50 years. We applied the classic Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics to demonstrate a novel mathematical relationship of income to childhood (aged 0-5 years) and adult (aged 15-60 years) survival. We treat income as a substrate that is catalyzed to increase survival (from technologies that income buys) for 180 countries from 1970 and 2007. Michaelis-Menten kinetics permit estimates of maximal survival and, uniquely, the critical income needed to achieve half of the period-specific maximum. Maximum child and adult survival rose by about 1% per year. Critical incomes fell by half for children, but doubled for men. HIV infection and smoking account for some, but not all, of the rising critical incomes for adult survival. Altering the future cost curve for adult survival will require more widespread use of current interventions, most notably tobacco control, but also research to identify practicable low-cost drugs, diagnostics, and strategies.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00051.001.

  8. High juvenile mortality is associated with sex-specific adult survival and lifespan in wild roe deer.

    PubMed

    Garratt, Michael; Lemaître, Jean-François; Douhard, Mathieu; Bonenfant, Christophe; Capron, Gilles; Warnant, Claude; Klein, François; Brooks, Robert C; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2015-03-16

    Male mammals typically have shorter lifespans than females [1]. Sex differences in survival may result, in part, from sex-specific optima in investment in reproduction, with higher male mortality rates from sexual competition selecting for a "live-fast die-young" strategy in this sex [2]. In the wild, lifespan is also influenced by environmental conditions experienced early in life. Poor conditions elevate juvenile mortality, which may selectively remove individuals with a particular phenotype or genotype from a cohort [3], and can alter the subsequent phenotypic condition and fate of those that survive to adulthood [4]. Males and females can respond differently to the same early-life environmental experiences [5, 6], but whether such environmental pressures generate sex differences in lifespan has rarely been considered. We show that sex differences in adult survival and lifespan in cohorts of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) range from virtually absent in some years to females living 30% longer than males in others. The extent of this sex difference in adult longevity is strongly linked to the level of mortality each cohort experiences as juveniles, with high juvenile mortality generating a strong sex difference in both adult survival and lifespan. In females, high juvenile mortality leads to increased adult survival for those remaining individuals, whereas in males survival is actually reduced. Early environmental conditions and the selective pressures they impose may help to explain variability in sex-specific aging across animal taxa.

  9. Cancer incidence and survival (1997-2006) among adolescents and young adults in the north of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Helena; Antunes, Luís; Castro, Clara; Lunet, Nuno; Bento, Maria José

    2012-10-01

    Cancer is the first cause of natural death among young subjects. Population-based statistics are important to evaluate the burden of disease and the effectiveness of healthcare provision. We aimed to describe cancer incidence and survival among adolescents (15-19 years) and young adults (20-24 years) in the north of Portugal. Data on the cancers diagnosed between 1997 and 2006 were obtained from the Portuguese North Region Cancer Registry, and incidence rates were computed. Vital status was determined until December 2010. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier survival function. Trends on cancer incidence were assessed using the Joinpoint regression analysis. A total of 1223 cases were diagnosed: 441 among adolescents and 782 among young adults. Overall incidence rate was 198.3 per million adolescents [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 135.7-260.9] and 306.2 per million young adults (95% CI: 262.3-350.0). The most frequent tumors were Hodgkin lymphoma (adolescents: 21.0%; young adults: 14.8%), thyroid carcinoma (adolescents: 11.5%; young adults: 16.2%), and germ cell tumors (adolescents: 11.1%; young adults: 16.3%). Cancer incidence significantly increased among young adults [annual average percent change: 3.6%, (95% CI: 1.7-5.4)], while appears to vary randomly among adolescents. Overall five-year observed survival was 77.2% (95% CI: 72.9%-80.8%) among adolescents and 81.3% (95% CI: 78.4%-83.9%) among young adults, lower in males. In conclusion, cancer incidence among adolescents and young adults is higher in the north of Portugal than in other European countries, especially of thyroid tumors. Between 1997 and 2006, the incidence increased significantly in young adults.

  10. Conspecific Leaf Litter-Mediated Effect of Conspecific Adult Neighborhood on Early-Stage Seedling Survival in A Subtropical Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Heming; Shen, Guochun; Ma, Zunping; Yang, Qingsong; Xia, Jianyang; Fang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xihua

    2016-11-01

    Conspecific adults have strong negative effect on the survival of nearby early-stage seedlings and thus can promote species coexistence by providing space for the regeneration of heterospecifics. The leaf litter fall from the conspecific adults, and it could mediate this conspecific negative adult effect. However, field evidence for such effect of conspecific leaf litter remains absent. In this study, we used generalized linear mixed models to assess the effects of conspecific leaf litter on the early-stage seedling survival of four dominant species (Machilus leptophylla, Litsea elongate, Acer pubinerve and Distylium myricoides) in early-stage seedlings in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in eastern China. Our results consistently showed that the conspecific leaf litter of three species negatively affected the seedling survival. Meanwhile, the traditional conspecific adult neighborhood indices failed to detect this negative conspecific adult effect. Our study revealed that the accumulation of conspecific leaf litter around adults can largely reduce the survival rate of nearby seedlings. Ignoring it could result in underestimation of the importance of negative density dependence and negative species interactions in the natural forest communities.

  11. Conspecific Leaf Litter-Mediated Effect of Conspecific Adult Neighborhood on Early-Stage Seedling Survival in A Subtropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Heming; Shen, Guochun; Ma, Zunping; Yang, Qingsong; Xia, Jianyang; Fang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xihua

    2016-01-01

    Conspecific adults have strong negative effect on the survival of nearby early-stage seedlings and thus can promote species coexistence by providing space for the regeneration of heterospecifics. The leaf litter fall from the conspecific adults, and it could mediate this conspecific negative adult effect. However, field evidence for such effect of conspecific leaf litter remains absent. In this study, we used generalized linear mixed models to assess the effects of conspecific leaf litter on the early-stage seedling survival of four dominant species (Machilus leptophylla, Litsea elongate, Acer pubinerve and Distylium myricoides) in early-stage seedlings in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in eastern China. Our results consistently showed that the conspecific leaf litter of three species negatively affected the seedling survival. Meanwhile, the traditional conspecific adult neighborhood indices failed to detect this negative conspecific adult effect. Our study revealed that the accumulation of conspecific leaf litter around adults can largely reduce the survival rate of nearby seedlings. Ignoring it could result in underestimation of the importance of negative density dependence and negative species interactions in the natural forest communities. PMID:27886275

  12. Arsenic transformation predisposes human skin keratinocytes to UV-induced DNA damage yet enhances their survival apparently by diminishing oxidant response

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Yang; Kojima, Chikara; Chignell, Colin; Mason, Ronald; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2011-09-15

    Inorganic arsenic and UV, both human skin carcinogens, may act together as skin co-carcinogens. We find human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) are malignantly transformed by low-level arsenite (100 nM, 30 weeks; termed As-TM cells) and with transformation concurrently undergo full adaptation to arsenic toxicity involving reduced apoptosis and oxidative stress response to high arsenite concentrations. Oxidative DNA damage (ODD) is a possible mechanism in arsenic carcinogenesis and a hallmark of UV-induced skin cancer. In the current work, inorganic arsenite exposure (100 nM) did not induce ODD during the 30 weeks required for malignant transformation. Although acute UV-treatment (UVA, 25 J/cm{sup 2}) increased ODD in passage-matched control cells, once transformed by arsenic to As-TM cells, acute UV actually further increased ODD (> 50%). Despite enhanced ODD, As-TM cells were resistant to UV-induced apoptosis. The response of apoptotic factors and oxidative stress genes was strongly mitigated in As-TM cells after UV exposure including increased Bcl2/Bax ratio and reduced Caspase-3, Nrf2, and Keap1 expression. Several Nrf2-related genes (HO-1, GCLs, SOD) showed diminished responses in As-TM cells after UV exposure consistent with reduced oxidant stress response. UV-exposed As-TM cells showed increased expression of cyclin D1 (proliferation gene) and decreased p16 (tumor suppressor). UV exposure enhanced the malignant phenotype of As-TM cells. Thus, the co-carcinogenicity between UV and arsenic in skin cancer might involve adaptation to chronic arsenic exposure generally mitigating the oxidative stress response, allowing apoptotic by-pass after UV and enhanced cell survival even in the face of increased UV-induced oxidative stress and increased ODD. - Highlights: > Arsenic transformation adapted to UV-induced apoptosis. > Arsenic transformation diminished oxidant response. > Arsenic transformation enhanced UV-induced DNA damage.

  13. Geographic Variation in Adult Survival and Reproductive Tactics of the Mosquito Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    LEISNHAM, P. T.; SALA, L. M.; JULIANO, S. A.

    2008-01-01

    Climate differences across latitude can result in seasonal constraints and selection on life history characters. Since Aedes albopictus (Skuse) invaded North America in the mid-1980s, it has spread across a range of ≈14° latitude and populations in the north experience complete adult mortality due to cold winter temperatures that are absent in the south. Life table experiments were conducted to test for differences in the adult survival and reproductive schedules of Ae. albopictus females from two populations from the northern (Bloomington, IN [BL] and Manassas, VA [VA]; ≈39° N) and southern (Tampa, FL and Fort Myers, FL; ≈27–28° N) extremes of the species distribution in North America. Regardless of population origin, age-specific hazard rate increased with reproductive output and decreased with number of bloodmeals. Larger females took fewer bloodmeals, and they had greater hazard rates than did smaller females. There were no consistent differences between northern versus southern populations in resource allocation between reproduction and maintenance, reproduction over time, and reproductive investment among offspring, suggesting that latitudinal variation in climate is probably not a main selective factor impinging on adult mortality and reproductive schedules. One possible effect of climate on geographic differences in life history was detected. BL had lower survivorship, lower lifetime reproductive output, and lower adult reproductive rate than did all other populations. This result may be an indirect result of lower egg survivorship due to the severity of winter in BL compared with other populations, including VA at approximately the same latitude. Such a scenario may make the BL population more prone to extinction, irregularly recolonized from more favorable sites, and thus more susceptible to founder effects, genetic drift, and inbreeding, resulting in lower mean values of fitness-related traits. PMID:18402136

  14. Copulating with multiple mates enhances female fecundity but not egg-to-adult survival in the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Eady, P E; Wilson, N; Jackson, M

    2000-12-01

    Postcopulatory sexual selection theory has come a long way since the evolutionary implications of sperm competition were first spelled out by Parker (1970). However, one of the most enduring questions remains: why do females copulate with multiple males? Here we show that females copulating with multiple males lay more eggs than those copulating repeatedly with the same male. We also show egg-to-adult survival to be more variable when females copulate multiply with different males and less variable when they copulate multiply with the same male. This supports the notion that egg-to-adult survival may depend on the genetic compatibility of males and females. However, pre-adult survival was highest when females copulated repeatedly with the same male rather than with different males. Thus, it would appear that polyandry in this species does not function to reduce the risk of embryo failure resulting from fertilization by genetically incompatible sperm.

  15. Childhood cancer camps: their role in adults surviving childhood cancers lives.

    PubMed

    Beckwitt, Asher E

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the role that childhood cancer camps continue to play in the lives of adults surviving childhood cancers (ASCCs). Specifically, the purpose of this study is to understand the roles these camps play in enhancing ASCCs' psychosocial and emotional well-being and access to information. Twenty-three ASCCs participated in this study. Illness narratives were used to understand ASCCs' camp experiences. Three themes emerged from the data analysis to reflect ASCCs' experiences: (1) normalcy, (2) meaningful camp experiences, and (3) access to information. Results show that in the years following camp participation, childhood cancer camps continue to play an important role in ASCCs' lives, providing them with ongoing social and emotional support and access to resources.

  16. Lower survival probabilities for adult Florida manatees in years with intense coastal storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langtimm, C.A.; Beck, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    The endangered Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) inhabits the subtropical waters of the southeastern United States, where hurricanes are a regular occurrence. Using mark-resighting statistical models, we analyzed 19 years of photo-identification data and detected significant annual variation in adult survival for a subpopulation in northwest Florida where human impact is low. That variation coincided with years when intense hurricanes (Category 3 or greater on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale) and a major winter storm occurred in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Mean survival probability during years with no or low intensity storms was 0.972 (approximate 95% confidence interval = 0.961-0.980) but dropped to 0.936 (0.864-0.971) in 1985 with Hurricanes Elena, Kate, and Juan; to 0.909 (0.837-0.951) in 1993 with the March "Storm of the Century"; and to 0.817 (0.735-0.878) in 1995 with Hurricanes Opal, Erin, and Allison. These drops in survival probability were not catastrophic in magnitude and were detected because of the use of state-of-the-art statistical techniques and the quality of the data. Because individuals of this small population range extensively along the north Gulf coast of Florida, it was possible to resolve storm effects on a regional scale rather than the site-specific local scale common to studies of more sedentary species. This is the first empirical evidence in support of storm effects on manatee survival and suggests a cause-effect relationship. The decreases in survival could be due to direct mortality, indirect mortality, and/or emigration from the region as a consequence of storms. Future impacts to the population by a single catastrophic hurricane, or series of smaller hurricanes, could increase the probability of extinction. With the advent in 1995 of a new 25- to 50-yr cycle of greater hurricane activity, and longer term change possible with global climate change, it becomes all the more important to reduce mortality and injury

  17. Role for protein geranylgeranylation in adult T-cell leukemia cell survival

    SciTech Connect

    Nonaka, Mizuho; Uota, Shin; Saitoh, Yasunori; Takahashi, Mayumi; Sugimoto, Haruyo; Amet, Tohti; Arai, Ayako; Miura, Osamu; Yamamoto, Naoki; Yamaoka, Shoji

    2009-01-15

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease that develops in human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-infected individuals. Despite the accumulating knowledge of the molecular biology of HTLV-I-infected cells, effective therapeutic strategies remain to be established. Recent reports showed that the hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase inhibitor statins have anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects on certain tumor cells through inhibition of protein prenylation. Here, we report that statins hinder the survival of ATL cells and induce apoptotic cell death. Inhibition of protein geranylgeranylation is responsible for these effects, since simultaneous treatment with isoprenoid precursors, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate or farnesyl pyrophosphate, but not a cholesterol precursor squalene, restored the viability of ATL cells. Simvastatin inhibited geranylgeranylation of small GTPases Rab5B and Rac1 in ATL cells, and a geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitor GGTI-298 reduced ATL cell viability more efficiently than a farnesyl transferase inhibitor FTI-277. These results not only unveil an important role for protein geranylgeranylation in ATL cell survival, but also implicate therapeutic potentials of statins in the treatment of ATL.

  18. Global assessment of cancer incidence and survival in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Bleyer, Archie; Ferrari, Andrea; Whelan, Jeremy; Barr, Ronald D

    2017-02-28

    In high-income countries, cancer remains the commonest cause of disease-related death in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) despite survival improvements. With more than 1,000,000 new diagnoses of cancer in AYAs annually worldwide, and their number of life-years affected by cancer being greatest of all ages, the global burden of cancer in AYAs exceeds that in all other ages. In low- and middle-income countries, where the great majority of the world's 3 billion AYAs reside, the needs of those with cancer have been identified and demand attention. Unique to the age group but universal, the psychosocial challenges they face are the utmost across life's spectrum. This lead-off article of a new series in Pediatric Blood and Cancer on AYA oncology attempts to assess the global status of this emerging discipline. The review includes the changing incidence and survival of the common cancers in AYAs-there is no other age group with a similar array of malignancies-and the specific challenges to quality and quantity of life that compromise their lives.

  19. Live or let die - retinal ganglion cell death and survival during development and in the lesioned adult CNS.

    PubMed

    Bähr, M

    2000-10-01

    Programmed cell death or apoptosis is a common and widespread phenomenon that is important for proper development of the nervous system. In the adult CNS, however, apoptosis contributes to secondary cell loss after various types of lesions. The retino-tectal system has been successfully used as a convenient model system to study the molecular mechanisms of neuronal apoptosis and survival during development and in the lesioned adult CNS. This review describes the current knowledge about the interactions of cell death and survival pathways in general and for retinal ganglion cells specifically.

  20. Movement disorders in adult surviving patients with maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Carecchio, Miryam; Schneider, Susanne A; Chan, Heidi; Lachmann, Robin; Lee, Philip J; Murphy, Elaine; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2011-06-01

    Maple syrup urine disease is a rare metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex gene. Patients generally present early in life with a toxic encephalopathy because of the accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine and the corresponding ketoacids. Movement disorders in maple syrup urine disease have typically been described during decompensation episodes or at presentation in the context of a toxic encephalopathy, with complete resolution after appropriate dietary treatment. Movement disorders in patients surviving childhood are not well documented. We assessed 17 adult patients with maple syrup urine disease (mean age, 27.5 years) with a special focus on movement disorders. Twelve (70.6%) had a movement disorder on clinical examination, mainly tremor and dystonia or a combination of both. Parkinsonism and simple motor tics were also observed. Pyramidal signs were present in 11 patients (64.7%), and a spastic-dystonic gait was observed in 6 patients (35.2%). In summary, movement disorders are common in treated adult patients with maple syrup urine disease, and careful neurological examination is advisable to identify those who may benefit from specific therapy. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  1. Sox9 modulates cell survival and adipogenic differentiation of multipotent adult rat mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Stöckl, Sabine; Bauer, Richard J; Bosserhoff, Anja K; Göttl, Claudia; Grifka, Joachim; Grässel, Susanne

    2013-07-01

    Sox9 is a key transcription factor in early chondrogenesis with distinct roles in differentiation processes and during embryonic development. Here, we report that Sox9 modulates cell survival and contributes to the commitment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation lineages. We found that the Sox9 activity level affects the expression of the key transcription factor in adipogenic differentiation, C/EBPβ, and that cyclin D1 mediates the expression of the osteogenic marker osteocalcin in undifferentiated adult bone-marrow-derived rat MSC. Introducing a stable Sox9 knockdown into undifferentiated rat MSC resulted in a marked decrease in proliferation rate and an increase in apoptotic activity. This was linked to a profound upregulation of p21 and cyclin D1 gene and protein expression accompanied by an induction of caspase 3/7 activity and an inhibition of Bcl-2. We observed that Sox9 silencing provoked a delayed S-phase progression and an increased nuclear localization of p21. The protein stability of cyclin D1 was induced in the absence of Sox9 presumably as a function of altered p38 signalling. In addition, the major transcription factor for adipogenic differentiation, C/EBPβ, was repressed after silencing Sox9. The nearly complete absence of C/EBPβ protein as a result of increased destabilization of the C/EBPβ mRNA and the impact on osteocalcin gene expression and protein synthesis, suggests that a delicate balance of Sox9 level is not only imperative for proper chondrogenic differentiation of progenitor cells, but also affects the adipogenic and probably osteogenic differentiation pathways of MSC. Our results identified Sox9 as an important link between differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis in undifferentiated adult rat mesenchymal stem cells, emphasizing the importance of the delicate balance of a precisely regulated Sox9 activity in MSC not only for proper skeletal development during embryogenesis but probably also

  2. Waist Circumference as a Marker of Obesity Is More Predictive of Coronary Artery Calcification than Body Mass Index in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jongsin; Lee, Eun Seo; Lee, Da Young; Kim, Jihyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to assess the risk for coronary artery calcification (CAC) according to groups subdivided by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in apparently healthy Korean adults. Methods Thirty-three thousand four hundred and thirty-two participants (mean age, 42 years) in a health screening program were divided into three groups according to BMI: <23 kg/m2 (normal), 23 to 25 kg/m2 (overweight), and >25 kg/m2 (obese). In addition, the participants were divided into two groups according to WC. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was measured with multi-detector computed tomography in all participants. Presence of CAC was defined as CACS >0. Results When logistic regression analysis was performed with the presence of CAC as the dependent variable, the risk for CAC increased as BMI increased after adjusting for confounding variables (1.102 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.000 to 1.216]; 1.284 [95% CI, 1.169 to 1.410]; in the overweight and obese groups vs. the normal weight group). When the participants were divided into six groups according to BMI and WC, the subjects with BMI and WC in the obese range showed the highest risk for CAC (1.321 [95% CI, 1.194 to 1.461]) and those with BMI in the overweight range and WC in the obese range showed the second highest risk for CAC (1.235 [95% CI, 1.194 to 1.461]). Conclusion Participants with obesity defined by both BMI and WC showed the highest risk for CAC. Those with BMIs in the overweight range but with WC in the obese range showed the second highest risk for CAC, suggesting that WC as a marker of obesity is more predictive of CAC than BMI. PMID:28029026

  3. Adult tree swallow survival on the polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated Hudson River, New York, USA, between 2006 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Custer, Christine M; Custer, Thomas W; Hines, James E

    2012-08-01

    The upper Hudson River basin in east central New York, USA, is highly contaminated, primarily with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Reduced adult survival has been documented in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) at a similarly PCB-contaminated river system in western Massachusetts. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether adult survival of tree swallows was likewise affected in the Hudson River basin. Between 2006 and 2010, a total of 521 female tree swallows were banded, of which 148 were retrapped at least once. The authors used Program MARK and an information theoretic approach to test the hypothesis that PCB contamination reduced annual survival of female tree swallows. The model that best described the processes that generated the capture history data included covariate effects of year and female plumage coloration on survival but not PCB/river. Annual survival rates of brown-plumaged females (mostly one year old) were generally lower (mean phi=0.39) than those of blue-plumaged females (mean phi=0.50, one year or older). Poor early spring weather in 2007 was associated with reduced survival in both plumage-color groups compared to later years. Models with the effects of PCB exposure on survival (all ΔAICc values >5.0) received little support.

  4. Adult tree swallow survival on the polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated Hudson River, New York, USA, between 2006 and 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Hines, James E.

    2012-01-01

    The upper Hudson River basin in east central New York, USA, is highly contaminated, primarily with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Reduced adult survival has been documented in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) at a similarly PCB-contaminated river system in western Massachusetts. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether adult survival of tree swallows was likewise affected in the Hudson River basin. Between 2006 and 2010, a total of 521 female tree swallows were banded, of which 148 were retrapped at least once. The authors used Program MARK and an information theoretic approach to test the hypothesis that PCB contamination reduced annual survival of female tree swallows. The model that best described the processes that generated the capture history data included covariate effects of year and female plumage coloration on survival but not PCB/river. Annual survival rates of brown-plumaged females (mostly one year old) were generally lower (mean phi = 0.39) than those of blue-plumaged females (mean phi = 0.50, one year or older). Poor early spring weather in 2007 was associated with reduced survival in both plumage-color groups compared to later years. Models with the effects of PCB exposure on survival (all ΔAICc values >5.0) received little support.

  5. Measuring Adult Mortality Using Sibling Survival: A New Analytical Method and New Results for 44 Countries, 1974–2006

    PubMed Central

    Obermeyer, Ziad; Rajaratnam, Julie Knoll; Park, Chang H.; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Hogan, Margaret C.; Lopez, Alan D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2010-01-01

    Background For several decades, global public health efforts have focused on the development and application of disease control programs to improve child survival in developing populations. The need to reliably monitor the impact of such intervention programs in countries has led to significant advances in demographic methods and data sources, particularly with large-scale, cross-national survey programs such as the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). Although no comparable effort has been undertaken for adult mortality, the availability of large datasets with information on adult survival from censuses and household surveys offers an important opportunity to dramatically improve our knowledge about levels and trends in adult mortality in countries without good vital registration. To date, attempts to measure adult mortality from questions in censuses and surveys have generally led to implausibly low levels of adult mortality owing to biases inherent in survey data such as survival and recall bias. Recent methodological developments and the increasing availability of large surveys with information on sibling survival suggest that it may well be timely to reassess the pessimism that has prevailed around the use of sibling histories to measure adult mortality. Methods and Findings We present the Corrected Sibling Survival (CSS) method, which addresses both the survival and recall biases that have plagued the use of survey data to estimate adult mortality. Using logistic regression, our method directly estimates the probability of dying in a given country, by age, sex, and time period from sibling history data. The logistic regression framework borrows strength across surveys and time periods for the estimation of the age patterns of mortality, and facilitates the implementation of solutions for the underrepresentation of high-mortality families and recall bias. We apply the method to generate estimates of and trends in adult mortality, using the summary measure 45q

  6. Late summer survival of adult female and juvenile spectacled eiders on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Barry, Grand J.; Morse, J.A.; Fondell, T.F.

    2000-01-01

    We used radio-telemetry to examine survival of adult female and juvenile Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri) from 30 days after hatch until departure from the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) during 1997-1999. Juvenile survival was 71.4%; adult female survival was 88.5%. Mink (Mustella vison) were the most common predator identified for both adults and juveniles. Detectable levels of lead were found in bones of 74% of juvenile carcasses recovered and 21% had levels indicative of acute exposure. Average age at departure was 59 ?? 1 days old for juveniles and 56 ?? 1 days after hatch for adults. Most broods (60.5%) departed the YKD synchronously. Overall our data indicate that mortality during the latter half of brood-rearing is higher than previously thought. We conclude that brood rearing is a period of high mortality for brood-rearing females and that lead poisoning is responsible for reductions in juvenile survival to fledging. Received 15 February 2000, accepted 1 April 2000.

  7. Annual adult survival of Least Auklets (Aves, Alcidae) varies with large-scale climatic conditions of the North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ian L; Hunter, Fiona M; Robertson, Gregory J

    2002-09-01

    We evaluated whether annual adult survival of Least Auklets (Aethia pusilla), a small planktivorous seabird, covaried with large-scale oceanographic conditions in the North Pacific ocean during 1990-2000. Adult Least Auklets (n=358 total) were captured near their nest sites, marked with plastic color bands, and survival estimates were based on color band resightings at their breeding colony. Survival estimates and relationships between survival and three large-scale indices of climatic conditions that correlate with oceanography: the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index (PDO), Aleutian Low Pressure Index (ALPI), and North Pacific Index (NPI) were evaluated using program MARK. The best models included: (1) two groups of birds, defined by ease of resighting, that differed in recapture rate (p) but not survival rate (φ); and (2) models that allowed for survival rates to differ in the year immediately after first capture from all subsequent years (structurally an age-model). Both of these model structures effectively explained (i.e. removed) sources of heterogeneity in the data set. For Least Auklet survival, the best fitting model was a two-age model incorporating the covariate NPI (average value for the period auklets were at sea, August - April), [φ(age1, age2×NPI), p(g)]. The annual survival rate varied from 0.747±0.075 SE in 1992-1993 to 0.953±0.052 in 1991-1992 (based on the model [φ(age1, age2×t), p(g)]) and averaged 0.873±0.037 over the study period. Least Auklet annual survival covaried with continuous variation in large-scale climatic conditions. Our results point to oceanographic conditions that relate to climate change as crucial to the status of auklet populations, notwithstanding conservation measures taken to control introduced predators, oil spills, human disturbance and other anthropogenic sources of mortality.

  8. Geriatric assessment predicts survival for older adults receiving induction chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Klepin, Heidi D; Geiger, Ann M; Tooze, Janet A; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Williamson, Jeff D; Pardee, Timothy S; Ellis, Leslie R; Powell, Bayard L

    2013-05-23

    We investigated the predictive value of geriatric assessment (GA) on overall survival (OS) for older adults with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Consecutive patients ≥ 60 years with newly diagnosed AML and planned intensive chemotherapy were enrolled at a single institution. Pretreatment GA included evaluation of cognition, depression, distress, physical function (PF) (self-reported and objectively measured), and comorbidity. Objective PF was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB, timed 4-m walk, chair stands, standing balance) and grip strength. Cox proportional hazards models were fit for each GA measure as a predictor of OS. Among 74 patients, the mean age was 70 years, and 78.4% had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score ≤ 1. OS was significantly shorter for participants who screened positive for impairment in cognition and objectively measured PF. Adjusting for age, gender, ECOG score, cytogenetic risk group, myelodysplastic syndrome, and hemoglobin, impaired cognition (Modified Mini-Mental State Exam < 77) and impaired objective PF (SPPB < 9) were associated with worse OS. GA methods, with a focus on cognitive and PF, improve risk stratification and may inform interventions to improve outcomes for older AML patients.

  9. Geriatric assessment predicts survival for older adults receiving induction chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, Ann M.; Tooze, Janet A.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Pardee, Timothy S.; Ellis, Leslie R.; Powell, Bayard L.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the predictive value of geriatric assessment (GA) on overall survival (OS) for older adults with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Consecutive patients ≥ 60 years with newly diagnosed AML and planned intensive chemotherapy were enrolled at a single institution. Pretreatment GA included evaluation of cognition, depression, distress, physical function (PF) (self-reported and objectively measured), and comorbidity. Objective PF was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB, timed 4-m walk, chair stands, standing balance) and grip strength. Cox proportional hazards models were fit for each GA measure as a predictor of OS. Among 74 patients, the mean age was 70 years, and 78.4% had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score ≤ 1. OS was significantly shorter for participants who screened positive for impairment in cognition and objectively measured PF. Adjusting for age, gender, ECOG score, cytogenetic risk group, myelodysplastic syndrome, and hemoglobin, impaired cognition (Modified Mini-Mental State Exam < 77) and impaired objective PF (SPPB < 9) were associated with worse OS. GA methods, with a focus on cognitive and PF, improve risk stratification and may inform interventions to improve outcomes for older AML patients. PMID:23550038

  10. Ingestion of Bt rice pollen does not reduce the survival or hypopharyngeal gland development of Apis mellifera adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Dai, Pingli; Chen, Xiuping; Romeis, Jörg; Shi, Jianrong; Peng, Yufa; Li, Yunhe

    2016-10-07

    Because of its ecological and economic importance, the honey bee Apis mellifera is commonly used to assess the environmental risk of insect-resistant, genetically modified plants. In the current laboratory study, feeding-exposure experiments were used to determine whether pollen from transgenic rice harms A. mellifera worker bee. In one experiment, the survival and mean acinus diameter of hypopharyngeal glands of adult bees were similar when bees were fed on pollen from Bt rice lines or from a non-Bt rice line, but bee survival was significantly reduced when they received pollen that was mixed with potassium arsenate as a positive control. In a second experiment, bee survival and hypopharyngeal gland development were not reduced when adult bees were fed on non-Bt pollen and a sucrose solution supplemented with Cry2A at 400 µg/g, Cry1C at 50 µg/g, or bovine serum albumin (BSA) at 400 µg/g diet, but bee survival and hypopharyngeal gland development were reduced when the diet was supplemented with soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) as a positive control. In both experiments, the uptake of Cry proteins by adult bees was confirmed. Overall, the results indicate that the planting of Bt rice lines expressing Cry2A or Cry1C protein poses a negligible risk to A. mellifera worker bees. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Surviving submerged--Setal tracheal gills for gas exchange in adult rheophilic diving beetles.

    PubMed

    Kehl, Siegfried; Dettner, Konrad

    2009-11-01

    The gas exchange in adult diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) relies on a subelytral air store, which has to be renewed in regular intervals at the water surface. The dive duration varies from a few minutes to 24 h depending on the species, activity, and temperature. However, some species remain submerged for several weeks. Stygobiont species do not ascend to the surface and gas exchange of these species remains unclear, but it is assumed that they require air filled voids for respiration or they use cutaneous respiration. In this study, we investigate the gas exchange in the running water diving beetle Deronectes aubei, which survive submerged for over 6 weeks. The diffusion distance through the cuticle is too great for cutaneous respiration. Therefore, the dissolved oxygen uptake of submerged beetles was determined and an oxygen uptake via the rich tracheated elytra was observed. Fine structure analyses (SEM and TEM) of the beetles showed tracheated setae mainly on the elytral surface, which acts as tracheal gills. Prevention of the air bubble formation at the tip of the abdomen, which normally act as physical gill in Dytiscidae, resulted in no effect in oxygen uptake in D. aubei, but this was the sole way for a submerged Hydroporus palustris to get oxygen. The setal gas exchange technique explains the restriction of D. aubei to rivers and brooks with high oxygen concentration and it may also be used by subterran living diving beetles, which lack access to atmospheric oxygen. The existence of setal tracheal gills in species in running water which are often found in the hyporheic zone and in stygobiont species supports the known evolution of stygobiont Dytiscidae from species of the hyporheic zone. For species in running water, setal tracheal gills could be seen as an adaptation to avoid drifting downstream by the current.

  12. Specific inhibition of TRPV4 enhances retinal ganglion cell survival in adult porcine retinal explants.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Linnéa; Arnér, Karin; Ghosh, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    Signaling through the polymodal cation channel Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) has been implicated in retinal neuronal degeneration. To further outline the involvement of this channel in this process, we here explore modulation of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) activity on neuronal health and glial activation in an in vitro model of retinal degeneration. For this purpose, adult porcine retinal explants were cultured using a previously established standard protocol for up to 5 days with specific TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A (GSK), or specific antagonist RN-1734, or culture medium only. Glial and neuronal cell health were evaluated by a battery of immunohistochemical markers, as well as morphological staining. Specific inhibition of TRPV4 by RN-1734 significantly enhanced ganglion cell survival, improved the maintenance of the retinal laminar architecture, reduced apoptotic cell death and attenuated the gliotic response as well as preserved the expression of TRPV4 in the plexiform layers and ganglion cells. In contrast, culture controls, as well as specimens treated with GSK, displayed rapid remodeling and neurodegeneration as well as a downregulation of TRPV4 and the Müller cell homeostatic mediator glutamine synthetase. Our results indicate that TRPV4 signaling is an important contributor to the retinal degeneration in this model, affecting neuronal cell health and glial homeostasis. The finding that pharmacological inhibition of the receptor significantly attenuates neuronal degeneration and gliosis in vitro, suggests that TRPV4 signaling may be an interesting pharmaceutical target to explore for treatment of retinal degenerative disease.

  13. BMI is a Better Indicator of Cardiac Risk Factors, as against Elevated Blood Pressure in Apparently Healthy Female Adolescents and Young Adult Students: Results From a Cross-Sectional Study in Tripura

    PubMed Central

    Debnath, Surajit

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anthropometric measures are used as indicators of elevated blood pressure, but reported to have variable sensitivity among populations. This study was undertaken to identify the better indicator of Cardiac-risk factors by statistical comparison of BMI, Waist circumference, and Waist to Height (WtHr) ratio in apparently healthy adolescents and young adult female students of Tripura. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a resource limited setup on 210 apparently healthy female adolescents and young adult students in Tripura. Mean (±SD) of all parameters were compared (ANOVA) to recognize significant independent (anthropometric measures) and dependent factors (blood pressure indices and so on). Correlation (r) analysis was used to identify the better (p) indicator of blood pressure indices (dependent variable) and its impact was assessed by Multiple Regression analysis. Results: blood pressure indices are comparatively higher in obese and overweight participants with statistically significant (95.5% confidence) mean differences. Significant correlation with dependent factors is observed with BMI followed by WtHr and Waist Circumference. Impact of anthropometric measures with blood pressure Indices is most significant for BMI (P ≤ 0.020) followed by WtHr (P ≤ 0.500) and waist circumference (P ≤ 0.520). Conclusion: BMI is a superior indicator of blood pressure indices and can identify participants at risk even in apparently healthy adolescent and young adult females. PMID:27890980

  14. Correlation of (18)F-FDG PET and MR Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) Histogram Metrics with Survival in Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma: A Report from the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium.

    PubMed

    Zukotynski, Katherine; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Fahey, Frederic H; Kocak, Mehmet; Brown, Douglas; Ricci, Kelsey; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Fouladi, Maryam; Poussaint, Tina Young

    2017-03-30

    Rationale: To describe baseline (18)F-labeled 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) voxel characteristics in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) and to correlate these metrics with baseline magnetic resonance (MR) apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram metrics, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Methods: Baseline brain FDG-PET and MR scans were obtained in 33 children from Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium (PBTC) clinical DIPG trials. FDG-PET, post-gadolinium (PG) and ADC images were registered to baseline fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Three-dimensional regions of interest on FLAIR and PG images and FDG-PET and ADC histograms were generated. Metrics evaluated included peak number, skewness and kurtosis. Correlation between PET and ADC histogram metrics was evaluated. PET pixel values within the ROI for each tumor were plotted against ADC values. Association of these imaging markers with survival was described. Results: PET histograms were almost always unimodal (94% vs. 6% bimodal). None of the PET histogram parameters (skewness or kurtosis) had a significant association with PFS, although a higher PET PG skewness tended towards less favorable PFS (Hazard Ratio (95% CI)=3.48 (0.75, 16.28); P = 0.11). There was a significant association of higher ADC PG skewness with shorter PFS (Hazard Ratio (95% CI)=2.56 (1.11, 5.91); P = 0.028) and the suggestion that this also led to shorter OS (Hazard Ratio (95% CI)=2.18 (0.95, 5.04); P = 0.067). Higher ADC PG kurtosis tended towards shorter PFS (Hazard Ratio (95% CI)=1.30 (0.98, 1.74); P = 0.073). In a number of cases, PET and ADC pixel values were negatively correlated using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Further, the level of PET and ADC correlation was significantly positively associated with PFS; tumors with higher values of ADC-PET correlation had more favorable PFS (Hazard Ratio (95% CI)=0.17 (0.03, 0.89), P = 0

  15. Behavioural Effects of Adult Vitamin D Deficiency in BALB/c Mice Are not Associated with Proliferation or Survival of Neurons in the Adult Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Groves, Natalie J.; Bradford, DanaKai; Sullivan, Robert K. P.; Conn, Kyna-Anne; Aljelaify, Rasha Fahad; McGrath, John J.; Burne, Thomas H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that up to one third of adults have insufficient levels of vitamin D and there is an association between low vitamin D concentrations and adverse brain outcomes, such as depression. Vitamin D has been shown to be involved in processes associated with neurogenesis during development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that adult vitamin D (AVD) deficiency in BALB/c mice was associated with (a) adult hippocampal neurogenesis at baseline, b) following 6 weeks of voluntary wheel running and (c) a depressive-like phenotype on the forced swim test (FST), which may be linked to alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis. We assessed proliferation and survival of adult born hippocampal neurons by counting the number of cells positive for Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX), and incorporation of 5-Bromo-2’-Deoxyuridine (BrdU) within newly born mature neurons using immunohistochemistry. There were no significant effects of diet on number of Ki67+, DCX+ or BrdU+ cells in the dentate gyrus. All mice showed significantly increased number of Ki67+ cells and BrdU incorporation, and decreased immobility time in the FST, after voluntary wheel running. A significant correlation was found in control mice between immobility time in the FST and level of hippocampal neurogenesis, however, no such correlation was found for AVD-deficient mice. We conclude that AVD deficiency was not associated with impaired proliferation or survival of adult born neurons in BALB/c mice and that the impact on rodent behaviour may not be due to altered neurogenesis per se, but to altered function of new hippocampal neurons or processes independent of adult neurogenesis. PMID:27043014

  16. Behavioural Effects of Adult Vitamin D Deficiency in BALB/c Mice Are not Associated with Proliferation or Survival of Neurons in the Adult Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Groves, Natalie J; Bradford, DanaKai; Sullivan, Robert K P; Conn, Kyna-Anne; Aljelaify, Rasha Fahad; McGrath, John J; Burne, Thomas H J

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that up to one third of adults have insufficient levels of vitamin D and there is an association between low vitamin D concentrations and adverse brain outcomes, such as depression. Vitamin D has been shown to be involved in processes associated with neurogenesis during development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that adult vitamin D (AVD) deficiency in BALB/c mice was associated with (a) adult hippocampal neurogenesis at baseline, b) following 6 weeks of voluntary wheel running and (c) a depressive-like phenotype on the forced swim test (FST), which may be linked to alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis. We assessed proliferation and survival of adult born hippocampal neurons by counting the number of cells positive for Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX), and incorporation of 5-Bromo-2'-Deoxyuridine (BrdU) within newly born mature neurons using immunohistochemistry. There were no significant effects of diet on number of Ki67+, DCX+ or BrdU+ cells in the dentate gyrus. All mice showed significantly increased number of Ki67+ cells and BrdU incorporation, and decreased immobility time in the FST, after voluntary wheel running. A significant correlation was found in control mice between immobility time in the FST and level of hippocampal neurogenesis, however, no such correlation was found for AVD-deficient mice. We conclude that AVD deficiency was not associated with impaired proliferation or survival of adult born neurons in BALB/c mice and that the impact on rodent behaviour may not be due to altered neurogenesis per se, but to altered function of new hippocampal neurons or processes independent of adult neurogenesis.

  17. Methoprene effects on survival and reproductive performance of adult female and male Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Brabant, Peter Joseph; Dobson, Stephen L

    2013-12-01

    Methoprene is a juvenile hormone analog commonly used for the control of mosquito larvae. It acts through interference with normal metamorphosis, resulting in mortality prior to and during adult emergence. Methoprene is not commonly used for the control of adult mosquitoes, due to an absence of acute effects. Here, we have evaluated for chronic effects caused by the exposure of adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to methoprene. We applied methoprene to adults, both through 1) topical application to the abdomen and 2) as an aerosol, examining for treatment effects on ovary development, adult longevity, and fecundity. The results demonstrate that relatively high doses are required to affect adult survivorship. In contrast, significant impacts on both fecundity and egg hatch were observed in females treated at the lower dosages. We discuss the results in relation to autocidal strategies for mosquito control in which the release of fecund females is to be avoided.

  18. Supratentorial hemispheric ependymomas: an analysis of 109 adults for survival and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Hollon, Todd; Nguyen, Vincent; Smith, Brandon W; Lewis, Spencer; Junck, Larry; Orringer, Daniel A

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Survival rates and prognostic factors for supratentorial hemispheric ependymomas have not been determined. The authors therefore designed a retrospective study to determine progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and prognostic factors for hemispheric ependymomas. METHODS The study population consisted of 8 patients from our institution and 101 patients from the literature with disaggregated survival information (n = 109). Patient age, sex, tumor side, tumor location, extent of resection (EOR), tumor grade, postoperative chemotherapy, radiation, time to recurrence, and survival were recorded. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and Cox proportional hazard models were completed to determine survival rates and prognostic factors. RESULTS Anaplastic histology/WHO Grade III tumors were identified in 62% of cases and correlated with older age. Three-, 5-, and 10-year PFS rates were 57%, 51%, and 42%, respectively. Three-, 5-, and 10-year OS rates were 77%, 71%, and 58%, respectively. EOR and tumor grade were identified on both Kaplan-Meier log-rank testing and univariate Cox proportional hazard models as prognostic for PFS and OS. Both EOR and tumor grade remained prognostic on multivariate analysis. Subtotal resection (STR) predicted a worse PFS (hazard ratio [HR] 4.764, p = 0.001) and OS (HR 4.216, p = 0.008). Subgroup survival analysis of patients with STR demonstrated a 5- and 10-year OS of 28% and 0%, respectively. WHO Grade III tumors also had worse PFS (HR 10.2, p = 0.004) and OS (HR 9.1, p = 0.035). Patients with WHO Grade III tumors demonstrated 5- and 10-year OS of 61% and 46%, respectively. Postoperative radiation was not prognostic for PFS or OS. CONCLUSIONS A high incidence of anaplastic histology was found in hemispheric ependymomas and was associated with older age. EOR and tumor grade were prognostic factors for PFS and OS on multivariate analysis. STR or WHO Grade III pathology, or both, predicted worse overall prognosis in patients

  19. Tissue Mercury Concentrations and Survival of Tree Swallow Embryos, Nestlings and Young Adult Females on a Contaminated Site.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Capwell E; Cristol, Daniel A

    2015-10-01

    Tree swallows nesting on mercury-contaminated sites along the South River in Virginia, USA were monitored for reproductive success. The bodies of nestlings found deceased in their nest boxes were collected, along with blood and feather samples from the adult parents and surviving siblings. We also measured hatching and fledging success of the clutches and the annual recapture rate of adults. We found that the body feathers of deceased nestlings contained significantly higher concentrations of mercury (12.89 ± 8.42 μg/g, n = 15) than those of nestlings that survived to fledge (7.41 ± 4.79 μg/g, n = 15). However, mothers of more successful clutches (>75 % hatching) did not differ in mercury concentrations from females with less successful clutches (<50 % hatching). Additionally, adult females breeding for the first time that returned to breed the following year did not differ in blood mercury from females of the same age that bred once but never returned. Our results suggest that mercury had its greatest effect on these songbirds during the nestling stage, whereas for embryos or first-time breeding females, other factors likely played larger roles in mortality.

  20. Sex disparity in childhood and young adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) survival: Evidence from US population data.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Jobayer; Xie, Li

    2015-12-01

    Sex variation has been persistently investigated in studies concerning acute myeloid leukemia (AML) survival outcomes but has not been fully explored among pediatric and young adult AML patients. We detected sex difference in the survival of AML patients diagnosed at ages 0-24 years and explored distinct effects of sex across subgroups of age at diagnosis, race-ethnicity and AML subtypes utilizing the United States Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) population based dataset of 4865 patients diagnosed with AML between 1973 and 2012. Kaplan-Meier survival function, propensity scores and stratified Cox proportional hazards regression were used for data analyses. After controlling for other prognostic factors, females showed a significant survival advantage over their male counterparts, adjusted hazard ratio (aHR, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.00-1.18). Compared to females, male patients had substantially increased risk of mortality in the following subgroups of: ages 20-24 years at diagnosis (aHR1.30), Caucasian (1.14), acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) (1.35), acute erythroid leukemia (AEL) (1.39), AML with inv(16)(p13.1q22) (2.57), AML with minimum differentiation (1.47); and had substantially decreased aHR in AML t(9;11)(p22;q23) (0.57) and AML with maturation (0.82). Overall, females demonstrated increased survival over males and this disparity was considerably large in patients ages 20-24 years at diagnosis, Caucasians, and in AML subtypes of AML inv(16), APL and AEL. In contrast, males with AML t(9;11)(p22;q23), AML with maturation and age at diagnosis of 10-14 years showed survival benefit. Further investigations are needed to detect the biological processes influencing the mechanisms of these interactions.

  1. Reduced Long-Term Relative Survival in Females and Younger Adults Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Enger, Tone Bull; Pleym, Hilde; Stenseth, Roar; Greiff, Guri; Wahba, Alexander; Videm, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess long-term survival and mortality in adult cardiac surgery patients. Methods 8,564 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery in Trondheim, Norway from 2000 until censoring 31.12.2014 were prospectively followed. Observed long-term mortality following surgery was compared to the expected mortality in the Norwegian population, matched on gender, age and calendar year. This enabled assessment of relative survival (observed/expected survival rates) and relative mortality (observed/expected deaths). Long-term mortality was compared across gender, age and surgical procedure. Predictors of reduced survival were assessed with multivariate analyses of observed and relative mortality. Results During follow-up (median 6.4 years), 2,044 patients (23.9%) died. The observed 30-day, 1-, 3- and 5-year mortality rates were 2.2%, 4.4%, 8.2% and 13.8%, respectively, and remained constant throughout the study period. Comparing observed mortality to that expected in a matched sample from the general population, patients undergoing cardiac surgery showed excellent survival throughout the first seven years of follow-up (relative survival ≥ 1). Subsequently, survival decreased, which was more pronounced in females and patients undergoing other procedures than isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Relative mortality was higher in younger age groups, females and patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR). The female survival advantage in the general population was obliterated (relative mortality ratio (RMR) 1.35 (1.19–1.54), p<0.001). Increasing observed long-term mortality seen with ageing was due to population risk, and younger age was independently associated with increased relative mortality (RMR per 5 years 0.81 (0.79–0.84), p<0.001)). Conclusions Cardiac surgery patients showed comparable survival to that expected in the general Norwegian population, underlining the benefits of cardiac surgery in appropriately selected patients. The

  2. Species differences in behavior and cell proliferation/survival in the adult brains of female meadow and prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Pan, Y; Liu, Y; Lieberwirth, C; Zhang, Z; Wang, Z

    2016-02-19

    Microtine rodents display diverse patterns of social organization and behaviors, and thus provide a useful model for studying the effects of the social environment on physiology and behavior. The current study compared the species differences and the effects of oxytocin (OT) on anxiety-like, social affiliation, and social recognition behaviors in female meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) and prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Furthermore, cell proliferation and survival in the brains of adult female meadow and prairie voles were compared. We found that female meadow voles displayed a higher level of anxiety-like behavior but lower levels of social affiliation and social recognition compared to female prairie voles. In addition, meadow voles showed lower levels of cell proliferation (measured by Ki67 staining) and cell survival (measured by BrdU staining) in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and amygdala (AMY), but not the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG), than prairie voles. Interestingly, the numbers of new cells in the VMH and AMY, but not DG, also correlated with anxiety-like, social affiliation, and social recognition behaviors in a brain region-specific manner. Finally, central OT treatment (200 ng/kg, icv) did not lead to changes in behavior or cell proliferation/survival in the brain. Together, these data indicate a potential role of cell proliferation/survival in selected brain areas on different behaviors between vole species with distinct life strategies.

  3. Species differences in behavior and cell proliferation/survival in the adult brains of female meadow and prairie voles

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yongliang; Liu, Yan; Lieberwirth, Claudia; Zhang, Zhibin; Wang, Zuoxin

    2016-01-01

    Microtine rodents display diverse patterns of social organization and behaviors, and thus provide a useful model for studying the effects of the social environment on physiology and behavior. The current study compared the species differences and the effects of oxytocin (OT) on anxiety-like, social affiliation, and social recognition behaviors in female meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) and prairie voles (M. ochrogaster). Furthermore, cell proliferation and survival in the brains of adult female meadow and prairie voles were compared. We found that female meadow voles displayed a higher level of anxiety-like behavior but lower levels of social affiliation and social recognition compared to female prairie voles. In addition, meadow voles showed lower levels of cell proliferation (measured by Ki67 staining) and cell survival (measured by BrdU staining) in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and amygdala (AMY), but not the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG), than prairie voles. Interestingly, the numbers of new cells in the VMH and AMY, but not DG, also correlated with anxiety-like, social affiliation, and social recognition behaviors in a brain region-specific manner. Finally, central OT treatment (200 ng/kg, icv) did not lead to changes in behavior or cell proliferation/survival in the brain. Together, these data indicate a potential role of cell proliferation/survival in selected brain areas on different behaviors between vole species with distinct life strategies. PMID:26708743

  4. No survival benefit to gaining private health insurance coverage for post-lung transplant care in adults with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Tumin, Dmitry; Foraker, Randi E; Tobias, Joseph D; Hayes, Don

    2016-03-01

    The use of public insurance is associated with diminished survival in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) following lung transplantation. No data exist on benefits of gaining private health insurance for post-transplant care among such patients previously using public insurance. The United Network for Organ Sharing database was used to identify first-time lung transplant recipients participating in Medicare or Medicaid, diagnosed with CF, and transplanted between 2005 and 2015. Survival outcomes were compared between recipients gaining private insurance after transplantation and those maintaining public coverage throughout follow-up. Since implementation of the lung allocation score, 575 adults with CF received lung transplantation funded by Medicare or Medicaid and contributed data on insurance status post-transplant. There were 128 (22%) patients who gained private insurance. Multivariable analysis of time-varying insurance status found no survival benefit of gaining private insurance (HR = 0.822; 95% CI = 0.525, 1.286; p = 0.390). Further analysis demonstrated that resuming public insurance coverage was detrimental, relative to gaining and keeping private insurance (HR = 2.315; 95% CI = 1.020, 5.258; p = 0.045). Survival disadvantages of lung transplant recipients with CF who have public health insurance were not ameliorated by a switch to private coverage for post-transplant care.

  5. Clinical and pathological prognostic markers for survival in adult patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders in solid transplant.

    PubMed

    Oton, Ana B; Wang, Hong; Leleu, Xavier; Melhem, Mona F; George, Diane; Lacasce, Ann; Foon, Kenneth; Ghobrial, Irene M

    2008-09-01

    We sought to determine the clinical and immunohistopathological prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) in adult patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs). Eighty-four patients diagnosed with PTLDs between 1980 and 2004 at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center were identified. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on tumor tissue at the time of diagnosis for the following proteins: Bcl-2, Bcl-6, c-myc and p53. The median survival for all patients was 20.8 months, 95% CI: (7.4-77.6). On univariate analysis for OS, the following poor prognostic factors were identified: age at transplant >60 years (p = 0.024), multiorgan transplant (p = 0.019), ECOG > 2 (p < 0.0001), grafted organ involvement (p < 0.0001), extranodal disease (p = 0.011), early (<1 year) PTLDs (p < 0.0001), stage IV (p = 0.0017), EBV positive (p = 0.012) and elevated white blood count (p = 0.010). Good prognostic factors included ECOG<2 (p < 0.0001), late (>1 year) PTLDs (p = 0.002), early stage at diagnosis (stages I and II, p = 0.005), nodal disease (p = 0.0053), monomorphic disease (0.0034), initial immunosuppression reduction (p = 0.0015) and use of rituximab (p = 0.045). Bcl-2 but not Bcl-6, c-myc, or p53 correlated with poor survival, p = 0.0036. This study identifies new clinical and pathological markers for poor survival in PTLDs.

  6. Effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the survival of HIV-infected adult patients in urban slums of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muhula, Samuel Opondo; Peter, Memiah; Sibhatu, Biadgilign; Meshack, Ndirangu; Lennie, Kyomuhangi

    2015-01-01

    Recent improvements in access to Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) have radically reduced hospitalizations and deaths associated with HIV infection in both developed countries and sub-Saharan Africa. Not much is known about survival of patients on ART in slums. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with mortality among adult patients on ART in resource poor, urban, sub-Saharan African setting. A prospective open cohort study was conducted with adult patients on ART at a clinic in Kibera slums, Nairobi, Kenya. The patients' enrollment to care was between March 2005 and November 2011. Descriptive statistics were computed and Kaplan-Meier (KM) methods used to estimate survival time while Cox's proportional hazards (CPH) model fitted to determine mortality predictors. A total of 2,011 adult patients were studied, 69% being female. Female gender (p=0.0016), zidovudine-based regimen patients (p<0.0001), CD4 count>351 patients (p<0.0001), WHO stage I patients (p<0.0001) and "Working" functional status patients recorded better survival probability on ART. In CPH analysis, the hazard of dying was higher in patients on Stavudine-based regimen(hazard ratio (HR)=.8; 95% CI, 1.5-2.2; p<0.0001),CD4 count<50 cells/µl (HR=1.6; 95% CI, 1.5-1.7;p<0.0001), WHO Stage IV at ART initiation (HR=1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; p=0.016) and bedridden patients (HR=2.7; 95% CI, 1.7-4.4;p<0.0001). There was increased mortality among the males, those with advanced Immunosuppression, late WHO stage and bedridden patients. The findings further justify the need to switch patients on Stavudine-based regimen as per the WHO recommendations.

  7. Gene polymorphisms in folate metabolizing enzymes in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: effects on methotrexate-related toxicity and survival

    PubMed Central

    Ongaro, Alessia; De Mattei, Monica; Della Porta, Matteo Giovanni; Rigolin, GianMatteo; Ambrosio, Cristina; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Pellati, Agnese; Masieri, Federica Francesca; Caruso, Angelo; Catozzi, Linda; Gemmati, Donato

    2009-01-01

    Background The antifolate agent methotrexate is an important component of maintenance therapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, although methotrexate-related toxicity is often a reason for interruption of chemotherapy. Prediction of toxicity is difficult because of inter-individual variability susceptibility to antileukemic agents. Methotrexate interferes with folate metabolism leading to depletion of reduced folates. Design and Methods The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of polymorphisms for folate metabolizing enzymes with respect to toxicity and survival in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with methotrexate maintenance therapy. To this purpose, we evaluated possible associations between genotype and hematologic and non-hematologic toxicity and effects on survival at 2 years of follow-up in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Results Polymorphisms in the genes encoding for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C>T) and in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR 19 bp deletion) significantly increased the risk of hepatotoxicity in single (odds ratio 5.23, 95% confidence interval 1.13–21.95 and odds ratio 4.57, 95% confidence interval 1.01–20.77, respectively) and in combined analysis (odds ratio 6.82, 95% confidence interval 1.38–33.59). MTHFR 677C>T also increased the risk of leukopenia and gastrointestinal toxicity, whilst thymidylate synthase 28 bp repeat polymorphism increased the risk of anemia (odds ratio 8.48, 95% confidence interval 2.00–36.09). Finally, patients with MTHFR 677TT had a decreased overall survival rate (hazard ratio 2.37, 95% confidence interval 1.46–8.45). Conclusions Genotyping of folate polymorphisms might be useful in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia to optimize methotrexate therapy, reducing the associated toxicity with possible effects on survival. PMID:19648163

  8. The Impact of Physical, Intellectual and Social Impairments on Survival in Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Population-Based Register Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrer, Freya; Smith, Lucy K.; McGrother, Catherine W.; Taub, Nicholas A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Research into factors associated with survival in adults with intellectual disability is limited and no studies have controlled for changes in these factors over time. Material and Methods: All adults aged greater than or equal to 20 years with moderate to profound intellectual disability (approximate IQ less than 50) using specialist…

  9. Winter survival of adult female harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esler, Daniel; Schmutz, J.A.; Jarvis, R.L.; Mulcahy, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    Harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) life-history characteristics make their populations particularly vulnerable to perturbations during nonbreeding periods. The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill was a major perturbation to nonbreeding habitats of harlequin ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, which resulted in population injury. To assess the status of population recovery from the oil spill and to evaluate factors potentially constraining full recovery, we used radiotelemetry to examine survival of adult female harlequin ducks during winters of 1995-96, 1996-97, and 1997-98. We implanted 294 harlequin ducks (154 and 140 in oiled and unoiled areas, respectively) with transmitters and tracked their signals from aircraft during October through March. We examined variation in survival rates relative to area and season (early, mid, and late winter) through comparisons of models using Akaike's information criterion (AIC(c)) values. The 3 models best supported by the data indicated that survival of birds in oiled areas was lower than in unoiled areas. Inclusion of standardized body mass during wing molt in the 3 best models did not improve their fit, indicating that body mass during wing molt did not affect subsequent winter survival. In the model that best fit our data, survival was high in early winter for both areas, lower during mid and late winter seasons, and lowest in oiled areas during mid winter. Cumulative winter survival estimated from this model was 78.0% (SE = 3.3%) in oiled areas and 83.7% (SE = 2.9%) in unoiled areas. We determined that area differences in survival were more likely related to oiling history than intrinsic geographic differences. Based on a demographic model, area differences in survival offer a likely mechanism for observed declines in populations on oiled areas. Concurrent studies indicated that harlequin ducks continued to be exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil as much as 9 years after the spill. We suggest that oil exposure

  10. Intra-annual patterns in adult band-tailed pigeon survival estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.; Overton, Cory T.; Howe, Kristy H.

    2015-01-01

    Implications: We present the first inter-seasonal analysis of survival probability of the Pacific coast race of band-tailed pigeons and illustrate important temporal patterns that may influence future species management including harvest strategies and disease monitoring.

  11. Factors Affecting the Survival of Upstream Migrant Adult Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 9 of 11.

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, Dennis D.; Mueller, Robert P.

    1993-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is developing conservation planning documentation to support the National Marine Fisheries Service`s (NMFS) recovery plan for Columbia Basin salmonid stocks that are currently listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Information from the conservation planning documentation will be used as a partial scientific basis for identifying alternative conservation strategies and to make recommendations toward conserving, rebuilding, and ultimately removing these salmon stocks from the list of endangered species. This report describes the adult upstream survival study, a synthesis of biological analyses related to conditions affecting the survival of adult upstream migrant salmonids in the Columbia River system. The objective of the adult upstream survival study was to analyze existing data related to increasing the survival of adult migrant salmonids returning to the Snake River system. The fate and accountability of each stock during its upstream migration period and the uncertainties associated with measurements of escapement and survival were evaluated. Operational measures that affected the survival of adult salmon were evaluated including existing conditions, augmented flows from upstream storage release, and drawdown of mainstem reservoirs. The potential impacts and benefits of these measures to each ESA stock were, also described based on considerations of species behavior and run timing.

  12. RB regulates the production and the survival of newborn neurons in the embryonic and adult dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Vandenbosch, Renaud; Clark, Alysen; Fong, Bensun C; Omais, Saad; Jaafar, Carine; Dugal-Tessier, Delphie; Dhaliwal, Jagroop; Lagace, Diane C; Park, David S; Ghanem, Noël; Slack, Ruth S

    2016-11-01

    In mammals, hippocampal dentate gyrus granule cells (DGCs) constitute a particular neuronal population produced both during embryogenesis and adult life, and play key roles in neural plasticity and memory. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating neurogenesis in the dentate lineage throughout development and adulthood are still not well understood. The Retinoblastoma protein (RB), a transcriptional repressor primarily involved in cell cycle control and cell death, plays crucial roles during cortical development but its function in the formation and maintenance of DGCs remains unknown. Here, we show that loss of RB during embryogenesis induces massive ectopic proliferation and delayed cell cycle exit of young DGCs specifically at late developmental stages but without affecting stem cells. This phenotype was partially counterbalanced by increased cell death. Similarly, during adulthood, loss of RB causes ectopic proliferation of newborn DGCs and dramatically impairs their survival. These results demonstrate a crucial role for RB in the generation and the survival of DGCs in the embryonic and the adult brain. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. In vitro cultivation of anisakis simplex: pepsin increases survival and moulting from fourth larval to adult stage.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, L; Valero, A; Benítez, R; Adroher, F J

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes the in vitro cultivation of the 3rd-larval stage (L3) of Anisakis simplex to adulthood in a much simpler and easier to prepare medium than those described to date. The adult males obtained are between 3.8 and 6.5 cm long and the females between 4.5 and 8.0 cm. Some individually cultivated females laid eggs which had an average size of 44.4 x 50.5 microm. The culture conditions were as follows: medium RPMI-1640 supplemented with 20% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum and 1% commercial pepsin, at pH 4.0 and a temperature of 37 degrees C, and in air atmosphere with 5% CO2. The pepsin was found to be the key to the success of the culture. The average survival of the worms in the culture increased from 50 to 88 days, due to the fact that the survival of the adults practically doubled (increasing by 1.9 times). Furthermore, the number of worms that completed the 4th moulting (M4) increased by 4.2 times, from 22.9 to 95.6%. This culture medium may facilitate, due to its simplicity, the study of anisakids, or at least of A. simplex, constituting another step towards achieving a complete in vitro life-cycle for these parasites.

  14. Lmx1a and Lmx1b regulate mitochondrial functions and survival of adult midbrain dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Doucet-Beaupré, Hélène; Gilbert, Catherine; Profes, Marcos Schaan; Chabrat, Audrey; Pacelli, Consiglia; Giguère, Nicolas; Rioux, Véronique; Deng, Qiaolin; Laguna, Ariadna; Ericson, Johan; Perlmann, Thomas; Ang, Siew-Lan; Cicchetti, Francesca; Parent, Martin; Trudeau, Louis-Eric; Lévesque, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The LIM-homeodomain transcription factors Lmx1a and Lmx1b play critical roles during the development of midbrain dopaminergic progenitors, but their functions in the adult brain remain poorly understood. We show here that sustained expression of Lmx1a and Lmx1b is required for the survival of adult midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Strikingly, inactivation of Lmx1a and Lmx1b recreates cellular features observed in Parkinson’s disease. We found that Lmx1a/b control the expression of key genes involved in mitochondrial functions, and their ablation results in impaired respiratory chain activity, increased oxidative stress, and mitochondrial DNA damage. Lmx1a/b deficiency caused axonal pathology characterized by α-synuclein+ inclusions, followed by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons. These results reveal the key role of these transcription factors beyond the early developmental stages and provide mechanistic links between mitochondrial dysfunctions, α-synuclein aggregation, and the survival of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:27407143

  15. Anopheles gambiae densovirus (AgDNV) has negligible effects on adult survival and transcriptome of its mosquito host.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaoxia; Hughes, Grant L; Niu, Guodong; Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Rasgon, Jason L

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito densoviruses (DNVs) are candidate agents for paratransgenic control of malaria and other vector-borne diseases. Unlike other mosquito DNVs, the Anopheles gambiae DNV (AgDNV) is non-pathogenic to larval mosquitoes. However, the cost of infection upon adults and the molecular mechanisms underpinning infection in the mosquito host are unknown. Using life table analysis, we show that AgDNV infection has minimal effects on An. gambiae survival (no significant effect in 2 replicates and a slight 2 day survival decrease in the third replicate). Using microarrays, we show that AgDNV has very minimal effect on the adult mosquito transcriptome, with only 4-15 genes differentially regulated depending on the statistical criteria imposed. The minimal impact upon global transcription provides some mechanistic understanding of lack of virus pathogenicity, suggesting a long co-evolutionary history that has shifted towards avirulence. From an applied standpoint, lack of strong induced fitness costs makes AgDNV an attractive agent for paratransgenic malaria control.

  16. Anopheles gambiae densovirus (AgDNV) has negligible effects on adult survival and transcriptome of its mosquito host

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Guodong; Suzuki, Yasutsugu

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito densoviruses (DNVs) are candidate agents for paratransgenic control of malaria and other vector-borne diseases. Unlike other mosquito DNVs, the Anopheles gambiae DNV (AgDNV) is non-pathogenic to larval mosquitoes. However, the cost of infection upon adults and the molecular mechanisms underpinning infection in the mosquito host are unknown. Using life table analysis, we show that AgDNV infection has minimal effects on An. gambiae survival (no significant effect in 2 replicates and a slight 2 day survival decrease in the third replicate). Using microarrays, we show that AgDNV has very minimal effect on the adult mosquito transcriptome, with only 4–15 genes differentially regulated depending on the statistical criteria imposed. The minimal impact upon global transcription provides some mechanistic understanding of lack of virus pathogenicity, suggesting a long co-evolutionary history that has shifted towards avirulence. From an applied standpoint, lack of strong induced fitness costs makes AgDNV an attractive agent for paratransgenic malaria control. PMID:25279264

  17. The effect of larval and adult nutrition on survival and fecundity of dengue vector Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Yamany, Abeer S; Adham, Fatma K

    2014-08-01

    The effect of larval and adult nutrition on survival and fecundity of the dengue vector Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) were studied under laboratory conditions, the energy for the physiological activities for both male and female mosquitoes is provided largely by their reserves during larval stage and affected by adult diets. Two groups of larvae (A, B) were reared at 27 ± 3 degrees C, 70-80% R.H. and DL. 12: 12. Group (A) with 200 larvae (high larval diet) and Group (B) with 600 larvae (low larval diet). Ae. albopictus exhibited increased fecundity and egg hatch success. Immature development was quick. Immature survival was high, with lowest rate in the pupal stage. Highest longevity was observed in large females fed water + 10% sucrose solution (29.571 ± 0.415 days) while the lowest one was (1.3 ± 0.132 days) in starved small females. Large females have significantly (P < 0.001) higher fecundity than smaller females, regardless of whether the females were provided 10% sucrose solution or not (524 ± 0.203 eggs/group 159.714 ± 0.1997 eggs/group), respectively. The addition of 10% sucrose solution significantly (P < 0.001) increase the fecundity regardless of whether large or small females (657.9 ± 0.2198 eggs/group, 242.429 ± 0.119 eggs/group), respectively.

  18. Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc4) is required for BDNF-dependent survival of adult-born neurons and spatial memory formation in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Quadrato, Giorgia; Benevento, Marco; Alber, Stefanie; Jacob, Carolin; Floriddia, Elisa M; Nguyen, Tuan; Elnaggar, Mohamed Y; Pedroarena, Christine M; Molkentin, Jeffrey D; Di Giovanni, Simone

    2012-06-05

    New neurons generated in the adult dentate gyrus are constantly integrated into the hippocampal circuitry and activated during encoding and recall of new memories. Despite identification of extracellular signals that regulate survival and integration of adult-born neurons such as neurotrophins and neurotransmitters, the nature of the intracellular modulators required to transduce those signals remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence of the expression and transcriptional activity of nuclear factor of activated T cell c4 (NFATc4) in hippocampal progenitor cells. We show that NFATc4 calcineurin-dependent activity is required selectively for survival of adult-born neurons in response to BDNF signaling. Indeed, cyclosporin A injection and stereotaxic delivery of the BDNF scavenger TrkB-Fc in the mouse dentate gyrus reduce the survival of hippocampal adult-born neurons in wild-type but not in NFATc4(-/-) mice and do not affect the net rate of neural precursor proliferation and their fate commitment. Furthermore, associated with the reduced survival of adult-born neurons, the absence of NFATc4 leads to selective defects in LTP and in the encoding of hippocampal-dependent spatial memories. Thus, our data demonstrate that NFATc4 is essential in the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and identify NFATc4 as a central player of BDNF-driven prosurvival signaling in hippocampal adult-born neurons.

  19. Giant aorto-pulmonary collaterals in pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect: long-term survival in unoperated adults.

    PubMed

    Spaziani, Gaia; Favilli, Silvia; Fonda, Claudio; Chiappa, Enrico

    2013-08-01

    The association of pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect (PA/VSD) can be considered the most severe form of tetralogy of Fallot. The main feature of this congenital heart disease is represented by discontinuity between the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk or its branches; the anatomy of central pulmonary arteries is often abnormal, consequently the type and the amount of sources of pulmonary blood flow are variable. Due to evolution in surgical techniques, definitive correction is now also considered in more complex cases. A small rate of unoperated patients with PA/VSD can survive until adulthood and the arterial blood supply to the lungs, provided by major aorto-pulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs), is one of the main determinants of survival. We report two unoperated cases of PA/VSD and MAPCAs with long-term survival. Giant MAPCAs can occasionally be found by chest radiography in adults with unrepaired PA/VSD. Moreover, non-invasive assessment of the pulmonary arterial bed with computer tomography or MRI is helpful in these patients during follow-up. Finally, we discuss the use of oral anticoagulants and/or 5-phosphodiesterase inhibitors in these patients.

  20. Adding chemo after radiation treatment improves survival for adults with a type of brain tumor

    Cancer.gov

    Adults with low-grade gliomas, a form of brain tumor, who received chemotherapy following completion of radiation therapy lived longer than patients who received radiation therapy alone, according to long-term follow-up results from a NIH-supported random

  1. Impact of floral feeding on adult Drosophila suzukii survival and nutrient status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drosophila suzukii, spotted wing drosophila, is a serious pest of small fruits and cherries in many regions of the world. While host usage has been well studied at the ovipositional and larval feeding stages, little is known about the feeding ecology of adults. This study addressed the impact of fee...

  2. Personal and Family Survival. Civil Defense Adult Education Course Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    A manual providing general orientation on the subject of United States civil defense is presented. It can serve as a home reference and as a tool for an adult education class. The nine chapters are: U.S. Civil Defense, Modern Weapons and Radioactive Fallout, Public Fallout Shelters, Fallout Shelter Occupancy, Fallout Protection at Home, Community…

  3. Exogenous Modulation of Retinoic Acid Signaling Affects Adult RGC Survival in the Frog Visual System after Optic Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Duprey-Díaz, Mildred V.; Blagburn, Jonathan M.; Blanco, Rosa E.

    2016-01-01

    After lesions to the mammalian optic nerve, the great majority of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) die before their axons have even had a chance to regenerate. Frog RGCs, on the other hand, suffer only an approximately 50% cell loss, and we have previously investigated the mechanisms by which the application of growth factors can increase their survival rate. Retinoic acid (RA) is a vitamin A-derived lipophilic molecule that plays major roles during development of the nervous system. The RA signaling pathway is also present in parts of the adult nervous system, and components of it are upregulated after injury in peripheral nerves but not in the CNS. Here we investigate whether RA signaling affects long-term RGC survival at 6 weeks after axotomy. Intraocular injection of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) type-α agonist AM80, the RARβ agonist CD2314, or the RARγ agonist CD1530, returned axotomized RGC numbers to almost normal levels. On the other hand, inhibition of RA synthesis with disulfiram, or of RAR receptors with the pan-RAR antagonist Ro-41-5253, or the RARβ antagonist LE135E, greatly reduced the survival of the axotomized neurons. Axotomy elicited a strong activation of the MAPK, STAT3 and AKT pathways; this activation was prevented by disulfiram or by RAR antagonists. Finally, addition of exogenous ATRA stimulated the activation of the first two of these pathways. Future experiments will investigate whether these strong survival-promoting effects of RA are mediated via the upregulation of neurotrophins. PMID:27611191

  4. Prevalence and factors associated with the presence of non alcoholic fatty liver disease in an apparently healthy adult population in primary care units

    PubMed Central

    Caballería, Llorenç; Auladell, Ma Antonia; Torán, Pere; Miranda, Dolores; Aznar, Jesús; Pera, Guillem; Gil, Dolors; Muñoz, Laura; Planas, Jaume; Canut, Santiago; Bernad, Jesús; Aubà, Josep; Pizarro, Gregorio; Aizpurua, Miren Maite; Altaba, Anna; Tibau, Albert

    2007-01-01

    Background Fatty liver disease is characterized by the accumulation of fat vacuoles inside of the hepatocytes. Non alcoholic fatty liver is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipemia, the intake of certain drugs and with the so-called metabolic syndrome. However, there is little information on the clinical relevance of this disorder as a healthcare problem in the general population, since the studies published generally include a limited number of patients and the diagnosis is established on the basis of clear biochemical alterations and liver biopsy. Methods/Design The aim of the study is the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a general adult population by hepatic ultrasonography. A population-based, descriptive, transversal, multicentre study. Eighteen primary care centres of the north of Barcelona and the Maresme Areas of Healthcare Management attending an urban and semi-urban population of 360.000 inhabitants. A randomized sample of 786 subjects of 15 years or older were selected from the population and assigned to the participating centres according to the Primary Care Information System (SIAP): This population is practically the same as the general population of the area. The following determinations will be carried out in all the participants: hepatic ultrasonography to detect fatty liver, a questionnaire concerning liver diseases, alcohol intake, smoking and drug use, physical examination including abdominal perimeter and body mass index and biochemical analysis including liver function tests and parameters related to the metabolic syndrome and the HAIR score. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of fatty liver will be made according to established criteria (American Gastroenterology Association) and diagnosis of metabolic syndrome according to the criteria of the European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance. Discussion This study will attempt to determine the prevalence of non alcoholic fatty liver disease, as well as, the factors

  5. Age-Associated ALU Element Instability in White Blood Cells Is Linked to Lower Survival in Elderly Adults: A Preliminary Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Venturelli, Massimo; Gross, Cole; Tarperi, Cantor; Schena, Federico; Reggiani, Carlo; Naro, Fabio; Pedrinolla, Anna; Monaco, Lucia; Richardson, Russell S.; Donato, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    Background ALU element instability could contribute to gene function variance in aging, and may partly explain variation in human lifespan. Objective To assess the role of ALU element instability in human aging and the potential efficacy of ALU element content as a marker of biological aging and survival. Design Preliminary cohort study. Methods We measured two high frequency ALU element subfamilies, ALU-J and ALU-Sx, by a single qPCR assay and compared ALU-J/Sx content in white blood cell (WBCs) and skeletal muscle cell (SMCs) biopsies from twenty-three elderly adults with sixteen healthy sex-balanced young adults; all-cause survival rates of elderly adults predicted by ALU-J/Sx content in both tissues; and cardiovascular disease (CVD)- and cancer-specific survival rates of elderly adults predicted by ALU-J/Sx content in both tissues, as planned subgroup analyses. Results We found greater ALU-J/Sx content variance in WBCs from elderly adults than young adults (P < 0.001) with no difference in SMCs (P = 0.94). Elderly adults with low WBC ALU-J/Sx content had worse four-year all-cause and CVD-associated survival than those with high ALU-J/Sx content (both P = 0.03 and hazard ratios (HR) ≥ 3.40), while WBC ALU-J/Sx content had no influence on cancer-associated survival (P = 0.42 and HR = 0.74). SMC ALU-J/Sx content had no influence on all-cause, CVD- or cancer -associated survival (all P ≥ 0.26; HR ≤ 2.07). Conclusions These initial findings demonstrate that ALU element instability occurs with advanced age in WBCs, but not SMCs, and imparts greater risk of all-cause mortality that is likely driven by an increased risk for CVD and not cancer. PMID:28060910

  6. Hydroxyurea-Increased Fetal Hemoglobin Is Associated with Less Organ Damage and Longer Survival in Adults with Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Fitzhugh, Courtney D.; Hsieh, Matthew M.; Allen, Darlene; Coles, Wynona A.; Seamon, Cassie; Ring, Michael; Zhao, Xiongce; Minniti, Caterina P.; Rodgers, Griffin P.; Schechter, Alan N.; Tisdale, John F.; Taylor, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adults with sickle cell anemia (HbSS) are inconsistently treated with hydroxyurea. Objectives We retrospectively evaluated the effects of elevating fetal hemoglobin with hydroxyurea on organ damage and survival in patients enrolled in our screening study between 2001 and 2010. Methods An electronic medical record facilitated development of a database for comparison of study parameters based on hydroxyurea exposure and dose. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00011648. Results Three hundred eighty-three adults with homozygous sickle cell disease were analyzed with 59 deaths during study follow-up. Cox regression analysis revealed deceased subjects had more hepatic dysfunction (elevated alkaline phosphatase, Hazard Ratio = 1.005, 95% CI 1.003–1.006, p<0.0.0001), kidney dysfunction (elevated creatinine, Hazard Ratio = 1.13, 95% CI 1.00–1.27, p = 0.043), and cardiopulmonary dysfunction (elevated tricuspid jet velocity on echocardiogram, Hazard Ratio = 2.22, 1.23–4.02, p = 0.0082). Sixty-six percent of subjects were treated with hydroxyurea, although only 66% of those received a dose within the recommended therapeutic range. Hydroxyurea use was associated with improved survival (Hazard Ratio = 0.58, 95% CI 0.34–0.97, p = 0.040). This effect was most pronounced in those taking the recommended dose of 15–35 mg/kg/day (Hazard Ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0.17–0.73, p = 0.0050). Hydroxyurea use was not associated with changes in organ function over time. Further, subjects with higher fetal hemoglobin responses to hydroxyurea were more likely to survive (p = 0.0004). While alkaline phosphatase was lowest in patients with the best fetal hemoglobin response (95.4 versus 123.6, p = 0.0065 and 96.1 versus 113.6U/L, p = 0.041 at first and last visits, respectively), other markers of organ damage were not consistently improved over time in patients with the highest fetal hemoglobin levels. Conclusions Our data suggest that adults should be

  7. Divorce is a part of my life... resilience, survival, and vulnerability: young adults' perception of the implications of parental divorce.

    PubMed

    Eldar-Avidan, Dorit; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M; Greenbaum, Charles W

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative study among 22 young adults (20-25 years old) whose parents divorced during their childhood was conducted in Israel, using semi-structured, in-depth, open-ended interviews. Qualitative data analysis led to identification of three profiles, aiming at a grounded theoretical conceptualization. Three core themes were identified: the centrality of the family; short- and long-term implications of parental divorce and its relations to supportive coping resources; and perspective at young adulthood. Further analysis led to typifying participants by three profiles, which represent the grounded theoretical conceptualizations: resilience, survival, and vulnerability. The most prominent difference among the profiles was the relationships between participants and their parents, and their perception of ongoing parental responsibility. A thorough discussion of the results and their implications for future research, theory development, and practice are presented.

  8. Gestational immune activation and Tsc2 haploinsufficiency cooperate to disrupt fetal survival and may perturb social behavior in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Ehninger, D; Sano, Y; de Vries, P J; Dies, K; Franz, D; Geschwind, D H; Kaur, M; Lee, Y-S; Li, W; Lowe, J K; Nakagawa, J A; Sahin, M; Smith, K; Whittemore, V; Silva, A J

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 40-50% of individuals affected by tuberous sclerosis (TSC) develop autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). One possible explanation for this partial penetrance is an interaction between TSC gene mutations and other risk factors such as gestational immune activation. In this study, we report the interactive effects of these two ASD risk factors in a mouse model of TSC. Combined, but not single, exposure had adverse effects on intrauterine survival. Additionally, provisional results suggest that these factors synergize to disrupt social approach behavior in adult mice. Moreover, studies in human populations are consistent with an interaction between high seasonal flu activity in late gestation and TSC mutations in ASD. Taken together, our studies raise the possibility of a gene × environment interaction between heterozygous TSC gene mutations and gestational immune activation in the pathogenesis of TSC-related ASD.

  9. Serotonin Depletion Hampers Survival and Proliferation in Neurospheres Derived from Adult Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Benninghoff, Jens; Gritti, Angela; Rizzi, Matteo; LaMorte, Giuseppe; Schloesser, Robert J; Schmitt, Angelika; Robel, Stefanie; Genius, Just; Moessner, Rainald; Riederer, Peter; Manji, Husseini K; Grunze, Heinz; Rujescu, Dan; Moeller, Hans-Juergen; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Vescovi, Angelo Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) and the serotonergic system have recently been indicated as modulators of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In this study, we evaluated the role of 5-HT on the functional features in neurospheres derived from adult neural stem cells (ANSC). We cultured neurospheres derived from mouse hippocampus in serum-free medium containing epidermal (EGF) and type-2 fibroblast growth factor (FGF2). Under these conditions ANSC expressed both isoforms of tryptophane-hydroxylase (TPH) and produced 5-HT. Blocking TPH function by para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) reduced ANSC proliferation, which was rescued by exogenous 5-HT. 5-HT action on ANSC was mediated predominantly by the serotonin receptor subtype 5-HT1A and, to a lesser extent, through the 5-HT2C (receptor) subtype, as shown by selectively antagonizing these receptors. Finally, we documented a 5-HT-induced increase of ANSC migration activity. In summary, we demonstrated a powerful serotonergic impact on ANSC functional features, which was mainly mediated by 5-HT1A receptors. PMID:20010549

  10. Serotonin depletion hampers survival and proliferation in neurospheres derived from adult neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Benninghoff, Jens; Gritti, Angela; Rizzi, Matteo; Lamorte, Giuseppe; Schloesser, Robert J; Schmitt, Angelika; Robel, Stefanie; Genius, Just; Moessner, Rainald; Riederer, Peter; Manji, Husseini K; Grunze, Heinz; Rujescu, Dan; Moeller, Hans-Juergen; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Vescovi, Angelo Luigi

    2010-03-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) and the serotonergic system have recently been indicated as modulators of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In this study, we evaluated the role of 5-HT on the functional features in neurospheres derived from adult neural stem cells (ANSC). We cultured neurospheres derived from mouse hippocampus in serum-free medium containing epidermal (EGF) and type-2 fibroblast growth factor (FGF2). Under these conditions ANSC expressed both isoforms of tryptophane-hydroxylase (TPH) and produced 5-HT. Blocking TPH function by para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) reduced ANSC proliferation, which was rescued by exogenous 5-HT. 5-HT action on ANSC was mediated predominantly by the serotonin receptor subtype 5-HT1A and, to a lesser extent, through the 5-HT2C (receptor) subtype, as shown by selectively antagonizing these receptors. Finally, we documented a 5-HT-induced increase of ANSC migration activity. In summary, we demonstrated a powerful serotonergic impact on ANSC functional features, which was mainly mediated by 5-HT1A receptors.

  11. Colon Cancer Staging in Vulnerable Older Adults: Adherence to National Guidelines and Impact on Survival

    PubMed Central

    Leal, TB; Holden, T; Cavalcante, L; Allen, GO; Schumacher, JR; Smith, MA; Weiss, JM; Neuman, HB; LoConte, NK

    2015-01-01

    Background There is concern that elders are not adequately evaluated prior to colon cancer surgery. We sought to determine adherence with ACOVE-3 (Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders) quality indicators for pre-operative staging prior to colectomy for colon cancer utilizing the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database (1992–2005). Methods We determined the proportion of patients aged 75 and older who had preoperative staging prior to colectomy for colon adenocarcinoma. Preoperative staging was defined as abdominopelvic computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scan (SCAN) and colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy (SCOPE). Multivariate logistic regression identified predictors of adherence. Odds ratios were adjusted for comorbidity, socioeconomic status, and disease severity. The association of adherence to ACOVE-3 and survival was quantified. Results Of the 37,862 patients, the majority were 75–84 years, 28% of the patients were ≥85 years. Regarding preoperative staging in the 6-month interval prior to surgical resection, 8% had neither SCAN nor SCOPE, 6% had only SCAN, 43% had only SCOPE, and 43% had both SCAN and SCOPE. Compared to patients who were not staged, those evaluated with either SCOPE alone or SCAN plus SCOPE had lower odds of 3-year mortality. Patients who were staged with SCAN alone had an increased odds of death compared to those who had neither SCAN or SCOPE. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the majority of vulnerable elders with colon cancer did not receive appropriate preoperative staging prior to resection. The findings also confirm that adherence to ACOVE-3 guidelines is associated with improved long-term survival. PMID:25914900

  12. Association between helicopter with physician versus ground emergency medical services and survival of adults with major trauma in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Helicopter emergency medical services with a physician (HEMS) has been provided in Japan since 2001. However, HEMS and its possible effect on outcomes for severe trauma patients have still been debated as helicopter services require expensive and limited resources. Our aim was to analyze the association between the use of helicopters with a physician versus ground services and survival among adults with serious traumatic injuries. Methods This multicenter prospective observational study involved 24,293 patients. All patients were older than 15 years of age, had sustained blunt or penetrating trauma and had an Injury Severity Score (ISS) higher than 15. All of the patient data were recorded between 2004 and 2011 in the Japan Trauma Data Bank, which includes data from 114 major emergency hospitals in Japan. The primary outcome was survival to discharge from hospitals. The intervention was either transport by helicopter with a physician or ground emergency services. Results A total of 2,090 patients in the sample were transported by helicopter, and 22,203 were transported by ground. Overall, 546 patients (26.1%) transported by helicopter died compared to 5,765 patients (26.0%) transported by ground emergency services. Patients transported by helicopter had higher ISSs than those transported by ground. In multivariable logistic regression, helicopter transport had an odds ratio (OR) for survival to discharge of 1.277 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.049 to 1.556) after adjusting for age, sex, mechanism of injury, type of trauma, initial vital signs (including systolic blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate), ISS and prehospital treatment (including intubation, airway protection maneuver and intravenous fluid). In the propensity score–matched cohort, helicopter transport was associated with improved odds of survival compared to ground transport (OR, 1.446; 95% CI, 1.220 to 1.714). In conditional logistic regression, after adjusting for

  13. Self-perceptions of young adults who survived severe childhood burn injury.

    PubMed

    Russell, William; Robert, Rhonda S; Thomas, Christopher R; Holzer, Charles E; Blakeney, Patricia; Meyer, Walter J

    2013-01-01

    The transition of pediatric burn survivors into adulthood is accompanied by a reformulation of their self-concept. To anticipate the need for and guide development of appropriate psychosocial interventions, this study examines how young adults who were burned as children perceive themselves and how this perception might affect their self-esteem. Eighty-two young adult burn survivors (45 male, 37 female) were assessed using the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, 2nd edition (TSCS2) to determine how the participants perceive themselves and their interaction with society. To gain insight into the possible effects of these self-concept scores, relationships were analyzed between self-concept, a behavioral assessment (Young Adult Self-Report [YASR]), and a psychiatric symptom assessment (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders [SCID I]). This group of burn survivors scored significantly lower in self-concepts, reflected in TSCS2 subscale scores of physical function, appearance, and sexuality, moral conduct, personal values, academics and work, and identity, than did the reference population. Pearson correlation coefficients showed that as moral, personal, family, and social aspects of self-concept decreased, clinical problems endorsed on the YASR subscales increased, including anxiety, somatic, attention, intrusive, and aggressive. Persons with lower self-concept scores on the TSCS2 personal, family, and social scales were more withdrawn on the YASR. Similarly, those with lower TSCS2 scores on the personal and family scales endorsed significantly more thought problems on the YASR. TSCS2 total self-concept, personal, and all of the supplementary scale scores were significantly lower for the group with an affective disorder. Those whose SCID I scores were consistent with a current anxiety disorder had significantly lower scores for the TSCS2 total self-concept and personal. Lower self-concept was associated with endorsement of SCID symptoms. In summary, the

  14. Low-dose dexamethasone treatment promotes the pro-survival signalling pathway in the adult rat prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Drakulić, D; Veličković, N; Stanojlović, M; Grković, I; Mitrović, N; Lavrnja, I; Horvat, A

    2013-07-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX), a highly potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agent, is widely used in the treatment of brain cancer, as well as for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The present study aimed to determine whether low-dose subchronic DEX treatment (100 μg/kg for eight consecutive days) exerts long-term effects on apoptosis in the adult rat prefrontal cortex (PFC) by examining the expression of cell death-promoting molecules [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), p53, procaspase 3, cleaved caspase 3, Bax] and cell-survival molecules (AKT, Bcl-2). The results obtained revealed that body, thymus and adrenal gland weights, as well corticosterone levels, in the serum and PFC were reduced 1 day after the last DEX injection. In the PFC, DEX caused activation of AKT, augmentation of pro-survival Bcl-2 protein and an enhanced Bcl-2/Bax protein ratio, as well Bcl-2 translocation to the mitochondria. An unaltered profile with respect to the protein expression of apoptotic molecules PARP, procaspase 3 and Bax was detected, whereas p53 protein was decreased. Reverse transcriptase -polymerase chain reaction analysis showed a decrease of p53 mRNA levels and no significant difference in Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA expression in DEX-treated rats. Finally, a DNA fragmentation assay and Fluoro-Jade staining demonstrated no considerable changes in apoptosis in the rat PFC. Our findings support the concept that low-dose DEX creates a hypocorticoid state in the brain and also indicate that subchronic DEX treatment activates the pro-survival signalling pathway but does not change apoptotic markers in the rat PFC. This mechanism might be relevant for the DEX-induced apoptosis resistance observed during and after chemotherapy of patients with brain tumours.

  15. A Single Hot Event Stimulates Adult Performance but Reduces Egg Survival in the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholitha molesta

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Gang; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2014-01-01

    Climate warming is expected to increase the exposure of insects to hot events (involving a few hours at extreme high temperatures). These events are unlikely to cause widespread mortality but may modify population dynamics via impacting life history traits such as adult fecundity and egg hatching. These effects and their potential impact on population predictions are still largely unknown. In this study, we simulated a single hot event (maximum of 38°C lasting for 4 h) of a magnitude increasingly found under field conditions and examined its effect in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta. This hot event had no impact on the survival of G. molesta adults, copulation periods or male longevity. However, the event increased female lifespan and the length of the oviposition period, leading to a potential increase in lifetime fecundity and suggesting hormesis. In contrast, exposure of males to this event markedly reduced the net reproductive value. Male heat treatment delayed the onset of oviposition in the females they mated with, as well as causing a decrease in the duration of oviposition period and lifetime fecundity. Both male and female stress also reduced egg hatch. Our findings of hormetic effects on female performance but concurrent detrimental effects on egg hatch suggest that hot events have unpredictable consequences on the population dynamics of this pest species with implications for likely effects associated with climate warming. PMID:25551751

  16. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise.

    PubMed

    Garber, Carol Ewing; Blissmer, Bryan; Deschenes, Michael R; Franklin, Barry A; Lamonte, Michael J; Lee, I-Min; Nieman, David C; Swain, David P

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this Position Stand is to provide guidance to professionals who counsel and prescribe individualized exercise to apparently healthy adults of all ages. These recommendations also may apply to adults with certain chronic diseases or disabilities, when appropriately evaluated and advised by a health professional. This document supersedes the 1998 American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Position Stand, "The Recommended Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness, and Flexibility in Healthy Adults." The scientific evidence demonstrating the beneficial effects of exercise is indisputable, and the benefits of exercise far outweigh the risks in most adults. A program of regular exercise that includes cardiorespiratory, resistance, flexibility, and neuromotor exercise training beyond activities of daily living to improve and maintain physical fitness and health is essential for most adults. The ACSM recommends that most adults engage in moderate-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise training for ≥30 min·d on ≥5 d·wk for a total of ≥150 min·wk, vigorous-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise training for ≥20 min·d on ≥3 d·wk (≥75 min·wk), or a combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise to achieve a total energy expenditure of ≥500-1000 MET·min·wk. On 2-3 d·wk, adults should also perform resistance exercises for each of the major muscle groups, and neuromotor exercise involving balance, agility, and coordination. Crucial to maintaining joint range of movement, completing a series of flexibility exercises for each the major muscle-tendon groups (a total of 60 s per exercise) on ≥2 d·wk is recommended. The exercise program should be modified according to an individual's habitual physical activity, physical function, health status, exercise responses, and stated goals. Adults who are unable or unwilling to meet the exercise targets outlined here still can benefit

  17. Glial glycine transporter 1 function is essential for early postnatal survival but dispensable in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Eulenburg, Volker; Retiounskaia, Marina; Papadopoulos, Theofilos; Gomeza, Jesús; Betz, Heinrich

    2010-07-01

    The glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) is expressed in astrocytes and selected neurons of the mammalian CNS. In newborn mice, GlyT1 is crucial for efficient termination of glycine-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission. Furthermore, GlyT1 has been implicated in the regulation of excitatory N-methyl-D-asparate (NMDA) receptors. To evaluate whether glial and neuronal GlyT1 have distinct roles at inhibitory synapses, we inactivated the GlyT1 gene cell type-specifically using mice carrying floxed GlyT1 alleles GlyT1((+)/+)). GlyT1((+)/(+)) mice expressing Cre recombinase in glial cells developed severe neuromotor deficits during the first postnatal week, which mimicked the phenotype of conventional GlyT1 knock-out mice and are consistent with glycinergic over-inhibition. In contrast, Cre-mediated inactivation of the GlyT1 gene in neuronal cells did not result in detectable motor impairment. Notably, some animals deficient for glial GlyT1 survived the first postnatal week and did not develop neuromotor deficits throughout adulthood, although GlyT1 expression was efficiently reduced. Thus, glial GlyT1 is critical for the regulation of glycine levels at inhibitory synapses only during early postnatal life.

  18. Early-life disease exposure and associations with adult survival, cause of death, and reproductive success in preindustrial humans

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Adam D.; Rigby, Francesca L.; Lummaa, Virpi

    2016-01-01

    A leading hypothesis proposes that increased human life span since 1850 has resulted from decreased exposure to childhood infections, which has reduced chronic inflammation and later-life mortality rates, particularly from cardiovascular disease, stroke, and cancer. Early-life cohort mortality rate often predicts later-life survival in humans, but such associations could arise from factors other than disease exposure. Additionally, the impact of early-life disease exposure on reproduction remains unknown, and thus previous work ignores a major component of fitness through which selection acts upon life-history strategy. We collected data from seven 18th- and 19th-century Finnish populations experiencing naturally varying mortality and fertility levels. We quantified early-life disease exposure as the detrended child mortality rate from infectious diseases during an individual’s first 5 y, controlling for important social factors. We found no support for an association between early-life disease exposure and all-cause mortality risk after age 15 or 50. We also found no link between early-life disease exposure and probability of death specifically from cardiovascular disease, stroke, or cancer. Independent of survival, there was no evidence to support associations between early-life disease exposure and any of several aspects of reproductive performance, including lifetime reproductive success and age at first birth, in either males or females. Our results do not support the prevailing assertion that exposure to infectious diseases in early life has long-lasting associations with later-life all-cause mortality risk or mortality putatively linked to chronic inflammation. Variation in adulthood conditions could therefore be the most likely source of recent increases in adult life span. PMID:27457937

  19. Divergences in trends in child and adult mortality in sub-Saharan Africa: survey evidence on the survival of children and siblings.

    PubMed

    Masquelier, Bruno; Reniers, Georges; Pison, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of trends in mortality in children aged under 5 and adults between the ages of 15 and 60 in sub-Saharan Africa, using data on the survival of the children and siblings collected in Demographic and Health Surveys. If conspicuous stalls in the 1990s are disregarded, child mortality levels have generally declined and converged over the last 30-40 years. In contrast, adult mortality in many East and Southern African countries has increased markedly, echoing earlier increases in the incidence of HIV. In recent years, adult mortality levels have begun to decline once again in East Africa, in some instances before the large-scale expansion of antiretroviral therapy programmes. More surprising is the lack of sustained improvements in adult survival in some countries that have not experienced severe HIV epidemics. Because trends in child and adult mortality do not always evolve in tandem, we argue that model-based estimates, inferred by matching indices of child survival onto standard mortality schedules, can be very misleading.

  20. Recent trends in survival of adult patients with acute leukemia: overall improvements, but persistent and partly increasing disparity in survival of patients from minority groups.

    PubMed

    Pulte, Dianne; Redaniel, Maria Theresa; Jansen, Lina; Brenner, Hermann; Jeffreys, Mona

    2013-02-01

    The survival of younger patients with acute leukemia has improved in the early 21(st) century, but it is unknown whether people of all ethnic and racial backgrounds have benefited equally. Using cancer registry data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program, we assessed trends in 5-year relative survival for patients aged 15 years or more with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloblastic leukemia divided by racial and ethnic group, including non-Hispanic whites, African-Americans, Hispanics, and Asian-Pacific Islanders in the 1990s and the early 21(st) century. Modeled period analysis was used to obtain the most up-to-date estimates of survival. Overall, the 5-year survival increased from 31.6% in 1997-2002 to 39.0% in 2003-2008 for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and from 15.5% in 1991-1996 to 22.5% in 2003-2008 for those with acute myeloblastic leukemia. Nevertheless, among patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, age-adjusted 5-year relative survival rates remained lower for African-Americans and Hispanics than for non-Hispanic whites. Among patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia, the increase in survival was greatest (from 32.6% in 1991-1996 to 47.1% in 2003-2008) for younger patients (15-54 years), and was more pronounced for non-Hispanic whites (+16.4% units) than for other patients (+10.8% units). Increases in survival are observed in all ethnic or racial groups. Nevertheless, among patients with acute leukemias, disparities in survival persist between non-Hispanic white people and people of other ethnic or racial groups. Disparities are increasing in younger patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia. Improvements in access to treatment, especially for minority patients, may improve outcomes.

  1. Retinoic acid signaling controls the formation, proliferation and survival of the blastema during adult zebrafish fin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Blum, Nicola; Begemann, Gerrit

    2012-01-01

    Adult teleosts rebuild amputated fins through a proliferation-dependent process called epimorphic regeneration, in which a blastema of cycling progenitor cells replaces the lost fin tissue. The genetic networks that control formation of blastema cells from formerly quiescent stump tissue and subsequent blastema function are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the cellular and molecular consequences of genetically interfering with retinoic acid (RA) signaling for the formation of the zebrafish blastema. We show that RA signaling is upregulated within the first few hours after fin amputation in the stump mesenchyme, where it controls Fgf, Wnt/β-catenin and Igf signaling. Genetic inhibition of the RA pathway at this stage blocks blastema formation by inhibiting cell cycle entry of stump cells and impairs the formation of the basal epidermal layer, a signaling center in the wound epidermis. In the established blastema, RA signaling remains active to ensure the survival of the highly proliferative blastemal population by controlling expression of the anti-apoptotic factor bcl2. In addition, RA signaling maintains blastema proliferation through the activation of growth-stimulatory signals mediated by Fgf and Wnt/β-catenin signaling, as well as by reducing signaling through the growth-inhibitory non-canonical Wnt pathway. The endogenous roles of RA in adult vertebrate appendage regeneration are uncovered here for the first time. They provide a mechanistic framework to understand previous observations in salamanders that link endogenous sources of RA to the regeneration process itself and support the hypothesis that the RA signaling pathway is an essential component of vertebrate tissue regeneration.

  2. Survival analysis of banding and bonding molar tubes in adult patients over a 12-month period: a split-mouth randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Oeiras, Valéria Jacques; Silva, Valéria Assis Almeida E; Azevedo, Leidiana Aguiar; Lobato, Vanessa Soares; Normando, David

    2016-12-22

    This split-mouth randomized clinical trial aimed to compare the survival rate of bonding and banding molar tubes in adult orthodontic patients. Eligibility criteria included adults (aged >18 years), no active caries, restorations, or fractures in the upper and lower molars. The main outcome was any type of first-time failure in molar tubes. A computer-generated randomization scheme was used in a 1:1 ratio. The survival rate was estimated for 32 adult patients, in whom a tube was bonded to a molar tooth using composite resin on one side and a band was cemented with glass ionomer onto the same tooth in the contralateral arch. A total of 59 banded and 59 bonded molars were followed up for 12 months. Blinding was not applicable. Survival analysis including Cox regression was used at p < 0.05. The survival rate of bonded molars was not statistically different from that of banded molars (log-rank test, p = 0.97). Hazard ratio (HR) was 0.72 (95%CI, 0.38-1.31). Bonded upper molars yielded a survival rate of 81.25% (26 out of 32) compared to 71.87% (23 out of 32) for banded upper molars. The survival rate was 66.66% (18 out of 27) for banded lower molars and 59.25% for bonded lower molars (16 out of 27). The HR for lower vs. upper arch was 2.16 (95%CI, 1.18-3.98). No serious problem was observed other than gingivitis associated with plaque accumulation. In contrast to previous studies in young patients, in adults, bonding orthodontic tubes to molars is similar to molar banding. However, both procedures had a high failure rate in the lower arch.

  3. Negative effects of habitat loss on survival of migrant Warblers in a forest mosaic.

    PubMed

    Zitske, B P; Betts, M G; Diamond, A W

    2011-10-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation in forested landscapes often negatively affect animal abundance; however, whether these factors also affect fitness is not well known. We hypothesized that observed decreases in bird occurrence and abundance in landscapes with harvested forests are associated with reduced apparent survival of adults. We defined apparent survival as an estimate of survival that accounts for an imperfect resighting probability, but not permanent emigration (i.e., dispersal). We examined the association between spatially extensive habitat loss and apparent survival of males of 2 Neotropical migrant species, Blackburnian Warbler (Dendroica fusca) and Black-Throated Green Warbler (D. virens), over 7 years in the Greater Fundy Ecosystem, New Brunswick, Canada. We estimated apparent survival among and within breeding seasons. We quantified amount of habitat in the context of individual species. In this landscape, boundaries between land-cover types are gradual rather than clearly identifiable and abrupt. Estimated apparent within-season survival of both species decreased as a function of amount of habitat within a 2000-m radius; survival was approximately 12 times (95% CI 3.43-14) greater in landscapes with 85% habitat than in landscapes with 10% habitat. Apparent annual survival also decreased as a function of amount of habitat within a 100-m radius. Over the range of habitat amount, apparent annual survival decreased 15% (95% CI 7-29%) as the amount of habitat decreased. Our results suggest that reduced species occurrence in landscapes with low proportions of habitat is due partly to lower apparent survival at these sites. This mechanism operates both directly (i.e., via effects on mortality or dispersal during breeding) and possibly through indirect effects during the nonbreeding season. Habitat loss was associated not only with a lower number of individuals, but also with lower survival of those individuals.

  4. Estimation of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population size and adult male survival in an urban area in Panama.

    PubMed

    Neira, Marco; Lacroix, Renaud; Cáceres, Lorenzo; Kaiser, Paul E; Young, Josue; Pineda, Lleysa; Black, Isaac; Sosa, Nestor; Nimmo, Derric; Alphey, Luke; McKemey, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Traditional mosquito control strategies rely heavily on the use of chemical insecticides. However, concerns about the efficiency of traditional control methods, environmental impact and emerging pesticide resistance have highlighted the necessity for developing innovative tools for mosquito control. Some novel strategies, including release of insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL®), rely on the sustained release of modified male mosquitoes and therefore benefit from a thorough understanding of the biology of the male of the species. In this report we present the results of a mark-release-recapture study aimed at: (i) establishing the survival in the field of laboratory-reared, wild-type male Aedes aegypti and (b) estimating the size of the local adult Ae. aegypti population. The study took place in Panama, a country where recent increases in the incidence and severity of dengue cases have prompted health authorities to evaluate alternative strategies for vector control. Results suggest a life expectancy of 2.3 days for released male mosquitoes (confidence interval: 1.78-2.86). Overall, the male mosquito population was estimated at 58 males/ha (range 12-81 males/ha), which can be extrapolated to an average of 0.64 pupae/person for the study area. The practical implications of these results are discussed.

  5. Estimation of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population size and adult male survival in an urban area in Panama

    PubMed Central

    Neira, Marco; Lacroix, Renaud; Cáceres, Lorenzo; Kaiser, Paul E; Young, Josue; Pineda, Lleysa; Black, Isaac; Sosa, Nestor; Nimmo, Derric; Alphey, Luke; McKemey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Traditional mosquito control strategies rely heavily on the use of chemical insecticides. However, concerns about the efficiency of traditional control methods, environmental impact and emerging pesticide resistance have highlighted the necessity for developing innovative tools for mosquito control. Some novel strategies, including release of insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL®), rely on the sustained release of modified male mosquitoes and therefore benefit from a thorough understanding of the biology of the male of the species. In this report we present the results of a mark-release-recapture study aimed at: (i) establishing the survival in the field of laboratory-reared, wild-type male Aedes aegypti and (b) estimating the size of the local adult Ae. aegypti population. The study took place in Panama, a country where recent increases in the incidence and severity of dengue cases have prompted health authorities to evaluate alternative strategies for vector control. Results suggest a life expectancy of 2.3 days for released male mosquitoes (confidence interval: 1.78-2.86). Overall, the male mosquito population was estimated at 58 males/ha (range 12-81 males/ha), which can be extrapolated to an average of 0.64 pupae/person for the study area. The practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25410991

  6. Induced neural stem cells achieve long-term survival and functional integration in the adult mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Hemmer, Kathrin; Zhang, Mingyue; van Wüllen, Thea; Sakalem, Marna; Tapia, Natalia; Baumuratov, Aidos; Kaltschmidt, Christian; Kaltschmidt, Barbara; Schöler, Hans R; Zhang, Weiqi; Schwamborn, Jens C

    2014-09-09

    Differentiated cells can be converted directly into multipotent neural stem cells (i.e., induced neural stem cells [iNSCs]). iNSCs offer an attractive alternative to induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology with regard to regenerative therapies. Here, we show an in vivo long-term analysis of transplanted iNSCs in the adult mouse brain. iNSCs showed sound in vivo long-term survival rates without graft overgrowths. The cells displayed a neural multilineage potential with a clear bias toward astrocytes and a permanent downregulation of progenitor and cell-cycle markers, indicating that iNSCs are not predisposed to tumor formation. Furthermore, the formation of synaptic connections as well as neuronal and glial electrophysiological properties demonstrated that differentiated iNSCs migrated, functionally integrated, and interacted with the existing neuronal circuitry. We conclude that iNSC long-term transplantation is a safe procedure; moreover, it might represent an interesting tool for future personalized regenerative applications.

  7. Disparities in Adolescent and Young Adult Survival After Testicular Cancer Vary by Histologic Subtype: A Population-Based Study in California 1988–2010

    PubMed Central

    Mujahid, Mahasin; Srinivas, Sandy; Keegan, Theresa H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Testicular cancer is the most common cancer among adolescent and young adult (AYA) men 15–39 years of age. This study aims to determine whether race/ethnicity and/or neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) contribute independently to survival of AYAs with testicular cancer. Methods: Data on 14,249 eligible AYAs with testicular cancer diagnosed in California between 1988 and 2010 were obtained from the population-based California Cancer Registry. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine overall and testicular cancer-specific survival and survival for the seminoma and nonseminoma histologic subtypes according to race/ethnicity, census-tract level neighborhood SES, and other patient and clinical characteristics. Results: Compared with White AYAs, Hispanic AYAs had worse overall and testicular cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07–1.37) and Black AYAs had worse overall survival (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.01–1.97), independent of neighborhood SES and other demographic and clinical factors. Racial/ethnic disparities in survival were more pronounced for nonseminoma than for seminoma. AYAs residing in middle and low SES neighborhoods experienced worse survival across both histologic subtypes independent of race/ethnicity and other factors, while improvements in survival over time were more pronounced for seminoma. Longer time to treatment was also associated with worse survival, particularly for AYAs with nonseminoma. Conclusion: Among AYAs, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood SES are independently associated with survival after testicular cancer. Variation in disparities by histologic type according to demographic factors, year of diagnosis, and time to treatment may reflect differences in prognosis and extent of treatment for the two histologies. PMID:26812451

  8. Dispersal and survival of a polygynandrous passerine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, Heather R.; Kendall, Steve J.; Wild, Teri C.; Powell, Abby N.

    2015-01-01

    Although sex biases in survival and dispersal are thought to be linked to avian mating systems, little is known about these demographic patterns in less common mating strategies such as polygynandry. We investigated breeding-site fidelity, natal philopatry, and apparent survival of the polygynandrous Smith's Longspur (Calcarius pictus) over a 7-yr period at 2 areas in Alaska's Brooks Range. We used capture–recapture histories of 243 color-banded adults and 431 juveniles to estimate annual survival and determined dispersal patterns from 34 adults that were found breeding within the study areas over multiple years. Most adults (88%) returned to nest in the same breeding neighborhood as in previous years; mean dispersal distance was 300.9 ± 74.2 m and did not differ between sexes. Juveniles exhibited low natal philopatry; only 4% of banded hatch-year birds were resighted as adults during subsequent years. Those that did return dispersed, on average, 1,674.4 ± 465.8 m from their natal nests (n = 6). Model-averaged survival estimates indicated that annual survival of adult females (50–58%) was only slightly lower than that of males (60–63%); juvenile survival was 41% but was paired with a low (13%) encounter probability. We attribute the lack of sex bias in adult dispersal to this species' polygynandrous mating strategy. Within this system, there are multiple mates within a breeding neighborhood. We argue that natural selection may favor females that remain on the same, familiar breeding site, because they do not have to disperse to a new area to find a suitable mate. Dispersal among breeding populations most likely occurs by juveniles returning as adults. Our findings support hypotheses that suggest a relationship between dispersal and mating strategy and provide some of the first insight into the demographic patterns of a polygynandrous passerine.

  9. A case of low success of blind vaccination campaigns against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease on survival of adult European wild rabbits.

    PubMed

    Rouco, Carlos; Moreno, Sacramento; Santoro, Simone

    2016-10-01

    Vaccination campaigns against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) are commonly used in translocation programs conducted for the purpose of recovering wild European rabbit populations in Iberian Mediterranean ecosystems. In most cases rabbits are vaccinated 'blind' (i.e. without assessing their prior immunological status) for economic and logistic reasons. However, there is conflicting evidence on the effectiveness of such an approach. We tested whether blind vaccination against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease improved rabbit survival in a rabbit translocation program where wild rabbits were kept in semi-natural conditions in three enclosures. We conducted nine capture sessions over two years (2008-2010) and used the information collected to compare the survival of vaccinated (n=511) versus unvaccinated (n=161) adult wild rabbits using capture-mark-recapture analysis. Average monthly survival was no different for vaccinated versus unvaccinated individuals, both in the period between release and first capture (short-term) and after the first capture onward (long-term). Rabbit survival was lower in the short term than in the long term regardless of whether rabbits were vaccinated or not. Lower survival in the short-term could be due to the stress induced by the translocation process itself (e.g. handling stress). However, we did not find any overall effect of vaccination on survival which could be explained by two non-exclusive reasons. First, interference of the vaccine with the natural antibodies in the donor population. Due to donor populations have high density of rabbits with, likely, high prevalence of antibodies as a result of previous natural exposure to these diseases. Second, the lack of severe outbreaks during the study period. Based on our findings we argue that blind vaccination of adult rabbits in translocation programs may be often mostly ineffective and unnecessarily costly. In particular, since outbreaks are hard to predict

  10. Projecting demographic responses to climate change: adult and juvenile survival respond differently to direct and indirect effects of weather in a passerine population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dybala, Kristen E.; Eadie, John M.; Gardali, Thomas; Seavy, Nathaniel E.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have quantitatively projected changes in demography in response to climate change, yet doing so can provide important insights into the processes that may lead to population declines and changes in species distributions. Using a long-term mark-recapture data set, we examined the influence of multiple direct and indirect effects of weather on adult and juvenile survival for a population of Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) in California. We found evidence for a positive, direct effect of winter temperature on adult survival, and a positive, indirect effect of prior rainy season precipitation on juvenile survival, which was consistent with an effect of precipitation on food availability during the breeding season. We used these relationships, and climate projections of significantly warmer and slightly drier winter weather by the year 2100, to project a significant increase in mean adult survival (12-17%) and a slight decrease in mean juvenile survival (4-6%) under the B1 and A2 climate change scenarios. Together with results from previous studies on seasonal fecundity and postfledging survival in this population, we integrated these results in a population model and projected increases in the population growth rate under both climate change scenarios. Our results underscore the importance of considering multiple, direct, and indirect effects of weather throughout the annual cycle, as well as differences in the responses of each life stage to climate change. Projecting demographic responses to climate change can identify not only how populations will be affected by climate change but also indicate the demographic process(es) and specific mechanisms that may be responsible. This information can, in turn, inform climate change adaptation plans, help prioritize future research, and identify where limited conservation resources will be most effectively and efficiently spent.

  11. Projecting demographic responses to climate change: adult and juvenile survival respond differently to direct and indirect effects of weather in a passerine population.

    PubMed

    Dybala, Kristen E; Eadie, John M; Gardali, Thomas; Seavy, Nathaniel E; Herzog, Mark P

    2013-09-01

    Few studies have quantitatively projected changes in demography in response to climate change, yet doing so can provide important insights into the processes that may lead to population declines and changes in species distributions. Using a long-term mark-recapture data set, we examined the influence of multiple direct and indirect effects of weather on adult and juvenile survival for a population of Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) in California. We found evidence for a positive, direct effect of winter temperature on adult survival, and a positive, indirect effect of prior rainy season precipitation on juvenile survival, which was consistent with an effect of precipitation on food availability during the breeding season. We used these relationships, and climate projections of significantly warmer and slightly drier winter weather by the year 2100, to project a significant increase in mean adult survival (12-17%) and a slight decrease in mean juvenile survival (4-6%) under the B1 and A2 climate change scenarios. Together with results from previous studies on seasonal fecundity and postfledging survival in this population, we integrated these results in a population model and projected increases in the population growth rate under both climate change scenarios. Our results underscore the importance of considering multiple, direct, and indirect effects of weather throughout the annual cycle, as well as differences in the responses of each life stage to climate change. Projecting demographic responses to climate change can identify not only how populations will be affected by climate change but also indicate the demographic process(es) and specific mechanisms that may be responsible. This information can, in turn, inform climate change adaptation plans, help prioritize future research, and identify where limited conservation resources will be most effectively and efficiently spent.

  12. Ratios of T lymphocyte subpopulations predict survival of cadaveric renal allografts in adult patients on low dose corticosteroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Van Es, A; Tanke, H J; Baldwin, W M; Oljans, P J; Ploem, J S; Vanes, L A

    1983-04-01

    Peripheral blood T lymphocyte subpopulations were monitored in 45 consecutive adult recipients of cadaveric renal allografts by using monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometrie. All patients were treated with low dose corticosteroids and azathioprine. In 37 patients pre-transplant OKT4/OKT8 ratios were available. Six of 26 patients (23%) with pre-transplant OKT4/OKT8 ratios greater than 1.6 and seven of 11 patients (64%) with pre-transplant OKT4/OKT8 ratio less than or equal to 1.6 lost their graft due to rejection within 6 months. The difference in transplant survival between patients with pre-transplant OKT4/OKT8 ratios greater than 1.6 and less than or equal to 1.6i is just significant (P = 0 . 049 Fishers test). No correlation was found between post-transplant values of individual lymphocyte subpopulations or OKT4/OKT8 ratios and the incidence of subsequent rejection episodes. Forty out of 45 patients suffered one or more rejection episodes which were treated by raising the dosage of prednisone. In 24 of these patients the rejection episode was reversed, leading to a transplant survival of at least 6 months. In these 24 patients the OKT4/OKT8 ratio was greater than 1.6 for at least 3 days before the institution of any rejection treatments. Sixteen patients lost their graft due to rejection within 6 months after transplantation. In 11 of these 16 patients OKT4/OKT8 ratios less than or equal to 1.6 preceded the institution of all rejection treatments for at least 3 days, while in three patients the OKT4/OKT8 ratio was greater than 1.6 before the first rejection episode but this ratio was less than or equal to 1.6 before subsequent rejection episodes. Thus, OKT4/OKT8 ratios greater than 1.i6 correlated with reversible rejection episodes and OKT4/OKT8 ratios less than or equal to 1.6 correlated with irreversible rejection (P less than 0 . 001).

  13. Improving the Quality of Adult Mortality Data Collected in Demographic Surveys: Validation Study of a New Siblings' Survival Questionnaire in Niakhar, Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Helleringer, Stéphane; Pison, Gilles; Masquelier, Bruno; Kanté, Almamy Malick; Douillot, Laetitia; Duthé, Géraldine; Sokhna, Cheikh; Delaunay, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Background In countries with limited vital registration, adult mortality is frequently estimated using siblings' survival histories (SSHs) collected during Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). These data are affected by reporting errors. We developed a new SSH questionnaire, the siblings' survival calendar (SSC). It incorporates supplementary interviewing techniques to limit omissions of siblings and uses an event history calendar to improve reports of dates and ages. We hypothesized that the SSC would improve the quality of adult mortality data. Methods and Findings We conducted a retrospective validation study among the population of the Niakhar Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Senegal. We randomly assigned men and women aged 15–59 y to an interview with either the DHS questionnaire or the SSC. We compared SSHs collected in each group to prospective data on adult mortality collected in Niakhar. The SSC reduced respondents' tendency to round reports of dates and ages to the nearest multiple of five or ten (“heaping”). The SSC also had higher sensitivity in recording adult female deaths: among respondents whose sister(s) had died at an adult age in the past 15 y, 89.6% reported an adult female death during SSC interviews versus 75.6% in DHS interviews (p = 0.027). The specificity of the SSC was similar to that of the DHS questionnaire, i.e., it did not increase the number of false reports of deaths. However, the SSC did not improve the reporting of adult deaths among the brothers of respondents. Study limitations include sample selectivity, limited external validity, and multiple testing. Conclusions The SSC has the potential to collect more accurate SSHs than the questionnaire used in DHS. Further research is needed to assess the effects of the SSC on estimates of adult mortality rates. Additional validation studies should be conducted in different social and epidemiological settings. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN06849961

  14. Apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility of one- to three-day-old, adult ground, extruded, and canned chicken-based diets in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus).

    PubMed

    Kerr, K R; Morris, C L; Burke, S L; Swanson, K S

    2014-08-01

    There has been a recent increase in the popularity of feeding unconventional diets, including whole prey diets, to domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus). Data are needed that allow animal caretakers to choose and formulate diets that meet the nutritional requirements of their cats. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of feeding 1- to 3-d-old whole chicks (WHO), ground adult chicken product (GRO), a chicken-based canned diet (CAN), and a chicken-based extruded diet (EXT) on apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility, N balance, and blood metabolites of domestic cats (n = 11). Macronutrient, energy, and moisture concentrations of diets varied greatly (e.g., CP: 35 to 72% DM); however, cats fed all diets maintained BW and N balance. In general, cats fed WHO had lower nutrient digestibility than those fed CAN and EXT. Cats fed GRO had greater nutrient digestibility than cats fed commercial diets. For example, apparent OM and GE digestibility coefficients were greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed CAN (86 and 88%, respectively), EXT (88 and 88%), and GRO (94 and 95%) compared with those fed WHO (83 and 83%) and greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed GRO compared with those fed CAN and EXT. Many blood metabolites were modified by diet, but most remained within reference ranges for domestic cats. Serum cholesterol was elevated above the reference range for all treatments and greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed WHO compared with those fed CAN, EXT, and GRO. Serum creatinine concentrations were above the reference range for all treatments and greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed GRO compared with those fed CAN or WHO. These data indicate that the whole prey tested herein maintained short-term health and are adequately digestible for use in companion animal diets. Research is needed to determine the global and long-term health implications of feeding whole or ground diets to domestic cats, which may be different in terms of macronutrient, energy, and moisture

  15. Age-specific survival of reintroduced swift fox in Badlands National Park and surrounding lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sasmal, Indrani; Klaver, Robert W.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Schroeder, Greg M.

    2016-01-01

    In 2003, a reintroduction program was initiated at Badlands National Park (BNP), South Dakota, USA, with swift foxes (Vulpes velox) translocated from Colorado and Wyoming, USA, as part of a restoration effort to recover declining swift fox populations throughout its historical range. Estimates of age-specific survival are necessary to evaluate the potential for population growth of reintroduced populations. We used 7 years (2003–2009) of capture–recapture data of 243 pups, 29 yearlings, and 69 adult swift foxes at BNP and the surrounding area to construct Cormack–Jolly–Seber model estimates of apparent survival within a capture–mark–recapture framework using Program MARK. The best model for estimating recapture probabilities included no differences among age classes, greater recapture probabilities during early years of the monitoring effort than later years, and variation among spring, winter, and summer. Our top ranked survival model indicated pup survival differed from that of yearlings and adults and varied by month and year. The apparent annual survival probability of pups (0.47, SE = 0.10) in our study area was greater than the apparent annual survival probability of yearlings and adults (0.27, SE = 0.08). Our results indicate low survival probabilities for a reintroduced population of swift foxes in the BNP and surrounding areas. Management of reintroduced populations and future reintroductions of swift foxes should consider the effects of relative low annual survival on population demography.

  16. Effects of crude oil exposure on bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and survival of adult and larval stages of gelatinous zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Chai, Chao; Wang, Zucheng; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J

    2013-01-01

    Gelatinous zooplankton play an important role in marine food webs both as major consumers of metazooplankton and as prey of apex predators (e.g., tuna, sunfish, sea turtles). However, little is known about the effects of crude oil spills on these important components of planktonic communities. We determined the effects of Louisiana light sweet crude oil exposure on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in adult stages of the scyphozoans Pelagia noctiluca and Aurelia aurita and the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, and on survival of ephyra larvae of A. aurita and cydippid larvae of M. leidyi, in the laboratory. Adult P. noctiluca showed 100% mortality at oil concentration ≥20 µL L(-1) after 16 h. In contrast, low or non-lethal effects were observed on adult stages of A. aurita and M. leidyi exposed at oil concentration ≤25 µL L(-1) after 6 days. Survival of ephyra and cydippid larva decreased with increasing crude oil concentration and exposition time. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for ephyra larvae ranged from 14.41 to 0.15 µL L(-1) after 1 and 3 days, respectively. LC50 for cydippid larvae ranged from 14.52 to 8.94 µL L(-1) after 3 and 6 days, respectively. We observed selective bioaccumulation of chrysene, phenanthrene and pyrene in A. aurita and chrysene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]anthracene in M. leidyi. Overall, our results indicate that (1) A. aurita and M. leidyi adults had a high tolerance to crude oil exposure compared to other zooplankton, whereas P. noctiluca was highly sensitive to crude oil, (2) larval stages of gelatinous zooplankton were more sensitive to crude oil than adult stages, and (3) some of the most toxic PAHs of crude oil can be bioaccumulated in gelatinous zooplankton and potentially be transferred up the food web and contaminate apex predators.

  17. Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor of the Sellar Region in an Adult With Long Survival: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Almalki, Mussa Hussain; Alrogi, Ashjan; Al-Rabie, Abdulkarim; Al-Dandan, Sadeq; Altwairgi, Abdullah; Orz, Yasser

    2017-01-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a highly malignant central nervous system neoplasm usually diagnosed in young children, although it can occur in adults. Prognosis for AT/RT is poor, with a median survival of 10 - 11 months. We report a rare case of adult sellar and suprasellar AT/RT in a 36-year-old female patient. She was treated with multi-modalities including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation. She markedly improved following treatment with no recurrence in 3 years follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the 11th case of an adult-onset AT/RT in the sellar or suprasellar region with favorable long-term outcome. PMID:28179970

  18. Apparent rates of increase for two feral horse herds

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, L.L.; Majorowicz, A.K.; Wilcox, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Rates of increase for 2 Oregon feral horse (Equus caballus) herds were estimated from direct aerial counts to be about 20% per year. These rates can be achieved only if survival rates are high, and reproduction exceeds that normally expected from horses. A population dynamics model suggests adult survival to be the key parameter in determining rates of increase, and there is some direct evidence of high adult survival rates. Management implications are discussed.

  19. The effects of acute and chronic administration of phosphatidylserine on cell proliferation and survival in the dentate gyrus of adult and middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Maragno, Heloisa; Rodella, Patricia; Silva Freitas, Josiane da; Fernando Takase, Luiz

    2015-06-03

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) is an acidic phospholipid that is widely used as an alternative and/or complementary treatment of cognitive impairments. We hypothesize that these changes may be attributable, at least in part, to alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute and chronic PS administration on hippocampal cell proliferation and survival in adult (5 months old) and middle-aged (12 months old) male Wistar rats. PS was injected daily (50mg/kg, i.p.) during 7 days (acute experiment) or 21 days (chronic experiment). To label newly generated cells, rats received a single BrdU injection (200mg/kg, i.p.) one day before PS treatment. The object recognition test was performed, and the rats were perfused. The brains were removed and processed with immunohistochemistry techniques for Ki-67 (cell proliferation) and BrdU (cell survival). The acute and chronic regimens were unable to promote cognitive improvement in either age group in the object recognition test. The analysis of cell proliferation showed a significant increase in the number of Ki-67-positive cells after acute and chronic PS administration in both age groups. The analysis of cell survival showed that acute and chronic PS administration increased the number of BrdU-positive cells only in adult animals.

  20. Frequency of p190 and p210 BCR-ABL rearrangements and survival in Brazilian adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    de França Azevedo, Ilana; da Silva Júnior, Rui Milton Patrício; de Vasconcelos, Audrey Violeta Martins; das Neves, Washington Batista; de Barros Correia Melo, Fárida Coeli; Melo, Raul Antônio Morais

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the occurrence of the p190 and p210 breakpoint cluster region-Abelson (BCR-ABL) rearrangements in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and possible associations with clinical and laboratory characteristics and survival. Methods Forty-one over 18-year-old patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia of both genders followed-up between January 2008 and May 2012 were included in this study. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical charts of the patients. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers was employed to identify molecular rearrangements. Results At diagnosis, the median age was 33 years, and there was a predominance of males (61%). The most common immunophenotype was B lineage (76%). BCR-ABL rearrangements was detected in 14 (34%) patients with the following distribution: p190 (28%), p210 (50%) and double positive (22%). Overall survival of patients with a mean/median of 331/246 days of follow up was 39%, respectively, negative BCR-ABL (44%) and positive BCR-ABL (28%). Conclusion These results confirm the high frequency of BCR-ABL rearrangements and the low survival rate of adult Brazilian patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:25305168

  1. Systemic insecticides reduce feeding, survival, and fecundity of adult black vine weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on a variety of ornamental nursery crops.

    PubMed

    Reding, Michael E; Ranger, Christopher M

    2011-04-01

    Systemic activity of the neonicotinoids clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam and the anthranilic diamide chlorantraniliprole was tested against adult black vine weevils, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), on Astilbe, Euonymus, Heuchera, Rhododendron, Sedum, and Taxus. Insecticide treatments were applied to the soilless substrate of containerized plants. Bioassays were conducted 12 or 13, 26, and 42 d after treatment (DAT) and ran for 7 d; and feeding, mortality, and weight gain or loss by weevils were evaluated. Foliage was removed from test plants and then placed in arenas with adult black vine weevils. The neonicotinoids reduced feeding and weight gain by adult black vine weevils on most plant species with residual activity 42 DAT on some plant species. At 12 DAT, mortality was caused by the three neonicotinoids on Astilbe and by thiamethoxam on Sedum; and at 26 DAT dinotefuran caused mortality on Astilbe. Chlorantraniliprole reduced feeding on Taxus at 12 DAT, with no activity detected in other bioassays. Another set of bioassays was conducted to examine survival and fecundity of adult black vine weevils during prolonged feeding on Heuchera and Taxus systemically treated with dinotefuran or thiamethoxam. Bioassay procedures were similar to those described above, except they ran continuously for 56 d. Prolonged feeding on dinotefuran and thiamethoxam treated Heuchera and Taxus resulted in high mortality of adult black vine weevils and reduced fecundity. These studies show that the systemic activity of neonicotinoids is influenced by plant species and that systemic neonicotinoids have the potential to suppress black vine weevil populations in containerized nursery crops.

  2. Survival of breeding Pacific common eiders on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, H.M.; Flint, P.L.; Moran, Christine L.; Powell, A.N.

    2007-01-01

    Populations of Pacific common eiders (Somateria mollissima v-nigrum) breeding in Alaska, USA, have declined markedly over the past 40 years. We studied survival of adult female Pacific common eiders using capture—recapture of nesting hens at 3 sites on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD), Alaska from 1994 to 2004. We used data consisting of 268 recapture events from 361 uniquely marked individuals to investigate temporal, geographic, and environmental variation in adult female survival. Our results suggest apparent annual survival of adult eiders from the YKD was high (0.892, SE = 0.022) and spatially and temporally invariant (σ2 = 0.005), a pattern consistent with other long-lived marine birds. Moreover, our results suggest adult survival may be functionally fixed for Pacific common eiders, and at the present, adult survival may be relatively unresponsive to environmental or management perturbations. Our data did not support hypothesized variation in survival relative to mortality factors such as predation on breeding grounds, physiologic costs of reproduction, and wintering conditions. Although changes in adult survival likely have a large potential effect on prospective population growth, our results suggest viable management actions aimed at increasing survival may be extremely limited.

  3. Patterns of practice and survival in a retrospective analysis of 1722 adult astrocytoma patients treated between 1985 and 2001 in 12 Italian radiation oncology centers

    SciTech Connect

    Magrini, Stefano Maria . E-mail: magrini@med.unibs.it; Ricardi, Umberto; Santoni, Riccardo; Krengli, Marco; Lupattelli, Marco; Cafaro, Ines; Scoccianti, Silvia; Menichelli, Claudia; Bertoni, Filippo; Enrici, Riccardo Maurizi; Tombolini, Vincenzo; Buglione, Michela; Pirtoli, Luigi

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To analyze the patterns of practice and survival in a series of 1722 adult astrocytoma patients treated in 12 Italian radiotherapy centers. Methods and Materials: A total of 1722 patients were treated with postoperative radiotherapy (90% World Health Organization [WHO] Grade 3-4, 62% male, 44% aged >60 years, 25% with severe neurologic deficits, 44% after gross total resection, 52% with high-dose radiotherapy, and 16% with chemotherapy). Variations in the clinical-therapeutic features in three subsequent periods (1985 through 2001) were evaluated, along with overall survival for the different subgroups. Results: The proportion of women, of older patients, of those with worse neurologic performance status (NPS), with WHO Grade 4, and with smaller tumors increased with time, as did the proportion of those treated with radical surgery, hypofractionated radiotherapy, and more sophisticated radiotherapy techniques, after staging procedures progressively became more accurate. The main prognostic factors for overall survival were age, sex, neurologic performance status, WHO grade, extent of surgery, and radiation dose. Conclusions: Recently, broader selection criteria for radiotherapy were adopted, together with simpler techniques, smaller total doses, and larger fraction sizes for the worse prognostic categories. Younger, fit patients are treated more aggressively, more often in association with chemotherapy. Survival did not change over time. The accurate evaluation of neurologic status is therefore of utmost importance before the best treatment option for the individual patient is chosen.

  4. Long-term maintenance combination chemotherapy with OPEC/MPEC (vincristine or methotrexate, prednisolone, etoposide and cyclophosphamide) or with daily oral etoposide and prednisolone can improve survival and quality of life in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, K; Matsumoto, T; Ohtsubo, H; Fujiwara, H; Imamura, N; Hidaka, S; Kukita, T; Tei, C; Matsumoto, M; Arima, N

    1999-12-01

    Acute leukemia and lymphoma varieties of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) usually carry a poor prognosis. While etoposide is generally useful for treating ATL, especially as a daily oral maintenance regimen, etoposide has not proven effective in severe types of ATL efficient in some patients. Of 87 ATL patients whom we have treated, 51 had acute leukemia, 22 lymphoma and 14 progressive chronic leukemia. Seventy-nine patients were treated with a long term maintenance combination protocol, OPEC/MPEC (weekly doses of vincristine, 0.7 mg/m2 or methotrexate, 14 mg/m2; prednisolone, 20 mg/m2; etoposide, 70 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide, 200 mg/m2). The other 8 patients, 3 with acute leukemia, 2 with lymphoma and 3 with progressive chronic leukemia, were treated with daily oral administration of 25 mg of etoposide and 10 mg of prednisolone (DOEP). The dose administered was modified in individual cases to maintain the granulocyte count and reduce the number of ATL cells. Considering both protocols, a complete response and a partial response were achieved in 31.0% and 58.6% patients, respectively. Median survival times (MST) of all patients and, acute leukemia, lymphoma and progressive chronic leukemia types were 7.5, 6.7, 9.6 and 12.4 months, respectively. Respective MST of patients treated with OPEC/MPEC or DOEP protocols were 7.1 and 18.0 months. Relatively normal WBC counts, lower lactate dehydrogenase concentration and normal calcium concentration, limited numbers of anatomic sites involved, good performance status and good response to chemotherapy were significantly associated with long survival time. Drug toxicity was not apparent, and about half of patients were treated in an outpatient setting.

  5. Androgens increase survival of adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus by an androgen receptor-dependent mechanism in male rats.

    PubMed

    Hamson, D K; Wainwright, S R; Taylor, J R; Jones, B A; Watson, N V; Galea, L A M

    2013-09-01

    Gonadal steroids are potent regulators of adult neurogenesis. We previously reported that androgens, such as testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), but not estradiol, increased the survival of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of the male rat. These results suggest androgens regulate hippocampal neurogenesis via the androgen receptor (AR). To test this supposition, we examined the role of ARs in hippocampal neurogenesis using 2 different approaches. In experiment 1, we examined neurogenesis in male rats insensitive to androgens due to a naturally occurring mutation in the gene encoding the AR (termed testicular feminization mutation) compared with wild-type males. In experiment 2, we injected the AR antagonist, flutamide, into castrated male rats and compared neurogenesis levels in the dentate gyrus of DHT and oil-treated controls. In experiment 1, chronic T increased hippocampal neurogenesis in wild-type males but not in androgen-insensitive testicular feminization mutation males. In experiment 2, DHT increased hippocampal neurogenesis via cell survival, an effect that was blocked by concurrent treatment with flutamide. DHT, however, did not affect cell proliferation. Interestingly, cells expressing doublecortin, a marker of immature neurons, did not colabel with ARs in the dentate gyrus, but ARs were robustly expressed in other regions of the hippocampus. Together these studies provide complementary evidence that androgens regulate adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus via the AR but at a site other than the dentate gyrus. Understanding where in the brain androgens act to increase the survival of new neurons in the adult brain may have implications for neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. Green tea compound epigallo-catechin-3-gallate (EGCG) increases neuronal survival in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-López, L; Márquez-Valadez, B; Gómez-Sánchez, A; Silva-Lucero, M D C; Torres-Pérez, M; Téllez-Ballesteros, R I; Ichwan, M; Meraz-Ríos, M A; Kempermann, G; Ramírez-Rodríguez, G B

    2016-05-13

    Epigallo-catechin-3-gallate (EGCG), found in the leaves of Camellia sinensis (green tea), has antioxidant- and scavenger-functions and acts neuroprotectively. It has been publicized as anti-aging remedy but data on potential cellular mechanisms are scarce. Recent studies claimed that EGCG specifically promotes neural precursor cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of C57Bl/6 mice, without changes at the level of immature and mature new neurons. We here analyzed the effects of EGCG on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in male Balb/C mice and saw a different pattern. Two weeks of treatment with EGCG (0, 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10mg/kg) showed a dose-response curve that peaked at 2.5mg/kg of EGCG with significantly increased cell survival without affecting cell proliferation but decreasing apoptotic cells. Also, EGCG increased the population of doublecortin-(DCX)-expressing cells that comprises the late intermediate progenitor cells (type-2b and -3) as well as immature neurons. After EGCG treatment, the young DCX-positive neurons showed more elaborated dendritic trees. EGCG also significantly increased net neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus and increased the hippocampal levels of phospho-Akt. Ex vivo, EGCG exerted a direct effect on survival and neuronal differentiation of adult hippocampal precursor cells, which was absent, when PI3K, a protein upstream of Akt, was blocked. Our results thus support a pro-survival and a pro-neurogenic role of EGCG. In the context of the conflicting published results, however, potential genetic modifiers must be assumed. These might help to explain the overall variability of study results with EGCG. Our data do indicate, however, that natural compounds such as EGCG can in principle modulate brain plasticity.

  7. Survival of female Lesser Scaup: Effects of body size, age, and reproductive effort

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rotella, J.J.; Clark, R.G.; Afton, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    In birds, larger females generally have greater breeding propensity, reproductive investment, and success than do smaller females. However, optimal female body size also depends on how natural selection acts during other parts of the life cycle. Larger female Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) produce larger eggs than do smaller females, and ducklings from larger eggs survive better than those hatching from smaller eggs. Accordingly, we examined patterns of apparent annual survival for female scaup and tested whether natural selection on female body size primarily was stabilizing, a frequent assumption in studies of sexually dimorphic species in which males are the larger sex, or was directional, counter-acting reproductive advantages of large size. We estimated survival using mark-recapture methods for individually marked females from two study sites in Canada (Erickson, Manitoba; St. Denis, Saskatchewan). Structurally larger (adults) and heavier (ducklings) females had lower survival than did smaller individuals in Manitoba; no relationship was detected in adults from Saskatchewan. Survival of adult females declined with indices of increasing reproductive effort at both sites; consequently, the cost of reproduction could explain age-related patterns of breeding propensity in scaup. Furthermore, if larger females are more likely to breed than are smaller females, then cost of reproduction also may help explain why survival was lower for larger females. Overall, we found that advantages of large body size of female scaup during breeding or as young ducklings apparently were counteracted by natural selection favoring lightweight juveniles and structurally smaller adult females through higher annual survival.

  8. Effects of Crude Oil Exposure on Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Survival of Adult and Larval Stages of Gelatinous Zooplankton

    PubMed Central

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Chai, Chao; Wang, Zucheng; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    Gelatinous zooplankton play an important role in marine food webs both as major consumers of metazooplankton and as prey of apex predators (e.g., tuna, sunfish, sea turtles). However, little is known about the effects of crude oil spills on these important components of planktonic communities. We determined the effects of Louisiana light sweet crude oil exposure on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in adult stages of the scyphozoans Pelagia noctiluca and Aurelia aurita and the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, and on survival of ephyra larvae of A. aurita and cydippid larvae of M. leidyi, in the laboratory. Adult P. noctiluca showed 100% mortality at oil concentration ≥20 µL L−1 after 16 h. In contrast, low or non-lethal effects were observed on adult stages of A. aurita and M. leidyi exposed at oil concentration ≤25 µL L−1 after 6 days. Survival of ephyra and cydippid larva decreased with increasing crude oil concentration and exposition time. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for ephyra larvae ranged from 14.41 to 0.15 µL L−1 after 1 and 3 days, respectively. LC50 for cydippid larvae ranged from 14.52 to 8.94 µL L−1 after 3 and 6 days, respectively. We observed selective bioaccumulation of chrysene, phenanthrene and pyrene in A. aurita and chrysene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]anthracene in M. leidyi. Overall, our results indicate that (1) A. aurita and M. leidyi adults had a high tolerance to crude oil exposure compared to other zooplankton, whereas P. noctiluca was highly sensitive to crude oil, (2) larval stages of gelatinous zooplankton were more sensitive to crude oil than adult stages, and (3) some of the most toxic PAHs of crude oil can be bioaccumulated in gelatinous zooplankton and potentially be transferred up the food web and contaminate apex predators. PMID:24116004

  9. Anthropogenic host plant expansion leads a nettle-feeding butterfly out of the forest: consequences for larval survival and developmental plasticity in adult morphology

    PubMed Central

    Merckx, Thomas; Serruys, Mélanie; Van Dyck, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Recent anthropogenic eutrophication has meant that host plants of nettle-feeding insects became quasi-omnipresent in fertile regions of Western Europe. However, host plant resource quality – in terms of microclimate and nutritional value – may vary considerably between the ‘original’ forest habitat and ‘recent’ agricultural habitat. Here, we compared development in both environmental settings using a split-brood design, so as to explore to what extent larval survival and adult morphology in the nettle-feeding butterfly Aglais urticae are influenced by the anthropogenic environment. Nettles along field margins had higher C/N ratios and provided warmer microclimates to larvae. Larvae developed 20% faster and tended to improve their survival rates, on the agricultural land compared to woodland. Our split-brood approach indicated plastic responses within families, but also family effects in the phenotypic responses. Adult males and females had darker wing pigmentation in the drier and warmer agricultural environment, which contrasts with the thermal melanism hypothesis. Developmental plasticity in response to this microclimatically different and more variable habitat was associated with a broader phenotypic parameter space for the species. Both habitat expansion and developmental plasticity are likely contributors to the ecological and evolutionary success of these nettle-feeding insects in anthropogenic environments under high nitrogen load. PMID:25926881

  10. Adult-onset deficiency in growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I decreases survival of dentate granule neurons: insights into the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lichtenwalner, Robin J; Forbes, M Elizabeth; Sonntag, William E; Riddle, David R

    2006-02-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), long thought to provide critical trophic support during development, also has emerged as a candidate for regulating ongoing neuronal production in adulthood. Whether and how IGF-I influences each phase of neurogenesis, however, remains unclear. In the current study, we used a selective model of growth hormone (GH) and plasma IGF-I deficiency to evaluate the role of GH and IGF-I in regulating cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation in the adult dentate gyrus. GH/IGF-I-deficient dwarf rats of the Lewis strain were made GH/IGF-I replete throughout development via twice daily injections of GH, and then GH/IGF-I deficiency was initiated in adulthood by removing animals from GH treatment. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling revealed no effect of GH/IGF-I deficiency on cell proliferation, but adult-onset depletion of GH and plasma IGF-I significantly reduced the survival of newly generated cells in the dentate gyrus. Colabeling for BrdU and markers of immature and mature neurons revealed a selective effect of GH/IGF-I deficiency on the survival of more mature new neurons. The number of BrdU-labeled cells expressing the immature neuronal marker TUC-4 did not differ between GH/IGF-I-deficient and -replete animals, but the number expressing only the marker of maturity NeuN was lower in depleted animals. Taken together, results from the present study suggest that, under conditions of short-term GH/IGF-I deficiency during adulthood, dentate granule cells continue to be produced, to commit to a neuronal fate, and to begin the process of neuronal maturation, whereas survival of the new neurons is impaired.

  11. Allogeneic, but not autologous, hematopoietic cell transplantation improves survival only among younger adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first remission: an individual patient data meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vikas; Richards, Sue; Rowe, Jacob

    2013-01-10

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and prolonged chemotherapy are standard postremission strategies for adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first complete remission, but the optimal strategy remains controversial. There are no randomized trials of allogeneic HCT. In the present study, updated individual patient data were collected and analyzed from studies with information on availability of matched sibling donor (used to mimic randomization) and from randomized trials of autograft versus chemotherapy. Data from 13 studies including 2962 patients, excluding Philadelphia chromosome-positive patients, showed a survival benefit for having a matched sibling donor for patients < 35 years of age (OR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.70-0.90, P = .0003) but not for those ≥ 35 years of age (OR = 1.01; 95% CI, 0.85-1.19, P = .9; heterogeneity P = .03) because of the higher absolute risk of nonrelapse mortality for older patients. No differences were seen by risk group. There was a trend toward inferior survival for autograft versus chemotherapy (OR = 1.18; 95% CI, 0.99-1.41; P = .06). No beneficial effect of autografting was seen compared with chemotherapy in this analysis. We conclude that matched sibling donor myeloablative HCT improves survival only for younger patients, with an absolute benefit of approximately 10% at 5 years. Improved chemotherapy outcomes and reduced nonrelapse mortality associated with allogeneic HCT may change the relative effects of these treatments in the future.

  12. Possible benefit of consolidation therapy with high-dose cytarabine on overall survival of adults with non-promyelocytic acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, M C; Velloso, E D R P; Buccheri, V; Chamone, D A F; Dorlhiac-Llacer, P E

    2015-02-01

    In adults with non-promyelocytic acute myeloid leukemia (AML), high-dose cytarabine consolidation therapy has been shown to influence survival in selected patients, although the appropriate doses and schemes have not been defined. We evaluated survival after calculating the actual dose of cytarabine that patients received for consolidation therapy and divided them into 3 groups according to dose. We conducted a single-center, retrospective study involving 311 non-promyelocytic AML patients with a median age of 36 years (16-79 years) who received curative treatment between 1978 and 2007. The 131 patients who received cytarabine consolidation were assigned to study groups by their cytarabine dose protocol. Group 1 (n=69) received <1.5 g/m2 every 12 h on 3 alternate days for up to 4 cycles. The remaining patients received high-dose cytarabine (≥1.5 g/m2 every 12 h on 3 alternate days for up to 4 cycles). The actual dose received during the entire consolidation period in these patients was calculated, allowing us to divide these patients into 2 additional groups. Group 2 (n=27) received an intermediate-high-dose (<27 g/m2), and group 3 (n=35) received a very-high-dose (≥27 g/m2). Among the 311 patients receiving curative treatment, the 5-year survival rate was 20.2% (63 patients). The cytarabine consolidation dose was an independent determinant of survival in multivariate analysis; age, karyotype, induction protocol, French-American-British classification, and de novo leukemia were not. Comparisons showed that the risk of death was higher in the intermediate-high-dose group 2 (hazard ratio [HR]=4.51; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.81-11.21) and the low-dose group 1 (HR=4.43; 95% CI: 1.97-9.96) than in the very-high-dose group 3, with no significant difference between those two groups. Our findings indicated that very-high-dose cytarabine during consolidation in adults with non-promyelocytic AML may improve survival.

  13. Possible benefit of consolidation therapy with high-dose cytarabine on overall survival of adults with non-promyelocytic acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, M.C.; Velloso, E.D.R.P.; Buccheri, V.; Chamone, D.A.F.; Dorlhiac-Llacer, P.E.

    2014-01-01

    In adults with non-promyelocytic acute myeloid leukemia (AML), high-dose cytarabine consolidation therapy has been shown to influence survival in selected patients, although the appropriate doses and schemes have not been defined. We evaluated survival after calculating the actual dose of cytarabine that patients received for consolidation therapy and divided them into 3 groups according to dose. We conducted a single-center, retrospective study involving 311 non-promyelocytic AML patients with a median age of 36 years (16-79 years) who received curative treatment between 1978 and 2007. The 131 patients who received cytarabine consolidation were assigned to study groups by their cytarabine dose protocol. Group 1 (n=69) received <1.5 g/m2 every 12 h on 3 alternate days for up to 4 cycles. The remaining patients received high-dose cytarabine (≥1.5 g/m2 every 12 h on 3 alternate days for up to 4 cycles). The actual dose received during the entire consolidation period in these patients was calculated, allowing us to divide these patients into 2 additional groups. Group 2 (n=27) received an intermediate-high-dose (<27 g/m2), and group 3 (n=35) received a very-high-dose (≥27 g/m2). Among the 311 patients receiving curative treatment, the 5-year survival rate was 20.2% (63 patients). The cytarabine consolidation dose was an independent determinant of survival in multivariate analysis; age, karyotype, induction protocol, French-American-British classification, and de novo leukemia were not. Comparisons showed that the risk of death was higher in the intermediate-high-dose group 2 (hazard ratio [HR]=4.51; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.81-11.21) and the low-dose group 1 (HR=4.43; 95% CI: 1.97-9.96) than in the very-high-dose group 3, with no significant difference between those two groups. Our findings indicated that very-high-dose cytarabine during consolidation in adults with non-promyelocytic AML may improve survival. PMID:25517921

  14. Effects of Antiretroviral Therapy on the Survival of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive Adult Patients in Andhra Pradesh, India: A Retrospective Cohort Study, 2007-2013

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Himanshu; Jayaseelan, Lakshmanan; Harvey, Pauline; Seguy, Nicole; Chavan, Laxmikant; Raj, Pinnamaneni; Pandey, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The survival outcomes of antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs have not been systematically evaluated at the state level in India. This retrospective study assessed the survival rates and factors associated with survival among adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods The present study used data from 139 679 HIV patients aged ≥15 years on ART who were registered from 2007 to 2011 and were followed up through December 2013. The primary end point was death of the patient. Mortality densities (per 1000 person-years) were calculated. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression models were used to estimate survival and explore the factors associated with survival. Results The overall median follow-up time was 16.0 months (2.0 months for the deceased and 14.0 months for those lost to follow-up). Approximately 13.2% of those newly initiated on ART died during follow-up. Of those deaths, 56% occurred in the first three months. The crude mortality rate was 80.9 per 1000 person-years at risk. The CD4 count (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR],4.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.36 to 5.46 for <100 cells/mm3 vs. >350 cells/mm3), functional status (aHR, 3.05; 95% CI, 2.82 to 3.30 for bedridden vs. normal), and body weight (aHR, 3.69; 95% CI, 3.42 to 3.97 for <45 kg vs. >60 kg) were strongly associated with the survival of HIV patients. Conclusions The study findings revealed that high mortality was observed within the first three months of ART initiation. Patients with poor baseline clinical characteristics had a higher risk of mortality. Expanded testing and counseling should be encouraged, with the goal of ensuring early enrollment into the program followed by the initiation of ART in HIV-infected patients. PMID:27951632

  15. Young adult donor bone marrow infusions into female mice postpone age-related reproductive failure and improve offspring survival.

    PubMed

    Selesniemi, Kaisa; Lee, Ho-Joon; Niikura, Teruko; Tilly, Jonathan L

    2008-11-14

    The female reproductive axis is the first major organ system of the body to fail with advancing age. In addition to a permanent cessation of fertile potential, the loss of cyclic ovarian function in humans heralds the onset of menopause, which in turn underlies the emergence of a diverse spectrum of health issues in aging women. Recently, it was reported that bone marrow (BM) transplantation (BMT) into adult female mice conditioned a week earlier with highly cytotoxic drugs rescues ovarian function and fertility. Herein we show in mice receiving no prior conditioning regimen that once-monthly infusions of BM-derived cells retrieved from young adult female donors bearing an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgene sustain the fertile potential of aging wild-type females long past their time of normal reproductive senescence. The fertility-promoting effects of female donor BM are observed regardless whether the infusions are initiated in young adult or middle-aged females. Although the mechanism by which BM infusions benefit the reproductive performance of aging females remains to be elucidated, the absence of EGFP-expressing offspring suggests that it does not depend on development of mature eggs derived from germline-committed cells in the donor marrow. However, donor BM-derived somatic cells accumulate in the recipients, indicating efficient donor cell engraftment without prior conditioning. These findings provide a strong impetus to further explore development of adult stem cell-based technologies to safely extend function of the female reproductive axis into advanced age without the need for toxic pre-conditioning protocols routinely used in other models of stem cell delivery.

  16. Determinants of survival in adult HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy in Eastern Uttar Pradesh: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Jaya; Tiwary, Narendra K.; Prasad, Shashi Ranjan; Shukla, Saurabh; Tiwari, Anurag; Mishra, Rabindra Nath; Sundar, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) of India has been providing free ARV (antiretroviral) drugs since 2004. By 2012, 486,173 patients had received treatment through the antiretroviral therapy (ART) centres. The objective of this observational study was to assess the factors determining survival of patients on ART under routine programme conditions in an ART centre in north India five years after its inception. Methods: Treatment naive HIV positive patients who were enrolled in the ART centre between May 2009 and May 2010 and started on ART as per the Revised NACO guidelines 2009, were included in the study and outcome was assessed after two years of follow up. Results: A total of 1689 patients were included in the analysis, of whom 272 (16.10%) expired, 205 (12.13%) were lost to follow up (LFU), 526 (31.14%) were transferred out to other facilities and 686 (40.63%) were alive at the end of two years. Majority (92%) of the deaths occurred in the first six months of therapy. Age >30 yr, male gender, poor functional status, haemoglobin level <11 g/dl, body weight <45 kg and CD4 count <100/μl at baseline had significantly higher relative hazard of death. Most LFU also occurred in the first six months and these patients had significantly low CD4 count, weight, haemoglobin level and higher number of patients in Stages III and IV as compared to those who survived. Interpretation & conclusions: The study findings revealed poor survival in the first six months of therapy especially in those with severe immunosuppression. This emphasizes the need for early enrolment into the programme. The high LFU occurring early after initiation of therapy suggests the urgent need to build an efficient patient retrieval system in the programme. PMID:25488442

  17. Extent of resection of peritumoral diffusion tensor imaging-detected abnormality as a predictor of survival in adult glioblastoma patients.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jiun-Lin; van der Hoorn, Anouk; Larkin, Timothy J; Boonzaier, Natalie R; Matys, Tomasz; Price, Stephen J

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been shown to detect tumor invasion in glioblastoma patients and has been applied in surgical planning. However, the clinical value of the extent of resection based on DTI is unclear. Therefore, the correlation between the extent of resection of DTI abnormalities and patients' outcome was retrospectively reviewed. METHODS A review was conducted of 31 patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial glioblastoma who underwent standard 5-aminolevulinic acid-aided surgery with the aim of maximal resection of the enhancing tumor component. All patients underwent presurgical MRI, including volumetric postcontrast T1-weighted imaging, DTI, and FLAIR. Postsurgical anatomical MR images were obtained within 72 hours of resection. The diffusion tensor was split into an isotropic (p) and anisotropic (q) component. The extent of resection was measured for the abnormal area on the p, q, FLAIR, and postcontrast T1-weighted images. Data were analyzed in relation to patients' outcome using univariate and multivariate Cox regression models controlling for possible confounding factors including age, O(6)-methylguanine-DNA-methyltrans-ferase methylation status, and isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 mutation. RESULTS Complete resection of the enhanced tumor shown on the postcontrast T1-weighted images was achieved in 24 of 31 patients (77%). The mean extent of resection of the abnormal p, q, and FLAIR areas was 57%, 83%, and 59%, respectively. Increased resection of the abnormal p and q areas correlated positively with progression-free survival (p = 0.009 and p = 0.006, respectively). Additionally, a larger, residual, abnormal q volume predicted significantly shorter time to progression (p = 0.008). More extensive resection of the abnormal q and contrast-enhanced area improved overall survival (p = 0.041 and 0.050, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Longer progression-free survival and overall survival were seen in glioblastoma patients in whom more DTI

  18. TGF-β Is Required for Vascular Barrier Function, Endothelial Survival and Homeostasis of the Adult Microvasculature

    PubMed Central

    Maharaj, Arindel S. R.; Sekiyama, Eiichi; Maldonado, Angel E.; D'Amore, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Pericyte-endothelial cell (EC) interactions are critical to both vascular development and vessel stability. We have previously shown that TGF-β signaling between EC and mural cells participates in vessel stabilization in vitro. We therefore investigated the role of TGF-β signaling in maintaining microvessel structure and function in the adult mouse retinal microvasculature. TGF-β signaling was inhibited by systemic expression of soluble endoglin (sEng) and inhibition was demonstrated by reduced phospho-smad2 in the adult retina. Blockade of TGF-β signaling led to increased vascular and neural cell apoptosis in the retina, which was associated with decreased retinal function, as measured by electroretinogram (ERG). Perfusion of the inner retinal vasculature was impaired and was accompanied by defective autoregulation and loss of capillary integrity. Fundus angiography and Evans blue permeability assay revealed a breakdown of the blood-retinal-barrier that was characterized by decreased association between the tight junction proteins zo-1 and occludin. Inhibition of TGF-β signaling in cocultures of EC and 10T1/2 cells corroborated the in vivo findings, with impaired EC barrier function, dissociation of EC from 10T1/2 cells, and endothelial cell death, supporting the role of EC-mesenchymal interactions in TGF-β signaling. These results implicate constitutive TGF-β signaling in maintaining the integrity and function of the adult microvasculature and shed light on the potential role of TGF-β signaling in vasoproliferative and vascular degenerative retinal diseases. PMID:19340291

  19. Risk Factors for Mortality among Adult HIV/AIDS Patients Following Antiretroviral Therapy in Southwestern Ethiopia: An Assessment through Survival Models

    PubMed Central

    Seyoum, Dinberu; Degryse, Jean-Marie; Kifle, Yehenew Getachew; Taye, Ayele; Tadesse, Mulualem; Birlie, Belay; Banbeta, Akalu; Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Duchateau, Luc; Speybroeck, Niko

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Efforts have been made to reduce HIV/AIDS-related mortality by delivering antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment. However, HIV patients in resource-poor settings are still dying, even if they are on ART treatment. This study aimed to explore the factors associated with HIV/AIDS-related mortality in Southwestern Ethiopia. Method: A non-concurrent retrospective cohort study which collected data from the clinical records of adult HIV/AIDS patients, who initiated ART treatment and were followed between January 2006 and December 2010, was conducted, to explore the factors associated with HIV/AIDS-related mortality at Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH). Survival times (i.e., the time from the onset of ART treatment to the death or censoring) and different characteristics of patients were retrospectively examined. A best-fit model was chosen for the survival data, after the comparison between native semi-parametric Cox regression and parametric survival models (i.e., exponential, Weibull, and log-logistic). Result: A total of 456 HIV patients were included in the study, mostly females (312, 68.4%), with a median age of 30 years (inter-quartile range (IQR): 23–37 years). Estimated follow-up until December 2010 accounted for 1245 person-years at risk (PYAR) and resulted in 66 (14.5%) deaths and 390 censored individuals, representing a median survival time of 34.0 months ( IQR: 22.8–42.0 months). The overall mortality rate was 5.3/100 PYAR: 6.5/100 PYAR for males and 4.8/100 PYAR for females. The Weibull survival model was the best model for fitting the data (lowest AIC). The main factors associated with mortality were: baseline age (>35 years old, AHR = 3.8, 95% CI: 1.6–9.1), baseline weight (AHR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.90–0.97), baseline WHO stage IV (AHR = 6.2, 95% CI: 2.2–14.2), and low adherence to ART treatment (AHR = 4.2, 95% CI: 2.5–7.1). Conclusion: An effective reduction in HIV/AIDS mortality could be achieved through timely ART

  20. Long-term survival and regeneration of neuronal and vasculature cells inside the core region after ischemic stroke in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Michael Qize; Zhao, Ying-Ying; Cao, Wenyuan; Wei, Zheng Zachory; Gu, Xiaohuan; Wei, Ling; Yu, Shan Ping

    2016-08-11

    Focal cerebral ischemia results in an ischemic core surrounded by the peri-infarct region (penumbra). Most research attention has been focused on penumbra while the pattern of cell fates inside the ischemic core is poorly defined. In the present investigation, we tested the hypothesis that, inside the ischemic core, some neuronal and vascular cells could survive the initial ischemic insult while regenerative niches might exist many days after stroke in the adult brain. Adult mice were subjected to focal cerebral ischemia induced by permanent occlusion of distal branches of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) plus transient ligations of bilateral common carotid artery (CCA). The ischemic insult uniformly reduced the local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) by 90%. Massive cell death occurred due to multiple mechanisms and a significant infarction was cultivated in the ischemic cortex 24 h later. Nevertheless, normal or even higher levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) persistently remained in the core tissue, some NeuN-positive and Glut-1/College IV-positive cells with intact ultrastructural features resided in the core 7-14 days post stroke. BrdU-positive but TUNEL-negative neuronal and endothelial cells were detected in the core where extensive extracellular matrix infrastructure developed. Meanwhile, GFAP-positive astrocytes accumulated in the penumbra and Iba-1-positive microglial/macrophages invaded the core several days after stroke. The long term survival of neuronal and vascular cells inside the ischemic core was also seen after a severe ischemic stroke induced by permanent embolic occlusion of the MCA. We demonstrate that a therapeutic intervention of pharmacological hypothermia could save neurons/endothelial cells inside the core. These data suggest that the ischemic core is an actively regulated brain region with residual and newly formed viable neuronal and vascular cells acutely and chronically after at

  1. Reporting errors in siblings' survival histories and their impact on adult mortality estimates: results from a record linkage study in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Helleringer, Stéphane; Pison, Gilles; Kanté, Almamy M; Duthé, Géraldine; Andro, Armelle

    2014-04-01

    Estimates of adult mortality in countries with limited vital registration (e.g., sub-Saharan Africa) are often derived from information about the survival of a respondent's siblings. We evaluated the completeness and accuracy of such data through a record linkage study conducted in Bandafassi, located in southeastern Senegal. We linked at the individual level retrospective siblings' survival histories (SSH) reported by female respondents (n = 268) to prospective mortality data and genealogies collected through a health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS). Respondents often reported inaccurate lists of siblings. Additions to these lists were uncommon, but omissions were frequent: respondents omitted 3.8 % of their live sisters, 9.1 % of their deceased sisters, and 16.6 % of their sisters who had migrated out of the DSS area. Respondents underestimated the age at death of the siblings they reported during the interview, particularly among siblings who had died at older ages (≥45 years). Restricting SSH data to person-years and events having occurred during a recent reference period reduced list errors but not age and date errors. Overall, SSH data led to a 20 % underestimate of 45 q 15 relative to HDSS data. Our study suggests new quality improvement strategies for SSH data and demonstrates the potential use of HDSS data for the validation of "unconventional" demographic techniques.

  2. Effects of salinity on egg and fecal pellet production, development and survival, adult sex ratio and total life span in the calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa: a laboratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayegan, Majid; Esmaeili Fereidouni, Abolghasem; Agh, Naser; Jani Khalili, Khosrow

    2016-07-01

    The effects of salinity on the copepod, Acartia tonsa in terms of daily egg production rate (EPR), hatching success, fecal pellet production rate (FPR), naupliar development time and survival, sex ratio, and total life span were determined in laboratory conditions through three experiments. In experiment 1, EPR, hatching success, and FPR of individual females were monitored at salinities of 13, 20, 35 and 45 during short-periods (seven consecutive days). Results show EPR was affected by salinity with the highest outputs recorded at 20 and 35, respectively, which were considerably higher than those at 13 and 45. Mean FPR was also higher in 35 and 20. In experiment 2, the same parameters were evaluated over total life span of females (long-term study). The best EPR and FPR were observed in 35, which was statistically higher than at 13 and 20. In experiment 3, survival rates of early nauplii until adult stage were lowest at a salinity of 13. The development time increased with increasing of salinity. Female percentage clearly decreased with increasing salinity. Higher female percentages (56.7% and 52.2%, respectively) were significantly observed at two salinities of 13 and 20 compared to that at 35 (25%). Total longevity of females was not affected by salinity increment. Based on our results, for mass culture we recommend that a salinity of 35 be adopted due to higher reproductive performances, better feeding, and faster development of A. tonsa.

  3. Relative abundance, site fidelity, and survival of adult lake trout in Lake Michigan from 1999 to 2001: Implications for future restoration strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, C.R.; Holey, M.E.; Madenjian, C.P.; Jonas, J.L.; Claramunt, R.M.; McKee, P.C.; Toneys, M.L.; Ebener, M.P.; Breidert, B.; Fleischer, G.W.; Hess, R.; Martell, A.W.; Olsen, E.J.

    2007-01-01

    We compared the relative abundance of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush spawners in gill nets during fall 1999–2001 in Lake Michigan at 19 stocked spawning sites with that at 25 unstocked sites to evaluate how effective site-specific stocking was in recolonizing historically important spawning reefs. The abundance of adult fish was higher at stocked onshore and offshore sites than at unstocked sites. This suggests that site-specific stocking is more effective at establishing spawning aggregations than relying on the ability of hatchery-reared lake trout to find spawning reefs, especially those offshore. Spawner densities were generally too low and too young at most sites to expect significant natural reproduction. However, densities were sufficiently high at some sites for reproduction to occur and therefore the lack of recruitment was attributable to other factors. Less than 3% of all spawners could have been wild fish, which indicates that little natural reproduction occurred in past years. Wounding by sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus was generally lower for Seneca Lake strain fish and highest for strains from Lake Superior. Fish captured at offshore sites in southern Lake Michigan had the lowest probability of wounding, while fish at onshore sites in northern Lake Michigan had the highest probability. The relative survival of the Seneca Lake strain was higher than that of the Lewis Lake or the Marquette strains for the older year-classes examined. Survival differences among strains were less evident for younger year-classes. Recaptures of coded-wire-tagged fish of five strains indicated that most fish returned to their stocking site or to a nearby site and that dispersal from stocking sites during spawning was about 100 km. Restoration strategies should rely on site-specific stocking of lake trout strains with good survival at selected historically important offshore spawning sites to increase egg deposition and the probability of natural reproduction in Lake

  4. Survival and behavioral effects of exposure to a hydrokinetic turbine on juvenile Atlantic salmon and adult American shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Haro, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a series of experiments designed to measure the effect of exposure to a full-scale, vertical axis hydrokinetic turbine on downstream migrating juvenile Atlantic salmon (N=75) and upstream migrating adult American shad (N=208). Controlled studies were performed in a large-scale, open-channel flume, and all individuals approached the turbine under volitional control. No injuries were observed, and there was no measurable increase in mortality associated with turbine passage. Exposure to the turbine elicited behavioral responses from both species, however, with salmon passing primarily over the downrunning blades. Shad movement was impeded by the device, as indicated by fewer attempts of shorter duration and reduced distance of ascent up the flume. More work should be performed in both laboratory and field conditions to determine to what extent these effects are likely to influence free-swimming fish.

  5. A New Harmonized Approach to Estimate Busulfan Exposure Predicts Survival and Toxicity after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Children and Young Adults: a Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bartelink, I.H.; Lalmohamed, Arief; van Reij, Elisabeth M.L.; Dvorak, Chris C.; Savic, Rada M.; Zwaveling, Juliette; Bredius, Robbert. G.M.; Egberts, Antoine C.G.; Bierings, M.; Kletzel, M.; Shaw, Peter J.; Nath, Christa E.; Hempel, George; Ansari, M.; Krajinovic, M.; Theoret, Yves; Duval, Michel; Keizer, Ron J.; Bittencourt, Henriette; Hassan, Moustapha; Güngör, Tayfun; Wynn, Robert F.; Veys, Paul; Cuvelier, Geoff D.E.; Marktel, Sarah; Chiesa, Robert; Cowan, Morton J.; Slatter, Mary A.; Stricherz, Melisa K.; Jennissen, Cathryn; Long-Boyle, Janel R.; Boelens, Jaap Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background Intravenous-busulfan (IV-busulfan) combined with therapeutic drug monitoring to guide dosing improves outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). The best method to estimate busulfan exposure and the optimal exposure in children/young adults remains unclear. We therefore evaluated three approaches to estimate IV-Bu exposure (expressed as cumulative-area-under-the-curve; AUC) and associated busulfan-AUC with clinical outcomes in children/young adults undergoing allo-HCT. Methods In this retrospective analysis, patients (0.1–30.4 years) receiving busulfan-based conditioning regimen from 15 centers were included. Cumulative AUC was calculated by numerical integration using non-linear mixed effect modeling (AUCNONMEM), non-compartmental analysis (AUC0-infinity and AUC to the end of the dose interval AUC0-tau) and by individual centers using a variety of approaches (AUCcenter). Main outcome of interest was event-free survival (EFS). Other outcomes of interest were overall survival, graft-failure, relapse, transplantation related mortality (TRM), acute toxicity (veno-occlusive disease (VOD) and/or acute graft versus-host disease (aGvHD), chronic GvHD (cGvHD) and cGVHD-free event-free survival (GEFS). Propensity score adjusted cox proportional hazard models, Weibull models, and Fine-Gray competing risk regressions were used. Results 674 patients were included (41% malignant, 59% non-malignant) Estimated 2-year EFS was 69.7%. The median busulfan AUCNONMEM was 74.4 mg*h/L (CI95% 31.1–104.6 mg*h/L). The median AUCNONMEM correlated poorly with AUCcenter (R2 = 0.254). Patients with optimal IV-busulfan AUC of 78–101 mg*h/L showed 81% EFS at 2 years compared to 66.1% and 49.5% in the low (<78 mg*h/L) and high (>101 mg*h/L) busulfan AUC group respectively (P=0.011). Graft-failure/relapse occurred more frequently in the low AUC group (HR=1.75 P<0.001). Acute toxicity, cGvHD and TRM was significantly higher in the high AUC group (HR 1

  6. Attraction, Oviposition and Larval Survival of the Fungus Gnat, Lycoriella ingenua, on Fungal Species Isolated from Adults, Larvae, and Mushroom Compost

    PubMed Central

    Cloonan, Kevin R.; Andreadis, Stefanos S.; Chen, Haibin; Jenkins, Nina E.; Baker, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    We previously showed that the females of the mushroom sciarid, Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour, 1839) (Diptera: Sciaridae), one of the most severe pests of the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach (Agaricales: Agaricaceae), are attracted to the mushroom compost that mushrooms are grown on and not to the mushrooms themselves. We also showed that females are attracted to the parasitic green mold, Trichoderma aggressivum. In an attempt to identify what is in the mushroom compost that attracts female L. ingenua, we isolated several species of fungi from adult males and females, third instar larvae, and mushroom compost itself. We then analyzed the attraction of females to these substrates using a static-flow two choice olfactometer, as well as their oviposition tendencies in another type of assay under choice and no-choice conditions. We also assessed the survival of larvae to adulthood when first instar larvae were placed on each of the isolated fungal species. We found that female flies were attracted most to the mycoparasitic green mold, T. aggressivum, to Penicilium citrinum isolated from adult female bodies, and to Scatylidium thermophilium isolated from the mushroom compost. Gravid female flies laid the most eggs on T. aggressivum, Aspergillus flavus isolated from third instar larval frass, Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from adult male bodies, and on P. citrinum. This egg-laying trend remained consistent under no-choice conditions as females aged. First instar larvae developed to adulthood only on S. thermophilium and Chaetomium sp. isolated from mushroom compost, and on P. citrinum. Our results indicate that the volatiles from a suite of different fungal species act in tandem in the natural setting of mushroom compost, with some first attracting gravid female flies and then others causing them to oviposit. The ecological context of these findings is important for creating an optimal strategy for using possible

  7. Computing the apparent centroid of radar targets

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.E.

    1996-12-31

    A high-frequency multibounce radar scattering code was used as a simulation platform for demonstrating an algorithm to compute the ARC of specific radar targets. To illustrate this simulation process, several targets models were used. Simulation results for a sphere model were used to determine the errors of approximation associated with the simulation; verifying the process. The severity of glint induced tracking errors was also illustrated using a model of an F-15 aircraft. It was shown, in a deterministic manner, that the ARC of a target can fall well outside its physical extent. Finally, the apparent radar centroid simulation based on a ray casting procedure is well suited for use on most massively parallel computing platforms and could lead to the development of a near real-time radar tracking simulation for applications such as endgame fuzing, survivability, and vulnerability analyses using specific radar targets and fuze algorithms.

  8. Evaluating apparent competition in limiting the recovery of an endangered ungulate.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Heather E; Hebblewhite, Mark; Stephenson, Thomas R; German, David W; Pierce, Becky M; Bleich, Vernon C

    2013-01-01

    Predation can disproportionately affect endangered prey populations when generalist predators are numerically linked to more abundant primary prey. Apparent competition, the term for this phenomenon, has been increasingly implicated in the declines of endangered prey populations. We examined the potential for apparent competition to limit the recovery of Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae), an endangered subspecies under the US Endangered Species Act. Using a combination of location, demographic, and habitat data, we assessed whether cougar (Puma concolor) predation on endangered bighorn sheep was a consequence of their winter range overlap with abundant mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). Consistent with the apparent competition hypothesis, bighorn sheep populations with higher spatial overlap with deer exhibited higher rates of cougar predation which had additive effects on adult survival. Bighorn sheep killed by cougars were primarily located within deer winter ranges, even though those areas constituted only a portion of the bighorn sheep winter ranges. We suspect that variation in sympatry between bighorn sheep and deer populations was largely driven by differences in habitat selection among bighorn sheep herds. Indeed, bighorn sheep herds that experienced the highest rates of predation and the greatest spatial overlap with deer also exhibited the strongest selection for low elevation habitat. Although predator-mediated apparent competition may limit some populations of bighorn sheep, it is not the primary factor limiting all populations, suggesting that the dynamics of different herds are highly idiosyncratic. Management plans for endangered species should consider the spatial distributions of key competitors and predators to reduce the potential for apparent competition to hijack conservation success.

  9. Penrose inequality and apparent horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Dov, Ishai

    2004-12-15

    A spherically symmetric spacetime is presented with an initial data set that is asymptotically flat, satisfies the dominant energy condition, and such that on this initial data M<{radical}(A/16{pi}), where M is the total mass and A is the area of the apparent horizon. This provides a counterexample to a commonly stated version of the Penrose inequality, though it does not contradict the true Penrose inequality.

  10. Clinical features and outcome of T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adults: a low initial white blood cell count, as well as a high count predict decreased survival rates.

    PubMed

    Yanada, Masamitsu; Jinnai, Itsuro; Takeuchi, Jin; Ueda, Takanori; Miyawaki, Shuichi; Tsuzuki, Motohiro; Hatta, Yoshihiro; Usui, Noriko; Wada, Hideho; Morii, Takeshi; Matsuda, Mitsuhiro; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Okada, Masaya; Honda, Sumihisa; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Ohno, Ryuzo; Naoe, Tomoki

    2007-07-01

    Although biological and clinical features differ between B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and T-lineage ALL (T-ALL), there have been few reports that focused on the prognosis for T-ALL in adults, primarily due to its rarity. Here, we studied the long-term outcomes and prognostic factors specific for adult T-ALL by combining patient data from the three prospective trials conducted by the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group (JALSG). Among 559 patients whose immunophenotypes could be evaluated, 87 (15.6%) were identified as T-ALL. Of them, 66 patients (75.8%) achieved complete remission, and relapse occurred in 41 patients. With a median follow-up for surviving patients of 7.5 years, the probability of overall survival was 35.0% at 5 years. Risk factor analysis revealed that serum albumin levels, initial white blood cell (WBC) counts, and age had independent values for predicting survival. For WBC, not only the high-count group (50 x 10(9)l(-1) or higher), but also the low-count group (less than 3 x 10(9)l(-1)) showed a significantly lower survival rates than the intermediate-count group (p=0.0055 and 0.0037, respectively). Although our findings need confirmation, these results will be helpful in the identification of prognostically distinct subgroups within adult T-ALL.

  11. A prognostic model for survival after salvage treatment with FLAG-Ida +/- gemtuzumab-ozogamicine in adult patients with refractory/relapsed acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Bergua, Juan M; Montesinos, Pau; Martinez-Cuadrón, David; Fernández-Abellán, Pascual; Serrano, Josefina; Sayas, María J; Prieto-Fernandez, Julio; García, Raimundo; García-Huerta, Ana J; Barrios, Manuel; Benavente, Celina; Pérez-Encinas, Manuel; Simiele, Adriana; Rodríguez-Macias, Gabriela; Herrera-Puente, Pilar; Rodríguez-Veiga, Rebeca; Martínez-Sánchez, María P; Amador-Barciela, María L; Riaza-Grau, Rosalía; Sanz, Miguel A

    2016-09-01

    The combination of fludarabine, cytarabine, idarubicin, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (FLAG-Ida) is widely used in relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We retrospectively analysed the results of 259 adult AML patients treated as first salvage with FLAG-Ida or FLAG-Ida plus Gentuzumab-Ozogamicin (FLAGO-Ida) of the Programa Español de Tratamientos en Hematología (PETHEMA) database, developing a prognostic score system of survival in this setting (SALFLAGE score). Overall, 221 patients received FLAG-Ida and 38 FLAGO-Ida; 92 were older than 60 years. The complete remission (CR)/CR with incomplete blood count recovery (CRi) rate was 51%, with 9% of induction deaths. Three covariates were associated with lower CR/CRi: high-risk cytogenetics and t(8;21) at diagnosis, no previous allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) and relapse-free interval <1 year. Allo-SCT was performed in second CR in 60 patients (23%). The median overall survival (OS) of the entire cohort was 0·7 years, with 22% OS at 5-years. Four independent variables were used to construct the score: cytogenetics, FLT3-internal tandem duplication, length of relapse-free interval and previous allo-SCT. Using this stratification system, three groups were defined: favourable (26% of patients), intermediate (29%) and poor-risk (45%), with an expected 5-year OS of 52%, 26% and 7%, respectively. The SALFLAGE score discriminated a subset of patients with an acceptable long-term outcome using FLAG-Ida/FLAGO-Ida regimen. The results of this retrospective analysis should be validated in independent external cohorts.

  12. 17β-Estradiol, but not estrone, increases the survival and activation of new neurons in the hippocampus in response to spatial memory in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    McClure, Robyn E S; Barha, Cindy K; Galea, Liisa A M

    2013-01-01

    Estrogens fluctuate across the lifespan in women, with circulating 17β-estradiol levels higher pre-menopause than estrone and circulating estrone levels higher postmenopause than 17β-estradiol. Estrone is a common component of hormone replacement therapies, but research shows that 17β-estradiol may have a greater positive impact on cognition. Previous studies show that acute estrone and 17β-estradiol impact hippocampus-dependent learning and cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus in a dose-dependent manner in adult female rats. The current study explores how chronic treatment with estrone and 17β-estradiol differentially influences spatial learning, hippocampal neurogenesis and activation of new neurons in response to spatial memory. Adult female rats received daily injections of vehicle (sesame oil), or a 10 μg dose of either 17β-estradiol or estrone for 20 days. One day following the first hormone injection all rats were injected with the DNA synthesis marker, bromodeoxyuridine. On days 11-15 after BrdU injection rats were trained on a spatial reference version of the Morris water maze, and five days later (day 20 of estrogens treatment) were given a probe trial to assess memory retention. Cell proliferation was assessed by the endogenous cell cycle marker, Ki67, cell survival was assessed by counting the number and density of BrdU-ir cells in the dentate gyrus and cell activation was assessed by the percentage of BrdU-ir cells that were co-labelled with the immediate early gene product zif268. There were no significant differences between groups in acquisition or retention of Morris water maze. However, the 17β-estradiol group had significantly higher, while the estrone group had significantly lower, levels of cell survival (BrdU-ir cells) in the dentate gyrus compared to controls. Furthermore, rats injected with 17β-estradiol showed significantly higher levels of activation of new neurons in response to spatial memory compared to controls. These

  13. Habitat fragmentation lowers survival of a tropical forest bird.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Viviana; Gavin, Thomas A; Dhondt, André A

    2008-06-01

    Population ecology research has long been focused on linking environmental features with the viability of populations. The majority of this work has largely been carried out in temperate systems and, until recently, has examined the effects of habitat fragmentation on survival. In contrast, we looked at the effect of forest fragmentation on apparent survival of individuals of the White-ruffed Manakin (Corapipo altera) in southern Costa Rica. Survival and recapture rates were estimated using mark-recapture analyses, based on capture histories from 1993 to 2006. We sampled four forest patches ranging in size from 0.9 to 25 ha, and four sites in the larger 227-ha Las Cruces Biological Station Forest Reserve (LCBSFR). We found a significant difference in annual adult apparent survival rates for individuals marked and recaptured in forest fragments vs. individuals marked and recaptured in the larger LCBSFR. Contrary to our expectation, survival and recapture probabilities did not differ between male and female manakins. Also, there was no support for the existence of annual variation in survival within each study site. Our results suggest that forest fragmentation is likely having an effect on population dynamics for the White-ruffed Manakin in this landscape. Therefore, populations that appear to be persisting in fragmented landscapes might still be at risk of local extinction, and conservation action for tropical birds should be aimed at identifying and reducing sources of adult mortality. Future studies in fragmentation effects on reproductive success and survival, across broad geographical scales, will be needed before it is possible to achieve a clear understanding of the effects of habitat fragmentation on populations for both tropical and temperate regions.

  14. Pop-up satellite archival tag effects on the diving behaviour, growth and survival of adult Atlantic salmon Salmo salar at sea.

    PubMed

    Hedger, R D; Rikardsen, A H; Thorstad, E B

    2017-01-01

    The effects of large, externally attached pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) were compared with those of small implanted data storage tags (DSTs) on adult Atlantic salmon Salmo salar during their ocean migration in regards to depth utilization, diving depth, diving rate, diving speed and temperatures experienced. Additionally the return rate and growth of individuals tagged with PSATs was compared with those of small acoustic tags and DSTs. Overall, the depth distribution of individuals tagged with PSATs was similar to that of those tagged with DSTs, reflecting the pelagic nature of S. salar at sea. Individuals tagged with PSATs, however, dived less frequently and to shallower depths, and dived and surfaced at slower velocities. Sea surface temperatures experienced by individuals tagged with PSATs were similar to those experienced by those tagged with DSTs for the same time of year, suggesting that there were no large differences in the ocean migration. Return rates did not depend on whether individuals were tagged with PSATs or not, indicating that survival at sea was not impacted by PSATs in comparison to small internal tags. Individuals tagged with PSATs, however, had a smaller increase in body mass than those tagged with acoustic tags or DSTs. It was concluded that PSATs are suitable for use in researching large-scale migratory behaviour of adult S. salar at sea, but that some effects on their behaviour from tagging must be expected. Effects of PSATs may be largest in the short term when S. salar are swimming in bursts at high speeds. Even though individuals tagged with PSATs performed deep and frequent dives, the results of this study suggest that untagged individuals would perform even deeper and more frequent dives than tagged individuals.

  15. Effects of forest management on density, survival, and population growth of wood thrushes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, L.A.; Lang, J.D.; Conroy, M.J.; Krementz, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Loss and alteration of breeding habitat have been proposed as causes of declines in several Neotropical migrant bird populations. We conducted a 4-year study to determine the effects of winter prescribed burning and forest thinning on breeding wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) populations at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge (PNWR) in Georgia. We estimated density, adult and juvenile survival rates, and apparent annual survival using transect surveys, radiotelemetry, and mist netting. Burning and thinning did not cause lower densities (P = 0.25); wood thrush density ranged from 0.15 to 1.30 pairs/10 ha. No radiomarked male wood thrushes (n = 68) died during the 4 years, but female (n = 63) weekly survival was 0.981 ? 0.014 (SE) for females (n = 63) and 0.976 ? 0.010 for juveniles (n = 38). Apparent annual adult survival was 0.579 (SE = 0.173). Thinning and prescribed burning did not reduce adult or juvenile survival during the breeding season or apparent annual adult survival. Annual population growth (lambda) at PNWR was 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.32--1.63), and the considerable uncertainty in this prediction underscores the need for long term monitoring to effectively manage Neotropical migrants. Population growth increased on experimental compartments after the burn and thin (95% CI before = 0.91--0.97, after = 0.98--1.05), while control compartment declined (before = 0.98--1.05, after = 0.87--0.92). We found no evidence that the current management regime at PNWR, designed to improve red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) habitat, negatively affected wood thrushes.

  16. Larval food quantity affects development time, survival and adult biological traits that influence the vectorial capacity of Anopheles darlingi under laboratory conditions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence of malaria in the Amazon is seasonal and mosquito vectorial capacity parameters, including abundance and longevity, depend on quantitative and qualitative aspects of the larval diet. Anopheles darlingi is a major malaria vector in the Amazon, representing >95% of total Anopheles population present in the Porto Velho region. Despite its importance in the transmission of the Plasmodium parasite, knowledge of the larval biology and ecology is limited. Studies regarding aspects of adult population ecology are more common than studies on larval ecology. However, in order develop effective control strategies and laboratory breeding conditions for this species, more data on the factors affecting vector biology is needed. The aim of the present study is to assess the effects of larval food quantity on the vectorial capacity of An. darling under laboratory conditions. Methods Anopheles darlingi was maintained at 28°C, 80% humidity and exposed to a daily photoperiod of 12 h. Larvae were divided into three experimental groups that were fed either a low, medium, or high food supply (based on the food amounts consumed by other species of culicids). Each experiment was replicated for six times. A cohort of adults were also exposed to each type of diet and assessed for several biological characteristics (e.g. longevity, bite frequency and survivorship), which were used to estimate the vectorial capacity of each experimental group. Results The group supplied with higher food amounts observed a reduction in development time while larval survival increased. In addition to enhanced longevity, increasing larval food quantity was positively correlated with increasing frequency of bites, longer blood meal duration and wing length, resulting in greater vectorial capacity. However, females had greater longevity than males despite having smaller wings. Conclusions Overall, several larval and adult biological traits were significantly affected by larval food

  17. Survival estimates of wild and captive-bred released Puaiohi, an endangered Hawaiian thrush

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanderWerf, Eric; Crampton, Lisa H.; Diegmann, Julia; Atkinson, Carter T.; Leonard, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating and monitoring adult and juvenile survival are vital to understanding population status, informing recovery planning for endangered species, and quantifying the success of management. We used mark–recapture models to estimate apparent annual survival of the Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri), an endangered thrush endemic to the Hawaiian island of Kauai, from 2005 to 2011. Our sample included 87 wild birds and 123 captive-bred birds that were released at various ages. Survival was higher for wild adult males (0.71 ± 0.09) than for wild adult females (0.46 ± 0.12). Survival of wild juveniles (0.23 ± 0.06) was lower than that of wild adults of both sexes, indicating that recruitment may limit population growth. Captive-bred birds released when <1 yr old had survival (0.26 ± 0.21) comparable with that of wild juveniles, but captive-bred birds released at 1–3 yr old had very low survival (0.05 ± 0.06). Only 8 of 123 (7%) captive birds were seen again after release. Two wild birds resighted five years after marking are the oldest known individuals, being at least six years of age. Malarial infection did not affect survival of wild Puaiohi, unlike many Hawaiian forest birds. The difference between adult male and adult female survival is consistent with rat (Rattusspp.) predation of females on the nest as a major source of mortality. As such, attempting to reduce nest predation by controlling rats may be the best available management option. Releasing captive-bred birds has had little effect on the wild population in recent years.

  18. Estimating Survival and Recruitment in a Freshwater Mussel Population Using Mark-recapture Techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Villella, R.F.; Smith, D.R.; Lemarie, D.P.

    2004-01-01

    We used a mark-recapture method and model averaging to estimate apparent survival, recruitment and rate of population growth in a native freshwater mussel population at a site on the Cacapon River, which is a tributary to the Potomac River. Over 2200 Elliptio complanata, E. fisheriana and Lampsilis cariosa were uniquely tagged over a period of 4 y. Recapture probabilities were higher in spring and summer than in winter except for L. cariosa which had a low probability of recapture regardless of time of year. All three species had high annual adult survival rates (>90%) with lower estimated survival of small (???55 mm) mussels (43%-69%). The variation in apparent survival over time was similar for all three species. This suggests that whatever environmental variables affect survival of mussels in this site affected all three species the same. Recruitment rates were low (1-4%) for both E. complanata and L. cariosa, with E. fisheriana having several periods of high (15-23%) recruitment. Distribution within the site was affected by both downstream and upstream movement, though movement rates were generally <1%. Average population growth rates for E. complanata (?? = 0.996, SE = 0.053), L. cariosa (?? = 0.993, SE = 0.076) and E. fisheriana (?? = 1.084, SE = 0.276) indicated static populations. Population growth rate approximating 1.0 suggests this site supports a stable freshwater mussel population through a life history strategy of low but constant recruitment and high annual adult survival.

  19. Apparent life-threatening event in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hee Joung

    2016-01-01

    An apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) is defined as the combination of clinical presentations such as apnea, marked change in skin and muscle tone, gagging, or choking. It is a frightening event, and it predominantly occurs during infancy at a mean age of 1–3 months. The causes of ALTE are categorized into problems that are: gastrointestinal (50%), neurological (30%), respiratory (20%), cardiovascular (5%), metabolic and endocrine (2%–5%), or others such as child abuse. Up to 50% of ALTEs are idiopathic, where the cause cannot be diagnosed. Infants with an ALTE are often asymptomatic at hospital and there is no standard workup protocol for ALTE. Therefore, a detailed initial history and physical examination are important to determine the extent of the medical evaluation and treatment. Regardless of the cause of an ALTE, all infants with an ALTE should require hospitalization and continuous cardiorespiratory monitoring and evaluation for at least 24 hours. The natural course of ALTEs has seemed benign, and the outcome is generally associated with the affected infants' underlying disease. In conclusion, systemic diagnostic evaluation and adequate treatment increases the survival and quality of life for most affected infants. PMID:27721838

  20. Age-specific survival estimates of King Eiders derived from satellite telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N.

    2010-01-01

    Age- and sex-specific survival and dispersal are important components in the dynamics and genetic structure of bird populations. For many avian taxa survival rates at the adult and juvenile life stages differ, but in long-lived species juveniles' survival is logistically challenging to study. We present the first estimates of hatch-year annual survival rates for a sea duck, the King Eider (Somateria spectabilis), estimated from satellite telemetry. From 2006 to 2008 we equipped pre-fiedging King Eiders with satellite transmitters on breeding grounds in Alaska and estimated annual survival rates during their first 2 years of life with known-fate models. We compared those estimates to survival rates of adults marked in the same area from 2002 to 2008. Hatch-year survival varied by season during the first year of life, and model-averaged annual survival rate was 0.67 (95% CI: 0.48–0.80). We did not record any mortality during the second year and were therefore unable to estimate second-year survival rate. Adults' survival rate was constant through the year (0.94, 95% CI: 0.86–0.97). No birds appeared to breed during their second summer. While 88% of females with an active transmitter (n = 9) returned to their natal area at the age of 2 years, none of the 2-year old males (n = 3) did. This pattern indicates that females' natal philopatry is high and suggests that males' higher rates of dispersal may account for sex-specific differences in apparent survival rates of juvenile sea ducks when estimated with mark—recapture methods.

  1. Age-specific survival of tundra swans on the lower Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meixell, Brandt W.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Conn, Paul B.; Dau, Christian P.; Sarvis, John E.; Sowl, Kristine M.

    2013-01-01

    The population of Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus columbianus) breeding on the lower Alaska Peninsula represents the southern extremity of the species' range and is uniquely nonmigratory. We used data on recaptures, resightings, and recoveries of neck-collared Tundra Swans on the lower Alaska Peninsula to estimate collar loss, annual apparent survival, and other demographic parameters for the years 1978–1989. Annual collar loss was greater for adult males fitted with either the thinner collar type (0.34) or the thicker collar type (0.15) than for other age/sex classes (thinner: 0.10, thicker: 0.04). The apparent mean probability of survival of adults (0.61) was higher than that of immatures (0.41) and for both age classes varied considerably by year (adult range: 0.44–0.95, immature range: 0.25–0.90). To assess effects of permanent emigration by age and breeding class, we analyzed post hoc the encounter histories of swans known to breed in our study area. The apparent mean survival of known breeders (0.65) was generally higher than that of the entire marked sample but still varied considerably by year (range 0.26–1.00) and indicated that permanent emigration of breeding swans was likely. We suggest that reductions in apparent survival probability were influenced primarily by high and variable rates of permanent emigration and that immigration by swans from elsewhere may be important in sustaining a breeding population at and near Izembek National Wildlife Refuge.

  2. Native American Prison Survival Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Laurence

    1980-01-01

    Describes the adaptation of the "survival schools" concept and adult education techniques to the incarcerated Indian, teaching both the acceptance of "Indianism" and the skills and attitudes for coping with the dominant culture. (SK)

  3. Lead decreases cell survival, proliferation, and neuronal differentiation of primary cultured adult neural precursor cells through activation of the JNK and p38 MAP kinases

    PubMed Central

    Engstrom, Anna; Wang, Hao; Xia, Zhengui

    2015-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is the process whereby adult neural precursor cells (aNPCs) in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) generate adult-born, functional neurons in the hippocampus. This process is modulated by various extracellular and intracellular stimuli, and the adult-born neurons have been implicated in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. However, studies on how neurotoxic agents affect this process and the underlying mechanisms are limited. The goal of this study was to determine whether lead, a heavy metal, directly impairs critical processes in adult neurogenesis and to characterize the underlying signaling pathways using primary cultured SGZ-aNPCs isolated from adult mice. We report here that lead significantly increases apoptosis and inhibits proliferation in SGZ-aNPCs. In addition, lead significantly impairs spontaneous neuronal differentiation and maturation. Furthermore, we found that activation of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways are important for lead cytotoxicity. Our data suggest that lead can directly act on adult neural stem cells and impair critical processes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, which may contribute to its neurotoxicity and adverse effects on cognition in adults. PMID:25967738

  4. Climatic variation and tortoise survival: has a desert species met its match?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Freilich, Jerry; Agha, Mickey; Austin, Meaghan; Meyer, Katherine P.; Arundel, Terence R.; Hansen, Jered; Vamstad, Michael S.; Root, Stephanie A.

    2014-01-01

    While demographic changes in short-lived species may be observed relatively quickly in response to climate changes, measuring population responses of long-lived species requires long-term studies that are not always available. We analyzed data from a population of threatened Agassiz’s desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) at a 2.59 km2 study plot in the Sonoran Desert ecosystem of Joshua Tree National Park, California, USA from 1978 to 2012 to examine variation in apparent survival and demography in this long-lived species. Transect-based, mark-recapture surveys were conducted in 10 of those years to locate living and dead tortoises. Previous modeling suggested that this area would become unsuitable as tortoise habitat under a warming and drying climate scenario. Estimated adult population size declined greatly from 1996 to 2012. The population appeared to have high apparent survival from 1978 to 1996 but apparent survival decreased from 1997 to 2002, concurrent with persistent drought. The best model relating apparent survivorship of tortoises ≥18 cm over time was based on a three year moving average of estimated winter precipitation. The postures and positions of a majority of dead tortoises found in 2012 were consistent with death by dehydration and starvation. Some live and many dead tortoises found in 2012 showed signs of predation or scavenging by mammalian carnivores. Coyote (Canis latrans) scats and other evidence from the site confirmed their role as tortoise predators and scavengers. Predation rates may be exacerbated by drought if carnivores switch from preferred mammalian prey to tortoises during dry years. Climate modeling suggests that the region will be subjected to even longer duration droughts in the future and that the plot may become unsuitable for continued tortoise survival. Our results showing wide fluctuations in apparent survival and decreasing tortoise density over time may be early signals of that possible outcome.

  5. Effects of radio marking on prairie falcons: Attachment failures provide insights about survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steenhof, Karen; Bates, Kirk K.; Fuller, Mark R.; Kochert, Michael N.; McKinley, J.O.; Lukacs, Paul M.

    2006-01-01

    From 1999-2002, we attached satellite-received platform transmitter terminals (PTTs) to 40 adult female prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus) on their nesting grounds in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) in southwest Idaho. We used 3 variations of a backpack harness design that had been used previously on raptors. Each radiomarked falcon also received a color leg band with a unique alphanumeric code. We monitored survival of birds using radiotelemetry and searched for marked birds on their nesting grounds during breeding seasons after marking. Because 6 falcons removed their harnesses during the first year, we were able to compare survival rates of birds that shed PTTs with those that retained them. We describe a harness design that failed prematurely as well as designs that proved successful for long-term PTT attachment. We resighted 21 marked individuals on nesting areas 1-5 years after they were radiomarked and documented 13 mortalities of satellite-tracked falcons. We used a Cormack-Jolly-Seber model to estimate apparent survival probability based on band resighting and telemetry data. Platform transmitter terminals had no short-term effects on falcons or their nesting success during the nesting season they were marked, but birds that shed their transmitters increased their probability of survival. Estimated annual survival for birds that shed their transmitters was 87% compared to 49% for birds wearing transmitters. We discuss possible reasons for differences in apparent survival rates and offer recommendations for future marking of falcons.

  6. Elevated surface temperature depresses survival of banner-tailed kangaroo rats: will climate change cook a desert icon?

    PubMed

    Moses, Martin R; Frey, Jennifer K; Roemer, Gary W

    2012-01-01

    Modest increases in global temperature have been implicated in causing population extirpations and range shifts in taxa inhabiting colder environs and in ectotherms whose thermoregulation is more closely tied to environmental conditions. Many arid-adapted endotherms already experience conditions at their physiological limits, so it is conceivable that they could be similarly affected by warming temperatures. We explored how climatic variables might influence the apparent survival of the banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis), a rodent endemic to the Chihuahuan Desert of North America and renowned for its behavioral and physiological adaptations to arid environments. Relative variable weight, strength of variable relationships, and other criteria indicated that summer, diurnal land surface temperature (SD_LST) was the primary environmental driver of apparent survival in these arid-adapted rodents. Higher temperatures had a negative effect on apparent survival, which ranged from 0.15 (SE = 0.04) for subadults to 0.50 (SE = 0.07) for adults. Elevated SD_LST may negatively influence survival through multiple pathways, including increased water loss and energy expenditure that could lead to chronic stress and/or hyperthermia that could cause direct mortality. Land surface temperatures are predicted to increase by as much 6.5°C by 2099, reducing apparent survival of adults to ~0.15 in some regions of the species' range, possibly causing a shift in their distribution. The relationship between SD_LST and survival suggests a mechanism whereby physiological tolerances are exceeded resulting in a reduction to individual fitness that may ultimately cause a shift in the species' range over time.

  7. Testing for handling bias in survival estimation for black brant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedinger, J.S.; Lindberg, M.S.; Rexstad, E.A.; Chelgren, N.D.; Ward, D.H.

    1997-01-01

    We used an ultrastructure approach in program SURVIV to test for, and remove, bias in survival estimates for the year following mass banding of female black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans). We used relative banding-drive size as the independent variable to control for handling effects in our ultrastructure models, which took the form: S = S0(1 - ??D), where ?? was handling effect and D was the ratio of banding-drive size to the largest banding drive. Brant were divided into 3 classes: goslings, initial captures, and recaptures, based on their state at the time of banding, because we anticipated the potential for heterogeneity in model parameters among classes of brant. Among models examined, for which ?? was not constrained, a model with ?? constant across classes of brant and years, constant survival rates among years for initially captured brant but year-specific survival rates for goslings and recaptures, and year- and class-specific detection probabilities had the lowest Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Handling effect, ??, was -0.47 ?? 0.13 SE, -0.14 ?? 0.057, and -0.12 ?? 0.049 for goslings, initially released adults, and recaptured adults. Gosling annual survival in the first year ranged from 0.738 ?? 0.072 for the 1986 cohort to 0.260 ?? 0.025 for the 1991 cohort. Inclusion of winter observations increased estimates of first-year survival rates by an average of 30%, suggesting that permanent emigration had an important influence on apparent survival, especially for later cohorts. We estimated annual survival for initially captured brant as 0.782 ?? 0.013, while that for recaptures varied from 0.726 ?? 0.034 to 0.900 ?? 0.062. Our analyses failed to detect a negative effect of handling on survival of brant, which is consistent with an hypothesis of substantial inherent heterogeneity in post-fledging survival rates, such that individuals most likely to die as a result of handling also have lower inherent survival probabilities.

  8. Systemic Insecticides Reduce Feeding, Survival and Fecundity of Adult Black Vine Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on a Variety of Ornamental Nursery Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of bioassays were conducted to test the systemic activity of clothianidin, chlorantraniliprole, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam against adult black vine weevils (Otiorhynchus sulcatus F.) on Taxus, Heuchera, Astilbe, Sedum, Euonymus, and Rhododendron grown in containers. The insecticides wer...

  9. Friedmann equations and thermodynamics of apparent horizons.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yungui; Wang, Anzhong

    2007-11-23

    With the help of a masslike function which has a dimension of energy and is equal to the Misner-Sharp mass at the apparent horizon, we show that the first law of thermodynamics of the apparent horizon dE=T(A)dS(A) can be derived from the Friedmann equation in various theories of gravity, including the Einstein, Lovelock, nonlinear, and scalar-tensor theories. This result strongly suggests that the relationship between the first law of thermodynamics of the apparent horizon and the Friedmann equation is not just a simple coincidence, but rather a more profound physical connection.

  10. High temperature effects on water loss and survival examining the hardiness of female adults of the spider beetles, Mezium affine and Gibbium aequinoctiale.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Jay A; Chambers, Michael J; Tank, Justin L; Keeney, George D

    2009-01-01

    A remarkable ability to tolerate temperatures as high as 52 degrees C for Mezium affine Boieldieu and 56 degrees C for Gibbium aequinoctiale Boieldieu (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) was discovered as part of a water balance study that was conducted to determine whether desiccation-resistance (xerophilic water balance classification) is linked to survival at high temperature. Characteristics of the heat shock response were an intermediate, reversible level of injury, appearing as though dead; greater recovery from heat shock by G. aequinoctiale (57%) than M. affine (30%) that supplemented higher temperature survival by G. aequinoctiale; and lack of protection generated by conditioning at sublethal temperature. Heatinduced mortality is attributed to an abrupt, accelerated water loss at 50 degrees C for M. affine and 54 degrees C for G. aequinoctiale, not to the species (M. affine) that loses water the slowest and has the lower activation energy, E(a) as a measure of cuticular boundary effectiveness. These temperatures where water loss increases sharply are not critical transition temperatures because Arrhenius analysis causes them to be erased (uninterrupted Boltzmann function) and E(a) fails to change when cuticular lipid from these beetles is removed. Our conclusion is that the temperature thresholds for survival and accelerated water loss closely match, and the key survival element in hot and dry environments contributing to wide distribution of G. aequinoctiale and M. affine derives from rising temperature prompting entry into quiescence and a resistance in cuticular lipid fluidity.

  11. Surviving a gender-variant childhood: the views of transgender adults on the needs of gender-variant children and their parents.

    PubMed

    Riley, Elizabeth Anne; Clemson, Lindy; Sitharthan, Gomathi; Diamond, Milton

    2013-01-01

    Adults with gender-variant childhoods have often lived traumatic lives because of the attitudes and limited understanding that people in their environment had of the concept of gender variance. This study explores the childhoods of transgender adults with the aim to understand their gender-related difficulties as children, in order to identify their needs and the needs of their parents at that time. The authors conducted a semi-structured survey with 110 transgender adults in order to explore their retrospective childhood experiences. Responses were analyzed through content and thematic coding. Their needs most commonly identified as children were for educated authority figures; acceptance and support to discuss their gender variance; freedom of identity expression; validation; and recognition. The needs most commonly allocated to their parents were access to information, education to increase other's awareness, peer support, and access to educated professionals.

  12. Enhancing Older Adults' Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Susan; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Investigates older adults' reading comprehension skills through syntactic measures and measures of sentence content. Analyzes the apparent reading difficulties of older adults. Provides guidelines for the preparation of prose materials for older readers. (HB)

  13. Survival of adult Tamarixia radiata subjected to different short-term storage methods prior to field releases for biological control of Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tamarixia radiata is regarded as one of the Asian citrus psyllid’s most important natural enemies and is thus currently being mass-reared and released by a number of laboratories in North America. It may not always be possible to immediately release newly-emerged adults, in which case it would be a...

  14. Good Ol' Boys, Mean Girls, and Tyrants: A Phenomenological Study of the Lived Experiences and Survival Strategies of Bullied Women Adult Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedivy-Benton, Amy; Strohschen, Gabriele; Cavazos, Nora; Boden-McGill, Carrie

    2015-01-01

    Bullying in higher education is an increasingly common phenomenon that negatively affects organizational climate, completed work's quality and quantity, and students' educational experiences. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the lived experiences of women adult educators who were targets of bullying. Six…

  15. Why do apparently healthy people use antacid tablets?

    PubMed

    Graham, D Y; Smith, J L; Patterson, D J

    1983-05-01

    Proprietary antacids represent a multimillion dollar business in this country. Marketing surveys have shown that approximately one-half of American adults have used antacids. Twenty-seven percent of adults take 2 or more doses per month. Seventy-five percent of total antacid consumption is by heavy users, defined as greater than 6 doses per week (less than 5% of adults). We investigated why apparently healthy people are heavy antacid users. Thirty-seven heavy users were evaluated. The median duration of antacid use was 20 years, and most took antacids 2-6 times per day, concentrated through the work week. The primary diagnosis was reflux esophagitis in 31 (84%), peptic ulcer disease in one, and nonulcer dyspepsia in five. Ninety-five percent had symptoms consistent with reflux esophagitis. Thirty-three completed a 1 month double-blind, randomized cross-over trial of antacid tablets (14 mEq neutralizing capacity per tablet) versus placebo. Twenty-nine correctly identified the antacid product (p less than 0.0001). Twenty-three subjects underwent Bernstein tests and endoscopy; 21 had positive Bernstein tests, 13 had definite esophagitis as determined endoscopically. We conclude 1) heavy proprietary antacid tablet use in the adult male is not an expression of functional disease but is due to reflux esophagitis, 2) tablet use can be effective symptomatic treatment, and 3) history is an adequate evaluation for most heavy antacid tablet users.

  16. Possible effects of the 2004 and 2005 hurricanes on manatee survival rates and movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langtimm, C.A.; Krohn, M.D.; Reid, J.P.; Stith, B.M.; Beck, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Prior research on manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) survival in northwest Florida, based on mark-resighting photo-identification data from 1982-1998, showed that annual adult apparent survival rate was significantly lower during years with extreme storms. Mechanisms that we proposed could have led to lower estimates included stranding, injury from debris, being fatally swept out to sea, or displacement into poorly monitored areas due to storm-generated longshore currents or storm-related loss of habitat. In 2004 and 2005, seven major hurricanes impacted areas of Florida encompassing three regional manatee subpopulations, enabling us to further examine some of these mechanisms. Data from a group of manatees tracked in southwest Florida with satellite transmitters during Hurricanes Charley, Katrina, and Wilma showed that these animals made no significant movement before and during storm passage. Mark-resighting data are being collected to determine if survival rates were lower with the 2004 and 2005 storms. ?? 2006 Estuarine Research Federation.

  17. High temperature strain gage apparent strain compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Harlan K.; Moore, T. C., Sr.

    1992-01-01

    Once an installed strain gage is connected to a strain indicating device and the instrument is balanced, a subsequent change in temperature of the gage installation will generally produce a resistance change in the gage. This purely temperature-induced resistance will be registered by the indicating device as a strain and is referred to as 'apparent strain' to distinguish it from strain due to applied stress. One desirable technique for apparent strain compensation is to employ two identical gages with identical mounting procedures which are connected with a 'half bridge' configuration where gages see the same thermal environment but only one experiences a mechanical strain input. Their connection in adjacent arms of the bridge will then balance the thermally induced apparent strains and, in principle, only the mechanical strain remains. Two approaches that implement this technique are discussed.

  18. Effects of abdominally implanted radiotransmitters with percutaneous antennas on migration, reproduction, and survival of Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Pearce, John M.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Miller, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Abdominally implanted radiotransmitters with percutaneous antennas are increasingly used to monitor movements, survival, and reproduction of waterbirds. However, there has been relatively little assessment of the effects of such radios on avian demographic parameters or migration. We implanted either a 26- or 35-g abdominal transmitter with percutaneous antenna in 198 adult female lesser Canada geese (Branta canadensis parvipes) in Anchorage, Alaska during 2000 and 2001. We compared migration chronology, reproductive effort, and survival of radiomarked females to 118 control females marked with leg bands. Arrival dates following spring migration were similar among females in different treatments in 2001. However, in 2002, wind direction during late migration was less favorable, and arrival of females with 35-g radiotransmitters lagged 1–2 days behind that of control females. Nest initiation dates, clutch size, and mean egg volume were similar for 152 nests of females that lacked radios and 62 nests of radiomarked females. Estimated nesting propensity for females with operable radiotransmitters was 61% and 72% in 2001 and 2002, respectively. Apparent annual survival (ϕ = 0.82, 95% confidence interval: 0.76 to 0.87) was similar among treatments in the first year after geese were marked. In the second and third years after marking, model-averaged estimates for survival of females with large radiotransmitters were 10% lower than estimates for control females. However, the effect of large radios on long-term survival was equivocal because of uncertainty surrounding treatment estimates. We conclude that abdominally implanted radiotransmitters with percutaneous antennas had small effects on migration chronology but no apparent effects on fecundity. Abdominal transmitters can provide unbiased estimates of anserine survival in the first year after deployment. Because of the potentially greater effects of larger transmitters on migration and long-term survival, we

  19. Annual survival and recruitment in a Ruby-throated Hummingbird population, excluding the effect of transient individuals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hilton, B.; Miller, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    We estimated annual apparent survival, recruitment, and rate of population growth of breeding Ruby-throated Hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris), while controlling for transients, by using 18 years of capture-mark-recapture data collected during 1984-2001 at Hilton Pond Center for Piedmont Natural History near York, South Carolina. Resident males had lower apparent survival (0.30 +/- 0.05 SE) than females (0.43 +/- 0.04). Estimates of apparent survival did not differ by age. Point estimates suggested that newly banded males were less likely than females to be residents, but standard errors of these estimates overlapped (males: 0.60 +/- 0.14 SE; females: 0.67 +/- 0.09). Estimated female recruitment was 0.60 +/- 0.06 SE, meaning that 60% of adult females present in any given year had entered the population during the previous year. Our estimate for rate of change indicated the population of female hummingbirds was stable during the study period (1.04 +/- 0.04 SE). We suggest an annual goal of greater than or equal to 64 adult females and greater than or equal to 64 immature females released per banding area to enable rigorous future tests for effects of covariates on population dynamics. Development of a broader cooperating network of hummingbird banders in eastern North America could allow tests for regional or metapopulation dynamics in this species.

  20. Ectopic pregnancy in an apparently healthy bitch.

    PubMed

    Eddey, Philip D

    2012-01-01

    This case describes an extrauterine fetus that was discovered in an apparently healthy bitch 5 mo after whelping. The extrauterine fetus was surgically removed, and the bitch made a complete recovery. The topic of canine ectopic pregnancy is discussed, and a review of previously reported cases is presented.

  1. Means for improving apparent resolution of television

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilborn, E. H.

    1967-01-01

    Technique using short term temporal integration characteristics of the observers visual system improves the apparent resolution of television video presentations. The raster is displaced slightly on each frame so the eye can integrate the information in each raster grain. This phase shift uses a switching time delay.

  2. Wind Speed during Migration Influences the Survival, Timing of Breeding, and Productivity of a Neotropical Migrant, Setophaga petechia

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Anna; Rock, Christine A.; Quinlan, Sam P.; Martin, Michaela; Green, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of the annual cycle, migratory bird populations can be impacted by environmental conditions in regions separated by thousands of kilometers. We examine how climatic conditions during discrete periods of the annual cycle influence the demography of a nearctic-neotropical migrant population of yellow warblers (Setophaga petechia), that breed in western Canada and overwinter in Mexico. We demonstrate that wind conditions during spring migration are the best predictor of apparent annual adult survival, male arrival date, female clutch initiation date and, via these timing effects, annual productivity. We find little evidence that conditions during the wintering period influence breeding phenology and apparent annual survival. Our study emphasizes the importance of climatic conditions experienced by migrants during the migratory period and indicates that geography may play a role in which period most strongly impacts migrant populations. PMID:24828427

  3. Critical role of astrocytic interleukin-17 A in post-stroke survival and neuronal differentiation of neural precursor cells in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Y; Zhang, J-C; Yao, C-Y; Wu, Y; Abdelgawad, A F; Yao, S-L; Yuan, S-Y

    2016-01-01

    The brain and the immune system interact in complex ways after ischemic stroke, and the long-term effects of immune response associated with stroke remain controversial. As a linkage between innate and adaptive immunity, interleukin-17 A (IL-17 A) secreted from gamma delta (γδ) T cells has detrimental roles in the pathogenesis of acute ischemic stroke. However, to date, the long-term actions of IL-17 A after stroke have not been investigated. Here, we found that IL-17 A showed two distinct peaks of expression in the ischemic hemisphere: the first occurring within 3 days and the second on day 28 after stroke. Our data also showed that astrocyte was the major cellular source of IL-17 A that maintained and augmented subventricular zone (SVZ) neural precursor cells (NPCs) survival, neuronal differentiation, and subsequent synaptogenesis and functional recovery after stroke. IL-17 A also promoted neuronal differentiation in cultured NPCs from the ischemic SVZ. Furthermore, our in vitro data revealed that in primary astrocyte cultures activated astrocytes released IL-17 A via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Culture media from reactive astrocytes increased neuronal differentiation of NSCs in vitro. Blockade of IL-17 A with neutralizing antibody prevented this effect. In addition, after screening for multiple signaling pathways, we revealed that the p38 MAPK/calpain 1 signaling pathway was involved in IL-17 A-mediated neurogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Thus, our results reveal a previously uncharacterized property of astrocytic IL-17 A in the maintenance and augment of survival and neuronal differentiation of NPCs, and subsequent synaptogenesis and spontaneous recovery after ischemic stroke. PMID:27336717

  4. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for adult Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphocytic leukemia: comparable survival rates but different risk factors between related and unrelated transplantation in first complete remission.

    PubMed

    Nishiwaki, Satoshi; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Kurokawa, Mineo; Iida, Hiroatsu; Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Fukuda, Takahiro; Ozawa, Yukiyasu; Kobayashi, Naoki; Kasai, Masanobu; Mori, Takehiko; Iwato, Koji; Yoshida, Takashi; Onizuka, Makoto; Kawa, Keisei; Morishima, Yasuo; Suzuki, Ritsuro; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Miyamura, Koichi

    2010-11-18

    To identify factors to improve the outcomes of related and unrelated allogeneic stem cell transplantations (allo-SCT) for Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphocytic leukemia (Ph(-) ALL) in the first complete remission (CR1), we retrospectively analyzed 1139 Ph(-) ALL patients using the registry data, particularly the details of 641 patients transplanted in CR1. Overall survival was significantly superior among patients transplanted in CR1, but no significant difference was observed between related and unrelated allo-SCTs (related vs unrelated: 65% vs 62% at 4 years, respectively; P = .19). Among patients transplanted in CR1, relapse rates were significantly higher in related allo-SCT compared with unrelated allo-SCT, and multivariate analysis demonstrated that less than 6 months from diagnosis to allo-SCT alone was associated with relapse. On the other hand, nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was significantly higher in unrelated allo-SCT compared with related allo-SCT, and multivariate analysis demonstrated that 10 months or longer from diagnosis to allo-SCT, human leukocyte antigen mismatch, and abnormal karyotype were associated with NRM. In conclusion, our study showed comparable survival rates but different relapse rates, NRM rates, and risk factors between related and unrelated allo-SCTs. After a close consideration of these factors, the outcome of allo-SCT for adult Ph(-) ALL in CR1 could be improved.

  5. Campylobacter virulence and survival factors.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Declan J

    2015-06-01

    Despite over 30 years of research, campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent foodborne bacterial infection in many countries including in the European Union and the United States of America. However, relatively little is known about the virulence factors in Campylobacter or how an apparently fragile organism can survive in the food chain, often with enhanced pathogenicity. This review collates information on the virulence and survival determinants including motility, chemotaxis, adhesion, invasion, multidrug resistance, bile resistance and stress response factors. It discusses their function in transition through the food processing environment and human infection. In doing so it provides a fundamental understanding of Campylobacter, critical for improved diagnosis, surveillance and control.

  6. A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates

    PubMed Central

    Converse, Sarah J; Royle, J Andrew; Adler, Peter H; Urbanek, Richard P; Barzen, Jeb A

    2013-01-01

    Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the

  7. A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates.

    PubMed

    Converse, Sarah J; Royle, J Andrew; Adler, Peter H; Urbanek, Richard P; Barzen, Jeb A

    2013-11-01

    Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the

  8. A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Adler, Peter H.; Urbanek, Richard P.; Barzan, Jeb A.

    2013-01-01

    Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the

  9. Apparent extended body motions in depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, Heiko; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    1991-01-01

    Five experiments were designed to investigate the influence of three-dimensional (3-D) orientation change on apparent motion. Projections of an orientation-specific 3-D object were sequentially flashed in different locations and at different orientations. Such an occurrence could be resolved by perceiving a rotational motion in depth around an axis external to the object. Consistent with this proposal, it was found that observers perceived curved paths in depth. Although the magnitude of perceived trajectory curvature often fell short of that required for rotational motions in depth (3-D circularity), judgments of the slant of the virtual plane on which apparent motions occurred were quite close to the predictions of a model that proposes circular paths in depth.

  10. Predicting apparent Sherwood numbers for fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Groenewold, H.; Tsotsas, E.

    1999-09-01

    Mass transfer data of bubbling fluidized beds have been reevaluated with a new model which is completely predictive. The model is based on a two-phase approach with active bypass, formally plug flow for the suspension gas and a consideration of backmixing in the main kinetic coefficient, i.e. in the apparent particle-to-fluid Sherwood number. A good agreement with experimental results of various authors with a broad range of Reynolds numbers and particle diameters is demonstrated.

  11. Comment: An Apparent Controversy in Auroral Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haerendel, Gerhard

    2007-03-01

    In his article ``A turning point in auroral physics,'' Bryant argued against what he called the `standard' theory of auroral acceleration, according to which the electrons ``gain their energy from static electric fields,'' and offered wave acceleration as an alternative. Because of the importance of the process, not only for the aurora borealis but also for other cosmic plasmas, a clarification of this apparent controversy seems to be in place.

  12. Apparent exchange rate mapping with diffusion MRI.

    PubMed

    Lasič, Samo; Nilsson, Markus; Lätt, Jimmy; Ståhlberg, Freddy; Topgaard, Daniel

    2011-08-01

    Water exchange through the cell membranes is an important feature of cells and tissues. The rate of exchange is determined by factors such as membrane lipid composition and organization, as well as the type and activity of aquaporins. A method for noninvasively estimating the rate of water exchange would be useful for characterizing pathological conditions, e.g., tumors, multiple sclerosis, and ischemic stroke, expected to be associated with a change of the membrane barrier properties. This study describes the filter exchange imaging method for determining the rate of water exchange between sites having different apparent diffusion coefficients. The method is based on the filter-exchange pulsed gradient spin-echo NMR spectroscopy experiment, which is here modified to be compatible with the constraints of clinical MR scanners. The data is analyzed using a model-free approach yielding maps of the apparent exchange rate, here being introduced in analogy with the concept of the apparent diffusion coefficient. Proof-of-principle experiments are performed on microimaging and whole-body clinical scanners using yeast suspension phantoms. The limitations and appropriate experimental conditions are examined. The results demonstrate that filter exchange imaging is a fast and reliable method for characterizing exchange, and that it has the potential to become a powerful diagnostic tool.

  13. Think Fast, Feel Fine, Live Long: A 29-Year Study of Cognition, Health, and Survival in Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Aichele, Stephen; Rabbitt, Patrick; Ghisletta, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    In a 29-year study of 6,203 individuals ranging in age from 41 to 96 years at initial assessment, we evaluated the relative and combined influence of 65 mortality risk factors, which included sociodemographic variables, lifestyle attributes, medical indices, and multiple cognitive abilities. Reductions in mortality risk were most associated with higher self-rated health, female gender, fewer years as a smoker, and smaller decrements in processing speed with age. Thus, two psychological variables-subjective health status and processing speed-were among the top predictors of survival. We suggest that these psychological attributes, unlike risk factors that are more narrowly defined, reflect (and are influenced by) a broad range of health-related behaviors and characteristics. Information about these attributes can be obtained with relatively little effort or cost and-given the tractability of these measures in different cultural contexts-may prove expedient for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of conditions related to increased mortality risk in diverse human populations.

  14. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTIVE ACTIONS OF INHALED BENZO(a)PYRENE ON OVARIAN FUNCTION AND FETAL SURVIVAL IN FISHER F-344 ADULT RATS

    PubMed Central

    Archibong, Anthony E.; Ramesh, Aramandla; Inyang, Frank; Niaz, Mohammad S.; Hood, Darryl B.; Kopsombut, Prapaporn

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of inhaled BaP on female reproductive function. Rats were exposed to 50, or 75 or 100 μg BaP/m3, four hours a day for 14 days via inhalation. Plasma E2, P4, LH and FSH concentrations were determined. Ovarian BaP metabolism and aryl hydrocarbon hydrolase (AHH) activity at proestrus were determined and fertility evaluations were conducted. Ovulation rate and number of pups/litter were reduced in rats exposed to 100 μg BaP/m3 compared with other treatment and control groups. Plasma concentrations of E2, and LH were significantly reduced at proestrus in BaP-exposed versus those of controls whereas those of P4 were significantly reduced at diestrus I. The activity of AHH in ovarian and liver tissues and concentrations of BaP 7,8-diol and BaP 3,6-dione metabolites increased in an exposure concentration-dependent manner. These data suggest that exposure of rats to BaP prior to mating contributes to reduced ovarian function and fetal survival. PMID:23059060

  15. Survival and population size of a resident bird species are declining as temperature increases.

    PubMed

    Santisteban, Leonard; Benkman, Craig W; Fetz, Trevor; Smith, Julie W

    2012-03-01

    1. A large number of migratory bird species appear to be declining as the result of climate change, but whether resident bird species have or will be adversely affected by climate change is less clear. We focus on the South Hills crossbill (Loxia curvirostra complex), which is endemic to about 70 km(2) of Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta latifolia) forest in southern Idaho, USA. 2. Our results indicate that the South Hills crossbill has declined by over 60% between 2003 and 2008, and that decreasing adult survival drives this population decline. 3. We evaluated the relative support for multiple hypotheses linking crossbill survival to climate, an ectoparasitic mite (scaly-leg mites Knemidokoptes jamaicensis), and the recent emergence of West Nile virus. Changes in adult apparent survival rate were closely associated with average spring and annual temperatures, and with high temperatures (≥32 °C) during summer, which have increased during the last decade. In contrast, there was little evidence that scaly-leg mites or West Nile virus contributed to recent declines in adult survival. 4. The most probable mechanism causing the decline in adult survival and population size is a decrease in the availability of their primary food resource, seeds in serotinous pine cones. Cone production has declined with increasing annual temperatures, and these cones appear to be prematurely opening owing to increasingly hot summer conditions releasing their seeds and reducing the carrying capacity for crossbills later in the year. 5. In light of regional climate change forecasts, which include an increase in both annual temperature and hot days (>32 °C), and the likely disappearance of lodgepole pine from southern Idaho by the end of this century, additional research is needed to determine how to maintain lodgepole pine forests and their supply of seeds to conserve one of the few bird species endemic to the continental United States.

  16. Soil-Applied Imidacloprid Translocates to Ornamental Flowers and Reduces Survival of Adult Coleomegilla maculata, Harmonia axyridis, and Hippodamia convergens Lady Beetles, and Larval Danaus plexippus and Vanessa cardui Butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Krischik, Vera; Rogers, Mary; Gupta, Garima; Varshney, Aruna

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a decision making process used to manage pests that relies on many tactics, including cultural and biological control, which are practices that conserve beneficial insects and mites, and when needed, the use of conventional insecticides. However, systemic, soil-applied neonicotinoid insecticides are translocated to pollen and nectar of flowers, often for months, and may reduce survival of flower-feeding beneficial insects. Imidacloprid seed-treated crops (0.05 mg AI (active ingredient) /canola seed and 1.2 mg AI/corn seed) translocate less than 10 ppb to pollen and nectar. However, higher rates of soil-applied imidacloprid are used in nurseries and urban landscapes, such as 300 mg AI/10 L (3 gallon) pot and 69 g AI applied to the soil under a 61 (24 in) cm diam. tree. Translocation of imidacloprid from soil (300 mg AI) to flowers of Asclepias curassavica resulted in 6,030 ppb in 1X and 10,400 ppb in 2X treatments, which are similar to imidacloprid residues found in another plant species we studied. A second imidacloprid soil application 7 months later resulted in 21,000 ppb in 1X and 45,000 ppb in 2X treatments. Consequently, greenhouse/nursery use of imidacloprid applied to flowering plants can result in 793 to 1,368 times higher concentration compared to an imidacloprid seed treatment (7.6 ppb pollen in seed- treated canola), where most research has focused. These higher imidacloprid levels caused significant mortality in both 1X and 2X treatments in 3 lady beetle species, Coleomegilla maculata, Harmonia axyridis, and Hippodamia convergens, but not a fourth species, Coccinella septempunctata. Adult survival were not reduced for monarch, Danaus plexippus and painted lady, Vanessa cardui, butterflies, but larval survival was significantly reduced. The use of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid at greenhouse/nursery rates reduced survival of beneficial insects feeding on pollen and nectar and is incompatible with the principles of IPM

  17. Soil-applied imidacloprid translocates to ornamental flowers and reduces survival of adult Coleomegilla maculata, Harmonia axyridis, and Hippodamia convergens lady beetles, and larval Danaus plexippus and Vanessa cardui butterflies.

    PubMed

    Krischik, Vera; Rogers, Mary; Gupta, Garima; Varshney, Aruna

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a decision making process used to manage pests that relies on many tactics, including cultural and biological control, which are practices that conserve beneficial insects and mites, and when needed, the use of conventional insecticides. However, systemic, soil-applied neonicotinoid insecticides are translocated to pollen and nectar of flowers, often for months, and may reduce survival of flower-feeding beneficial insects. Imidacloprid seed-treated crops (0.05 mg AI (active ingredient) /canola seed and 1.2 mg AI/corn seed) translocate less than 10 ppb to pollen and nectar. However, higher rates of soil-applied imidacloprid are used in nurseries and urban landscapes, such as 300 mg AI/10 L (3 gallon) pot and 69 g AI applied to the soil under a 61 (24 in) cm diam. tree. Translocation of imidacloprid from soil (300 mg AI) to flowers of Asclepias curassavica resulted in 6,030 ppb in 1X and 10,400 ppb in 2X treatments, which are similar to imidacloprid residues found in another plant species we studied. A second imidacloprid soil application 7 months later resulted in 21,000 ppb in 1X and 45,000 ppb in 2X treatments. Consequently, greenhouse/nursery use of imidacloprid applied to flowering plants can result in 793 to 1,368 times higher concentration compared to an imidacloprid seed treatment (7.6 ppb pollen in seed- treated canola), where most research has focused. These higher imidacloprid levels caused significant mortality in both 1X and 2X treatments in 3 lady beetle species, Coleomegilla maculata, Harmonia axyridis, and Hippodamia convergens, but not a fourth species, Coccinella septempunctata. Adult survival were not reduced for monarch, Danaus plexippus and painted lady, Vanessa cardui, butterflies, but larval survival was significantly reduced. The use of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid at greenhouse/nursery rates reduced survival of beneficial insects feeding on pollen and nectar and is incompatible with the principles of IPM.

  18. Quality of Survival and Growth in Children and Young Adults in the PNET4 European Controlled Trial of Hyperfractionated Versus Conventional Radiation Therapy for Standard-Risk Medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Colin; Bull, Kim; Chevignard, Mathilde; Culliford, David; Dörr, Helmuth G.; Doz, François; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Lannering, Birgitta; Massimino, Maura; Navajas Gutiérrez, Aurora; Rutkowski, Stefan; Spoudeas, Helen A.; Calaminus, Gabriele

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: To compare quality of survival in “standard-risk” medulloblastoma after hyperfractionated radiation therapy of the central nervous system with that after standard radiation therapy, combined with a chemotherapy regimen common to both treatment arms, in the PNET4 randomised controlled trial. Methods and Materials: Participants in the PNET4 trial and their parents/caregivers in 7 participating anonymized countries completed standardized questionnaires in their own language on executive function, health status, behavior, health-related quality of life, and medical, educational, employment, and social information. Pre- and postoperative neurologic status and serial heights and weights were also recorded. Results: Data were provided by 151 of 244 eligible survivors (62%) at a median age at assessment of 15.2 years and median interval from diagnosis of 5.8 years. Compared with standard radiation therapy, hyperfractionated radiation therapy was associated with lower (ie, better) z-scores for executive function in all participants (mean intergroup difference 0.48 SDs, 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.81, P=.004), but health status, behavioral difficulties, and health-related quality of life z-scores were similar in the 2 treatment arms. Data on hearing impairment were equivocal. Hyperfractionated radiation therapy was also associated with greater decrement in height z-scores (mean intergroup difference 0.43 SDs, 95% confidence interval 0.10-0.76, P=.011). Conclusions: Hyperfractionated radiation therapy was associated with better executive function and worse growth but without accompanying change in health status, behavior, or quality of life.

  19. Survival differences and the effect of environmental instability on breeding dispersal in an Adelie penguin meta-population.

    PubMed

    Dugger, Katie M; Ainley, David G; Lyver, Phil O'B; Barton, Kerry; Ballard, Grant

    2010-07-06

    High survival and breeding philopatry was previously confirmed for the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) during a period of stable environmental conditions. However, movements of breeding adults as a result of an unplanned natural experiment within a four-colony meta-population provided interesting insights into this species' population dynamics. We used multistate mark-recapture models to investigate apparent survival and dispersal of breeding birds in the southwestern Ross Sea during 12 breeding seasons (1996-2007). The natural experiment was facilitated by the temporary grounding of two immense icebergs that (i) erected a veritable fence separating colonies and altering migration routes and (ii) added additional stress by trapping extensive sea ice in the region during 5 of 12 y. Colony size varied by orders of magnitude, allowing investigation of apparent survival and dispersal rates in relation to both environmental conditions and colony size within this meta-population. Apparent survival was lowest for the smallest colony (4,000 pairs) and similar for the medium (45,000 pairs) and large colonies (155,000 pairs), despite increased foraging effort expended by breeders at the largest colony. Dispersal of breeding birds was low (<1%), except during years of difficult environmental conditions when movements increased, especially away from the smallest colony (3.5%). Decreased apparent survival at the smallest colony could reflect differences in migration chronology and winter habitat use compared with the other colonies, or it may reflect increased permanent emigration to colonies outside this meta-population. Contrary to current thought, breeding penguins are not always philopatric. Rather, stressful conditions can significantly increase dispersal rates.

  20. Clinical signs, pathology and dose-dependent survival of adult wood frogs, Rana sylvatica, inoculated orally with frog virus 3 Ranavirus sp., Iridoviridae.

    PubMed

    Forzn, Mara J; Jones, Kathleen M; Vanderstichel, Raphal V; Wood, John; Kibenge, Frederick S B; Kuiken, Thijs; Wirth, Wytamma; Ariel, Ellen; Daoust, Pierre-Yves

    2015-05-01

    Amphibian populations suffer massive mortalities from infection with frog virus 3 FV3, genus Ranavirus, family Iridoviridae, a pathogen also involved in mortalities of fish and reptiles. Experimental oral infection with FV3 in captive-raised adult wood frogs, Rana sylvatica Lithobates sylvaticus, was performed as the first step in establishing a native North American animal model of ranaviral disease to study pathogenesis and host response. Oral dosing was successful LD50 was 10(2.93 2.423.44) p.f.u. for frogs averaging 35mm in length. Onset of clinical signs occurred 614days post-infection p.i. median 11 days p.i. and time to death was 1014 days p.i. median 12 days p.i.. Each tenfold increase in virus dose increased the odds of dying by 23-fold and accelerated onset of clinical signs and death by approximately 15. Ranavirus DNA was demonstrated in skin and liver of all frogs that died or were euthanized because of severe clinical signs. Shedding of virus occurred in faeces 710 days p.i. 34.5days before death and skin sheds 10 days p.i. 01.5days before death of some frogs dead from infection. Most common lesions were dermal erosion and haemorrhages haematopoietic necrosis in bone marrow, kidney, spleen and liver and necrosis in renal glomeruli, tongue, gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder mucosa. Presence of ranavirus in lesions was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies probably viral were present in the bone marrow and the epithelia of the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, renal tubules and urinary bladder. Our work describes a ranaviruswood frog model and provides estimates that can be incorporated into ranavirus disease ecology models.

  1. Apparent Geocenter Variations from IGS Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferland, R.

    2001-12-01

    Natural Resources Canada's (NRCan) Geodetic Survey Division (GSD), on behalf of the International GPS Service (IGS) and its Reference Frame Working Group, combines a consistent set of station coordinates, velocities, Earth Rotation Parameters (ERP) and apparent geocenter to produce the IGS official station position/ERP solutions in the Software Independent Exchange (SINEX) format The weekly Analysis Centers (AC) solutions include estimates of weekly station coordinates, apparent geocenter positions and daily ERPs. All the AC products are required to be in a consistent reference frame. The combination of station coordinates originating from different ACs involves removing all available constraints and re-scaling the covariance information. The weekly combination generally includes estimates of coordinates for 120 to 140 globally distributed stations. While the cumulative solution currently includes approximately 280 stations, about 215 of them have complete information and reliable velocity estimates. The IGS combined products are required to be consistent with the most recent realization of ITRF (currently ITRF97, soon in ITRF2000). This is done by transforming the weekly and cumulative solutions, respectively using 7 and 14 Helmert transformation parameters (3 translations, 3 rotations, 1 scale and their respective rates). The transformation parameters are determined from a subset of 51 high quality, globally distributed and generally collocated (with other space techniques) stations, also known as Reference Frame (RF) stations. The weekly estimated IGS apparent geocenter for the period between 99/08/01 (Wk 1012) and 01/08/04 (Wk 1025) has been analyzed. The apparent X, Y and Z geocenter components were estimated with respect to the realization of ITRF97. The estimated weekly geocenter positions relied on COD, ESA and JPL SINEX solutions for the period of interest. The formal error for the weekly geocenter is about 6-8mm for the XY components and 8-10mm for the Z

  2. MPTP Impairs Dopamine D1 Receptor-Mediated Survival of Newborn Neurons in Ventral Hippocampus to Cause Depressive-Like Behaviors in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tingting; Hong, Juan; Di, Tingting; Chen, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by motor symptoms with depression. We evaluated the influence of dopaminergic depletion on hippocampal neurogenesis process to explore mechanisms of depression production. Five consecutive days of 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) injection in mice (MPTP-mice) reduced dopaminergic fibers in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). MPTP-mice exhibited depressive-like behaviors later for 2–3 weeks. BrdU was injected 4 h after last-injection of MPTP. BrdU-positive (BrdU+) cells in dorsal (d-DG) and ventral (v-DG) DG were examined on day 1 (D1), 7 (D7), 14 (D14) and 21 (D21) after BrdU injection. Fewer D7-, D14- and D21-BrdU+ cells or BrdU+/NeuN+ cells, but not D1-BrdU+ cells, were found in v-DG of MPTP-mice than in controls. However, the number of BrdU+ cells in d-DG did not differ between the both. Loss of doublecortin-positive (DCX+) cells was observed in v-DG of MPTP-mice. Protein kinase A (PKA) and Ca2+/cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation were reduced in v-DG of MPTP-mice, which were reversed by D1-like receptor (D1R) agonist SKF38393, but not D2R agonist quinpirole. The treatment of MPTP-mice with SKF38393 on days 2–7 after BrdU-injection reduced the loss of D7- and D21-BrdU+ cells in v-DG and improved the depressive-like behaviors; these changes were sensitive to PKA inhibitor H89. Moreover, the v-DG injection of SKF38393 in MPTP-mice could reduce the loss of D21-BrdU+ cells and relieve the depressive-like behaviors. In control mice, the blockade of D1R by SCH23390 caused the reduction of D21-BrdU+ cells in v-DG and the depressive-like behaviors. Our results indicate that MPTP-reduced dopaminergic depletion impairs the D1R-mediated early survival of newborn neurons in v-DG, producing depressive-like behaviors. PMID:27790091

  3. Apparent magnitude of earthshine: a simple calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Dulli Chandra

    2016-05-01

    The Sun illuminates both the Moon and the Earth with practically the same luminous fluxes which are in turn reflected by them. The Moon provides a dim light to the Earth whereas the Earth illuminates the Moon with somewhat brighter light which can be seen from the Earth and is called earthshine. As the amount of light reflected from the Earth depends on part of the Earth and the cloud cover, the strength of earthshine varies throughout the year. The measure of the earthshine light is luminance, which is defined in photometry as the total luminous flux of light hitting or passing through a surface. The expression for the earthshine light in terms of the apparent magnitude has been derived for the first time and evaluated for two extreme cases; firstly, when the Sun’s rays are reflected by the water of the oceans and secondly when the reflector is either thick clouds or snow. The corresponding values are -1.30 and -3.69, respectively. The earthshine value -3.22 reported by Jackson lies within these apparent magnitudes. This paper will motivate the students and teachers of physics to look for the illuminated Moon by earthlight during the waning or waxing crescent phase of the Moon and to reproduce the expressions derived here by making use of the inverse-square law of radiation, Planck’s expression for the power in electromagnetic radiation, photopic spectral luminous efficiency function and expression for the apparent magnitude of a body in terms of luminous fluxes.

  4. Local survival of Dunlin wintering in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warnock, N.; Page, G.W.; Sandercock, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    We estimated local annual survival of 1,051 individually color-banded Dunlin (Calidris alpina) at Bolinas Lagoon, California from 1979 to 1992. Resighting rates for birds banded as adults varied significantly among years, and resighting rates for first-year birds varied by sex and year. No significant differences in local survival rates were found between males and females in any age classes. First-year birds had lower local survival rates than adults. We suspect that raptor predation accounted for much of this difference and other variation in survival rates. Adult Dunlin had lower local survival rates in the year of capture than in subsequent years. Variation in resighting of some groups of individuals including transient Dunlin may account for some differences. However, capture and release of Dunlin may induce short-term behavioral changes that increase the risk of depredation by avian predators within the first few days after capture.

  5. Apparent brightness distribution of GRB host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagoly, Zsolt; Racz, Istvan; Gyorgy Balazs, Lajos; Toth, Viktor; Horvath, Istvan

    2015-08-01

    We studied the relationship between the Swift GRB data and the optical brightness of the host galaxy measured by the Keck telescope. We calculated the unbiased distribution of the host's optical brightness by making use the survival analysis. Based on the sample obtained from merging the Swift GRB table and the Keck optical data we studied also the dependence of this distribution on the GRB's data.

  6. Migratory herds of wildebeests and zebras indirectly affect calf survival of giraffes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Derek E; Kissui, Bernard M; Kiwango, Yustina A; Bond, Monica L

    2016-12-01

    In long-distance migratory systems, local fluctuations in the predator-prey ratio can exhibit extreme variability within a single year depending upon the seasonal location of migratory species. Such systems offer an opportunity to empirically investigate cyclic population density effects on short-term food web interactions by taking advantage of the large seasonal shifts in migratory prey biomass.We utilized a large-mammal predator-prey savanna food web to evaluate support for hypotheses relating to the indirect effects of "apparent competition" and "apparent mutualism" from migratory ungulate herds on survival of resident megaherbivore calves, mediated by their shared predator. African lions (Panthera leo) are generalist predators whose primary, preferred prey are wildebeests (Connochaetes taurinus) and zebras (Equus quagga), while lion predation on secondary prey such as giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) may change according to the relative abundance of the primary prey species.We used demographic data from five subpopulations of giraffes in the Tarangire Ecosystem of Tanzania, East Africa, to test hypotheses relating to direct predation and indirect effects of large migratory herds on calf survival of a resident megaherbivore. We examined neonatal survival via apparent reproduction of 860 adult females, and calf survival of 449 giraffe calves, during three precipitation seasons over 3 years, seeking evidence of some effect on neonate and calf survival as a consequence of the movements of large herds of migratory ungulates.We found that local lion predation pressure (lion density divided by primary prey density) was significantly negatively correlated with giraffe neonatal and calf survival probabilities. This supports the apparent mutualism hypothesis that the presence of migratory ungulates reduces lion predation on giraffe calves.Natural predation had a significant effect on giraffe calf and neonate survival, and could significantly affect giraffe population

  7. Apparent contact angle of an evaporating drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, S. J. S.

    2012-11-01

    In experiments by Poulard et al. (2005), a sessile drop of perfectly wetting liquid evaporates from a non-heated substrate into an under-saturated mixture of vapour with an inert gas; evaporation is limited by vapour diffusion. The system exhibits an apparent contact angle θ that is a flow property. Under certain conditions, the apparent contact line was stationary relative to the substrate; we predict θ for this case. Observed values of θ are small, allowing lubrication analysis of the liquid film. The liquid and vapour flows are coupled through conditions holding at the phase interface; in particular, vapour partial pressure there is related to the local value of liquid pressure through the Kelvin condition. Because the droplet is shallow, the interfacial conditions can be transferred to the solid-liquid interface at y = 0 . We show that the dimensionless partial pressure p (x , y) and the film thickness h (x) are determined by solving ∇2 p = 0 for y > 0 subject to a matching condition at infinity, and the conditions - p = L hxx +h-3 and (h3px) x + 3py = 0 at y = 0 . The parameter L controls the ratio of Laplace to disjoining pressure. We analyse this b.v.p. for the experimentally-relevant case L --> 0 .

  8. Apparent mass in viscous, vortical flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noca, Flavio

    2001-11-01

    The concept of added, virtual, apparent, or additional mass is well known in potential flow theory. It is added mass (or more exactly, the time derivative of virtual momentum) that wholly contributes to fluid dynamic forces in unsteady, potential flow configurations. While the force contribution from added mass can be easily evaluated in potential flows, it has always been thought that in real (vortical and viscous) flows, the contribution of added mass to the fluid dynamic force is intertwined in a complex way with the force resulting from wake and boundary layer vorticity. Recently, Shiels, Leonard, and Roshko (Journal of Fluids and Structures, vol 15, pp 3-21, 2001) [henceforth SLR] showed that the fluid dynamic lift force on a circular cylinder performing transverse oscillations in a steady stream can actually be decomposed into a lift force due to apparent mass (as evaluated from potential theory) and a ``wake'' force resulting from frictional as well as altered pressure forces caused by the boundary layer and wake growth in viscous flow. Through a rigorous formalism analogous to SLR’s, we will confirm that the SLR decomposition is correct and valid for any body shape in arbitrary motion. The SLR decomposition is a seminal discovery in the science of unsteady aero/hydrodynamics, as it allows to clearly distinguish the force contributions from added mass and from the ``wake''. The result is particularly important for understanding the flight and swimming mechanics of animals.

  9. Postfledging survival of Laysan ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Citta, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Precise and unbiased estimates of demographic parameters are necessary for effective population monitoring and to parameterize population models (e.g., population viability analyses). This is especially important for endangered species, where recovery planning and managers' decisions can influence species persistence. In this study, we used mark–recapture methods to estimate survival of fledged juveniles (hatch-yr [HY]) and adult (after-hatch-yr [AHY]) Laysan ducks (Anas laysanensis), an endangered anatid restricted to Laysan Island in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands. To better understand population dynamics, we examined how survival varied as a function of Laysan duck density during 1998–2004. Using random effects models, we also quantified process variation in survival, thereby quantifying the appropriate source of variation for future population models. The dataset supported variation in survival that was time (yr), age (AHY vs. HY), and sex specific. Due to small sample sizes, we did not examine time specificity in the survival of HY ducks. Survival of HY ducks was 0.832 (SE = 0.087) for females (n = 21) and 0.999 (SE < 0.001) for males (n = 15) during 1998–2001. Trends in time and density lacked support as sources of variation in the survival of AHY ducks during 1998–2004. After-hatch-year survival ranged from 0.792 (SE = 0.033) to 0.999 (SE < 0.001). Where we modeled survival as a random effect, annual survival for AHY females was 0.881 (SE = 0.017) and process variation (σS) was 0.034. For AHY males, annual survival (μS) was 0.906 (SE = 0.019) and process variation (σS) was 0.040. This information will improve existing population viability analysis models for Laysan ducks. We believe that monitoring the source and translocation populations will be paramount for increasing our understanding of Laysan duck dynamics, recovery planning, and population management.

  10. Apparent brightness distribution of GRB host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagoly, Zsolt; Rácz, István I.; Balázs, Lajos G.; Horváth, István; Tóth, L. Viktor

    We studied the unbiased optical brightness distribution which was calculated from the survival analysis of host galaxies (HGs) data and its relationship with the Swift GRB data of the host galaxies observed by the Keck telescope. Based on the sample obtained from merging the Swift GRB table and the Keck optical data we also studied the dependence of this distribution on the GRB's data. Finally, we compared the HGs distribution with standard galaxies distribution of the DEEP2 redshift survey and checked the result with the VIPERS catalogue too.

  11. Ambiguity in Tactile Apparent Motion Perception

    PubMed Central

    Liaci, Emanuela; Bach, Michael; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Heinrich, Sven P.; Kornmeier, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Background In von Schiller’s Stroboscopic Alternative Motion (SAM) stimulus two visually presented diagonal dot pairs, located on the corners of an imaginary rectangle, alternate with each other and induce either horizontal, vertical or, rarely, rotational motion percepts. SAM motion perception can be described by a psychometric function of the dot aspect ratio (“AR”, i.e. the relation between vertical and horizontal dot distances). Further, with equal horizontal and vertical dot distances (AR = 1) perception is biased towards vertical motion. In a series of five experiments, we presented tactile SAM versions and studied the role of AR and of different reference frames for the perception of tactile apparent motion. Methods We presented tactile SAM stimuli and varied the ARs, while participants reported the perceived motion directions. Pairs of vibration stimulators were attached to the participants’ forearms and stimulator distances were varied within and between forearms. We compared straight and rotated forearm conditions with each other in order to disentangle the roles of exogenous and endogenous reference frames. Results Increasing the tactile SAM’s AR biased perception towards vertical motion, but the effect was weak compared to the visual modality. We found no horizontal disambiguation, even for very small tactile ARs. A forearm rotation by 90° kept the vertical bias, even though it was now coupled with small ARs. A 45° rotation condition with crossed forearms, however, evoked a strong horizontal motion bias. Discussion Existing approaches to explain the visual SAM bias fail to explain the current tactile results. Particularly puzzling is the strong horizontal bias in the crossed-forearm conditions. In the case of tactile apparent motion, there seem to be no fixed priority rule for perceptual disambiguation. Rather the weighting of available evidence seems to depend on the degree of stimulus ambiguity, the current situation and on the perceptual

  12. COUNTRY-LEVEL SOCIOECONOMIC INDICATORS ASSOCIATED WITH SURVIVAL PROBABILITY OF BECOMING A CENTENARIAN AMONG OLDER EUROPEAN ADULTS: GENDER INEQUALITY, MALE LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION AND PROPORTIONS OF WOMEN IN PARLIAMENTS.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2017-03-01

    This study confirms an association between survival probability of becoming a centenarian (SPBC) for those aged 65 to 69 and country-level socioeconomic indicators in Europe: the gender inequality index (GII), male labour force participation (MLP) rates and proportions of seats held by women in national parliaments (PWP). The analysis was based on SPBC data from 34 countries obtained from the United Nations (UN). Country-level socioeconomic indicator data were obtained from the UN and World Bank databases. The associations between socioeconomic indicators and SPBC were assessed using correlation coefficients and multivariate regression models. The findings show significant correlations between the SPBC for women and men aged 65 to 69 and country-level socioeconomic indicators: GII (r=-0.674, p=0.001), MLP (r=0.514, p=0.002) and PWP (r=0.498, p=0.003). The SPBC predictors for women and men were lower GIIs and higher MLP and PWP (R 2=0.508, p=0.001). Country-level socioeconomic indicators appear to have an important effect on the probability of becoming a centenarian in European adults aged 65 to 69. Country-level gender equality policies in European counties may decrease the risk of unhealthy old age and increase longevity in elders through greater national gender equality; disparities in GII and other country-level socioeconomic indicators impact longevity probability. National longevity strategies should target country-level gender inequality.

  13. Habitat fragmentation effects on annual survival of the federally protected eastern indigo snake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breininger, D.R.; Mazerolle, M.J.; Bolt, M.R.; Legare, M.L.; Drese, J.H.; Hines, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    The eastern indigo snake (Drymarchon couperi) is a federally listed species, most recently threatened by habitat loss and habitat degradation. In an effort to estimate snake survival, a total of 103 individuals (59 males, 44 females) were followed using radio-tracking from January 1998 to March 2004 in three landscape types that had increasing levels of habitat fragmentation: (1) conservation cores; (2) conservation areas along highways; (3) suburbs. Because of a large number of radio-tracking locations underground for which the state of snakes (i.e. alive or dead) could not be assessed, we employed a multistate approach to model snake apparent survival and encounter probability of live and dead snakes. We predicted that male snakes in suburbs would have the lowest annual survival. We found a transmitter implantation effect on snake encounter probability, as snakes implanted on a given occasion had a lower encounter probability on the next visit compared with snakes not implanted on the previous occasion. Our results indicated that adult eastern indigo snakes have relatively high survival in conservation core areas, but greatly reduced survival in conservation areas along highways and in suburbs. These findings indicate that habitat fragmentation is likely to be the critical factor for species' persistence.

  14. The impact of disease on the survival and population growth rate of the Tasmanian devil.

    PubMed

    Lachish, Shelly; Jones, Menna; McCallum, Hamish

    2007-09-01

    1. We investigated the impact of a recently emerged disease, Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD), on the survival and population growth rate of a population of Tasmanian devils, Sarcophilus harrisii, on the Freycinet Peninsula in eastern Tasmania. 2. Cormack-Jolly-Seber and multistate mark-recapture models were employed to investigate the impact of DFTD on age- and sex-specific apparent survival and transition rates. Disease impact on population growth rate was investigated using reverse-time mark-recapture models. 3. The arrival of DFTD triggered an immediate and steady decline in apparent survival rates of adults and subadults, the rate of which was predicted well by the increase in disease prevalence in the population over time. 4. Transitions from healthy to diseased state increased with disease prevalence suggesting that the force of infection in the population is increasing and that the epidemic is not subsiding. 5. The arrival of DFTD coincided with a marked, ongoing decline in the population growth rate of the previously stable population, which to date has not been offset by population compensatory responses.

  15. Apparent anisotropy in inhomogeneous isotropic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Fan-Chi; Ritzwoller, Michael H.

    2011-09-01

    Surface waves propagating through a laterally inhomogeneous medium undergo wavefield complications such as multiple scattering, wave front healing, and backward scattering. Unless accounted for accurately, these effects will introduce a systematic isotropic bias in estimates of azimuthal anisotropy. We demonstrate with synthetic experiments that backward scattering near an observing station will introduce an apparent 360° periodicity into the azimuthal distribution of anisotropy near strong lateral variations in seismic wave speeds that increases with period. Because it violates reciprocity, this apparent 1ψ anisotropy, where ψ is the azimuthal angle, is non-physical for surface waves and is, therefore, a useful indicator of isotropic bias. Isotropic bias of the 2ψ (180° periodicity) component of azimuthal anisotropy, in contrast, is caused mainly by wave front healing, which results from the broad forward scattering part of the surface wave sensitivity kernel. To test these predictions, we apply geometrical ray theoretic (eikonal) tomography to teleseismic Rayleigh wave measurements across the Transportable Array component of USArray to measure the directional dependence of phase velocities between 30 and 80 s period. Eikonal tomography accounts for multiple scattering (ray bending) but not finite frequency effects such as wave front healing or backward scattering. At long periods (>50 s), consistent with the predictions from the synthetic experiments, a significant 1ψ component of azimuthal anisotropy is observed near strong isotropic structural contrasts with fast directions that point in the direction of increasing phase speeds. The observed 2ψ component of azimuthal anisotropy is more weakly correlated with synthetic predictions of isotropic bias, probably because of the imprint of intrinsic structural anisotropy. The observation of a 1ψ component of azimuthal anisotropy is a clear indicator of isotropic bias in the inversion caused by unmodelled

  16. Apparent speed increases at low luminance

    PubMed Central

    Vaziri-Pashkam, Maryam; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effect of luminance on apparent speed, subjects adjusted the speed of a low-luminance rotating grating (0.31 cd/m2) to match that of a high-luminance one (1260 cd/m2). Above 4 Hz, subjects overestimated the speed of the low-luminance grating. This overestimation increased as a function of temporal rate and reached 30% around 10 Hz temporal rates. The speed overestimation became significant once the lower luminance was 2.4 log units lower than the high luminance comparison. Next the role of motion smear in speed overestimation was examined. First it was shown that the length of the perceived motion smear increased at low luminances. Second, the length of the visible smear was manipulated by changing the presentation time of the stimuli. Speed overestimation was reduced at shorter presentation times. Third the speed of a blurred stimulus was compared to a stimulus with sharp edges and the blurred stimulus was judged to move faster. These results indicate that the length of motion smear following a target contributes to its perceived speed and that this leads to speed overestimation at low luminance where motion traces lengthen because of increased persistence. PMID:19146275

  17. Cause of heart murmurs in 57 apparently healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Dirven, M J M; Cornelissen, J M M; Barendse, M A M; van Mook, M C; Sterenborg, J A E M

    2010-11-15

    Heart murmurs are caused by turbulent blood flow or by vibration of cardiac structures. Turbulent blood flow may originate from structural heart disease or from physiological phenomena. The aims of this study were to establish the cause of heart murmurs in apparently healthy adult cats and to determine whether a heart murmur is a reliable indicator of heart disease. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the medical records of cats in which a heart murmur was detected during physical examination by one of the authors in the period January 2008 to December 2009. Cats younger than 6 months and those with systemic disease were excluded. Timing, grade, and point of maximum intensity of the murmur were determined by one observer (MD) before 2D-, M-mode and Doppler echocardiography. Fifty-seven cats (median age 76 months, range 6-194) were included, 30 neutered females and 27 neutered males. All murmurs were systolic and varied in intensity from 2/6 to 5/6. The point of maximum intensity was the left or right parasternal region in 34/57 (61%) of murmurs. Murmurs were caused by dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in 25/57 (44%) cats, dynamic right ventricular outflow tract obstruction in 9/57 (16%) cats, and combined dynamic left and right outflow tract obstruction in 11/57 (19%) cats. In 5 (9%) cats the cause of the murmur could not be identified. Heart disease was present in 50 (88%) cats, namely, left ventricular hypertrophy in 44 (77%) and congenital defects in 6 (11%) cats. In conclusion, most heart murmurs in apparently healthy cats are detected in the left or right parasternal region and are caused by dynamic left and right ventricular outflow tract obstruction. Because most cats (88%) with a heart murmur had heart disease in this study, if a heart murmur is detected in an apparently healthy cat, echocardiography is recommended to determine the cause of the heart murmur and the presence of heart disease.

  18. An apparent hiatus in global warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.

    2013-12-01

    Global warming first became evident beyond the bounds of natural variability in the 1970s, but increases in global mean surface temperatures have stalled in the 2000s. Increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases, notably carbon dioxide, create an energy imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) even as the planet warms to adjust to this imbalance, which is estimated to be 0.5-1 W m-2 over the 2000s. Annual global fluctuations in TOA energy of up to 0.2 W m-2 occur from natural variations in clouds, aerosols, and changes in the Sun. At times of major volcanic eruptions the effects can be much larger. Yet global mean surface temperatures fluctuate much more than these can account for. An energy imbalance is manifested not just as surface atmospheric or ground warming but also as melting sea and land ice, and heating of the oceans. More than 90% of the heat goes into the oceans and, with melting land ice, causes sea level to rise. For the past decade, more than 30% of the heat has apparently penetrated below 700 m depth that is traceable to changes in surface winds mainly over the Pacific in association with a switch to a negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in 1999. Surface warming was much more in evidence during the 1976-1998 positive phase of the PDO, suggesting that natural decadal variability modulates the rate of change of global surface temperatures while sea-level rise is more relentless. Global warming has not stopped; it is merely manifested in different ways.

  19. Apparent diffusion coefficient of normal adrenal glands*

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias, Paula Condé Lamparelli; Leite, Andrea Farias de Melo; de Oliveira, Tatiane Mendes Gonçalves; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Elias Junior, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility and reliability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements of normal adrenal glands. Materials and methods This was a retrospective study involving 32 healthy subjects, divided into two groups: prepubertal (PreP, n = 12), aged from 2 months to 12.5 years (4 males; 8 females); and postpubertal (PostP, n = 20), aged from 11.9 to 61 years (5 males; 15 females). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) sequences were acquired at a 1.5 T scanner using b values of 0, 20, 500, and 1000 s/mm2. Two radiologists evaluated the images. ADC values were measured pixel-by-pixel on DW-MRI scans, and automatic co-registration with the ADC map was obtained. Results Mean ADC values for the right adrenal glands were 1.44 × 10-3 mm2/s for the PreP group and 1.23 × 10-3 mm2/s for the PostP group, whereas they were 1.58 × 10-3 mm2/s and 1.32 × 10-3 mm2/s, respectively, for the left glands. ADC values were higher in the PreP group than in the PostP group (p < 0.05). Agreement between readers was almost perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.84-0.94; p < 0.05). Conclusion Our results demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of performing DW-MRI measurements of normal adrenal glands. They could also support the feasibility of ADC measurements of small structures. PMID:28057963

  20. Apparent exchange rate for breast cancer characterization.

    PubMed

    Lasič, Samo; Oredsson, Stina; Partridge, Savannah C; Saal, Lao H; Topgaard, Daniel; Nilsson, Markus; Bryskhe, Karin

    2016-05-01

    Although diffusion MRI has shown promise for the characterization of breast cancer, it has low specificity to malignant subtypes. Higher specificity might be achieved if the effects of cell morphology and molecular exchange across cell membranes could be disentangled. The quantification of exchange might thus allow the differentiation of different types of breast cancer cells. Based on differences in diffusion rates between the intra- and extracellular compartments, filter exchange spectroscopy/imaging (FEXSY/FEXI) provides non-invasive quantification of the apparent exchange rate (AXR) of water between the two compartments. To test the feasibility of FEXSY for the differentiation of different breast cancer cells, we performed experiments on several breast epithelial cell lines in vitro. Furthermore, we performed the first in vivo FEXI measurement of water exchange in human breast. In cell suspensions, pulsed gradient spin-echo experiments with large b values and variable pulse duration allow the characterization of the intracellular compartment, whereas FEXSY provides a quantification of AXR. These experiments are very sensitive to the physiological state of cells and can be used to establish reliable protocols for the culture and harvesting of cells. Our results suggest that different breast cancer subtypes can be distinguished on the basis of their AXR values in cell suspensions. Time-resolved measurements allow the monitoring of the physiological state of cells in suspensions over the time-scale of hours, and reveal an abrupt disintegration of the intracellular compartment. In vivo, exchange can be detected in a tumor, whereas, in normal tissue, the exchange rate is outside the range experimentally accessible for FEXI. At present, low signal-to-noise ratio and limited scan time allows the quantification of AXR only in a region of interest of relatively large tumors.

  1. Apparent diffusion coefficient normalization of normal liver

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Gao, Jia-Yin; Li, Jin-Ning; Yang, Da-Wei; Chen, Min; Zhou, Cheng; Yang, Zheng-Han

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been reported to be a helpful biomarker for detection and characterization of lesion. In view of the importance of ADC measurement reproducibility, the aim of this study was to probe the variability of the healthy hepatic ADC values measured at 3 MR scanners from different vendors and with different field strengths, and to investigate the reproducibility of normalized ADC (nADC) value with the spleen as the reference organ. Thirty enrolled healthy volunteers received DWI with GE 1.5T, Siemens 1.5T, and Philips 3.0T magnetic resonance (MR) systems on liver and spleen (session 1) and were imaged again after 10 to 14 days using only GE 1.5T MR and Philips 3.0T MR systems (session 2). Interscan agreement and reproducibility of ADC measurements of liver and the calculated nADC values (ADCliver/ADCspleen) were statistically evaluated between 2 sessions. In session 1, ADC and nADC values of liver were evaluated for the scanner-related variability by 2-way analysis of variance and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Coefficients of variation (CVs) of ADCs and nADCs of liver were calculated for both 1.5 and 3.0-T MR system. Interscan agreement and reproducibility of ADC measurements of liver and related nADCs between 2 sessions were found to be satisfactory with ICC values of 0.773 to 0.905. In session 1, the liver nADCs obtained from different scanners were consistent (P = 0.112) without any significant difference in multiple comparison (P = 0.117 to >0.99) by using 2-way analysis of variance with post-hoc analysis of Bonferroni method, although the liver ADCs varied significantly (P < 0.001). nADCs measured by 3 scanners were in good interscanner agreements with ICCs of 0.685 to 0.776. The mean CV of nADCs of both 1.5T MR scanners (9.6%) was similar to that of 3.0T MR scanner (8.9%). ADCs measured at 3 MR scanners with different field strengths and vendors

  2. 48 CFR 14.407-2 - Apparent clerical mistakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.407-2 Apparent clerical mistakes. (a) Any clerical mistake, apparent on its face in the bid, may be corrected by the... the bid intended. Examples of apparent mistakes are— (1) Obvious misplacement of a decimal point;...

  3. 48 CFR 14.407-2 - Apparent clerical mistakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.407-2 Apparent clerical mistakes. (a) Any clerical mistake, apparent on its face in the bid, may be corrected by the... the bid intended. Examples of apparent mistakes are— (1) Obvious misplacement of a decimal point;...

  4. 48 CFR 14.407-2 - Apparent clerical mistakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.407-2 Apparent clerical mistakes. (a) Any clerical mistake, apparent on its face in the bid, may be corrected by the... the bid intended. Examples of apparent mistakes are— (1) Obvious misplacement of a decimal point;...

  5. 48 CFR 14.407-2 - Apparent clerical mistakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.407-2 Apparent clerical mistakes. (a) Any clerical mistake, apparent on its face in the bid, may be corrected by the... the bid intended. Examples of apparent mistakes are— (1) Obvious misplacement of a decimal point;...

  6. 48 CFR 14.407-2 - Apparent clerical mistakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.407-2 Apparent clerical mistakes. (a) Any clerical mistake, apparent on its face in the bid, may be corrected by the... the bid intended. Examples of apparent mistakes are— (1) Obvious misplacement of a decimal point;...

  7. Survival differences and the effect of environmental instability on breeding dispersal in an Adélie penguin meta-population

    PubMed Central

    Dugger, Katie M.; Ainley, David G.; Lyver, Phil O'B.; Barton, Kerry; Ballard, Grant

    2010-01-01

    High survival and breeding philopatry was previously confirmed for the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) during a period of stable environmental conditions. However, movements of breeding adults as a result of an unplanned natural experiment within a four-colony meta-population provided interesting insights into this species’ population dynamics. We used multistate mark-recapture models to investigate apparent survival and dispersal of breeding birds in the southwestern Ross Sea during 12 breeding seasons (1996–2007). The natural experiment was facilitated by the temporary grounding of two immense icebergs that (i) erected a veritable fence separating colonies and altering migration routes and (ii) added additional stress by trapping extensive sea ice in the region during 5 of 12 y. Colony size varied by orders of magnitude, allowing investigation of apparent survival and dispersal rates in relation to both environmental conditions and colony size within this meta-population. Apparent survival was lowest for the smallest colony (4,000 pairs) and similar for the medium (45,000 pairs) and large colonies (155,000 pairs), despite increased foraging effort expended by breeders at the largest colony. Dispersal of breeding birds was low (<1%), except during years of difficult environmental conditions when movements increased, especially away from the smallest colony (3.5%). Decreased apparent survival at the smallest colony could reflect differences in migration chronology and winter habitat use compared with the other colonies, or it may reflect increased permanent emigration to colonies outside this meta-population. Contrary to current thought, breeding penguins are not always philopatric. Rather, stressful conditions can significantly increase dispersal rates. PMID:20566874

  8. Comparison of Laparoscopy and Laparotomy in Surgical Staging of Apparent Early Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qi; Qu, Hong; Liu, Chongdong; Wang, Shuzhen; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the safety and morbidity of laparoscopic versus laparotomic comprehensive staging of apparent early stage ovarian cancer. In this retrospective study, the outcomes of patients with apparent stage I ovarian cancer who underwent laparoscopic or laparotomic comprehensive surgical staging from January 2002 to January 2014 were evaluated. The long-term survival of patients with early ovarian cancer was compared. Forty-two patients were treated by laparoscopy, and 50 were treated by laparotomy. The median operative time was 200 minutes in the laparoscopy group and 240 minutes in the laparotomy group (P >0.05). The median length of hospital stay was 3 days in the laparoscopy group and 7 days in the laparotomy group (P <0.05). Following laparoscopic and laparotomic staging, the cancer was upstaged for 9 (21.4%) and 10 (20.0%) women, respectively. The median follow-up time was 82 months in the laparoscopic and laparotomic groups, respectively. Excluding the upstaged patients, no recurrence was observed in the present study, and the overall survival and 5-year survival rates were 100% in both the laparoscopy and laparotomy groups. Laparoscopic and laparotomic comprehensive staging of early ovarian cancer were similar in terms of staging adequacy, accuracy and survival rate. Laparoscopic staging was associated with a significantly reduced hospital stay. Prospective randomized trials are required to evaluate the overall oncologic outcomes. PMID:27196468

  9. Demographics and 2008 Run Timing of Adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and Shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) Suckers in Upper Klamath Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janney, Eric C.; Hayes, Brian S.; Hewitt, David A.; Barry, Patrick M.; Scott, Alta; Koller, Justin; Johnson, Mark; Blackwood, Greta

    2009-01-01

    We used capture-recapture data to assess population dynamics of endangered Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. The Cormack-Jolly-Seber method was used to estimate apparent survival probabilities, and a temporal symmetry model was used to estimate annual seniority probabilities. Information theoretic modeling was used to assess variation in parameter estimates due to time, gender, and species. In addition, length data were used to detect multiple year-class failures and events of high recruitment into adult spawning populations. Survival of adult Lost River and shortnose suckers varied substantially across years. Relatively high annual mortality was observed for the lakeshore-spawning Lost River sucker subpopulation in 2002 and for the river spawning subpopulation in 2001. Shortnose suckers experienced high mortality in 2001 and 2004. This indicates that high mortality events are not only species specific, but also are specific to subpopulations for Lost River suckers. Seniority probability estimates and length composition data indicate that recruitment of new individuals into adult sucker populations has been sparse. The overall fitness of Upper Klamath Lake sucker populations are of concern given the low observed survival in some years and the paucity of recent recruitment. During most years, estimates of survival probabilities were lower than seniority probabilities, indicating net losses in adult sucker population abundances. The evidence for decline was more marked for shortnose suckers than for Lost River suckers. Our data indicated that sucker survival for both species, but especially shortnose suckers, was sometimes low in years without any observed fish kills. This indicates that high mortality can occur over a protracted period, resulting in poor annual survival, but will not necessarily be observed in association with a fish kill. A better understanding of the factors

  10. Predicting remembering and forgetting of autobiographical memories in children and adults: a 4-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Patricia J; Larkina, Marina

    2016-11-01

    Preservation and loss to forgetting of autobiographical memories is a focus in both the adult and developmental literatures. In both, there are comparative arguments regarding rates of forgetting. Children are assumed to forget autobiographical memories more rapidly than adults, and younger children are assumed to forget more rapidly than older children. Yet few studies can directly inform these comparisons: few feature children and adults, and few prospectively track the survival of specific autobiographical memories over time. In a 4-year prospective study, we obtained autobiographical memories from children 4, 6, and 8 years, and adults. We tested recall of different subsets of the events after 1, 2, and 3 years. Accelerated rates of forgetting were apparent among all child groups relative to adults; within the child groups, 4- and 6-year-olds had accelerated forgetting relative to 8-year-olds. The differences were especially pronounced in open-ended recall. The thematic coherence of initial memory reports also was a significant predictor of the survival of specific memories. The pattern of findings is consistent with suggestions that the adult distribution of autobiographical memories is achieved as the quality of memory traces increases (here measured by thematic coherence) and the rate of forgetting decreases.

  11. Survival of cackling Canada geese, 1982-1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raveling, D.G.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Zezulak, D.S.; Silveira, J.G.; Johnson, J.C.; Aldrich, T.W.; Weldon, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    We estimated seasonal and annual survival rates of cackling Canada geese (Branta canadensis minima ) for the period 1982-1989 to identify periods of high mortality and assess effects of harvest management decisions. We tested hypotheses about age- and sex-specific variation in survival, seasonal variation in survival rates, and variation in survival between years in which hunting seasons were open and closed. Geese were marked with individually identifiable neckbands and observed from autumn through spring. We used these data to estimate survival rates for 3-month periods in early (EW) and late (LW) winter and a 6-month period in summer (SU). Mean annual survival rates of immature females were lower than those of adults over the entire study. Survival rates of immature males were lower than those of adults during the 2 years with sport hunting seasons. We found no evidence of sex-specific differences in seasonal or annual survival rates of immature geese.

  12. Enduring consequences of early experiences: 40 year effects on survival and success among African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Lee, Phyllis C; Bussière, Luc F; Webber, C Elizabeth; Poole, Joyce H; Moss, Cynthia J

    2013-04-23

    Growth from conception to reproductive onset in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) provides insights into phenotypic plasticity, individual adaptive plastic responses and facultative maternal investment. Using growth for 867 and life histories for 2652 elephants over 40 years, we demonstrate that maternal inexperience plus drought in early life result in reduced growth rates for sons and higher mortality for both sexes. Slow growth during early lactation was associated with smaller adult size, later age at first reproduction, reduced lifetime survival and consequently limited reproductive output. These enduring effects of trading slow early growth against immediate survival were apparent over the very long term; delayed downstream consequences were unexpected for a species with a maximum longevity of 70+ years and unpredictable environmental experiences.

  13. Apparent lethal concentrations of pyrolysis products of some polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Marcussen, W. H.; Furst, A.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Thirty-nine samples of polymeric materials were evaluated to determine the apparent lethal concentrations of their pyrolysis products. The materials were compared on the basis of the apparent lethal concentration for 50 percent of the test animals. Relative toxicity rankings based o apparent lethal concentration values can differ significantly depending on whether they are based on weight of sample charged or weight of sample pyrolyzed. The ranking of polyphenylene sulfide is particularly sensitive to this difference.

  14. Conservation implications of ameliorating survival of little brown bats with white-nose syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maslo, Brooke; Valent, Mick; Gumbs, John F; Frick, Winifred F

    2015-10-01

    Management of wildlife populations impacted by novel threats is often challenged by a lack of data on temporal changes in demographic response. Populations may suffer rapid declines from the introduction of new stressors, but how demography changes over time is critical to determining long-term outcomes for populations. White-nose syndrome (WNS), an infectious disease of hibernating bats, has caused massive and rapid population declines in several hibernating species of bats in North America since the disease was first observed on the continent in 2006. Estimating annual survival rates and demographic trends among remnant colonies of hibernating bats that experienced mass mortality from WNS is needed to determine long-term population viability of species impacted by this disease. Using mark-recapture data on infected little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), we estimated the first apparent annual survival rates for four years following WNS detection at a site. We found strong support for an increasing trend in annual survival, which improved from 0.68 (95% CI = 0.44-0.85) to 0.75 (95% CI = 0.51-0.89) for males and 0.65 (95% CI = 0.44-0.81) to 0.70 (95% CI = 0.50-0.84) for females. These results suggest that stabilization at remnant colonies after mass mortality from WNS may be due to improved survival and not from immigration from other areas. Despite ameliorating survival, our stochastic matrix projection model predicts continued declines for little brown bat populations (λ = 0.95), raising concern for the regional persistence of this species. We conducted a vital rate sensitivity analysis and determined that adult and juvenile survival, as opposed to fecundity, are the demographic parameters most important to target to maximize recovery potential of little brown bat populations in areas impacted by WNS.

  15. Apparent-Strain Correction for Combined Thermal and Mechanical Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Theodore F.; O'Neil, Teresa L.

    2007-01-01

    Combined thermal and mechanical testing requires that the total strain be corrected for the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the strain gage and the specimen or apparent strain when the temperature varies while a mechanical load is being applied. Collecting data for an apparent strain test becomes problematic as the specimen size increases. If the test specimen cannot be placed in a variable temperature test chamber to generate apparent strain data with no mechanical loads, coupons can be used to generate the required data. The coupons, however, must have the same strain gage type, coefficient of thermal expansion, and constraints as the specimen to be useful. Obtaining apparent-strain data at temperatures lower than -320 F is challenging due to the difficulty to maintain steady-state and uniform temperatures on a given specimen. Equations to correct for apparent strain in a real-time fashion and data from apparent-strain tests for composite and metallic specimens over a temperature range from -450 F to +250 F are presented in this paper. Three approaches to extrapolate apparent-strain data from -320 F to -430 F are presented and compared to the measured apparent-strain data. The first two approaches use a subset of the apparent-strain curves between -320 F and 100 F to extrapolate to -430 F, while the third approach extrapolates the apparent-strain curve over the temperature range of -320 F to +250 F to -430 F. The first two approaches are superior to the third approach but the use of either of the first two approaches is contingent upon the degree of non-linearity of the apparent-strain curve.

  16. Apparent mass and cross-axis apparent mass of standing subjects during exposure to vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subashi, G. H. M. J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

    2006-05-01

    The effects of posture and vibration magnitude on the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the standing human body during exposure to vertical vibration have been investigated. Twelve male subjects were exposed to random vertical vibration over the frequency range 2.0-20 Hz at three vibration magnitudes: 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 m s -2 rms. Subjects stood in five different postures: upright, lordotic, anterior lean, knees bent and knees more bent. The vertical acceleration at the floor and the forces in the vertical and fore-and-aft directions at the floor were used to obtain the apparent mass and the cross-axis apparent mass. The resonance frequency of the apparent mass was significantly reduced with knees bent and knees more bent postures, but there were only minor effects on the resonance frequency by changing the position of the upper body. Considerable cross-axis apparent mass, up to about 30% of the static mass of subjects, was found. The cross-axis apparent mass was influenced by all postural changes used in the study. In all postures the resonance frequencies of the apparent mass and the cross-axis apparent mass tended to decrease with increasing vibration magnitude. This nonlinear characteristic tended to be less clear in some postures in which subjects increased muscle tension.

  17. Masking and color inheritance along the apparent motion path.

    PubMed

    Souto, David; Johnston, Alan

    2012-07-30

    Long-range apparent motion is the illusory motion that can be perceived when two static and distant stimuli are presented in succession. Within some spatiotemporal range not only is motion sensed, but it appears as if one stimulus is displaced from one place to another (termed beta or optimal motion). Several groups have found that this illusory percept can interact with perception of a physically present stimulus, but some disagree on the origin of these interactions. We know little about how suppressive effects depend on feature-similarity between a target and the stimuli in apparent motion (inducers)-which would indicate an early perceptual locus-or even about the minimal conditions under which to obtain this effect. Unlike early studies that used a two-stroke apparent motion paradigm, we were able to demonstrate that motion can mask stimuli presented at interpolated locations along the apparent motion path, as shown by the elevation of contrast thresholds compared to a control condition. Apparent motion masking depended on color similarity between target and inducers. Further, we found evidence that the color of inducers alters the apparent color of intervening gray probes, indicating some inheritance or chromatic averaging across distant locations, but no clear evidence of predictive updating. Finally, the analysis of the presentation times delivering maximal masking effects suggests a predictive interpolation process is responsible for interference by apparent motion filling-in. We discuss alternative mechanisms, in particular the possible role of apparent-motion-induced metacontrast masking in generating this pattern of results.

  18. Do American Dippers Obtain a Survival Benefit from Altitudinal Migration?

    PubMed Central

    Green, David J.; Whitehorne, Ivy B. J.; Middleton, Holly A.; Morrissey, Christy A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of partial migrants provide an opportunity to assess the cost and benefits of migration. Previous work has demonstrated that sedentary American dippers (residents) have higher annual productivity than altitudinal migrants that move to higher elevations to breed. Here we use a ten-year (30 period) mark-recapture dataset to evaluate whether migrants offset their lower productivity with higher survival during the migration-breeding period when they occupy different habitat, or early and late-winter periods when they coexist with residents. Mark-recapture models provide no evidence that apparent monthly survival of migrants is higher than that of residents at any time of the year. The best-supported model suggests that monthly survival is higher in the migration-breeding period than winter periods. Another well-supported model suggested that residency conferred a survival benefit, and annual apparent survival (calculated from model weighted monthly apparent survival estimates using the Delta method) of residents (0.511 ± 0.038SE) was slightly higher than that of migrants (0.487 ± 0.032). Winter survival of American dippers was influenced by environmental conditions; monthly apparent survival increased as maximum daily flow rates increased and declined as winter temperatures became colder. However, we found no evidence that environmental conditions altered differences in winter survival of residents and migrants. Since migratory American dippers have lower productivity and slightly lower survival than residents our data suggests that partial migration is likely an outcome of competition for limited nest sites at low elevations, with less competitive individuals being forced to migrate to higher elevations in order to breed. PMID:25905712

  19. Linking age, survival, and transit time distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabrese, Salvatore; Porporato, Amilcare

    2015-10-01

    Although the concepts of age, survival, and transit time have been widely used in many fields, including population dynamics, chemical engineering, and hydrology, a comprehensive mathematical framework is still missing. Here we discuss several relationships among these quantities by starting from the evolution equation for the joint distribution of age and survival, from which the equations for age and survival time readily follow. It also becomes apparent how the statistical dependence between age and survival is directly related to either the age dependence of the loss function or the survival-time dependence of the input function. The solution of the joint distribution equation also allows us to obtain the relationships between the age at exit (or death) and the survival time at input (or birth), as well as to stress the symmetries of the various distributions under time reversal. The transit time is then obtained as a sum of the age and survival time, and its properties are discussed along with the general relationships between their mean values. The special case of steady state case is analyzed in detail. Some examples, inspired by hydrologic applications, are presented to illustrate the theory with the specific results. This article was corrected on 11 Nov 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  20. Hand-Rearing, Release and Survival of African Penguin Chicks Abandoned Before Independence by Moulting Parents

    PubMed Central

    Sherley, Richard B.; Waller, Lauren J.; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G.; Parsons, Nola J.

    2014-01-01

    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an ‘Endangered’ conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds. PMID:25337698

  1. Hand-rearing, release and survival of African penguin chicks abandoned before independence by moulting parents.

    PubMed

    Sherley, Richard B; Waller, Lauren J; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G; Parsons, Nola J

    2014-01-01

    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an 'Endangered' conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds.

  2. Time Varying Apparent Volume of Distribution and Drug Half-Lives Following Intravenous Bolus Injections

    PubMed Central

    Wesolowski, Carl A.; Wesolowski, Michal J.; Babyn, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    We present a model that generalizes the apparent volume of distribution and half-life as functions of time following intravenous bolus injection. This generalized model defines a time varying apparent volume of drug distribution. The half-lives of drug remaining in the body vary in time and become longer as time elapses, eventually converging to the terminal half-life. Two example fit models were substituted into the general model: biexponential models from the least relative concentration error, and gamma variate models using adaptive regularization for least relative error of clearance. Using adult population parameters from 41 studies of the renal glomerular filtration marker 169Yb-DTPA, simulations of extracellular fluid volumes of 5, 10, 15 and 20 litres and plasma clearances of 40 and 100 ml/min were obtained. Of these models, the adaptively obtained gamma variate models had longer times to 95% of terminal volume and longer half-lives. PMID:27403663

  3. Annual recapture and survival rates of two non-breeding adult populations of Roseate Terns Stema dougallii captured on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and estimates of their population sizes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neill, P.; Minton, C.D.T.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Hines, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Capture-recapture data from two disparate breeding populations of Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) captured together as non-breeding individuals from 2002 to 2007 in the southern Great Barrier Reef. Australia were analyzed for both survival rate and recapture rate. The average annual survival rate for the birds from the Asian population (S. d. bangsi) (0.901) is higher than that of the other population of unknown breeding origin (0.819). There was large variability in survival in both populations among years, but the average survival rate of 0.85 is similar to estimates for the same species in North America. The Cormack-Jolly-Seber models used in program MARK to estimate survival rates also produced estimated of recapture probabilities and population sizes. These estimates of population size were 29,000 for S. D. bangsi and 8,300 for the study area and much larger than the documented numbers in the likely breeding areas, suggesting that many breeding sites are currently unknown.

  4. A Winter Survival Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Ronald E.

    1979-01-01

    The article is a condensation of materials from the winter survival unit of a Canadian snow ecology course. The unit covers: cold physiology, frostbite, snowblindness, hypothermia, winter campout, and survival strategies. (SB)

  5. Population ecology of the mallard VIII: Winter distribution patterns and survival rates of winter-banded mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, James D.; Hines, James E.

    1987-01-01

    In the present report we address questions about winter distribution patterns and survival rates of North American mallards Anas platyrhynchos. Inferences are based on analyses of banding and recovery data from both winter and preseason banding period. The primary wintering range of the mallard was dividded into 45 minor reference areas and 15 major reference areas which were used to summarize winter banding data. Descriptive tables and figures on the recovery distributions of winter-banded mallards are presented. Using winter recoveries of preseason-banded mallards, we found apparent differences between recovery distribution of young versus adult birds from the same breeding ground reference areas. However, we found no sex-specific differences in winter recovery distribution patterns. Winter recovery distributions of preseason-banded birds also provided evidence that mallards exhibited some degree of year-to-year variation in wintering ground location. The age- and sex-specificity of such variation was tested using winter recoveries of winter-banded birds, and results indicated that subadult (first year) birds were less likely to return to the same wintering grounds the following year than adults. Winter recovery distributions of preseason-banded mallards during 1950-58 differed from distributions in 1966-76. These differences could have resulted from either true distributional shifts or geographic changes in hunting pressure. Survival and recovery rates were estimated from winter banding data. We found no evidence of differences in survival or recovery rates between subadult and adult mallards. Thus, the substantial difference between survival rates of preseason-banded young and adult mallards must result almost entirely from higher mortality of young birds during the approximate period, August-January. Male mallards showed higher survival than females, corroborating inferences based on preseason data. Tests with winter banding and band recovery data indicated

  6. Survivability Versus Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyner, James J., Sr.

    2014-01-01

    Develop Survivability vs Time Model as a decision-evaluation tool to assess various emergency egress methods used at Launch Complex 39B (LC 39B) and in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) on NASAs Kennedy Space Center. For each hazard scenario, develop probability distributions to address statistical uncertainty resulting in survivability plots over time and composite survivability plots encompassing multiple hazard scenarios.

  7. Apparent mass of the human body in the vertical direction: Inter-subject variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toward, Martin G. R.; Griffin, Michael J.

    2011-02-01

    The biodynamic responses of the seated human body to whole-body vibration vary considerably between people, but the reasons for the variability are not well understood. This study was designed to determine how the physical characteristics of people affect their apparent mass and whether inter-subject variability is influenced by the magnitude of vibration and the support of a seat backrest. The vertical apparent masses of 80 seated adults (41 males and 39 females aged 18-65) were measured at frequencies between 0.6 and 20 Hz with four backrest conditions (no backrest, upright rigid backrest, reclined rigid backrest, reclined foam backrest) and with three magnitudes of random vibration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m s -2 rms). Relationships between subject physical characteristics (age, gender, weight, and anthropometry) and subject apparent mass were investigated with multiple regression models. The strongest predictor of the modulus of the vertical apparent mass at 0.6 Hz, at resonance, and at 12 Hz was body weight, with other factors having only a marginal effect. After correction for other variables, the principal resonance frequency was most consistently associated with age and body mass index. As age increased from 18 to 65 years, the resonance frequency increased by up to 1.7 Hz, and when the body mass index was increased from 18 to 34 kg m -2 the resonance frequency decreased by up to 1.7 Hz. These changes were greater than the 0.9-Hz increase in resonance frequency between sitting without a backrest and sitting with a reclined rigid backrest, and greater than the 1.0-Hz reduction in resonance frequency when the magnitude of vibration increased from 0.5 to 1.5 m s -2 rms. It is concluded that the effects of age, body mass index, posture, vibration magnitude, and weight should be taken into account when defining the vertical apparent mass of the seated human body.

  8. Apparent Biological Motion in First and Third Person Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Scandola, Michele; Orvalho, Veronica; Candidi, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Apparent biological motion is the perception of plausible movements when two alternating images depicting the initial and final phase of an action are presented at specific stimulus onset asynchronies. Here, we show lower subjective apparent biological motion perception when actions are observed from a first relative to a third visual perspective. These findings are discussed within the context of sensorimotor contributions to body ownership. PMID:27708754

  9. An Improved Comprehensive Model for the Apparent Viscosity of Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobitz, Frank; Anderson, Spencer

    2008-11-01

    An improved comprehensive model for the apparent viscosity of blood is developed and used in simulations of the microcirculation in capillary bundles of rat spinotrapezius muscle fascia. In the microcirculation, the apparent viscosity of blood depends on the local vessel diameter, hematocrit, and shear rate. The proposed comprehensive model extends the apparent viscosity model developed by Pries, Secomb, Gaehtgens, and Gross (Circulation Research, 67, 826-834, 1990), which describes the effect of vessel diameter and hematocrit on the apparent viscosity. A shear thinning term is developed using the experimental data of Lipowsky, Usami, and Chien (Microvascular Research, 19, 297-319, 1980). Curve fits of this data can be combined with equations given in the Pries et al. work to create a system of equations that can be used to find the shear thinning factor. The simulations based on the improved apparent viscosity model use realistic vessel topology for the microvasculature, reconstructed from microscope images of tissue samples, and consider passive and active vessel properties. The numerical method is based on a Hagen-Poiseuille balance in the microvessels and a sparse matrix solver is used to obtain the solution. It was found that the inclusion of the shear factor decreases the overall flowrate in the capillary bundle. Many vessel connections in the fascia are characterized by relatively low shear rates and therefore increased apparent viscosity.

  10. Surviving Atmospheric Spacecraft Breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; Conley, Catharine A.

    2003-01-01

    In essence, to survival a spacecraft breakup an animal must not experience a lethal event. Much as with surviving aircraft breakup, dissipation of lethal forces via breakup of the craft around the organism is likely to greatly increase the odds of survival. As spacecraft can travel higher and faster than aircraft, it is often assumed that spacecraft breakup is not a survivable event. Similarly, the belief that aircraft breakup or crashes are not survivable events is still prevalent in the general population. As those of us involved in search and rescue know, it is possible to survive both aircraft breakup and crashes. Here we make the first report of an animal, C. elegans, surviving atmospheric breakup of the spacecraft supporting it and discuss both the lethal events these animals had to escape and the implications implied for search and rescue following spacecraft breakup.

  11. Effects of lampricide exposure on the survival, growth, and behavior of the unionid mussels Elliptio complanata and Pyganadon cataracta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Bills, T.D.; Boogaard, M.A.; Johnson, D.A.; Doolittle, T.C.J.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of a 12-h exposure to the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4- nitrophenol (TFM) and a combination of TFM and 1% niclosamide (active ingredient in Bayluscide 70% wettable powder) on the short and long-term (10 mo post exposure) survival and behavior of two unionid freshwater mussel species Elliptio complanata and Pyganadon cataracta were measured. Growth of juvenile E. complanata mussels 10 months after exposure was also compared. Toxicity was determined after 12 h exposures at maximum concentrations from 2- to 2.5- fold higher than the LC99 for sea lamprey larvae. A logistic model was used to estimate the probability of survival among treatments, trials, species, and sizes. Mortality was minimal in all test concentrations of TFM alone and the TFM/1% niclosamide combination. Estimated survival decreased 6% for each unit increase in the relative toxicity of TFM. Survival was greater for E. complanata than for P. cataracta, and for adults relative to juveniles. Lampricide treatment caused narcotization of both mussels (defined as having gaped shells and an extended foot) in concentrations ??? LC99 for sea lamprey larvae and narcotization ranged from 0-50% among treatments. Recovery from narcosis was apparent by 12 h post-exposure and complete by 36 h post-exposure. The rate of growth of E. complanata over the 10-month post-exposure period did not vary among treatments.

  12. Effects of lampricide exposure on the survival, growth, and behavior of the unionid mussels Elliptio complanata and Pyganadon cataracta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Bills, T.D.; Boogaard, M.A.; Johnson, D.A.; Doolittle, T.C.J.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of a 12-h exposure to the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and a combination of TFM and 1% niclosamide (active ingredient in Bayluscide 70% wettable powder) on the short and long-term (10 mo post exposure) survival and behavior of two unionid freshwater mussel species Elliptio complanata and Pyganadon cataracta were measured. Growth of juvenile E. complanata mussels 10 months after exposure was also compared. Toxicity was determined after 12 h exposures at maximum concentrations from 2- to 2.5- fold higher than the LC99 for sea lamprey larvae. A logistic model was used to estimate the probability of survival among treatments, trials, species, and sizes. Mortality was minimal in all test concentrations of TFM alone and the TFM/1% niclosamide combination. Estimated survival decreased 6% for each unit increase in the relative toxicity of TFM. Survival was greater for E. complanata than for P. cataracta, and for adults relative to juveniles. Lampricide treatment caused narcotization of both mussels (defined as having gaped shells and an extended foot) in concentrations greater than or equal to LC99 for sea lamprey larvae and narcotization ranged from 0-50% among treatments. Recovery from narcosis was apparent by 12 h post-exposure and complete by 36 h post-exposure. The rate of growth of E. complanata over the 10-month post-exposure period did not vary among treatments.

  13. Quality of life-adjusted survival analysis of high-dose therapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation versus sequential chemotherapy for patients with aggressive lymphoma in first complete remission. Groupe d'Etude les Lymphomes de l'Adulte (GELA).

    PubMed

    Mounier, N; Haioun, C; Cole, B F; Gisselbrecht, C; Sebban, C; Morel, P; Marit, G; Bouabdallah, R; Ravoet, C; Salles, G; Reyes, F; Lepage, E

    2000-06-15

    Evaluating high-dose therapy (HDT) with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in term of both duration and quality of life (QOL) presents major interests for patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The quality-adjusted time without symptom and toxicity (Q-TWiST) methodology was applied to the LNH87-2 trial comparing HDT with ASCT versus sequential chemotherapy in 541 patients in first complete remission (CR). Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) curves were used to estimate duration of 4 health states: acute short-term toxicity (Tox1), secondary toxicity (Tox2), time without symptom and toxicity (TWiST), and relapse (Rel). Areas under survival curves (AUC) were retrospectively weighted according to QOL coefficients. HDT increased, but not significantly, TWiST (+2. 4 months in AUC, P =.17) and decreased Rel (-3 months, P <.01). Survival estimates did not differ between the 2 treatments (AUC 47.7 months for OS, 39.7 months for DFS). High-risk patients treated by HDT versus chemotherapy had a significant benefit in DFS (AUC 28.8 versus 24.9 months, P <.01) but not in OS (AUC 37.3 versus 36 months, P =.27). Sensitivity analysis, performed by varying QOL coefficients, demonstrated significant quality-adjusted survival gain in high-risk patients treated by HDT. In low-risk patients, a diagram provided an aid to clinical decision-making. This analysis supports the use of HDT in these patients with adverse prognostic factors in the first CR, even after adjusting for QOL using the Q-TWiST method. (Blood. 2000;95:3687-3692)

  14. A Survival Kit for Teaching English to Refugees. TECHNIQUES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overbeck, Carla

    1984-01-01

    Adult basic education and English as a second language teachers, as well as volunteer tutors, can help new refugees acquire functional English through the use of a survival kit. The Literacy Volunteers of America's guide to teaching conversational English recommends these items for a survival kit: a written copy of student's name, address, and…

  15. /sup 111/In-oxine platelet survivals in thrombocytopenic infants

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, V.; Coates, G.; Kelton, J.G.; Andrew, M.

    1987-09-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a common occurrence (20%) in sick neonates, but the causes have not been well studied. In this report we demonstrate that thrombocytopenia in the neonate is characterized by increased platelet destruction as shown by shortened homologous /sup 111/In-oxine-labeled platelet life spans. Thirty-one prospectively studied thrombocytopenic neonates were investigated by measuring the /sup 111/In-labeled platelet life span, platelet-associated IgG (PAIgG), and coagulation screening tests. In every infant, the thrombocytopenia was shown to have a destructive component since the mean platelet life span was significantly shortened to 65 +/- 6 (mean +/- SEM) hours with a range of one to 128 hours compared with adult values (212 +/- 8; range, 140 to 260; gamma function analysis). The platelet survival was directly related to the lowest platelet count and inversely related to both the highest mean platelet volume and duration of the thrombocytopenia. In 22 infants the percent recovery of the radiolabeled platelets was less than 50%, which suggested that increased sequestration also contributed to the thrombocytopenia. Infants with laboratory evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (n = 8) or immune platelet destruction evidenced by elevated levels of PAIgG (n = 13) had even shorter platelet survivals and a more severe thrombocytopenia compared with the ten infants in whom an underlying cause for the thrombocytopenia was not apparent. Full-body scintigraphic images obtained in 11 infants showed an increased uptake in the spleen and liver, with a spleen-to-liver ratio of 3:1. This study indicates that thrombocytopenia in sick neonates is primarily destructive, with a subgroup having evidence of increased platelet sequestration.

  16. Age-specific survival of male golden-cheeked warblers on the Fort Hood Military Reservation, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duarte, Adam; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Hatfield, Jeffrey S.; Weckerly, Floyd W.

    2014-01-01

    Population models are essential components of large-scale conservation and management plans for the federally endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia; hereafter GCWA). However, existing models are based on vital rate estimates calculated using relatively small data sets that are now more than a decade old. We estimated more current, precise adult and juvenile apparent survival (Φ) probabilities and their associated variances for male GCWAs. In addition to providing estimates for use in population modeling, we tested hypotheses about spatial and temporal variation in Φ. We assessed whether a linear trend in Φ or a change in the overall mean Φ corresponded to an observed increase in GCWA abundance during 1992-2000 and if Φ varied among study plots. To accomplish these objectives, we analyzed long-term GCWA capture-resight data from 1992 through 2011, collected across seven study plots on the Fort Hood Military Reservation using a Cormack-Jolly-Seber model structure within program MARK. We also estimated Φ process and sampling variances using a variance-components approach. Our results did not provide evidence of site-specific variation in adult Φ on the installation. Because of a lack of data, we could not assess whether juvenile Φ varied spatially. We did not detect a strong temporal association between GCWA abundance and Φ. Mean estimates of Φ for adult and juvenile male GCWAs for all years analyzed were 0.47 with a process variance of 0.0120 and a sampling variance of 0.0113 and 0.28 with a process variance of 0.0076 and a sampling variance of 0.0149, respectively. Although juvenile Φ did not differ greatly from previous estimates, our adult Φ estimate suggests previous GCWA population models were overly optimistic with respect to adult survival. These updated Φ probabilities and their associated variances will be incorporated into new population models to assist with GCWA conservation decision making.

  17. Reflection and transmission at the apparent horizon during gravitational collapse

    SciTech Connect

    Vaz, Cenalo; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.

    2010-10-15

    We examine the wave functionals describing the collapse of a self-gravitating dustball in an exact quantization of the gravity-dust system. We show that ingoing (collapsing) dust shell modes outside the apparent horizon must necessarily be accompanied by outgoing modes inside the apparent horizon, whose amplitude is suppressed by the square root of the Boltzmann factor at the Hawking temperature. Likewise, ingoing modes in the interior must be accompanied by outgoing modes in the exterior, again with an amplitude suppressed by the same factor. A suitable superposition of the two solutions is necessary to conserve the dust probability flux across the apparent horizon; thus, each region contains both ingoing and outgoing dust modes. If one restricts oneself to considering only the modes outside the apparent horizon then one should think of the apparent horizon as a partial reflector, the probability for a shell to reflect being given by the Boltzmann factor at the Hawking temperature determined by the mass contained within it. However, if one considers the entire wave function, the outgoing wave in the exterior is seen to be the transmission through the horizon of the interior outgoing wave that accompanies the collapsing shells. This transmission could allow information from the interior to be transferred to the exterior.

  18. Survival during the Breeding Season: Nest Stage, Parental Sex, and Season Advancement Affect Reed Warbler Survival

    PubMed Central

    Wierucka, Kaja; Halupka, Lucyna; Klimczuk, Ewelina; Sztwiertnia, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Avian annual survival has received much attention, yet little is known about seasonal patterns in survival, especially of migratory passerines. In order to evaluate survival rates and timing of mortality within the breeding season of adult reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus), mark-recapture data were collected in southwest Poland, between 2006 and 2012. A total of 612 individuals (304 females and 308 males) were monitored throughout the entire breeding season, and their capture-recapture histories were used to model survival rates. Males showed higher survival during the breeding season (0.985, 95% CI: 0.941–0.996) than females (0.869, 95% CI: 0.727–0.937). Survival rates of females declined with the progression of the breeding season (from May to August), while males showed constant survival during this period. We also found a clear pattern within the female (but not male) nesting cycle: survival was significantly lower during the laying, incubation, and nestling periods (0.934, 95% CI: 0.898–0.958), when birds spent much time on the nest, compared to the nest building and fledgling periods (1.000, 95% CI: 1.00–1.000), when we did not record any female mortality. These data (coupled with some direct evidence, like bird corpses or blood remains found next to/on the nest) may suggest that the main cause of adult mortality was on-nest predation. The calculated survival rates for both sexes during the breeding season were high compared to annual rates reported for this species, suggesting that a majority of mortality occurs at other times of the year, during migration or wintering. These results have implications for understanding survival variation within the reproductive period as well as general trends of avian mortality. PMID:26934086

  19. JUVENILE COHO SALMON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL ACROSS STREAM NETWORK SEASONAL HABITATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding watershed-scale variation in juvenile salmonid survival and growth can provide insights into factors influencing demographics and can help target restoration and mitigation efforts for imperiled fish populations. We assessed growth, movement, and apparent overwinte...

  20. Aircraft Survivability. Summer 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Survivability Program Office SUMMER 2011 craShworthineSS & personnel casualties Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Aircraft Survivability is published three times a year by the Joint...and stroking seats. The knowledge gained from studying Vietnam crash data was consolidated into the Crash Survival Design Guide (CSDG), which

  1. Aircraft Survivability. Spring 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Surviving an Aircraft Crash with Airbag Restraintsby Thomas Barth Inflatable restraint solutions have improved the survivability of commercial...Surviving an Aircraft Crash with Airbag Restraints by Thomas Barth Transport Aircraft Interiors The AmSafe Aviation Airbag entered service on commercial...all night.” Keithley also noted that, in his early days at BRL, Walt teamed up with a group of like-minded innovators, including Jim Foulk, Roland

  2. Optimizing apparent display resolution enhancement for arbitrary videos.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Michael; Eisemann, Martin; Wenger, Stephan; Hell, Benjamin; Magnor, Marcus

    2013-09-01

    Display resolution is frequently exceeded by available image resolution. Recently, apparent display resolution enhancement (ADRE) techniques show how characteristics of the human visual system can be exploited to provide super-resolution on high refresh rate displays. In this paper, we address the problem of generalizing the ADRE technique to conventional videos of arbitrary content. We propose an optimization-based approach to continuously translate the video frames in such a way that the added motion enables apparent resolution enhancement for the salient image region. The optimization considers the optimal velocity, smoothness, and similarity to compute an appropriate trajectory. In addition, we provide an intuitive user interface that allows to guide the algorithm interactively and preserves important compositions within the video. We present a user study evaluating apparent rendering quality and show versatility of our method on a variety of general test scenes.

  3. Role of surface in apparent viscosity of glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramov, I.

    2014-03-01

    Two problems have intrigued experts for a long time: The one is within the context of the legend of flowing cathedral glass windows and the second is the inaccuracy appearing in very old thermometers of famous scientists. We relate this with the role of the surface on the apparent viscosity of glasses. The apparent viscosity could deviate from the bulk viscosity if the fraction w of the surface molecules, of small samples, is sufficiently large. The effect is more prominent at low temperatures, correspondingly at high viscosities. The interpretation is within the Avramov and Milchev viscosity model, combined with the predictions of the change of heat capacity for extremely small samples. We find that the apparent glass transition temperature could depend on the sample size, in agreement with experimental observations existing in the literature. In addition to glasses, the present results could be of importance for thin films and foams.

  4. Role of surface in apparent viscosity of glasses.

    PubMed

    Avramov, I

    2014-03-01

    Two problems have intrigued experts for a long time: The one is within the context of the legend of flowing cathedral glass windows and the second is the inaccuracy appearing in very old thermometers of famous scientists. We relate this with the role of the surface on the apparent viscosity of glasses. The apparent viscosity could deviate from the bulk viscosity if the fraction w of the surface molecules, of small samples, is sufficiently large. The effect is more prominent at low temperatures, correspondingly at high viscosities. The interpretation is within the Avramov and Milchev viscosity model, combined with the predictions of the change of heat capacity for extremely small samples. We find that the apparent glass transition temperature could depend on the sample size, in agreement with experimental observations existing in the literature. In addition to glasses, the present results could be of importance for thin films and foams.

  5. S.O.S. Surviving or Surviving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, Richard H.; Whiteman, James

    1973-01-01

    A High School course, General Studies Survival Curriculum, was designed to aid students in problem solving in a complex society. Areas of concern were psychology, consumer economics, environmental studies, law and society, religion and values, ethnic studies, applied aesthetics, creative studies, occupations and futurism. (JB)

  6. The perception of apparent auditory source width in hearing-impaired adults

    PubMed Central

    Whitmer, William M.; Seeber, Bernhard U.; Akeroyd, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study [W. Whitmer, B. Seeber and M. Akeroyd, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 369-379 (2012)], it was demonstrated that older hearing-impaired (HI) listeners produced visual sketches of headphone-presented noises that were insensitive to changes in interaural coherence. The current study further explores this insensitivity by comparing (a) binaural temporal fine-stucture (TFS) resolution and (b) sound localization precision to (c) auditory source width judgments. Thirty-five participants aged 26-81 years with normal to moderately impaired hearing (a) discriminated interaurally phase-shifted tones from diotic tones presented over headphones, (b) located 500-ms speech-spectrum filtered click trains presented over loudspeakers between ±30° in quiet, and (c) sketched the perceived width of low-pass, high-pass and speech-spectrum noise stimuli presented over loudspeakers from 0° and simultaneously from ±45° at attenuations of 0-20 dB to generate partially coherent stimuli. The results showed a decreasing sensitivity to width with age and impairment which was related to binaural TFS threshold: the worse one’s threshold – which was correlated with age – the less the perceived width increased with decreasing interaural coherence. These results suggest that senescent changes to the auditory system do not necessarily lead to perceptions of broader, more diffuse sound images based on interaural coherence. PMID:24907818

  7. Foliation dependence of black hole apparent horizons in spherical symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraoni, Valerio; Ellis, George F. R.; Firouzjaee, Javad T.; Helou, Alexis; Musco, Ilia

    2017-01-01

    Numerical studies of gravitational collapse to black holes make use of apparent horizons, which are intrinsically foliation dependent. We expose the problem and discuss possible solutions using the Hawking-Hayward quasilocal mass. In spherical symmetry, we present a physically sensible approach to the problem by restricting to spherically symmetric spacetime slicings. In spherical symmetry, the apparent horizons enjoy a restricted gauge independence in any spherically symmetric foliation, but physical quantities associated with them, such as surface gravity and temperature, are fully gauge dependent. The widely used comoving and Kodama foliations, which are of particular interest, are discussed in detail as examples.

  8. Use of electronarcosis to immobilize juvenile and adult northern pike

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, M.K.; Yanke, E.A.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    Electronarcosis, the immobilization of a fish after an electric current has been applied and discontinued, is a potential alternative to chemical anesthetics. Successful narcosis was defined as the immobilization of a fish for 1-15 min without causing physical damage. In the laboratory, AC successfully narcotized juvenile (13-19-cm standard length, SL) northern pike (Esox lucius) at selected voltages; however, AC voltages that produced narcosis or resulted in physical damage were variable and unpredictable. In contrast, 60-90-V pulsed DC (PDC) for 10-60 s successfully narcotized juvenile pike without inducing physical damage. Duration of narcosis was directly related to voltage and inversely related to fish length. In the hatchery, sexually mature northern pike (45-97 cm SL), collected from the Mississippi River, were successfully narcotized by 60-V PDC for 10 s. Duration of narcosis was unrelated to fish length or sex, and averaged 58 plus or minus 7 s (mean plus or minus SE). This allowed sufficient time to collect eggs or milt. All fish were swimming upright within 3 min after treatment, and no mortalities were observed over the next 24 h. Survival of eggs from fertilization to eye- up did not significantly differ between eggs collected from electronarcotized adults and adults anesthetized with MS-222 (tricaine methanesulfonate). Electronarcosis represents a possible alternative to chemical anesthetics for immobilizing northern pike broodstock without an apparent impact on egg survival.

  9. Recognition and Adult Education: An Incongruent Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Building on narratives of students in adult education in Sweden, where the majority of the students are young adults, this paper argues that adult education has both negative and positive aspects in helping individuals to be recognised as valuable. Students, often part of the precariat class, have not always been able to survive in the job market…

  10. Strengths and Satisfaction across the Adult Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacowitz, Derek M.; Vaillant, George E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2003-01-01

    Positive psychology has recently developed a classification of human strengths (Peterson & Seligman, in press). We aimed to evaluate these strengths by investigating the strengths and life satisfaction in three adult samples recruited from the community (young adult, middle-aged, and older adult), as well as in the surviving men of the Grant study…

  11. Ice-dependent winter survival of juvenile Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Hedger, R D; Næsje, T F; Fiske, P; Ugedal, O; Finstad, A G; Thorstad, E B

    2013-03-01

    Changes in snow and ice conditions are some of the most distinctive impacts of global warming in cold temperate and Arctic regions, altering the environment during a critical period for survival for most animals. Laboratories studies have suggested that reduced ice cover may reduce the survival of stream dwelling fishes in Northern environments. This, however, has not been empirically investigated in natural populations in large rivers. Here, we examine how the winter survival of juvenile Atlantic salmon in a large natural river, the River Alta (Norway, 70°N), is affected by the presence or absence of surface ice. Apparent survival rates for size classes corresponding to parr and presmolts were estimated using capture-mark-recapture and Cormack-Jolly-Seber models for an ice-covered and an ice-free site. Apparent survival (Φ) in the ice-covered site was greater than in the ice-free site, but did not depend on size class (0.64 for both parr and presmolt). In contrast, apparent survival in the ice-free site was lower for larger individuals (0.33) than smaller individuals (0.45). The over-winter decline in storage energy was greater for the ice-free site than the ice-covered site, suggesting that environmental conditions in the ice-free site caused a strong depletion in energy reserves likely affecting survival. Our findings highlight the importance of surface ice for the winter survival of juvenile fish, thus, underpinning that climate change, by reducing ice cover, may have a negative effect on the survival of fish adapted to ice-covered habitats during winter.

  12. Survival in Extreme Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Martin; Halsema, James

    1983-01-01

    Explores the psychosocial and environmental configurations involved in the survival of 500 civilians in a Japanese internment camp in the Philippines during World War II. Although conditions were very harsh, the survival rate of this group was better than expected. Discusses available demographic, social organizational, and cultural information.…

  13. Factors affecting urine specific gravity in apparently healthy cats presenting to first opinion practice for routine evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rishniw, Mark; Bicalho, Rodrigo

    2015-04-01

    Evidence suggests that apparently healthy cats presenting for routine evaluation should have a randomly sampled urine specific gravity (USG) >1.035. A USG <1.035 might reflect inappropriate concentrating ability warranting further investigation. We measured the USG of 1040 apparently healthy cats presenting to first opinion practice in an observational study, using either in-clinic refractometers or measurements provided by reference laboratories, and examined factors that might affect USG. In-clinic refractometers were calibrated using distilled water (specific gravity = 1.000). The USG was >1.030 in 91% of cats and >1.035 in 88% of cats; 121 adult cats (⩾6 months old) and five young cats (<6 months old) had USGs of <1.035. Of these 126 cats, a pathological cause was identified in 27 adult cats - of these, 26 were >9 years old - but no young cats. No cause was identified in 43 adult cats, and further investigation was not pursued in 51 adult cats. Factors that affected USG included age, diet type, sex, fasting status, drinking avidity, refractometer type, and the interaction between sex and diet - increasing dietary moisture content lowered USG only in female cats. Most factors minimally affected USG. The odds of having a USG <1.035 without apparent pathology included age and dietary moisture content. Drinking avidity decreased with increasing dietary moisture content. Our results show that most apparently healthy cats presenting to first-opinion practice should have a USG >1.035. Dietary management strategies to lower USG might be less effective than anticipated, and warrant monitoring of USG to determine efficacy. Older cats with USG <1.035 are more likely to have pathological causes identified, although clinicians are more likely to examine these cats for possible pathology. A lack of stringent refractometer calibration could have caused some errors in estimates of USG by some observers, but would be unlikely to alter markedly the findings.

  14. Apparent horizons in D-dimensional Robinson-Trautman spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Svitek, Otakar

    2009-05-01

    We derive the higher dimensional generalization of Penrose-Tod equation describing apparent horizons in Robinson-Trautman spacetimes. New results concerning the existence and uniqueness of its solutions in four dimensions are proven. Namely, previous results of Tod [1] are generalized to nonvanishing cosmological constant.

  15. Independent Discovery of an Apparent Nova in M81

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornoch, K.; Kucakova, H.; Vrastil, J.; Williams, S. C.; Henze, M.; Meusinger, H.; Pohl, C.; Darnley, M. J.; Kaur, A.; Hartmann, D. H.; Sala, G.; Jose, J.; Figueira, J.; Sin, P.; Hernanz, M.; Shafter, A. W.

    2017-02-01

    The M81 nova monitoring collaboration reports the independent discovery of an apparent nova in M81 on a co-added 3510-s unfiltered CCD frame taken on 2017 Feb. 24.119 UT with the 0.65-m telescope at Ondrejov.

  16. Independent Discovery of an Apparent Nova in M81

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornoch, K.; Kucakova, H.; Williams, S. C.; Henze, M.; Darnley, M. J.; Kaur, A.; Hartmann, D. H.; Sala, G.; Jose, J.; Figueira, J.; Sin, P.; Hernanz, M.; Shafter, A. W.; Meusinger, H.

    2017-02-01

    The M81 nova monitoring collaboration reports the independent discovery of an apparent nova in M81 on a co-added 5400-s unfiltered CCD frame taken on 2017 Feb. 19.962 UT with the 0.65-m telescope at Ondrejov (OND).

  17. An Apparent Paradox: Catt's Anomaly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieraccini, M.; Selleri, S.

    2013-01-01

    Catt's anomaly is a sort of "thought experiment" (a "gedankenexperiment") where electrons seem to travel at the speed of light. Although its author argued with conviction for many years, it has a clear and satisfactory solution and it can be considered indubitably just an apparent paradox. Nevertheless, it is curious and…

  18. Discovery of an Apparent Nova in M81

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornoch, K.; Alfaro, M. Diaz; Ordonez-Etxeberria, I.; Vaduvescu, O.

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of an apparent nova in M81 on a co-added 1600-s narrow-band H-alpha CCD image taken with the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) + WFC at La Palma under ~2.4" seeing on 2015 Jan. 15.126 UT.

  19. Apparent digestible energy value of crude glycerol fed to pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apparent digestible energy of crude glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production, was determined in two studies conducted at the Iowa State University Swine Nutrition Research Farm, Ames, IA. In the first study, 24 barrows with an average body weight of 11.0 kg were fed 376 g/d of a basal corn...

  20. A New Theory of Leadership: "Realwert" Versus Apparent Good.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Donald

    1999-01-01

    "Realwert" ("real good") stems from an understanding of humanity's "raison d'etre"--treating others with respect and dignity. It can be contrasted with "apparent good," a condition wherein one mistakenly thinks real good is being pursued. Drawing on Aquinas and Hodginson, this paper argues for a…

  1. Changes in apparent duration follow shifts in perceptual timing

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Aurelio; Ayhan, Inci; Johnston, Alan

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that the apparent duration of moving visual objects is greater at higher as compared to slower speeds. Here we report the effects of acceleration and deceleration on the perceived duration of a drifting grating with average speed kept constant (10°/s).For acceleration, increasing the speed range progressively reduced perceived duration. The magnitude of apparent duration compression was determined by speed rather than temporal frequency and was proportional to speed range (independent of standard duration) rather than acceleration. The perceived duration reduction was also proportional to the standard length. The effects of increases and decreases in speed were highly asymmetric. Reducing speed through the interval induced a moderate increase in perceived duration. These results could not be explained by changes in apparent onset or offset or differences in perceived average speed between intervals containing increasing speed and intervals containing decreasing speed. Paradoxically, for intervals combining increasing speed and decreasing speed, compression only occurred when increasing speed occurred in the second half of the interval. We show that this pattern of results in the duration domain was concomitant with changes in the reported direction of apparent motion of Gaussian blobs, embedded in intervals of increasing or decreasing speed, that could be predicted from adaptive changes in the temporal impulse response function. We detected similar changes after flicker adaptation, suggesting that the two effects might be linked through changes in the temporal tuning of visual filters. PMID:26024450

  2. Reflections on Adult Learning in Cultural Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Marilyn McKinley

    2010-01-01

    Cultural institutions are rich locations for adult learning. Despite apparent differences in mission, they are similar in many ways. Similarities include social and historical development, educational philosophy and objectives, epistemological tensions and contestations, and challenges associated when attracting and educating adult visitors. In an…

  3. Survival rates of birds of tropical and temperate forests: will the dogma survive?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Klimkiewicz, M.K.; Brawn, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Survival rates of tropical forest birds are widely assumed to be high relative to the survival rates of temperate forest birds. Much life-history theory is based on this assumption despite the lack of empirical data to support it. We provide the first detailed comparison of survival rates of tropical and temperate forest birds based on extensive data bases and modern capture-recapture models. We find no support for the conventional wisdom. Because clutch size is only one component of reproductive rate, the frequently assumed, simple association between clutch size and adult survival rates should not necessarily be expected. Our results emphasize the need to consider components of fecundity in addition to clutch size when comparing the life histories of tropical and temperate birds and suggest similar considerations in the development of vertebrate life-history theory.

  4. Wavelength dependence of the apparent diameter of retinal blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Robert; Twietmeyer, Karen; Chipman, Russell; Beaudry, Neil; Salyer, David

    2005-04-01

    Imaging of retinal blood vessels may assist in the diagnosis and monitoring of diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and hypertension. However, close examination reveals that the contrast and apparent diameter of vessels are dependent on the wavelength of the illuminating light. In this study multispectral images of large arteries and veins within enucleated swine eyes are obtained with a modified fundus camera by use of intravitreal illumination. The diameters of selected vessels are measured as a function of wavelength by cross-sectional analysis. A fixed scale with spectrally independent dimension is placed above the retina to isolate the chromatic effects of the imaging system and eye. Significant apparent differences between arterial and venous diameters are found, with larger diameters observed at shorter wavelengths. These differences are due primarily to spectral absorption in the cylindrical blood column.

  5. On the apparent molar volumes of nonelectrolytes in water

    SciTech Connect

    Anderko, A.; Chan, J.P.; Pitzer, K.S. )

    1993-04-01

    Apparent molar volumes of aqueous solutions of argon and xenon have been calculated using a previously developed comprehensive equation of state for nonelectrolyte systems. The equation consists of a virial expansion truncated after the fourth virial coefficient and a closed-form term approximating higher coefficients. Mixing rules are based on the composition dependence of virial coefficients, which is known from statistical mechanics. The equation accurately represents vapor-liquid and gas-gas equilibria for the Ar + H[sub 2]O and Xe + H[sub 2]O systems over wide ranges of pressure and temperature using two binary parameters. With the binary parameters determined from phase equilibrium data, the equation accurately predicts apparent molar volumes V[sub [phi

  6. Apparent motion enhances visual rhythm discrimination in infancy.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Melissa; Saffran, Jenny R

    2011-05-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that infants exhibit robust auditory rhythm discrimination, but research on infants' perception of visual rhythm is limited. In particular, the role of motion in infants' perception of visual rhythm remains unknown, despite the prevalence of motion cues in naturally occurring visual rhythms. In the present study, we examined the role of motion in 7-month-old infants' discrimination of visual rhythms by comparing experimental conditions with apparent motion in the stimuli versus stationary rhythmic stimuli. Infants succeeded at discriminating visual rhythms only when the visual rhythm occurred with an apparent motion component. These results support the view that motion plays a role in infants' perception of visual temporal information, consistent with the manner in which natural rhythms appear in the visual world.

  7. Nest survival estimation: a review of alternatives to the Mayfield estimator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jehle, G.; Yackel Adams, A.A.; Savidge, J.A.; Skagen, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    Reliable estimates of nest survival are essential for assessing strategies for avian conservation. We review the history of modifications and alternatives for estimating nest survival, with a focus on four techniques: apparent nest success, the Mayfield estimator, the Stanley method, and program MARK. The widely used Mayfield method avoids the known positive bias inherent in apparent nest success by estimating daily survival rates using the number of exposure days, eliminating the need to monitor nests from initiation. Concerns that some of Mayfield's assumptions were restrictive stimulated the development of new techniques. Stanley's method allows for calculation of stage-specific daily survival rates when transition and failure dates are unknown, and eliminates Mayfield's assumption that failure occurred midway through the nest-check interval. Program MARK obviates Mayfield's assumption of constant daily survival within nesting stages and evaluates variation in nest survival as a function of biologically relevant factors. These innovative methods facilitate the evaluation of nest survival using an information-theoretic approach. We illustrate use of these methods with Lark Bunting (Calamospiza melanocorys) nest data from the Pawnee National Grassland, Colorado. Nest survival estimates calculated using Mayfield, Stanley, and MARK methods were similar, but apparent nest success estimates ranged 1-24% greater than the other estimates. MARK analysis revealed that survival of Lark Bunting nests differed between site-year groups, declined with both nest age and time in season, but did not vary with weather parameters. We encourage researchers to use these approaches to gain reliable and meaningful nest survival estimates.

  8. Apparent optical density of the scattering medium: influence of scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiseleva, Irina A.; Sinichkin, Yurii P.

    2002-07-01

    Comparative analysis of manifestation of finite absorption in scattering media is carried out for different detection geometries. Reflectance spectra were studied for phantom scattering media containing blood and melanin as absorbers. Apparent optical density spectra of phantom media are compared with similar spectra of water solutions of the blood and melanin for same concentrations of absorbers. The influence of scattering properties on optical density spectra is discussed with use of the model of diffuse light propagation in semi-infinite media.

  9. Apparent Explosion Moments from Rg Waves Recorded on SPE

    DOE PAGES

    Larmat, Carene; Rougier, Esteban; Patton, Howard John

    2016-11-29

    Seismic moments for the first four chemical tests making up phase I of the Source Physics Experiments (SPE) are estimated from 6-Hz Rg waves recorded along a single radial line of geophones under the assumption that the tests are pure explosions. These apparent explosion moments are compared with moments determined from the reduced displacement potential method applied to free-field data. Light detection and ranging (lidar) observations, strong ground motions on the free surface in the vicinity of ground zero, and moment tensor inversion results are evidence that the fourth test SPE-4P is a pure explosion, and the moments show goodmore » agreement, 8×1010 N·m for free-field data versus 9×1010 N·m for Rg waves. In stark contrast, apparent moments for the first three tests are smaller than near-field moments by factors of 3–4. Relative amplitudes for the three tests determined from Rg interferometry using SPE-4P as an empirical Green’s function indicate that radiation patterns are cylindrically symmetric within a factor of 1.25 (25%). This fact assures that the apparent moments are reliable even though they were measured on just one azimuth. Spallation occurred on the first three tests, and ground-based lidar detected permanent deformations. As such, the source medium suffered late-time damage. In conclusion, destructive interference between Rg waves radiated by explosion and damage sources will reduce amplitudes and explain why apparent moments are smaller than near-field moments based on compressional energy emitted directly from the source.« less

  10. Apparent Explosion Moments from Rg Waves Recorded on SPE

    SciTech Connect

    Larmat, Carene; Rougier, Esteban; Patton, Howard John

    2016-11-29

    Seismic moments for the first four chemical tests making up phase I of the Source Physics Experiments (SPE) are estimated from 6-Hz Rg waves recorded along a single radial line of geophones under the assumption that the tests are pure explosions. These apparent explosion moments are compared with moments determined from the reduced displacement potential method applied to free-field data. Light detection and ranging (lidar) observations, strong ground motions on the free surface in the vicinity of ground zero, and moment tensor inversion results are evidence that the fourth test SPE-4P is a pure explosion, and the moments show good agreement, 8×1010 N·m for free-field data versus 9×1010 N·m for Rg waves. In stark contrast, apparent moments for the first three tests are smaller than near-field moments by factors of 3–4. Relative amplitudes for the three tests determined from Rg interferometry using SPE-4P as an empirical Green’s function indicate that radiation patterns are cylindrically symmetric within a factor of 1.25 (25%). This fact assures that the apparent moments are reliable even though they were measured on just one azimuth. Spallation occurred on the first three tests, and ground-based lidar detected permanent deformations. As such, the source medium suffered late-time damage. In conclusion, destructive interference between Rg waves radiated by explosion and damage sources will reduce amplitudes and explain why apparent moments are smaller than near-field moments based on compressional energy emitted directly from the source.

  11. Mass density at geostationary orbit and apparent mass refilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, R. E.; Takahashi, Kazue; Amoh, Justice; Singer, H. J.

    2016-04-01

    We used the inferred equatorial mass density ρm,eq based on measurements of Alfvén wave frequencies measured by the GOES satellites during 1980-1991 in order to construct a number of different models of varying complexity for the equatorial mass density at geostationary orbit. The most complicated models are able to account for 66% of the variance with a typical variation from actual values of a factor of 1.56. The factors that influenced ρm,eq in the models were, in order of decreasing importance, the F10.7 EUV index, magnetic local time, the solar wind dynamic pressure Pdyn, the phase of the year, and the solar wind BZ (GSM Z direction). During some intervals, some of which were especially geomagnetically quiet, ρm,eq rose to values that were significantly higher than those predicted by our models. For 10 especially quiet intervals, we examined long-term (>1 day) apparent refilling, the increase in ρm,eq at a fixed location. We found that the behavior of ρm,eq varies for different events. In some cases, there is significant apparent refilling, whereas in other cases ρm,eq stays the same or even decreases slightly. Nevertheless, we showed that on average, ρm,eq increases exponentially during quiet intervals. There is variation of apparent refilling with respect to the phase of the solar cycle. On the third day of apparent refilling, ρm,eq has on average a similar value at solar maximum or solar minimum, but at solar maximum, ρm,eq begins with a larger value and rises relatively less than at solar minimum.

  12. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  13. Survival Through Creative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Alfred

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the characteristics of the American educational system, outlines the various and developing world crisis, and suggests that teachers need to prepare creative, innovative, independent thinkers who can embrace the problems of the world and survive. (Author/RK)

  14. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  15. Apparent competition with an exotic plant reduces native plant establishment.

    PubMed

    Orrock, John L; Witter, Martha S; Reichman, O J

    2008-04-01

    Biological invasions can change ecosystem function, have tremendous economic costs, and impact human health; understanding the forces that cause and maintain biological invasions is thus of immediate importance. A mechanism by which exotic plants might displace native plants is by increasing the pressure of native consumers on native plants, a form of indirect interaction termed "apparent competition." Using experimental exclosures, seed addition, and monitoring of small mammals in a California grassland, we examined whether exotic Brassica nigra increases the pressure of native consumers on a native bunchgrass, Nassella pulchra. Experimental plots were weeded to focus entirely on indirect effects via consumers. We demonstrate that B. nigra alters the activity of native small-mammal consumers, creating a gradient of consumption that dramatically reduces N. pulchra establishment. Previous work has shown that N. pulchra is a strong competitor, but that it is heavily seed limited. By demonstrating that consumer pressure is sufficient to curtail establishment, our work provides a mechanism for this seed limitation and suggests that, despite being a good competitor, N. pulchra cannot reestablish close to B. nigra within its old habitats because exotic-mediated consumption preempts direct competitive exclusion. Moreover, we find that apparent competition has a spatial extent, suggesting that consumers may dictate the rate of invasion and the area available for restoration, and that nonspatial studies of apparent competition may miss important dynamics.

  16. Coherent and random apparent stresses in periodically unsteady flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehoe, Anthony Byrd

    1990-08-01

    The transitional flow field downstream of a smooth, symmetrically constricted Sylgard pipe was measured with a two color, two component Laser Doppler Anemometer for both pulsatile and steady flows. Vibrations in the flow system were induced with an exciter/shaker and were monitored with an accelerator. The vibration has little effect on the value of the maximum axial and radial turbulence intensities. A frequency domain signal processing technique to separate the disturbance velocity into coherent and random components was modified to guarantee that the sum of the decomposed velocity components equaled the original disturbance velocity. Results of the velocity separation demonstrated that the velocity disturbances prior to turbulent transition consisted almost entirely of coherent velocity fluctuations. The maximum apparent shear stress was found to occur just after the turbulent transition and consisted almost entirely of the random component. The data suggest that if the absolute magnitude of the apparent stress is the determining factor in red blood cell destruction, then the coherent apparent stress is not a significant destruction mechanism. However, the exact mechanism in hemolysis are not identified.

  17. Product design enhancement using apparent usability and affective quality.

    PubMed

    Seva, Rosemary R; Gosiaco, Katherine Grace T; Santos, Ma Crea Eurice D; Pangilinan, Denise Mae L

    2011-03-01

    In this study, apparent usability and affective quality were integrated in a design framework called the Usability Perception and Emotion Enhancement Model (UPEEM). The UPEEM was validated using structural equation modeling (SEM). The methodology consists of four phases namely product selection, attribute identification, design alternative generation, and design alternative evaluation. The first stage involved the selection of a product that highly involves the consumer. In the attribute identification stage, design elements of the product were identified. The possible values of these elements were also determined for use in the experimentation process. Design of experiments was used to identify how the attributes will be varied in the design alternative stage and which of the attributes significantly contribute to affective quality, apparent usability, and desirability in the design evaluation stage. Results suggest that product attributes related to form are relevant in eliciting intense affect and perception of usability in mobile phones especially those directly related to functionality and aesthetics. This study considered only four product attributes among so many due to the constraints of the research design employed. Attributes related to aesthetic perception of a product enhance apparent usability such as those related to dimensional ratios.

  18. Effect of lead poisoning on spectacled eider survival rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grand, James B.; Flint, Paul L.; Petersen, Margaret R.; Moran, Christine L.

    1998-01-01

    Spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri) populations on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (Y-K Delta), Alaska, declined rapidly through the 1980s, and low adult female survival was suggested as the likely cause of the decline. We used mark-resighting techniques to study annual survival rates of adult female spectacled eiders at 2 sites on the Y-K Delta during 1993-96. Our data suggest survival rates may differ among sites. However, a model fit to a subset of data on females for which we knew lead levels in blood suggests lead exposure influences survival. Adult females exposed to lead prior to hatching their eggs survived at a much lower rate (0.44 ?? 0.10) each year than females not exposed to lead before hatch (0.78 ?? 0.05). We suggest most mortality from lead exposure occurs over winter, and the related reduction in adult survival may be impeding recovery of local populations. We encourage managers to curtail input of lead shot into the environment.

  19. Aircraft Survivability: Rotorcraft Survivability. Summer 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Published by the Joint Aircraft Survivability Program Office Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Table of Contents A ir cr af t S ur vi va bi li ty • Su m m er 2 01 0 Aircraft...60M program before Milestone B. A program Integrated Program Team (IPT) was formed and met through Milestone C. In 2007, in time for a Full Rate

  20. Predicting survival and morbidity-free survival to very old age

    PubMed Central

    Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Franco, Oscar H.; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Breteler, Monique M. B.; Hofman, Albert; Tiemeier, Henning

    2010-01-01

    As life expectancy continually increases, it is imperative to identify determinants of survival to the extreme end of the lifespan and more importantly to identify factors that increase the chance of survival free of major morbidities. As such, the current study assessed 45 common disease factors as predictors of survival and morbidity-free survival to age 85 years. Within the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort, we evaluated morbidity-free participants who were able to attain age 85 within the study duration (n = 2,008). Risk factors were assessed at baseline (1990–1993), and mortality and morbidities were then collected continuously until mortality or the occurrence of their 85th birthday (average time of 7.9 years). Risk factors included demographic and lifestyle variables, health and morbidity indicators and physiological makers. Major morbidities examined included dementia, cancer, cerebrovascular accident, heart failure and myocardial infarction. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that many of the variables were independently predictive for survival and for morbidity-free ageing to 85 years. These included being female, absence of left ventricular abnormalities, stable body weight, unimpaired instrumental activities of daily living, lower C-RP levels and higher levels of femoral neck bone mineral density and albumin. Relative to non-survival, predictors were stronger for morbidity-free survival than for total survival or survival with morbidity. This suggests that lifespan and healthy survival to older age can be relatively well predicted. Understanding predictors of a long and healthy lifespan is vital for developing primary and secondary preventions to help improve the quality of life of older adults and for reducing the financial burden of the rapidly escalating ageing population. PMID:20514522

  1. Apparent genetic homogeneity of spawning striped bass in the upper Chesapeak Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Sidell, B.D.; Otto, R.G.; Powers, D.A. Karweit, M.; Smith, J.

    1980-01-01

    The possible existence of genetically distinct populations of spawning striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in the river systems of the upper Chesapeake Bay was investigated by a biochemical genetic approach. Samples of blood and liver from adult fish were obtained during the 1976 spawning runs from the Rappanhannock (Virginia), Potomac, Choptank, Sassafras, Bohemia, and Elk rivers (Maryland), and Maryland waters of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. Samples were analyzed for frequency of occurrence of a polymorphic liver enzyme, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and variable serum proteins which were not correlated with age or sex. Multivariate and Bayesian analyses of these data indicate apparent genetic homogeneity of spawning bass within the upper Chesapeake Bay. If natal stream homing occurs, a sufficient number of wanderers may provide significant gene flow among river systems. The results suggest that long-term management of the fishery need not be totally on the basis of separate river units.

  2. Hematologic and serum biochemical parameters of apparently healthy rescued formosan pangolins (Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla).

    PubMed

    Chin, Shih-chien; Lien, Chen-yah; Chan, Yating; Chen, Chun-lin; Yang, Yi- ching; Yeh, Lih-seng

    2015-03-01

    Natural habitats of pangolins are rapidly deteriorating because of extensive farming, logging, and human construction activities. In addition, the illegal trading of pangolins substantially accelerated the decline of the pangolins' population in southeastern Asia. The maintenance of confiscated pangolins in rescue centers is currently a daunting task for veterinarians and conservation biologists. There is limited information in the literature about the reference values regarding the physiology of pangolins. The purpose of this study is to establish reliable hematologic and serum biochemical reference values for the Formosan pangolin (Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla). Blood samples were collected from 51 apparently healthy pangolins from a population of 117 rescued pangolins at the Taipei Zoo. Sex-related differences were observed in platelet count, alanine aminotransferase level, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and total protein level. Age-related differences were also noted; juveniles have significantly higher platelet counts and alkaline phosphatase levels than their adult counter parts. The hematologic and serum biochemical reference values for the Formosan pangolin presented in this study can be applied in the medical care of this important species during rescue attempts. It is the first systematic report of blood parameters of apparently healthy pangolins and provides a basis for future investigation of this species. The reference values reported in this study may also be applicable to other pangolin species in the genus Manis.

  3. Adjuvant intraperitoneal chromic phosphate therapy for women with apparent early ovarian carcinoma who have not undergone comprehensive surgical staging

    SciTech Connect

    Soper, J.T.; Berchuck, A.; Clarke-Pearson, D.L. )

    1991-08-15

    Forty-nine women with apparent Stage 1 and 2 ovarian carcinoma received intraperitoneal phosphate 32 as the only adjuvant therapy after primary surgery. In addition to bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, 40 (82%) had analysis of peritoneal cytology, and 35 (71%) underwent omentectomy. Random peritoneal biopsies and retroperitoneal lymph node sampling were not done in any of these patients. The overall and disease-free survival rates were 86% and 75%, respectively, with no significant differences by stage, histologic grade, histologic type, or low-risk versus high-risk subsets recognized in patients who received comprehensive surgical staging. Seven (58%) of 12 patients had lymph node metastasis as the first site of recurrence, including two of three with late recurrences. Significant morbidity related to intraperitoneal chromic phosphate (32P) occurred in one (2%) woman. These results emphasize the need for comprehensive surgical staging of women with apparent early ovarian carcinoma to aid in the selection of appropriate initial adjuvant therapy.

  4. Identifying apparent velocity changes in cross correlated microseism noise data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friderike Volk, Meike; Bean, Christopher; Lokmer, Ivan; Pérez, Nemesio; Ibáñez, Jesús

    2015-04-01

    Currently there is a strong interest of using cross correlation of ambient noise to retrieve Green's functions. These are usually used to calculate the seismic wave velocity of the subsurface and therefore can be used for subsurface imaging or monitoring of various geological settings where we expect rapid velocity changes (e.g. reservoirs or volcanoes). The assumption of this method is that the wavefields which are correlated must be diffuse. This criterion is fulfilled if the ambient noise sources are uniformly distributed or the scattering in the medium is high enough to mitigate any source directivity. The location of the sources is usually unknown and it can change in time. These temporal and spatial variations of the microseism noise sources may lead to changes in the retrieved Green's functions, and so, to the apparent changes in seismic wave velocities. To further investigate the apparent changes in Green's functions we undertook an active seismic experiment in Tenerife lasting three months. A small airgun was used as an active source and was shooting repeatedly every 15 minutes. The shots and the microseism noise were recorded at several seismic stations at the same time. That data set gives us the opportunity to compare the changes in seismic wave velocity recovered through cross correlation of ambient noise and changes we measure through active shots from the airgun. The aim is to distinguish between apparent seismic velocity changes and seismic velocity changes caused by changes in the medium. We also use the data set to track the direction of the microseism noise sources to see if changes which are only recovered through cross correlation can be related to temporal and spatial variations of the microseism noise sources.

  5. Laryngospasm With Apparent Aspiration During Sedation With Nitrous Oxide.

    PubMed

    Babl, Franz E; Grindlay, Joanne; Barrett, Michael Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Nitrous oxide and oxygen mixture has become increasingly popular for the procedural sedation and analgesia of children in the emergency department. In general, nitrous oxide is regarded as a very safe agent according to large case series. We report a case of single-agent nitrous oxide sedation of a child, complicated by laryngospasm and radiographically confirmed bilateral upper lobe pulmonary opacities. Although rarely reported with parenteral sedative agents, laryngospasm and apparent aspiration has not been previously reported in isolated nitrous oxide sedation. This case highlights that, similar to other sedative agents, nitrous oxide administration also needs to be conducted by staff and in settings in which airway emergencies can be appropriately managed.

  6. Apparent asystole: are we missing a lifesaving opportunity?

    PubMed Central

    Limb, Christopher; Siddiqui, Muhammad A

    2015-01-01

    The use of ultrasonography is rapidly expanding in emergency medicine. Real-time assessment offers clues to prompt diagnosis and creates opportunities for speedy intervention. We present a case of ‘cardiac monitor asystole’ that proved to be ventricular fibrillation on ultrasound examination. Uniquely this case demonstrates that this, typically unrecognised, form of ventricular fibrillation responds to desynchronised defibrillation, with restoration of perfusion for approximately 30 min. With increasing access to ultrasound we believe that further research is indicated to determine whether some cases of apparent asystole may best be treated by defibrillation, presenting an opportunity to save more lives than current protocols achieve. PMID:25777487

  7. Study on Apparent Viscosity and Structure of Foaming Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinsson, Johan; Glaser, Björn; Sichen, Du

    2016-10-01

    Foaming slag was generated using induction heating. The foam was found non-Newtonian having much higher apparent viscosity compared to the dynamic viscosity of pure slag. Quenched foam was examined. The appearance of the foaming slag was very different from silicone oil-gas foam. The size of gas bubbles ranged from 0.1 to 4 mm (while in the case of silicone oil, 1 to 2 mm). The gas fraction in the foam was considerably lower than in the case of silicone oil.

  8. Apparent evaporative resistance at critical conditions for five clothing ensembles.

    PubMed

    Caravello, Victor; McCullough, Elizabeth A; Ashley, Candi D; Bernard, Thomas E

    2008-09-01

    A limiting factor for clothing ensembles inherent during heat stress exposures is the evaporative resistance, which can be used to compare candidate ensembles and in rational models of heat exchange. In this study, the apparent total evaporative resistance of five clothing ensembles (cotton work clothes, cotton coveralls, and coveralls made of Tyvek 1424 and 1427, NexGen and Tychem QC was estimated empirically from wear trials using a progressive heat stress protocol and from clothing insulation adjustments based on ISO 9920 (2007) and wetness. The metabolic rate was moderate at 165 W m(-2) and relative humidity was held at 50%. Twenty-nine heat-acclimated participants (20 men and 9 women) completed trials for all clothing ensembles. A general linear mixed effects model (ensemble and participants as a random effect) was used to analyze the data. Significant differences (p < 0.0001) among ensembles were observed for apparent total evaporative resistance. As expected, Tychem QC had the highest apparent total evaporative resistance at 0.033 kPa m(2) W(-1). NexGen was next at 0.017 kPa m(2) W(-1). These were followed by Tyvek 1424 at 0.015 kPa m(2) W(-1), and Tyvek 1427, Cotton Coveralls and Work Clothes all at 0.013 kPa m(2) W(-1). This wear test method improves on past methods using the progressive protocol to determine evaporative resistance by including the effects of movement, air motion and wetness on the estimate of clothing insulation. The pattern of evaporative resistance is the same as that for critical WBGTs and a linear relationship between apparent total evaporative resistance and WBGT clothing adjustment factor is suggested. With the large sample size, a good estimate of sample variance associated with progressive method can be made, where the standard error is 0.0044 kPa m(2) W(-1) with a 95% confidence interval of 0.0040-0.0050 kPa m(2) W(-1).

  9. Downscaling Smooth Tomographic Models: Separating Intrinsic and Apparent Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodin, Thomas; Capdeville, Yann; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, a number of tomographic models based on full waveform inversion have been published. Due to computational constraints, the fitted waveforms are low pass filtered, which results in an inability to map features smaller than half the shortest wavelength. However, these tomographic images are not a simple spatial average of the true model, but rather an effective, apparent, or equivalent model that provides a similar 'long-wave' data fit. For example, it can be shown that a series of horizontal isotropic layers will be seen by a 'long wave' as a smooth anisotropic medium. In this way, the observed anisotropy in tomographic models is a combination of intrinsic anisotropy produced by lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) of minerals, and apparent anisotropy resulting from the incapacity of mapping discontinuities. Interpretations of observed anisotropy (e.g. in terms of mantle flow) requires therefore the separation of its intrinsic and apparent components. The "up-scaling" relations that link elastic properties of a rapidly varying medium to elastic properties of the effective medium as seen by long waves are strongly non-linear and their inverse highly non-unique. That is, a smooth homogenized effective model is equivalent to a large number of models with discontinuities. In the 1D case, Capdeville et al (GJI, 2013) recently showed that a tomographic model which results from the inversion of low pass filtered waveforms is an homogenized model, i.e. the same as the model computed by upscaling the true model. Here we propose a stochastic method to sample the ensemble of layered models equivalent to a given tomographic profile. We use a transdimensional formulation where the number of layers is variable. Furthermore, each layer may be either isotropic (1 parameter) or intrinsically anisotropic (2 parameters). The parsimonious character of the Bayesian inversion gives preference to models with the least number of parameters (i.e. least number of layers, and

  10. An apparently gluten-induced photosensitivity in horses.

    PubMed

    Yeruham, I; Avidar, Y; Perl, S

    1999-12-01

    Primary photosensitization was observed in 3 Appaloosa mares. The skin lesions were diffuse erythema followed by edema and subsequently weeping and finally dry gangrene and ulceration. The severe photosensitivity dermatitis was apparently induced by gluten ingestion. Resolution of lesions occurred after withdrawal of the suspected dairy concentrate feed and prevention of exposure to sunlight. Neither the ponies nor donkey, which were not fed with the suspected concentrate, exhibited similar skin lesions or other clinical abnormalities. Gluten metabolites may contain photodynamic agents that cause photosensitization in horses.

  11. Mechanical Components from Highly Recoverable, Low Apparent Modulus Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Santo, II (Inventor); Noebe, Ronald D. (Inventor); Stanford, Malcolm K. (Inventor); DellaCorte, Christopher (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A material for use as a mechanical component is formed of a superelastic intermetallic material having a low apparent modulus and a high hardness. The superelastic intermetallic material is conditioned to be dimensionally stable, devoid of any shape memory effect and have a stable superelastic response without irrecoverable deformation while exhibiting strains of at least 3%. The method of conditioning the superelastic intermetallic material is described. Another embodiment relates to lightweight materials known as ordered intermetallics that perform well in sliding wear applications using conventional liquid lubricants and are therefore suitable for resilient, high performance mechanical components such as gears and bearings.

  12. Fingerprints of determinism in an apparently stochastic corrosion process.

    PubMed

    Rivera, M; Uruchurtu-Chavarín, J; Parmananda, P

    2003-05-02

    We detect hints of determinism in an apparently stochastic corrosion problem. This experimental system has industrial relevance as it mimics the corrosion processes of pipelines transporting water, hydrocarbons, or other fuels to remote destinations. We subject this autonomous system to external periodic perturbations. Keeping the amplitude of the superimposed perturbations constant and varying the frequency, the system's response is analyzed. It reveals the presence of an optimal forcing frequency for which maximal response is achieved. These results are consistent with those for a deterministic system and indicate a classical resonance between the forcing signal and the autonomous dynamics. Numerical studies using a generic corrosion model are carried out to complement the experimental findings.

  13. Factors influencing wild turkey hen survival in southcentral Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, M.W.; Garner, D.L.; Klaas, E.E.

    1999-01-01

    A decline in the population of eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) in southcentral Iowa necessitated more current estimates of population parameters. Survival of 126 eastern wild turkey hens in southcentral Iowa was investigated during 1993-96. Estimates of annual survival averaged 0.676 ?? 0.048% (x?? ?? SE) for adults and 0.713 ?? 0.125 for subadults. Mammalian predators, primarily coyotes (Canis latrans) and red fox (Vulpes fulva) accounted for 64% of all documented mortality. Age-specific annual survival distributions differed within years (P < 0.03), but no difference was detected in survival between age classes across years (P = 0.49). Based on chronological dates, survival of adult hens differed among seasons across years (P = 0.03). However, seasonal survival was not different when estimates were based on hen behavior (p = 0.48). Risk of mortality for hens increased by 2.0% for every 100-m increase in dispersal distance, decreased by 2.0% for every 10-ha increase in home range size, and decreased by 3.5% for each 1.0% increase in proportion of home range in woody cover. Although the exact cause of the population decline remains unknown, we suggest it was more likely related to a decrease in production than changes in hen survival. Declining turkey populations would likely benefit more from management designed to increase reproduction rather than hen survival.

  14. Surviving atmospheric spacecraft breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; McLamb, William

    2005-01-01

    Spacecraft travel higher and faster than aircraft, making breakup potentially less survivable. As with aircraft breakup, the dissipation of lethal forces via spacecraft breakup around an organism is likely to greatly increase the odds of survival. By employing a knowledge of space and aviation physiology, comparative physiology, and search-and-rescue techniques, we were able to correctly predict and execute the recovery of live animals following the breakup of the space shuttle Columbia. In this study, we make what is, to our knowledge, the first report of an animal, Caenorhabditis elegans, surviving the atmospheric breakup of the spacecraft that was supporting it and discuss both the lethal events these animals had to escape and the implications for search and rescue following spacecraft breakup.

  15. Evolutionary history and distance dependence control survival of dipterocarp seedlings.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Robert; Press, Malcolm C; Scholes, Julie D

    2010-01-01

    One important hypothesis to explain tree-species coexistence in tropical forests suggests that increased attack by natural enemies near conspecific trees gives locally rare species a competitive advantage. Host ranges of natural enemies generally encompass several closely related plant taxa suggesting that seedlings should also do poorly around adults of closely related species. We investigated the effects of adult Parashorea malaanonan on seedling survival in a Bornean rain forest. Survival of P. malaanonan seedlings was highest at intermediate distances from parent trees while heterospecific seedlings were unaffected by distance. Leaf herbivores did not drive this relationship. Survival of seedlings was lowest for P. malaanonan, and increased with phylogenetic dissimilarity from this species, suggesting that survival of close relatives of common species is reduced. This study suggests that distance dependence contributes to species coexistence and highlights the need for further investigation into the role of shared plant enemies in community dynamics.

  16. Swift fox survival and production in southeastern Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Travis L.; Lindzey, Frederick G.

    2002-01-01

    We estimated annual survival rates of swift foxes (Vulpes velox) and documented number of young per pair in a transition zone between shortgrass prairie and sagebrush steppe plant communities in southeastern Wyoming during 1996-2000. Annual adult survival ranged from 40% to 69%, with predation by coyotes (Canis latrans) the primary cause of deaths. Two foxes died of canine distemper virus. Annual survival rates did not differ among years (P>0.12). Nineteen of 24 (79%) swift fox pairs were observed with young over 3 years. Mean minimum litter size was 4.6 based on these 19 litters and 6 others not associated with our radiocollared foxes. Adult survival was similar and litter size slightly larger than observed elsewhere in the species range, suggesting that viable swift fox populations can be supported by sagebrush steppe and shortgrass prairie transition habitat.

  17. Survival of greater white-fronted geese: Effects of year, season, sex, and body condition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, J.A.; Ely, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    Information regarding the magnitude and variation in survival rates is necessary for understanding the causes of large changes in population size. We examined survival of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) in the Pacific Flyway during 1979-82. The population declined by 75% in the decade preceding our study but was stable during our investigation. Annual survival of adults (0.749, SE = 0.045) was 7% higher than during an earlier study. We developed a simple population model which suggests that recent (1985-96) survival rates may be as much as 10% higher in adults than the 1979-82 rate, which corresponds to population increases observed since 1985. Survival of adult females varied seasonally; monthly survival during a period of winter when no hunting or migration occurred was higher (0.986, SE = 0.015) than monthly survival at other times (0.964, SE = 0.006). Survival of adult males varied among years and with a general seasonal trend inverse to that for females. An index of body condition was positively related to survival of adult females in fall and spring, but not for adult males or immature geese. Monthly survival of immatures was lower during their first hunting season (0.886, SE = 0.026) than during all subsequent seasons (0.963, SE = 0.007). Annual survival of immatures beginning 1 October, immediately before the hunting season, was 0.471. Corresponding variations in survival rates, population numbers, and hunting regulations suggest that hunting may have influenced survival in this population of greater white-fronted geese.

  18. Optimizing nest survival and female survival: Consequences of nest site selection for Canada Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David A.; Grand, J.B.; Fondell, T.F.; Anthony, R. Michael

    2007-01-01

    We examined the relationship between attributes of nest sites used by Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in the Copper River Delta, Alaska, and patterns in nest and female survival. We aimed to determine whether nest site attributes related to nest and female survival differed and whether nest site attributes related to nest survival changed within and among years. Nest site attributes that we examined included vegetation at and surrounding the nest, as well as associations with other nesting birds. Optimal nest site characteristics were different depending on whether nest survival or female survival was examined. Prior to 25 May, the odds of daily survival for nests in tall shrubs and on islands were 2.92 and 2.26 times greater, respectively, than for nests in short shrub sites. Bald Eagles (Halieaeetus leucocephalus) are the major predator during the early breeding season and their behavior was likely important in determining this pattern. After 25 May, when eagle predation is limited due to the availability of alternative prey, no differences in nest survival among the nest site types were found. In addition, nest survival was positively related to the density of other Canada Goose nests near the nest site. Although the number of detected mortalities for females was relatively low, a clear pattern was found, with mortality three times more likely at nest sites dominated by high shrub density within 50 m than at open sites dominated by low shrub density. The negative relationship of nest concealment and adult survival is consistent with that found in other studies of ground-nesting birds. Physical barriers that limited access to nest sites by predators and sites that allowed for early detection of predators were important characteristics of nest site quality for Canada Geese and nest site quality shifted within seasons, likely as a result of shifting predator-prey interactions.

  19. Apparent quasar disc sizes in the "bird's nest" paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolmasov, P.

    2017-04-01

    Context. Quasar microlensing effects make it possible to measure the accretion disc sizes around distant supermassive black holes that are still well beyond the spatial resolution of contemporary instrumentation. The sizes measured with this technique appear inconsistent with the standard accretion disc model. Not only are the measured accretion disc sizes larger, but their dependence on wavelength is in most cases completely different from the predictions of the standard model. Aims: We suggest that these discrepancies may arise not from non-standard accretion disc structure or systematic errors, as it was proposed before, but rather from scattering and reprocession of the radiation of the disc. In particular, the matter falling from the gaseous torus and presumably feeding the accretion disc may at certain distances become ionized and produce an extended halo that is free from colour gradients. Methods: A simple analytical model is proposed assuming that a geometrically thick translucent inflow acts as a scattering mirror changing the apparent spatial properties of the disc. This inflow may be also identified with the broad line region or its inner parts. Results: Such a model is able to explain the basic properties of the apparent disc sizes, primarily their large values and their shallow dependence on wavelength. The only condition required is to scatter a significant portion of the luminosity of the disc. This can easily be fulfilled if the scattering inflow has a large geometrical thickness and clumpy structure.

  20. Pore fluid pressure, apparent friction, and Coulomb failure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeler, N.M.; Simpson, R.W.; Hickman, S.H.; Lockner, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    Many recent studies of stress-triggered seismicity rely on a fault failure model with a single free parameter, the apparent coefficient of friction, presumed to be a material constant with possible values 0 ≤ μ′ ≤ 1. These studies may present a misleading view of fault strength and the role of pore fluid pressure in earthquake failure. The parameter μ′ is intended to incorporate the effects of both friction and pore pressure, but is a material constant only if changes in pore fluid pressure induced by changes in stress are proportional to the normal stress change across the potential failure plane. Although specific models of fault zones permit such a relation, neither is it known that fault zones within the Earth behave this way, nor is this behavior expected in all cases. In contrast, for an isotropic homogeneous poroelastic model the pore pressure changes are proportional to changes in mean stress, μ′ is not a material constant, and −∞ ≤ μ′ ≤ +∞. Analysis of the change in Coulomb failure stress for tectonically loaded reverse and strike-slip faults shows considerable differences between these two pore pressure models, suggesting that such models might be distinguished from one another using observations of triggered seismicity (e.g., aftershocks). We conclude that using the constant apparent friction model exclusively in studies of Coulomb failure stress is unwise and could lead to significant errors in estimated stress change and seismic hazard.

  1. The effects of healthy aging on the mnemonic benefit of survival processing

    PubMed Central

    Stillman, Chelsea M.; Coane, Jennifer H.; Profaci, Caterina P.; Howard, James H.; Howard, Darlene V.

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that information is remembered better when it is processed for its survival relevance compared to when it is processed for relevance to other, non-survival-related contexts. Here we conducted three experiments to investigate whether the survival advantage also occurs for healthy older adults. In Experiment 1, older and younger adults rated words for their relevance to a grassland survival or moving scenario and then completed an unexpected free recall test on the words. We replicated the survival advantage in two separate groups of younger adults, one of which was placed under divided-attention conditions, but we did not find a survival advantage in the older adults. We then tested two additional samples of older adults using a between- (Experiment 2) or within-subjects (Experiment 3) design, but still found no evidence of the survival advantage in this age group. These results suggest that, although survival processing is an effective encoding strategy for younger adults, it does not provide the same mnemonic benefit to healthy elders. PMID:23896730

  2. Surviving Companions of Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerzendorf, W.

    2016-06-01

    Most supernovae should occur in binaries. Massive stars, the progenitors of core collapse supernovae (SN II/Ib/c), have a very high binarity fraction of 80 percent (on average, they have 1.5 companions). Binary systems are also required to produce thermonuclear supernovae (SN Ia). Understanding the role that binarity plays in pre-supernova evolution is one of the great mysteries in supernova research. Finding and studying surviving companions of supernovae has the power to shed light on some of these mysteries. Searching Galactic and nearby supernova remnants for surviving companions is a particularly powerful technique. This might allow to study the surviving companion in great detail possibly enabling a relatively detailed reconstruction of the pre-supernova evolution. In this talk, I will summarize the multitude of theoretical studies that have simulated the impact of the shockwave on the companion star and the subsequent evolution of the survivor. I will then give an overview of the searches that used these theoretical findings to identify surviving companions in nearby supernova remnants as well as their results. Finally, I will give an outlook of new opportunities in the relatively young field.

  3. The Option for Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, R. Stephen

    1971-01-01

    Suggests formula for survival that takes a thermodynamic view which holds that we must recycle waste while the thermodynamic potential still is moderately high. Otherwise they are lost, as helium is lost when it leaves Earth's atmosphere and goes into space. The idea that the Earth is a closed system is a myth; it collapses each time we put our…

  4. Surviving Tight Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Discusses several strategies recommended by small business experts to help for-profit and non-profit child care centers survive a financial crisis. Strategies include: identifying the source of the problem, monitoring cash flow, reducing or deferring expenditures, expediting regular income and exploring new sources of income, patiently working…

  5. Why Books Will Survive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lane

    1983-01-01

    High prices, paper that self destructs, and competition from computers and video forms may mean hard times ahead for books. The factor most likely to assure the survival of books into the future is that there is simply no experience in life that matches silent reading. (Author/RM)

  6. Survival Learning Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robert M.; Barnes, Marcia M.

    This booklet is designed to provide some starter ideas for teachers to use in developing their own packet of learning materials. The procedures suggested and the examples included are literally starters. "Introduction to Survival Learning Materials" presents some procedures to help teachers get started in developing materials. "Following…

  7. Survivable Local Area Network.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Enhanced availability and survivability of communications between geographically remote locations with a minimum of redundancy of transmission...isolate bus segements on either side of a connection so that if a fault occurs only the segment containing the fault will be affected. The first type

  8. Education for Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, James E., Jr.

    In this address, James E. Allen, Jr., Assistant Secretary for Education and U.S. Commissioner of Education, discusses the relationship of education to the problem of ecological destruction. He states that the solutions to the problems of air, water, and soil pollution may be found in redirected education. This "education for survival" can serve to…

  9. Independence and Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, H. Thomas

    Independent schools that are of viable size, well managed, and strategically located to meet competition will survive and prosper past the current financial crisis. We live in a complex technological society with insatiable demands for knowledgeable people to keep it running. The future will be marked by the orderly selection of qualified people,…

  10. Survival of Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in basal-casein medium supplemented with sodium selenite

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, G.R.; Cole, B.S. )

    1988-01-01

    The trace substance selenium is known to influence several systems exhibiting a high rate of cellular proliferation. Data are reported on survival patterns and times in various developmental stages of Tribolium confusum Duval reared in a defined medium supplemented with sodium selenite. Insects reared from eggs hatching in a selenium medium (Se medium) show a prolonged time in the larval period and marked larval mortality compared with those reared on unsupplemented medium. Adults emerging in an Se medium show reduced survival compared with adults transferred to such medium 1 wk after emergence. Larval survival patterns mimic those of the adult, whereby younger larvae that are transferred to Se medium appear to be more sensitive than those exposed to Se medium later in the larval stage. Transfer of Se medium-reared adults to unsupplemented medium as pupae has a beneficial effect on survival compared with adults that emerged in Se medium 1 wk before transfer.

  11. First Direct Evidence for Natal Wintering Ground Fidelity and Estimate of Juvenile Survival in the New Zealand Southern Right Whale Eubalaena australis.

    PubMed

    Carroll, E L; Fewster, R M; Childerhouse, S J; Patenaude, N J; Boren, L; Baker, C S

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile survival and recruitment can be more sensitive to environmental, ecological and anthropogenic factors than adult survival, influencing population-level processes like recruitment and growth rate in long-lived, iteroparous species such as southern right whales. Conventionally, Southern right whales are individually identified using callosity patterns, which do not stabilise until 6-12 months, by which time the whale has left its natal wintering grounds. Here we use DNA profiling of skin biopsy samples to identify individual Southern right whales from year of birth and document their return to the species' primary wintering ground in New Zealand waters, the Subantarctic Auckland Islands. We find evidence of natal fidelity to the New Zealand wintering ground by the recapture of 15 of 57 whales, first sampled in year of birth and available for subsequent recapture, during winter surveys to the Auckland Islands in 1995-1998 and 2006-2009. Four individuals were recaptured at the ages of 9 to 11, including two females first sampled as calves in 1998 and subsequently resampled as cows with calves in 2007. Using these capture-recapture records of known-age individuals, we estimate changes in survival with age using Cormack-Jolly-Seber models. Survival is modelled using discrete age classes and as a continuous function of age. Using a bootstrap method to account for uncertainty in model selection and fitting, we provide the first direct estimate of juvenile survival for this population. Our analyses indicate a high annual apparent survival for juveniles at between 0.87 (standard error (SE) 0.17, to age 1) and 0.95 (SE 0.05: ages 2-8). Individual identification by DNA profiling is an effective method for long-term demographic and genetic monitoring, particularly in animals that change identifiable features as they develop or experience tag loss over time.

  12. First Direct Evidence for Natal Wintering Ground Fidelity and Estimate of Juvenile Survival in the New Zealand Southern Right Whale Eubalaena australis

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, E. L.; Fewster, R. M.; Childerhouse, S. J.; Patenaude, N. J.; Boren, L.; Baker, C. S.

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile survival and recruitment can be more sensitive to environmental, ecological and anthropogenic factors than adult survival, influencing population-level processes like recruitment and growth rate in long-lived, iteroparous species such as southern right whales. Conventionally, Southern right whales are individually identified using callosity patterns, which do not stabilise until 6–12 months, by which time the whale has left its natal wintering grounds. Here we use DNA profiling of skin biopsy samples to identify individual Southern right whales from year of birth and document their return to the species’ primary wintering ground in New Zealand waters, the Subantarctic Auckland Islands. We find evidence of natal fidelity to the New Zealand wintering ground by the recapture of 15 of 57 whales, first sampled in year of birth and available for subsequent recapture, during winter surveys to the Auckland Islands in 1995–1998 and 2006–2009. Four individuals were recaptured at the ages of 9 to 11, including two females first sampled as calves in 1998 and subsequently resampled as cows with calves in 2007. Using these capture-recapture records of known-age individuals, we estimate changes in survival with age using Cormack-Jolly-Seber models. Survival is modelled using discrete age classes and as a continuous function of age. Using a bootstrap method to account for uncertainty in model selection and fitting, we provide the first direct estimate of juvenile survival for this population. Our analyses indicate a high annual apparent survival for juveniles at between 0.87 (standard error (SE) 0.17, to age 1) and 0.95 (SE 0.05: ages 2–8). Individual identification by DNA profiling is an effective method for long-term demographic and genetic monitoring, particularly in animals that change identifiable features as they develop or experience tag loss over time. PMID:26751689

  13. The hidden face of Kanizsa's triangle: apparent movement of subjective figures in three-dimensional space.

    PubMed

    Vallortigara, G

    1987-01-01

    Several demonstrations on the apparent movement in depth of subjective figures are presented. They include: (a) apparent rotational movement as a result of shape invariance or rigidity; (b) apparent rotational movement with three-dimensional subjective figures not accompanied by a brightness gradient; and (c) apparent rotational movement by kinetic occlusion.

  14. Timing of the apparent effects of cloud seeding.

    PubMed

    Lovasich, J L; Neyman, J; Scott, E L; Smith, J A

    1969-08-29

    The average hourly precipitation amounts, on 96 experimental days without cloud seeding in the Whitetop experiment, show a marked maximum between 4 and 7 o'clock in the afternoon, presumably reflecting the convection activity caused by heating of the ground occurring during an earlier period. No such maximum is observed on the 102 days with seeding. The hypothetical explanation presupposes that seeding with silver iodide creates early general cloudiness, which prevents ground temperatures from rising to levels usually attained on days without seeding. This hypothesis may explain not only the mechanism of the loss in rain in the Whitetop experiment, apparently induced by seeding, but also may explain certain phenomena noticed in the Grossversuch III experiment.

  15. Multidisciplinary investigation of an unusual apparent homicide/suicide.

    PubMed

    Harding, Brett E; Sullivan, Linda M; Adams, Susan; Middleberg, Robert A; Wolf, Barbara C

    2011-09-01

    The investigation of deaths of individuals whose bodies are decomposed, mummified, or skeletonized is particularly difficult for medical examiners and medicolegal death investigators. Determination of the cause and manner of death in such cases frequently requires consultation with experts in a variety of disciplines in the forensic sciences and necessitates correlation of the autopsy results, scene investigation, medical and social history of the deceased, and laboratory studies. The authors report an unusual case of an apparent homicide/suicide involving 2 individuals and a canine that went undetected for almost 4 years. Determination of the cause and manner of death in these cases involved a multidisciplinary, intercontinental investigation and necessitated the performance of toxicologic studies on specimens not commonly analyzed. These cases illustrate the importance of the multidisciplinary approach to medicolegal death investigations and the necessity of considering nontraditional sources of potential information and specimens for laboratory analysis in selected cases.

  16. Galvanic apparent internal impedance: an intrinsic tissue property.

    PubMed

    Golberg, Alex; Rabinowitch, Haim D; Rubinsky, Boris

    2009-11-06

    Using basic galvanic cell principles, the ability of tissues to generate electrical current through electrolysis was characterized. Studying Zn/Cu electrolysis in animal organs revealed a fundamental and measurable tissue-specific property - the galvanic apparent internal impedance (GAII), that is most likely related to the salt bridge function of tissues delineated by electrodes. Further to the fundamental knowledge acquired, GAII enables a new diagnostic method to distinguish between tissue types and to determine their health status without a need for expensive calibration, as often required when external power source is used. We demonstrated the GAII sensitivity in detecting tissue ablation with microwave heating or irreversible electroporation. The results open the way for a novel, inexpensive self-powered tissue diagnostic system for a wide range of applications such as minimally invasive tissue health status, ischemia, hydration, real time intra-operative control of minimally invasive surgery, medical imaging, virtual biopsy and many others.

  17. Apparent symptom overreporting in combat veterans evaluated for PTSD.

    PubMed

    Frueh, B C; Hamner, M B; Cahill, S P; Gold, P B; Hamlin, K L

    2000-10-01

    Psychometric studies have consistently shown that combat veterans evaluated for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appear to overreport psychopathology as exhibited by (a) extreme and diffuse levels of psychopathology across instruments measuring different domains of mental illness, and (b) extreme elevations on the validity scale of the MMPI-MMPI-2, in a "fake-bad" direction. The phenomenon of this ubiquitous presentational style is not well understood at present. In this review we describe and delineate the assessment problem posed by this apparent symptom overreporting, and we review the literature regarding several potential explanatory factors. Finally, we address conceptual and practical issues relevant to reaching a better understanding of the phenomenon, and ultimately the clinical syndrome of combat-related PTSD, in both research and clinical settings.

  18. Observations of an apparent SN in NGC 2276

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzini, F.; Dimai, A.; Migliardi, M.

    2005-08-01

    Federico Manzini (SAS obs., IAUC A12) report the observation by Alessandro Dimai, Cortina (Italy), and Marco Migliardi, Tour Tour (France), of an apparent SN in NGC 2276 (m. = +17.1), on four unfiltered CCD images taken on 2005 august 25.1 (lim. magn. about +19,5) with the 0.5-m "Ullrich" telescope of the Col Druscié observatory (Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy). The observation is confirmed by other three unfiltered CCD images, taken on 2005 august 26.13 (m = +16.8 and limiting magnitude about +19.8), with the same telescope on behalf of the CROSS (Col drusciè Remote Observatory Supernovae Search) program.

  19. Effect of structured visual environments on apparent eye level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoper, A. E.; Cohen, M. M.

    1989-01-01

    Each of 12 subjects set a binocularly viewed target to apparent eye level; the target was projected on the rear wall of an open box, the floor of which was horizontal or pitched up and down at angles of 7.5 degrees and 15 degrees. Settings of the target were systematically biased by 60% of the pitch angle when the interior of the box was illuminated, but by only 5% when the interior of the box was darkened. Within-subjects variability of the settings was less under illuminated viewing conditions than in the dark, but was independent of box pitch angle. In a second experiment, 11 subjects were tested with an illuminated pitched box, yielding biases of 53% and 49% for binocular and monocular viewing conditions, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of individual and interactive effects of optical, gravitational, and extraretinal eye-position information in determining judgements of eye level.

  20. Use of aspartame by apparently healthy children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Frey, G H

    1976-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects and the differences, if any, resulting from the ingestion of aspartame (sweetener) versus sucrose. A 13-wk, double-blind study was conducted using 126 apparently healthy children and adolescents as panelists. Individuals were randomly assigned in a double-blind design to aspartame or sucrose in each of five age groups; dosage levels were assigned according to age and weight groups. Physical examinations and special eye examinations were performed at the beginning and end of the study. Other parameters determined including laboratory tests of liver and renal function, hematologic status, and plasma levels of phenylalanine and tyrosine. Clinically significant differences in laboratory parameters measured could not be demonstrated; all mean values were within normal limits. No unusual findings were observed in phenylalanine or tyrosine levels. All phenylpyruvic acid and methanol determinations were negative. No important physical changes occurred, and no product-related side effects were reported.

  1. Vitrectomy for bilateral macular schisis without apparent optic disc anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Andonegui, José; Maya, José Ramón; Echeverría, Marta; Alcaine, Araceli

    2016-01-01

    A 78-year-old man complained of bilateral visual acuity loss. Optical coherence tomography examination showed bilateral macular schisis with fluid accumulation in the external retinal layers without vitreous traction. Fundus examination and fluorescein angiography were normal in both eyes. Both eyes were treated by phacoemulsification, intraocular lens implantation, and vitrectomy without laser, gas exchange, or retinal fenestration. Slow and progressive fluid resorption and improvement in VA were observed in both eyes. Macular schisis similar to the one associated with optic disc anomalies is a possibility in patients without apparent disc anomalies. Vitrectomy without laser, gas, or retinal fenestration may be a good therapeutic option even in patients with a PVD preoperatively. PMID:27703873

  2. Species-barrier-independent prion replication in apparently resistant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Andrew F.; Joiner, Susan; Linehan, Jackie; Desbruslais, Melanie; Lantos, Peter L.; Collinge, John

    2000-08-01

    Transmission of prions between mammalian species is thought to be limited by a "species barrier," which depends on differences in the primary structure of prion proteins in the infecting inoculum and the host. Here we demonstrate that a strain of hamster prions thought to be nonpathogenic for conventional mice leads to prion replication to high levels in such mice but without causing clinical disease. Prions pathogenic in both mice and hamsters are produced. These results demonstrate the existence of subclinical forms of prion infection with important public health implications, both with respect to iatrogenic transmission from apparently healthy humans and dietary exposure to cattle and other species exposed to bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions. Current definitions of the species barrier, which have been based on clinical end-points, need to be fundamentally reassessed.

  3. Too early? On the apparent conflict of astrobiology and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirkovic, Milan M.

    2006-06-01

    An interesting consequence of the modern cosmological paradigm is the spatial infinity of the universe. When coupled with naturalistic understanding of the origin of life and intelligence, which follows the basic tenets of astrobiology, and with some fairly incontroversial assumptions in the theory of observation selection effects, this infinity leads, as Ken Olum has recently shown, to a paradoxical conclusion. Olum's paradox is related, to the famous Fermi's paradox in astrobiology and SETI studies. We, hereby, present an evolutionary argument countering the apparent inconsistency, and show how, in the framework of a simplified model, deeper picture of the coupling between histories of intelligent/technological civilizations and astrophysical evolution of the Galaxy, can be achieved. This strategy has consequences of importance for both astrobiological studies and philosophy.

  4. Random variability explains apparent global clustering of large earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of 5 Mw ≥ 8.5 earthquakes since 2004 has created a debate over whether or not we are in a global cluster of large earthquakes, temporarily raising risks above long-term levels. I use three classes of statistical tests to determine if the record of M ≥ 7 earthquakes since 1900 can reject a null hypothesis of independent random events with a constant rate plus localized aftershock sequences. The data cannot reject this null hypothesis. Thus, the temporal distribution of large global earthquakes is well-described by a random process, plus localized aftershocks, and apparent clustering is due to random variability. Therefore the risk of future events has not increased, except within ongoing aftershock sequences, and should be estimated from the longest possible record of events.

  5. The Dependence of the Apparent Contact Angles on Gravity.

    PubMed

    Sakai; Fujii

    1999-02-01

    We have studied theoretically the effect of gravity on the rough solid-liquid interface and have shown that its tension is enhanced by gravity when gas is adsorbed at it. As a result, the apparent contact angle on rough surfaces, which has been considered not to be influenced by gravity so far, can be raised by gravity. The calculated dependence of contact angles on gravity under the ordinary conditions of the sessile drop method is large enough to detect by experiment. The observed asymmetrical deviations from Wenzel's contact angle caused by the gas adsorption at the solid-liquid interface and by the liquid adsorption at the solid-gas interface are explained in terms of this gravitational effect. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  6. When luminance increment thresholds depend on apparent lightness.

    PubMed

    Maertens, Marianne; Wichmann, Felix A

    2013-05-31

    A fundamental question in visual perception research is whether the sensitivity to stimulus differences is limited by the sensory representation of the external stimulus, that is, the proximal stimulus, or by its perceptual representation, i.e., stimulus appearance. In the domain of lightness perception, the question translates into whether discrimination thresholds depend on the local luminance in the retinal image or on the apparent lightness of the corresponding image region. The majority of findings seem to indicate that sensitivity is limited by the sensory stimulus representation, which would imply different mechanisms for stimulus discrimination and appearance. We think this conclusion needs to be qualified. We report data suggesting that the relationship between discrimination and appearance judgments depends on how exactly they are being measured. We propose a theoretical account that provides a common mechanism for appearance and sensitivity. An interesting corollary of this model is that it also accounts for the perceptual phenomenon of assimilation.

  7. Apparent Acceleration and an Alternative Concordance from Causal Backreaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochner, Brett

    2015-01-01

    A phenomenological formalism is presented in which the apparent acceleration of the universe is generated by cosmic structure formation, without resort to Dark Energy, modifications to gravity, or a local void. The observed acceleration results from the combined effect of innumerable local perturbations due to individually virializing systems, overlapping together in a smoothly-inhomogeneous adjustment of the FRW metric, in a process governed by the causal flow of inhomogeneity information outward from each clumped system. After noting how common arguments claiming to limit backreaction are physically unrealistic, models are presented which fit the supernova luminosity distance data essentially as well as ΛCDM, while bringing several important cosmological parameters to a new Concordance. These goals are all achieved with a second-generation version of our formalism that accounts for the negative feedback of Causal Backreaction upon itself due to the slowed propagation of gravitational inhomogeneity information.

  8. Active suppression of an 'apparent shock induced instability'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, William M., Jr.; Tiffany, Sherwood H.; Bardusch, Richard E.

    1987-01-01

    A control law was designed, using constrained optimization techniques, to suppress an apparent shock induced instability of a sweptback, aeroelastic wing with supercritical airfoil sections. The controller design was based on an approximate linear plant representation obtained using forced response data from a previous entry in the Langley Transonic Dynamics tunnel. During a second tunnel entry, it was found that there was not an instability in the uncontrolled case but there was a region of very low damping (high dynamic response) near a Mach number of 0.92. Controller performance was obtained during the test in near real-time and revealed that the controller attenuated the open-loop response and provided a small but significant amount of damping over a Mach number range from M = 0.70 to M = 0.92.

  9. Apparent threshold of lead's effect on child intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, M.B. National Taiwan Univ., Taipei ); Wang, J.D.; Soong, W.T. )

    1992-05-01

    The developing human brain is perhaps the most sensitive of the many targets of lead toxicity. This particular sensitivity is a driving factor in setting health and environmental standards for lead. A recent compilation of studies of the association between lead and IQ has shown a consistent dose-response pattern across the range of reported exposures. In surveying the neurotoxicity of lead in humans and animals, there has been speculation of the existence of a threshold for these effects which may become apparent at lower lead levels. In that context we examined our data of tooth lead and IQ scores to determine whether there was any apparent threshold for this effect. This cohort's lead levels are among the lowest documented and provide the opportunity to extend downward the range of interest. Family factors are the strongest predictors of a child's intelligence, in particular the parent's intelligence. We therefore followed the model of Perino and Ernhart (1974) by examining whether at various levels of lead there is a disruption of the usual association between family and child intelligence. As noted by Bellinger and Needleman (1983), a difference in the correlations between parental and child intelligence in two groups, high and low lead, may be an artifact of other relationships among the predictor variables. Accordingly, they recommend a more appropriate test that would search for differences in the IQ deficits according to lead level, where the IQ deficit is the difference between a child's observed IQ and the IQ predicted from all available information about the child aside from lead. This is especially appropriate when the lead exposure correlates with the family's educational background. We examined our data this way. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Apparent mortality as a result of an elevated parasite infection in Presbytis rubicunda.

    PubMed

    Hilser, Harry; Ehlers Smith, Yvette C; Ehlers Smith, David A

    2014-01-01

    We provide the first parasite assessment of wild red langurs (Presbytis rubicunda). Seven helminth taxa and 4 protozoa were recovered from faecal samples. We report the details of the death of an adult female red langur with potential association of an elevated parasite infection. There is a paucity of published literature on red langurs and nothing is known of the factors affecting interspecific parasite transmission and disease spread between other primate species. Parasites may be substantial determinants of host health and may present a significant influence on the survival and reproduction of individuals and the subsequent fecundity of populations. Further research into the connection of parasite burden with individual deaths and potential population declines is recommended for monitoring population health.

  11. Growth and survival of Mountain Plovers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Brian J.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1993-01-01

    Growth and survival rates of Mountain Plovers (Charadrius montanus) were monitored using radiotelemetry from hatching until birds left the breeding grounds on the Pawnee National Grassland, Weld County, Colorado. Chick weights increased logarithmically (r) = 0.961) and tarsus length linearly (r = 0.948) with age. Using the average fledgling weight of 69.8 g and an age/weight regression we predicted that the average age at fledging was 36 d. Fourteen Mountain Plover nests each had three effs; an average of 2.6 eggs hatched in seven nests, whereas remaining nests were lost to predation, storms, or trampling by a cow. Twenty-four adult Mountain Plovers were monitored for 275 telemetry days with no mortalities. Twenty flightless chicks had a calculated daily survival rate of 0.979 for 233 telemetry-days. Mortalities of flightless chicks were due to predation or unknown causes. The daily survival rate predicted that 1.2 of the 2.6 chicks hatched per nest lived to fly. Eight fledged chicks were monitored for 74 telemetry-days, with a daily survival rate of 0.974. Mortalities of fledglings were all attributed to predation. The combined survival rates predicted that 0.7 or the 2.6 hatched chicks lived to leave the nesting area. Survival rates of flightless chicks were similar to those reported 20 yr ago, implying that recent declines in Mountain Plover numbers on the continent are not attributable to either longer-term declines in nesting productivity or phenomena occurring at non-breeding locales.

  12. Survival of timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) estimated by capture-recapture models in relation to age, sex, color morph, time, and birthplace

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, W.S.; Kery, M.; Hines, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile survival is one of the least known elements of the life history of many species, in particular snakes. We conducted a mark–recapture study of Crotalus horridus from 1978–2002 in northeastern New York near the northern limits of the species' range. We marked 588 neonates and estimated annual age-, sex-, and morph-specific recapture and survival rates using the Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) model. Wild-caught neonates (field-born, n  =  407) and neonates produced by captive-held gravid females (lab-born, n  =  181) allowed comparison of the birthplace, or lab treatment effect, in estimated survival. Recapture rates declined from about 10–20% over time while increasing from young to older age classes. Estimated survival rates (S ± 1 SE) in the first year were significantly higher among field-born (black morph: S  =  0.773 ± 0.203; yellow morph: S  =  0.531 ± 0.104) than among lab-born snakes (black morph: S  =  0.411 ± 0.131; yellow morph: S  =  0.301 ± 0.081). Lower birth weights combined with a lack of field exposure until release apparently contributed to the lower survival rate of lab-born snakes. Subsequent survival estimates for 2–4-yr-old snakes were S  =  0.845 ± 0.084 for the black morph and S  =  0.999 (SE not available) for the yellow morph, and for ≥5-yr-old snakes S  =  0.958 ± 0.039 (black morph) and S  =  0.822 ± 0.034 (yellow morph). The most parsimonious model overall contained an independent time trend for survival of each age, morph, and lab-treatment group. For snakes of the first two age groups (ages 1 yr and 2–4 yr), survival tended to decline over the years for both morphs, while for adult snakes (5 yr and older), survival was constant or even slightly increased. Our data on survival and recapture are among the first rigorous estimates of these parameters in a rattlesnake and among the few yet available for any viperid snake. These data are useful for analyses of the life

  13. Late winter survival of female mallards in Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dugger, B.D.; Reinecke, K.J.; Fredrickson, L.H.

    1994-01-01

    Determining factors that limit winter survival of waterfowl is necessary to develop effective management plans. We radiomarked immature and adult female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) after the 1988 and 1989 hunting seasons in eastcentral Arkansas to test whether natural mortality sources and habitat conditions during late winter limit seasonal survival. We used data from 92 females to calculate survival estimates. We observed no mortalities during 2,510 exposure days, despite differences in habitat conditions between years. We used the binomial distribution to calculate daily and 30-day survival estimates plus 95% confidence intervals of 0.9988 ltoreq 0.9997 ltoreq 1.00 and 0.9648 ltoreq 0.9925 ltoreq 1.00, respectively. Our data indirectly support the hypothesis that hunting mortality and habitat conditions during the hunting season are the major determinants of winter survival for female mallards in Arkansas.

  14. Delayed plumage maturation increases overwinter survival in North Island robins.

    PubMed Central

    Berggren, Asa; Armstrong, Doug P.; Lewis, Rebecca M.

    2004-01-01

    Many bird species show delayed plumage maturation (DPM), retaining sub-adult plumage until after their first breeding season. Most explanations assume that DPM increases fitness over the breeding season. However, unless birds undergo a full moult before breeding, DPM could also be an adaptation to increase survival over the previous winter. The winter adaptation hypothesis has never been tested owing to the difficulty of measuring overwinter survival. We experimentally tested this hypothesis in North Island robins (Petroica longipes) using a closed island population where we could accurately estimate survival. The experiment involved dyeing 41 juveniles to mimic adult males, and comparing their survival with 41 control juveniles treated with the same peroxide base minus the pigment. The population was monitored with a series of resighting surveys, and mark-recapture analysis used to estimate overwinter survival. Survival probability was estimated to be 10% for dyed birds versus 61% for control birds in 2001, and 29% for dyed birds versus 40% for control birds in the winter of 2002, supporting the winter adaptation hypothesis for DPM. Access to suitable habitat is the key factor limiting juvenile survival in this population, and the locations where dyed juveniles were sighted suggest that they were often excluded from suitable areas. PMID:15475331

  15. Selection bias explains apparent differential mortality between dialysis modalities.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Robert R; Hux, Janet E; Oliver, Matthew J; Austin, Peter C; Tonelli, Marcello; Laupacis, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    The relative risk of death for patients treated with peritoneal dialysis compared with those treated with hemodialysis appears to change with duration of dialysis therapy. Patients who start dialysis urgently are at high risk for mortality and are treated almost exclusively with hemodialysis, introducing bias to such mortality comparisons. To better isolate the association between dialysis treatment modality and patient mortality, we examined the relative risk for mortality for peritoneal dialysis compared with hemodialysis among individuals who received ≥4 months of predialysis care and who started dialysis electively as outpatients. From a total of 32,285 individuals who received dialysis in Ontario, Canada during a nearly 8-year period, 6,573 patients met criteria for elective, outpatient initiation. We detected no difference in survival between peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis after adjusting for relevant baseline characteristics. The relative risk of death did not change with duration of dialysis therapy in our primary analysis, but it did change with time when we defined our patient population using the more inclusive criteria typical of previous studies. These results suggest that peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis associate with similar survival among incident dialysis patients who initiate dialysis electively, as outpatients, after at least 4 months of predialysis care. Selection bias, rather than an effect of the treatment itself, likely explains the previously described change in the relative risk of death over time between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

  16. ENCCA WP17-WP7 consensus paper on teenagers and young adults (TYA) with bone sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, M; Dirksen, U; Bielack, S S; Whelan, J S; Lewis, I J; Jürgens, H; Ferrari, S; Sundby Hall, K; Cleton-Jansen, A M; Stark, D

    2014-08-01

    Teenagers and young adults (TYA) cancer contributes substantially to morbidity and mortality in a population with much to offer society. TYA place distinct challenges upon cancer care services, many reporting feeling marginalized and their needs not being met in adult or paediatric cancer services. Bone tumours such as osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, because of their age at presentation and the complexity of their care, are where challenges in managing (TYA) with cancer have often been most readily apparent. Bone sarcomas may be managed by paediatric or medical oncologists, and require fastidious attention to protocol. A lack of recent improvement in survival in TYA with bone tumours may be linked to a lack of specialist care, poor concordance with therapy in some situations and TYA-specific pharmacology. Participation in clinical trials, particularly of young adults, is low, hindering progress. All these requirements may be best met by a concerted effort to create collaborative care between adult and paediatric experts in bone sarcoma, working together to meet TYA patients' needs.

  17. Adult Vaccination--A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, vaccines have been associated with childhood. Historically, many of the most-feared communicable diseases attacked infants and toddlers, and those who survived were generally protected from those diseases as adults. During the past century tremendous advances in vaccination spared millions the morbidity and mortality associated with…

  18. Posthandling survival and PIT tag retention by alewives—a comparison of gastric and surgical implants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castro-Santos, Theodore; Voni, Volney

    2013-01-01

    We compared survival and tag retention of Alewives Alosa pseudoharengus tagged with PIT tags, using intraperitoneal (IP) surgical implants, gastric implants (GI), and untagged controls held for 38 d. Retention was 100% for IP-tagged Alewives and 98% for GI-tagged implants. No significant difference in survival was observed among any of these groups. These results lend support to the use of PIT telemetry for studying fish passage and migration of anadromous herring. Both methods hold promise for improving estimates of freshwater survival of adult anadromous clupeids; further research should make it also possible to refine estimates of adult marine survival.

  19. Survival at the Supermarket.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Brunt McMillan, Constance

    This workbook, the first of a series in consumer education, is to be used in adult English as a Second Language (ESL) classes. In addition to textual material, each chapter has pen-and-ink drawings and exercises to be used to check comprehension and build vocabulary. (AMH)

  20. Survival of extreme opinions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Jiann-wien; Huang, Ding-wei

    2009-12-01

    We study the survival of extreme opinions in various processes of consensus formation. All the opinions are treated equally and subjected to the same rules of changing. We investigate three typical models to reach a consensus in each case: (A) personal influence, (B) influence from surroundings, and (C) influence to surroundings. Starting with uniformly distributed random opinions, our calculated results show that the extreme opinions can survive in both models (A) and (B), but not in model (C). We obtain a conclusion that both personal influence and passive adaptation to the environment are not sufficient enough to eradicate all the extreme opinions. Only the active persuasion to change the surroundings eliminates the extreme opinions completely.

  1. Polymyositis - adult

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash is a sign of a similar condition, dermatomyositis . Common symptoms include: Muscle weakness in the shoulders ... in the treatment of refractory adult and juvenile dermatomyositis and adult polymyositis: a randomized, placebo-phase trial. ...

  2. Aircraft Survivability. Fall 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft Survivability Program (JASP) Short Course was held 17-20 May at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) in Monterey, CA. 52 students attended the...Postgraduate School where he earned his MBA in Financial Management. Jimmy earned his BS in General Science from the United States Naval Academy...Answering these questions requires credible threat models supported by high -fidelity test characterizations of the MANPADS missile threat. Based on

  3. Aircraft Survivability. Spring 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    advancing and applying technology to predict, evaluate , and improve combat survivability of US flight vehicles. John graduated from the University of...support for most of the aircraft and anti-aircraft programs conducted to date under LFT&E statutory requirements. A number of these test and evaluation ...initiatives to improve the state-of-the-art of LFT&E, to place greater emphasis on the evaluation of human casualties, to integrate Battle Damage

  4. Neuronal survival in the brain: neuron type-specific mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pfisterer, Ulrich; Khodosevich, Konstantin

    2017-03-02

    Neurogenic regions of mammalian brain produce many more neurons that will eventually survive and reach a mature stage. Developmental cell death affects both embryonically produced immature neurons and those immature neurons that are generated in regions of adult neurogenesis. Removal of substantial numbers of neurons that are not yet completely integrated into the local circuits helps to ensure that maturation and homeostatic function of neuronal networks in the brain proceed correctly. External signals from brain microenvironment together with intrinsic signaling pathways determine whether a particular neuron will die. To accommodate this signaling, immature neurons in the brain express a number of transmembrane factors as well as intracellular signaling molecules that will regulate the cell survival/death decision, and many of these factors cease being expressed upon neuronal maturation. Furthermore, pro-survival factors and intracellular responses depend on the type of neuron and region of the brain. Thus, in addition to some common neuronal pro-survival signaling, different types of neurons possess a variety of 'neuron type-specific' pro-survival constituents that might help them to adapt for survival in a certain brain region. This review focuses on how immature neurons survive during normal and impaired brain development, both in the embryonic/neonatal brain and in brain regions associated with adult neurogenesis, and emphasizes neuron type-specific mechanisms that help to survive for various types of immature neurons. Importantly, we mainly focus on in vivo data to describe neuronal survival specifically in the brain, without extrapolating data obtained in the PNS or spinal cord, and thus emphasize the influence of the complex brain environment on neuronal survival during development.

  5. Juvenile Resilience and Adult Longevity Explain Residual Populations of the Andean Wax Palm Ceroxylon quindiuense after Deforestation

    PubMed Central

    Sanín, María José; Anthelme, Fabien; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Galeano, Gloria; Bernal, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Wax palms are an important element of the cloud forests in the tropical Andes. Despite heavy deforestation, the density of adults seems to be similar in deforested pastures as in forests. We aimed to infer the mechanisms responsible for this apparent resilience in pastures and we tested two hypotheses to explain it: 1) adult palms survived in pastures because they were spared from logging, and 2) adults occurred in pastures through the resilience of large juvenile rosettes, which survived through subterranean meristems and later developed into adults. For this purpose, we characterized the demographic structure of C. quindiuense in a total of 122 plots of 400 m2 in forests and pastures at two sites with contrasted land use histories in Colombia and Peru. Additionally, we implemented growth models that allowed us to estimate the age of individuals at four sites. These data were combined with information collected from local land managers in order to complete our knowledge on the land use history at each site. At two sites, the presence of old individuals up to 169 years and a wide age range evidenced that, at least, a portion of current adults in pastures were spared from logging at the time of deforestation. However, at the two other sites, the absence of older adults in pastures and the narrow age range of the populations indicated that individuals came exclusively from rosette resilience. These interpretations were consistent with the land use history of sites. In consequence, the combination of the two hypotheses (spared individuals and rosette resilience) explained patterns of C. quindiuense in pastures on a regional scale. Regeneration through subterranean meristems in palms is an important, yet overlooked mechanism of resilience, which occurs in a number of palm species and deserves being integrated in the conceptual framework of disturbance ecology. PMID:24194823

  6. Effect of Membrane Permeability on Survival of Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Locatelli, Francesco; Martin-Malo, Alejandro; Hannedouche, Thierry; Loureiro, Alfredo; Papadimitriou, Menelaos; Wizemann, Volker; Jacobson, Stefan H.; Czekalski, Stanislaw; Ronco, Claudio; Vanholder, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    The effect of high-flux hemodialysis membranes on patient survival has not been unequivocally determined. In this prospective, randomized clinical trial, we enrolled 738 incident hemodialysis patients, stratified them by serum albumin ≤4 and >4 g/dl, and assigned them to either low-flux or high-flux membranes. We followed patients for 3 to 7.5 yr. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed no significant difference between high-flux and low-flux membranes, and a Cox proportional hazards model concurred. Patients with serum albumin ≤4 g/dl had significantly higher survival rates in the high-flux group compared with the low-flux group (P = 0.032). In addition, a secondary analysis revealed that high-flux membranes may significantly improve survival of patients with diabetes. Among those with serum albumin ≤4 g/dl, slightly different effects among patients with and without diabetes suggested a potential interaction between diabetes status and low serum albumin in the reduction of risk conferred by high-flux membranes. In summary, we did not detect a significant survival benefit with either high-flux or low-flux membranes in the population overall, but the use of high-flux membranes conferred a significant survival benefit among patients with serum albumin ≤4 g/dl. The apparent survival benefit among patients who have diabetes and are treated with high-flux membranes requires confirmation given the post hoc nature of our analysis. PMID:19092122

  7. Apparent solubility of drugs in partially crystalline systems.

    PubMed

    Mosharraf, Mitra; Nyström, Christer

    2003-07-01

    Using several griseofulvin samples, representing different solid-state structures, the solubility behavior of drugs in both one-state (totally ordered, semiordered or disordered) and two-state systems was studied. Special attention was directed towards the surface structure of the particles. The partially crystalline samples were obtained by milling the raw material (crystalline standard) or storing the quenched sample (amorphous standard). The solid-state structure of the materials was studied using x-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The saturation concentration of the materials was studied in suspensions containing different dispersion concentrations of drug after centrifugation and filtration, using spectrophotometry. In all cases these dispersion concentrations exceeded the solubility of the drug. The solubilities were plotted vs. dispersion concentrations for each sample. Several solubility plateaus were found. The lowest and highest solubility plateaus corresponded to the solubilities of crystalline and amorphous standards. These plateaus were reached at 8 and 44 microg/mL for crystalline and amorphous griseofulvin standards, respectively. An intermediate plateau served as an indication of the existence of a totally semiordered structure. This was reached at 19 microg/mL for griseofulvin. Any deviation from these plateaus was suggested to be indicative of the existence of heterogeneity on the surface structure, which in most cases could be described as a two state system. In such cases, the apparent solubility was a function of dispersion concentration, until at very high dispersion concentrations (4000-20,000 microg/mL) the saturation concentration of the totally disordered (44 microg/mL) or semiordered (19 microg/mL) one-state phase was reached. No reduction in these values was observed during storage for 50 days. It is thus concluded that, in partially

  8. Three different origins for apparent triploid/diploid mosaics.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Art; Wu, Zhanhe; Darmanian, Artur; Collins, Felicity; Jackson, Julianne

    2003-07-01

    Four apparent triploid/diploid mosaic cases were studied. Three of the cases were detected at prenatal diagnosis and the other was of an intellectually handicapped, dysmorphic boy. Karyotypes were performed in multiple tissues if possible, and the inheritance of microsatellites was studied with DNA from fetal tissues and parental blood. Non-mosaic triploids have a different origin from these mosaics with simple digyny or diandry documented in many cases. Three different mechanisms of origin for these apparent mosaics were detected: (1) chimaerism with karyotypes from two separate zygotes developing into a single individual, (2) delayed digyny, by incorporation of a pronucleus from a second polar body into one embryonic blastomere, and (3) delayed dispermy, similarly, by incorporation of a second sperm pronucleus into one embryonic blastomere. In three of the four cases, there was segregation within the embryos of triploid and diploid cell lines into different tissues from which DNA could be isolated. In case 2 originating by digyny, the same sperm allele at each locus could be detected in both triploid and diploid tissues, which is supportive evidence for the involvement of a single sperm and for true mosaicism rather than chimaerism. Similarly, in case 4 originating by dispermy, the same single ovum allele at each locus could be detected in diploid and triploid tissues, confirming mosaicism. In the chimaeric case (case 3), the diploid line had the karyotype 47,XY,+16 while the triploid line was 69,XXY. This suggests a chimaera, since, in a true mosaic, the triploid line should also contain the additional chromosome 16. Supporting the interpretation of a chimaeric origin for this case, the DNA data showed that the triploidy was consistent with MII non-disjunction (i.e. involving a diploid ovum). In the mosaic cases (1, 2, 4), there was no evidence of the involvement of a diploid sperm or a diploid ova, and in triploid/diploid mosaicism, an origin from a diploid

  9. Contribution of Chlorophyll Fluorescence to the Apparent Reflectance of Vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, P. K. Entcheva; Middleton, E. M.; Kim, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    Current strategies for monitoring the physiologic status of terrestrial vegetation rely on remote sensing reflectance (R) measurements, whi ch provide estimates of relative vegetation vigor based primarily on chlorophyll content. Vegetation chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) offers a non-destructive alternative and a more direct approach for diagnosis of vegetation stress before a significant reduction in chlorophyll content has occurred. Thus, monitoring of vegetation vigor based on CF may allow earlier stress detection and more accurate carbon sequestra tion estimates, than is possible using R data alone. However, the observed apparent vegetation reflectance (Ra) in reality includes contrib utions from both the reflected and fluoresced radiation. The aim of t his study is to determine the relative R and CF fractions contributing to Ra from the vegetation in the red to near-infrared region of the spectrum. The practical objectives of the study are to: 1) evaluate t he relationship between CF and R at the foliar level for corn, soybean, maple; and 2) for corn, determine if the relationship established f or healthy (optimal N) vegetation changes under N defiiency. To obtai n generally applicable results, experimental measurements were conducted on unrelated crop and tree species (maple, soybean and corn), unde r controlled conditions and a gradient of inorganic N fertilization l evels. Optical R spectra and actively induced CF emissions were obtained on the same foliar samples, in conjunction with measurements of p hotosynthetic function, pigment levels, and C and N content. The comm on spectral trends or similarities were examined. On average, 10-20% of apparent R at 685 nm was actually due to CF. The spectral trends in steady and maximum F varied significantly, with Fs (especially red) showing higher ability for species and treatment separation. The relative contribution of ChF to R varied significantly among species, with maple emitting much higher F amounts, as

  10. Cancer survival in England and Wales at the end of the 20th century

    PubMed Central

    Rachet, B; Woods, L M; Mitry, E; Riga, M; Cooper, N; Quinn, M J; Steward, J; Brenner, H; Estève, J; Sullivan, R; Coleman, M P

    2008-01-01

    Survival has risen steadily since the 1970s for most cancers in adults in England and Wales, but persistent inequalities exist between those living in affluent and deprived areas. These differences are not seen for children. For many of the common adult cancers, these inequalities in survival (the ‘deprivation gap') became more marked in the 1990s. This volume presents extended analyses of survival for adults diagnosed during the 14 years 1986–1999 and followed up to 2001, including trends in overall survival in England and Wales and trends in the deprivation gap in survival. The analyses include individual tumour data for 2.2 million cancer patients. This article outlines the structure of the supplement – an article for each of the 20 most common cancers in adults, followed by an expert commentary from one of the leading UK clinicians specialising in malignancies of that organ or system. The available data, quality control and methods of analysis are described here, rather than repeated in each of the 20 articles. We open the discussion between clinicians and epidemiologists on how to interpret the observed trends and inequalities in cancer survival, and we highlight some of the most important contrasts in these very different points of view. Survival improved substantially for adult cancer patients in England and Wales up to the end of the 20th century. Although socioeconomic inequalities in survival are remarkably persistent, the overall patterns suggest that these inequalities are largely avoidable. PMID:18813248

  11. Enhanced reproduction in mallards fed a low level of methylmercury: An apparent case of hormesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Klimstra, J.D.; Stebbins, K.R.

    2010-01-01

    Breeding pairs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed a control diet or a diet containing 0.5 mg/g mercury (Hg) in the form of methylmercury chloride. There were no effects of Hg on adult weights and no overt signs of Hg poisoning in adults. The Hg-containing diet had no effect on fertility of eggs, but hatching success of eggs was significantly higher for females fed 0.5 ??g/g Hg (71.8%) than for controls (57.5%). Survival of ducklings through 6 d of age was the same (97.8%) for controls and mallards fed 0.5 ??g/g mercury. However, the mean number of ducklings produced per female was significantly higher for the pairs fed 0.5 ??g/g Hg (21.4) than for controls (16.8). Although mercury in the parents' diet had no effect on mean duckling weights at hatching, ducklings from parents fed 0.5 mg/g Hg weighed significantly more (mean = 87.2 g) at 6 d of age than did control ducklings (81.0 g). The mean concentration of Hg in eggs laid by parents fed 0.5 ??g/g mercury was 0.81 ??g/g on a wet-weight basis. At this time, one cannot rule out the possibility that low concentrations of Hg in eggs may be beneficial, and this possibility should be considered when setting regulatory thresholds for methylmercury. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  12. Stimulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by physical exercise and enriched environment is disturbed in a CADASIL mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Klein, C.; Schreyer, S.; Kohrs, F. E.; Elhamoury, P.; Pfeffer, A.; Munder, T.; Steiner, B.

    2017-01-01

    In the course of CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy), a dysregulated adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been suggested as a potential mechanism for early cognitive decline. Previous work has shown that mice overexpressing wild type Notch3 and mice overexpressing Notch3 with a CADASIL mutation display impaired cell proliferation and survival of newly born hippocampal neurons prior to vascular abnormalities. Here, we aimed to elucidate how the long-term survival of these newly generated neurons is regulated by Notch3. Knowing that adult neurogenesis can be robustly stimulated by physical exercise and environmental enrichment, we also investigated the influence of such stimuli as potential therapeutic instruments for a dysregulated hippocampal neurogenesis in the CADASIL mouse model. Therefore, young-adult female mice were housed in standard (STD), environmentally enriched (ENR) or running wheel cages (RUN) for either 28 days or 6 months. Mice overexpressing mutated Notch3 and developing CADASIL (TgN3R169C), and mice overexpressing wild type Notch3 (TgN3WT) were used. We found that neurogenic stimulation by RUN and ENR is apparently impaired in both transgenic lines. The finding suggests that a disturbed neurogenic process due to Notch3-dependent micromilieu changes might be one vascular-independent mechanism contributing to cognitive decline observed in CADASIL. PMID:28345617

  13. Earths Climate Sensitivity: Apparent Inconsistencies in Recent Assessments

    DOE PAGES

    Schwartz, Stephen E.; Charlson, Robert J.; Kahn, Ralph; ...

    2014-12-08

    Earth's equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) and forcing of Earth's climate system over the industrial era have been re-examined in two new assessments: the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and a study by Otto et al. (2013). The ranges of these quantities given in these assessments and also in the Fourth (2007) IPCC Assessment are analyzed here within the framework of a planetary energy balance model, taking into account the observed increase in global mean surface temperature over the instrumental record together with best estimates of the rate of increase of planetary heat content.more » This analysis shows systematic differences among the several assessments and apparent inconsistencies within individual assessments. Importantly, the likely range of ECS to doubled CO₂ given in AR5, 1.5–4.5 K/(3.7 W m⁻²) exceeds the range inferred from the assessed likely range of forcing, 1.2–2.9 K/(3.7 W m⁻²), where 3.7 W ⁻² denotes the forcing for doubled CO₂. Such differences underscore the need to identify their causes and reduce the underlying uncertainties. Explanations might involve underestimated negative aerosol forcing, overestimated total forcing, overestimated climate sensitivity, poorly constrained ocean heating, limitations of the energy balance model, or a combination of effects.« less

  14. Apparent Optical Properties in Waters Influenced by the Mississippi River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Sa, E.; Miller, R. L.; McKee, B. A.; Trzaska, R.

    2002-01-01

    In-water downwelling irradiance (E(sub d)) and upwelling radiance (L(sub u)) were measured in coastal waters influenced by the Mississippi River at wavelengths corresponding to SeaWiFS spectral bands in April of 2000. Results of derived apparent optical properties (AOP's) such as spectral diffise attenuation coefficient for downwelling irradiance (K(sub d)) suggest that they are mainly influenced by phytoplankton chlorophyll. Large variations in chlorophyll concentrations (0.2 to greater than 10 mg per cubic meters) correspond to variations in K(sub d) at 443 nm ranging from about 0.1 to greater than 1.5 per meter. Attenuation values at 443 nm generally peaked (or were minimal at 555 nm) at depths where chlorophyll concentrations were high. Above water remote sensing reflectance R(sub rs) (443) derived from E(sub d) and L(sub u) shows good agreement to surface chlorophyll. Ratios of remote sensing reflectance, R(sub rs)(443/R(sub rs)(555)versus chlorophyll suggests a potential for obtaining a suitable bio-optical algorithm for the region influenced by the Mississippi River.

  15. Apparent mineralocorticoid excess: time of manifestation and complications despite treatment.

    PubMed

    Knops, Noël B B; Monnens, Leo A; Lenders, Jacques W; Levtchenko, Elena N

    2011-06-01

    Here we describe the case of a patient followed from birth because of a positive family history for apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) in an older brother. The patient, a girl, had normal serum electrolyte and blood pressure measurements in the first months after birth. Not until the age of 11 months did she develop anorexia and failure to thrive in combination with hypertension, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis, which are consistent with the diagnosis of AME. This diagnosis was confirmed by mutation analysis of the HSD11B2 gene (C1228T). Treatment with amiloride and furosemide electrolyte disturbances normalized her blood pressure. At the age of 19 years she unexpectedly suffered a stroke. Additional investigations revealed no accepted risk factor for stroke. We discuss the possible underlying mechanisms for the delayed manifestation of hypertension and electrolyte disturbances in AME, propose an additional explanation for the stroke in this patient, and advise treatment with a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist to reduce stroke risk in patients with AME.

  16. Detection of betanodaviruses in apparently healthy aquarium fishes and invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Dennis Kaw; Lim, Dong Joo; Baeck, Gun Wook; Youn, Hee Jeong; Shin, Nam Shik; Youn, Hwa Young; Hwang, Cheol Yong; Park, Jun Hong

    2006-01-01

    Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in cultured marine fish. A total of 237 apparently healthy aquarium fish, marine (65 species) and freshwater (12 species) fishes and marine invertebrates (4 species), which were stocked in a commercial aquarium in Seoul, South Korea, were collected from November 2005 to February 2006. The brains of the fish and other tissues of the invertebrates were examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested PCR to detect betanodavirus. Positive nested PCR results were obtained from the brains of 8 marine fish species (shrimp fish Aeoliscus strigatus, milkfish Chanos chanos, three spot damsel Dascyllus trimaculatus, Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus, pinecone fish Monocentris japonica, blue ribbon eel Rhinomuraena quaesita, look down fish Selene vomer, yellow tang Zebrasoma flavesenes), 1 marine invertebrate species (spiny lobster Pamulirus versicolor), and 2 freshwater fish species (South American leaf fish Monocirrhus polyacanthus and red piranha Pygocentrus nattereri). The detection rate in nested PCR was 11/237 (4.64%). These subclinically infected aquarium fish and invertebrates may constitute an inoculum source of betanodaviruses for cultured fishes in the Korean Peninsula. PMID:17106229

  17. OH Column Abundance Apparent Response to Solar Cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, C. R.; Minschwaner, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    The 33-year series of high spectral resolution measurements of absorption of sunlight by OH at 308 nm has exhibited temporary decreases of column abundances in 1986, 1997, and 2008 near the times of minimum solar activity. These observations and analyses are of significance as they encompass three complete solar cycles for comparison. During solar cycle 23, the annual average abundances increased approximately 20% from the minimum abundance in 1997 to high-sun enhanced values in 2000-2006, then dropped approximately 15% in 2008. The abundances exhibited a pronounced reduction at solar minimum in August-October 2008, similar to that seen in fall 1986 and fall 1997. The average morning abundances on those occasions were 13% smaller than the 1980-88 corresponding average, about 0.9 x 1013 cm-2, with minimum values broadly consistent with model results. In contrast, high-sun OH abundances observed during periods of solar maximum are approximately 33% larger than modeled abundances. This discrepancy cannot be explained by reasonable adjustments of reaction rates or modeled constituent concentrations in the stratosphere or mesosphere. However, the observed responses to a tropopause fold event in 1988 and to the Pinatubo aerosol in 1991 do suggest an important contribution to the total OH column from the lower stratosphere. In addition to the apparent variations with solar activity, this OH column database contains a number of other effects such as diurnal and seasonal patterns, and geographic differences between observations from Colorado, Florida, Alaska, Micronesia, New Zealand, and New Mexico.

  18. Knoop Hardness - Apparent Yield Stress Relationship in Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Swab, Jeffrey J; LaSalvia, Jerry; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Strong, Kevin T; Danna, Dominic; Ragan, Meredith E; Ritt, Patrick J

    2012-01-01

    In Tabor's classical studies of the deformation of metals, the yield stress (Y) and hardness (H) were shown to be related according to H/Y {approx} 3 for complete or fully plastic deformation. Since then it has been anecdotally shown for ceramics that this ratio is <3. Interest exists to explore this further so Hertzian indentation was used to measure the apparent yield stress of numerous ceramics and metals and their results were compared with each material's load-dependent Knoop hardness. The evaluated ceramics included standard reference materials for hardness (silicon nitride and tungsten carbide), silicon carbide, alumina, and glass. Several steel compositions were also tested for comparison. Knoop hardness measurements at 19.6 N (i.e., toward 'complete or fully plastic deformation'), showed that 2 < H/Y < 3 for the metals and 0.8 < H/Y < 1.8 for the glasses and ceramics. Being that H/Y {ne} 3 for the ceramics indicates that Tabor's analysis is either not applicable to ceramics or that full plastic deformation is not achieved with a Knoop indentation or both.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of hexobarbital in acute hepatitis and after apparent recovery.

    PubMed

    Breimer, D D; Zilly, W; Richter, E

    1975-10-01

    The pharmacokinetics of hexobarbital were studied in 13 patients with acute hepatitis. Hexobarbital sodium was administered by zero order intravenous (iv) infusion, and plasma concentrations were determined regularly by gas chromatography. For each patient the data were fitted according to 2-compartment kinetics. The results were compared to those obtained for 14 healthy volunteers. The elimination half-life of hexobarbital was 490 +/- 186 min in the hepatitis patients and 261 +/- 69 min in the control group. Clearance was significantly reduced in the hepatitis group, whereas the volume of distribution at steady state was not significantly altered. For some patients the initial distribution volume was reduced. In 6 patients the experiment with hexobarbital was repeated after apparent recovery from hepatitis as judged by normal transaminase and bilirubin levels. Generally the half-life of hexobarbital was shorter and the clearance value was higher than during the acute illness, but the values had not yet returned to normal. Clinical recovery from liver disease is not accompanied by corresponding recovery of drug-metabolizing capability.

  20. Apparent thermal conductivity measurements by an unguarded technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, R. S.; Yarbrough, D. W.; McElroy, D. L.

    An unguarded longitudinal heat flow apparatus for measuring the apparent thermal conductivity (lambda/sub a) of insulations was tested. Heat flow is provided by a horizontal electrically heated Nichrome screen sandwiched between test samples that are bounded by temperature controlled copper plates and 9 cm of mineral fiber insulation. A determinate error analysis shows lambda/sub a/ measurement uncertainty to be less than + or - 1.7% for insulating materials as thin as 3 cm. Three-dimensional thermal modeling indicates negligible error in lambda/sub a/ due to edge loss for insulations up to 7.62 cm thick when the temperature difference across the sample is measured at the screen center. System repeatability and reproducibility were determined to be + or - 0.2%. Differences of lambda/sub a/ results from the screen tester and results from the National Bureau of Standards were 0.1% for a 10-kg/m(3) Calibration Transfer Standard and 0.9% for 127-kg/m(3) fibrous glass board (SRM 1450b). Measurements on fiberglass and rock wool batt insulations showed the dependence of lambda/sub a/ on density, temperature, temperature difference, plate emittance, and heat flow direction. Results obtained for lambda/sub a/ as a function of density at 240C differed by less than 2% from values obtained with a guarded hot plate. It is demonstrated that this simple technique has the accuracy and sensitivity needed for useful lambda/sub a/ measurements on thermal insulating materials.

  1. Apparent Transition Behavior of Widely-Used Turbulence Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.

    2006-01-01

    The Spalart-Allmaras and the Menter SST kappa-omega turbulence models are shown to have the undesirable characteristic that, for fully turbulent computations, a transition region can occur whose extent varies with grid density. Extremely fine two-dimensional grids over the front portion of an airfoil are used to demonstrate the effect. As the grid density is increased, the laminar region near the nose becomes larger. In the Spalart-Allmaras model this behavior is due to convergence to a laminar-behavior fixed point that occurs in practice when freestream turbulence is below some threshold. It is the result of a feature purposefully added to the original model in conjunction with a special trip function. This degenerate fixed point can also cause nonuniqueness regarding where transition initiates on a given grid. Consistent fully turbulent results can easily be achieved by either using a higher freestream turbulence level or by making a simple change to one of the model constants. Two-equation kappa-omega models, including the SST model, exhibit strong sensitivity to numerical resolution near the area where turbulence initiates. Thus, inconsistent apparent transition behavior with grid refinement in this case does not appear to stem from the presence of a degenerate fixed point. Rather, it is a fundamental property of the kappa-omega model itself, and is not easily remedied.

  2. Apparent Transition Behavior of Widely-Used Turbulence Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.

    2007-01-01

    The Spalart-Allmaras and the Menter SST k-omega turbulence models are shown to have the undesirable characteristic that, for fully turbulent computations, a transition region can occur whose extent varies with grid density. Extremely fine two-dimensional grids over the front portion of an airfoil are used to demonstrate the effect. As the grid density is increased, the laminar region near the nose becomes larger. In the Spalart-Allmaras model this behavior is due to convergence to a laminar-behavior fixed point that occurs in practice when freestream turbulence is below some threshold. It is the result of a feature purposefully added to the original model in conjunction with a special trip function. This degenerate fixed point can also cause non-uniqueness regarding where transition initiates on a given grid. Consistent fully turbulent results can easily be achieved by either using a higher freestream turbulence level or by making a simple change to one of the model constants. Two-equation k-omega models, including the SST model, exhibit strong sensitivity to numerical resolution near the area where turbulence initiates. Thus, inconsistent apparent transition behavior with grid refinement in this case does not appear to stem from the presence of a degenerate fixed point. Rather, it is a fundamental property of the k-omega model itself, and is not easily remedied.

  3. Short-duration radio bursts with apparent extragalactic dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Saint-Hilaire, P.; Benz, A. O.; Monstein, C.

    2014-11-01

    We present the results of the longest yet undertaken search for apparently extragalactic radio bursts at the Bleien Radio Observatory covering 21,000 hr (898 days). The data were searched for events of less than 50 ms FWHM duration showing a ν{sup –2} drift in the spectrogram characteristic of the delay of radio waves in plasma. We have found five cases suggesting dispersion measures between 350 and 400 cm{sup –3} pc while searching in the range of 75-2000 cm{sup –3} pc. Four of the five events occurred between 10:27 and 11:24 a.m. local civil time. The only exception occurred at night with the full Moon in the beam. It was an event that poorly fits plasma dispersion, but had the characteristics of a solar Type III burst. However, we were not able to confirm that it was a lunar reflection. All events were observed with a log-periodic dipole within 6800 hr, but none with a more directional horn antenna observing the rest of the time. These properties suggest a terrestrial origin of the 'peryton' type reported before. However, the cause of these events remains ambiguous.

  4. Earths Climate Sensitivity: Apparent Inconsistencies in Recent Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Stephen E.; Charlson, Robert J.; Kahn, Ralph; Rodhe, Henning

    2014-12-08

    Earth's equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) and forcing of Earth's climate system over the industrial era have been re-examined in two new assessments: the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and a study by Otto et al. (2013). The ranges of these quantities given in these assessments and also in the Fourth (2007) IPCC Assessment are analyzed here within the framework of a planetary energy balance model, taking into account the observed increase in global mean surface temperature over the instrumental record together with best estimates of the rate of increase of planetary heat content. This analysis shows systematic differences among the several assessments and apparent inconsistencies within individual assessments. Importantly, the likely range of ECS to doubled CO₂ given in AR5, 1.5–4.5 K/(3.7 W m⁻²) exceeds the range inferred from the assessed likely range of forcing, 1.2–2.9 K/(3.7 W m⁻²), where 3.7 W ⁻² denotes the forcing for doubled CO₂. Such differences underscore the need to identify their causes and reduce the underlying uncertainties. Explanations might involve underestimated negative aerosol forcing, overestimated total forcing, overestimated climate sensitivity, poorly constrained ocean heating, limitations of the energy balance model, or a combination of effects.

  5. The influence of spontaneous brain oscillations on apparent motion perception.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Lia Lira Olivier; Auksztulewicz, Ryszard; Hohlefeld, Friederike U; Busch, Niko A; Sterzer, Philipp

    2014-11-15

    A good example of inferential processes in perception is long-range apparent motion (AM), the illusory percept of visual motion that occurs when two spatially distinct stationary visual objects are presented in alternating sequence. The AM illusion is strongest at presentation frequencies around 3 Hz. At lower presentation frequencies, the percept varies from trial to trial between AM and sequential alternation, while at higher frequencies perception varies between AM and two simultaneously flickering objects. Previous studies have demonstrated that prestimulus alpha oscillations explain trial-to-trial variability in detection performance for visual stimuli presented at threshold. In the present study, we investigated whether fluctuations of prestimulus alpha oscillations can also account for variations in AM perception. Prestimulus alpha power was stronger when observers reported AM perception in subsequent trials with low presentation frequencies, while at high presentation frequencies there were no significant differences in alpha power preceding AM and veridical flicker perception. Moreover, when observers perceived AM the prestimulus functional connectivity between frontal and occipital channels was increased in the alpha band, as revealed by the imaginary part of coherency, which is insensitive to artefacts from volume conduction. Dynamic causal modelling of steady-state responses revealed that the most likely direction of this fronto-occipital connectivity was from frontal to occipital sources. These results point to a role of ongoing alpha oscillations in the inferential process that gives rise to the perception of AM and suggest that fronto-occipital interactions bias perception towards internally generated predictions.

  6. Apparent Interfacial Fracture Toughness of Resin/Ceramic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Della Bona, A.; Anusavice, K.J.; Mecholsky, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    We suggest that the apparent interfacial fracture toughness (KA) may be estimated by fracture mechanics and fractography. This study tested the hypothesis that the KA of the adhesion zone of resin/ceramic systems is affected by the ceramic microstructure. Lithia disilicate-based (Empress2-E2) and leucite-based (Empress-E1) ceramics were surface-treated with hydrofluoric acid (HF) and/or silane (S), followed by an adhesive resin. Microtensile test specimens (n = 30; area of 1 ± 0.01 mm2) were indented (9.8 N) at the interface and loaded to failure in tension. We used tensile strength (σ) and the critical crack size (c) to calculate KA (KA = Yσc1/2) (Y = 1.65). ANOVA and Weibull analyses were used for statistical analyses. Mean KA (MPa•m1/2) values were: (E1HF) 0.26 ± 0.06; (E1S) 0.23 ± 0.06; (E1HFS) 0.30 ± 0.06; (E2HF) 0.31 ± 0.06; (E2S) 0.13 ± 0.05; and (E2HFS) 0.41 ± 0.07. All fractures originated from indentation sites. Estimation of interfacial toughness was feasible by fracture mechanics and fractography. The KA for the systems tested was affected by the ceramic microstructure and surface treatment. PMID:17062746

  7. Estimating phosphorus concentrations following alum treatment using apparent settling velocity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panuska, John; Robertson, Dale M.

    2009-01-01

    he apparent settling velocity (Vs) is a term used in empirical, steady-state, mass-balance lake models to represent the net phosphorus flux from the water column. The Vollenweider (1969) mixed-reactor lake