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Sample records for adult asian citrus

  1. Acquisition, Replication and Inoculation of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus following Various Acquisition Periods on Huanglongbing-Infected Citrus by Nymphs and Adults of the Asian Citrus Psyllid

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Ramos, John E.; Hall, David G.; Dawson, William O.; Shatters, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is the primary vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) implicated as causative agent of citrus huanglongbing (citrus greening), currently the most serious citrus disease worldwide. Las is transmitted by D. citri in a persistent-circulative manner, but the question of replication of this bacterium in its psyllid vector has not been resolved. Thus, we studied the effects of the acquisition access period (AAP) by nymphs and adults of D. citri on Las acquisition, multiplication and inoculation/transmission. D. citri nymphs or adults (previously non-exposed to Las) were caged on Las-infected citrus plants for an AAP of 1, 7 or 14 days. These ‘Las-exposed’ psyllids were then transferred weekly to healthy citrus or orange jasmine plants, and sampled via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis 1–42 days post-first access to diseased plants (padp); all tested nymphs became adults 7–14 days padp. Our results indicate that following 1 or 7 day AAP as nymphs 49–59% of Las-exposed psyllids became Las-infected (qPCR-positive), whereas only 8–29% of the psyllids were infected following 1–14 day AAP as adults. Q-PCR analysis also indicated that Las titer in the Las-exposed psyllids (relative to that of the psyllid S20 ribosomal protein gene) was: 1) significantly higher, and increasing at a faster rate, following Las acquisition as nymphs compared to that following Las acquisition as adults; 2) higher as post-acquisition time of psyllids on healthy plants increased reaching a peak at 14–28 days padp for nymphs and 21–35 days padp for adults, with Las titer decreasing or fluctuating after that; 3) higher with longer AAP on infected plants, especially with acquisition as adults. Our results strongly suggest that Las multiplies in both nymphs and adults of D. citri but attains much higher levels in a shorter period of time post-acquisition when acquired by nymphs than when

  2. Characterization of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Justin; Christenson, Matthew K.; Leng, Nan; Saha, Surya; Cantarel, Brandi; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia; MacCarthy, Justin; Weaver, Daniel; Trease, Andrew J.; Ready, Steven V.; Davis, Vincent M.; McCormick, Courtney; Haudenschild, Christian; Han, Shunsheng; Johnson, Shannon L.; Shelby, Kent S.; Huang, Hong; Bextine, Blake R.; Shatters, Robert G.; Hall, David G.; Davis, Paul H.; Hunter, Wayne B.

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a vector for the causative agents of Huanglongbing, which threatens citrus production worldwide. This study reports and discusses the first D. citri transcriptomes, encompassing the three main life stages of D. citri, egg, nymph and adult. The transcriptomes were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) and insecticide-related genes within each life stage were identified to aid the development of future D. citri insecticides. Transcriptome assemblies and other sequence data are available for download at the International Asian Citrus Psyllid Genome Consortium website [http://psyllid.org/download] and at NCBI [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/29447]. PMID:24511328

  3. Acquisition, replication and inoculation of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus following various acquisition periods on Huanglongbing-infected citrus by nymphs and adults of the Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is the primary vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) implicated as causative agent of citrus huanglongbing (citrus greening), currently the most serious citrus disease worldwide. Las is transmitted by D. citri in a persist...

  4. Retracted stylets in nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid are held externally against the clypeus by a special paired organ not found in the adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in ultrastructure of the mouthparts in nymphs and adults of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera, Psyllidae), vector of the bacterium associated with citrus huanglongbing disease, were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The number of sensilla on the labial tip in...

  5. Ecology of the Asian citrus pysllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host selection by psyllids in general appears to involve taste rather than olfaction. Adults are often less discriminating than nymphs. A priori, there is good reason to doubt that Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) uses a long-distance sex pheromone or that ACP orients to host plant volatiles over large (m...

  6. Oral delivery of double-stranded RNAs induces mortality in nymphs and adults of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri

    PubMed Central

    Galdeano, Diogo Manzano; Breton, Michèle Claire; Lopes, João Roberto Spotti; Falk, Bryce W.

    2017-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is one of the most important citrus pests. ACP is the vector of the phloem-limited bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter americanus and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agents of the devastating citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB). The management of HLB is based on the use of healthy young plants, eradication of infected plants and chemical control of the vector. RNA interference (RNAi) has proven to be a promising tool to control pests and explore gene functions. Recently, studies have reported that target mRNA knockdown in many insects can be induced through feeding with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). In the current study, we targeted the cathepsin D, chitin synthase and inhibitor of apoptosis genes of adult and nymph ACP by feeding artificial diets mixed with dsRNAs and Murraya paniculata leaves placed in dsRNAs solutions, respectively. Adult ACP mortality was positively correlated with the amount of dsRNA used. Both nymphs and adult ACP fed dsRNAs exhibited significantly increased mortality over time compared with that of the controls. Moreover, qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the dsRNA-mediated RNAi effects on target mRNAs. These results showed that RNAi can be a powerful tool for gene function studies in ACP and perhaps for HLB control. PMID:28282380

  7. Oral delivery of double-stranded RNAs induces mortality in nymphs and adults of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri.

    PubMed

    Galdeano, Diogo Manzano; Breton, Michèle Claire; Lopes, João Roberto Spotti; Falk, Bryce W; Machado, Marcos Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is one of the most important citrus pests. ACP is the vector of the phloem-limited bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter americanus and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agents of the devastating citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB). The management of HLB is based on the use of healthy young plants, eradication of infected plants and chemical control of the vector. RNA interference (RNAi) has proven to be a promising tool to control pests and explore gene functions. Recently, studies have reported that target mRNA knockdown in many insects can be induced through feeding with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). In the current study, we targeted the cathepsin D, chitin synthase and inhibitor of apoptosis genes of adult and nymph ACP by feeding artificial diets mixed with dsRNAs and Murraya paniculata leaves placed in dsRNAs solutions, respectively. Adult ACP mortality was positively correlated with the amount of dsRNA used. Both nymphs and adult ACP fed dsRNAs exhibited significantly increased mortality over time compared with that of the controls. Moreover, qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the dsRNA-mediated RNAi effects on target mRNAs. These results showed that RNAi can be a powerful tool for gene function studies in ACP and perhaps for HLB control.

  8. Probing behaviors of adult Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)are not appreciably affected by soil application of field-rate aldicarb to citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2005, Huanglongbing disease (HLB), also known as citrus greening, was discovered in Florida. The presumptive causal agent of this disease is the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), which is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid,Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. Following ...

  9. Survival of adult Tamarixia radiata subjected to different short-term storage methods prior to field releases for biological control of Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tamarixia radiata is regarded as one of the Asian citrus psyllid’s most important natural enemies and is thus currently being mass-reared and released by a number of laboratories in North America. It may not always be possible to immediately release newly-emerged adults, in which case it would be a...

  10. 7 CFR 301.76-3 - Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus psyllid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-3 Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus...

  11. 7 CFR 301.76-3 - Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus psyllid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-3 Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus...

  12. 7 CFR 301.76-3 - Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus psyllid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-3 Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus...

  13. 7 CFR 301.76-3 - Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus psyllid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-3 Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus...

  14. Survival of adult Tamarixia radiata subjected to different short-term storage methods prior to field releases for biological control of Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tamarixia radiata is an insect parasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid. The psyllid is an important pest of citrus because it vectors pathogens responsible for a serious disease of citrus known as huanglongbing (also known as citrus greening or yellow shoot disease). T. radiata is regarded as one of ...

  15. 7 CFR 301.76-2 - Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus greening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-2 Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and...

  16. 7 CFR 301.76-2 - Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus greening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-2 Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and...

  17. 7 CFR 301.76-2 - Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus greening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-2 Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and...

  18. A comparison of plant species for rearing Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five plant genotypes were compared with respect to Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) reproduction potential: Bergera koenigii, Citrus aurantiifolia, C. macrophylla, C. taiwanica and Murraya paniculata. Asian citrus psyllid reproduction is dependent on young flush and thus Asian citrus psyllid production po...

  19. Behavioral, Ultrastructural and Chemical Studies on the Honeydew and Waxy Secretions by Nymphs and Adults of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Alessandro, Rocco; Shatters Jr, Robert G.; Hall, David G.

    2013-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is the primary vector of the bacterium causing citrus huanglongbing (citrus greening), the most serious disease of citrus worldwide. Psyllids and other hemipterans produce large amounts of honeydew, which has been used previously as an indicator of phloem sap composition and insect feeding or metabolism. Behavioral, ultrastructural and chemical studies on ACP, its honeydew and waxy secretions showed important differences between nymphs, males and females, and suggested some mechanisms by which the psyllids, especially nymphs and adult females, can minimize their contamination with honeydew excretions. The anal opening in ACP, near the posterior end of the abdomen, is on the ventral side in nymphs and on the dorsal side in adult males and females. Video recordings showed that adult males produce clear sticky droplets of honeydew gently deposited behind their body on the leaf surface, whereas adult females produce whitish honeydew pellets powerfully propelled away from the female body, probably to get their excretions away from eggs and newly hatched nymphs. ACP nymphs produce long ribbons or tubes of honeydew that frequently stay attached to the exuviae after molting, or drop when feeding on the lower side of citrus leaves. Furthermore, honeydew excretions of both nymphs and adult females are covered with a thin layer of whitish waxy material ultrastructurally composed of a convoluted network of long fine filaments or ribbons. This material is extruded from intricate arrays of wax pores in the circumanal ring (around the anus) that is found in nymphs and females but not in males of ACP or other psyllid species. Infrared microscopy and mass spectroscopy revealed that, in addition to various sugars, honeydew excretions of ACP nymphs and females are covered with a thin layer of wax similar in profile to ester waxes. PMID:23762268

  20. Spectral sensitivity of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian Citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, as a vector of the bacteria causing citrus greening, is considered one of the most important citrus pests globally. Movement of infected psyllids onto uninfected young citrus remains a key concern for the maintenance of citrus production. Attraction of d...

  1. Asian citrus psyllid genome (Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Psyllid genome is a scientific breakthrough in that it opens the psyllid genetic blueprint to investigations of all questions ranging from taxonomic origins to the understanding of developmental biology, to the acquisition and transmission of pathogens. The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri...

  2. Toxicity of pesticides to Tamarixia radiata, a parasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixteen pesticides including two fungicides were evaluated for toxicity to adult Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Percentage mortality data were evaluated to generally assess IPM-com...

  3. Asian Citrus Psyllid Expression Profiles Suggest Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus-Mediated Alteration of Adult Nutrition and Metabolism, and of Nymphal Development and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    He, Ruifeng; Nelson, William; Yin, Guohua; Cicero, Joseph M.; Willer, Mark; Kim, Ryan; Kramer, Robin; May, Greg A.; Crow, John A.; Soderlund, Carol A.; Gang, David R.; Brown, Judith K.

    2015-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is the insect vector of the fastidious bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of citrus greening disease, or Huanglongbing (HLB). The widespread invasiveness of the psyllid vector and HLB in citrus trees worldwide has underscored the need for non-traditional approaches to manage the disease. One tenable solution is through the deployment of RNA interference technology to silence protein-protein interactions essential for ACP-mediated CLas invasion and transmission. To identify psyllid interactor-bacterial effector combinations associated with psyllid-CLas interactions, cDNA libraries were constructed from CLas-infected and CLas-free ACP adults and nymphs, and analyzed for differential expression. Library assemblies comprised 24,039,255 reads and yielded 45,976 consensus contigs. They were annotated (UniProt), classified using Gene Ontology, and subjected to in silico expression analyses using the Transcriptome Computational Workbench (TCW) (http://www.sohomoptera.org/ACPPoP/). Functional-biological pathway interpretations were carried out using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. Differentially expressed contigs in adults and/or nymphs represented genes and/or metabolic/pathogenesis pathways involved in adhesion, biofilm formation, development-related, immunity, nutrition, stress, and virulence. Notably, contigs involved in gene silencing and transposon-related responses were documented in a psyllid for the first time. This is the first comparative transcriptomic analysis of ACP adults and nymphs infected and uninfected with CLas. The results provide key initial insights into host-parasite interactions involving CLas effectors that contribute to invasion-virulence, and to host nutritional exploitation and immune-related responses that appear to be essential for successful ACP-mediated circulative, propagative CLas transmission. PMID

  4. Comparison of Potato and Asian Citrus Psyllid Adult and Nymph Transcriptomes Identified Vector Transcripts with Potential Involvement in Circulative, Propagative Liberibacter Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Tonja W.; Vyas, Meenal; He, Ruifeng; Nelson, William; Cicero, Joseph M.; Willer, Mark; Kim, Ryan; Kramer, Robin; May, Greg A.; Crow, John A.; Soderlund, Carol A.; Gang, David R.; Brown, Judith K.

    2014-01-01

    The potato psyllid (PoP) Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) and Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama are the insect vectors of the fastidious plant pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (CLso) and Ca. L. asiaticus (CLas), respectively. CLso causes Zebra chip disease of potato and vein-greening in solanaceous species, whereas, CLas causes citrus greening disease. The reliance on insecticides for vector management to reduce pathogen transmission has increased interest in alternative approaches, including RNA interference to abate expression of genes essential for psyllid-mediated Ca. Liberibacter transmission. To identify genes with significantly altered expression at different life stages and conditions of CLso/CLas infection, cDNA libraries were constructed for CLso-infected and -uninfected PoP adults and nymphal instars. Illumina sequencing produced 199,081,451 reads that were assembled into 82,224 unique transcripts. PoP and the analogous transcripts from ACP adult and nymphs reported elsewhere were annotated, organized into functional gene groups using the Gene Ontology classification system, and analyzed for differential in silico expression. Expression profiles revealed vector life stage differences and differential gene expression associated with Liberibacter infection of the psyllid host, including invasion, immune system modulation, nutrition, and development. PMID:25436509

  5. Synthetic substrate-borne vibrational signals that elicit Asian citrus psyllid communicatory and search responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vectors a harmful bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, that causes huanglongbing, an economically devastating disease of citrus. Adult male and female ACP transmit vibratory communication signals over 10-50-cm distances within their...

  6. Greenhouse investigations on the effect of guava on infestations of Asian citrus psyllid in grapefruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reports from Vietnam indicate interplanting guava with citrus dramatically reduces infestations of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri). We therefore conducted greenhouse studies to assess the effect of different guava cultivars on adult psyllids. The effects of cotton and tomato were also evalu...

  7. Annotation of the Asian citrus psyllid genome reveals a reduced innate immune system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus production worldwide is currently facing significant losses due to citrus greening disease, also known as huanglongbing. The citrus greening bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), is a persistent propagative pathogen transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuway...

  8. Ontogenic variation in citrus flush shoots and its relation with host plant finding and acceptance by Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a destructive insect mainly because it vectors the bacterial pathogens that cause the deadly and incurable citrus greening disease. Diaphorina citri adult females lay eggs and immature development occurs exclusively on new flush sh...

  9. Comparative anaylsis of Asian citrus psyllid and potato psyllid antennae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The comparative investigation of the morphological basis for olfactory reception in the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) and the potato/tomato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) was performed using scanning electron microscopy to elucidate the antennal sensory arrays being...

  10. Asian citrus psyllid, huanglongbing and the orange jasmine conundrum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is an important invasive pest in Florida because it vectors a bacterium ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ (LAS) responsible for a devastating citrus disease known as huanglongbing (HLB). Soon after finding HLB in Florida, concerns arose that orange jasmine in urban areas wo...

  11. Behavioral assay on Asian citrus psyllid attraction to orange jasmine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is an important pest because it transmits a bacterium putatively responsible for huanglongbing, a devastating citrus disease. Research on ACP chemical ecology is of interest with respect to identifying attractants and repellents for managing the psyllid. We report on a...

  12. An evaluation of candidate repellents against Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is an important pest because it transmits a bacterium putatively responsible for huanglongbing, a devastating citrus disease. Research on ACP chemical ecology is of interest with respect to identifying attractants and repellents for managing the psyllid. With respect t...

  13. A phagostimulant blend for the Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical cues that condition orientation by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), are of great interest because it is the primary vector of the causal pathogen of citrus greening disease. Previous work in our lab identified a blend of formic and acetic acids as s...

  14. Asian Citrus Psyllid RNAi Pathway – RNAi evidence

    PubMed Central

    Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Andrade, Eduardo C.; Hunter, Wayne B.; Christiaens, Olivier; Smagghe, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Diaphorina citri, known as the Asian citrus psyllid, is an important pest of citrus because it transmits a phloem-limited bacteria strongly implicated in huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). Emerging biotechnologies, such as RNA interference, could provide a new sustainable and environmentally friendly strategy for the management of this pest. In this study, genome and functional analysis were performed to verify whether the RNAi core genes are present in the Asian psyllid genome and if the RNAi machinery could be exploited to develop a management strategy for this pest. Analyses of RNAi-related genes in the Asian citrus psyllid genome showed an absence of sequences encoding R2D2, a dsRNA-binding protein that functions as a cofactor of Dicer-2 in Drosophila. Nevertheless, bioassays using an in Planta System showed that the Asian citrus psyllid was very sensitive to ingested dsRNA, demonstrating a strong RNAi response. A small dose of dsRNA administered through a citrus flush was enough to trigger the RNAi mechanism, causing significant suppression of the targeted transcript, and increased psyllid mortality. This study provides evidence of a functional RNAi machinery, which could be further exploited to develop RNAi based management strategies for the control of the Asian citrus psyllid. PMID:27901078

  15. Antennal and behavioral response of the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) to degradation products of citrus volatiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) vectors the bacterial causal pathogen of the deadly citrus disease, Huanglongbing (citrus greening) which is a major threat to citrus industry worldwide. We studied antennal and behavioral responses to principal components of head...

  16. Differences in Stylet Sheath Occurrence and the Fibrous Ring (Sclerenchyma) between xCitroncirus Plants Relatively Resistant or Susceptible to Adults of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Richardson, Matthew L.; Abdo, Zaid; Hall, David G.; Shatters, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera: Liviidae), is the principal vector of the phloem-limited bacteria strongly associated with huanglongbing (HLB), the world’s most serious disease of citrus. Host plant resistance may provide an environmentally safe and sustainable method of controlling ACP and/or HLB. Two xCitroncirus accessions (hybrids of Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus spp.), that are relatively resistant (UN-3881) or relatively susceptible (Troyer-1459) to ACP adults with regard to adult longevity, were compared in relation to ACP feeding behavior and some structural features of the leaf midrib. The settling (putative feeding/probing) sites of ACP adults on various parts of the leaf were not influenced primarily by plant accession. However, fewer ACP stylet sheaths were found in the midrib and fewer stylet sheath termini reached the vascular bundle (phloem and/or xylem) in UN-3881 compared to Troyer-1459 plants. Furthermore, in midribs of UN-3881 leaves the fibrous ring (sclerenchyma) around the phloem was significantly wider (thicker) compared to that in midribs of Troyer-1459 leaves. Our data indicate that feeding and/or probing by ACP adults into the vascular bundle is less frequent in the more resistant (UN-3881) than in the more susceptible (Troyer-1459) accessions. Our results also suggest that the thickness of the fibrous ring may be a barrier to stylet penetration into the vascular bundle, which is important for successful ACP feeding on the phloem and for transmitting HLB-associated bacteria. These results may help in the development of citrus plants resistant to ACP, which in turn could halt or slow the spread of the HLB-associated bacteria by this vector. PMID:25343712

  17. Asian citrus psyllid genome (Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera)-Update 2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The psyllid genome is a scientific breakthrough that opens the psyllid genetic blueprint to investigations of all questions ranging from taxonomic origins to the understanding of developmental biology, to the acquisition and transmission of pathogens. The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemi...

  18. Comparative analysis of Asian citrus psyllid and Potato psyllid antennae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The comparative investigation of the morphological basis for olfactory reception in two psyllid species, Diaphorina citri (the Asian citrus psyllid), and Bacterocera cockerelli (the potato/tomato psyllid) (both species Hemiptera:Psyllidae) was performed using scanning electron microscopy to elucidat...

  19. Degradation products of citrus volatile organic compounds (VOCs) acting as phagostimulants that increase probing behavior of Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile phytochemicals play a role in orientation by phytophagous insects. We studied antennal and behavioral responses of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vector of the citrus greening disease pathogen. Little or no response to citrus leaf volatiles was detected by electroanten...

  20. Incidence of invasive Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its introduced parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Florida citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) vectors the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, one of the causal organisms of Huanglongbing or citrus greening, a devastating disease of citrus. A eulophid parasitoid, Tamarixia radiata Waterson, was imported ...

  1. Antennal response of the Asian citrus psyllid to citrus volatiles and their degradation product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian citrus psyllid antennae reacted strongly when stimulated with citral and ocimene stimulus tubes that had been aged for 3-5 days. When 20 µl of neat ocimene or citral were aged on filter paper strips in sealed Pasteur pipette stimulus tubes for 6 days on the laboratory bench, voltage changes we...

  2. Cloning and expressing a highly functional and substrate specific farnesoic acid o-methyltransferase from the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, transmits a phloem-limited bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus that causes citrus greening disease. Because juvenile hormone (JH) plays an important role in adult and nymphal development, we studied the final steps in juvenile hormone biosynthesis...

  3. Repellency of Selected Psidium guajava cultivars to the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asiatic huanglongbing (HLB)(also known as citrus greening disease) is the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide. It is caused by a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ and transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri. Considerable research has been conducted toward...

  4. Factors affecting transmission rates of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' by Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, is an important pest because it transmits a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas) responsible for a serious disease of citrus known as Asiatic huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). USDA-ARS researchers recently established a program...

  5. Metabolic interplay between the Asian citrus psyllid and its Profftella symbiont: An Achilles’ heel of the citrus greening insect vector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas), the bacterial pathogen associated with citrus greening disease, is transmitted by Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid. Interactions among D. citri and its microbial endosymbionts, including ‘Candidatus Profftella armatura’, are likely to impact tra...

  6. Gene response to stress in the Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcriptional responses of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, under three stress factors were investigated: physical wounding, heat stress, and exposure to low doses of the insecticide imidacloprid. The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, is a vector of the phloem-inhabiting bacterium...

  7. Transmission rates of ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ by Asian citrus psyllid are enhanced by the presence and developmental stage of citrus flush

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) transmits a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas) putatively responsible for a devastating citrus disease known as Asiatic huanglongbing (HLB) (= citrus greening disease). The psyllid and disease have invaded many citrus-growing regions around the world incl...

  8. 78 FR 63369 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... and through this area. Regulated articles are plants and plant parts of all species, clones, cultivars, strains, varieties, or hybrids of the genera Citrus and Fortunella, and all clones, cultivars,...

  9. Temperature Studies with the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri: Cold Hardiness and Temperature Thresholds for Oviposition

    PubMed Central

    Hall, David G.; Wenninger, Erik J.; Hentz, Matthew G.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to obtain information on the cold hardiness of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), in Florida and to assess upper and lower temperature thresholds for oviposition. The psyllid is an important pest in citrus because it transmits the bacterial pathogens responsible for citrus greening disease, Huanglongbing, considered the most serious citrus disease worldwide. D. citri was first found in Florida during 1998, and the disease was discovered during 2005. Little was known regarding cold hardiness of D. citri, but Florida citrus is occasionally subjected to notable freeze events. Temperature and duration were each significant sources of variation in percent mortality of D. citri subjected to freeze events. Relatively large percentages of adults and nymphs survived after being exposed for several hours to temperatures as low as -5 to -6° C. Relatively large percentages of eggs hatched after being exposed for several hours to temperatures as low as -8° C. Research results indicated that adult D. citri become cold acclimated during the winter through exposure to cooler winter temperatures. There was no evidence that eggs became cold acclimated during winter. Cold acclimation in nymphs was not investigated. Research with adult D. citri from laboratory and greenhouse colonies revealed that mild to moderate freeze events were usually nonlethal to the D. citri irrespective of whether they were cold acclimated or not. Upper and lower temperature thresholds for oviposition were investigated because such information may be valuable in explaining the geographic distribution and potential spread of the pest from Florida as well as how cooler winter temperatures might limit population growth. The estimated lower and upper thresholds for oviposition were 16.0 and 41.6° C, respectively; the estimated temperature of peak oviposition over a 48 h period was 29.6° C. PMID:21870969

  10. Antennal and Abdominal Transcriptomes Reveal Chemosensory Genes in the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhongzhen; Zhang, He; Bin, Shuying; Chen, Lei; Han, Qunxin; Lin, Jintian

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri is the principal vector of the highly destructive citrus disease called Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening, which is a major threat to citrus cultivation worldwide. More effective pest control strategies against this pest entail the identification of potential chemosensory proteins that could be used in the development of attractants or repellents. However, the molecular basis of olfaction in the Asian citrus psyllid is not completely understood. Therefore, we performed this study to analyze the antennal and abdominal transcriptome of the Asian citrus psyllid. We identified a large number of transcripts belonging to nine chemoreception-related gene families and compared their expression in male and female adult antennae and terminal abdomen. In total, 9 odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 12 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 46 odorant receptors (ORs), 20 gustatory receptors (GRs), 35 ionotropic receptors (IRs), 4 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) and 4 different gene families encoding odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs): 80 cytochrome P450s (CYPs), 12 esterase (ESTs), and 5 aldehyde dehydrogenases (ADE) were annotated in the D. citri antennal and abdominal transcriptomes. Our results revealed that a large proportion of chemosensory genes exhibited no distinct differences in their expression patterns in the antennae and terminal abdominal tissues. Notably, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data and quantitative real time-PCR (qPCR) analyses showed that 4 DictOBPs, 4 DictCSPs, 4 DictIRs, 1 DictSNMP, and 2 DictCYPs were upregulated in the antennae relative to that in terminal abdominal tissues. Furthermore, 2 DictOBPs (DictOBP8 and DictOBP9), 2 DictCSPs (DictOBP8 and DictOBP12), 4 DictIRs (DictIR3, DictIR6, DictIR10, and DictIR35), and 1 DictCYP (DictCYP57) were expressed at higher levels in the male antennae than in the female antennae. Our study provides the first insights into the molecular basis of chemoreception in this insect

  11. Antennal and Abdominal Transcriptomes Reveal Chemosensory Genes in the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongzhen; Zhang, He; Bin, Shuying; Chen, Lei; Han, Qunxin; Lin, Jintian

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri is the principal vector of the highly destructive citrus disease called Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening, which is a major threat to citrus cultivation worldwide. More effective pest control strategies against this pest entail the identification of potential chemosensory proteins that could be used in the development of attractants or repellents. However, the molecular basis of olfaction in the Asian citrus psyllid is not completely understood. Therefore, we performed this study to analyze the antennal and abdominal transcriptome of the Asian citrus psyllid. We identified a large number of transcripts belonging to nine chemoreception-related gene families and compared their expression in male and female adult antennae and terminal abdomen. In total, 9 odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 12 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 46 odorant receptors (ORs), 20 gustatory receptors (GRs), 35 ionotropic receptors (IRs), 4 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) and 4 different gene families encoding odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs): 80 cytochrome P450s (CYPs), 12 esterase (ESTs), and 5 aldehyde dehydrogenases (ADE) were annotated in the D. citri antennal and abdominal transcriptomes. Our results revealed that a large proportion of chemosensory genes exhibited no distinct differences in their expression patterns in the antennae and terminal abdominal tissues. Notably, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data and quantitative real time-PCR (qPCR) analyses showed that 4 DictOBPs, 4 DictCSPs, 4 DictIRs, 1 DictSNMP, and 2 DictCYPs were upregulated in the antennae relative to that in terminal abdominal tissues. Furthermore, 2 DictOBPs (DictOBP8 and DictOBP9), 2 DictCSPs (DictOBP8 and DictOBP12), 4 DictIRs (DictIR3, DictIR6, DictIR10, and DictIR35), and 1 DictCYP (DictCYP57) were expressed at higher levels in the male antennae than in the female antennae. Our study provides the first insights into the molecular basis of chemoreception in this insect

  12. Chemical control of the Asian citrus psyllid and of huanglongbing disease in citrus.

    PubMed

    Boina, Dhana Raj; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2015-06-01

    By 2014, huanglongbing (HLB), the most destructive disease of citrus, and its insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama), became established in all major citrus-growing regions of the world, including the United States, with the exception of California. At present, application of insecticides is the most widely followed option for reducing ACP populations, while application of antibiotics for suppressing HLB disease/symptoms is being practiced in some citrus-growing regions. Application of insecticides during the dormant winter season, along with cultivation of HLB-free seedlings and early detection and removal of symptomatic and asymptomatic trees, has been very effective in managing ACP. Area-wide management of ACP by application of insecticides at low volume in large areas of citrus cultivation has been shown to be effective in managing HLB and reducing management costs. As insecticide resistance is a major problem in sustainable management of ACP, rotation/alternation of insecticides with different chemistries and modes of action needs to be followed. Besides control of the insect vector, use of antibiotics has temporarily suppressed the symptoms of HLB in diseased trees. Recent efforts to discover and screen existing as well as new compounds for their antibiotic and antimicrobial activities have identified some promising molecules for HLB control. There is an urgent need to find a sustainable solution to the HLB menace through chemical control of ACP populations and within HLB-infected trees through the judicious use of labeled insecticides (existing and novel chemistries) and antibiotics in area-wide management programs with due consideration to the insecticide resistance problem.

  13. 76 FR 23449 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... conditions, the articles are treated with methyl bromide and shipped in a container that has been sealed with... of any regulated article, including citrus nursery stock, provided that: The article is treated with methyl bromide in accordance with 7 CFR part 305. That part contains our phytosanitary...

  14. Interference by western flower thrips in rearing Asian citrus psyllid: damage to host plants and facultative predation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is an important pest of citrus primarily because it vectors a bacterium responsible for a serious citrus disease known as huanglongbing (HLB) (also known as citrus greening disease). Researchers seeking solutions to HLB often depend on labor...

  15. Efficacy of an autodisseminator of an entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea, to suppress Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, under greenhouse conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), transmits the causative agents of citrus greening disease or huanglongbing (HLB), the most devastating disease of citrus trees in the world today. ACP dwelling in noncommercial citrus (neighborhoods, commercial landscapes, etc.) can stymie area-wide management program...

  16. Morphological, molecular and virulence characterization of three Lencanicillium species infecting Asian citrus psyllids in Huangyan citrus groves.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lianming; Cheng, Baoping; Du, Danchao; Hu, Xiurong; Peng, Aitian; Pu, Zhanxu; Zhang, Xiaoya; Huang, Zhendong; Chen, Guoqing

    2015-02-01

    Citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) is caused by the infection of Candidatus Liberibacter spp. in citrus plants. Since Asian citrus psyllid is the primary vector of this bacterial pathogen, the spread of HLB can be mitigated by suppressing Asian citrus psyllid populations in citrus groves using entomopathogens. To expand the current data on entomopathogens infecting Asian citrus psyllids, we isolated and characterized three different entomopathogens. Strains ZJLSP07, ZJLA08, and ZJLP09 infected the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, in Huangyan citrus groves. Based on molecular and morphological analyses, two were identified as Lecanicillium attenuatum and Lecanicillium psalliotae, and the third was recognized as an unidentified species of the genus, Lecanicillium. The corrected mortalities caused by strains ZJLSP07, ZJLA08 were 100% at 7days post-inoculation, while by ZJLP09 complete mortality occurred at 6days after inoculation, with 1.0×10(8)conidia/ml at 25°C and a relative humidity of 90% in the laboratory. Under the same condition, the corrected mortalities caused by strains ZJLSP07, ZJLA08 and ZJLP09 were 100%, 92.55% and 100%, respectively at 9days post-inoculation in the greenhouse. Our findings also revealed that these fungal strains infected D. citri using hyphae that penetrated deep into the insect tissues. Further, all three strains secreted the enzymes proteinases, chitinases and lipases with a potential to destroy insect tissues. Interestingly, strain ZJLP09 had an earlier invasion time and the highest levels of enzyme activities when compared to the other two strains. These findings have expanded the existing pool of entomopathogenic fungi that infect D. citri and can be potentially used for the management of D. citri populations.

  17. Vibrational duetting mimics to trap and disrupt mating of the devastating Asian citrus psyllid insect pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is the primary vector of a bacterium that produces a devastating disease of citrus, huanglongbing. Efficient surveillance of ACP at low population densities is essential for timely pest management programs. ACP males search for mates on tree branches by producing vibra...

  18. Entomopathogenic fungi infecting the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Homoptera: Psyllidae), in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri is an invasive pest that vectors citrus greening disease. In 2005-2006 mycosed psyllids displaying two phenotypes were collected in central Florida. The major pathogen, identified by morphological and genetic analyses, was a novel isolate related to Hirsute...

  19. Correlation of an electrical penetration graph waveform with walking by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrical penetration graph (EPG) monitoring is being used to study how feeding behavior of the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) changes in response to insecticides, in an effort to improve the efficacy of widespread insecticide treatments against the insect in Florida citrus....

  20. Visual behavior of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the vector of the global disease of citrus greening or huanglongbing (HLB), relatively little is known concerning the Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP) behavior towards visual cues. The objective of this study was to elucidate behavioral responses of ACP towards several colors of light. ACP responded ...

  1. A comparison of sticky traps for monitoring Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six types of sticky card traps differing in color and trapping adhesive were evaluated for monitoring Asian citrus psyllid in citrus in the United States (Florida and Texas). Spectral reflectance measurements were taken to categorize the color (wavelength) spectrum of each trap. Three of the traps (...

  2. Chemical and behavioral analysis of the cuticular hydrocarbons from Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the vector of the phloem-inhabiting bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which is presumed to cause HLB. Laboratory and field studies were cond...

  3. Effects of soil-applied imidacloprid on Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) feeding behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is one of the most important pests of citrus due to its status as a vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the bacterium associated with huanglongbing (HLB) disease. The use of insecticides for vector control is the primary method of managing...

  4. Evaluation of low-volume sprayers used in asian citrus Psyllid control applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kumayama, Sternorrhyncha: Psyllidae) is a detrimental pest to citrus crops when it serves as a vector of the pathogen that causes greening (huanglongbing, or HLB). Transmission of this disease causes mottling, chlorosis, dieback and reductions in both frui...

  5. RNAi-based strategy for Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) Control: A method to reduce the spread of citrus greening disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus greening disease is a serious bacterial disease of citrus worldwide and is vectored by the Asian citrus pysllid (Diaphorina Citri). The only effective control strategy includes vigorous control of the psyllid, primarily through heavy reliance on pesticides. As a more sustainable and environm...

  6. Effect of Cyantraniliprole, a Novel Insecticide, on the Inoculation of Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus Associated with Citrus Huanglongbing by the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    PubMed

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Hall, David G; Alvarez, Juan M

    2015-04-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) is the principal vector of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas) associated with huanglongbing (HLB), the most serious citrus disease worldwide. New control measures including pesticides are urgently needed to combat HLB, especially to protect young or newly planted citrus trees from CLas-inoculation by vector psyllids. Here, we tested CLas-inoculation by D. citri adults (CLas-exposed, reared on infected plants) by feeding them for 7 d on excised healthy citrus leaves with dry residues of cyantraniliprole (Exirel), a novel insecticide, in comparison with fenpropathrin (Danitol 2.4EC), an insecticide commonly used against D. citri. Fewer adults settled (putatively feeding or probing) on leaves treated with cyantraniliprole than those treated with fenpropathrin or water controls. Also, psyllid adults died at a slower rate on leaves treated with cyantraniliprole than those treated with fenpropathrin, although the final cumulative mortality did not differ between the two treatments. In quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction tests, 59.0-65.3% of the CLas-exposed psyllid adults were proven to be CLas-positive. Inoculation rates of CLas (using 10 adults per leaf) into untreated healthy citrus leaves (47.5-85%) were significantly higher than rates into leaves treated with cyantraniliprole or fenpropathrin (2.5-12.5%). Reduced inoculation rates to leaves treated with cyantraniliprole probably occurred as a result of reduced feeding or probing by D. citri. The excised leaf assay method, which took only a few weeks compared with up to a year or longer using whole plants, can be an effective tool for testing the effect of new pesticides or other treatments in reducing CLas inoculation or transmission by psyllid vectors.

  7. Efficacy and uptake of soil-applied imidacloprid in the control of Asian citrus psyllid and a citrus leafminer, two foliar-feeding citrus pests.

    PubMed

    Sétamou, M; Rodriguez, D; Saldana, R; Schwarzlose, G; Palrang, D; Nelson, S D

    2010-10-01

    The systemic neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid, Admire Pro, was applied to 3- and 4-yr-old nonbearing 'Rio Red' grapefruit, Citrus x paradisi Macfad., trees in 2006 and 2007, respectively, to determine its effects in the control of two major citrus pests, the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), and a citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Young flush shoots were randomly collected weekly for 13 and 11 wk in 2006 and 2007, respectively, to determine the infestation levels and densities of immature stages of both Asian citrus psyllid and P. citrella. Additional flush shoot samples were collected in 2007 and titers of imidacloprid in leaf tissue were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Soil application of imidacloprid significantly reduced the infestation levels and densities of both pests on flush shoots, starting from the second week post application. The effects of the neonicotinoid insecticide were similar in both years. Analysis of imidacloprid concentration in leaf tissue showed a gradual increase during the first 3 wk, and titers remained well above 200 ppb for 11 wk postapplication. Significant positive correlations were obtained between imidacloprid titers in leaf tissue and the percentage of control levels achieved for both pests. A high level of suppression of both P. citrella and Asian citrus psyllid populations on citrus trees was associated with imidacloprid titer in leaf tissue >200 ppb, which was reached 2 wk after soil treatment. Although soil application of imidacloprid did not provide rapid knockdown of Asian citrus psyllid and P. citrella populations, it resulted in chronic residues in leaf tissue and long-term suppression of both pests.

  8. Observations on the entomopathogenic fungus Hirsutella citriformis attacking adult Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllid) in a managed citrus grove

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-year field study was conducted in an orange grove (0.7 ha) in Florida to characterize the phenology of the entomopathogen Hirsutella citriformis Speare infecting adults of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. On the average over the two-year study, 23 percent of adults observed...

  9. Trailers transporting oranges to processing plants move Asian citrus psyllids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (citrus greening) is one of the most serious of citrus diseases. Movement of the disease occurs as a result of natural vector-borne infection and by movement of plant material. We demonstrate here that Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (vector of citrus greening pathogens) can be transported i...

  10. Effects on Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) feeding behavior of fenpropathrin and chlorpyrifos within 24 hours of application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening disease, is one of the most destructive diseases affecting citrus production. The phloem-limited bacterium associated with HLB is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). One component of HLB managem...

  11. Localized autoinoculation and dissemination of Isaria fumosorosea for control of the Asian citrus psyllid in South Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vectors the causal organism of citrus greening disease. Integrated strategies are needed to control D. citri in south Texas. Control approaches involving entomopathogenic fungi may be useful on ornamental and abandoned citrus and other rutaceous...

  12. Odor coding in a disease-transmitting herbivorous insect, the Asian citrus psyllid.

    PubMed

    Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V; McInally, Shane; Forster, Lisa; Luck, Robert; Ray, Anandasankar

    2014-07-01

    Olfactory systems discriminate odorants very efficiently and herbivorous insects use them to find hosts in confounding and complex odor landscapes. The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, feeds on citrus flush and transmits Candidatus Liberibacter that causes citrus greening disease globally. Here, we perform a systematic analysis of odor detection in the ACP antenna using single-unit electrophysiology of rhinarial plate sensilla to a large panel of odorants from plants. We identify neurons that respond strongly to odorants found in the host citrus plants. Comparisons with the generalist yeast-feeding Drosophila melanogaster and specialist anthropophilic Anopheles gambiae reveal differences in odor-coding strategies for the citrus-seeking ACP. These findings provide a foundation for understanding host-odor coding in herbivorous insects.

  13. Field ID guide to citrus relative hosts of Asian citrus psyllid & Huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rutaceae family of plants includes not only species within the genus Citrus, but also several other genera and species that may not be easily recognized as having any relationship to citrus at all. However, many of these citrus relatives are used for ornamental, culinary, or religious purposes. ...

  14. Correlation of electronic monitoring and stylet pathways further elucidate the role of sclerenchymatous ring as a barrier to phloem feeding on citrus leaves by Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) feeding behaviors play a significant role in the transmission of the phloem-limited Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) bacteria that cause citrus greening disease. Sustained phloem ingestion by ACP on CLas infected plants is very important in pathogen acquisition and...

  15. Insecticide sprays, natural enemy assemblages and predation on Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Monzo, C; Qureshi, J A; Stansly, P A

    2014-10-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is considered a key citrus pest due to its role as vector of 'huanglongbing' (HLB) or citrus greening, probably the most economically damaging disease of citrus. Insecticidal control of the vector is still considered a cornerstone of HLB management to prevent infection and to reduce reinoculation of infected trees. The severity of HLB has driven implementation of intensive insecticide programs against ACP with unknown side effects on beneficial arthropod fauna in citrus agroecosystems. We evaluated effects of calendar sprays directed against this pest on natural enemy assemblages and used exclusion to estimate mortality they imposed on ACP populations in citrus groves. Predator exclusion techniques were used on nascent colonies of D. citri in replicated large untreated and sprayed plots of citrus during the four major flushing periods over 2 years. Population of spiders, arboreal ants and ladybeetles were independently assessed. Monthly sprays of recommended insecticides for control of ACP, adversely affected natural enemy populations resulting in reduced predation on ACP immature stages, especially during the critical late winter/early spring flush. Consequently, projected growth rates of the ACP population were greatest where natural enemies had been adversely affected by insecticides. Whereas, this result does not obviate the need for insecticidal control of ACP, it does indicate that even a selective regimen of sprays can impose as yet undetermined costs in terms of reduced biological control of this and probably other citrus pests.

  16. Monitoring for Insecticide Resistance in Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Populations in Florida.

    PubMed

    Kanga, Lambert H B; Eason, Julius; Haseeb, Muhammad; Qureshi, Jawwad; Stansly, Philip

    2016-04-01

    The development of insecticide resistance in Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, populations is a serious threat to the citrus industry. As a contribution to a resistance management strategy, we developed a glass vial technique to monitor field populations of Asian citrus psyllid for insecticide resistance. Diagnostic concentrations needed to separate susceptible genotypes from resistant individuals were determined for cypermethrin (0.5 μg per vial), malathion (1.0 μg per vial), diazinon (1.0 μg per vial), carbaryl (1.0 μg per vial), carbofuran (0.1 μg per vial), methomyl (1.0 μg per vial), propoxur (1.0 μg per vial), endosulfan (1.0 μg per vial), imidacloprid (0.5 μg per vial), acetamiprid (5.0 μg per vial), chlorfenapyr (2.5 μg per vial), and fenpyroximate (2.5 μg per vial). In 2014, resistance to two carbamate insecticides (carbaryl and carbofuran), one organophosphate (malathion), one pyrethroid (cypermethrin), and one pyrazole (fenpyroximate) was detected in field populations of Asian citrus psyllid in Immokalee, FL. There was no resistance detected to diazinon, methomyl, propoxur, endosulfan, imidacloprid, and chlorfenapyr. The levels of insecticide resistance were variable and unstable, suggesting that resistance could be successfully managed. The results validate the use of the glass vial bioassay to monitor for resistance in Asian citrus psyllid populations and provide the basis for the development of a resistance management strategy designed to extend the efficacy of all classes of insecticides used for control of the Asian citrus psyllid.

  17. Attractants for Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) trapping technology: Challenges, status, and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are many challenges to developing effective host-plant based attractants for Asian citrus psyllid: 1) Psyllid host-plant searching behavior is complex and sophisticated and is influenced by a variety of factors such as host-plant growth stage and species and psyllid physiological condition, ge...

  18. Gender differences and effect of photophase on Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) feeding behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), thought to be primarily a phloem-feeding insect, transmits the presumptive pathogen for Huanglongbing, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’. Because this bacterium is restricted to the phloem and bacterial transmission is the res...

  19. Living on the Edges: Spatial Niche Occupation of Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), in Citrus Groves

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The spatial niche occupation of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, 1908, was evaluated to determine its field colonization and food resource exploitation strategies in citrus groves. Mature grapefruit and sweet orange groves were surveyed as part of an area-wide program in 2009–2010 to determine D. citri population densities and between-tree distribution. In both cultivars, significantly more psyllids were found on perimeter trees throughout the study period suggesting a strong edge effect in D. citri distribution in the groves. D. citri densities and infestation levels gradually declined from the edge to the center of grove. Higher numbers of D. citri were recorded on trees located on the east and south sides of the groves than those on the west and north sides. Citrus groves located at the outer edge of the study with at least one side non-surrounded to other citrus groves harbored significantly more D. citri than groves located within the block cluster and entirely surrounded by other groves. In detailed field studies during 2012, infestation of D. citri started from border trees in the grove where possibly one generation is completed before inner trees become infested. In addition, psyllid densities decreased significantly with increasing distance from the grove edge. Using the selection index, D citri exhibited a strong niche occupation preference for border trees. PMID:26193111

  20. Metabolic Interplay between the Asian Citrus Psyllid and Its Profftella Symbiont: An Achilles’ Heel of the Citrus Greening Insect Vector

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, John S.; Johnson, Richard S.; Hoki, Jason S.; Kruse, Angela; Mahoney, Jaclyn; Hilf, Mark E.; Hunter, Wayne B.; Hall, David G.; Schroeder, Frank C.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Cilia, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas), the bacterial pathogen associated with citrus greening disease, is transmitted by Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid. Interactions among D. citri and its microbial endosymbionts, including ‘Candidatus Profftella armatura’, are likely to impact transmission of CLas. We used quantitative mass spectrometry to compare the proteomes of CLas(+) and CLas(-) populations of D. citri, and found that proteins involved in polyketide biosynthesis by the endosymbiont Profftella were up-regulated in CLas(+) insects. Mass spectrometry analysis of the Profftella polyketide diaphorin in D. citri metabolite extracts revealed the presence of a novel diaphorin-related polyketide and the ratio of these two polyketides was changed in CLas(+) insects. Insect proteins differentially expressed between CLas(+) and CLas(-) D. citri included defense and immunity proteins, proteins involved in energy storage and utilization, and proteins involved in endocytosis, cellular adhesion, and cytoskeletal remodeling which are associated with microbial invasion of host cells. Insight into the metabolic interdependence between the insect vector, its endosymbionts, and the citrus greening pathogen reveals novel opportunities for control of this disease, which is currently having a devastating impact on citrus production worldwide. PMID:26580079

  1. Transmission Rates of ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ by Asian Citrus Psyllid Are Enhanced by the Presence and Developmental Stage of Citrus Flush.

    PubMed

    Hall, David G; Albrecht, Ute; Bowman, Kim D

    2016-04-01

    Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) transmits a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas) putatively responsible for a devastating citrus disease known as Asiatic huanglongbing (HLB) (citrus greening disease). The psyllid and disease have invaded many citrus-growing regions including the United States, where the disease is seriously jeopardizing the Florida citrus industry. We recently concluded research that showed CLas transmission rates are increased when citrus flush is present. Flush is any new leaf growth ranging in development from first emergence up until the leaves are fully expanded yet still tender. In an experiment with seedlings of a rootstock cultivar ‘US-942’, a 1-wk infestation of 20 Asian citrus psyllids from an infected colony resulted in 53–60% of seedlings becoming infected when flush was present compared with only 7% when no flush was present. In a second experiment with ‘US-942’, 77–97% of seedlings became infected when flush was present compared with 40% when no flush was present. A similar experiment with ‘Valencia’ sweet orange resulted in 23, 80, and 3% seedlings becoming infected when young, older, or no flush was present, respectively. Young plants are therefore more likely to contract HLB if flush is present, with older flush promoting higher infection rates under the conditions of this study. Based on this finding, healthy citrus should be protected from Asian citrus psyllid infestations throughout a flush. To evaluate germplasm for CLas resistance, inoculations using infected Asian citrus psyllid would best be achieved if flush is present.

  2. Compatibility of Isaria fumosorosea (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) Blastospores with Agricultural Chemicals Used for Management of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Pasco B.; Pick, David A.; Aristizábal, Luis F.; Kerrigan, James; Powell, Charles A.; Rogers, Michael E.; Arthurs, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    Biorational insecticides are being increasingly emphasized for inclusion in integrated pest management programs for invasive insects. The entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea, can be used to help manage the Asian citrus psyllid with minimal impact on beneficial arthropods, but its effectiveness may be compromised by agrochemicals used to control concurrent arthropod pests and diseases. We evaluated the compatibility of I. fumosorosea blastospores with a range of spray oils and copper-based fungicides registered for use in citrus groves. Results of laboratory and greenhouse tests showed a range of responses of the fungus to the different materials, including compatibility and incompatibility. Overall, I. fumosorosea growth in vitro was reduced least by petroleum-based materials and most by botanical oils and borax, and some of the copper-based fungicides, suggesting that tank mixing of I. fumosorosea with these latter products should be avoided. However, equivalent negative effects of test materials on fungal pathogenicity were not always observed in tests with adult psyllids. We hypothesize that some oils enhanced adherence of blastospores to the insect cuticle, overcoming negative impacts on germination. Our data show that care should be taken in selecting appropriate agrochemicals for tank-mixing with commercial formulations of entomopathogenic fungi for management of citrus pests. The prospects of using I. fumosorosea for managing the invasive Asian citrus psyllid and other citrus pests are discussed. PMID:26462531

  3. Endosymbiont hunting in the metagenome of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) (7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Surya

    2012-06-01

    Surya Saha on "Endosymbiont hunting in the metagenome of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri)" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  4. Endosymbiont hunting in the metagenome of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) (7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    ScienceCinema

    Saha, Surya [Cornell University

    2016-07-12

    Surya Saha on "Endosymbiont hunting in the metagenome of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri)" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  5. 7 CFR 301.76-2 - Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus greening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and plant parts (including leaves), except fruit, of: Aegle marmelos, Aeglopsis chevalieri, Afraegle... asiatica, Triphasia trifolia, Vepris (=Toddalia) lanceolata, and Zanthoxylum fagara. (b) Propagative seed..., the movement of propagative seed of these species from an area quarantined for citrus greening...

  6. Influence of limiting and regulating factors on populations of Asian citrus psyllid and the risk of insect and disease outbreaks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from long term monitoring programs in two Florida citrus groves were used to assess Asian citrus psyllid demography and population ecology, which is needed to implement more effective management strategies for huanglongbing. We describe and interpret seasonal patterns and correlations between A...

  7. Whole plant destructive screening for huanglongbing susceptibility with conetainer seedlings exposed to no-choice Asian citrus psyllid inoculation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is associated with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) and is vectored by the Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri). HLB is devastating the Florida citrus industry, with production reduced by 60 percent in the last 12 years, and HLB is considered the greatest threat to...

  8. Novel synthetic ligands enhance the behavioral responses of Asian citrus psyllid to naturally occurring host-plant volatiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing, a devastating disease of citrus, is spread by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP). Area wide management plans aimed at reducing the incidence and spread of Huanglongbing rely upon sampling ACP with yellow sticky cards, which are not always reliable. The development of highly effective scen...

  9. Toxicity of insecticidal soaps to the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) and two of its natural enemies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insecticidal soaps (hereafter “soaps”) are labeled for use by homeowners and also can be used in citrus grown for the organic market. Soaps control some insect pests and therefore might be an alternative to conventional pesticides for control of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (...

  10. Increased infestation of Asian citrus psyllids on cold treated sour orange seedlings: Its possible relation to biochemical changes in leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold-stressed sour orange seedling (Citrus aurantium L.) attracted significantly more Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) during 5h and 24h recovery periods compared to control plants in choice test experiment. Cold stressed plants were held/ placed at 6 ± 1°C for 6 days and then ...

  11. Ultrastructure of the salivary glands and bacteria-like structures in the gut and other organs of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), vector of huanglongbing disease bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera, Liviidae) is the principal vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), the bacterium associated with huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening, currently the most serious citrus disease worldwide. Liberibacter asiaticus is transmitted i...

  12. Bionomics of Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) Associated with Orange Jasmine Hedges in Southeast Central Florida, with Special Reference to Biological Control by Tamarixia radiata.

    PubMed

    Hall, David G; Rohrig, Eric

    2015-06-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is an important pest in Florida because it transmits bacteria responsible for citrus huanglongbing disease. In addition to infesting citrus, orange jasmine (Murraya exotica L.) is one of Asian citrus psyllid's preferred host plants and is widely grown as an ornamental hedge. We report on Asian citrus psyllid bionomics over three years at five urban plantings of orange jasmine and on biological control of Asian citrus psyllid by a parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston). T. radiata had been released in Florida shortly after Asian citrus psyllid was first found, and the parasitoid was known to be established at each planting. Additionally, three new T. radiata haplotypes were released every 3 wk at three plantings during the first study year (one haplotype per planting, over all releases an average of 17 parasitoids per linear meter of hedge); all three haplotypes were released at a fourth planting beginning midway through the study (over all releases, an average combined total of 202 parasitoids per linear meter of hedge). Asian citrus psyllid populations were present year-round at each planting, often at large levels. Such plantings may pose risk to commercial citrus as Asian citrus psyllid reservoirs. Releases of the new haplotypes did not cause any measurable reduction in Asian citrus psyllid population levels during the study, and ironically percentage parasitism was generally highest at a planting where no releases were made. Higher release rates might have been more effective. The probability is discussed that repetitive pruning of orange jasmine reduced the full potential of T. radiata against Asian citrus psyllid in this study.

  13. Biological control of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) in Florida by the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata in urban plantings of orange jasmine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid is an important invasive citrus pest in the United States because it vectors a bacterium responsible for a devastating disease of citrus known as huanglongbing. A parasitoid of the psyllid, Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), was imported from Southeast Asia and re...

  14. Bionomics of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) associated with orange jasmine hedges in southest central Florida, with special reference to biological control by Tamarixia radiata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is an important pest in Florida because it vectors bacteria responsible for citrus huanglongbing disease. In addition to infesting citrus, orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata) is one of ACP’s favorite host plants and is widely grown as an orn...

  15. Bionomics of Asian citrus psyllid associated with orange jasmine hedges in Florida, with special reference to biological control by Tamarixia radiata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is an important invasive citrus pest because it vectors a bacterium responsible for a devastating disease of citrus known as huanglongbing. Orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata) is a favored alternate ACP host plant and is widely grown as an ornamental plant in urban ar...

  16. Ultrastructure of the salivary glands, alimentary canal and bacteria-like organisms in the Asian citrus psyllid, vector of citrus huanglongbing-disease bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several psyllids (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) are known as vectors of some economically important viral and bacterial plant pathogens. The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera, Liviidae) is the principal vector of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), the putative bacterial causal ...

  17. Population levels of Asian Citrus Psyllid in Florida, Texas and Puerto Rico as indicated by yellow sticky traps deployed in citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to compare population levels of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Florida, Texas and Puerto Rico. Four grove locations were studied in Florida, one location near each of the following cities: Leesburg, Vero Beach, Fort Pierce, and Immoka...

  18. Annotation of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Genome Reveals a Reduced Innate Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Arp, Alex P.; Hunter, Wayne B.; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten S.

    2016-01-01

    Citrus production worldwide is currently facing significant losses due to citrus greening disease, also known as Huanglongbing. The citrus greening bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), is a persistent propagative pathogen transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Hemipterans characterized to date lack a number of insect immune genes, including those associated with the Imd pathway targeting Gram-negative bacteria. The D. citri draft genome was used to characterize the immune defense genes present in D. citri. Predicted mRNAs identified by screening the published D. citri annotated draft genome were manually searched using a custom database of immune genes from previously annotated insect genomes. Toll and JAK/STAT pathways, general defense genes Dual oxidase, Nitric oxide synthase, prophenoloxidase, and cellular immune defense genes were present in D. citri. In contrast, D. citri lacked genes for the Imd pathway, most antimicrobial peptides, 1,3-β-glucan recognition proteins (GNBPs), and complete peptidoglycan recognition proteins. These data suggest that D. citri has a reduced immune capability similar to that observed in A. pisum, P. humanus, and R. prolixus. The absence of immune system genes from the D. citri genome may facilitate CLas infections, and is possibly compensated for by their relationship with their microbial endosymbionts. PMID:27965582

  19. Annotation of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Genome Reveals a Reduced Innate Immune System.

    PubMed

    Arp, Alex P; Hunter, Wayne B; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten S

    2016-01-01

    Citrus production worldwide is currently facing significant losses due to citrus greening disease, also known as Huanglongbing. The citrus greening bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), is a persistent propagative pathogen transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Hemipterans characterized to date lack a number of insect immune genes, including those associated with the Imd pathway targeting Gram-negative bacteria. The D. citri draft genome was used to characterize the immune defense genes present in D. citri. Predicted mRNAs identified by screening the published D. citri annotated draft genome were manually searched using a custom database of immune genes from previously annotated insect genomes. Toll and JAK/STAT pathways, general defense genes Dual oxidase, Nitric oxide synthase, prophenoloxidase, and cellular immune defense genes were present in D. citri. In contrast, D. citri lacked genes for the Imd pathway, most antimicrobial peptides, 1,3-β-glucan recognition proteins (GNBPs), and complete peptidoglycan recognition proteins. These data suggest that D. citri has a reduced immune capability similar to that observed in A. pisum, P. humanus, and R. prolixus. The absence of immune system genes from the D. citri genome may facilitate CLas infections, and is possibly compensated for by their relationship with their microbial endosymbionts.

  20. Quality Matters: Influences of Citrus Flush Physicochemical Characteristics on Population Dynamics of the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Catherine R.; Alabi, Olufemi J.; Nelson, Shad D.; Telagamsetty, Srilakshmi; Jifon, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Studies were conducted to relate the influence of the physical characteristics, leaf nutrient content and phloem sap amino acid concentration of citrus flush shoots on the densities of various Diaphorina citri life stages. Adult D. citri preferentially selected young shoots for feeding and numbers of D. citri immatures were positively correlated with flush shoot softness. Young flush shoots had higher concentrations of macro and micro nutrients relative to mature ones and this was associated with higher densities of all D. citri life stages. All D. citri life stages were positively correlated with higher nitrogen-carbon (N:C), nitrogen:sulfur (N:S) and nitrogen:calcium (N:Ca) ratios in leaf tissue, while densities of adults were negatively related to calcium, manganese and boron levels. Concentrations of total and essential amino acids were highest in phloem sap of young expanding flush shoots in both grapefruit and lemon, but dramatically declined as flush shoots matured. The sulfur-containing amino acids cystine, methionine and taurine occurred only in younger flush shoots. In contrast, cystathionine was only present in phloem sap of mature shoots. These results clearly indicate that young citrus flush shoots are a nutritionally richer diet relative to mature shoots, thus explaining their preference by D. citri for feeding and reproduction. Conversely, tissue hardness and the lower nutritional quality of mature flush shoots may limit oviposition and immature development. The data suggest that both physical characteristics and nutritional composition of flush shoots and their phloem sap are important factors regulating host colonization and behavior of D. citri, and this interaction can impact the dynamics and spread of HLB in citrus groves. PMID:28030637

  1. Quality Matters: Influences of Citrus Flush Physicochemical Characteristics on Population Dynamics of the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    PubMed

    Sétamou, Mamoudou; Simpson, Catherine R; Alabi, Olufemi J; Nelson, Shad D; Telagamsetty, Srilakshmi; Jifon, John L

    2016-01-01

    Studies were conducted to relate the influence of the physical characteristics, leaf nutrient content and phloem sap amino acid concentration of citrus flush shoots on the densities of various Diaphorina citri life stages. Adult D. citri preferentially selected young shoots for feeding and numbers of D. citri immatures were positively correlated with flush shoot softness. Young flush shoots had higher concentrations of macro and micro nutrients relative to mature ones and this was associated with higher densities of all D. citri life stages. All D. citri life stages were positively correlated with higher nitrogen-carbon (N:C), nitrogen:sulfur (N:S) and nitrogen:calcium (N:Ca) ratios in leaf tissue, while densities of adults were negatively related to calcium, manganese and boron levels. Concentrations of total and essential amino acids were highest in phloem sap of young expanding flush shoots in both grapefruit and lemon, but dramatically declined as flush shoots matured. The sulfur-containing amino acids cystine, methionine and taurine occurred only in younger flush shoots. In contrast, cystathionine was only present in phloem sap of mature shoots. These results clearly indicate that young citrus flush shoots are a nutritionally richer diet relative to mature shoots, thus explaining their preference by D. citri for feeding and reproduction. Conversely, tissue hardness and the lower nutritional quality of mature flush shoots may limit oviposition and immature development. The data suggest that both physical characteristics and nutritional composition of flush shoots and their phloem sap are important factors regulating host colonization and behavior of D. citri, and this interaction can impact the dynamics and spread of HLB in citrus groves.

  2. Repellent Activity of Botanical Oils against Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kuhns, Emily H.; Martini, Xavier; Hoyte, Angel; Stelinski, Lukasz L.

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the insect vector of the pathogen causing huanglongbing. We selected three botanical oils to evaluate behavioral activity against D. citri. In laboratory olfactometer assays, fir oil was repellent to D. citri females, while litsea and citronella oils elicited no response from D. citri females. In choice settling experiments, D. citri settled almost completely on control plants rather than on plants treated with fir oil at a 9.5 mg/day release rate. Therefore, we conducted field trials to determine if fir oil reduced D. citri densities in citrus groves. We found no repellency of D. citri from sweet orange resets that were treated with fir oil dispensers releasing 10.4 g/day/tree as compared with control plots. However, we found a two-week decrease in populations of D. citri as compared with controls when the deployment rate of these dispensers was doubled. Our results suggest that treatment of citrus with fir oil may have limited activity as a stand-alone management tool for D. citri and would require integration with other management practices. PMID:27429006

  3. Volatile profiles of young leaves of Rutaceae spp. varying in susceptibility to the Asian citrus psyllid,(Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant volatiles were identified from six species in the family Rutaceae. These species had varying degrees of susceptibility to the Asian citrus psyllid as determined by direct counts of life stages. Using a push system involving charcoal-filtered humidified air, volatiles were adsorbed on SuperQ pa...

  4. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus is present in orange jasmine and Asian citrus psyllid reared from jasmine at low titers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange jasmine, Murraya paniculata, is a common horticultural plant in Florida, and an alternate host of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. Orange jasmine has also been reported to harbor the bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agent of huanglongbing disease. We ...

  5. Risk assessment of various insecticides used for management of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri in Florida citrus, against honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue Dong; Gill, Torrence A; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten S; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2017-01-23

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is a major pest of citrus trees worldwide. A wide variety of insecticides are used to manage D. citri populations within citrus groves in Florida. However, in areas shared by citrus growers and beekeepers the use of insecticides may increase the risks of Apis mellifera  L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) loss and contaminated honey. The objective of this research was to determine the environmental toxicity of insecticides, spanning five different modes of action used to control D. citri, to A. mellifera. The insecticides investigated were imidacloprid, fenpropathrin, dimethoate, spinetoram and diflubenzuron. In laboratory experiments, LD50 values were determined and ranged from 0.10 to 0.53 ng/μl for imidacloprid, fenpropathrin, dimethoate and spinetoram. LD50 values for diflubenzuron were >1000 ng/μl. Also, a hazard quotient was determined and ranged from 1130.43 to 10893.27 for imidacloprid, fenpropathrin, dimethoate, and spinetoram. This quotient was <0.447 for diflubenzuron. In field experiments, residual activity of fenpropathrin and dimethoate applied to citrus caused significant mortality of A. mellifera 3 and 7 days after application. Spinetoram and imidacloprid were moderately toxic to A. mellifera at the recommended rates for D. citri. Diflubenzuron was not toxic to A. mellifera in the field as compared with untreated control plots. Phenoloxidase (PO) activity of A. mellifera was higher than in untreated controls when A. mellifera were exposed to 14 days old residues. The results indicate that diflubenzuron may be safe to apply in citrus when A. mellifera are foraging, while most insecticides used for management of D. citri in citrus are likely hazardous under various exposure scenarios.

  6. Characterization of the voltage-gated sodium channel of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Coy, Monique R; Wang, Jin-Jun; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2017-02-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is an important insect pest of citrus. It is the vector of 'Candidatus' Liberibacter asiaticus, a phloem-limited bacterium that infects citrus, resulting in the disease Huanglongbing (HLB). Disease management relies heavily on suppression of D. citri populations with insecticides, including pyrethroids. In recent annual surveys to monitor insecticide resistance, reduced susceptibility to fenpropathrin was identified in several field populations of D. citri. The primary target of pyrethroids is the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC). The VGSC is prone to target-site insensitivity because of mutations that either reduce pyrethroid binding and/or alter gating kinetics. These mutations, known as knockdown resistance or kdr, have been reported in a wide diversity of arthropod species. Alternative splicing, in combination with kdr mutations, has been also associated with reduced pyrethroid efficacy. Here we report the molecular characterization of the VGSC in D. citri along with a survey of alternative splicing across developmental stages of this species. Previous studies demonstrated that D. citri has an exquisite enzymatic arsenal to detoxify insecticides resulting in reduced efficacy. The results from the current investigation demonstrate that target-site insensitivity is also a potential basis for insecticide resistance to pyrethroids in D. citri. The VGSC sequence and its molecular characterization should facilitate early elucidation of the underlying cause of an established case of resistance to pyrethroids. This is the first characterization of a VGSC from a hemipteran to this level of detail, with the majority of the previous studies on dipterans and lepidopterans.

  7. Multimodal cues drive host-plant assessment in Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri).

    PubMed

    Patt, Joseph M; Meikle, William G; Mafra-Neto, Agenor; Sétamou, Mamoudou; Mangan, Robert; Yang, Chenghai; Malik, Nasir; Adamczyk, John J

    2011-12-01

    Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) transmits the causal agent of Huanglongbing, a devastating disease of citrus trees. In this study we measured behavioral responses of D. citri to combinations of visual, olfactory, and gustatory stimuli in test arenas. Stimuli were presented to the psyllids in droplets or lines of an emulsified wax formulation in two different arena types in no-choice tests. First, when placed on a colored ring situated halfway between the center and perimeter of a petri dish, D. citri spent more time on yellow versus gray rings; however, this response disappeared when either gray or yellow wax droplets were applied. When the psyllids were presented with droplets scented with terpenes, the response to both scent and color was increased. The addition of a dilute (≍0.1 M) sucrose solution to the wax droplets increased the magnitude of D. citri responses. Next, groups of D. citri were placed on plastic laboratory film covering a sucrose solution, to mimic a leaf surface. Test stimuli were presented via two 'midribs' made from lines of emulsified wax formulation. Probing levels were measured as a function of color saturation and scent composition, and concentration. The test scents were based on qualitatively major volatiles emitted by Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack, Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle, and C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck. The highest probing response was observed on the middle concentration (20-μl scent/10 ml wax formulation) of the C. aurantifolia-scented wax lines. Results indicate that there are interactive effects between the different sensory modalities in directing host-plant assessment behavior.

  8. Wolbachia infection density in populations of the Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, M; Coy, M R; Kingdom Gibbard, H N; Pelz-Stelinski, K S

    2014-10-01

    The symbiotic relationships between bacteria of the genus Wolbachia (order Rickettsiales) and their arthropod hosts are diverse and can range from mutualism to parasitism. Whereas effects of Wolbachia on host biology are well investigated, little is known about diversity and abundance of Wolbachia in their natural hosts. The phloem-feeding Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is naturally infected with Wolbachia (wDi). In the current study, we calculated the within-host density of Wolbachia in Florida D. citri populations using quantitative polymerase chain reaction for detection of the Wolbachia outer surface protein gene, wsp. Gene quantities were normalized to the D. citri wingless gene (Wg) to estimate Wolbachia abundance in individual D. citri. Using this method, significant geographic differences in Wolbachia densities were detected among Florida D. citri populations, with higher infection levels occurring in male versus female hosts.

  9. Oviposition behavior and survival of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an ectoparasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, on hosts exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antagonistic interactions between the nymphal parasitoid, Tamarixia radiata Waterston (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and the ARSEF 3581 isolate of the entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea Wize (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) could disrupt biological control of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina ...

  10. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the Southern California Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) invasion

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Shyam M.; Simmons, Gregory S.; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E.; Daugherty, Mathew P.

    2017-01-01

    Biological invasions are governed by spatial processes that tend to be distributed in non-random ways across landscapes. Characterizing the spatial and temporal heterogeneities of the introduction, establishment, and spread of non-native insect species is a key aspect of effectively managing their geographic expansion. The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri), a vector of the bacterium associated with huanglongbing (HLB), poses a serious threat to commercial and residential citrus trees. In 2008, D. citri first began expanding northward from Mexico into parts of Southern California. Using georeferenced D. citri occurrence data from 2008–2014, we sought to better understand the extent of the geographic expansion of this invasive vector species. Our objectives were to: 1) describe the spatial and temporal distribution of D. citri in Southern California, 2) identify the locations of statistically significant D. citri hotspots, and 3) quantify the dynamics of anisotropic spread. We found clear evidence that the spatial and temporal distribution of D. citri in Southern California is non-random. Further, we identified the existence of statistically significant hotspots of D. citri occurrence and described the anisotropic dispersion across the Southern California landscape. For example, the dominant hotspot surrounding Los Angeles showed rapid and strongly asymmetric spread to the south and east. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of quantitative invasive insect risk assessment with the application of a spatial epidemiology framework. PMID:28278188

  11. The Genetic Structure of an Invasive Pest, the Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    PubMed Central

    Guidolin, Aline S.; Fresia, Pablo; Cônsoli, Fernando L.

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri is currently the major threat to the citrus industry as it is the vector of Candidatus Liberibacter, the causal agent of huanglongbing disease (HLB). D. citri is native to Asia and now colonizes the Americas. Although it has been known in some countries for a long time, invasion routes remain undetermined. There are no efficient control methods for the HLB despite the intensive management tools currently in use. We investigated the genetic variability and structure of populations of D. citri to aid in the decision making processes toward sustainable management of this species/disease. We employed different methods to quantify and compare the genetic diversity and structure of D. citri populations among 36 localities in Brazil, using an almost complete sequence of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. Our analyses led to the identification of two geographically and genetically structured groups. The indices of molecular diversity pointed to a recent population expansion, and we discuss the role of multiple invasion events in this scenario. We also argue that such genetic diversity and population structure may have implications for the best management strategies to be adopted for controlling this psyllid and/or the disease it vectors in Brazil. PMID:25545788

  12. Sclerenchymatous ring as a barrier to phloem feeding by Asian citrus psyllid: Evidence from electrical penetration graph and visualization of stylet pathways

    PubMed Central

    George, Justin; Ammar, El-Desouky; Hall, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) feeding behaviors play a significant role in the transmission of the phloem-limited Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) bacterium that causes the economically devastating citrus greening disease. Sustained phloem ingestion by D. citri on CLas infected plants is required for pathogen acquisition and transmission. Recent studies have shown a fibrous ring of thick-walled sclerenchyma around the phloem in mature, fully expanded citrus leaves that is more prominent on the abaxial compared with the adaxial side. The composition and thickness of this fibrous ring may have an important role in selection of feeding sites by D. citri based on leaf age and leaf surface, which in turn can affect pathogen acquisition and transmission. We measured feeding behavior using electrical penetration graph (EPG) recordings of individual D. citri adults placed on abaxial or adaxial surfaces of young or mature Valencia orange leaves to study the role of the sclerenchymatous ring in modifying D. citri feeding behavior. Feeding sites on the same leaf tissues were then sectioned and examined by epifluorescence microscopy. The duration of phloem ingestion (E2 waveform) by psyllids was significantly reduced on mature compared with young leaves, and on abaxial compared with adaxial leaf surfaces. The longest duration of phloem ingestion was observed from psyllids placed on the adaxial side of young leaves that had the least developed sclerenchyma. Bouts of phloem salivation (E1 waveform), however, were significantly longer on mature leaves compared with young leaves. D. citri adults made consecutive phloem feeding attempts (bouts) on the abaxial side of mature leaves and those bouts resulted in unsuccessful or shorter periods of phloem ingestion. Adults also made more frequent and longer bouts of xylem ingestion on mature leaves compared with adult psyllids placed on young leaves. Epifluorescence microscopy showed that the fibrous ring in young

  13. Diverse Array of New Viral Sequences Identified in Worldwide Populations of the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri) Using Viral Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Shahideh; Salem, Nidá; Nigg, Jared C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, is the natural vector of the causal agent of Huanglongbing (HLB), or citrus greening disease. Together; HLB and D. citri represent a major threat to world citrus production. As there is no cure for HLB, insect vector management is considered one strategy to help control the disease, and D. citri viruses might be useful. In this study, we used a metagenomic approach to analyze viral sequences associated with the global population of D. citri. By sequencing small RNAs and the transcriptome coupled with bioinformatics analysis, we showed that the virus-like sequences of D. citri are diverse. We identified novel viral sequences belonging to the picornavirus superfamily, the Reoviridae, Parvoviridae, and Bunyaviridae families, and an unclassified positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus. Moreover, a Wolbachia prophage-related sequence was identified. This is the first comprehensive survey to assess the viral community from worldwide populations of an agricultural insect pest. Our results provide valuable information on new putative viruses, some of which may have the potential to be used as biocontrol agents. IMPORTANCE Insects have the most species of all animals, and are hosts to, and vectors of, a great variety of known and unknown viruses. Some of these most likely have the potential to be important fundamental and/or practical resources. In this study, we used high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology and bioinformatics analysis to identify putative viruses associated with Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid. D. citri is the vector of the bacterium causing Huanglongbing (HLB), currently the most serious threat to citrus worldwide. Here, we report several novel viral sequences associated with D. citri. PMID:26676774

  14. Insecticidal Suppression of Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) Vector of Huanglongbing Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Jawwad A.; Kostyk, Barry C.; Stansly, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    Diaphorina citri vectors pathogens that cause ‘huanglongbing’ or citrus greening disease which poses a serious threat to citrus production worldwide. Vector suppression is critical to reduce disease spread. Efficacy is a main concern when choosing an insecticide. Insecticidal treatments of 49 products or 44 active ingredients (a.i) labeled or experimental were field tested between 2005–2013 as foliar sprays (250 treatments, 39 a.i) or soil applications (47 treatments, 9 a.i) to control D. citri in citrus. A combined effect of nymphal and adult suppression in response to sprays of 23 insecticides representing 9 modes of action (MoA) groups and 3 unknown MoA provided more than 90% reduction of adult D. citri over 24–68 days. Observable effects on nymphs were generally of shorter duration due to rapid maturation of flush. However, reduction of 76–100% nymphs or adults over 99–296 days was seen on young trees receiving drenches of the neonicotinoids imidacloprid, thiamethoxam or clothianidin (MoA 4A) and a novel anthranilic diamide, cyantraniliprole (MoA 28). Effective products identified for foliar sprays to control D. citri provide sufficient MoA groups for rotation to delay evolution of insecticide resistance by D. citri and other pests. However, cyantraniliprole is now the only available alternative for rotation with neonicotinoids in soil application to young trees. Sprays of up to eight of the most effective insecticides could be rotated over a year without repetition of any MoA and little or no recourse to neonicotinoids or cyantraniliprole, so important for protection of young trees. Other considerations effecting decisions of what and when to spray include prevalence of huanglongbing, pest pressure, pre-harvest intervals, overall budget, equipment availability, and conservation of beneficial arthropods. Examples of spray programs utilizing broad-spectrum and relatively selective insecticides are provided to improve vector management and may vary

  15. Behavioral plasticity in Diaphorina citri feeding on different citrus tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri) is a vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), a phloem-limited bacterial pathogen of citrus. While psyllid nymphs are obligate feeders on young flush leaves, adults can be found on leaves of any age. To understand risk of transmission of CLas, i...

  16. Two-Spotted Ladybeetle Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): A Commercially Available Predator to Control Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    PubMed Central

    Afzal, Muhammad; Stansly, Philip A.

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) is an economically important pest of citrus because it serves as a vector of the causal pathogens of huanglongbing (HLB) also known as citrus greening disease. The increased use of insecticides for control of D. citri negatively impacts several natural enemies including some effective ladybeetle species which are not available commercially. The two-spotted ladybeetle, Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is found in some crop and forest ecosystems of Asia, Europe and North America and available commercially. It is known to attack aphids and mealybugs but there are no published records of feeding on psyllids. We evaluated suitability and preference of A. bipunctata for nymphs of D. citri compared to corn leaf aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) a global pest of cereal crops and prey for many predaceous insects. We also compared development and reproduction of A. bipunctata on these two species with frozen eggs of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at 25°C. Initially, more D. citri than R. maidis nymphs were consumed in the no-choice tests although final consumption by larva and adult of A. bipunctata did not differ in the choice and no-choice tests. Larval development was prolonged by one day on D. citri compared to R. maidis nymphs but did not differ between either of these diets and E. kuehniella. Larval survival to adult averaged 93–100% and was not impacted by diet. Adult life span did not differ between diets although those on D. citri and R. maidis nymphs weighed less and produced fewer but more fertile eggs than on E. kuehniella eggs. Significant reduction of D. citri nymphs averaging 54% was observed in colonies caged with adult A. bipunctata on field planted citrus. R° (net reproductive rate) was least for beetles fed R. maidis, but otherwise there were no significant differences in demographic parameters. Successful

  17. Geographic distribution of habitat, development, and population growth rates of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, in Mexico.

    PubMed

    López-Collado, José; Isabel López-Arroyo, J; Robles-García, Pedro L; Márquez-Santos, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an introduced pest in Mexico and a vector of huanglongbing, a lethal citrus disease. Estimations of the habitat distribution and population growth rates of D. citri are required to establish regional and areawide management strategies and can be used as a pest risk analysis tools. In this study, the habitat distribution of D. citri in Mexico was computed with MaxEnt, an inductive, machine-learning program that uses bioclimatic layers and point location data. Geographic distributions of development and population growth rates were determined by fitting a temperature-dependent, nonlinear model and projecting the rates over the target area, using the annual mean temperature as the predictor variable. The results showed that the most suitable regions for habitat of D. citri comprise the Gulf of Mexico states, Yucatán Peninsula, and areas scattered throughout the Pacific coastal states. Less suitable areas occurred in northern and central states. The most important predictor variables were related to temperature. Development and growth rates had a distribution wider than habitat, reaching some of the northern states of México. Habitat, development, and population growth rates were correlated to each other and with the citrus producing area. These relationships indicated that citrus producing states are within the most suitable regions for the occurrence, development, and population growth of D. citri, therefore increasing the risk of huanglongbing dispersion.

  18. Geographic Distribution of Habitat, Development, and Population Growth Rates of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri, in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    López-Collado, José; Isabel López-Arroyo, J.; Robles-García, Pedro L.; Márquez-Santos, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an introduced pest in Mexico and a vector of huanglongbing, a lethal citrus disease. Estimations of the habitat distribution and population growth rates of D. citri are required to establish regional and areawide management strategies and can be used as a pest risk analysis tools. In this study, the habitat distribution of D. citri in Mexico was computed with MaxEnt, an inductive, machine-learning program that uses bioclimatic layers and point location data. Geographic distributions of development and population growth rates were determined by fitting a temperature-dependent, nonlinear model and projecting the rates over the target area, using the annual mean temperature as the predictor variable. The results showed that the most suitable regions for habitat of D. citri comprise the Gulf of Mexico states, Yucatán Peninsula, and areas scattered throughout the Pacific coastal states. Less suitable areas occurred in northern and central states. The most important predictor variables were related to temperature. Development and growth rates had a distribution wider than habitat, reaching some of the northern states of México. Habitat, development, and population growth rates were correlated to each other and with the citrus producing area. These relationships indicated that citrus producing states are within the most suitable regions for the occurrence, development, and population growth of D. citri, therefore increasing the risk of huanglongbing dispersion. PMID:24735280

  19. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus titers in citrus cultivars in the field and in Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) inoculated greenhouse trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of seven citrus cultivars (C. sinensis, C. paradisi, ‘Temple’ tangor, ‘Minneola’ and ‘Orlando’ tangelos and, ‘Fallglo’ and ‘Sunburst’ mandarin hybrids) growing in commercial orchards in Florida revealed a correlation between visual ratings of HLB incidence and severity and CLas titer (Stove...

  20. Innate and Conditioned Responses to Chemosensory and Visual Cues in Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), Vector of Huanglongbing Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Patt, Joseph M.; Stockton, Dara; Meikle, William G.; Sétamou, Mamoudou; Mafra-Neto, Agenor; Adamczyk, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) transmits Huanglongbing, a devastating disease that threatens citrus trees worldwide. A better understanding of the psyllid’s host-plant selection process may lead to the development of more efficient means of monitoring it and predicting its movements. Since behavioral adaptations, such as associative learning, may facilitate recognition of suitable host-plants, we examined whether adult D. citri could be conditioned to visual and chemosensory stimuli from host and non-host-plant sources. Response was measured as the frequency of salivary sheaths, the residue of psyllid probing activity, in a line of emulsified wax on the surface of a test arena. The psyllids displayed both appetitive and aversive conditioning to two different chemosensory stimuli. They could also be conditioned to recognize a blue-colored probing substrate and their response to neutral visual cues was enhanced by chemosensory stimuli. Conditioned psyllids were sensitive to the proportion of chemosensory components present in binary mixtures. Naïve psyllids displayed strong to moderate innate biases to several of the test compounds. While innate responses are probably the psyllid’s primary behavioral mechanism for selecting host-plants, conditioning may enhance its ability to select host-plants during seasonal transitions and dispersal. PMID:26462949

  1. Morphological abnormalities and cell death in the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) midgut associated with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

    PubMed Central

    Ghanim, Murad; Fattah-Hosseini, Somayeh; Levy, Amit; Cilia, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is a phloem-limited, gram-negative, fastidious bacterium that is associated with the development of citrus greening disease, also known as Huanglongbing (HLB). CLas is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri, in a circulative manner. Two major barriers to transmission within the insect are the midgut and the salivary glands. We performed a thorough microscopic analysis within the insect midgut following exposure to CLas-infected citrus trees. We observed changes in nuclear architecture, including pyknosis and karyorrhexis as well as changes to the actin cytoskeleton in CLas-exposed midgut cells. Further analyses showed that the changes are likely due to the activation of programmed cell death as assessed by Annexin V staining and DNA fragmentation assays. These results suggest that exposure to CLas-infected trees induces apoptotic responses in the psyllid midgut that should be further investigated. Understanding the adaptive significance of the apoptotic response has the potential to create new approaches for controlling HLB. PMID:27630042

  2. Beginning English for Adults. Vol. 1, Asian Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles City Schools, CA. Div. of Career and Continuing Education.

    This elementary text for teaching English as a second language is the first of a seven-volume series on the teaching of beginning and intermediate English to adults. The series was prepared as part of the ongoing demonstration project entitled Bridging the Asian Language and Cultural Gap. The lessons are designed primarily for Chinese, Japanese,…

  3. Pronunciation Lessons for Adults. Vol. 6, Asian Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles City Schools, CA. Div. of Career and Continuing Education.

    This pronunciation text is the sixth in a seven-volume series of curriculum materials for the teaching of English as a second language to adults. The lessons are designed specifically for Asian students and Spanish speakers, focusing mainly on the English sounds that are absent in the non-English languages. The lesson sequence does not reflect a…

  4. Cloning and expressing a highly functional and substrate specific farnesoic acid o-methyltransferase from the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama)

    PubMed Central

    Van Ekert, Evelien; Shatters, Robert G.; Rougé, Pierre; Powell, Charles A.; Smagghe, Guy; Borovsky, Dov

    2015-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, transmits a phloem-limited bacterium, Candidatus ‘Liberibacter’ asiaticus that causes citrus greening disease. Because juvenile hormone (JH) plays an important role in adult and nymphal development, we studied the final steps in JH biosynthesis in D. citri. A putative JH acid methyltransferase ortholog gene (jmtD) and its cognate cDNA were identified by searching D. citri genome database. Expression analysis shows expression in all life stages. In adults, it is expressed in the head-thorax, (containing the corpora allata), and the abdomen (containing ovaries and male accessory glands). A 3D protein model identified the catalytic groove with catalytically active amino acids and the S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-binding loop. The cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli cells and the purified enzyme showed high preference for farnesoic acid (FA) and homoFA (kcat of 0.752 × 10−3 and 0.217 × 10−3 s−1, respectively) as compared to JH acid I (JHA I) (cis/trans/cis; 2Z, 6E, 10cis), JHA III (2E, 6E, 10cis), and JHA I (trans/cis/cis; 2E, 2Z, 10cis) (kcat of 0.081 × 10−3, 0.013 × 10−3, and 0.003 × 10−3 s−1, respectively). This suggests that this ortholog is a DcFA-o-methyl transferase gene (fmtD), not a jmtD, and that JH biosynthesis in D. citri proceeds from FA to JH III through methyl farnesoate (MF). DcFA-o-MT does not require Ca2+, Mg2+ or Zn2+, however, Zn2+ (1 mM) completely inhibits the enzyme probably by binding H115 at the active groove. This represents the first purified FA-o-MT from Hemiptera with preferred biological activity for FA and not JHA. PMID:25893162

  5. First record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Ecuador infesting urban citrus and orange jasmine trees.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, J F; Chica, E J

    2014-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were collected in the Guayaquil, Samborondón, and Durán cantons in coastal Ecuador. Psyllids were found in high numbers in citrus (Citrus spp., Sapindales: Rutaceae) and orange jasmine (Murraya exotica [L.] Jack, Sapindales: Rutaceae) trees within the Guayaquil-Samborondon-Duran conurbation; however, none was found during scoutings in the main citrus producing areas in coastal Ecuador. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of D. citri in Ecuador and the Pacific coastal plain of South America.

  6. Identification of transcription factors potentially involved in the juvenile to adult phase transition in Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Mari-Cruz; Forment, Javier; Gadea, José; Carrasco, Jose Luis; Juarez, José; Navarro, Luís; Ancillo, Gema

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The juvenile to adult transition (JAT) in higher plants is required for them to reach reproductive competence. However, it is a poorly understood process in woody plants, where only a few genes have been definitely identified as being involved in this transition. This work aims at increasing our understanding of the mechanisms regulating the JAT in citrus. Methods Juvenile and adult plants from Pineapple sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and Rough lemon (C. jambhiri) were used to screen for differentially expressed transcription factors (TFs) using a 1·15K microarray developed on the basis of the CitrusTF database. Murcott tangor (C. reticulata × C. sinensis) and Duncan grapefruit (C. paradisi) were incorporated into the quantitative real-time reverse transcription–PCR validation in order to select those genes whose phase-specific regulation was common to the four species. Key Results A browsable web database has been created with information about the structural and functional annotation related to 1152 unigenes of putative citrus TFs (CTFs). This database constitutes a valuable resource for research on transcriptional regulation and comparative genomics. Moreover, a microarray has been developed and used that contains these putative CTFs, in order to identify eight genes that showed differential expression in juvenile and adult meristems of four different species of citrus. Those genes have been characterized, and their expression pattern in vegetative and reproductive tissues has been analysed. Four of them are MADS-box genes, a family of TFs involved in developmental processes, whereas another one resembles MADS-box genes but lacks the MADS box itself. The other three showed high partial sequence similarity restricted to specific Arabidopsis protein domains but negligible outside those domains. Conclusions The work presented here indicates that the JAT in citrus could be controlled by mechanisms that are in part common to those of

  7. Citrus diseases with global ramifications including citrus canker and huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although there are a number of diseases that plague citrus production worldwide, two bacterial diseases are particularly problematic. Both are of Asian origin and currently cause severe economic damage: Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) and citrus huanglongbing (HLB). Although ACC has been found in the ...

  8. Abundance of citrus leafminer larvae on citrus and citrus-related germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is a key pest in most citrus growing regions worldwide. Adult citrus leafminers oviposit primarily on young elongating flush of citrus as well as other Rutaceae and some ornamental plants. Larvae feed on the epiderm...

  9. Language Brokering, Acculturation, and Empowerment: Evidence from South Asian Canadian Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cila, Jorida; Lalonde, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the practice of language brokering (LB) among South Asian Canadian college-age adults and how such practice relates to acculturation to mainstream and heritage cultures, as well as personal empowerment. One hundred and twenty-four young adults reported on three different indices of LB (brokering frequency, diversity of…

  10. Silencing of Two Insulin Receptor Genes Disrupts Nymph-Adult Transition of Alate Brown Citrus Aphid

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Bi-Yue; Shang, Feng; Zhang, Qiang; Xiong, Ying; Yang, Qun; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Insulin receptors play key roles in growth, development, and polymorphism in insects. Here, we report two insulin receptor genes (AcInR1 and AcInR2) from the brown citrus aphid, Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus. Transcriptional analyses showed that AcInR1 increased during the nymph–adult transition in alate aphids, while AcInR2 had the highest expression level in second instar nymphs. AcInR1 is important in aphid development from fourth instar nymphs to adults as verified by dsRNA feeding mediated RNAi. The silencing of AcInR1 or/and AcInR2 produced a variety of phenotypes including adults with normal wings, malformed wings, under-developed wings, and aphids failing to develop beyond the nymphal stages. Silencing of AcInR1 or AcInR2 alone, and co-silencing of both genes, resulted in 73% or 60%, and 87% of aphids with problems in the transition from nymph to normal adult. The co-silencing of AcInR1 and AcInR2 resulted in 62% dead nymphs, but no mortality occurred by silencing of AcInR1 or AcInR2 alone. Phenotypes of adults in the dsInR1 and dsInR2 were similar. The results demonstrate that AcInR1 and AcInR2 are essential for successful nymph–adult transition in alate aphids and show that RNAi methods may be useful for the management of this pest. PMID:28230772

  11. Nested-quantitative PCR approach with improved sensitivity for the detection of low titer levels of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama.

    PubMed

    Coy, M R; Hoffmann, M; Kingdom Gibbard, H N; Kuhns, E H; Pelz-Stelinski, K S; Stelinski, L L

    2014-07-01

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is a phloem-limited bacterium transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, and the presumptive causal agent of citrus greening disease. The current method of detection for CLas within plant and insect samples is by a presence/absence qPCR assay using the CLas 16S rDNA gene target. Although qPCR is highly sensitive, low bacterial titers or suboptimal qPCR conditions can result in false-negatives. Using a nested qPCR assay, we determined the false-negative rate of the 16S presence/absence qPCR assay was greater than 50%. Studies to determine the performance parameters of the qPCR assays for CLas 16S and Wingless (Wg), the D. citri endogenous gene, using plasmid and psyllid DNA, revealed suboptimal and variable performance of the 16S assay in psyllid samples. Average efficiencies and sensitivity limits of the plasmid assays were 99.0% and 2.7 copies of template for Wg, respectively, and 98.5% and 2.2-22.1 copies for 16S, respectively. Variability in efficiency was significantly greater in psyllid samples for both gene targets compared to the corresponding plasmid assays, and efficiencies as low as 76% were obtained for 16S. A secondary structure analysis revealed the formation of two stem-loop structures that block the forward and probe binding sites in the 16S template, which could hinder amplification. In summary, our results suggest that suboptimal qPCR efficiency is not uncommon for the 16S presence/absence qPCR assay, which combined with lowCLas titers in some samples, could contribute significantly to the under-reporting of CLas infection in psyllid and plant samples.

  12. Relationship Involvement Among Young Adults: Are Asian American Men an Exceptional Case?

    PubMed Central

    Balistreri, Kelly Stamper; Joyner, Kara; Kao, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Asian American men and women have been largely neglected in previous studies of romantic relationship formation and status. Using data from the first and fourth waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), we examine romantic and sexual involvement among young adults, most of who were between the ages of 25 to 32 (N=11,555). Drawing from explanations that focus on structural and cultural elements as well as racial hierarchies, we examine the factors that promote and impede involvement in romantic/sexual relationships. We use logistic regression to model current involvement of men and women separately and find, with the exception of Filipino men, Asian men are significantly less likely than white men to be currently involved with a romantic partner, even after controlling for a wide array of characteristics. Our results suggest that the racial hierarchy framework best explains lower likelihood of involvement among Asian American men. PMID:26549919

  13. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: A cause of concern for adult cardiovascular disease epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Duggirala Sivaram; Kabir, Zubair; Dash, Ashok Kumar; Das, Bhagabati Charan

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnormalities, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, tobacco use, obesity, physical inactivity, and unhealthy dietary practices. Atherosclerotic CVD processes begin early in childhood and are influenced over the life course by genetic and potentially modifiable risk factors and environmental exposure. 80% of adult CVD burden will fall on the developing nations by 2020. The concept of primordial prevention is fast emerging as a necessary prevention tool to curb adult CVD epidemic. Established guidelines and proven preventive strategies on cardiovascular health exist; however, are always implemented half-heartedly. Composite screening and prediction tools for adults can be adapted and validated in children tailored to South Asian population. South Asian children could be at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors at an earlier stage, thus, timely interventions are imperative. PMID:21976880

  14. "Smoking": Use of Cigarettes, Cigars and Blunts among Southeast Asian American Youth and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, J. P.; Battle, R. S.; Lipton, R.; Soller, B.

    2010-01-01

    Increased use of cigars has been noted among youth, as well as use of blunts (hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana). Three types of relationships have been previously hypothesized between use of tobacco and marijuana in substance use progression. We aimed to assess these relationships for Southeast Asian American youth and adults in an urban…

  15. Acculturation, Skin Tone Preferences, and Tanning Behaviours Among Young Adult Asian Australians.

    PubMed

    Day, Ashley K; Wilson, Carlene J; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Roberts, Rachel M

    2016-10-01

    Australia has a significant proportion of residents of Asian heritage. Although the incidence of skin cancer is lower in those of Asian heritage than Caucasians, their prognosis is often worse. Sociocultural variables are central to the tanning behaviours of individuals from Western cultures. We examined the role of sociocultural variables in the tanning behaviours (outdoor tanning, indoor/solarium and fake tan use) among Asian Australians. A sample of 399 young adults identifying either as a person of Asian heritage or as Asian Australian participated in an online survey. Our results suggest that Asian Australians are at risk of skin cancer; over 35 % of the sample reported engaging in outdoor tanning and over 10 % in solarium tanning. After controlling for demographic factors and skin cancer knowledge, preferring a darker skin tone and being acculturated to Australia were significantly associated with tanning behaviour. Participants' low levels of skin cancer knowledge are of concern, and possibilities for improving knowledge levels in this group are considered. Further, we recommended that future research studies investigate sociocultural and appearance-related beliefs associated with tanning behaviours in this population, in order to determine best avenues for intervention.

  16. Education Associations With Smoking and Leisure-Time Physical Inactivity Among Hispanic and Asian Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed whether associations between education and 2 health behaviors—smoking and leisure-time physical inactivity (LTPI)—depended on nativity and age at immigration among Hispanic and Asian young adults. Methods. Data came from the 2000–2008 National Health Interview Survey. The sample included 13 345 Hispanics and 2528 Asians aged 18 to 30 years. Variables for smoking and LTPI were based on self-reported data. We used logistic regression to examine education differentials in these behaviors by nativity and age at immigration. Results. The association of education with both smoking and LTPI was weaker for foreign-born Hispanics than for US-born Hispanics but did not vary by nativity for Asians. Education associations for smoking and LTPI among foreign-born Hispanics who had immigrated at an early age more closely resembled those of US-born Hispanics than did education associations among foreign-born Hispanics who had immigrated at an older age. A similar pattern for smoking was evident among Asians. Conclusions. Health-promotion efforts aimed at reducing disparities in key health behaviors among Hispanic and Asian young adults should take into account country of residence in childhood and adolescence as well as nativity. PMID:21233440

  17. Citrus tristeza virus-based RNAi in citrus plants induces gene silencing in Diaphorina citri, a phloem-sap sucking insect vector of citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing).

    PubMed

    Hajeri, Subhas; Killiny, Nabil; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Dawson, William O; Gowda, Siddarame

    2014-04-20

    A transient expression vector based on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is unusually stable. Because of its stability it is being considered for use in the field to control Huanglongbing (HLB), which is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. In the absence of effective control strategies for CLas, emphasis has been on control of D. citri. Coincident cohabitation in phloem tissue by CLas, D. citri and CTV was exploited to develop a novel method to mitigate HLB through RNA interference (RNAi). Since CTV has three RNA silencing suppressors, it was not known if CTV-based vector could induce RNAi in citrus. Yet, expression of sequences targeting citrus phytoene desaturase gene by CTV-RNAi resulted in photo-bleaching phenotype. CTV-RNAi vector, engineered with truncated abnormal wing disc (Awd) gene of D. citri, induced altered Awd expression when silencing triggers ingested by feeding D. citri nymphs. Decreased Awd in nymphs resulted in malformed-wing phenotype in adults and increased adult mortality. This impaired ability of D. citri to fly would potentially limit the successful vectoring of CLas bacteria between citrus trees in the grove. CTV-RNAi vector would be relevant for fast-track screening of candidate sequences for RNAi-mediated pest control.

  18. Depression among Asian-American Adults in the Community: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Jun; Park, EunMi; Storr, Carla L.; Tran, Katherine; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In this systematic review, we provide an overview of the literature on depression among Asian-Americans and explore the possible variations in depression prevalence estimates by methodological and demographic factors. Methods Six databases were used to identify studies reporting a prevalence estimate for depression in Asian-American adults in non-clinical settings. Meta-analysis was used to calculate pooled estimates of rates of depression by assessment type. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed for subgroup analyses by gender, age, ethnicity, and other participant characteristics. Results A total of 58 studies met the review criteria (n = 21.731 Asian-American adults). Heterogeneity across the studies was considerably high. The prevalence of major depression assessed via standardized clinical interviews ranged between 4.5% and 11.3%. Meta-analyses revealed comparable estimated prevalence rates of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (35.6%, 95% CI 27.6%–43.7%) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (33.1%, 95% CI 14.9%–51.3%). Estimates varied by Asian racial/ethnic group and other participant characteristics. Estimates of depression among special populations, which included maternity, caregivers, and homosexuals, were significantly higher than estimates obtained from other samples (58.8% vs 29.3%, p = .003). Estimates of depression among Korean and Filipino-Americans were similar (33.3%-34.4%); however, the estimates were twice as high as those for Chinese-Americans (15.7%; p = .012 for Korean, p = .049 for Filipino). Conclusion There appears to be wide variability in the prevalence rates of depression among Asian-Americans in the US. Practitioners and researchers who serve Asian-American adults need to be sensitive to the potential diversity of the expression of depression and treatment-seeking across Asian-American subgroups. Public health policies to increase Asian-American access to mental health care

  19. Defining ethnic enclave and its associations with self-reported health outcomes among Asian American adults in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sungwoo; Yi, Stella S.; De La Cruz, Nneka Lundy; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on ethnic enclave-health associations for Asian Americans is limited due to an inconsistent definition of ethnic enclave. The authors aimed to establish a robust criterion for defining Asian enclaves in New York City (NYC) and assessed the association between enclave residence and health outcomes among Asian American adults. Data came from 2009-12 NYC Community Health Surveys and 2008-12 American Community Survey. Asian enclave was defined as an area with high dissimilarity and isolation scores as well as high concentration of Asians. Five of 55 NYC community districts were identified as Asian enclaves. After controlling for confounding, enclave residence was associated with positive perception of general health with borderline significance (prevalence ratio = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.98, 1.15), but not with current smoking, hypertension, and diabetes. Ethnic enclave residence in urban areas may not produce a substantial impact on chronic health outcomes for Asian Americans beyond individual-level factors. PMID:26699378

  20. Responses of the Asian citrus psyllid to volatiles emitted by the flushing shoots of its rutaceous host plants.

    PubMed

    Patt, J M; Sétamou, M

    2010-04-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) carries Candidatus liberibacter spp., the putative causal agents of Huanglongbing. D. citri reproduces and develops only on the flushing shoots of its rutaceous host plants. Here we examined whether D. citri is attracted to host plant odors and a mixture of synthetic terpenes. Tests conducted in a vertically oriented Y-tube olfactometer showed that both males and females preferentially entered the Y-tube arm containing the odor from the young shoots of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack and Citrus limon L. Burm. f. cultivar Eureka. Only males exhibited a preference for the odor of C. sinensis L., whereas the odor of C. x paradisi MacFadyen cultivar Rio Red was not attractive to both sexes. The volatiles emitted by young shoots of grapefruit cultivar Rio Red, Meyer lemon (Citrus x limon L. Burm.f.), and M. paniculata were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. The samples were comprised of monoterpenes, monoterpene esters, and sesquiterpenes. The number of compounds present varied from 2 to 17, whereas the total amount of sample collected over 6 h ranged from 5.6 to 119.8 ng. The quantitatively dominant constituents were (E)-beta-ocimene, linalool, linalyl acetate, and beta-caryophyllene. The attractiveness of a mixture of synthetic terpenes, modeled on the volatiles collected from M. paniculata, was evaluated in screened cages in a no-choice test. At three observation intervals, significantly more individuals were trapped on white targets scented with the mixture than on unscented targets. These results indicate the feasibility of developing D. citri attractants patterned on actual host plant volatiles.

  1. Botanicals, selective insecticides, and predators to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in citrus orchards.

    PubMed

    Khan, Azhar A; Afzal, Muhammad; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Khan, Arif M; Raza, Abubakar M

    2014-12-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama vectors pathogens that cause huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening devastating and economically important disease present in most citrus growing regions. Young citrus shoots are required for psyllid reproduction and development. During winter citrus trees produce little or no new growth. Overwintering adults reproduce in spring on newly emerging shoots also attractive to other pests and beneficial insects. Botanicals and relatively selective insecticides could help to conserve beneficial insects and reduce pest resistance to insecticides. Sprays of Azadirachtin (Neem), Tropane (Datura), Spirotetramat, Spinetoram, and broad-spectrum Imidacloprid were evaluated to control ACP in spring and summer on 10-year-old "Kinow" Citrus reticulata Blanco trees producing new growth. Psyllid populations were high averaging 5-9 nymphs or adults per sample before treatment application. Nymphs or adults were significantly reduced to 0.5-1.5 per sample in all treatments for 3 weeks, average 61%-83% reduction. No significant reduction in ladybeetles Adalia bipunctata, Aneglei scardoni, Cheilomenes sexmaculata, and Coccinella septempunctata was observed. Syrphids, spiders and green lacewings were reduced in treated trees except with Tropane. Studies are warranted to assess impact of these predators on ACP and interaction with insecticides. Observed reduction in ACP populations may not be enough considering its reproductive potential and role in the spread of HLB. Follow-up sprays may be required to achieve additional suppression using rotations of different insecticides.

  2. Contents of cesium, iodine, strontium, thorium, and uranium in selected human organs of adult asian population.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, G V; Kawamura, H; Dang, H S; Parr, R M; Wang, J W; Cho, S Y; Natera, E S

    2004-08-01

    Contents of cesium, iodine, strontium, thorium, and uranium in some selected human organs were estimated for adult Asian population using data obtained in four Asian countries: China, India, Philippines, and Republic of Korea, as part of a Coordinated Research Program of the International Atomic Energy Agency on "Ingestion and Organ contents of elements of importance in radiation protection." These countries together represent more than 40% of the world population. Highly sensitive analytical techniques were employed to measure cesium in skeletal muscle, iodine in thyroid, strontium in skeleton, thorium and uranium in skeleton, liver, kidneys, and lungs where, in comparison to other organs, these elements are present in higher concentrations. The organ contents for adult Asian population, when compared with the corresponding data proposed for Reference Man by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), showed about 40 times lower kidneys content and about 10 times lower skeleton content of uranium. The content of thorium in skeleton for Asian population was also half of the ICRP Reference Man value. Interestingly, organ contents for the other elements such as iodine in thyroid, cesium in skeletal muscle, and strontium in skeleton were comparable for Asian and the Caucasian population (represented by ICRP Reference Man). Organ contents for these elements were also calculated by applying the new ICRP models of these elements to their daily intakes. The comparison of the calculated and measured organ contents showed that despite uncertainties in the organ content values arising due to the inter-country variations in daily dietary intakes, the contents were within a factor of two to three. This observation is significant since human data both on organ contents and ingestion were obtained at environmental level of intakes. The study suggests that currently available ICRP models for these elements are quite realistic.

  3. Interdependent Recovery of Adults with Schizophrenia: Asian American Consumer Perspectives of Family Involvement and Influence

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Karen Kyeunghae; Yamada, Ann-Marie; Kim, Min Ah; Dinh, Tam Q.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Family involvement is important in the recovery experience of culturally diverse adults with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the influence of family among consumers purported to have close family ties without regular contact. This study explored Asian American consumers ‘views about family relationships and participation in their recovery. Methods Secondary analysis of qualitative data from a larger project was conducted to explore family-related themes of eight Asian Americans receiving services from recovery-focused programs in urban Southern California. Results Most consumers described their family support as adequate while simultaneously reporting limited family involvement. Asia-born and U.S.-born Asian consumers varied in describing family support, suggesting providers consider nativity in culturally responsive service delivery. Conclusions and Practice Implications Families need not be present to affect the perspectives of Asian Americans receiving recovery-oriented services. The extent of family influences on recovery, beyond the initial determination of current family contact, requires further exploration. PMID:25000120

  4. Social Network Characteristics, Social Support, and Cigarette Smoking among Asian/Pacific Islander Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe‘aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18–35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI. PMID:27297612

  5. Susceptibility of sixteen citrus genotypes to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) disease is the most serious threat to citrus production worldwide and in the last decade has devastated the Florida citrus industry. HLB is associated with a phloem-limited a-proteobacter Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and its insect vector the Asian citrus psyllid (Dia...

  6. Intercropping of citrus and guava trees for management of Huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies conducted in Viet Nam by Vietnamese, Japanese and Australian scientists indicate that interplanting citrus with guava negated infestations of Asian citrus psyllid and consequently huanglongbing, a serious disease caused by a bacterium vectored by the psyllid. Young citrus interplanted...

  7. The Relationship Between Self-Rated Health and Acculturation in Hispanic and Asian Adult Immigrants: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lommel, Lisa L; Chen, Jyu-Lin

    2016-04-01

    We systematically reviewed studies to identify the association between acculturation and self-rated health (SRH) and the impact of nativity and language use in Asian and Hispanic adult immigrants. Six electronic databases were searched. Data on nativity and limited English proficiency (LEP) was extracted and analyzed. Nine studies met review criteria. A positive association between acculturation and fair/poor SRH among Asians and Hispanics was found. For both Asians and Hispanics, six out of eight studies showed nativity and all three studies reporting LEP were associated with worse SRH compared to whites. Nativity and LEP were found to be risk factors for reporting worse SRH in Hispanics compared to Asians. The degree of association between nativity and LEP and worse SRH was found to vary by Asian and Hispanic subgroup. Further studies are needed to accurately assess the health status of these populations, which will be essential to eliminating disparities.

  8. Screening Citrus germplasm for tolerance to HLB and Diaphorina citri--progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article summarizes a project that is being funded in part by the California Citrus Research Board. In a previous field trial, 87 genotypes of citrus were planted in the field in Florida and the different genotypes were evaluated for tolerance to Asian citrus psyllid, citrus leaf miner, and hua...

  9. Evaluating citrus germplasm for huanglongbing (HLB) resistance: USDA-ARS Inoculation Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, is an important pest because it vectors bacteria responsible for a serious disease of citrus known as huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). USDA-ARS researchers recently established a program for screening citrus germplasm for resistance to the di...

  10. Asian-South Pacific Bureau of Adult Education Special Issue in Preparation for the Fourth International Conference on Adult Education Convened by Unesco, Paris, 1985. Courier No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ASPBAE Courier, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This special issue was developed by the Asian-South Pacific Bureau for Adult Education (ASPBAE) in preparation for Unesco's fourth international conference on adult education. A section on "Literacy--A Great Challenge and Important Debate" includes "Why Literacy? (Paul Fordham); "Cooperating or Campaigning for Literacy"…

  11. Case Studies of Multilingual/Multicultural Asian Deaf Adults: Strategies for Success.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuying; Andrews, Jean; Liu, Hsiu Tan; Liu, Chun Jung

    2016-01-01

    Case studies of adult d/Deaf or Hard of Hearing Multilingual Learners (DMLs) are few, especially studies of DMLs who learn more than one sign language and read logographic and alphabetic scripts. To reduce this paucity, two descriptive case studies are presented. Written questionnaires, face-to-face interviews, and self-appraisals of language-use rubrics were used to explore (a) the language and literacy histories of two adult Asian DMLs who had learned multiple languages: Chinese (spoken/written), English (written), Chinese Sign Language, and American Sign Language; and (b) how each language was used in different cultural communities with diverse conversational partners. Home literacy environment, family support, visual access to languages, peer and sibling support, role models, encouragement, perseverance, and Deaf identity all played vital roles in the participants' academic success. The findings provide insights into the acquisition of multiple languages and bi-literacy through social communication and academic content.

  12. Differential IgE binding to isoallergens from Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Michael F; Kamath, Sandip D; Koeberl, Martina; Jerry, Dean R; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Campbell, Dianne E; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-11-01

    Fish allergy is a common food allergy, with prevalence rates in the general population ranging between 0.2% and 2.3%. In both adults and children fish ranks in the top eight foods known to cause IgE mediated food allergy. Fish allergy is rarely outgrown and individuals with fish allergy may be allergic to some but not all species of fish. Whilst fish allergy occurs around the world, the characterization of allergenic components of individual species of fish has been largely confined to Northern hemisphere and European fish species. To date allergy to commonly consumed fish in the Asian-Pacific region including barramundi (Asian seabass; Lates calcarifer) have been less well investigated. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize allergenic proteins from barramundi in both fish allergic adult and pediatric patients. Serum from 17 fish allergic adults and children from Australia were characterized by immunoblotting and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) against raw and heated barramundi. Molecular analysis of identified allergens included genetic sequencing and generation of recombinant isoallergens. Two novel parvalbumin isoforms of the β-type were identified as the only allergens in barramundi and subsequently designated as Lat c 1.0101 and Lat c 1.0201 by the International Union of Immunological Societies. These two isoallergens do not differ in their ability to bind IgE antibodies, but are differentially expressed in barramundi tissue. This study characterized two novel heat stable parvalbumin allergens from barramundi, with differential IgE binding capacity between adults and pediatric patients.

  13. Different Instructional Preferences between Western and Far East Asian Adult Learners: A Case Study of Graduate Students in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Szu-Fang

    2012-01-01

    As the workplace becomes more international, it is necessary to periodically examine the learning preferences of adults from different cultures in order to enhance their transfer of learning. This study explored whether there was any different instructional preference between Western and nonresident Far East Asian (NFEA, also Confucian-influenced)…

  14. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use "blunts," or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug…

  15. The Ethnic Identity, Other-Group Attitudes, and Psychosocial Functioning of Asian American Emerging Adults from Two Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda P.; Nguyen, Huong H.; Lin, Yunghui

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from two samples of Asian American emerging adults, one in an ethnically concentrated context (n = 108) and the other in an ethnically-dispersed, mainly White context (n = 153), we examined (a) how ethnic identity and other-group attitudes were related to psychosocial functioning (i.e., depression, self-esteem, and connectedness to…

  16. 7 CFR 301.76-4 - Labeling requirements for regulated nursery stock produced within an area quarantined for citrus...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... produced within an area quarantined for citrus greening. 301.76-4 Section 301.76-4 Agriculture Regulations... OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-4 Labeling requirements for regulated nursery stock produced within an area quarantined for citrus...

  17. 7 CFR 301.76-4 - Labeling requirements for regulated nursery stock produced within an area quarantined for citrus...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... produced within an area quarantined for citrus greening. 301.76-4 Section 301.76-4 Agriculture Regulations... OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-4 Labeling requirements for regulated nursery stock produced within an area quarantined for citrus...

  18. 7 CFR 301.76-4 - Labeling requirements for regulated nursery stock produced within an area quarantined for citrus...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... produced within an area quarantined for citrus greening. 301.76-4 Section 301.76-4 Agriculture Regulations... OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-4 Labeling requirements for regulated nursery stock produced within an area quarantined for citrus...

  19. 7 CFR 301.76-4 - Labeling requirements for regulated nursery stock produced within an area quarantined for citrus...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... produced within an area quarantined for citrus greening. 301.76-4 Section 301.76-4 Agriculture Regulations... OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-4 Labeling requirements for regulated nursery stock produced within an area quarantined for citrus...

  20. Characterizing the adult and larval transcriptome of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis

    PubMed Central

    MacManes, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    The reasons for the evolution and maintenance of striking visual phenotypes are as widespread as the species that display these phenotypes. While study systems such as Heliconius and Dendrobatidae have been well characterized and provide critical information about the evolution of these traits, a breadth of new study systems, in which the phenotype of interest can be easily manipulated and quantified, are essential for gaining a more general understanding of these specific evolutionary processes. One such model is the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis, which displays significant elytral spot and color polymorphism. Using transcriptome data from two life stages, adult and larva, we characterize the transcriptome, thereby laying a foundation for further analysis and identification of the genes responsible for the continual maintenance of spot variation in H. axyridis. PMID:27326374

  1. Caregiving Practice Patterns of Asian, Hispanic, and Non-Hispanic White American Family Caregivers of Older Adults Across Generations.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Christina E

    2016-03-01

    This study is a cross-sectional investigation of caregiving practice patterns among Asian, Hispanic and non-Hispanic White American family caregivers of older adults across three immigrant generations. The 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) dataset was used, and 591 Asian, 989 Hispanic and 6537 non-Hispanic White American caregivers of older adults were selected. First, descriptive analyses of caregivers' characteristics, caregiving situations and practice patterns were examined by racial/ethnic groups and immigrant generations. Practice patterns measured were respite care use, hours and length of caregiving. Three hypotheses on caregiving patterns based on assimilation theory were tested and analyzed using logistic regression and generalized linear models by racial/ethnic groups and generations. Caregiving patterns of non-Hispanic White caregivers supported all three hypotheses regarding respite care use, caregiving hours and caregiving duration, showing less caregiving involvement in later generations. However, Asian and Hispanic counterparts showed mixed results. Third generation Asian and Hispanic caregivers used respite care the least and spent the most caregiving hours per week and had the longest caregiving duration compared to earlier generations. These caregiving patterns revealed underlying cultural values related to filial responsibility, even among later generations of caregivers of color. Findings suggest the importance of considering the cultural values of each racial/ethnic group regardless of generation when working with racially and ethnically diverse populations of family caregivers of older adults.

  2. Teacher Training Institute for Adult Basic Education Teachers Serving Asian Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Basic Continuing Education.

    Designed to expose teachers of Asian populations to innovative teaching techniques and to help them develop teaching skills and a deeper cross-cultural awareness and appreciation of Asian cultures, a 2-week institute covered skills in teaching English as a second language and aspects of Asian culture and language that significantly affect language…

  3. Knowledge of memory functions in European and Asian American adults and children: the relation to autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Koh, Jessie Bee Kim; Song, Qingfang; Hou, Yubo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated explicit knowledge of autobiographical memory functions using a newly developed questionnaire. European and Asian American adults (N = 57) and school-aged children (N = 68) indicated their agreement with 13 statements about why people think about and share memories pertaining to four broad functions-self, social, directive and emotion regulation. Children were interviewed for personal memories concurrently with the memory function knowledge assessment and again 3 months later. It was found that adults agreed to the self, social and directive purposes of memory to a greater extent than did children, whereas European American children agreed to the emotion regulation purposes of memory to a greater extent than did European American adults. Furthermore, European American children endorsed more self and emotion regulation functions than did Asian American children, whereas Asian American adults endorsed more directive functions than did European American adults. Children's endorsement of memory functions, particularly social functions, was associated with more detailed and personally meaningful memories. These findings are informative for the understanding of developmental and cultural influences on memory function knowledge and of the relation of such knowledge to autobiographical memory development.

  4. Citrus Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Talon, Manuel; Gmitter Jr., Fred G.

    2008-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most widespread fruit crops globally, with great economic and health value. It is among the most difficult plants to improve through traditional breeding approaches. Currently, there is risk of devastation by diseases threatening to limit production and future availability to the human population. As technologies rapidly advance in genomic science, they are quickly adapted to address the biological challenges of the citrus plant system and the world's industries. The historical developments of linkage mapping, markers and breeding, EST projects, physical mapping, an international citrus genome sequencing project, and critical functional analysis are described. Despite the challenges of working with citrus, there has been substantial progress. Citrus researchers engaged in international collaborations provide optimism about future productivity and contributions to the benefit of citrus industries worldwide and to the human population who can rely on future widespread availability of this health-promoting and aesthetically pleasing fruit crop. PMID:18509486

  5. Associations with E-cigarette use among Asian American and Pacific Islander young adults in California.

    PubMed

    Maglalang, Dale Dagar; Brown-Johnson, Cati; Prochaska, Judith J

    2016-12-01

    With attention to the rapidly growing market of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/e-cigarettes) and the fastest growing US ethnic minority group, the current study explored associations between awareness, perceived risks, and use of ENDS among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) young adults. AAPI young adults (ages 18-25) in California were recruited via social media, college classes, listservs for AAPI-serving non-profits, and snowball sampling to complete an anonymous survey between 2014 and 2015. The sample (N = 501) was 57% women, 15% LGBTQIA; with a mean age of 21; 26% foreign-born; identifying as Filipino (29%), Chinese (24%), Vietnamese (14%), mixed-AAPI heritage (13%), or 21% other. Nearly half the sample (44%) reported ever ENDS use; 11% were current users. Current ENDS use was twofold greater for: Filipino and Vietnamese compared to Chinese respondents; men versus women; LGBTQIA-identified respondents; those vocationally trained; and employed. Awareness of ENDS from peers/friends was most common and was associated with ever though not current ENDS use. Most respondents perceived ENDS as harmful (62%); low compared to high risk perception was associated with a three-fold greater likelihood of ever use and six-fold greater likelihood of current use. Popular flavors were fruit (49%, e.g., lychee, taro) and candy/sweets (26%). Current users viewed ENDS as a healthier alternative or quit aid for conventional cigarettes (42%); recreation/social use (33%) also was common. Findings indicate ENDS visibility among AAPI young adults in California with affinity for flavors and many engaging in trial and current use for harm reduction and recreational/social aims.

  6. Incidence of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus infection in abandoned citrus occurring in proximity to commercially managed groves.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Siddharth; Lewis-Rosenblum, Hannah; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2010-12-01

    Huanglongbing is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus (Citrus spp.). One management tactic against huanglongbing is aggressive management of the vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama), with insecticide applications. However, D. citri in abandoned groves are not controlled and therefore pose a risk of reinfestation for nearby commercial citrus. These abandoned groves could serve as a reservoir for the vector, as well as a source of the presumed causal agent for huanglongbing in Florida, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las). The current study was conducted to determine the degree to which Las is present in abandoned Florida citrus groves and to compare relative inoculum levels in nearby managed and abandoned groves during times of the year when D. citri are abundant (June, July, and August). In addition, the movement of Las by dispersing D. citri adults from inner and edge rows of abandoned grove plots to the corresponding rows of managed plots was quantified during the same 3 mo. The results of the current study confirmed the presence of Las in both D. citri and plant tissue in abandoned groves at statistically equivalent levels to those in nearby managed groves. The mean number of D. citri adults dispersing from abandoned to managed grove plots ranged from 7.25 +/- 1.70 to 70.25 +/- 21.25 per 4-d intervals. Of those, the mean number of dispersing D. citri adults that were carrying the Las pathogen ranged from 1.00 +/- 0.58 to 1.50 +/- 0.50. Our results indicate that abandoned citrus groves are a significant source of Ca. Las and that dispersing D. citri move this pathogen into nearby managed groves.

  7. Late Life Immigration and Quality of Life among Asian Indian Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Anita J; Diwan, Sadhna

    2016-09-01

    Late-life immigration among seniors for purposes of family reunification is a growing phenomenon in developed countries. Using the World Health Organization's Quality of Life instrument short form (WHOQOL-BREF) and other psychosocial measures related to the political/legal context of immigration, and personal and environmental autonomy (mastery, immigration status, access to transportation, and language barrier), this study examined quality of life (QoL) in Asian Indian seniors (N = 109), who immigrated to the United States to reunite with their adult children. The sample scores on Overall QoL and QoL domains (physical and psychological health, social relationships, and environment) were similar to established norms. Although all QoL domains correlated significantly with Overall QoL at the bivariate level, multivariate analysis showed that only environmental domain contributed significantly to Overall QoL. Linear regressions indicated: Mastery contributed significantly to Overall QoL and all QoL domains; access to transport contributed to Overall QoL, physical health, and environmental QoL; immigration status (a proxy for political/legal context) contributed to environmental QoL whereas language barrier contributed to none. Implications for improving perceptions of QoL, mastery, access to transport and other services are discussed.

  8. Non-transgenic RNAi technology to control insects on citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research demonstrated a non-transgenic delivery method for ribonucleic acid interference, RNAi, that reduced fitness as measured in increased mortality over time, of two insect pests of citrus, ie. psyllids and leafhoppers. The Asian citrus psyllid transmits a deadly plant-infecting bacterium o...

  9. Sleep time and pattern of adult individuals in primary care in an Asian urbanized community

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Tan, Mui Suan; Hwang, Siew Wai; Teo, Chia Chia; Lee, Zhi Kang Niccol; Soh, Jing Yao Jonathan; Koh, Yi Ling Eileen; How, Choon How

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sleep norms vary between individuals, being affected by personal, communal, and socioeconomic factors. Individuals with sleep time which deviate from the population norm are at risks of adverse mental, cardiovascular, and metabolic health. Sleep-related issues are common agenda for consultation in primary care. This study aimed to determine the sleep time, pattern, and behavior of multiethnic Asian individuals who attended public primary care clinics in an urban metropolitan city-state. Standardized questionnaires were assistant-administered to adult Asian individuals who visited 2 local public primary care clinics in north-eastern and southern regions of Singapore. The questionnaire included questions on demographic characteristics, self-reported sleep time, patterns, and behavior and those originated from the American National Sleep Foundation Sleep Diary. The data were collated, audited, rectified, and anonymized before being analyzed by the biostatistician. Individuals with 7 h sleep time or longer were deemed getting adequate sleep. Chi-squared or Fisher exact test was used to test the association between the demographic and behavioral variables and sleep time. Next, regression analysis was performed to identify key factors associated with their sleep time. A total of 350 individuals were recruited, with higher proportion of those of Chinese ethnicity reporting adequate sleep. Almost half (48.1%) of those who slept <7 h on weekdays tended to sleep ≥7 h on weekends. More individuals who reported no difficulty falling asleep, had regular sleep hours and awakening time, tended to sleep adequately. Those who slept with children, studied, read leisurely, used computer or laptops in their bedrooms, drank caffeinated beverages or smoked had inadequate sleep. Those who perceived sufficient sleep and considered 8 h as adequate sleep time had weekday and weekend sleep adequacy. Sleep time varied according to ethnicity, employment status, personal

  10. Silence Speaks Volumes: Parental Sexual Communication among Asian American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Janna L.; Ward, L. Monique

    2007-01-01

    Although parents greatly influence children's early understandings of sexuality, little is known about how sexual communication transpires in Asian American families. Accordingly, the authors examined the amount and type of parental sexual communication recalled by 165 Asian American college students. Parents were perceived as providing very…

  11. Social and clinically-relevant cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Americans adults: NHANES 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, Sandra E; Mustafa, Mehnaz; Pentakota, Sri Ram; Kim, Soyeon; Hastings, Katherine G; Amadi, Chioma; Palaniappan, Latha

    2017-02-17

    Little evidence exists examining cardiovascular risk factors among Asian Americans and how social determinants such as nativity status and education pattern risk in the United States (U.S.) context. We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which purposely oversampled Asian Americans from 2011 to 2014, and examined prevalence of Type II diabetes, smoking and obesity for Asian Americans (n=1363) and non-Latino Whites (n=4121). We classified Asian Americans as U.S. or foreign-born and by years in the U.S. Obesity status was based on standard body mass index (BMI) cut points of ≥30kg/m(2) and Asian-specific cut points (BMI≥25kg/m(2)) that may be more clinically relevant for this population. We fit separate logistic regression models for each outcome using complex survey design methods and tested for the joint effect of race, nativity and education on each outcome. Diabetes and obesity prevalence (applying Asian-specific BMI cut points) were higher among Asian Americans when compared to non-Latino Whites but smoking prevalence was lower. These patterns remained in fully adjusted models and showed small increases with longer duration in the U.S. Joint effects models showed higher odds of prevalent Type II diabetes and obesity (Asian-specific) for foreign-born Asians, regardless of years in the U.S. and slightly higher risk for lowe ducation, when compared to non-Latino Whites with high education. Smoking models showed significant interaction effects between race and education for non-Latino Whites only. Our study supports the premise that social as well as clinical factors should be considered when developing health initiatives for Asian Americans.

  12. Exacerbation of daily cough and allergic symptoms in adult patients with chronic cough by Asian dust: A hospital-based study in Kanazawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashi, Tomomi; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Fujimura, Masaki; Nakanishi, Sayaka; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu; Saijoh, Kiyofumi; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Michigami, Yoshimasa; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    The health effects associated with Asian dust have attracted attention due to the rapid increase in the number of Asian dust events in East Asia in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between Asian dust and daily cough, as well as allergic symptoms, in adult patients who suffer from chronic cough. We enrolled 86 adult patients from Kanazawa University Hospital, Japan, who were diagnosed with asthma, cough variant asthma, atopic cough or a combination of these conditions. From January to June 2011, subjects recorded their symptoms in a diary every day. Asian dust and non-Asian dust periods were defined according to the dust extinction coefficient, measured using the light detection and ranging (LIDAR). The daily levels of total suspended particulates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and coexisting factors related to allergies, such as the Japanese cedar pollen count, were measured. McNemar's test showed that there were significantly more cough-positive patients during Asian dust periods than during the non-Asian dust period (p = 0.022). In addition, during Asian dust periods when the daily levels of Japanese cedar pollen, Japanese cypress pollen and PAHs were elevated, there were significantly more patients who experienced itchy eyes than during the non-Asian dust period (p < 0.05). On the other hand, there were no significant differences in the allergic symptoms, including sneezing or a runny nose and nasal congestion. This is the first report to show that Asian dust triggers cough and allergic symptoms in adult patients with chronic cough.

  13. Antibiotic management of complicated intra-abdominal infections in adults: The Asian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kurup, Asok; Liau, Kui-Hin; Ren, Jianan; Lu, Min-Chi; Navarro, Narciso S.; Farooka, Muhammad Waris; Usman, Nurhayat; Destura, Raul V.; Sirichindakul, Boonchoo; Tantawichien, Terapong; Lee, Christopher K.C.; Solomkin, Joseph S.

    2014-01-01

    Regional epidemiological data and resistance profiles are essential for selecting appropriate antibiotic therapy for intra-abdominal infections (IAIs). However, such information may not be readily available in many areas of Asia and current international guidelines on antibiotic therapy for IAIs are for Western countries, with the most recent guidance for the Asian region dating from 2007. Therefore, the Asian Consensus Taskforce on Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections (ACT-cIAI) was convened to develop updated recommendations for antibiotic management of complicated IAIs (cIAIs) in Asia. This review article is based on a thorough literature review of Asian and international publications related to clinical management, epidemiology, microbiology, and bacterial resistance patterns in cIAIs, combined with the expert consensus of the Taskforce members. The microbiological profiles of IAIs in the Asian region are outlined and compared with Western data, and the latest available data on antimicrobial resistance in key pathogens causing IAIs in Asia is presented. From this information, antimicrobial therapies suitable for treating cIAIs in patients in Asian settings are proposed in the hope that guidance relevant to Asian practices will prove beneficial to local physicians managing IAIs. PMID:25568794

  14. Fat distribution and insulin resistance in young adult nonobese Asian Indian women.

    PubMed

    Szuszkiewicz-Garcia, Magdalene; Li, Rong; Grundy, Scott M; Abate, Nicola; Chandalia, Manisha

    2012-10-01

    Although Asian Indian (people of Indian subcontinent descent) men are shown to have higher total and truncal body fat as well as greater insulin resistance compared to white men matched for total body fat and age, data in women are not conclusive. The objective of this study was to compare total and regional fat distribution and insulin sensitivity between healthy young premenopausal Asian Indian and white women of similar body mass index (BMI). Twenty Asian Indian women (65% immigrants and 35% first generation living in Dallas) and 31 white women of similar age and BMI [age 24±3 vs. 25±4; BMI 22±4 vs. 23±5; mean±standard deviation (SD) in Asian Indian and white, respectively] without diabetes were evaluated with anthropometric measurements, underwater weighing for percentage of total body fat mass, magnetic resonance imaging of whole abdomen for measurement of abdominal subcutaneous and intraperitoneal fat mass, and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp study for measurement of insulin sensitivity. There were no differences in waist or hip circumference, total body subcutaneous abdominal or intraperitoneal fat mass, fasting plasma glucose, and insulin levels between Asian Indian women and white women. The peripheral glucose disposal rate (Rd) during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was found to be almost identical in the two study groups (median value of 6.9 and 6.8 mg/min per kg of body weight, for Asian Indians and whites, respectively). For similar total or regional fat content, the glucose disposal rate was comparable in the two study groups. In conclusion, we demonstrate that young Asian Indian women do not have excess abdominal or intraperitoneal fat or insulin resistance for similar BMI compared to white women of European descent.

  15. Beneficial effects of citrus juice fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 on atopic dermatitis: results of daily intake by adult patients in two open trials

    PubMed Central

    HARIMA-MIZUSAWA, Naomi; KAMACHI, Keiko; KANO, Mitsuyoshi; NOZAKI, Daisuke; UETAKE, Tatsuo; YOKOMIZO, Yuji; NAGINO, Takayuki; TANAKA, Akira; MIYAZAKI, Kouji; NAKAMURA, Shinichiro

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether daily intake of citrus juice containing heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 (LP0132-fermented juice) alleviates symptoms of atopic dermatitis. This was a natural extension of our previous study in which LP0132 was shown to enhance IL-10 production in vitro and LP0132-fermented juice was found to alleviate symptoms and enhance quality of life (QOL) in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. In two open trials, Trial 1 and Trial 2, 32 and 18 adult patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis consumed LP0132-fermented juice for 8 weeks. Skin conditions and QOL were subjectively evaluated using Skindex-16 before intake of the juice (Pre-treatment), 8 weeks after starting intake (Treatment) and 8 weeks after termination of intake (Post-treatment). Blood parameters were also analyzed. Comparison of the Treatment and Post-treatment time points with the Pre-treatment time point revealed significant reductions in the Skindex-16 overall score and the 3 domain subscores (symptoms, emotions, and functioning domains) in both trials. Moreover, blood levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgEs for Japanese cedar and cypress pollen were significantly attenuated in Trial 2. The findings suggest that daily intake of citrus fermented juice containing heat-killed LP0132 has beneficial effects on symptoms and QOL in patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis due to an immunomodulatory effect via attenuation of IgE and ECP. PMID:26858928

  16. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of adult height in East Asians identifies 17 novel loci

    PubMed Central

    He, Meian; Xu, Min; Zhang, Ben; Liang, Jun; Chen, Peng; Lee, Jong-Young; Johnson, Todd A.; Li, Huaixing; Yang, Xiaobo; Dai, Juncheng; Liang, Liming; Gui, Lixuan; Qi, Qibin; Huang, Jinyan; Li, Yanping; Adair, Linda S.; Aung, Tin; Cai, Qiuyin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cho, Myeong-Chan; Cho, Yoon Shin; Chu, Minjie; Cui, Bin; Gao, Yu-Tang; Go, Min Jin; Gu, Dongfeng; Gu, Weiqiong; Guo, Huan; Hao, Yongchen; Hong, Jie; Hu, Zhibin; Hu, Yanling; Huang, Jianfeng; Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Jin, Guangfu; Kang, Dae-Hee; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Kim, Bong-Jo; Kim, Hung Tae; Kubo, Michiaki; Lee, Jeannette; Lee, Juyoung; Lee, Nanette R.; Li, Ruoying; Li, Jun; Liu, JianJun; Longe, Jirong; Lu, Wei; Lu, Xiangfeng; Miao, Xiaoping; Okada, Yukinori; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Qiu, Gaokun; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Song, Huaidong; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Taylor, Phil R.; Wang, Laiyuan; Wang, Weiqing; Wang, Yiqin; Wu, Chen; Wu, Ying; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yamamoto, Ken; Yang, Handong; Liao, Ming; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Young, Terri; Zhang, Xiaomin; Kato, Norihiro; Wang, Qing K.; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Frank B.; Lin, Dongxin; Shen, Hongbing; Teo, Yik Ying; Mo, Zengnan; Wong, Tien Yin; Lin, Xu; Mohlke, Karen L.; Ning, Guang; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Han, Bok-Ghee; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Tai, E. Shyong; Wu, Tangchun; Qi, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Human height is associated with risk of multiple diseases and is profoundly determined by an individual's genetic makeup and shows a high degree of ethnic heterogeneity. Large-scale genome-wide association (GWA) analyses of adult height in Europeans have identified nearly 180 genetic loci. A recent study showed high replicability of results from Europeans-based GWA studies in Asians; however, population-specific loci may exist due to distinct linkage disequilibrium patterns. We carried out a GWA meta-analysis in 93 926 individuals from East Asia. We identified 98 loci, including 17 novel and 81 previously reported loci, associated with height at P < 5 × 10−8, together explaining 8.89% of phenotypic variance. Among the newly identified variants, 10 are commonly distributed (minor allele frequency, MAF > 5%) in Europeans, with comparable frequencies with in Asians, and 7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms are with low frequency (MAF < 5%) in Europeans. In addition, our data suggest that novel biological pathway such as the protein tyrosine phosphatase family is involved in regulation of height. The findings from this study considerably expand our knowledge of the genetic architecture of human height in Asians. PMID:25429064

  17. Evaluation of color and scent attractants used to trap and detect Asian ctirus psyllid (Diaphorina citri; Hemiptera:psyllidae)in urban environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a serious pest of citrus due to its ability to vector the putative causal agent of huanglongbing. Populations of Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) can increase in density in urban areas and then move out into adjacent commercial ...

  18. Citrus Inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    An aerial color infrared (CIR) mapping system developed by Kennedy Space Center enables Florida's Charlotte County to accurately appraise its citrus groves while reducing appraisal costs. The technology was further advanced by development of a dual video system making it possible to simultaneously view images of the same area and detect changes. An image analysis system automatically surveys and photo interprets grove images as well as automatically counts trees and reports totals. The system, which saves both time and money, has potential beyond citrus grove valuation.

  19. Citrus Inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Florida's Charlotte County Property Appraiser is using an aerial color infrared mapping system for inventorying citrus trees for valuation purposes. The ACIR system has significantly reduced the time and manpower required for appraisal. Aerial photographs are taken and interpreted by a video system which makes it possible to detect changes from previous years. Potential problems can be identified. KSC's TU Office has awarded a contract to the Citrus Research and Education Center to adapt a prototype system which would automatically count trees and report totals.

  20. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts Among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use “blunts,” or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug among their peers, and protected against potential adverse effects associated with the “high.” Blunts also allowed users to identify with the dominant style of drug use and differentiate themselves from users of stigmatized drugs such as crack cocaine and methamphetamine. This article highlights the importance of drug-intake methods in the formation and performance of drug-using behaviors among adolescents, emerging adults, and members of ethnic minority subgroups. PMID:22003266

  1. Management of adult and paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in Asia: resource-stratified guidelines from the Asian Oncology Summit 2013

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, Allen EJ; Tan, Daryl; Li, Chi-Kong; Hori, Hiroki; Tse, Eric; Pui, Ching-Hon

    2014-01-01

    The survival rates for both adult and children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia have improved substantially in recent years with wider use of improved risk-directed therapy and supportive care. In nearly all developed countries, clinical practice guidelines have been formulated by multidisciplinary panels of leukaemia experts, with the goal of providing recommendations on standard treatment approaches based on current evidence. However, those guidelines do not take into account resource limitations in low-income countries, including financial and technical challenges. In Asia, there are huge disparities in economy and infrastructure among the countries, and even among different regions in some large countries. This review summarizes the recommendations developed for Asian countries by a panel of adult and paediatric leukaemia therapists, based on the availability of financial, skill and logistical resources, at a consensus session held as part of the 2013 Asian Oncology Summit in Bangkok, Thailand. The management strategies described here are stratified by a four-tier system (basic, limited, enhanced and maximum) based on the resources available to a particular country or region. PMID:24176570

  2. Management of adult and paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in Asia: resource-stratified guidelines from the Asian Oncology Summit 2013.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, Allen E J; Tan, Daryl; Li, Chi-Kong; Hori, Hiroki; Tse, Eric; Pui, Ching-Hon

    2013-11-01

    Survival for adults and children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia has risen substantially in recent years because use of improved risk-directed treatments and supportive care has widened. In nearly all developed countries, multidisciplinary panels of leukaemia experts have formulated clinical practice guidelines in which standard treatment approaches are recommended on the basis of current evidence. However, those guidelines do not take into account resource limitations in low-income countries, including financial and technical challenges. In Asia, huge disparities in economy and infrastructure exist between countries, and even among different regions in some large countries. At a consensus session held as part of the 2013 Asian Oncology Summit in Bangkok, Thailand, a panel of experts summarised recommendations for management of adult and paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Strategies were developed for Asian countries on the basis of available financial, skill, and logistical resources and were stratified in a four-tier system according to the resources available in a particular country or region (basic, limited, enhanced, and maximum).

  3. Citrus Allergy from Pollen to Clinical Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Iorio, Rosa Anna; Del Duca, Stefano; Calamelli, Elisabetta; Pula, Chiara; Lodolini, Magda; Scamardella, Fortuna; Pession, Andrea; Ricci, Giampaolo

    2013-01-01

    Allergy to citrus fruits is often associated with pollinosis and sensitization to other plants due to a phenomenon of cross-reactivity. The aims of the present study were to highlight the cross-reactivity among citrus and the major allergenic pollens/fruits, throughout clinical and molecular investigations, and to evaluate the sensitization frequency to citrus fruits in a population of children and adults with pollinosis. We found a relevant percentage of sensitisation (39%) to citrus fruits in the patients recruited and in all of them the IgE-mediated mechanism has been confirmed by the positive response to the prick-to-prick test. RT-PCR experiments showed the expression of Cit s 1, Cit s 3 and a profilin isoform, already described in apple, also in Citrus clementine pollen. Data of multiple sequence alignments demonstrated that Citrus allergens shared high percentage identity values with other clinically relevant species (i.e. Triticum aestivum, Malus domestica), confirming the possible cross-allergenicity citrus/grasses and citrus/apple. Finally, a novelty of the present work has been the expression of two phospholipaseA2 isoforms (PLA2 α and β) in Citrus as well as in Triticum pollens; being PLA2 able to generate pro-inflammatory factors, this enzyme could participate in the activation of the allergenic inflammatory cascade. PMID:23308273

  4. Conflictual Independence, Adult Attachment Orientation, and Career Indecision among Asian American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Chad J.; Brown, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Due to prior research suggesting that relational variables are related to the career development process, we sought to understand how maternal conflictual independence, paternal conflictual independence, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance influence the career decision status of Asian American undergraduate students (N = 113). The…

  5. Adolescent Precursors of Early Union Formation among Asian American and White Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yen-hsin Alice; Landale, Nancy S.

    2011-01-01

    Using a framework that emphasizes independent versus interdependent self-construals, this study investigates the relatively low rates of early marriage and cohabitation among Asian Americans compared with Whites. Data from Waves 1 and 3 of Add Health are used to test five hypotheses that focus on family value socialization and other precursors…

  6. Internal extracellular bacteria of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), the Asian citus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal bacteria were isolated and cultured from the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), the insect which transmits the plant-infecting bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter, known to infect and kill citrus trees, known as citrus greening disease. The bacteria from Di...

  7. Promoting Adult Learning in Public Places: Two Asian Case Studies of Adult Learning about Peace through Museums and Peace Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores an area of adult learning that has received little attention of late, the terrain of public education through museums and civic architecture. The goal of promoting adult learning in public places e.g. through the work of museums has become commonplace in countries seeking to encourage adult learning about peace. This invariably…

  8. Efficacy of imidacloprid, trunk-injected into Acer platanoides, for control of adult Asian longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Ugine, Todd A; Gardescu, Sana; Lewis, Phillip A; Hajek, Ann E

    2012-12-01

    Feeding experiments with Asian longhorned beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)) in a quarantine laboratory were used to assess the effectiveness of imidacloprid in reducing adult fecundity and survival. The beetles were fed twigs and leaves cut between June-September 2010 from Norway maples (Acer platanoides L.) in the beetle-infested area of Worcester, MA. Treated trees had been trunk-injected once with imidacloprid in spring 2010 under the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service operational eradication program. The 21 d LC50 value for adult beetles feeding on twig bark from imidacloprid-injected trees was 1.3 ppm. Adult reproductive output and survival were significantly reduced when beetles fed on twig bark or leaves from treated trees. However, results varied widely, with many twig samples having no detectable imidacloprid and little effect on the beetles. When twigs with > 1 ppm imidacloprid in the bark were fed to mated beetles, the number of larvae produced was reduced by 94% and median adult survival was reduced to 14 d. For twigs with < 1 ppm imidacloprid, 68% of reproductively mature mated beetles survived 21 d and 56% of unmated recently eclosed beetles survived 42 d. For twigs with < 1 ppm, beetles ingested an average of 30 nanograms of imidacloprid per day. Bark consumption was reduced at higher imidacloprid levels (> 1 ppm). When given a choice of control twigs and twigs from injected trees, beetles did not show a strong preference.

  9. Mental Health and Asian Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  10. Media’s Contribution to Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors for Adolescents and Young Adults in Three Asian Cities

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Chaohua; Cheng, Yan; Gao, Ersheng; Zuo, Xiayun; Emerson, Mark R.; Zabin, Laurie S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence in western countries indicates that the media have associations with adolescents’ and young people’ sexual behavior that may be as important as family, school and peers. In this new study of Asian adolescents and young adults in the three cities of Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei, the associations between exposure to sexual content in the media and adolescents’ and young adults’ sex-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors are explored in societies with traditional Confucian culture, but at different stages in the process of modernization. Method The data are from a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study conducted from 2006 to 2007 where a sample of 17,016 adolescents and young adults aged 15–24 years from Shanghai, Hanoi and Taipei completed face-to-face interviews coupled with computer-assisted self-interviews (CASI) for sensitive questions. For the objectives of this paper, analysis was restricted to the 16,554 unmarried respondents. Exposure to sexual content in the mass media (including the Internet and traditional media), pornographic videos, and a preference for western/Asian movies/videos were the main media influence measures. Sex-related knowledge, premarital sexual permissiveness, and sex-related behaviors were the main outcome measures. The impact of each of four contexts including family, peer, school and media on sex-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors were assessed using multiple linear regression stratified by gender and city, controlling for age, urban/rural residence, education and economic status. The change in adjusted R2 from the multiple linear regression analysis was adopted to indicate the contribution of family, peer, school and media variables to respondents’ sex-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. Results The contextual factors, including family, peer, school and media, explained 30–50% of the variance in sex-related knowledge, 8–22% of the variance in premarital sexual permissiveness and

  11. Titers of 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' in Murraya paniculata and Murraya-reared Diaphorina citri are much lower than in citrus and citrus-reared psyllids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing, one of the most devastating diseases of citrus, is associated with the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, in North America. Murraya paniculata is a common ornamental plant that is an alternate host of Ca. L. asiaticus an...

  12. Citrus leprosis research update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus leprosis is one of the oldest citrus diseases, but is also one of the most important emerging citrus diseases in South and Central America, and it is apparently spreading northward towards the U.S. Research in our labs and by others has shown that citrus leprosis disease is caused by a compl...

  13. Citrus blight research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With HLB now occurring throughout Florida citrus groves, citrus blight has been getting less attention even though the problem still exists. In fact, the combination of HLB and citrus blight has compounded the problem that the citrus industry is facing with decreased yields, small fruit size and tre...

  14. Asian-South Pacific Bureau of Adult Education Courier No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ASPBAE Courier, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This issue is comprised of a series of articles dealing with adult education in Asia and the South Pacific. Included in the issue are the following articles: "Thoughts for the Advancement of Women's Project" by Sally Bruce Seddon; "Adult Education Program for Working Women in Kumi Industrial Area" by Yoon Bok-Nam; "Needs…

  15. Visualization of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ cells in citrus seed coats with fluorescence in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ is bacterium implicated as the causal agent of the economically damaging disease of citrus called huanglongbing (HLB). The bacterium is spread by movement of infected citrus propagation material and by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. Seed tr...

  16. Diet and Physical Activity Interventions to Prevent or Treat Obesity in South Asian Children and Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tamara; Smith, Sarah; Bhopal, Raj; Kasim, Adetayo; Summerbell, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: The metabolic risks associated with obesity are greater for South Asian populations compared with White or other ethnic groups, and levels of obesity in childhood are known to track into adulthood. Tackling obesity in South Asians is therefore a high priority. The rationale for this systematic review is the suggestion that there may be differential effectiveness in diet and physical activity interventions in South Asian populations compared with other ethnicities. The research territory of the present review is an emergent, rather than mature, field of enquiry, but is urgently needed. Thus the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effectiveness of diet and physical activity interventions to prevent or treat obesity in South Asians living in or outside of South Asia and to describe the characteristics of effective interventions. Methods: Systematic review of any type of lifestyle intervention, of any length of follow-up that reported any anthropometric measure for children or adults of South Asian ethnicity. There was no restriction on the type of comparator; randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, and before-after studies were included. A comprehensive search strategy was implemented in five electronic databases: ASSIA, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Embase, Medline and Social Sciences Citation Index. The search was limited to English language abstracts published between January 2006 and January 2014. References were screened; data extraction and quality assessment were carried out by two reviewers. Results are presented in narrative synthesis and meta-analysis. Results: Twenty-nine studies were included, seven children, 21 adult and one mixed age. No studies in children under six were identified. Sixteen studies were conducted in South Asia, ten in Europe and three in USA. Effective or promising trials include physical activity interventions in South Asian men in Norway and South Asian school

  17. A “walker” tool to place Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) adults at predetermined sites for bioassays of behavior in citrus (Sapindales: Rutacease) trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A walker tool was developed to assist placement of D. citri on citrus host trees in behavioral bioassays. The walker performs better than a commonly used paintbrush tool in the proportion of successful placements and in the reduction of jumps away from the citrus leaf, although it takes about two mi...

  18. Broad sprectrum potential of Isaria fumosorosea on insect pests of citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of entomopathogenic fungi, Isaria fumosorosea, Ifr, =Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, successfully increased insect pest mortality. Spraying the Ifr containing product, PFR97 TM, on citrus seedlings was used to screen efficacy for the management of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri; glassy-winge...

  19. Viability of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ prolonged by addition of citrus juice to culture medium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing, or citrus greening disease, is associated with infection by the phloem-limited bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (LAS). Infection with LAS, vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri), is incurable; therefore, knowledge regarding LAS biology and pathogenesis is...

  20. Transmission and propagation of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ by grafting with individual citrus leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a chronic, progressive decline disease in citrus associated with systemic infection by the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). Transmission in the field is by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, Kuwayama. Experimental propagation of CLas is done c...

  1. Anthropometric, body composition, and blood pressure measures among rural elderly adults of Asian Indian origin: the Santiniketan aging study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arnab; Bala, Sanjib Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The number of older adults is increasing in industrialized and in developing countries. The present community-based cross sectional work was undertaken to study the anthropometric, body composition, and blood pressure characteristics of rural-dwelling elderly adults of Asian Indian origin. A total of 300 individuals (Male = 157 and Female = 143) from the Bolpur-Sriniketan area of West Bengal, India, took part in the study. Participants were divided into four age-groups: Group I, 55-59 years (Male:Female = 55:61); Group II, 60-64 years (Male:Female = 41:33); Group III, 65-69 years (Male:Female = 27:21); Group IV, 70 years and older (Male:Female = 34:28). Anthropometric measures were taken using standard techniques. Body mass index, waist-hip ratio, and the sum of four skin folds were subsequently computed. Body composition measures, namely percentage of body fat, fat mass, fat free mass, arm muscle circumference, arm muscle area, and arm fat area, were calculated accordingly. Left-arm systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP) were also measured, and mean arterial pressure was subsequently calculated. Overall observations in the study population indicate a predominance of body weights below the normal body mass index of 25 kg/m(2). More than half the subjects reported the lack of adequate sanitation facilities and education levels were generally low. Rates of smoking (65.6%) and habitual consumption of alcohol (38.9%) were high in male participants. Upon comparison across the four age groups, results revealed decreases in percent body fat, fat mass, and mid upper arm muscle circumference for Groups III and IV versus Group I for men and for Group IV versus I for women. The overall trend for both SBP and DBP was for small increases with age in men in contrast to slight decreases with age in women. Our findings of generally low body weights, detrimental age-related changes in body composition, and a number of other health-related concerns highlight

  2. High prevalence of suboptimal vitamin B12 status in young adult women of South Asian and European ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Quay, Teo A W; Schroder, Theresa H; Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Li, Wangyang; Devlin, Angela M; Barr, Susan I; Lamers, Yvonne

    2015-12-01

    Suboptimal vitamin B12 (B12) status has been associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies, preterm birth, and childhood insulin resistance. South Asians - Canada's largest minority group - and women of reproductive age are vulnerable to B12 deficiency. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with B12 deficiency and suboptimal B12 status in a convenience sample of young adult women of South Asian and European descent in Metro Vancouver. We measured serum B12, holotranscobalamin, plasma methylmalonic acid, red blood cell and plasma folate, and hematologic parameters in 206 nonpregnant, healthy women aged 19-35 years. Categorization for B12 status adhered to serum B12 cutoffs for deficiency (<148 pmol/L) and suboptimal B12 status (148-220 pmol/L). We collected demographic, lifestyle, and dietary intake data and conducted genotyping for common genetic variants linked to B-vitamin metabolism. The prevalence of deficiency and suboptimal B12 status were 14% and 20%, respectively. Serum vitamin B12 concentrations were negatively associated with oral contraceptive use and first-generation immigrant status, and positively with dietary B12 intake and B12 supplement use. The prevalence of B12 inadequacy in this sample of highly educated women is higher than in the general Canadian population. In light of maternal and fetal health risks associated with B12 inadequacy in early-pregnancy, practitioners should consider monitoring B12 status before and during early pregnancy, especially in immigrants and women with low dietary B12 intakes including non-users of vitamin supplements.

  3. Asians and Asian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Francisco Unified School District, CA.

    This is a selected bibliography of some good and some outstanding audio-visual educational materials in the library of the Educational Materials Bureau, Audio-Visual Education Section, that may be considered of particular interest in the study of Asians and Asian-Americans. The bibliography is arranged alphabetically within the following subject…

  4. Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders among Latino and Asian American Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.; Alegria, Margarita; Ortega, Alexander N.; Takeuchi, David

    2007-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults may be at elevated risk for mental health and substance use disorders, possibly due to anti-gay stigma. Little of this work has examined putative excess morbidity among ethnic/racial minorities resulting from the experience of multiple sources of discrimination. The authors report…

  5. Disparity in disability between native-born non-Hispanic white and foreign-born Asian older adults in the United States: effects of educational attainment and age at immigration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Ah

    2011-04-01

    It is widely known that educational attainment has considerable influence on the prevalence of disability among native-born non-Hispanic older adults in the US. However, few studies have examined whether educational attainment has a similar effect on disability among foreign-born Asian older adults. If it does not have a similar effect on these adults, why not, and is its effect influenced by the age at which they immigrated to the US? This study addresses these questions by using the 2006 American Community Survey Public Use Microdata Sample (ACS PUMS). Logistic regression analyses reveal that education has differential effects on the two racial groups. Education protects foreign-born Asians less than native-born non-Hispanic whites. In addition, Asian adults who immigrated earlier are less likely to experience disability. Interestingly, the interaction between age at immigration and educational attainment for foreign-born Asian older adults indicates that less educated Asians are more likely to benefit from early immigration. Heterogeneity within the Asian group is also examined. The findings suggest that educational attainment has differential effects not only on the two racial groups but also on the foreign-born Asian group depending on age at immigration.

  6. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticides Used on Citrus, on the Ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata

    PubMed Central

    Beloti, Vitor Hugo; Alves, Gustavo Rodrigues; Araújo, Diogo Feliciano Dias; Picoli, Mateus Manara; Moral, Rafael de Andrade; Demétrio, Clarice Garcia Borges; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a disease associated with the bacteria “Candidatus Liberibacter spp.” and has been devastating citrus orchards around the world. Its management involves control of the insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. However, the indiscriminate use of chemicals has caused pest outbreaks and eliminated the natural enemies of the vector, such as the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston), the main agent for biological control of D. citri. This study assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides recommended for integrated production of citrus on the parasitoid T. radiata. When adult parasitoids were exposed to residues of 25 insecticides, 20% of them, i.e., gamma-cyhalothrin, etofenprox, azadirachtin, tebufenozide and pyriproxyfen, were considered as harmless (Class 1), 12% as slightly harmful (Class 2), 12% as moderately harmful (Class 3) and 56% as harmful (Class 4), according to the classification proposed by the IOBC/WPRS. Afterward, 14 insecticides (5 harmless and 9 harmful) were sprayed on the parasitoid pupae. Of the 14 insecticides tested, only the organophosphates dimethoate and chlorpyrifos affected the parasitoid emergence. The effects of insecticides on the parasitism capacity of adults exposed to residues of azadirachtin, etofenprox, gamma-cyhalothrin, pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide (harmless) were also evaluated. Tebufenozide and gamma-cyhalothrin affected the parasitism of the F0 generation, but did not affect the emergence of the F1 and F2 generations. Therefore, for an effective IPM program, selective insecticides or harmful pesticides to adult parasitoids could be used in the field, provided that the adults do not occur naturally and the chemical applications do not coincide with parasitoid releases. PMID:26132327

  7. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticides Used on Citrus, on the Ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata.

    PubMed

    Beloti, Vitor Hugo; Alves, Gustavo Rodrigues; Araújo, Diogo Feliciano Dias; Picoli, Mateus Manara; Moral, Rafael de Andrade; Demétrio, Clarice Garcia Borges; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a disease associated with the bacteria "Candidatus Liberibacter spp." and has been devastating citrus orchards around the world. Its management involves control of the insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. However, the indiscriminate use of chemicals has caused pest outbreaks and eliminated the natural enemies of the vector, such as the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston), the main agent for biological control of D. citri. This study assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides recommended for integrated production of citrus on the parasitoid T. radiata. When adult parasitoids were exposed to residues of 25 insecticides, 20% of them, i.e., gamma-cyhalothrin, etofenprox, azadirachtin, tebufenozide and pyriproxyfen, were considered as harmless (Class 1), 12% as slightly harmful (Class 2), 12% as moderately harmful (Class 3) and 56% as harmful (Class 4), according to the classification proposed by the IOBC/WPRS. Afterward, 14 insecticides (5 harmless and 9 harmful) were sprayed on the parasitoid pupae. Of the 14 insecticides tested, only the organophosphates dimethoate and chlorpyrifos affected the parasitoid emergence. The effects of insecticides on the parasitism capacity of adults exposed to residues of azadirachtin, etofenprox, gamma-cyhalothrin, pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide (harmless) were also evaluated. Tebufenozide and gamma-cyhalothrin affected the parasitism of the F0 generation, but did not affect the emergence of the F1 and F2 generations. Therefore, for an effective IPM program, selective insecticides or harmful pesticides to adult parasitoids could be used in the field, provided that the adults do not occur naturally and the chemical applications do not coincide with parasitoid releases.

  8. The Relationship between Diet Quality and Acculturation of Immigrated South Asian American Adults and Their Association with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Robert T.; Momen, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Even though the total SA American population is increasing rapidly, there is a paucity of information on the relationship between diet quality, acculturation and health outcomes such as Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in the low-income South Asian (SA) sub-population. Our goal was to examine diet quality, degree of acculturation and their potential influence on MetS in a diverse sample of SA Americans. A convenience sample of 401 adult SA men and women were studied using a cross-sectional study design. Volunteers from two low-income community health clinics in Maryland were interviewed by questionnaires. MetS, defined by the consensus harmonized definition by the presence of ≥ 3 of the 5 abnormal indicators, was studied. An interviewer obtained an automated self-administered 24-hour Recall (ASA24) and an acculturation index (using a previously validated (SL-ASIA). SA had a composite HEI2010 score of 68 suggesting an overall need for diet improvements. Males had a higher diet quality (mean HEI2010 score) than females. Males with MetS had lower diet quality (68) than males without MetS (73). The converse was true for females (68 vs. 65). Americanized (more acculturated) subjects had a higher diet quality compared to less acculturated SA. Small differences were found in diet quality scores among SA adults from different countries. Less acculturated females, had a higher percentage of MetS and lower diet quality compared to males. These results suggest that interventions are needed in males and females who were less acculturated because they may have greater MetS and lower diet quality compared to more Americanized SA. PMID:27299862

  9. A Review of Ethnicity, Culture, and Acculturation Among Asian Caregivers of Older Adults (2000-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Miyawaki, Christina E.

    2015-01-01

    This review identified domains of care experiences among studies of Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese caregivers in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2012. Using a narrative approach, 46 peer-reviewed journal articles were found through electronic databases and references. Considering caregivers’ assimilation to host countries, attention was given to their culture, socioeconomic resources, immigrant status, filial responsibility, generation, and acculturation. Three primary domains were identified across subgroups. The caregivers’ experiences domain was a strong sense of filial responsibility and its varied effects on caregiving experience; in the cultural values domain, reciprocity, and familism. In the acculturation domain, caregivers’ generations influenced their experiences. Because our society is rapidly changing demographically and culturally, studies of older adults and their caregivers that are not only inclusive of all racial/ethnic groups but also sensitive to specific racial/ethnic and cultural subgroup differences are necessary to inform policy and practice. PMID:26229736

  10. Parental comments: Relationship with gender, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating in Asian young adults.

    PubMed

    Chng, Samuel C W; Fassnacht, Daniel B

    2016-03-01

    The present study explored the relationships between different categories of parental comments (negative, positive, and importance and comparison), body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating concerns in 383 young adults (69% female) in Singapore. Self-report measures of parental comments, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating were completed with results indicating that females, compared to males, reported significantly higher levels of body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and negative maternal and positive paternal comments. Although the relationships found between the different categories of parental comments, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating differed by gender, negative maternal comments emerged as a consistent predictor of disordered eating for both genders. This relationship was partially mediated by body dissatisfaction. The findings highlight the role of parental influence through weight-related comments on body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, and the need for further exploration of gender-specific pathways of parental influence.

  11. A study of IgE sensitization and skin response to histamine in Asian-Pacific American adults.

    PubMed

    Lee-Wong, Mary; Chou, Vivian; Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2012-01-01

    Allergic disorders and skin response to histamine have been noted to vary in different ethnicities. We investigated IgE-mediated allergic sensitization and skin response to histamine in Asian Pacific Americans (APAs), black and Hispanic Americans, and white adults. A retrospective questionnaire-based study was performed of 2222 adults presenting at a New York City allergy referral center from 1994 to 2003. Questionnaire data included sex, age, and ethnicity and personal and family history of atopic disorders. Skin-prick test (SPT) data included saline and histamine controls and response to a standardized panel of 10 aeroallergens. APA patients had a lower odds of asthma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52-0.89; p = 0.005) and/or animal allergies (aOR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.50-0.82; p = 0.0003). Histamine response was not significantly different in APA (aOR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.73-1.12; p = 0.36) or Hispanic Americans (aOR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.85-1.24; p = 0.76), but was higher in black Americans (aOR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.67-3.21; p < 0.0001). APA had higher odds of a positive SPT to trees (aOR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.16-1.91; p = 0.002), grasses (aOR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.05-1.43; p = 0.02), feathers (aOR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.31-2.09; p < 0.0001), and cockroaches (aOR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.10-1.62; p = 0.005). Moreover, APA had a higher total number of positive SPTs when compared with white patients (5.5 ± 3.2 versus 4.9 ± 3.3; aOR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.10-1.62 p = 0.004). APA adults in our patient population had more IgE sensitizations but not an increased skin response to histamine. In contrast, black Americans had increased skin response to histamine.

  12. Effects of Biogents Sentinel Trap Field Placement on Capture Rates of Adult Asian Tiger Mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Crepeau, Taryn N.; Healy, Sean P.; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Biogents® Sentinel (BGS) trap is the standard tool to monitor adult Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), the Asian tiger mosquito. BGS traps are commonly placed in residential properties during surveillance operations, but locations within properties may have significant differences in ambient light, temperature, and humidity (e.g. between a sunlit lawn and shady underbrush). We examined the effect of BGS trap placement on Ae. albopictus capture rates in three residential properties in Monmouth County, New Jersey, USA. In each property we visually selected locations as shade, partial shade, and sun. Traps in “partial shade” locations were under vegetation and were exposed to filtered sunlight during some parts of the day while “shaded” locations were never exposed to direct sunlight. Locations defined as “sun” were exposed to direct sunlight for large parts of the day. We placed a BGS trap in each of the three location types and used small data loggers to measure temperature, relative humidity, and light exposure at each trap during a 24-hour deployment. To address temporal variability, we made seven separate measurements from 31 August to 22 September 2010. We found that “partial shade” and “full shade” locations did not differ but that “full sun” locations had significantly higher light exposure, higher temperature, and lower humidity. Importantly, Ae. albopictus catches (males, females, or both) were consistently and significantly over 3 times higher in traps located in shaded locations. To further investigate the effects of local temperature and humidity on surveillance we examined Ae. albopictus collections from 37 BGS traps fitted with data loggers and deployed weekly from August through mid October, during the 2009 season, in three urban sites in Mercer County, NJ. We confirmed that local climate influences capture rates and that Ae. albopictus surveillance projects need to monitor trap placement carefully

  13. Orchard and nursery dynamics of the effect of interplanting citrus with guava for Huanglongbing, vector, and disease management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is an important pest of citrus in the United States of America primarily because it vectors ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’, the bacterium putatively responsible for Asiatic huanglongbing (HLB). Asiatic HLB is con...

  14. Effect of adiposity, season, diet and calcium or vitamin D supplementation on the vitamin D status of healthy urban African and Asian-Indian adults.

    PubMed

    George, Jaya A; Norris, Shane A; van Deventer, Hendrick E; Pettifor, John M; Crowther, Nigel J

    2014-08-28

    Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in the aetiology of infectious diseases and metabolic syndrome. These diseases are prevalent in the African and Asian-Indian populations of South Africa; however, there is limited data on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in these populations. The aim of the present study was to assess the vitamin D status and its predictors in healthy adults in Johannesburg. We assessed the vitamin D status of 730 adult African and Asian-Indian subjects residing in Johannesburg. The contributions of sun exposure, season, dietary intake of Ca and vitamin D, total body fat and body fat distribution to 25(OH)D concentrations were assessed. The concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured by HPLC. The contribution of 25(OH)D₃ to total 25(OH)D concentrations was assessed. The mean age of the subjects was 42·6 (SD 13·1) years (range: 18-65). Concentrations of 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/l were found in 28·6 % of the Asian-Indian subjects in comparison with 5·1 % of the African subjects (P< 0·0001). Parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations were negatively associated with 25(OH)D concentrations, while season and sun exposure were positive predictors explaining 16 % of the variance in 25(OH)D concentrations (P< 0·0001) in the African subjects. In the Asian-Indian subjects, PTH concentrations were negatively associated with 25(OH)D concentrations, while male sex, season and Ca supplementation were positive predictors and explained 17 % of the variance in 25(OH)D concentrations (P< 0·0001). In the multivariate regression analysis, neither total body fat nor body fat distribution was predictive of 25(OH)D concentrations in either group. In conclusion, factors such as sun exposure, dietary supplement use and ethnicity are important determinants of plasma 25(OH)D concentrations.

  15. Protein interaction networks at the host–microbe interface in Diaphorina citri, the insect vector of the citrus greening pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, J. D.; Johnson, R.; Hosseinzadeh, S.; Mahoney, J. E.; Mohr, J. P.; Robison, F.; Zhong, X.; Hall, D. G.; MacCoss, M.; Bruce, J.; Cilia, M.

    2017-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) is the insect vector responsible for the worldwide spread of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas), the bacterial pathogen associated with citrus greening disease. Developmental changes in the insect vector impact pathogen transmission, such that D. citri transmission of CLas is more efficient when bacteria are acquired by nymphs when compared with adults. We hypothesize that expression changes in the D. citri immune system and commensal microbiota occur during development and regulate vector competency. In support of this hypothesis, more proteins, with greater fold changes, were differentially expressed in response to CLas in adults when compared with nymphs, including insect proteins involved in bacterial adhesion and immunity. Compared with nymphs, adult insects had a higher titre of CLas and the bacterial endosymbionts Wolbachia, Profftella and Carsonella. All Wolbachia and Profftella proteins differentially expressed between nymphs and adults are upregulated in adults, while most differentially expressed Carsonella proteins are upregulated in nymphs. Discovery of protein interaction networks has broad applicability to the study of host–microbe relationships. Using protein interaction reporter technology, a D. citri haemocyanin protein highly upregulated in response to CLas was found to physically interact with the CLas coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis enzyme phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase/decarboxylase. CLas pantothenate kinase, which catalyses the rate-limiting step of CoA biosynthesis, was found to interact with a D. citri myosin protein. Two Carsonella enzymes involved in histidine and tryptophan biosynthesis were found to physically interact with D. citri proteins. These co-evolved protein interaction networks at the host–microbe interface are highly specific targets for controlling the insect vector responsible for the spread of citrus greening. PMID:28386418

  16. Dietary supplementation with purified citrus limonin glucoside does not alter ex vivo functions of circulating T lymphocytes or monocytes in overweight/obese human adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overweight/obesity is associated with chronic inflammation and impairs both innate and adaptive immune responses. Limonoids found in citrus fruits have shown health benefits in human and animal studies. In a double-blind, randomized, crossover study, 10 overweight/obese human subjects were fed pur...

  17. Citrus Waste Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

    2007-01-30

    Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

  18. Longitudinal Effects of Perceived Maternal Approval on Sexual Behaviors of Asian and Pacific Islander (API) Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahm, Hyeouk; Lee, Jieha; Zerden, Lisa; Ozonoff, Al; Amodeo, Maryann; Adkins, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the longitudinal association between Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents' perceptions of maternal approval of their sexual activity and contraception use, and four sexual outcomes during young adulthood. The study includes a nationally representative…

  19. Certification Programs for Citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus certification programs designed to ensure that healthy plants of the highest genetic potential are being planted in the field are the basic building block of an integrated pest management program. Certification programs began for citrus began with the discovery that the diseases were graft t...

  20. Cercosporoid diseases of Citrus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Feng; Groenewald, J Z; Zhu, Li; Crous, P W; Li, Hongye

    2015-01-01

    Citrus leaves and fruits exhibiting disease symptoms ranging from greasy spot, yellow spot, small or large brown spot, black dot, and brown dot were sampled from Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Yunnan, Zhejiang provinces and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China. In total 82 isolates representing various cercosporoid genera were isolated from these disease symptoms, which were supplemented with eight Citrus cercosporoid isolates collected from other countries. Based on a morphological and phylogenetic study using sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal DNA's ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions (ITS), and partial actin (act), β-tubulin (tub2), 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA (28S rDNA) and translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1) genes, these strains were placed in the following genera: Cercospora, Pallidocercospora, Passalora, Pseudocercospora, Verrucisporota and Zasmidium. All isolates tended to be sterile, except the Zasmidium isolates associated with citrus greasy spot-like symptoms, which subsequently were compared with phylogenetically similar isolates occurring on Citrus and other hosts elsewhere. From these results four Zasmidium species were recognized on Citrus, namely Z. indonesianum on Citrus in Indonesia, Z. fructicola and Z. fructigenum on Citrus in China and Z. citri-griseum, which appears to have a wide host range including Acacia, Citrus, Eucalyptus and Musa, as well as a global distribution.

  1. Comparative analysis on determinants of self-rated health among non-Hispanic White, Hispanic, and Asian American older adults.

    PubMed

    Min, Jong Won; Rhee, Siyon; Lee, Sang E; Rhee, Jessica; Tran, Thanh

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the study is (1) to compare the effects of factors on self-rated health (SRH) among older non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), Hispanic, and Asian Californians and (2) to provide estimated influence size of each factor on SRH. This study analyzed secondary data drawn from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey. Binary logit regressions were used to analyze data with the Jackknife replication sampling weights. Significant differences were found in SRH among the three groups. Hispanics and Asians reported poorer health than NHW. Socioeconomic status, acculturation, and health access significantly accounted for an association between ethnicity and SRH. However, the magnitudes of their effects on SRH varied across the groups and by the factors examined. This study discusses and concludes with some recommendations on the opportunities presented by the Affordable Care Act and Healthy People 2020.

  2. Characterization of a recombinant Cathepsin B-Like cysteine peptidase from Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae): A putative target control of citrus huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive disease affecting citrus plants. The causal agent is associated with the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) spread by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Among the control strategies for H...

  3. Association of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’, the causal agent of citrus huanglongbing in Murraya paniculata and Diaphorina citri in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange jasmine, Murraya paniculata, is a preferred alternative host for the Asian citrus psyllid, the primary vector of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) disease caused by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las). M. paniculata plant samples and psyllids on the Murraya plants from ten diverse geographical...

  4. Improved real-time PCR detection of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus from citrus and psyllid hosts by targeting the intragenic tandem repeats of its prophage genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is the most prevalent species of Liberibacter associated with citrus huanglongbing (HLB) worldwide. Residing in phloem sieve cells of host plants and vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri), this fastidious bacterium lives as a pathogen or sym...

  5. Evaluation of the effects of light source and plant materials in psyllid trapping levels in the traps for citrus shipping containers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), the principle vector for Huanglongbing (HLB), has been reported to be transported in truckloads of oranges in Florida. Citrus, especially Key limes and lemons, are shipped to the U.S. from Mexican states that are heavily infested with HLB and live, infected psyllids c...

  6. The push-pull strategy for citrus psyllid control.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huaxue; Zeng, Jiwu; Zhong, Guangyan

    2015-07-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the only natural vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus that causes citrus huanglongbing (HLB), a most destructive disease of citrus. Currently, no remedial therapy exists for the disease, and so effective control of ACP is very important in curbing the transmission of the disease. The push-pull strategy should be thoroughly explored as an approach to ACP management. This mini-review summarises the current progress towards more effective repellent and attractant chemicals through investigating known repellent and attractive plants. Interactions between ACP and its host plants are also addressed, with emphasis on the possible involvement of the host biochemicals in attracting the insect. Potential ways to increase the effectiveness of the pull-push strategy are briefly discussed. It is expected that the pull-push strategy will be gradually developed following more extensive research.

  7. Asian blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M

    2014-08-01

    This article discusses in detail the cultural aesthetic issues that confront the surgeon interested in performing Asian blepharoplasty in terms of defining an aesthetic Asian ideal and the subject of natural and ethnic preservation of identity. The surgical methodology of how to perform a full-incision-based Asian blepharoplasty is outlined in a stepwise fashion along with the perioperative concerns (preoperative planning and counseling, nature of recovery, and complications and revision surgery).

  8. Daily Family Interactions among Young Adults in the United States from Latin American, Filipino, East Asian, and European Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuligni, Andrew; Masten, Carrie L.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the abundant research on family relationships during adolescence, the nature of family interactions during young adulthood remains comparatively unexamined. The current study explored ethnic differences in young adults' interactions with parents and siblings, the role of other activities in young adults' family interactions, and the…

  9. Developing Transgenic Citrus for Resistance to Huanglongbing and Citrus Canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) and Citrus Bacterial Canker (CBC) are serious threats to citrus production, and resistant transgenic citrus is desirable. Genes for antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with diverse promoters have been used to generate thousands of rootstock and scion transformants. D35S::D4E1 transfor...

  10. Huanglongbing: Devastating disease of citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease is devastating the citrus industry worldwide, from Asia to the Americas. The only major citrus regions free of this disease are the Mediterranean and Australia/New Zealand. To date there is no cure, no resistance and no therapy for HLB and production ra...

  11. The value of citrus genebanking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Access to diverse citrus genetic resources is critical for breeding new citrus cultivars that have higher quality fruit and improved resistance to pathogens and changing environmental conditions. The USDA-ARS National Clonal Repository for Citrus and Dates (NCGRCD) maintains a very diverse collectio...

  12. Maternal investment, life-history strategy of the offspring and adult chronic disease risk in South Asian women in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Jonathan C.K.; Yao, Pallas; Williams, Jane E; Gayner, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Patterns of development predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and ethnic differences therein, but it remains unclear why apparently ‘adaptive plasticity’ in early life should generate health costs in later life. We hypothesized that offspring receiving low maternal investment during fetal life, the primary period of organogenesis, should predict a shorter reproductive career and develop a fast life-history strategy, prioritizing reproduction over growth and homeostatic maintenance. Methodology: We studied 58 young adult South Asian women living in the UK, a group with high susceptibility to CVD. We obtained gestational age, birth weight (BW) and menarcheal age by recall and measured anthropometry, body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and blood pressure (BP). Results: BW and gestational age were inversely associated with menarcheal age, indicating that lower maternal investment is associated with faster maturation. Menarcheal age was positively associated with height but inversely with adiposity, indicating that rapid maturation prioritizes lipid stores over somatic growth. BW was inversely associated with BP, whereas adiposity was positively associated, indicating that lower maternal investment reduces BP homeostasis. BW was positively associated with RMR, whereas menarche was inversely associated, indicating that maternal investment influences adult metabolism. Conclusions and implications: Supporting our hypothesis, low maternal investment promoted faster life histories, demonstrated by earlier menarche, reduced growth and elevated adiposity. These traits were associated with poorer BP regulation. This is the first study demonstrating strategic adjustment of the balance between reproduction and metabolic health in response to the level of maternal investment during fetal life. PMID:26988862

  13. 75 FR 17289 - Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus Greening and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD07 Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus... States of plants and plant parts, except fruit and seeds, of all genera, species, and varieties of the... of nursery stock to prohibit the importation of propagative seed of several Rutaceae (citrus...

  14. Ecology and behavior of Pezothrips kellyanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on citrus.

    PubMed

    Vassiliou, V A

    2010-02-01

    The most common thrips species found in Cyprus citrus orchards between 2003 and 2008 were Pezothrips kellyanus (Bagnall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Only Pezothrips kellyanus, Kelly's citrus thrips (KCT) causes feeding damage on citrus fruits in Cyprus. KCT adults prefer to concentrate mostly in the northern and eastern sides of both lemon and grapefruit canopies. The attractiveness of white, sky blue, marine blue, and yellow color to KCT was evaluated. White was found to be the most attractive color to adults of KCT, F. occidentalis, and T. tabaci. A range of incidental and breeding host plants grown within and outside citrus orchards in Cyprus were identified. KCT adults were found on flowers of all citrus varieties, and various other flowering plants including Malva nicaeensis, Malva silvestris, Sinapis alba, Oxalis pes-caprae, Calendula arvensis, Urospermum picroides, Jasminum officinale, Gardenia jasminoides, Jasminum sambac, Prunus dulcis, Mangifera indica, Persea americana, and Eriobotrya japonica. KCT larvae were found only on lemon, grapefruit, Jasmine spp., and Gardenia flowers.

  15. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented.

  16. Citrus fruits as a treasure trove of active natural metabolites that potentially provide benefits for human health.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xinmiao; Zhao, Siyu; Ning, Zhangchi; Zeng, Honglian; Shu, Yisong; Tao, Ou; Xiao, Cheng; Lu, Cheng; Liu, Yuanyan

    2015-01-01

    Citrus fruits, which are cultivated worldwide, have been recognized as some of the most high-consumption fruits in terms of energy, nutrients and health supplements. What is more, a number of these fruits have been used as traditional medicinal herbs to cure diseases in several Asian countries. Numerous studies have focused on Citrus secondary metabolites as well as bioactivities and have been intended to develop new chemotherapeutic or complementary medicine in recent decades. Citrus-derived secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, alkaloids, limonoids, coumarins, carotenoids, phenolic acids and essential oils, are of vital importance to human health due to their active properties. These characteristics include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, as well as cardiovascular protective effects, neuroprotective effects, etc. This review summarizes the global distribution and taxonomy, numerous secondary metabolites and bioactivities of Citrus fruits to provide a reference for further study. Flavonoids as characteristic bioactive metabolites in Citrus fruits are mainly introduced.

  17. Potential perchlorate exposure from Citrus sp. irrigated with contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, C A; Krieger, R I; Khandaker, N R; Valentin-Blasini, L; Blount, B C

    2006-05-10

    Citrus produced in the southwestern United States is often irrigated with perchlorate-contaminated water. This irrigation water includes Colorado River water which is contaminated with perchlorate from a manufacturing plant previously located near the Las Vegas Wash, and ground water from wells in Riverside and San Bernardino counties of California which are affected by a perchlorate plume associated with an aerospace facility once located near Redlands, California. Studies were conducted to evaluate the uptake and distribution of perchlorate in citrus irrigated with contaminated water, and estimate potential human exposure to perchlorate from the various citrus types including lemon (Citrus limon), grapefruit (Citrus paradise), and orange (Citrus sinensis) produced in the region. Perchlorate concentrations ranged from less than 2-9 microg/L for Colorado River water and from below detection to approximately 18 microg/L for water samples from wells used to irrigate citrus. Destructive sampling of lemon trees produced with Colorado River water show perchlorate concentrations larger in the leaves (1835 microg/kg dry weight (dw)) followed by the fruit (128 microg/kg dw). Mean perchlorate concentrations in roots, trunk, and branches were all less than 30 microg/kg dw. Fruit pulp analyzed in the survey show perchlorate concentrations ranged from below detection limit to 38 microg/kg fresh weight (fw), and were related to the perchlorate concentration of irrigation water. Mean hypothetical exposures (mug/person/day) of children and adults from lemons (0.005 and 0.009), grapefruit (0.03 and 0.24), and oranges (0.51 and 1.20) were estimated. These data show that potential perchlorate exposures from citrus in the southwestern United States are negligible relative to the reference dose recommended by the National Academy of Sciences.

  18. PROCENTAJE DE PSILIDOS PORTADORES DE Canidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Y SU RELACION CON LA INCIDENCIA DE HLB EN CINCO HUERTAS COMERCIALES DE LIMON MEXICANO {Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swingle} EN EL ESTADO DE COLIMA MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian citrus psyllids (Diaphorina citri) were individually analyzed by qPCR to detect Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). The psyllids were collected in Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia) trees in five commercial orchards in Tecomán and Manzanillo, Colima with severe symptoms of classical mott...

  19. Exposure to Guava Affects Citrus Olfactory Cues and Attractiveness to Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Barman, Jagadish Chandra; Campbell, Stuart A; Zeng, Xinnian

    2016-06-01

    Intercropping can reduce agricultural pest incidence, and represents an important sustainable alternative to conventional pest control methods. Understanding the ecological mechanisms for intercropping could help optimize its use, particularly in tropical systems which present a large number of intercropping possibilities. Citrus is threatened worldwide by greening disease (huanglongbing, HLB) vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Control of HLB and citrus psyllid can be partially achieved through intercropping with guava, Psidium guajava L., but the mechanisms remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that guava olfactory cues affect psyllid behavior by altering the attractiveness of citrus through plant-plant interactions. In choice and no-choice cage experiments, psyllid settlement was reduced on citrus shoots that had been exposed to guava shoot odors for at least 2 h. In Y-tube olfactometer experiments, psyllids oriented to odors of unexposed, compared with guava-exposed, citrus shoots. These behavioral results indicate that a mechanism for the success of guava intercropping for sustainable, ecological disease management may be the indirect effect of guava on citrus attractiveness.

  20. A neonicotinoid impairs olfactory learning in Asian honey bees (Apis cerana) exposed as larvae or as adults.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ken; Chen, Weiwen; Dong, Shihao; Liu, Xiwen; Wang, Yuchong; Nieh, James C

    2015-06-18

    Xenobiotics such as the neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid, are used globally, but their effects on native bee species are poorly understood. We studied the effects of sublethal doses of imidacloprid on olfactory learning in the native honey bee species, Apis cerana, an important pollinator of agricultural and native plants throughout Asia. We provide the first evidence that imidacloprid can impair learning in A. cerana workers exposed as adults or as larvae. Adults that ingested a single imidacloprid dose as low as 0.1 ng/bee had significantly reduced olfactory learning acquisition, which was 1.6-fold higher in control bees. Longer-term learning (1-17 h after the last learning trial) was also impaired. Bees exposed as larvae to a total dose of 0.24 ng/bee did not have reduced survival to adulthood. However, these larval-treated bees had significantly impaired olfactory learning when tested as adults: control bees exhibited up to 4.8-fold better short-term learning acquisition, though longer-term learning was not affected. Thus, sublethal cognitive deficits elicited by neonicotinoids on a broad range of native bee species deserve further study.

  1. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Citrus Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Jeanne A.; Becker, William J.

    This unit of instruction on citrus production was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and clients…

  2. A comparison of monovalent Hong Kong influenza virus vaccine with vaccines containing only pre-1968 Asian strains in adult volunteers. A report to the Medical Research Council Committee on Influenza and other Respiratory Virus Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hobson, D; Baker, F A; Chivers, C P; Reed, S E; Sharp, D

    1970-09-01

    A total of 1601 adult industrial workers were vaccinated with either monovalent inactivated vaccine of the Hong Kong strain of influenza A virus, or with polyvalent vaccine containing only pre-1968 Asian viruses. Serological investigations on a random sample of volunteers showed that 53/56 (95%) given Hong Kong vaccine developed a significant rise in specific haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody; final titres were 1/48 or greater in 39 (70%) and the GMT (geometric mean titre) was 96.5. After polyvalent Asian vaccine, 40/67 (60%) also produced antibody against Hong Kong virus, but only 21 (31%) had final titres of 1/48 or above, and the GMT rose only to 14.1. An intranasal spray of the Hong Kong vaccine in addition to injected Asian vaccine gave no additional increase in antibody.Each type of vaccine stimulated a recall of pre-existing antibody against Asian viruses. The possible significance of heterologous responses to the two vaccines is discussed.The incidence of clinical influenza in the trial population was sporadic, and the infection rates were too low to allow any accurate estimate of the protective efficiency of the two vaccines.

  3. Asian Narrative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minami, Masahiko

    The distinctive features of narratives told by Asians, particularly Japanese, who are non-native speakers of English and residing in the United States are analyzed. Focus is on the narrative structure produced and the communication problems occurring due to cultural traits, particularly as they differ from North American norms. Educational and…

  4. Assessment of Anxiety and Depression in Asian American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Christina B.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the current state of research on the assessment of anxiety and depression in Asian American children and adolescents. Contrary to lay perceptions of Asian Americans as a "model minority," research indicates that rates of depression and anxiety among Asian American adults are comparable to those found among European American…

  5. Agreement: Citrus College Faculty Association and Citrus Community College District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citrus Community Coll. District, Glendora, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Citrus Community College District Board of Trustees and the Citrus College Faculty/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1988 through June 1990, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent recognition and…

  6. Citrus Huanglongbing tolerance in Australian Citrus Relatives, Microcitrus and Eremocirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tolerance, or resistance to citrus huanglongbing will be important as a long term solution for this disease. In a field trial conducted with over 1000 plants belonging to different genera in the sub-family Aurantioideae, we observed field tolerance in many Australian citrus relatives. To confirm the...

  7. Identification of Genomic Associations for Adult Plant Resistance in the Background of Popular South Asian Wheat Cultivar, PBW343

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huihui; Singh, Sukhwinder; Bhavani, Sridhar; Singh, Ravi P.; Sehgal, Deepmala; Basnet, Bhoja R.; Vikram, Prashant; Burgueno-Ferreira, Juan; Huerta-Espino, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Rusts, a fungal disease as old as its host plant wheat, has caused havoc for over 8000 years. As the rust pathogens can evolve into new virulent races which quickly defeat the resistance that primarily rely on race specificity, adult plant resistance (APR) has often been found to be race non-specific and hence is considered to be a more reliable and durable strategy to combat this malady. Over decades sets of donor lines have been identified at International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) representing a wide range of APR sources in wheat. In this study, using nine donors and a common parent “PBW343,” a popular Green Revolution variety at CIMMYT, the nested association mapping (NAM) population of 1122 lines was constructed to understand the APR genetics underlying these founder lines. Thirty-four QTL were associated with APR to rusts, and 20 of 34 QTL had pleiotropic effects on SR, YR and LR resistance. Three chromosomal regions, associated with known APR genes (Sr58/Yr29/Lr46, Sr2/Yr30/Lr27, and Sr57/Yr18/Lr34), were also identified, and 13 previously reported QTL regions were validated. Of the 18 QTL first detected in this study, 7 were pleiotropic QTL, distributing on chromosomes 3A, 3B, 6B, 3D, and 6D. The present investigation revealed the genetic relationship of historical APR donor lines, the novel knowledge on APR, as well as the new analytical methodologies to facilitate the applications of NAM design in crop genetics. Results shown in this study will aid the parental selection for hybridization in wheat breeding, and envision the future rust management breeding for addressing potential threat to wheat production and food security. PMID:27877188

  8. The Eye of the Tiger, the Thrill of the Fight: Effective Larval and Adult Control Measures Against the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), in North America.

    PubMed

    Faraji, Ary; Unlu, Isik

    2016-09-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), is a highly invasive container-inhabiting species with a global distribution. This mosquito, similar to other Stegomyia species such as Aedes aegypti (L.), is highly adapted to urban and suburban areas, and commonly oviposits in artificial containers, which are ubiquitous in these peridomestic environments. The increase in speed and amount of international travel and commerce, coupled with global climate change, have aided in the resurgence and expansion of Stegomyia species into new areas of North America. In many parts of their range, both species are implicated as significant vectors of emerging and re-emerging arboviruses such as dengue, chikungunya, and now Zika. Although rapid and major advances have been made in the field of biology, ecology, genetics, taxonomy, and virology, relatively little has changed in the field of mosquito control in recent decades. This is particularly discouraging in regards to container-inhabiting mosquitoes, because traditional integrated mosquito management (IMM) approaches have not been effective against these species. Many mosquito control programs simply do not possess the man-power or necessary financial resources needed to suppress Ae. albopictus effectively. Therefore, control of mosquito larvae, which is the foundation of IMM approaches, is exceptionally difficult over large areas. This review paper addresses larval habitats, use of geographic information systems for habitat preference detection, door-to-door control efforts, source reduction, direct application of larvicides, biological control agents, area-wide low-volume application of larvicides, hot spot treatments, autodissemination stations, public education, adult traps, attractive-toxic sugar bait methods, lethal ovitraps, barrier-residual adulticides, hand-held ultra-low-volume adulticides, area-wide adulticides applied by ground or air, and genetic control methods. The review concludes with future

  9. Transmission efficiency of Xylella fastidiosa by sharpshooters (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in coffee and citrus.

    PubMed

    Marucci, Rosangela C; Lopes, João R S; Cavichioli, Rodney R

    2008-08-01

    Xylella fastidiosa (Wells, Raju, Hung, Weisburg, Mandelco-Paul, and Brenner) is a bacterial pathogen transmitted by several sharpshooters in two tribes of Cicadellinae (Proconiini and Cicadellini). Here, we compared the transmission efficiency of X. fastidiosa in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) and citrus [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] by Cicadellini [Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg) and Dilobopterus costalimai Young] and Proconiini [Homalodisca ignorata Melichar and Oncometopia facialis (Signoret)] sharpshooters that occur in both crops. At different seasons, healthy adults of each species were submitted to a 48-h acquisition access period on citrus or coffee source plants infected with X. fastidiosa isolates that cause Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) and Coffee leaf scorch (CLS), respectively, and then confined on healthy seedlings of the corresponding host plant for a 48-h inoculation access period. No significant effect of inoculation season was observed when comparing infection rates of citrus or coffee plants inoculated by vectors at different times of the year. In citrus, the transmission rate by single insects was significantly higher for H. ignorata (30%) in relation to B. xanthophis (5%) and O. facialis (1.1%), but there was no difference among vector species in coffee, whose transmission rates ranged from 1.2 to 7.2%. Comparing host plants, H. ignorata was more effective in transmitting X. fastidiosa to citrus (30%) in relation to coffee (2.2%), whereas the other vectors transmitted the bacterium to both hosts with similar efficiencies. Despite these variations, vector efficiency in coffee and citrus is lower than that reported in other hosts.

  10. Differences in the effects of Asian dust on pulmonary function between adult patients with asthma and those with asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Yasuto; Mikami, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Tokuyasu, Hirokazu; Kato, Kazuhiro; Konishi, Tatsuya; Tatsukawa, Toshiyuki; Shimizu, Eiji; Kitano, Hiroya

    2016-01-01

    Background Asian dust (AD) exposure exacerbates pulmonary dysfunction in patients with asthma. Asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS), characterized by coexisting symptoms of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is considered a separate disease entity. Previously, we investigated the effects of AD on pulmonary function in adult patients with asthma. Here, we present the findings of our further research on the differences in the effects of AD exposure on pulmonary function between patients with asthma alone and those with ACOS. Methods Between March and May 2012, we conducted a panel study wherein we monitored daily peak expiratory flow (PEF) values in 231 adult patients with asthma. These patients were divided into 190 patients with asthma alone and 41 patients with ACOS in this study. Daily AD particle levels were measured using light detection and ranging systems. Two heavy AD days (April 23 and 24) were determined according to the Japan Meteorological Agency definition. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the association between PEF and AD exposure. Results Increments in the interquartile range of AD particles (0.018 km−1) led to PEF changes of −0.50 L/min (95% confidence interval, −0.98 to −0.02) in patients with asthma alone and −0.11 L/min (−0.11 to 0.85) in patients with ACOS. The PEF changes after exposure to heavy AD were −2.21 L/min (−4.28 to −0.15) in patients with asthma alone and −2.76 L/min (−6.86 to 1.35) in patients with ACOS. In patients with asthma alone, the highest decrease in PEF values was observed on the heavy AD day, with a subsequent gradual increase over time. Conclusion Our results suggest that the effects of AD exposure on pulmonary function differ between patients with asthma alone and ACOS, with the former exhibiting a greater likelihood of decreased pulmonary function after AD exposure. PMID:26869784

  11. The potential for citrus cryotherapy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus collections of pathogen-free plants are needed for breeding, research, and distribution to the user community. The Citrus Research Board funded research project “Development of cryotherapy as an improved method of eliminating graft transmissible pathogens in Citrus” sought to use cryotherapy,...

  12. Widespread applications of citrus cryopreservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus genetic resources can now be successfully cryopreserved, which means that they can be placed into long-term storage at liquid nitrogen temperatures. This cryopreservation technology was specifically developed to address the immediate need to have secure long-term back-up storage for citrus co...

  13. Integrated Management of Citrus Canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit losses due to citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), vary each crop season depending on citrus variety, tree age, flushing condition, leafminer control, and coincidence of weather events with occurrence of susceptible fruit and foliage. In 2012, crop losses in Hamlin f...

  14. The flavor of citrus fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus is the largest cultivated fruit tree crop in the world, with total production of more than 100 million tons per year. The genus Citrus consists of different species, including several producing economically important crops, such as oranges, mandarins, grapefruit, pummelo, lemons and limes, c...

  15. Correlates of suicidal behaviors among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Duldulao, Aileen Alfonso; Takeuchi, David T; Hong, Seunghye

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the correlates of suicidal ideation, suicide plan and suicide attempt among Asian Americans focusing on nativity and gender. Analyses are performed on data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (N = 2095), the first ever study conducted on the mental health of a national sample of Asian Americans. The sample is comprised of adults with 998 men (47%) and 1,097 (53%) women. Analysis of weighted lifetime prevalence of suicidal behaviors revealed that U.S.-born Asian American women had higher prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide plan than U.S.-born Asian American men and immigrant Asian American men and women. In multivariate analyses controlling for socio-demographic differences such as ethnicity, marital status and income, differences in suicidal behaviors are found only between U.S.-born women and U.S.-born men. The findings demonstrate the need to disaggregate data by immigrant status as well as socio-demographic correlates.

  16. Awareness and Use of South Asian Tobacco Products Among South Asians in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Hrywna, Mary; Jane Lewis, M; Mukherjea, Arnab; Banerjee, Smita C; Steinberg, Michael B; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-12-01

    South Asians are the third largest Asian group in the US and among the fastest growing racial groups in New Jersey. Tobacco consumption among South Asians is characterized by several smoked and smokeless tobacco products indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. However, there is a paucity of research on tobacco use behaviors among South Asians in the US. The goal of this study was to examine the awareness and use of South Asian tobacco products such as bidis, gutkha, paan, paan masala, and zarda as well as other potentially carcinogenic products such as supari, their context of use, and their cultural significance among South Asians living in the US. Eight focus groups were conducted with South Asian adults living in Central New Jersey. Overall, participants were aware of a wide variety of foreign and American tobacco products with older South Asians identifying a greater variety of indigenous products compared to younger South Asians. Hookah was consistently recognized as popular among the younger generation while products such as paan or paan masala were more commonly identified with elders. Use of tobacco-related products such as paan and supari were described as common at social gatherings or after meals. In addition, light or social users of South Asian tobacco products, including products not consistently defined as tobacco, may not report tobacco use on a survey. Better understanding of the use of these products among South Asians and how some may classify tobacco usage can inform future research and public health interventions in these communities.

  17. Behavioral Ecology of Host Selection in the Asian Longhorn Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Cermabycidae): Implications for Survey, Detection and Monitoring Adult Beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (ALB), is among high risk invasive species that recently invaded the U.S. from China, with infestations in New York City and Long Island, NY, Chicago, IL, Jersey City, Carteret and Linden, NJ, and Toronto, Canada. ALB has attacked 25 deciduous tree s...

  18. Racial Discrimination and Psychological Distress: The Impact of Ethnic Identity and Age Among Immigrant and United States–Born Asian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Tiffany; Gee, Gilbert C.; Takeuchi, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The association between racial and ethnic discrimination and psychological distress was examined among 2,047 Asians (18 to 75 years of age) in the National Latino and Asian American Study, the first-ever nationally representative study of mental health among Asians living in the United States. Stratifying the sample by age in years (i.e., 18 to 30, 31 to 40, 41 to 50, 51 to 75) and nativity status (i.e., immigrant vs. U.S.-born), ethnic identity was tested as either a protective or exacerbating factor. Analyses showed that ethnic identity buffered the association between discrimination and mental health for U.S.-born individuals 41 to 50 years of age. For U.S.-born individuals 31 to 40 years of age and 51 to 75 years of age, ethnic identity exacerbated the negative effects of discrimination on mental health. The importance of age and immigrant status for the association between ethnic identity, discrimination, and well-being among Asians in the United States is discussed. PMID:18473644

  19. Past and future of a century old Citrus Tristeza virus collection: A California citrus germplasm tale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The California Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP) provides a mechanism for introduction and distribution of pathogen-free citrus varieties to California for use in research, variety improvement, or commercial production. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a serious citrus pathogen worldwide. The pr...

  20. Exacerbation of citrus canker by citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is an important bacterial disease of citrus that is spread naturally by rain and wind. Damage to citrus leaves by the citrus leafminer (CLM) , Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), has been shown to promote infect...

  1. Past and future of a century old Citrus Tristeza Virus collection: A California citrus germplasm tale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The California Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP), Riverside, CA provides a mechanism for introduction and distribution of citrus germplasm from any citrus-growing area of the world to California for use in research, variety improvement, or by industry. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a serious ...

  2. Citrus Grove Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Citrus growers have long used aerial photography to inventory the number of groves in production. A new development at Kennedy Space Center, aerial mapping of groves with color infrared (CIR) film, affords an important advance in grove management by detecting and locating unhealthy trees long before they could be detected by ground survey methods. Aerial CIR photography picks up light reflected from foliage-- light not visible to the human eye--and enables differentiation between healthy and "stressed" (diseased) trees of a Florida orange/grapefruit grove. Computer aided photo interpretation techniques permit grading diseased trees lightly, moderately or severely stressed or dead. Method of grove mapping has offered advantage to growers in early disease warning, possible savings through water regulation and provision of a permanent record of grove growth patterns.

  3. Precocious flowering of juvenile citrus induced by a viral vector based on Citrus leaf blotch virus: a new tool for genetics and breeding.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, Karelia; Agüero, Jesús; Vives, María C; Aleza, Pablo; Pina, José A; Moreno, Pedro; Navarro, Luis; Guerri, José

    2016-10-01

    The long juvenile period of citrus trees (often more than 6 years) has hindered genetic improvement by traditional breeding methods and genetic studies. In this work, we have developed a biotechnology tool to promote transition from the vegetative to the reproductive phase in juvenile citrus plants by expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana or citrus FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) genes using a Citrus leaf blotch virus-based vector (clbvINpr-AtFT and clbvINpr-CiFT, respectively). Citrus plants of different genotypes graft inoculated with either of these vectors started flowering within 4-6 months, with no alteration of the plant architecture, leaf, flower or fruit morphology in comparison with noninoculated adult plants. The vector did not integrate in or recombine with the plant genome nor was it pollen or vector transmissible, albeit seed transmission at low rate was detected. The clbvINpr-AtFT is very stable, and flowering was observed over a period of at least 5 years. Precocious flowering of juvenile citrus plants after vector infection provides a helpful and safe tool to dramatically speed up genetic studies and breeding programmes.

  4. Fortuitous establishment of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in Jamaica on the citrus leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Hoy, M.A.; Jeyaprakash, A.; Clarke-Harris, D.

    2007-03-15

    These data indicate that the population of A. citricola in Jamaica probably originated from the Australian (Thailand), rather than from the Taiwan, population. This is consistent with what is currently known about the origin of the established Ageniaspis population in Florida (Alvarez 2000). It is not known when, or how, A. citricola arrived in Jamaica, although the CLM was detected there in 1994. The fortuitous establishment of A. citricolaon the CLM in Jamaica is not the only such establishment of a natural enemy discovered during this 2004 survey of citrus. The parasitoid Lipolexis oregmae Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) was found attacking the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Aphididae) (Hoy et al., unpublished data), and the eulophid parasitoid Tamarixia radiata Waterston was found attacking the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The fact that 3 natural enemies of 3 invasive citrus pests were found in Jamaica, none of which were purposefully imported and released, suggests that pest-infested citrus trees were imported into Jamaica without going through appropriate quarantine procedures. Because each pest arrived at different times, the parasitoids probably arrived at different times, as well. This indicates that an analysis is needed to identify the critical control points within those services in Jamaica that support border protection, and that procedures may require strengthening. (author)

  5. Control of virus diseases of citrus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Citrus is thought to have originated in Southeast Asia and horticulturally desirable clonal selections have been clonally cultivated for hundreds of years. While some citrus species have nucellar embryony, most cultivation of citrus has been by clonal propagation to ensure that propagated plants have the same traits as the parent selection. Clonal propagation also avoids juvenility, and the propagated plants produce fruit sooner. Because of the clonal propagation of citrus, citrus has accumulated a large number of viruses; many of these viruses are asymptomatic until a susceptible rootstock and/or scion is encountered. The viruses reported to occur in citrus will be summarized in this review. Methods of therapy to clean selected clones from viruses will be reviewed; the use of quarantine, clean stock, and certification programs for control of citrus viruses and other strategies to control insect spread citrus viruses, such as mild strain cross-protection and the use of pest management areas will be discussed.

  6. Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H

    2013-04-01

    Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly.

  7. Whole-body cardiovascular MRI for the comparison of atherosclerotic burden and cardiac remodelling in healthy South Asian and European adults

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Deirdre B; Belch, Jill J F; Gandy, Stephen J; Lambert, Matthew A; Littleford, Roberta C; Rowland, Janice; Struthers, Allan D; Khan, Faisel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the feasibility of using whole-body cardiovascular MRI (WB-CVMR) to compare South Asians (SAs)—a population known to have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) but paradoxically lower prevalence of peripheral arterial disease—and Western Europeans (WEs). Methods: 19 SAs and 38 age-, gender- and body mass index-matched WEs were recruited. All were aged 40 years and over, free from CVD and with a 10-year risk of CVD <20% as assessed by the adult treatment panel (ATP) III risk score. WB-CVMR was performed, comprising a whole-body angiogram (WBA) and cardiac MR (CMR), on a 3-T MRI scanner (Magnetom® Trio; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) following dual-phase injection of gadolinium-based contrast agent. A standardized atheroma score (SAS) was calculated from the WBA while indexed left ventricular mass and volumes were calculated from the CMR. Results: SAs exhibited a significantly lower iliofemoral atheroma burden (regional SAS 0.0 ± 0.0 vs 1.9 ± 6.9, p = 0.048) and a trend towards lower overall atheroma burden (whole-body SAS 0.7 ± 0.8 vs 1.8 ± 2.3, p = 0.1). They had significantly lower indexed left ventricular mass (46.9 ± 11.8 vs 56.9 ± 13.4 ml m−2, p = 0.008), end diastolic volume (63.9 ± 10.4 vs 75.2 ± 11.4 ml m−2, p=0.001), end systolic volume (20.5 ± 6.1 vs 24.6 ± 6.8 ml m−2, p = 0.03) and stroke volume (43.4 ± 6.6 vs 50.6 ± 7.9 ml m−2, p = 0.001), but with no significant difference in ejection fraction, mass-volume ratio or global functioning index. These differences persisted after accounting for CVD risk factors. Conclusion: WB-CVMR can quantify cardiac and atheroma burden and can detect differences in these metrics between ethnic groups that, if validated, may suggest that the paradoxical high risk of CVD compared with PVD risk may be due to an adverse cardiac haemodynamic status incurred by the smaller heart rather than

  8. Fumigant toxicity of citrus oils against cowpea seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Moravvej, G; Abbar, S

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of volatile components of Citrus paradisi, C. aurantium, C. limonium and C. sinensis peel essential oils were investigated on the cowpea adult bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). The oils were extracted from the fruit peels using hydrodistillation. The results indicated that the citrus oils had high fumigant activity against adult beetles. The mortality of 1-2 day-old adults increased with concentration and exposure time from 3 to 24 h. The oil of C. paradisi was more effective than those of C. aurantium and C. limonium (The LC50 values were 125, 145 and 235 microl L(-1) at 24 h exposure, respectively). The oil of C. sinensis proved to be least toxic (LC50 = 269 microl L(-1). The results suggested that citrus peel oils can be used as potential control measure against cowpea beetles.

  9. 77 FR 59709 - Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Quarantine and Interstate Movement Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... area quarantined only for ACP, if, among other conditions, the article was treated with methyl bromide... application, followed by an APHIS-approved foliar spray; with methyl bromide; or with irradiation. We intended... fumigated with methyl bromide, it did not authorize nursery stock to be treated with irradiation. We...

  10. 75 FR 34322 - Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Quarantine and Interstate Movement Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... could be moved interstate to any State following treatment with methyl bromide according to the APHIS... allowed for the use of irradiation, in addition to the option of using methyl bromide, as a possible... article is treated with methyl bromide in accordance with 7 CFR part 305. The article is shipped in...

  11. Comparison of insect vacuums for sampling Asian citrus psyllid (Homoptera: Psyllidae) on citrus trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three vacuum devices were compared for sampling psyllid populations. One was an AC rechargeable, handheld, cordless model and a second was a handheld, DC model powered through a cord connected to a 12V vehicle battery. Each of these devices had a mesh cylinder (substituted for a dust bag) in which...

  12. Insect-vacs for sampling Asian citrus psyllid (Homoptera: psyllidae) on citrus trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three vacuum devices were compared for sampling psyllid populations. One was an AC rechargeable, handheld, cordless model and a second was a handheld, DC model powered through a cord connected to a 12V vehicle battery. Each of these devices had a mesh cylinder (substituted for a dust bag) in which...

  13. Weeping dragon, a unique ornamenal citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Weeping Dragon’ is a new ornamental citrus cultivar developed by intercrossing of two unusual and unique citrus types, Poncirus trifoliata cultivated variety (cv.) Flying Dragon, and Citrus sinensis cv. ‘Cipo’. This new hybrid cultivar combines strongly contorted and weeping growth traits in a smal...

  14. Citrus tristeza virus-aphid interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review chapter on aphid transmission of Citrus tristeza virus is provided for a book on “Vector-Mediated Transmission of Plant Pathogens”. Earliest uses of citrus goes back over two millennia as items of trade, gifts and medicinal compounds. Citrus propagation during this period was by seed and si...

  15. Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or s...

  16. Citrus Limonoids: Analysis, Bioactivity, and Biomedical Prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication is a review of the chemistry, biochemistry and bioactivity of limonoids occurring in citrus. The review chronologically relates the evolution of research in citrus limonoids beginning with their association with bitterness development in citrus juices. The chemical and biochemical...

  17. Within-orchard edge effects of the azimuth of the sun on Diaphorina citri adults in mature orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) has been considered the most devastating disease of citrus. The bacterium and vector associated with HLB in Florida are ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ and Diaphorina citri (Asian citrus psyllid), respectively. D. citri is positively phototropic, and higher populations have b...

  18. Ethnopsychopharmacology considerations for Asians and Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Wong, Felicia K; Pi, Edmond H

    2012-03-01

    Asians comprise more than 60% of the world's population and are the fastest growing minority group in the United States. Today's psychiatrist must learn to recognize and appreciate the unique factors that influence mental health outcomes in this group. Asian Americans are affected by psychiatric disorders at similar rates as non-Asians, but are significantly underrepresented in psychiatric clinics. When Asians and Asian Americans do present for psychiatric treatment, they often do so with higher severity of illness, and variable levels of compliance. Studies over the past three decades have suggested that pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of various psychotropic medications may be different in Asians, leading to differences in dosage requirements and side-effect profiles. These variations appear to be largely determined by genetic predisposition, but are also influenced by other factors such as environment, social support, cultural perceptions, and physicians' prescribing habits. In this paper, we provide an overview of biological and socio-cultural issues as they relate to psychopharmacology in Asians and Asian Americans, with the hope that a better understanding of these issues will lead to improved mental health care delivery to this population both in the United States, as well as in Asian countries.

  19. Ethnic inequalities in acute myocardial infarction hospitalization rates among young and middle-aged adults in Northern Italy: high risk for South Asians.

    PubMed

    Fedeli, Ugo; Cestari, Laura; Ferroni, Eliana; Avossa, Francesco; Saugo, Mario; Modesti, Pietro Amedeo

    2017-02-07

    The knowledge of ethnic-specific health needs is now essential to design effective health services and population-based prevention strategies. However, data on migrant populations living in Southern Europe are limited. The study is designed to investigate ethnic inequalities in hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the Veneto region (Italy). Hospital admissions for AMI in Veneto for the whole resident population aged 20-59 years during 2008-2013 were studied. Age and gender-specific AMI hospitalization rates for immigrant groups (classified by country of origin according to the United Nations geoscheme) and Italians were calculated. The indirect standardization method was used to estimate standardized hospitalization ratios (SHR) for each immigrant group, with rates of Italian residents as a reference. Overall, 8200 AMI events were retrieved, 648 among immigrants. The highest risk of AMI is seen in South Asians males (SHR 4.2, 95% CI 3.6-4.9) and females (SHR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.5). AMI rates in South Asian males sharply increase in the 30-39 years age class. Other immigrant subgroups (Eastern Europe, North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, other Asian countries, Central-South America, high-income countries) displayed age- and gender-adjusted hospitalization rates similar to the native population. Present findings stress the urgent need for implementation of ethnic-specific health policies in Italy. The awareness about the high cardiovascular risk in subjects from South Asia must be increased among general practitioners and immigrant communities.

  20. Citrus Functional Genomics and Molecular Modeling in Relation to Citrus sinensis (Sweet Orange) Infection with Xylella fastidiosa (Citrus Variegated Chlorosis).

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Upendra N; Tiwari, Sameeksha; Prasanna, Pragya; Awasthi, Manika; Singh, Swati; Pandey, Veda P

    2016-08-01

    Citrus are among the economically most important fruit tree crops in the world. Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), caused by Xylella fastidiosa infection, is a serious disease limiting citrus production at a global scale. With availability of citrus genomic resources, it is now possible to compare citrus expressed sequence tag (EST) data sets and identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within and among different citrus cultivars that can be exploited for citrus resistance to infections, citrus breeding, among others. We report here, for the first time, SNPs in the EST data sets of X. fastidiosa-infected Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) and their functional annotation that revealed the involvement of eight C. sinensis candidate genes in CVC pathogenesis. Among these genes were xyloglucan endotransglycosylase, myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase, and peroxidase were found to be involved in plant cell wall metabolism. These have been further investigated by molecular modeling for their role in CVC infection and defense. Molecular docking analyses of the wild and the mutant (SNP containing) types of the selected three enzymes with their respective substrates revealed a significant decrease in the binding affinity of substrates for the mutant enzymes, thus suggesting a decrease in the catalytic efficiency of these enzymes during infection, thereby facilitating a favorable condition for infection by the pathogen. These findings offer novel agrigenomics insights in developing future molecular targets and strategies for citrus fruit cultivation in ways that are resistant to X. fastidiosa infection, and by extension, with greater harvesting efficiency and economic value.

  1. 100% citrus juice: Nutritional contribution, dietary benefits, and association with anthropometric measures.

    PubMed

    Rampersaud, Gail C; Valim, M Filomena

    2017-01-02

    Citrus juices such as 100% orange (OJ) and grapefruit juice (GJ) are commonly consumed throughout the world. This review examines the contributions of OJ and GJ to nutrient intake, diet quality, and fruit intake, and supports citrus juices as nutrient-dense beverages. This review also explores the research examining associations between OJ and GJ intake and anthropometric measures. Citrus juices are excellent sources of vitamin C and contribute other key nutrients such as potassium, folate, magnesium, and vitamin A. OJ intake has been associated with better diet quality in children and adults. OJ intake has not been associated with adverse effects on weight or other body measures in observational studies in children and adults. In adults, some observational studies report more favorable body mass index or body measure parameters in OJ consumers compared to nonconsumers. Intervention studies in adults report no negative impacts of OJ or GJ consumption on anthropometric measures, although these measures were typically not the primary outcomes examined in the studies. Moderate consumption of citrus juices may provide meaningful nutritional and dietary benefits and do not appear to negatively impact body weight, body composition, or other anthropometric measures in children and adults.

  2. Role of Adult Education and Mass Media for Civic Education. Report of the Asian Pacific Seminar (New Delhi, India, September 10-14, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxena, J. C., Ed.; Sachdeva, J. L., Ed.

    This publication contains six presentations from a seminar that stressed that the problem of adult education should be viewed from the angle of human resource development and all necessary interdepartmental linkages should be developed. The keynote address, "Major Challenges and Prospects of Adult Education for the Year 2000" (T. M.…

  3. Site Plan & Site Section of Citrus Landscape (Showing Relationship ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Site Plan & Site Section of Citrus Landscape (Showing Relationship of Victoria Avenue to Citrus Groves) - Arlington Heights Citrus Landscape, Southwestern portion of city of Riverside, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  4. Chipping citrus wood for gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, D.B.; Hedden, S.L.; Whitney, J.D.; Shaw, L.N.

    1985-01-01

    Non-productive citrus trees were chipped with a portable fly-wheel-type chipper powered by a 45 kW engine. Chips were air dried under an open shed to 14% (w.b.) moisture content. By weight, approximately 50% of the total tree could be made into usable chips. The root system averaged 36% of the total tree weight.

  5. 78 FR 8435 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus Hybrids and Fortunella

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... of citrus canker). In a previous revision of the PRA, citrus black spot (Guignardia citricarpa Kiely... of citrus black spot because the combination of conditions required for disease transmission from... compounds. However, if the rind is thin or damaged, or existing oviposition puncture holes are...

  6. Citrus Research Board-sponsored review of the University of California Riverside citrus breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In October 2015 the Citrus Research Board (CRB) assembled a panel of experts to review the Citrus Research Board-sponsored Citrus Research and Genetics Programs at University of California Riverside (UCR). The panel consisted of: Gennaro Fazio, USDA/ARS, Geneva, NY; Maria Angeles Forner-Giner, Insti...

  7. Application of natural colorants on citrus fruit as alternatives to Citrus Red II

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Warm field temperatures can often result in poor peel color of some citrus varieties, especially early in the harvest season. Under these conditions, Florida oranges, temples, tangelos, and K-Early citrus fruit are allowed to be treated with Citrus Red No.2 (CR2) to help produce a more acceptable pe...

  8. Evaluation of resistance to asiatic citrus canker among selections of pera sweet orange (Citrus sinensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asiatic citrus canker (ACC, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) is a destructive disease of citrus in Brazil and in several other citrus-producing countries. ACC management is problematic, and bactericides such as copper can be reasonably efficacious but do not completely control...

  9. Production of transgenic citrus resistant to citrus canker and Huanglongbing diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the U.S. citrus industry. There are no proven strategies to eliminate HLB disease and no cultivars identified with strong HLB resistance. Citrus canker is also an economically import...

  10. Photographic Remote Sensing of Sick Citrus Trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing with infrared color aerial photography (Kodak Ektachrome Infrared Aero 8443 film) for detecting citrus tree anomalies is described. Illustrations and discussions are given for detecting nutrient toxicity symptoms, for detecting foot rot and sooty mold fungal diseases, and for distinguishing among citrus species. Also, the influence of internal leaf structure on light reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance are considered; and physiological and environmental factors that affect citrus leaf light reflectance are reviewed briefly and illustrated.

  11. Beneficial Effects of Citrus Juice Fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 on Japanese Cedar Pollinosis

    PubMed Central

    HARIMA-MIZUSAWA, Naomi; IINO, Tohru; ONODERA-MASUOKA, Norie; KATO-NAGAOKA, Noriko; KIYOSHIMA-SHIBATA, Junko; GOMI, Atsushi; SHIBAHARA-SONE, Harue; KANO, Mitsuyoshi; SHIDA, Kan; SAKAI, Masashi; MIYAZAKI, Kouji; ISHIKAWA, Fumiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the prevalence of allergies in Japan has been increasing. Certain types of fruit juice and lactic acid bacteria are known to alleviate allergic symptoms. Therefore, we examined whether citrus juice fermented by a specific lactic acid bacteria can improve the symptoms of Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCPsis). Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 (LP0132) was selected based on its high proliferative activity in citrus juice and anti-inflammatory interleukin-10-inducing activity. Dietary administration of heat-killed LP0132 cells or citrus juice fermented with LP0132 was found to significantly suppress nasal rubbing in a JCPsis mouse model, indicating relief of allergy symptoms. To evaluate the effects of LP0132-fermented citrus juice on pollinosis symptoms and quality of life (QOL) in humans with JCPsis, a single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial was conducted. The participants were 42 adults with JCPsis. They ingested 100 mL of sterilized LP0132-fermented citrus juice (active group) or unfermented citrus juice (placebo group) once daily for 8 weeks. Immediately after the pollen peak when allergy symptoms and QOL loss were most severe, itchy eyes, itchy skin, and QOL loss by JCPsis were alleviated in the active group compared with the placebo group. At 10 weeks after starting the intervention, increased the levels of blood eosinophils were significantly suppressed in the active group compared with the placebo group. We conclude that continuous ingestion of citrus juice fermented with LP0132 may help alleviate the allergy symptoms and impaired QOL caused by JCPsis. PMID:25379362

  12. Pronunciation Lessons for Teachers of Classes of Adults of Mainly South East Asian Origin at Near-Beginning to Intermediate Levels of English as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksen, Tove Anne

    The lessons are intended for teenage and adult students. Focus is on placement of the tongue, jaw, lips, any movements involved, and whether the sound is whispered (voiced) or spoken (voiceless). Consonants are taught in pairs so students realize the distinctions necessary to avoid misunderstandings. Lessons include (1) final consonants, (2)…

  13. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Sujitha, Mohanan V; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl(4) by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (111, 200, 220 and 222 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp(3) of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp(3) of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  14. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  15. Evaluation of bioefficacy of three Citrus essential oils against the dengue vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in correlation to their components enantiomeric distribution.

    PubMed

    Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Koliopoulos, George; Polissiou, Moschos G; Emmanouel, Nickolaos; Michaelakis, Antonios

    2012-12-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the bioefficacy against Ae. albopictus of three Citrus essential oils, derived from peels of Citrus sinensis, Citrus limon, and Citrus paradise and of their components. Chiral gas chromatography analysis revealed the dominant occurrence of R-(+)-limonene and (-)-β-pinene in all three essential oils while in the case of lemon oil γ-terpinene, neral, and geranial detected also among other components. The tested Citrus essential oils were toxic against mosquito larvae with LC(50) values ranging from 25.03 to 37.03 mg l(-1). Among citrus essential oils components tested, γ-terpinene was the most toxic (LC(50) = 20.21 mg l(-1)) followed by both enantiomeric forms of limonene (LC(50) = 35.99 and 34.89 mg l(-1), for R-(+)-limonene and S-(-)-limonene, respectively). The delayed toxic effects after exposure of larvae to sublethal (LC(50)) doses were also investigated for citrus essential oils and their major component R-(+)-limonene, indicating a significant reduction of pupal survival. In repellent bioassays, lemon essential oil, S-(-)-limonene, citral (mixture of neral\\geranial) and (+)-β-pinene were the most effective compared with other citrus essential oils and components against adult mosquitoes. Repellent bioassays also revealed that limonenes and β-pinenes showed an isomer dependence repellent activity. Finally, according to enantiomeric distribution of limonene and α- and β-pinene, the repellency of lemon essential oil is possibly attributed to the presence of citral.

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata...

  19. Cooperation in the Conservation of Citrus Genetic Resources: Riverside, California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A consortium of cooperating programs for the conservation and utilization of citrus genetic resources is centered at the University of California, Riverside (UCR). University units include the Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP), Citrus Variety Collection (CVC), and Citrus Breeding Program (CBP...

  20. Rapid cyling plant breeding in citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance or tolerance to huanglongbing (HLB) and other important traits have been identified in several citrus types and relatives and associated markers should be identified soon. What is urgently needed in addition is an accelerated strategy for citrus variety breeding. Identification and use of...

  1. Functional analysis of block deesterified citrus pectins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After removal of soluble sugars and other compounds by washing, citrus peel is largely composed of pectin, cellulose and hemicellulose. In order to utilize the greatest amount of citrus peel product, it would appear reasonable that one or all three of these polysaccharides be converted to a useful ...

  2. Citrus Community College District Mentor Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinds, Diane; Sprague, Caroline

    The Citrus College faculty and staff addressed the problem of lower career aspirations among women by establishing a support group, Citrus Women in Higher Education (CWHE). In addition to group meetings and special programs of interest, the CWHE has developed a mentor program to address the problem of blocked careers faced by women. The goals of…

  3. Resistance and tolerance to Huanglongbing in citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Stover-led research team focuses on developing improved citrus scion varieties, through both conventional breeding and transgenics, with special attention to confronting the threat of citrus huanglongbing (HLB). Collaborations are underway with more than 20 research groups around the world to ha...

  4. Cryopreservation and Cryotherapy of Citrus Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term conservation of Citrus clones can be accomplished by cryopreservation. Shoot tips will survive liquid nitrogen exposure and storage when appropriately desiccated and treated with cryoprotectant solutions. In our research, vegetative Citrus budwood is shipped from Riverside to Fort Collin...

  5. Conservation of citrus germplasm - an international survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus is an economically important tree fruit crop in many subtropical and tropical areas. Most cultivated species likely originated in Southern China, Northeast India and Southeast Asia. Many species are inter-fertile and some cultivated citrus types including sweet orange, lemon and grapefruit, ...

  6. Citrus quarantine, sanitary and certification programs in the USA. Prevention of introduction and distribution of citrus diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus germplasm originated in Australasia, the Far East, and Africa, thus all citrus grown in the New World was imported. This importation of citrus also resulted in importation of graft transmissible pathogens of citrus, many of which are latent in their original host but can cause epidemics of t...

  7. Tolerance of the trifoliate citrus hybrid US-897 (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) to Huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a destructive disease of citrus in most citrus-producing countries worldwide. The disease, presumably caused by phloem-limited bacteria of the genus Candidatus Liberibacter, affects all known citrus species and citrus relatives with little known resistance. Typical disease s...

  8. Emerging Asian Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trezise, Philip H.

    What we can expect in the future from the miracle economies of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong, whether they pose a threat to the older industrial states of Western Europe and North American, and whether China is to be the next emerging Asian economy are discussed. The amazing economic recovery of these East Asian countries…

  9. The New Asian Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles

    In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…

  10. The WRKY Transcription Factor Family in Citrus: Valuable and Useful Candidate Genes for Citrus Breeding.

    PubMed

    Ayadi, M; Hanana, M; Kharrat, N; Merchaoui, H; Marzoug, R Ben; Lauvergeat, V; Rebaï, A; Mzid, R

    2016-10-01

    WRKY transcription factors belong to a large family of plant transcriptional regulators whose members have been reported to be involved in a wide range of biological roles including plant development, adaptation to environmental constraints and response to several diseases. However, little or poor information is available about WRKY's in Citrus. The recent release of completely assembled genomes sequences of Citrus sinensis and Citrus clementina and the availability of ESTs sequences from other citrus species allowed us to perform a genome survey for Citrus WRKY proteins. In the present study, we identified 100 WRKY members from C. sinensis (51), C. clementina (48) and Citrus unshiu (1), and analyzed their chromosomal distribution, gene structure, gene duplication, syntenic relation and phylogenetic analysis. A phylogenetic tree of 100 Citrus WRKY sequences with their orthologs from Arabidopsis has distinguished seven groups. The CsWRKY genes were distributed across all ten sweet orange chromosomes. A comprehensive approach and an integrative analysis of Citrus WRKY gene expression revealed variable profiles of expression within tissues and stress conditions indicating functional diversification. Thus, candidate Citrus WRKY genes have been proposed as potentially involved in fruit acidification, essential oil biosynthesis and abiotic/biotic stress tolerance. Our results provided essential prerequisites for further WRKY genes cloning and functional analysis with an aim of citrus crop improvement.

  11. The Role of Neighborhood Environment in Promoting Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease among Young Adults: Data from Middle to High Income Population in an Asian Megacity

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Mirza Zain; Noor, Arish; Aqil, Amash; Bham, Nida Shahab; Khan, Mohammad Ali; Hassan, Irfan Nazir; Kadir, M. Masood

    2015-01-01

    Background Modifiable risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have their triggers in the neighborhood environments of communities. Studying the environmental triggers for CVD risk factors is important to understand the situation in a broader perspective. Young adults are influenced the most by the environment profile around them hence it is important to study this subset of the population. Methods This was a descriptive study conducted using the EPOCH research tool designed by the authors of the PURE study. The study population consisted of young adults aged 18-25 in two areas of Karachi. The study setting was busy shopping malls frequented by young adults in the particular community being studied. Results Our total sample size was 120 individuals, who consented to be interviewed by our interviewers. Less than 50% of the population recognized some form of restriction regarding smoking in their communities. The largest contributor to tobacco advertising was actors smoking in movies and TV shows with 89% responses from both communities. Only 11.9% of the individuals disapproved of smoking cigarettes among men with wide acceptance of ‘sheesha’ across all age groups. Advertising for smoking and junk food was more frequent as compared to smoking cessation, healthy diet and exercise in both the areas. Unhealthy food items were more easily available in contrast to healthier options. The cost of healthy snack food options including vegetables and fruits was higher than sugary drinks and foods. Conclusion This assessment showed that both communities were exposed to environments that promote risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25946006

  12. Mulch preferences of the Asian cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    Snoddy, Edward T; Appel, Arthur G

    2013-02-01

    Mulch preferences of the Asian cockroach, Blattella asahinai Mizukubo, were determined in a series of laboratory experiments. Because this species is a peridomestic pest, mulch preferences may be a key part of an integrated pest management program for homeowners. Five mulches were used: cypress, oak leaf litter, pine straw, rubber, and topsoil. Large arena experiments showed that adult male Asian cockroaches preferred oak leaf litter and pine straw, while adult females preferred oak leaf litter and rubber mulches. Nymphal stages preferred rubber (48.3-62.5% for small and medium instars, respectively) to all other mulches. All stages of the Asian cockroach showed very little preference to topsoil (0%) and cypress mulch (6.3%). Ebeling choice box tests confirmed lack of preference or repellency of adult males to topsoil (17.8 +/- 3.6%) and rubber mulch (15.7 +/- 3.6%). Continuous exposure experiments indicated that pine straw was significantly more toxic to adult males than other mulches (66.7 +/- 18.4% mortality at 7 d). Mulch preferences of the Asian cockroach may be mediated by characteristics of the interstitial spaces in the different mulches. Rubber mulch afforded smaller, more humid spaces that were inaccessible to adults. Because cypress mulch was least preferred by nymphs and adults, use of cypress mulch in an integrated pest management program around homes may help to reduce Asian cockroach populations and limit insecticide exposure to humans, animals, and the environment.

  13. Binge drinking and alcohol-related problems among U.S.-born Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek; Takamatsu, Stephanie; Castellanos, Jeanett

    2012-07-01

    Binge drinking (five drinks or more in a 2-h sitting for men or four or more drinks in a 2-h sitting for women) and alcohol-related problems are a growing problem among Asian American young adults. The current study examines the sociocultural (i.e., generational status and ethnic identity) determinants of binge drinking and alcohol-related problems across U.S.-born, young-adult, Asian American ethnic groups. Data were collected from 1,575 Asian American undergraduates from a public university in Southern California. Chinese Americans consisted of the largest Asian ethnicity in the study, followed by Vietnamese, Filipino, Korean, South Asian, Japanese, Multi-Asian, and "other Asian American." Participants completed a web-based assessment of binge drinking, alcohol-related problems, ethnic identity, descriptive norms (i.e., perceived peer drinking norms), and demographic information. An analysis of variance was used to determine potential gender and ethnic differences in binge drinking and alcohol-related problems. Negative binomial regression was selected to examine the relationship between the predictors and outcomes in our model. There were no gender differences between Asian American men and women in regards to binge drinking; however, men reported more alcohol-related problems. Japanese Americans reported the highest number of binge-drinking episodes and alcohol-related problems, followed by Filipino and Multi-Asian Americans (e.g., Chinese and Korean). Living off-campus; higher scores in descriptive norms; Greek status; and belonging to the ethnic groups Japanese, Filipino, Multi-Asian, Korean, and South Asian increased the risk of engaging in binge drinking. Quantity of alcohol consumed, Greek status, gender, Filipino, South Asian, other Asian, and lower ethnic identity scores were related to alcohol-related problems. Using one of the largest samples collected to date on sociocultural determinants and drinking among U.S.-born Asian American young adults, the

  14. Annual Review of Asian American Psychology, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Yeong; Shen, Yishan; Hou, Yang; Tilton, Kelsey E.; Juang, Linda; Wang, Yijie

    2015-01-01

    This 2014 review of Asian American psychology is the sixth review in the series. It includes 316 articles that met the inclusion criteria established by the past five annual reviews. Featured articles were derived from three sources: 137 were generated via the search term “Asian American” in PyscINFO, 111 were generated via a search for specific Asian American ethnic groups, and 32 were generated via author searches of articles that met the inclusion criteria. The top primary topic was health and health-related behaviors, the most frequently employed study design was cross-sectional, and the most studied Asian American ethnic group was Chinese. This year’s review includes information on the target population of the primary topic, the age range and developmental period of participants, and whether the study design was cross-sectional or longitudinal. It also identifies top authors and journals contributing to the 2014 annual review. These new features reveal that the most common target population of the primary topic was youths; studies most commonly included emerging adults ages 18–25; cross-sectional study design was employed more often than longitudinal design; the top contributor to the 2014 review was Stephen Chen, who authored the highest number of papers included; and the Asian American Journal of Psychology generated the highest number of publications for this review. PMID:26925199

  15. Citrus leprosis virus vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on citrus in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, J C V; Kitajima, E W; Childers, C C; Chagas, C M

    2003-01-01

    Citrus leprosis is caused by Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV) that is transmitted by mites in the genus Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). This disease directly reduces production and the life span of the citrus plant. The main symptoms of the disease include lesions on fruits, leaves, and twigs or small branches, causing premature fruit drop, defoliation, and death of the twigs or branches leading to serious tree decline. Leprosis is a highly destructive disease of citrus, wherever it occurs. The Brazilian citrus industry spends over 100 million US dollars annually on acaricides to control the vector, Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes). This review contains information about the history of the etiology of citrus leprosis, its geographical distribution, host range, the role of the mite vectors, viral morphology and relationships with the infected cell, and transmissibility of the virus by the mite. In addition, data on the mite-virus-plant relationship, disease damage, and strategies for controlling disease spread are presented.

  16. Chipping citrus wood for gasifiction

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, D.B.; Hedden, S.L.; Whitney, J.D.; Shaw, L.N.

    1984-01-01

    Both green and dead citrus trees were used for chipping. Chip moisture content, fuel analysis, drying time, and data on fuel/tonne of chips were obtained. The average moisture contents of green and dead trees when chipped were 25% and 16% (wet basis) respectively. Chips were sized to a minimum of 0.32 squared cm x 0.32 cm thick to a maximum of 5.0 cm squared x 0.32 cm thick and normally required 4 weeks to air dry to 14% (wet basis) moisture content before use. Approximately 50% of the total tree by weight could be made into usable chips. 9 references.

  17. High rates of diabetes reversal in newly diagnosed Asian Indian young adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus with intensive lifestyle therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sarathi, Vijaya; Kolly, Anish; Chaithanya, H. B.; Dwarakanath, C. S.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: There are variable reports on the reversibility of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) with higher rates among younger patients with short duration of diabetes. Hence, we studied the reversibility of diabetes among young adults with newly diagnosed type 2 DM. Methods: This prospective study included 32 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 DM. All type 2 DM patients were initially treated with intensive lifestyle therapy (ILT) (low-calorie diet [1500 kcal/day] and brisk walking for 1 h/day]). Four patients who with HbA1C <9.0% were treated with ILT alone. Except for three patients with concomitant infections who were treated with insulin, remaining 25 patients with HbA1C ≥9.0% were treated with metformin (1000–2000 g) in addition to ILT. When fasting plasma glucose was <126 mg/dl or HbA1C was <6.5% antidiabetic drug dose was reduced or stopped. The patients were followed for a minimum period of 2 years. Results: Reversal/remission rates at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years were 24 (75%), 24 (75%), and 22 (68.75%), respectively. Seventeen (53.1%) patients achieved complete reversal and seven (21.9%) patients achieved partial reversal at 3 months. Rates of complete and partial remission at 1 year were 50% and 25% and at 2 years were 46.9% and 21.9%, respectively. Conclusion: Young adults with newly diagnosed type 2 DM have high rates of diabetes reversal and should receive ILT to achieve reversal of diabetes. PMID:28250676

  18. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387

  19. CIBMAN: Database exploring Citrus biodiversity of Manipur

    PubMed Central

    Sanabam, Rakesh; Somkuwar, Bharat Gopalrao; Thingnam, Gourshyam; Moirangthem, Sila; Handique, Pratap Jyoti; Huidrom, Sunitibala

    2012-01-01

    The rich wealth of Citrus genetic resources makes India to enjoy a remarkable position in the “Citrus belt of the world”. We have developed CIBMAN, a unique database on Citrus biodiversity of Manipur which comprises 33 accessions collected through extensive survey for more than three years. CIBMAN provides integrated access to Citrus species through sophisticated web interface which has following capabilities a) morphological details, b) socio-economic details, c) taxonomic details and d) geographical distribution. Morphological variability among Citrus accessions is due to variance in their genome which contributes to diverse agronomical traits and diverse bioactive compounds of high value. This diverse gene pool can be potential source for genetic improvement of existing cultivars and rootstocks. Systematic collection, characterization and conservation of the underutilized or lesser exploited varieties is required for incorporating in breeding program and conserve the germplasm from ever going on genetic erosion. This database will be useful for scientific validations and updating of traditional wisdom in bioprospecting aspects especially industrialization of Citrus found in the state. Further, the features will be suited for detailed investigation on potential medicinal and edible Citrus that make CIBMAN a powerful tool for sustainable management. Availability http://ibsd.gov.in/cibman PMID:23139595

  20. Acculturation and perceived mental health need among older Asian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duy

    2011-10-01

    The demographic landscape of the United States is changing as the general population ages and the size of racial/ethnic minority groups grows. Most prior studies on mental health service use among Asians in America have overlooked older adults. A deeper understanding of the way acculturation factors impact help-seeking behaviors among older Asian Americans will inform behavioral health practice and program planners as they address the disparities affecting a diverse racial group. The California Health Interview Survey was used to examine the correlates of perceived mental health need among 980 older Asian immigrants. The study found that English proficiency and other covariates affected how Asian Americans perceived mental health need. Implications for understanding the help-seeking behaviors of older Asian immigrants are discussed.

  1. Asian Bilingual Education Teacher Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, John; Lum, John

    A guide to bilingual education for Asians contains chapters on bilingual and multicultural education characteristics; the learner; Asian and Asian American learners; bilingual program designs, methodology, and classroom activities; instructional materials and resources for Asian bilingual education programs; and teacher competencies, staff…

  2. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to a friend by ... an even more serious problem as the world population and longevity increases. The other major glaucoma type ...

  3. Therapy for Asian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Joe

    1978-01-01

    In order that Asian Americans be more adequately provided with mental health services, it will be necessary to: (1) have a thorough educational campaign over a long period of time to help Asians overcome their negative prejudices against mental illness, (2) devise culturally relevant diagnostic techniques, and (3) have treatment consonant with the cultural backgrounds of the patients and befitting the role expectations of the patients. It is likely that even with an excellent educational campaign, appropriate diagnoses, and culturally sensitive treatment methods, the first patients we will see will be those most seriously and chronically disturbed, probably when the family feels no longer able to cope with their psychotic behavior. We hope that subsequently, through the educational campaign and also through the outreach efforts of the Asian Mental Health Clinic, Asian Americans who are not psychotic but who want relief from psychosomatic symptoms, tension, depression, or help with family or marital problems will apply. PMID:702561

  4. Obesity and Asian Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Management System Report to Congress Knowledge Center Capacity Building Information Services Events Calendar Resource Guide Justice ... Workforce Diversity Grants Youth Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Asian American Asthma ...

  5. The Asian methanol market

    SciTech Connect

    Nagase, Hideki

    1995-12-31

    For the purpose of this presentation, Asia has been broadly defined as a total of 15 countries, namely Japan, Korea, Taiwan, China, Hong Kong, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Myanmar, India, Vietnam, Australia and New Zealand. In 1994 and the first half of 1995, the methanol industry and its derivative industries experienced hard time, because of extraordinarily high methanol prices. In spite of this circumstance, methanol demand in Asian countries has been growing steadily and remarkably, following Asian high economic growth. Most of this growth in demand has been and will continue to be met by outside supply. However, even with increased import of methanol from outside of Asia, as a result of this growth, Asian trade volume will be much larger in the coming years. Asian countries must turn their collective attention to making logistics and transportation for methanol and its derivatives more efficient in the Asian region to make better use of existing supply resources. The author reviews current economic growth as his main topic, and explains the forecast of the growth of methanol demand and supply in Asian countries in the near future.

  6. Hodgkin's disease in Asians: incidence patterns and risk factors in population-based data.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Sally L; Hsu, Joe L

    2002-03-01

    Hodgkin's disease (HD) has been reported to be rare in Asians. Data sparseness has hindered studies exploring the relative contributions of environment and heredity to HD etiology, and individual risk factors have never been studied in an Asian population. With the most recent, uniformly collected population-based data from the US and Asia, we compared HD incidence rates in Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, and Asian Indians in the US and in Asia. HD incidence rates were quite low in all Asian subgroups, but approximately double in US Asians as in native Asians. In both, rates were lower for Japanese and Chinese than for Filipinos and Asian Indians. A modest young-adult rate peak occurred for most US Asian groups, but not for any population in Asia. In data from a population-based case-control study of HD in San Francisco area women, young-adult Asian cases, like young-adult cases of other racial/ethnic groups, had childhood social environments indicative of less early contact with children. Given environmental and lifestyle differences between the US and Asia, the consistently low rates of HD in Asians suggest genetic resistance to disease development, possibly associated with HLA type. International and inter-ethnic differences, and risk factor patterns in case-control data, implicate environmental influences in the etiology of HD.

  7. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Neelam; Khan, Rafeeq Alam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. Several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypolipidemic effects of C. sinensis and C. paradisi in rats receiving diet rich in cholesterol. Materials and Methods: All rats were divided into 11 groups each comprising 10 animals: Normal control group and hyperlipidemic control. C. sinensis treated three groups, C. paradisi treated three groups, C. sinensis and C. paradisi combination treated two groups, and group treated atorvastatin. All rats in the respective groups were treated orally with sterile water, juices, and standard drug for 8 weeks and lipid profile was estimated at the end of dosing. Results: Cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were decreased at all the three doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi but rise in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was only significant at 8 ml/kg, and 0.3 ml/kg, respectively. Animals received the combination doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi also showed a highly significant fall in cholesterol, LDL, and TGs, however HDL level was significantly elevated by SPJ-2 combination. Conclusion: Results suggest that C. sinensis and C. paradisi possess antihyperlipidemic activity due to phytochemicals and other essential nutrients, hence may serve as cardioprotective by preventing thrombosis. PMID:27134462

  8. Evaluation of natural colorants and their application on citrus fruit as alternatives to citrus red II

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The poor peel color of some varieties of oranges and the hybrids, especially for early season fruits, is caused by the subtropical climate of Florida, and has resulted in the use of a red dye on the peel to improve fruit appearance and marketability. Citrus Red II (CR2), the commercial citrus color ...

  9. Citrus County Schools Copyright Guidelines Recommended by the Citrus County Association of School Media Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citrus County School District, Inverness, FL.

    This document contains copyright guidelines determined appropriate for the Citrus County School System (Florida) by the Citrus County Association of School Media Specialists in May, 1992. These guidelines are based on interpretation and understanding of current copyright law as applied to education and implemented in school districts in the United…

  10. Apparent tolerance to huanglongbing in citrus and citrus-related germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a Ft. Pierce, Florida field planting, growth and huanglongbing (HLB) severity were assessed as indicators of HLB-tolerance on progenies of 83 seed-source accessions of citrus and citrus-relatives from the Riverside, California genebank. The HLB-pathogen (Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus) and vec...

  11. Postphloem, Nonvascular Transfer in Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Karen E.; Avigne, Wayne T.

    1990-01-01

    Postphloem, nonvascular assimilate transport occurs over an unusually long area in citrus fruit and thus facilitates investigation of this process relative to sugar entry into many sink structures. Labeled photosynthates moving into juice tissues of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) slowed dramatically after entering the postphloem transport path (parenchyma cells, narrow portions of segment epidermis, and hair-like, parenchymatous stalks of juice sacs). Kinetic, metabolic, and compositional data indicated that transfer through the nonvascular area was delayed many hours by temporary storage and/or equilibration with sugars in compartments along the postphloem path. Labeled assimilates were generally recovered as sucrose throughout the path, and extent of hexose formation enroute bore no apparent relationship to the assimilate transfer process. Even after 24 hours, radiolabel was restricted to discrete, highly localized areas directly between vascular bundles and juice sacs. Postphloem transfer occurred against an ascending sucrose concentration gradient in young fruit, whereas a descending gradient (favoring diffusion/cytoplasmic streaming) developed only later in maturation. Involvement of a postphloem bulk flow is complicated in the present instance by the extremely limited water loss from juice sacs either via transpiration or fluid backflow. Nonetheless, tissue expansion can account for a collective water inflow of at least 1.0 milliliter per day throughout the majority of juice sac development, thus providing a modest, but potentially important means of nonvascular solution flow. Overall, data indicate postphloem transfer (a) can follow highly localized paths through sizable nonvascular areas (up to 3.0 centimeters total), (b) appears to involve temporary storage and/or equilibration with compartmentalized sugars enroute, (c) can occur either against an overall up-hill sugar gradient (young tissues) or along a descending gradient (near full expansion), and

  12. Site Plan & Site Section of Citrus Landscape (Showing Relationship ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Site Plan & Site Section of Citrus Landscape (Showing Relationship of Groves & Irrigation System to Grove Canal) - Arlington Heights Citrus Landscape, Southwestern portion of city of Riverside, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  13. Minority Women's Health: Asian-Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Home > Minority Women's Health > Asian-Americans Minority Women's Health Asian-Americans Health conditions common in Asian- ... to top Health conditions common in Asian-American women Breast cancer Cancer Cervical cancer Diabetes Heart disease ...

  14. Cutaneous Melanoma in Asians

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Yub

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a rare disease in Asians but potentially the most aggressive form of skin cancer worldwide. It can occur in any melanocyte-containing anatomic site. Four main cutaneous melanoma subtypes are recognized: lentigo maligna melanoma, superficial spreading melanoma, acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM), and nodular melanoma. Generally, excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation increases the risk of melanoma. The exception is ALM, which is the most common melanoma subtype in Asians and is not associated with UV radiation. ALM presents as dark brownish to black, irregular maculopatches, nodules, or ulcers on the palms, soles, and nails. The lesions may be misdiagnosed as more benign lesions, such as warts, ulcers, hematomas, foreign bodies, or fungal infections, especially in amelanotic acral melanomas where black pigments are absent. The aim of this brief review is to improve understanding and the rate of early detection thereby reducing mortality, especially regarding cutaneous melanoma in Asians. PMID:27689028

  15. Genome wide selection in Citrus breeding.

    PubMed

    Gois, I B; Borém, A; Cristofani-Yaly, M; de Resende, M D V; Azevedo, C F; Bastianel, M; Novelli, V M; Machado, M A

    2016-10-17

    Genome wide selection (GWS) is essential for the genetic improvement of perennial species such as Citrus because of its ability to increase gain per unit time and to enable the efficient selection of characteristics with low heritability. This study assessed GWS efficiency in a population of Citrus and compared it with selection based on phenotypic data. A total of 180 individual trees from a cross between Pera sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and Murcott tangor (Citrus sinensis Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco) were evaluated for 10 characteristics related to fruit quality. The hybrids were genotyped using 5287 DArT_seq(TM) (diversity arrays technology) molecular markers and their effects on phenotypes were predicted using the random regression - best linear unbiased predictor (rr-BLUP) method. The predictive ability, prediction bias, and accuracy of GWS were estimated to verify its effectiveness for phenotype prediction. The proportion of genetic variance explained by the markers was also computed. The heritability of the traits, as determined by markers, was 16-28%. The predictive ability of these markers ranged from 0.53 to 0.64, and the regression coefficients between predicted and observed phenotypes were close to unity. Over 35% of the genetic variance was accounted for by the markers. Accuracy estimates with GWS were lower than those obtained by phenotypic analysis; however, GWS was superior in terms of genetic gain per unit time. Thus, GWS may be useful for Citrus breeding as it can predict phenotypes early and accurately, and reduce the length of the selection cycle. This study demonstrates the feasibility of genomic selection in Citrus.

  16. First report of citrus leprosis virus nuclear type in Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus leprosis is a difficult viral disease causing significant damage to citrus fruit in South America and Central America. The disease is marked by dramatic lesions on fruit, leaves and stems resulting in unmarketable product. Citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic types (CiLV-C and CiLV-C2) wer edete...

  17. Cryopreservation of Citrus shoot tips using micrografting for recovery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) and the University of California Citrus Variety Collection maintain more than 888 unique accessions representing 132 taxa of Citrus, Fortunella, and Citrus wild species relatives within field, screenhouse, and greenhouse collections. We have ident...

  18. Biological Indexing of Graft Transmissible Diseases of Citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological indexing for the detection of graft transmissible diseases of citrus is essential for maintaining a citrus certification program. Many of the graft transmissible diseases of citrus are harbored as latent infections in the scions, but when propagated on a susceptible rootstock that allow...

  19. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Citrus Red No. 2 is principally 1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenylazo)-2-naphthol. (2) The following diluents may...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-41 Citrus from Peru. Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), limes (C. aurantiifolia), mandarins or tangerines...

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-41 Citrus from Peru. Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), limes (C. aurantiifolia), mandarins or tangerines...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-41 Citrus from Peru. Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), limes (C. aurantiifolia), mandarins or tangerines...

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-41 Citrus from Peru. Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), limes (C. aurantiifolia), mandarins or tangerines...

  4. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Citrus Red No. 2 is principally 1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenylazo)-2-naphthol. (2) The following diluents may...

  5. Pest management practices aimed at curtailing citrus huanglongbing disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating, insect-vectored disease of citrus sometimes referred to as citrus greening disease and putatively caused by phloem-limited bacteria within the genus Candidatus Liberibacter. Citrus trees infected by this disease decline in productivity; produce misshapen, inedib...

  6. Long term field evaluation reveals HLB resistance in Citrus relatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is a destructive disease with no known cure. To identify sources of HLB resistance in the subfamily Aurantioideae to which citrus belongs, we conducted a six-year field trial under natural disease challenge conditions in an HLB endemic region. The study included 65 Citrus ...

  7. Current status of Citrus tristeza virus in Central California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lindcove Research and Extension Center (LREC), Exeter, CA has 51 ha of citrus and is the field site and screenhouses for the University of California Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP). LREC maintains a zero tolerance of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) infected trees to protect the CCPP and re...

  8. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Citrus Red No. 2 is principally 1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenylazo)-2-naphthol. (2) The following diluents may...

  9. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Citrus Red No. 2 is principally 1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenylazo)-2-naphthol. (2) The following diluents may...

  10. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Citrus Red No. 2 is principally 1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenylazo)-2-naphthol. (2) The following diluents may...

  11. Current California Drought: Impact on Citrus Trees and Potential Mitigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    California is in another cycle of extended drought. The article reviews and discusses likely impact of the current drought on citrus growers and potential mitigation techniques. Citrus physiological responses to water stress is briefly reviewed. The direct impact of drought on citrus is reduced frui...

  12. Evaluation of natural colorants and their application on citrus fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Warm temperatures can often result in poor peel color of some citrus varieties, especially early in the harvest season. Under these conditions, Florida oranges, temples, tangelos, and K-Early citrus fruit are allowed to be treated with Citrus Red No.2 (CR2) to help produce a more acceptable peel col...

  13. Preharvest measures for postharvest improvement in marketable fresh citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri supsp. citri, (Xcc),was once the scourge of the Florida citrus industry from the early 1900’s on and off until the early 1990’s. It has been replaced, for the most part, by citrus greening but still continues to be a problem for Florida fres...

  14. Preharvest measures for postharvest improvement in marketable fresh citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri supsp. citri, (Xcc), was once the scourge of the Florida citrus industry from the early 1900’s on and off until the early 1990’s. It has been replaced, for the most part, by citrus greening but still continues to be a problem for Florida fresh ...

  15. Huanglongbing increases Diplodia Stem End Rot in Citrus sinensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), one of the most devastating diseases of citrus is caused by the a-Proteobacteria Candidatus Liberibacter. Diplodia natalensis Pole-Evans is a fungal pathogen which has been known to cause a postharvest stem-end rot of citrus, the pathogen infects citrus fruit under the calyx, an...

  16. Molecular analysis of citrus rust (Phyllocoptruta oleivora) populations in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phyllocoptruta olevoria (Acari: Eriophyidae) or the citrus rust mite (CRM) is one of the most economically important mite pests of citrus worldwide. CRM originated from Asia, however it is found in most citrus producing areas, such as, Brazil, Morocco and the United States. Though CRM is a major pes...

  17. Sexual Competitiveness of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Males Exposed to Citrus aurantium and Citrus paradisi Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Morató, Santiago; Shelly, Todd; Rull, Juan; Aluja, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) display increased mating competitiveness following exposure to the odor of certain host and nonhost plants, and this phenomenon has been used in the sterile insect technique to boost the mating success of released, sterile males. Here, we aimed to establish whether males of the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens (Loew)) gain a mating advantage when exposed to the aroma of two preferred hosts, grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.). Under seminatural conditions, we observed that, in trials using wildish males (from a young laboratory colony started with wild flies) exclusively, exposure to the aroma of bitter orange had no effect on male mating success but exposure to the odor grapefruit oil increased male mating success significantly. In a separate test involving both exposed and nonexposed wildish and mass-reared, sterile males, although wildish males were clearly more competitive than sterile males, exposure to grapefruit oil had no detectable effect on either male type. Exposure to oils had no effect on copulation duration in any of the experiments. We discuss the possibility that the positive effect of grapefruit essential oils on wildish male competitiveness may have been linked to exposure of females to grapefruit as a larval food, which may have imprinted them with grapefruit odors during pupal eclosion and biased their response as adults to odors of their maternal host.

  18. Asian Students and Multiethnic Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Gary; Glass, Diane

    Asian students are the most successful racial group in American schools, and this success has led to the model minority stereotype. However, the question of Asian students and school segregation is seldom examined, largely because of the traditional academic success of Asian students. This study compares the level of racial segregation Asian…

  19. Scrolling and Strolling, Asian Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Joan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a lesson on Asian cultures. Asian cultures demonstrate respect for nature through their art. Students learned how to use Asian brush techniques and designs to create scrolls. They also learned how to write Haiku, a three-line form of poetry that uses a pattern of syllables.

  20. Roots: An Asian American Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tachiki, Amy, Ed.; And Others

    A documentary collection of the experiences of Asian Americans from a multitude of perspectives, including a scholarly focus and also containing contemporary expressions, comprises "Roots: An Asian American Reader." The volume is said to be designed to meet the needs of Asian Americans by providing a compilation of materials in readily…

  1. Evaluation of natural colorants and their application on citrus fruit as alternatives to Citrus Red No. 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Warm field temperatures can often result in poor peel color of some citrus varieties, especially early in the harvest season. Under these conditions, Florida oranges, temples, tangelos, and K-Early citrus fruit are allowed to be treated with Citrus Red No.2 (CR2) to help produce a more acceptable pe...

  2. Antimicrobial nanoemulsion formulation with improved penetration of foliar spray through citrus leaf cuticles to control citrus Huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most serious citrus diseases that threaten citrus industry worldwide. Because Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) resides in citrus phloem, it is difficult to deliver an effective chemical compound into the phloem for control of HLB. In this study, a transcuticu...

  3. Overexpression of a modified plant thionin enhances disease resistance to citrus canker and huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the United States citrus industry. Citrus canker is also an economically important disease associated with a bacterial pathogen (Xanthomonas citri). In this study, we characterized e...

  4. Does citrus leaf miner impair hydraulics and fitness of citrus host plants?

    PubMed

    Raimondo, Fabio; Trifilò, Patrizia; Gullo, Maria A Lo

    2013-12-01

    Gas exchange and hydraulic features were measured in leaves of three different Citrus species (Citrus aurantium L., Citrus limon L., Citrus  ×  paradisii Macfad) infested by Phyllocnistis citrella Staiton, with the aim to quantify the impact of this pest on leaf hydraulics and, ultimately, on plant fitness. Infested leaves were characterized by the presence on the leaf blade of typical snake-shaped mines and, in some cases, of a crumpled leaf blade. Light microscopy showed that leaf crumpling was induced by damage to the cuticular layer. In all three Citrus species examined: (a) the degree of infestation did not exceed 10% of the total surface area of infested plants; (b) control and infested leaves showed similar values of minimum diurnal leaf water potential, leaf hydraulic conductance and functional vein density; and (c) maximum diurnal values of stomatal conductance to water vapour, transpiration rate and photosynthetic rate (An) were similar in both control leaves and the green areas of infested leaves. A strong reduction of An was recorded only in mined leaf areas. Our data suggest that infestation with P. citrella does not cause conspicuous plant productivity reductions in young Citrus plants, at least not in the three Citrus species studied here.

  5. Nonhost status of Citrus sinensis cultivar valencia and C. paradisi cultivar ruby red to Mexican Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Aluja, Martín; Pérez-Staples, Diana; Macías-Ordóñez, Rogelio; Piñero, Jaime; McPheron, Bruce; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente

    2003-12-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) is recognized as a pest of citrus, apples, and blackberries in South America. In Mexico, it is mainly found in fruit of the family Myrtaceae and has never been reported infesting citrus. Here, we sought to determine whether females stemming from Mexican A. fraterculus populations (collected in the state of Veracruz) would lay eggs in 'Valencia' oranges and 'Ruby Red' grapefruit and, if so, whether larvae would hatch and develop. We worked under laboratory and seminatural conditions (i.e., gravid females released in fruit-bearing, bagged branches in a commercial citrus grove) and used Anastrepha ludens (Loew), a notorious pest of citrus, as a control species. Under laboratory conditions, A. ludens readily accepted both oranges and grapefruit as oviposition substrates, but A. fraterculus rarely oviposited in these fruit (but did so in guavas, a preferred host) and no larvae ever developed. Eggs were deposited in the toxic flavedo (A. fraterculus) and nontoxic albedo (A. ludens) regions. Field studies revealed that, as was the case in the laboratory, A. fraterculus rarely oviposited into oranges or grapefruit and that, when such was the case, either no larvae developed (oranges) or of the few (13) that developed and pupated (grapefruit), only two adults emerged that survived 1 and 3 d, respectively (5-17% of the time necessary to reach sexual maturity). In sharp contrast, grapefruit exposed to A. ludens yielded up to 937 pupae and adults survived for >6 mo. Therefore, the inability of Mexican A. fraterculus to successfully develop in citrus renders the status of Mexican A. fraterculus as a pest of citrus in Mexico as unsubstantiated.

  6. Measurement Invariance of the PRIAS with Asian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Matthew J.; Alvarez, Alvin N.; Li, Robin; Chen, Grace A.; Iwamoto, Derek K.

    2015-01-01

    Racial identity has been linked to a number of important psychological outcomes including perceptions of racism, self-esteem, and psychological well-being in Asian American populations. Although the People of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale (PRIAS; Helms, 1995) is the most widely used measure in Asian American racial identity research, numerous competing measurement models of the PRIAS have been identified in independent Asian American samples. Therefore, this study tested these competing PRIAS measurement models and also examined PRIAS measurement invariance across generational status, gender, and ethnicity using a combined sample of 1,946 Asian American college students and community adults. Study findings demonstrated the superiority of a 12-item four factor PRIAS measurement model, which was consistent with Helms’ original racial identity theory and suggest that the PRIAS operates in an equivalent manner across generational status, gender, and ethnicity. Study limitations and future directions for research are discussed. PMID:26191607

  7. Asian American Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Paul Public Schools, Minn.

    This comprehensive Asian American curriculum and resource guide for elementary school teachers consists of lessons developed as part of an in-service teacher education workshop. The guide is divided into three topic areas: stereotyping; similarities; and differences. The format for lessons in all sections contains a title, key concepts,…

  8. Asian Americans in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnow, Stanley; Yoshihara, Nancy

    This booklet is a detailed primer on the Asian American experience in the United States covering history, family and acculturation, education, culture and the arts, economics, discrimination and violence, and politics. An introduction reviews some basic demographics and looks at racial issues in light of the riots in Los Angeles (California) in…

  9. Asian-American Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, William T.; Yu, Elena S. H.

    Although Asian Americans enjoy the image of a "successful minority," they also have endured hardships and prejudices. This report traces the history of the Japanese and Chinese experience in the United States. Some similarities are discernible in the immigration patterns of the two ethnic populations. The first wave of immigrants…

  10. HIV Among Asians

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Asians Format: Select One File [143K] Recommend ...

  11. Diabetes in Asians

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing globally, particularly in Asia. According to the 2013 Diabetes Atlas, an estimated 366 million people are affected by diabetes worldwide; 36% of those affected live in the Western Pacific region, with a significant proportion in East Asia. The reasons for this marked increase in the prevalence of diabetes can be extrapolated from several distinct features of the Asian region. First, the two most populated countries, China and India, are located in Asia. Second, Asians have experienced extremely rapid economic growth, including rapid changes in dietary patterns, during the past decades. As a result, Asians tend to have more visceral fat within the same body mass index range compared with Westerners. In addition, increased insulin resistance relative to reduced insulin secretory function is another important feature of Asian individuals with diabetes. Young age of disease onset is also a distinctive characteristic of these patients. Moreover, changing dietary patterns, such as increased consumption of white rice and processed red meat, contributes to the deteriorated lifestyle of this region. Recent studies suggest a distinctive responsiveness to novel anti-diabetic agents in Asia; however, further research and efforts to reverse the increasing prevalence of diabetes are needed worldwide. PMID:26435131

  12. Schistosomicidal Effects of the Essential Oils of Citrus limonia and Citrus reticulata Against Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Martins, Moara H G; Fracarolli, Letícia; Vieira, Tatiana M; Dias, Herbert J; Cruz, Michele G; Deus, Cássia C H; Nicolella, Heloiza D; Stefani, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Tavares, Denise C; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Crotti, Antônio E M

    2017-01-01

    We report the in vitro schistosomicidal effects of the essential oil obtained from Citrus limonia leaves (CL-EO) and C. reticulata fruit peels (CR-EO), cultivated in Brazil, against Schistosoma mansoni worms. Limonene (29.9%), β-pinene (12.0%), sabinene (9.0%), citronellal (9.0%), and citronellol (5.8%) are the major constituents of CL-EO; limonene (26.5%), γ-terpinene (17.2%), linalool (11.1%), octanal (8.0%), myrcene (6.2%), and capraldehyde (3.9%) predominate in CR-EO. CL-EO displayed moderate lethal concentration 50% (LC50 ) of 81.7 and 38.9 μg/ml against male and female worms at 24 and 72 h, respectively. At concentrations of 25 and 100 μg/ml, CL-EO separated between 50 and 75% of the coupled worm pairs during the evaluated period. CR-EO presented moderate LC50 of 81.7 μg/ml against male and female worms at 24 and 72 h. However, this oil separated coupled worm pairs more effectively than CL-EO and displayed lower cytotoxicity to GM07492-A cells (IC50 = 987.7 ± 88.9 μg/ml) as compared to CL-EO (IC50 = 187.8 ± 2.9 μg/ml). The enantiomers (+)-(R)-limonene and (-)-(S)-limonene did not affect S. mansoni adult worm pairs significantly. Taken together, these data indicate that CL-EO and CR-EO exhibit moderate in vitro schistosomicidal activity against adult S. mansoni worms.

  13. Detection of citrus canker and Huanglongbing using fluorescence imaging spectroscopy and support vector machine technique.

    PubMed

    Wetterich, Caio Bruno; Felipe de Oliveira Neves, Ruan; Belasque, José; Marcassa, Luis Gustavo

    2016-01-10

    Citrus canker and Huanglongbing (HLB) are citrus diseases that represent a serious threat to the citrus production worldwide and may cause large economic losses. In this work, we combined fluorescence imaging spectroscopy (FIS) and a machine learning technique to discriminate between these diseases and other ordinary citrus conditions that may be present at citrus orchards, such as citrus scab and zinc deficiency. Our classification results are highly accurate when discriminating citrus canker from citrus scab (97.8%), and HLB from zinc deficiency (95%). These results show that it is possible to accurately identify citrus diseases that present similar symptoms.

  14. Media exposure, internalization of the thin ideal, and body dissatisfaction: comparing Asian American and European American college females.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Mahsa; Hill, Laura G; Orrell-Valente, Joan K

    2011-09-01

    Internalization of the thin ideal mediates the media exposure-body dissatisfaction relation in young adult European American females. There is little related research on Asian Americans. We used structural equations modeling to test: (1) whether media exposure was associated with body dissatisfaction in Asian American young adult females, (2) internalization of the thin ideal mediated any such association, and (3) whether the mediational model provided equivalent fit for European American and Asian American samples. Participants were 287 college females (154 Asian Americans, 133 European Americans). Internalization of the thin ideal explained the media exposure-body dissatisfaction association equally well for both groups. Results suggest that Asian Americans may be employing unhealthy weight control behaviors, and may be prone to developing eating disorders, at rates similar to European American young adult females. Clinicians need to screen carefully for body dissatisfaction, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and eating disorders in Asian American females.

  15. History of Asian American psychology.

    PubMed

    Leong, Frederick T L; Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-10-01

    An overview of the history of Asian American psychology is provided by reviewing the context for the development of the field as well as the early founding of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). The presidents of AAPA as well as key events and conferences are noted. The involvement of AAPA leaders in national mental health policies and activities are reviewed. The substantive areas of Asian American psychology and the education and training of Asian American psychologists are also discussed. The article ends with some comments about the future of Asian American psychology.

  16. Noninvasive maturity detection of citrus with machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Yibin; Xu, Zhenggang; Fu, Xiaping; Liu, Yande

    2004-03-01

    A computer vision system was established to explore a method for citrus maturity detection. The surface color information and the ratio of total soluble solid to titratable acid (TSS/TA) were used as maturity indexes of citrus. The spectral reflectance properties with different color were measured by UV-240 ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer. The biggest discrepancy of gray levels between citrus pixels and background pixels was in blue component image by image background segmentation. Dynamic threshold method for background segmentation had best result in blue component image. Methods for citrus image color description were studied. The citrus spectral reflectance experiments showed that green surface and saffron surface of citrus were of highest spectral reflectance at the wavelength of 700nm, the difference between them reached to maximum, about 53%, and the image acquired at this wavelength was of more color information for maturity detection. A triple-layer feed forward network was established to map citrus maturity from the hue frequency sequence by the mean of artificial neural network. After training, the network mapper was used to detect the maturity of the test sample set, which was composed of 252 Weizhang citrus with different maturity. The identification accuracy of mature citrus reached 79.1%, that of immature citrus was 63.6%, and the mean identification accuracy was 77.8%. This study suggested that it is feasible to detect citrus maturity non-invasively by using the computer vision system and hue frequency sequence method.

  17. Horsfall-Barratt recalibration and replicated severity estimates of citrus canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker is a serious disease of citrus in tropical and subtropical citrus growing regions. Accurate and precise assessment of citrus canker and other plant pathogens is needed to obtain good quality data. Citrus canker assessment data were used to ascertain some of the mechanics of the Horsfal...

  18. Management of the Citrus Nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans

    PubMed Central

    Verdejo-Lucas, S.; McKenry, M. V.

    2004-01-01

    Of the many nematode species that parasitize citrus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans is the most important on a worldwide basis. Management of the citrus nematode remains problematic as no one tactic gives adequate control of the nematode. An overall management strategy must include such components as site selection, use of non-infected nursery stock, use of at lease one post-plant nematode control tactic, and careful management of other elements of the environment that may stress the trees. Nematicides continue to play a key role in management of this pest. Optimum results require careful attention to application techniques. PMID:19262822

  19. Biogenic emissions from Citrus species in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fares, Silvano; Gentner, Drew R.; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Ormeno, Elena; Karlik, John; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2011-09-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) emitted from plants are the dominant source of reduced carbon chemicals to the atmosphere and are important precursors to the photochemical production of ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Considering the extensive land used for agriculture, cultivated Citrus plantations may play an important role in the chemistry of the atmosphere especially in regions such as the Central Valley of California. Moreover, the BVOC emissions from Citrus species have not been characterized in detail and more species-specific inputs for regional models of BVOC emissions are needed. In this study, we measured the physiological parameters and emissions of the most relevant BVOC (oxygenated compounds, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes) for four predominant Citrus species planted in California ( Citrus sinensis var. 'Parent Navel', Citrus limon var. 'Meyer', Citrus reticulata var. 'W. Murcott' and 'Clementine'). We used two analytical techniques to measure a full range of BVOC emitted: Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Methanol, followed by acetone and acetaldehyde, were the dominant BVOC emitted from lemon and mandarin trees (basal emission rates up to 300 ng(C) g(DW) -1 h -1), while oxygenated monoterpenes, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes were the main BVOC emitted from orange trees (basal emission rates up to = 2500 ng(C) g(DW) -1 h -1). Light and temperature-dependent algorithms were better predictors of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene and monoterpenes for all the Citrus species. Whereas, temperature-dependent algorithms were better predictors of oxygenated monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes. We observed that flowering increased emissions from orange trees by an order of magnitude with the bulk of BVOC emissions being comprised of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and oxygenated monoterpenes. Chemical speciation of BVOC emissions show that the various classes of terpene

  20. Volatile constituents of wild citrus Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro) peel oil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuihua; Cheng, Yunjiang; Zhang, Hongyan; Deng, Xiuxin; Chen, Feng; Xu, Juan

    2012-03-14

    Volatiles of a wild mandarin, Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro), were characterized by GC-MS, and their aroma active compounds were identified by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The volatile profile of Mangshanyegan was compared with those of other four citrus species, Kaopan pummelo (Citrus grandis), Eureka lemon (Citrus limon), Huangyanbendizao tangerine (Citrus reticulata), and Seike navel orange (Citrus sinensis). Monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated in Mangshanyegan, in particular d-limonene and β-myrcene, which accounted for 85.75 and 10.89% of total volatiles, respectively. Among the 12 compounds with flavor dilution factors (FD) = 27, 8 oxygenated compounds, including (Z)- and (E)-linalool oxides, were present only in Mangshanyegan. The combined results of GC-O, quantitative analysis, odor activity values (OAVs), and omission tests revealed that β-myrcene and (Z)- and (E)-linalool oxides were the characteristic aroma compounds of Mangshanyegan, contributing to the balsamic and floral notes of its aroma.

  1. Language and Literacy Education for Southeast Asian Refugees. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranard, Donald A.; Pfleger, Margo

    The United States has admitted more than 1 million Southeast Asian refugees since 1975. The impact of these refugees on language and literacy education has been profound; many innovations in adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) education have derived from efforts to meet their language and literacy needs. The first wave of refugees in the…

  2. Caregiving for Dementia in Asian Communities: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Donna S.

    2012-01-01

    Dementia can be debilitating not only for the older adult suffering from memory loss and confusion, but for family members as well. Understanding caregiving for ethnic minorities is critical. In Asian communities, addressing dementia and other mental health issues can be compounded by cultural factors such as perceptions of mental health and…

  3. Mood disorders in Asians.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Albert; Chang, Doris

    2014-02-01

    Mood disorders are disorders that have a disturbance in mood as the predominant feature. They are common psychiatric disorders and are associated with significant distress and functional impairment. As the theory of mood disorders is based on the philosophy of mind/body dichotomy in the West, it contradicts the holistic tradition of medicine in the East. This may partially explain why many Asians with mood disorders emphasize their physical symptoms in discussions with their treatment providers. In the development of the DSM and ICD diagnostic systems, it is presumed that the diagnostic categories are applicable to all races and ethnicities. Similarly, many consider pharmacological and psychological treatment approaches to mood disorders universally applicable. To effectively treat Asians with mood disorders, clinicians need to customize biological and psychosocial interventions in consideration of patients' potential genetic and cultural differences.

  4. Asian Americans' family cohesion and suicide ideation: moderating and mediating effects.

    PubMed

    Joel Wong, Y; Uhm, Soo Yun; Li, Peiwei

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between family cohesion and suicide ideation in a national, adult community sample of Asian Americans (N=2072). The data for this study were drawn from the National Latino and Asian American Study, the first national epidemiological study of Asian Americans' mental health. The results indicate that family cohesion was negatively related to suicide ideation. In addition, English language proficiency moderated the relationship between family cohesion and suicide ideation. Family cohesion was related to lower odds of suicide ideation among low English proficiency Asian Americans. In contrast, family cohesion was not significantly related to suicide ideation among high English proficiency Asian Americans. Further, the findings are consistent with a model in which the relationship between family cohesion and suicide ideation was partially mediated by psychological distress. Practical implications for addressing suicide ideation among Asian Americans are discussed.

  5. Social Anxiety and Mental Health Service Use Among Asian American High School Students.

    PubMed

    Brice, Chad; Masia Warner, Carrie; Okazaki, Sumie; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Sanchez, Amanda; Esseling, Petra; Lynch, Chelsea

    2015-10-01

    Asian American adults endorse more symptoms of social anxiety (SA) on self-report measures than European Americans, but demonstrate lower prevalence rates of SA disorder in epidemiological studies. These divergent results create ambiguity concerning the mental health needs of Asian Americans. The present study is the first to investigate this issue in adolescents through assessment of self-reported SA in Asian American high school students. Parent and self-ratings of impairment related to SA and self-reported mental health service use for SA were also measured. Asian American students endorsed a greater number of SA symptoms and scored in the clinical range more frequently than other ethnic groups. Also, Asian American and Latino students endorsed more school impairment related to SA than other ethnic groups. No differences in parent-reported impairment or service utilization were identified. Implications for future research and treatment for SA among Asian American adolescents are discussed.

  6. Milestones of Asian Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Fakhro, Abdulla; Wagner, Ryan D.; Kim, Yong Kyu; Nguyen, Anh H.

    2015-01-01

    The field of plastic surgery originally developed out of the necessity to reconstruct the human body after the destruction of war. However, injured soldiers were not the only people who desired a change in appearance. After World War II, many people in Asian countries sought to attain a more Western look through surgery. Along with eyes, the nose was the main focus for these cosmetic procedures. In this article, the authors examine the evolution of Asian rhinoplasty from its original description in 1964 to the present. The characteristic anatomical differences between the Western and Asian nose are identified in relation to the technical challenges for rhinoplasty surgeons. Then the benefits and risks of the two major surgical approaches, autograft versus alloplast, are detailed. Finally, the coevolution of techniques and implant usage is traced from a dorsum-only implant, to an L-shaped implant, a cartilaginous cap graft with a one-piece rhinoplasty, an I-shaped implant, and a two-piece augmentation rhinoplasty. Outlining these changes demonstrates the advancement of the field of plastic surgery and the growing expectations of the patient. These advancements have provided the tools necessary to better align a patient's aesthetic goals and their unique anatomical presentation with a specific surgical approach. PMID:26648800

  7. Changes in Anthocyanin Production during Domestication of Citrus1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Lor, Andrés; Licciardello, Concetta; Las Casas, Giuseppina; Ramadugu, Chandrika; Krueger, Robert; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Froelicher, Yann

    2017-01-01

    Mandarin (Citrus reticulata), citron (Citrus medica), and pummelo (Citrus maxima) are important species of the genus Citrus and parents of the interspecific hybrids that constitute the most familiar commercial varieties of Citrus: sweet orange, sour orange, clementine, lemon, lime, and grapefruit. Citron produces anthocyanins in its young leaves and flowers, as do species in genera closely related to Citrus, but mandarins do not, and pummelo varieties that produce anthocyanins have not been reported. We investigated the activity of the Ruby gene, which encodes a MYB transcription factor controlling anthocyanin biosynthesis, in different accessions of a range of Citrus species and in domesticated cultivars. A white mutant of lemon lacks functional alleles of Ruby, demonstrating that Ruby plays an essential role in anthocyanin production in Citrus. Almost all the natural variation in pigmentation by anthocyanins in Citrus species can be explained by differences in activity of the Ruby gene, caused by point mutations and deletions and insertions of transposable elements. Comparison of the allelic constitution of Ruby in different species and cultivars also helps to clarify many of the taxonomic relationships in different species of Citrus, confirms the derivation of commercial varieties during domestication, elucidates the relationships within the subgenus Papeda, and allows a new genetic classification of mandarins. PMID:28196843

  8. New Pseudomonas spp. Are Pathogenic to Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Beiki, Farid; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Rahimian, Heshmat; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Five putative novel Pseudomonas species shown to be pathogenic to citrus have been characterized in a screening of 126 Pseudomonas strains isolated from diseased citrus leaves and stems in northern Iran. The 126 strains were studied using a polyphasic approach that included phenotypic characterizations and phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis. The pathogenicity of these strains against 3 cultivars of citrus is demonstrated in greenhouse and field studies. The strains were initially grouped phenotypically and by their partial rpoD gene sequences into 11 coherent groups in the Pseudomonas fluorescens phylogenetic lineage. Fifty-three strains that are representatives of the 11 groups were selected and analyzed by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA and gyrB genes. The individual and concatenated partial sequences of the three genes were used to construct the corresponding phylogenetic trees. The majority of the strains were identified at the species level: P. lurida (5 strains), P. monteilii (2 strains), P. moraviensis (1 strain), P. orientalis (16 strains), P. simiae (7 strains), P. syringae (46 strains, distributed phylogenetically in at least 5 pathovars), and P. viridiflava (2 strains). This is the first report of pathogenicity on citrus of P. orientalis, P. simiae, P. lurida, P. moraviensis and P. monteilii strains. The remaining 47 strains that could not be identified at the species level are considered representatives of at least 5 putative novel Pseudomonas species that are not yet described. PMID:26919540

  9. Reasons for inconsistent citrus canker control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop losses from citrus canker in 2014 for Hamlin due to premature fruit drop, or for grapefruit from unacceptable severity of fruit lesions, were highly variable due to periodic rains that in certain locations were coincident with grapefruit flushes in February-March or with early Hamlin fruit deve...

  10. Digital PCR for detection of citrus pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus trees are often infected with multiple pathogens of economic importance, especially those with insect or mite vectors. Real-time/quantitative PCR (qPCR) has been used for high-throughput detection and relative quantification of pathogens; however, target reference or standards are required. I...

  11. New Pseudomonas spp. Are Pathogenic to Citrus.

    PubMed

    Beiki, Farid; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Rahimian, Heshmat; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Five putative novel Pseudomonas species shown to be pathogenic to citrus have been characterized in a screening of 126 Pseudomonas strains isolated from diseased citrus leaves and stems in northern Iran. The 126 strains were studied using a polyphasic approach that included phenotypic characterizations and phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis. The pathogenicity of these strains against 3 cultivars of citrus is demonstrated in greenhouse and field studies. The strains were initially grouped phenotypically and by their partial rpoD gene sequences into 11 coherent groups in the Pseudomonas fluorescens phylogenetic lineage. Fifty-three strains that are representatives of the 11 groups were selected and analyzed by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA and gyrB genes. The individual and concatenated partial sequences of the three genes were used to construct the corresponding phylogenetic trees. The majority of the strains were identified at the species level: P. lurida (5 strains), P. monteilii (2 strains), P. moraviensis (1 strain), P. orientalis (16 strains), P. simiae (7 strains), P. syringae (46 strains, distributed phylogenetically in at least 5 pathovars), and P. viridiflava (2 strains). This is the first report of pathogenicity on citrus of P. orientalis, P. simiae, P. lurida, P. moraviensis and P. monteilii strains. The remaining 47 strains that could not be identified at the species level are considered representatives of at least 5 putative novel Pseudomonas species that are not yet described.

  12. Founder lines for improved citrus biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article discusses the research needed to develop the RMCE strategy and molecular assays for site-specific recombinases as tools for genome manipulation. Explanation of genetic engineering used to generate transgenic citrus plants to exhibit a novel phenotype, but not to contain the recombinase...

  13. Rheology and composition of processed citrus fiber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While fibrous byproducts are abundant in supply, using them in food products in such a way to not degrade taste or texture can be challenging. Citrus fibers have been shown to have high water holding and viscous properties. However, to better incorporate dried orange pulp into foods, their propert...

  14. [Citrus boron nutrient level and its impact factors in the Three Gorges Reservoir region of Chongqing, China].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Peng, Liang-Zhi; Chun, Chang-Pin; Jiang, Cai-Lun; Ling, Li-Li; Wang, Nan-Qi; Xing, Fei; Huang, Yi

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the level of boron nutrient in citrus and its impact factors, a total of 954 citrus leaf samples and 302 soil samples were collected from representative orchards in the 12 main citrus production counties in the Three Gorges Reservoir region of Chongqing to determine the boron content in citrus leaves, as well as the relationships between leaf boron content with soil available boron content, soil pH value, cultivar, rootstock and the age of tree. Results indicated that the leaf samples from 41.6% orchards (< 35 mg x kg(-1)) and the soil samples from 89.4% orchards (< 0.5 mg x kg(-1)) were boron insufficient. The correlation of leaf boron content and soil available boron content was not significant. The soil pH, cultivar, rootstock and the age of tree did affect the leaf boron content. The leaves from the orchards with soil pH of 4.5-6.4 demonstrated significantly higher boron contents than with the soil pH of 6.5-8.5. The leaf boron contents in the different cultivars was ranged as Satsuma mandarin > pomelo > valencia orange > sweet orange > tangor > navel orange. The citrus on trifoliate orange and sour pomelo rootstocks had significantly higher leaf boron contents than on Carrizo citrange and red tangerine rootstocks. Compared with the adult citrus trees (above 8 year-old), 6.6% more of leaf samples of younger trees (3 to 8 year-old) contained boron contents in the optimum range (35-100 mg x kg(-1)).

  15. Contacts and Conflicts; The Asian Immigration Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Asian American Studies Center.

    In this curriculum guide to the Asian immigration experience, the topics discussed include: major immigration periods, early contributions of Asian immigrants, Chinese immigration, Japanese immigration, Filipino immigration, Korean immigration, early Asian women in America, Asian immigration to Hawaii, anti-Asian hostility, the exploitation of…

  16. Current Update in Asian Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary: There has been a tremendous growth of cosmetic surgery among Asians worldwide. Rhinoplasty is second only to blepharoplasty in terms of popularity among Asians regarding cosmetic surgical procedures. Most Asians seek to improve their appearance while maintaining the essential features of their ethnicity. There are considerable ethnic nasal and facial variations in this population alone. Successful rhinoplasty in Asians must take into account underlying anatomic differences between Asians and whites. Due to ethnic variations, cultural differences, and occasional language barriers, careful preoperative counseling is necessary to align the patient’s expectations with the limitations of the procedure. This article will review the many facets of Asian rhinoplasty as it is practiced today. PMID:25289326

  17. Recent advances in Asian rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong-Ryul; Won, Tae-Bin

    2011-04-01

    Asian rhinoplasty is an expanding topic in the field of rhinoplasty. Although the main principles of various rhinoplasty techniques apply equally to the Asian nose, Asian rhinoplasty is unique owing to its different anatomy and ethnicity. In recent years there have been some noteworthy developments in Asian rhinoplasty. Traditional techniques using alloplastic implants with endonasal approach are changing due to the advent of new beauty concept, introduction of new techniques, and development of newly improved materials. In this review, we will highlight some of the recent advances of Asian rhinoplasty with emphasis on dorsal augmentation, advances in implant material and tip surgery using autologous cartilage. Finally with increase of revision cases, issues relevant to revision rhinoplasty in Asians will be addressed.

  18. Cooperative program for Asian pediatricians.

    PubMed

    Sakakihara, Y; Nakamura, Y

    1993-12-01

    The Cooperative Program for Asian Pediatricians (CPAP) is a non-government organization established in 1989 to promote mutual understanding and friendship among young pediatricians in Asian countries. Unlike other government programs and non-government organizations, CPAP is solely facilitating mutual relationships among young inexperienced pediatricians who would otherwise have no chance to travel overseas. It has been funded by donations from members of the alumni association of the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Tokyo and many private companies and individuals. The Cooperative Program for Asian Pediatricians has so far invited 36 Asian pediatricians from 11 countries. By constructing a human network among Asian pediatricians, it is hoped that CPAP will contribute to making international cooperation in the Asian region easier and smoother.

  19. Quantitative distribution of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in citrus plants with citrus huanglongbing.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenbin; Levy, Laurene; Hartung, John S

    2009-02-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), or greening disease, is strongly associated with any of three nonculturable gram-negative bacteria belonging to 'Candidatus Liberibacter spp.' 'Ca. Liberibacter spp.' are transmitted by citrus psyllids to all commercial cultivars of citrus. The diseases can be lethal to citrus and have recently become widespread in both São Paulo, Brazil, and Florida, United States, the locations of the largest citrus industries in the world. Asiatic HLB, the form of the disease found in Florida, is associated with 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' and is the subject of this report. The nonculturable nature of the pathogen has hampered research and little is known about the distribution of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in infected trees. In this study, we have used a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay to systematically quantify the distribution of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes in tissues of six species of citrus either identified in the field during survey efforts in Florida or propagated in a greenhouse in Beltsville, MD. The populations of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' inferred from the distribution of 16S rDNA sequences specific for 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in leaf midribs, leaf blades, and bark samples varied by a factor of 1,000 among samples prepared from the six citrus species tested and by a factor of 100 between two sweet orange trees tested. In naturally infected trees, above-ground portions of the tree averaged 10(10) 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes per gram of tissue. Similar levels of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes were observed in some but not all root samples from the same plants. In samples taken from greenhouse-inoculated trees, levels of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes varied systematically from 10(4) genomes/g at the graft inoculation site to 10(10) genomes/g in some leaf petioles. Root samples from these trees also contained 'Ca. L. asiaticus' at 10(7) genomes/g. In symptomatic fruit tissues, 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes were also readily detected and quantified. The highest

  20. Postharvest control of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and California red scale (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) with ethyl formate and its impact on citrus fruit quality.

    PubMed

    Pupin, Francine; Bikoba, Veronique; Biasi, William B; Pedroso, Gabriel M; Ouyang, Yuling; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

    2013-12-01

    The postharvest control of arthropod pests is a challenge that the California citrus industry must overcome when exporting fruit overseas. Currently, methyl bromide fumigation is used to control postharvest pests on exported citrus, but it may soon be unavailable because of use restrictions and cost of this health-hazard ozone-depleting chemical. Ethyl formate is a natural plant volatile and possible alternative to methyl bromide in postharvest insect control. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the mortality of third instar California red scale [Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell)] (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) and adult western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)] (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) under a wide range of ethyl formate concentrations, 2) to determine the ethyl formate concentration required to reach a Probit 9 level of control for both pests, and 3) to test the effects of ethyl formate fumigation on the quality of navel oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and lemons [Citrus limon (L.) Burman f.] at 24 h after fumigation, and at different time periods to simulate shipping plus storage (5 wk at 5 degrees C), and shipping, storage, handling, and shelf-life (5 wk at 5 degrees C, plus 5 d at 15 degrees C, and 2 d at 20 degrees C). The results indicate that ethyl formate is a promising alternative to methyl bromide for the California citrus industry, because of successful control of adult western flower thips and third instar California red scale and no deleterious effect on fruit quality at any of the evaluated periods and quality parameters.

  1. Rhinoplasty in the Asian Patient.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong Ryul; Won, Tae-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitous goal of rhinoplasty is to make a natural-looking and attractive nose that blends harmoniously with the face. Rhinoplasty among Asians includes characteristics that distinguish the procedure from its white counterpart. Anatomic differences of the Asian nose coupled with differences in aesthetic standards demand they be approached in a unique way. In this article, peculiar aspects of Asian rhinoplasty are addressed with emphasis on surgical techniques used to obtain reliable results.

  2. Slight Fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium Improves the Taste (Sugar:Acid Ratio) of Citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. chachiensis) Juice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Fu, Manqin; Wen, Jing

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium, which can metabolize citric acid, could be applied in improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice. During fermentation, the strain of L. fermentium can preferentially utilize citric acid of citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. Chachiensis) juice to support the growth without the consumption of sugar. After 6 h of fermentation with L. fermentium at 30 °C, the sugar:acid ratio of citrus juice increased to 22:1 from 12:1, which resulted in that the hedonic scores of sweetness, acidity and overall acceptability of fermented-pasteurized citrus juice were higher than the unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice, the ORAC value and total amino acid showed a reduction, and no significant change (P > 0.05) in the L*, a*, b*, total soluble phenolics and ascorbic acid (Vc) content in the fermented-pasteurized citrus juice was observed as compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Hence, slight fermentation with L. fermentium can be used for improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice with the well retaining of quality.

  3. Conserving vedalia beetle, Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), in citrus: a continuing challenge as new insecticides gain registration.

    PubMed

    Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Gu, Ping

    2003-10-01

    The effects of insecticides used for California citrus pest management were evaluated using larval and adult stages of vedalia beetle, Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant). This predatory beetle is essential for control of cottony cushion scale Icerya purchasi (Williston) (Homoptera: Margarodidae) in San Joaquin Valley citrus. When adult beetles were exposed to treated citrus leaves, adult survival was significantly reduced by the foliar neonicotinoid imidacloprid and the pyrethroid cyfluthrin. Progeny production was significantly reduced by imidacloprid, cyfluthrin, fenpropathrin, and buprofezin. Buprofezin, pyriproxifen, and foliar imidacloprid also significantly reduced successful development of larvae into the adult stage. When vedalia stages were fed insecticide-treated cottony cushion scale reared on Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) Ait, toxic effects were more severe than contact toxicity alone. Adult beetle survival was most profoundly reduced by the pyrethroids and to a lesser extent the foliar neonicotinoids acetamiprid and imidacloprid. Progeny production and larval development to adulthood were reduced by all insecticides but were most severely affected by pyriproxifen and the pyrethroids. Systemically applied neonicotinoids were toxic to vedalia larvae feeding on cottony cushion scale that had ingested these insecticides. These data demonstrate that IGRs, neonicotinoid insecticides, and pyrethroid insecticides have a significant, negative impact on vedalia beetles. Depending on the rate of insecticide used, the number and timing of applications, and the level of coverage of the tree, disruption of vedalia can be minimized. However, the situation is made difficult when pests such as citrus thrips Scirtothrips citri (Moulton) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), forktailed bush katydid Scuddaria furcata Brunner von Wattenwyl (Orthoptera: Tettigoiniidae), or glassy-winged sharpshooter Homalodisca coagulata Say (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) require these pesticide treatments during

  4. Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus.

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure®/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad®) were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say) did not succumb to Nu-Lure baits, even in no-choice situations. Nu-Lure was also attractive and lethal to adults of two aphidophagous flies; Leucopis sp. and the syrphid fly Pseudodorus clavatus (F.). Both Nu-Lure and GF-120 caused significant mortality to the parasitoid wasps, Aphytis melinus De Bach and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson, within 24 h of exposure. However, GF-120 caused no significant mortality to any coccinellid in either choice or no-choice situations, despite considerable consumption of baits. Adults of P. clavatus tended to avoid GF-120, although mortality was significant in no-choice tests. Although larvae and adults of the lacewing C. rufilabris consumed GF-120, mortality was delayed; adults died 48 -96 h post-exposure and those exposed as larvae died two weeks later in the pupal stage. The Nu-Lure bait did not appear palatable to any of the insects, but the high concentration of malathion (195,000 ppm) caused rapid mortality to susceptible insects. Nu-Lure bait without malathion also caused significant mortality to flies and lacewings in cage trials. Although GF-120 bait appeared more benign overall, further research efforts are warranted to increase its selectivity for target fly species and reduce its attractiveness to parasitoids and lacewings. I conclude that the Florida “fly free zone” protocol in its current form is not compatible with an IPM approach to commercial citrus production. PMID:15841224

  5. Agreements with the Asian Development Bank

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the Asian Development Bank cooperate to reinforce Asian countries which are now strengthening their environmental laws, ministries, and compliance mechanisms. Download agreements with the Asian Development Bank on this page.

  6. Chronic cough: an Asian perspective. Part 1: Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Song, Woo-Jung; Faruqi, Shoaib; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Lee, Seung-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Asia is one of the most diverse and dynamic continents. Due to recent rapid industrialisation and urbanisation, morbidity patterns are likely to be diverse in Asian populations. Chronic cough is a disease condition resulting from host-environmental interactions, and is associated with a high global epidemiological burden. However, the underlying epidemiology remains unclear, particularly in Asia. We performed a literature search to identify peer-reviewed articles on chronic cough in community-based adult Asian populations that have been published between January 2000 and June 2015. In this review, we aim to examine the epidemiological characteristics and determinants of chronic cough in several geographical areas of Asia. PMID:26240790

  7. Citrus alongside the sinking wreckage of MV Pacific Star in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Citrus alongside the sinking wreckage of MV Pacific Star in the Pacific Ocean. Pacific Star's captain used his vessel to ram the cutter after he was ordered to stop and submit to inspection by a boarding team. Citrus was not seriously damaged in the collision. U.S. Coast Guard personnel recovered a large amount of marijuana from the wreckage - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter CITRUS, Coos Bay, Coos County, OR

  8. Comparative influence of Radopholus similis and Pratylenchus coffeae on citrus.

    PubMed

    O'Bannon, J H; Radewald, J D; Tomerlin, A T; Inserra, R N

    1976-01-01

    Pratylenchus coffeae was as pathogenic as Radopholus sirnilis to commercial citrus rootstocks. No rootstock resistant to R. similis was resistant to P. coffeae. Both nematodes stunted citrus in three soil types. Seedling damage by P. coffeae and R. similis was greatest in fine- and coarse-textured soils, respectively. Reproduction and survival on citrus were greater for P. coffeae than for R. similis. Mixed inoculations with R. similis and P. coffeae resulted in lower populations of each species than did separate inoculations.

  9. Discrimination of Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach.

    PubMed

    Duan, Li; Guo, Long; Dou, Li-Li; Zhou, Chang-Lin; Xu, Feng-Guo; Zheng, Guo-Dong; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2016-12-01

    Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, mainly including the pericarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco and the pericarp of Citrus reticulata 'Chachi', has been consumed daily as food and dietary supplement for centuries. In this study, GC-MS based metabolomics was employed to compare comprehensively the volatile constituents in Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus reticulata 'Chachi'. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis indicated that samples could be distinguished effectively from one another. Fifteen metabolites were finally identified for use as chemical markers in discrimination of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium samples. The antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria of the volatile oil from Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' was investigated preliminarily.

  10. Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus orchard. Camera facing 118" east-southeast. - Goerlitz House, 9893 Highland Avenue, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino County, CA

  11. Penicillium digitatum metabolites on synthetic media and citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Marta R; Larsen, Thomas O; Peterson, Bent O; Duus, Jens O; Barrero, Alejandro F

    2002-10-23

    Penicillium digitatum has been cultured on citrus fruits and yeast extract sucrose agar media (YES). Cultivation of fungal cultures on solid medium allowed the isolation of two novel tryptoquivaline-like metabolites, tryptoquialanine A (1) and tryptoquialanine B (2), also biosynthesized on citrus fruits. Their structural elucidation is described on the basis of their spectroscopic data, including those from 2D NMR experiments. The analysis of the biomass sterols led to the identification of 8-12. Fungal infection on the natural substrates induced the release of citrus monoterpenes together with fungal volatiles. The host-pathogen interaction in nature and the possible biological role of citrus volatiles are also discussed.

  12. Bioconverted Jeju Hallabong tangor (Citrus kiyomi × ponkan) peel extracts by cytolase enhance antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity in RAW 264.7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yun-Hee; Seo, Jieun; Song, Eunju; Choi, Hyuk-Joon; Shim, Eugene; Lee, Okhee

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Citrus and its peels have been used in Asian folk medicine due to abundant flavonoids and usage of citrus peels, which are byproducts from juice and/or jam processing, may be a good strategy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of bioconversion of Jeju Hallabong tangor (Citrus kiyomi × ponkan; CKP) peels with cytolase (CKP-C) in RAW 264.7 cells. MATERIALS/METHODS Glycosides of CKP were converted into aglycosides with cytolase treatment. RAW 264.7 cells were pre-treated with 0, 100, or 200 µg/ml of citrus peel extracts for 4 h, followed by stimulation with 1 µg/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 8 h. Cell viability, DPPH radical scavenging activity, nitric oxide (NO), and prostagladin E2 (PGE2) production were examined. Real time-PCR and western immunoblotting assay were performed for detection of mRNA and/or protein expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines, respectively. RESULTS HPLC analysis showed that treatment of CKP with cytolase resulted in decreased flavanone rutinoside forms (narirutin and hesperidin) and increased flavanone aglycoside forms (naringenin and hesperetin). DPPH scavenging activities were observed in a dose-dependent manner for all of the citrus peel extracts and CKP-C was more potent than intact CKP. All of the citrus peel extracts decreased NO production by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and PGE2 production by COX-2. Higher dose of CKP and all CKP-C groups significantly decreased mRNA and protein expression of LPS-stimulated iNOS. Only 200 µg/ml of CKP-C markedly decreased mRNA and protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Both 100 and 200 µg/ml of CKP-C notably inhibited mRNA levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6, whereas 200 µg/ml CKP-C significantly inhibited mRNA levels of TNF-α. CONCLUSIONS This result suggests that bioconversion of citrus peels with cytolase may enrich aglycoside flavanones

  13. Asian American Curriculum Guide: Elementary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Paul Public Schools, Minn.

    Designed to meet the need for elementary school students to understand the status, needs, and contributions of Asian Americans, this curriculum guide was developed as a result of an in-service teacher education workshop. The basic premise of the guide is the recognition that student awareness and understanding of Asian Americans should be…

  14. Southeast Asian Refugee Parent Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Mary M.

    This paper summarizes the findings of a descriptive research project conducted among Southeast Asian parents in an Oregon school district, and discusses the issue of fieldwork methodology among refugee populations. The district studied had a student population of 18,000 (kindergarten through grade 12), with Southeast Asian refugees accounting for…

  15. The Asian Newspaper's Reluctant Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, John A., Ed.

    This book is composed of 19 articles written by both Asian and American scholars on the history and present conditions of newspapers in 15 Asian nations: China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Australia, Burma, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, the Philippines, Thailand, South Vietnam, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan. Two overviews of the Asian…

  16. The Asian in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Stanford M.

    Articles, essays, and book reviews on Asian Americans are included in this anthology. The articles focus on some of the following topics: (1) the Chinese diaspora in America from 1850 to 1943, (2) the significance of Asians in American society, (3) the Chinese on the urban frontier, (4) marriage and the family among Chinese immigrants to America…

  17. Handbook of Asian American Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lee C., Ed.; Zane, Nolan W. S., Ed.

    This handbook integrates descriptions and evaluations of current psychological research on all ethnic subgroups of Asian Americans, providing insights into the diverse and varied nature of Asian American cultures. Following a Foreword by Dick Suinn, the chapters are: (1) "An Overview" (Lee C. Lee); (2) "Research Methods: The Construct Validity of…

  18. Basic Skills in Asian Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    This publication contains field tested learning activities which will help secondary students develop basic skills while learning about Asian history, culture, and geography. The activities can be used or easily adapted by teachers in any Asian studies course. The publication is organized by the skills taught. These are: reading; applying…

  19. Aqueous Extraction of Citrus unshiu Peel Induces Proangiogenic Effects Through the FAK and ERK1/2 Signaling Pathway in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungwhoi; Yang, Dong-Shik; Han, Song-I; Yun, Jeong Hun; Kim, Il-Woong; Kim, Seung Jun; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Citrus unshiu peel has been used empirically as a traditional medicine to improve bronchial asthma and blood circulation in northeast Asian nations, including Korea, Japan, and China. In this study, we report the proangiogenic effects of the aqueous extract of Citrus unshiu peel (AECUP). In human umbilical vein endothelial cells, AECUP significantly induced cellular migration and capillary tube formation. We also demonstrated that AECUP markedly increased the phosphorylation of FAK and ERK1/2 through the integrin signaling pathway. Additionally, we identified that narirutin and hesperidin were major constituents of AECUP and both showed proangiogenic effects, but at different levels. Collectively, these results suggest that the AECUP may have potential as a therapeutic agent for improving angiogenic functions with reduced harmful side effects.

  20. Subacute toxicity assessment of carotenoids extracted from citrus peel (Nanfengmiju, Citrus reticulata Blanco) in rats.

    PubMed

    Xue, Feng; Li, Chen; Pan, Siyi

    2012-02-01

    The mixture of carotenoids extracted from citrus peel (Nanfengmiju, Citrus reticulata Blanco) was tested for subacute oral toxicity. In this study, dose levels of 0, 200, 500 and 2000 mg/kg body weight/day were administered by gavage to 10 Wistar rats/sex/group for 28 days. No statistically significant, dose-related effect on food consumption, food efficiency, body weight gain, clinical signs or ophthalmoscopic parameters was observed in any treatment group. Urinalysis, hematological, blood coagulation and serum biochemical examination as well as necropsy or histopathology showed that no observed adverse effect was found. These findings suggested that the No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level for the mixture of carotenoids extracted from citrus peel was at least 2000 mg/kg body weight/day.

  1. Chemical and biological comparison of the fruit extracts of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka and Citrus medica L.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pan; Duan, Li; Guo, Long; Dou, Li-Li; Dong, Xin; Zhou, Ping; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2015-04-15

    Citri Fructus (CF), the mature fruit of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka (CWT) or Citrus medica L. (CML), is an important citrus by-product with health promoting and nutritive properties. The present study compares the chemical and biological differences of CWT and CML. Thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry techniques, were employed to compare the chemical profiles of CWT and CML. A total of 25 compounds were identified and the results indicated that there were significant differences in chemical composition between the two CF species. The quantitative results obtained by HPLC coupled with diode array detector method demonstrated that naringin was present in the highest amounts in CWT, whilst nomilin was the most dominant constituent in CML. It was also found that CWT had significantly higher free radical-scavenging activity than CML.

  2. Citrus transformation using juvenile tissue explants.

    PubMed

    Orbović, Vladimir; Grosser, Jude W

    2015-01-01

    The most frequently used method for production of citrus transgenic plants is via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tissues found on explants obtained from juvenile seedlings. Within the last decade and especially within the last 5-6 years, this robust method was employed to produce thousands of transgenic plants. With the newly applied screening methods that allow easier and faster detection of transgenic shoots, estimates of transformation rate for some cultivars have gone up making this approach even more attractive. Although adjustments have to be made regarding the (varietal) source of the starting material and Agrobacterium strain used in each experiment preformed, the major steps of this procedure have not changed significantly if at all. Transgenic citrus plants produced this way belong to cultivars of rootstocks, sweet oranges, grapefruits, mandarins, limes, and lemons.

  3. Intraseasonal oscillations in East Asian and South Asian monsoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, V.

    2016-11-01

    This study has investigated the relation between the East Asian monsoon and the South Asian monsoon at intraseasonal time scale during the boreal summer. Applying a data adaptive method on daily anomalies of precipitation, two leading intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) were extracted separately in the regions of South Asia, tropical East Asia and subtropical East Asia. The first ISO has a period of about 45 days and propagates northward and eastward over the South Asian and tropical East Asian regions. The second ISO, with a period of about 26 days, propagates northeastward over South Asia and northwestward over tropical East Asia. Although both the ISOs are also present over the subtropical East Asia, the variance is low while no propagation is evident. The circulation patterns associated with the ISOs were found to be consistent with the corresponding precipitation patterns of the ISOs. The two ISOs also reveal consistency with the space-time evolution of diabatic heating, convection, vertical motion, upper-level divergence and moisture transport. The zonal and meridional propagation of the ISOs provide a strong link between the South Asian monsoon and East Asian monsoon regions. The subtropical East Asian region seems to have a weaker link with the other monsoon regions.

  4. Effectiveness of Citrus Fruits on Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    It is known that Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric carcinoma. Due to the increased side effects of the treatment regimens and the development of antimicrobial resistance, a number of natural compounds have been tested as potential alternatives. In this review, we will examine the current knowledge on the effect of Citrus fruits and their derivatives against H. pylori, highlighting the remaining outstanding questions on the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

  5. New depside from Citrus reticulata Blanco.

    PubMed

    Phetkul, Uraiwan; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Watanapokasin, Ramida; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan

    2014-01-01

    A new depside, named depcitrus A (1), and 31 known compounds were isolated from the peels, leaves and branch barks of Citrus reticulata Blanco. Methylation of the high polarity fractions from the branch barks and peels gave one new methylated compound named depcitrus B (14) and five known compounds. Their structures were established based on spectroscopic evidence. The antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of some pure compounds were evaluated.

  6. An Annotated Bibliography: Recent Realistic Fiction and Informational Books for Young Children Portraying Asian-American and Native American Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Frances A.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of recent realistic fiction and informational books for young children portraying Asian American and Native American cultures. Lists 23 fiction and 8 informational books on Asian Americans and 19 fiction and 15 informational books on Native Americans. Lists nine books for adults. (SLD)

  7. Comparison of evapotranspiration rates for flatwoods and ridge citrus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jia, X.; Swancar, A.; Jacobs, J.M.; Dukes, M.D.; Morgan, K.

    2007-01-01

    Florida citrus groves are typically grown in two regions of the state: flatwoods and ridge. The southern flatwoods citrus area has poorly drained fine textured sands with low organic matter in the shallow root zone. Ridge citrus is located in the northern ridge citrus zone and has fine to coarse textured sands with low water-holding capacity. Two commercial citrus groves, selected from each region, were studied from 15 July 2004 to 14 July 2005. The flatwoods citrus (FC) grove had a grass cover and used drainage ditches to remove excess water from the root zone. The ridge citrus (RC) grove had a bare soil surface with weeds periodically eliminated by tillage. Citrus crop evapotranspiration (ETc) rates at the two citrus groves were measured by the eddy correlation method, and components in the energy balance were also examined and compared. The study period had higher than average rainfall, and as a result, the two locations had similar annual ETc rates (1069 and 1044 mm for RC and FC, respectively). The ETc rates were 59% (RC) and 47% (FC) of the rainfall amounts during the study period. The annual reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) rates were 1180 mm for RC and 1419 mm for FC, estimated using the standardized reference evapotranspiration equation. The citrus crop coefficients (Kc, ratio of ETc to ET o) were different between the two locations because of differences in latitude, ground cover, and rainfall amounts. The Kc values ranged from 0.70 between December and March to 1.05 between July and November for RC, and from 0.65 between November and May to 0.85 between June and October for FC. The results are consistent with other Kc values reported from field studies on citrus in both Florida and elsewhere using these and alternate methods.

  8. A Part, Yet Apart: South Asians in Asian America. Asian American History and Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shankar, Lavina Dhingra, Ed.; Srikanth, Rajini, Ed.

    The essays in this collection consider the extent to which South Asian Americans are included within "Asian America" as the term is applied to academic programs and admissions policies, grassroots community organizing and politics, and critical analyses of cultural products. The essays are: (1) "Within Kaleidoscope Eyes: The…

  9. Rearing migratory endoparasitic nematodes in citrus callus and roots produced from citrus leaves.

    PubMed

    Inserra, R N; O'Bannon, J H

    1975-07-01

    Radopholus similis and Pratylenchus coffeae were reared on callus and roots developed from citrus leaves. Callus formed best when leaf petioles were immersed in Astatula fine sand and the leaves were sprayed daily with 4 ppm 2,4-D solution and maintained at 25 or 30 C. The nematodes completed one generation in 20 days at 25 C. Highest populations of R. similis (1,127) occurred after 50 days, and the highest for P. coffeae (619) after 70 days. Leaf-callus cultures from R. similis-resistant citrus rootstocks showed the same degree of infection as susceptible rough lemon callus after 30 days.

  10. Comparison of different detection methods for citrus greening disease based on airborne multispectral and hyperspectral imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating disease spread in many citrus groves since first found in 2005 in Florida. Multispectral (MS) and hyperspectral (HS) airborne images of citrus groves in Florida were taken to detect citrus greening infected trees in 2007 and 2010. Ground truthi...

  11. Spectral difference analysis and airborne imaging classification for citrus greening infected trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus greening, also called Huanglongbing (HLB), became a devastating disease spread through citrus groves in Florida, since it was first found in 2005. Multispectral (MS) and hyperspectral (HS) airborne images of citrus groves in Florida were acquired to detect citrus greening infected trees in 20...

  12. 7 CFR 93.5 - Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative... (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Citrus Juices and Certain Citrus Products § 93.5 Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative agreement. The fees for...

  13. 7 CFR 93.5 - Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative... (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Citrus Juices and Certain Citrus Products § 93.5 Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative agreement. The fees for...

  14. 7 CFR 93.5 - Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative... (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Citrus Juices and Certain Citrus Products § 93.5 Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative agreement. The fees for...

  15. Continuous process for enhanced release and recovery of pectic hydrocolloids and phenolics from citrus biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the 2012/2013 harvesting season the Florida citrus processing industry produced 0.55 × 106 metric tons (MT) of dried citrus pellets from citrus processing waste (CPW). The citrus pellets were marketed as a low value animal feed which may sell for $0.22 per kg or less. This biomass also contai...

  16. Neighborhood Social Cohesion and Prevalence of Hypertension and Diabetes in a South Asian Population.

    PubMed

    Lagisetty, Pooja A; Wen, Ming; Choi, Hwajung; Heisler, Michele; Kanaya, Alka M; Kandula, Namratha R

    2016-12-01

    South Asians have a high burden of cardiovascular disease compared to other racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Little has been done to evaluate how neighborhood environments may influence cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension and type 2 diabetes in this immigrant population. We evaluated the association of perceived neighborhood social cohesion with hypertension and type 2 diabetes among 906 South Asian adults who participated in the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America Study. Multivariable logistic regression adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, and physiologic covariates. Subgroup analyses examined whether associations differed by gender. South Asian women living in neighborhoods with high social cohesion had 46 % reduced odds of having hypertension than those living in neighborhoods with low social cohesion (OR 0.54, 95 % CI 0.30-0.99). Future research should determine if leveraging neighborhood social cohesion prevents hypertension in South Asian women.

  17. Quantitative PCR Method for Diagnosis of Citrus Bacterial Canker†

    PubMed Central

    Cubero, J.; Graham, J. H.; Gottwald, T. R.

    2001-01-01

    For diagnosis of citrus bacterial canker by PCR, an internal standard is employed to ensure the quality of the DNA extraction and that proper requisites exist for the amplification reaction. The ratio of PCR products from the internal standard and bacterial target is used to estimate the initial bacterial concentration in citrus tissues with lesions. PMID:11375206

  18. Synephrine Content of Juice from Satsuma Mandarins (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synephrine, the main protoalkaloid in Citrus species, is commonly analyzed as the active component in citrus peel-containing herbal supplements, but the edible parts of mandarins have been largely ignored. We determined the synephrine concentration in the juices of C. unshiu mandarins harvested fro...

  19. Sensory and quality evaluation of selected citrus hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasingly consumers are becoming more sophisticated in their demand for diversity of products, greater health potential and good eating quality. The evaluation of a population of mandarin citrus (Citrus reticulata) and mandarin hybrids, was initiated in 2006-2007 with the goal of establishing bas...

  20. Consideration for alternative outlet for new citrus hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus sinensis (sweet orange, ex. Hamlin, Midsweet, Valencia) is the source of “orange juice” and juice must contain no less than 90% C. sinensis to be marketed as such. Juice produced from Citrus reticulata (mandarins) and C. reticulata hybrids (Orlando, Murcott, Fallglo, Sunburst, Minneola) can b...

  1. Characterization of constituents in the peel of Citrus kawachiensis (Kawachibankan).

    PubMed

    Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio; Ouchi, Kazusa; Okuyama, Satoshi; Furukawa, Yoshiko; Yoshida, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Fifteen constituents, including a new compound, were isolated from an ethanolic extract of the peel of Citrus kawachiensis Hort. ex. Y. Tanaka (Japanese brand name, kawachibankan) which is one of the citrus products specific to Ehime, Japan. The new compound was characterized as 4'-dihydrophaseic acid β-glucopyranose ester (15) on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence.

  2. Microwave extraction of citrus peel to release pectin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After removal of soluble sugars and other compounds by washing, citrus peel is largely composed of pectin, cellulose and hemicellulose. In order to utilize the greatest amount of citrus peel product, it would appear reasonable that one or all three of these polysaccharides be converted to a useful m...

  3. Characterizing the citrus cultivar Carrizo genome through 454 shotgun sequencing.

    PubMed

    Belknap, William R; Wang, Yi; Huo, Naxin; Wu, Jiajie; Rockhold, David R; Gu, Yong Q; Stover, Ed

    2011-12-01

    The citrus cultivar Carrizo is the single most important rootstock to the US citrus industry and has resistance or tolerance to a number of major citrus diseases, including citrus tristeza virus, foot rot, and Huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening). A Carrizo genomic sequence database providing approximately 3.5×genome coverage (haploid genome size approximately 367 Mb) was populated through 454 GS FLX shotgun sequencing. Analysis of the repetitive DNA fraction indicated a total interspersed repeat fraction of 36.5%. Assembly and characterization of abundant citrus Ty3/gypsy elements revealed a novel type of element containing open reading frames encoding a viral RNA-silencing suppressor protein (RNA binding protein, rbp) and a plant cytokinin riboside 5′-monophosphate phosphoribohydrolase-related protein (LONELY GUY, log). Similar gypsy elements were identified in the Populus trichocarpa genome. Gene-coding region analysis indicated that 24.4% of the nonrepetitive reads contained genic regions. The depth of genome coverage was sufficient to allow accurate assembly of constituent genes, including a putative phloem-expressed gene. The development of the Carrizo database (http://citrus.pw.usda.gov/) will contribute to characterization of agronomically significant loci and provide a publicly available genomic resource to the citrus research community.

  4. Interactions of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) with endophytic bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), is a disease of sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.)], is caused by Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca, a phytopathogenic bacterium that has been shown to infect all sweet orange cultivars. Xylella fastidiosa is a fastidious Gram negative, xylem-limited bacterium which ...

  5. What's the latest on USDA citrus scion breeding?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In its 120 year history, the USDA citrus scion breeding program has provided the mainstays of the Florida specialty citrus industry. In the last few years, the USDA has released US Early Pride mandarin, US Seedless Pineapple sweet orange and most recently, US Furr/US Furr-ST mandarin. Clearly huangl...

  6. Citrus fruit quality assessment; producer and consumer perspectives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of citrus fruit and juices is popular with consumers worldwide and makes an important contribution to a healthy diet. Nevertheless, consumer preferences for citrus have undergone significant changes over the last twenty years and it is important to understand what consumers are looking ...

  7. Development of a global conservation strategy for citrus genetic resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus is an economically important world tree fruit crop with production in more than 146 countries. The center of origin for citrus is considered to be Southeastern Asia including southern China, northeastern India, and Malaysia, with secondary centers in surrounding areas. Novel and commercially ...

  8. Gene expression analysis to understand cold tolerance in citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus cultivars show a wide range of tolerance to cold temperatures. Lemons and limes are known to be sensitive to cold while certain mandarins and trifoliate oranges can endure severe winters. To understand the mechanism of cold tolerance in citrus, we selected three known cold-sensitive and three...

  9. Utilization of founder lines for improved Citrus biotechnology via RMCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On October 1st 2011 the CRB chose to fund a unique research project, the development of citrus cultivars specifically for genetic engineering (GE). The objective of this research was to develop GE citrus ‘Founder Lines’ containing DNA sequences that will allow the precise insertion of genes for de...

  10. Changes in anthocyanin production during domestication of citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mandarin (C. reticulata), citron (C. medica) and pummelo (C. maxima) are imortant fruit species of the genus Citrus and parents of the interspecific hybrids that constitute the most familiar commercial varities of citrus: sweet orange, sour orange, clementine, lemon lme and grapefruit. Citron and it...

  11. Tolerance of trifoliate citrus rootstock hybrids to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is the suspected causal agent of Huanglongbing (HLB) in Florida and other citrus producing countries around the world. Although little resistance to HLB is found within commercial citrus varieties, tolerance has been reported for some varieties that are common...

  12. Molecular diversity of Citrus tristeza virus in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a serious citrus pathogen worldwide. Recent genetic studies have identified five standard CTV genotypic groups: T30, VT, T36, T3, and B165/T68. Field surveys performed in California in 2008-2010 identified primarily MCA13-negative CTV isolates with T30-like genotype. C...

  13. Insights regarding sensory evaluation of bitterness development in citrus juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delayed bitterness is a well-known phenomenon in citrus juice and has a negative impact on juice quality. Bitterness results when the tasteless limonoic acid A-ring lactone (LARL) in juice is converted to the bitter compound limonin after juicing. Citrus varieties that produce juice that becomes bit...

  14. Developing cryotherapy to eliminate graft-transmissible pathogens in citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article summarizes research being conducted as part of a project funded by the California Citrus Research Board to develop cryotherapy (freezing buds in liquid nitrogen, and then recovering them) as a viable method for elimination of graft transmissible pathogens from Citrus. There are current...

  15. Citrus production systems to survive greening – horticultural practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit yield is a critical component in the long-term profitability of citrus growers in Florida. Increasingly, two factors outside the control of the growers are forcing Florida citrus growers to re-evaluate the sustainability of their current operations. These factors are: 1) impact of canker and ...

  16. A novel method for citrus propagation: Seed Grafting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have developed a technique for grafting citrus seeds to a citrus stock plant that allows the apparent development of a successful vascular connection between seed and stock plant and germination and development of a seedling which appears indistinguishable from seedlings germinated from seeds pla...

  17. A Catholic Response to the Asian Presence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Suzanne E., Ed.; And Others

    This report, the result in part of a series of hearings with Asian parents, educators, ministers, and many non-Asian Church leaders ministering to Asian communities within the United States, treats many aspects of educating and welcoming Asian groups into the Roman Catholic Church in the United States. The text includes a report on those hearings,…

  18. Racism and Asian American Student Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Jennifer Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical analysis and ethnographic account of Asian American student leadership in higher education. Existing literature highlights Asian and Asian American leadership styles as cultural differences. I shift the analysis from culture to racism in order to work toward a more socially just conception of Asian American…

  19. Asian upper lid blepharoplasty surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Charles K; Ahn, Sang Tae; Kim, Nakyung

    2013-01-01

    Upper lid blepharoplasty is the most common plastic surgery procedure in Asia and has consistently maintained its position as cultural acceptance and techniques have evolved. Asian upper lid blepharoplasty is a complex procedure that requires comprehensive understanding of the anatomy and precise surgical technique. The creation of the supratarsal crease has gone through many evolutions in technique but the principles and goals remain the same: a functional, natural-appearing eyelid crease that brings out the beauty of the Asian eye. Recent advances have improved functional and aesthetic outcomes of Asian upper lid blepharoplasty.

  20. Not Asian, Black or White? Reflections on South Asian American Racial Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibria, Nazli

    1996-01-01

    Examines the race ambiguity of South Asians and the risk of being socially ignored and marginalized, including that of the pan-Asian movement. It argues that recent participation of second-generation South Asians in protesting anti-Asian hate crimes and discrimination in higher education bespeak the possibilities of a pan-Asian grouping that is…

  1. Death Beliefs and Practices from an Asian Indian American Hindu Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to explore Asian Indian American Hindu (AIAH) cultural views related to death and dying. Three focus group interviews were conducted with AIAH persons living in the southern region of United States. The focus group consisted of senior citizens, middle-aged adults, and young adults. Both open-ended and semistructured…

  2. Evaluation of the efficacy of the methyl bromide fumigation schedule against Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Thomas, Donald B

    2011-02-01

    Methyl bromide fumigation is widely used as a phytosanitary treatment. Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of several fruit, including citrus (Citrus spp.), exported from Texas, Mexico, and Central America. Recently, live larvae have been found with supposedly correctly fumigated citrus fruit. This research investigates the efficacy of the previously approved U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service treatment schedule: 40 g/m3 methyl bromide at 21-29.4 degrees C for 2 h. Tolerance ofA. ludens to methyl bromide in descending order when fumigated in grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.) is third instar > second instar > first instar > egg. Two infestation techniques were compared: insertion into fruit of third instars reared in diet and oviposition by adult A. ludens into fruit and development to the third instar. Inserted larvae were statistically more likely to survive fumigation than oviposited larvae. When fruit were held at ambient temperature, 0.23 +/- 0.12% of larvae were still observed to be moving 4 d postfumigation. Temperatures between 21.9 and 27.2 degrees C were positively related to efficacy measured as larvae moving 24 h after fumigation, pupariation, and adult emergence. Coating grapefruit with Pearl Lustr 2-3 h before fumigation did not significantly affect the proportion of third instars moving 24 h after fumigation, pupariating, or emerging as adults. In conclusion, fumigation with 40 g/m3 methyl bromide for 2 h at fruit temperatures >26.7 degrees C is not found to be inefficacious for A. ludens. Although a few larvae may be found moving >24 h postfumigation, they do not pupariate.

  3. Somatic Embryogenesis: Still a Relevant Technique in Citrus Improvement.

    PubMed

    Omar, Ahmad A; Dutt, Manjul; Gmitter, Frederick G; Grosser, Jude W

    2016-01-01

    The genus Citrus contains numerous fresh and processed fruit cultivars that are economically important worldwide. New cultivars are needed to battle industry threatening diseases and to create new marketing opportunities. Citrus improvement by conventional methods alone has many limitations that can be overcome by applications of emerging biotechnologies, generally requiring cell to plant regeneration. Many citrus genotypes are amenable to somatic embryogenesis, which became a key regeneration pathway in many experimental approaches to cultivar improvement. This chapter provides a brief history of plant somatic embryogenesis with focus on citrus, followed by a discussion of proven applications in biotechnology-facilitated citrus improvement techniques, such as somatic hybridization, somatic cybridization, genetic transformation, and the exploitation of somaclonal variation. Finally, two important new protocols that feature plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis are provided: protoplast transformation and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic cell suspension cultures.

  4. Nutritional and physicochemical characteristic of commercial Spanish citrus juices.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, J; Pastoriza, S; Alonso-Olalla, R; Delgado-Andrade, C; Rufián-Henares, J A

    2014-12-01

    Citrus juices are perceived as healthy foods by consumers due to their richness in antioxidant compounds. Despite the large number of papers about the antioxidant activity of citrus juices, less is known about the relationship with physicochemical properties. This paper shows that the overall antioxidant activity of citrus juices is underestimated with the standard methodologies, being up to 10-times higher with the GAR method (including an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion). 70% of the antioxidant activity was found in the soluble fraction and citrus juices contributed up to 12% of the overall antioxidant intake within the Spanish diet. Physicochemical parameters, such as colour, fluorescence, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural contents, were correlated with nutritional parameters in some samples. The intake of HMF was negligible from commercial citrus juices and was absent in freshly squeezed ones. Finally, a mathematical model is developed to classify juices depending on their nature or storage conditions.

  5. The protective effect of Citrus limon essential oil on hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by aspirin in rats.

    PubMed

    Bouzenna, Hafsia; Dhibi, Sabah; Samout, Noura; Rjeibi, Ilhem; Talarmin, Hélène; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-10-01

    Citrus limon is a member of the large Rutaceae family characterized by its therapeutic proprieties and has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases. This study investigates the protective effect of Citrus limon essential oil against a high dose of aspirin-induced acute liver and kidney damage in female Wistar albino rats. Twenty-eight adult female Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 7 each: (1) a control group; (2) a group of rats which was kept untreated for 56days then treated with aspirin (A) (600mg/kg) for 4 days; (3) a group fed with essential oil of Citrus limon for 56days then (A) for 4 days; and (4) a group of rats receiving essential oil of Citrus limon for 56 days, then given NaCl for 4 days. Estimations of biochemical parameters in blood were determined. Lipid peroxidation levels (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidas (GPx) activities in liver and kidney was determined. A histopathological study was done. Under our experimental conditions, aspirin induced an increase of serum biochemical parameters and it resulted in an oxidative stress in both liver and kidney. This was evidenced by significant increase in TBARS in liver and kidney by 108% and 55%, respectively, compared to control. On the other hand, a decrease in the activities of SOD by 78% and 53%, CAT by 53% and 78%, and GPx by 78% and 51% in liver and kidney, respectively. Administration of EOC to rats attenuated the induced an effect of the high dose of aspirin induced in the afore mentioned serum biochemical parameters. In conclusion, our data suggest that treatment with essential oil of Citrus limon prevented the liver and kidney damage induced by aspirin.

  6. Transmission of Citrus leprosis virus C by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) to Alternative Host Plants Found in Citrus Orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The equivalent of US$ 75 million is spent each year in Brazil to control Brevipalpus phoenicis, a mite vector of Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C). In this study we investigated the possibility that hedgerows, windbreaks, and weeds normally found in citrus orchards could host CiLV-C. Mites reared on ...

  7. Identification and characterization of Citrus yellow vein clearing virus, a putative new member of the genus Mandarivirus infecting Citrus spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow vein clearing virus, an uncharacterized filamentous virus, was first observed in Pakistan in 1988 and later in India in 1997 in Etrog citron (Citrus medica). Based on electron microscopic evidence of filamentous particles, the virus, provisionally named Citrus yellow vein clearing virus (CYVC...

  8. Resistance evaluation of Pera (Citrus sinensis) genotypes to citrus canker in greenhouse conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri results in serious yield losses and phytoregulation penalties. The use of resistant genotypes is recognized as an important tool to facilitate control of the pathogen. Studies have show that artificial inoculation results in typic...

  9. Osteoporosis and Asian American Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... not supported by your browser. Home Osteoporosis Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Publication available in: PDF ( ... Are Available? Resources For Your Information What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones ...

  10. Two separate introductions of Asian citrus psyllid populations found in the American continents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A phylogeographic analysis inferred from the partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (433 bp) was performed with 22 populations (n=132) of Diaphorina citri collected in the Americas and one in the Pacific. Eight populations (n=46) from four countries in South America, 14 (n=76) from...

  11. Two founding events identified in Asian citrus psyllid populations collected in the Americas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A phylogeographic analysis inferred from the partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) (433-bp) was performed with 22 populations (n=121) of Diaphorina citri collected in the Americas. Eight populations (n=46) from four countries in South America and 14 populations (n=75) from f...

  12. Evaluation of Low-volume Sprayers Used in Asian Citrus Psyllid Control Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Arysta Life- Science North America, Cary, NC), and fenpropathrin. Two of the prod- ucts were wettable powders: difluben- zuron and spinetoram. The...no attempt to characterize Table 1. Five a.i. (three liquid and two wettable powders) and the rates at which they were used in the sprayer calibration...trials. Liquid formulation Application rate (oz/acre a.i.)z Malathion 9.0 Dimethoate 13.9 Fenpropathrin 6.2 Wettable powders Application rate (oz/acre

  13. Characterization of a virus infecting Citrus volkameriana with citrus leprosis-like symptoms.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Michael J; Sether, Diane M; Borth, Wayne B; Hu, John S

    2012-01-01

    A Citrus volkameriana tree displaying symptoms similar to citrus leprosis on its leaves and bark was found in Hawaii. Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C)-specific detection assays, however, were negative for all tissues tested. Short, bacilliform virus-like particles were observed by transmission electron microscopy in the cytoplasm of symptomatic leaves but not in healthy controls. Double-stranded (ds) RNAs ≈8 and 3 kbp in size were present in symptomatic leaf tissue but not in healthy controls. Excluding poly(A) tails, the largest molecule, RNA1, was 8,354 bp in length. The ≈3 kbp dsRNA band was found to be composed of two distinct molecules, RNA2 and RNA3, which were 3,169 and 3,113 bp, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain located in RNA1 was most closely related to the RdRp domain of CiLV-C. A reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay developed for the detection of this virus was used to screen nearby citrus trees as well as Hibiscus arnottianus plants with symptoms of hibiscus green spot, a disease associated with infection by Hibiscus green spot virus (HGSV). All nearby citrus trees tested negative with the assay; however, symptomatic H. arnottianus plants were positive. All three RNAs were present in symptomatic H. arnottianus and were >98% identical to the RNAs isolated from C. volkameriana. We contend that the virus described in this study is HGSV, and propose that it be the type member of a new virus genus, Higrevirus.

  14. [Phosphorus translocation and distribution in intercropping systems of soybean (Glycine max) and citrus (Citrus poonensis)].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weijun; Wang, Kairong; Li, Hesong

    2004-02-01

    A field mini-plot experiment was conducted on clay loamy oxisol using 32P trace technique when P fertilizer was applied in three depth soil (15, 35 and 55 cm soil layer) to compare P absorption, distribution and translocation in plant organ and soil profile under soybean and citrus monoculture and intercropping at Taoyuan Experimental Station of Agroecosystem Research of Chinese Academy of Science. Total P uptake (PT) and P accumulation in different parts (PA) of soybean were remarkably decreased under intercropping. When 32P was applied in topsoil (15 cm soil layer), 32P uptake (32PT) by soybean was significantly lower in intercropping than in monoculture. Whereas 32PT uptake by soybean was significantly greater in intercropping than in monoculture when 32P was applied in deep soil layer (35 cm or 55 cm soil layer). However, considerable difference was not observed for 32P translocation and distribution among soybean organs. 32PT uptake by citrus was much lower under intercropping than under monoculture. The P uptake by citrus newly could be transferred rapidly to aboveground and prior to active growing organ. Intercropping did not affect 32P distribution in citrus organ, but when P was applied in deep soil layer, the speed of 32P transferred to aboveground and active organ was slowed down. P mobility was strengthened in soil profile, and P of deep soil layer was promoted to move to topsoil in intercropping. The experimental results showed the optimal depth of applied P should be within 20 cm soil layer in soybean-citrus intercropping system.

  15. Monoclonal antibody-based serological methods for detecting Citrus tristeza virus in citrus groves.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Chen, Zhe; Hong, Jian; Wang, Xuefeng; Zhou, Changyong; Zhou, Xueping; Wu, Jianxiang

    2016-08-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is one of the most economically important citrus viruses and harms the citrus industry worldwide. To develop reliable and effective serological detection assays of CTV, the major capsid protein (CP) gene of CTV was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) using the expression vector pET-28a and purified through Ni+-NTA affinity chromatography. The recombinant protein was used to immunize BALB/c mice. Four hybridoma cell lines (14B10, 14H11, 20D5, and 20G12) secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against CTV were obtained through conventional hybridoma technology. The titers of MAb-containing ascitic fluids secreted by the four hybridoma lines ranged from 10(-6) to 10(-7) in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blots showed that all four MAbs could specifically react with CTV CP. Using the prepared MAbs, dot-ELISA, Tissue print-ELISA, and triple antibody sandwich (TAS)-ELISA were developed to detect CTV in tree nurseries and epidemiological studies. The developed dot-ELISA and TAS-ELISA methods could detect CTV in crude extracts of infected citrus leaves with dilutions of 1:2560 and 1:10, 240 (w/v, g/mL), respectively. Tissue print-ELISA was particularly useful for large-scale field sample detection, mainly owing to its simplicity and lack of sample preparation requirements. The field survey revealed that CTV is prevalent on citrus trees in the Chongqing Municipality, Jiangxi Province, and Zhejiang Province of China. The coincidence rate of serological and RT-PCR test results reached more than 99.5%. The prepared MAbs against CTV and established sensitive and specific serological assays have a significant role in the detection and prevention and control of CTV in our country.

  16. Asian American Education: Identities, Racial Issues, and Languages. Research on the Education of Asian Pacific Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rong, Xue Lan, Ed.; Endo, Russell, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Asian American Education--Asian American Identities, Racial Issues, and Languages presents groundbreaking research that critically challenges the invisibility, stereotyping, and common misunderstandings of Asian Americans by disrupting "customary" discourse and disputing "familiar" knowledge. The chapters in this anthology…

  17. Proportionality in Asian and North American Caucasian faces using neoclassical facial canons as criteria.

    PubMed

    Le, Thuy T; Farkas, Leslie G; Ngim, Rexon C K; Levin, L Scott; Forrest, Christopher R

    2002-01-01

    Nine projective linear measurements were taken to determine morphometric differences of the face among healthy young adult Chinese, Vietnamese, and Thais (60 in each group) and to assess the validity of six neoclassical facial canons in these populations. In addition, the findings in the Asian ethnic groups were compared to the data of 60 North American Caucasians. The canons served as criteria for determining the differences between the Asians and Caucasians. In neither Asian nor Caucasian subjects were the three sections of the facial profile equal. The validity of the five other facial canons was more frequent in Caucasians (range: 16.7-36.7%) than in Asians (range: 1.7-26.7%). Horizontal measurement results were significantly greater in the faces of the Asians (en-en, al-al, zy-zy) than in their white counterparts; as a result, the variation between the classical proportions and the actual measurements was significantly higher among Asians (range: 90-100%) than Caucasians (range: 13.3-48%). The dominant characteristics of the Asian face were a wider intercanthal distance in relation to a shorter palpebral fissure, a much wider soft nose within wide facial contours, a smaller mouth width, and a lower face smaller than the forehead height. In the absence of valid anthropometric norms of craniofacial measurements and proportion indices, our results, based on quantitative analysis of the main vertical and horizontal measurements of the face, offers surgeons guidance in judging the faces of Asian patients in preparation for corrective surgery.

  18. Bounds for Asian basket options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  19. Rape: an Asian perspective.

    PubMed

    Nadesan, K

    2001-06-01

    Rape is one of the fastest growing violent crimes in many parts of the world. Rape laws have been amended in most countries in an attempt to cope with the proliferation of this crime. Even though the legal definition of rape and the procedural laws have been amended, rape remains a serious problem in both the developed and developing nations. In some countries the offence of rape carries severe punishment sometimes even the death sentence. In many jurisdictions the term 'sexual penetration' is being used instead of 'sexual intercourse'. Sexual penetration includes sexual intercourse, anal intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio or any other intrusions involving any part of a human body or of any object into the genital or anal opening of a person's body. In many countries rape and other sexual offences have been replaced with a series of gender neutral and graded offences with appropriate punishments. Medical examination can provide independent, scientific, corroborative evidence that may be of value to the court in arriving at a judgement. Doctors should have a clear understanding of different rape laws in order to apprectiate the various issues involved. Special knowledge, skill and experience are essential to conduct a good-quality medical examination. There is a dearth of trained forensic physicians in many Asian countries. However, managing a rape victim (survivor) goes for beyond proving the case in a court of law. There should be an adequate rehabilitation programme available to the victims to help them cope.

  20. Multispectral sensing of citrus young tree decline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, G. J.; Ducharme, E. P.; Schehl, T.

    1975-01-01

    Computer processing of MSS data to identify and map citrus trees affected by young tree decline is analyzed. The data were obtained at 1500-feet altitude in six discrete spectral bands covering regions from 0.53 to 1.3 millimicrons as well as from instrumental ground truths of tree crowns. Measurable spectral reflectance intensity differences are observed in the leaves of healthy and diseased trees, especially at wavelengths of 500 to 600 nm and 700 to 800 nm. The overall accuracy of the method is found to be 89%.

  1. Antibacterial activity of Citrus reticulata peel extracts.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Negi, P S; Sikder, S; Rao, L J; Sakariah, K K

    2000-01-01

    Citrus peels were successively extracted with hexane, chloroform and acetone using a soxhlet extractor. The hexane and chloroform extracts were fractionated into alcohol-soluble and alcohol-insoluble fractions. These fractions were tested against different gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The EtOH-soluble fraction was found to be most effective. Fractionation of EtOH-soluble fraction on silica gel column yielded three polymethoxylated flavones, namely desmethylnobiletin, nobiletin and tangeretin. Their structures were confirmed by UV, 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectral studies. The findings indicated a potential of these natural compounds as biopreservatives in food applications.

  2. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; González-Santiago, Omar; Ramírez-Cabrera, Mónica A; Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Camacho-Corona, María del Rayo

    2016-02-22

    Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new drugs.

  3. Citrus huanglongbing: a newly relevant disease presents unprecedented challenges.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nian; Trivedi, Pankaj

    2013-07-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the oldest citrus diseases and has been known for over a century. HLB is caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacter' spp. that are phloem-limited, fastidious α-proteobacteria and infect hosts in different Kingdoms (i.e., Animalia and Plantae). When compared with well-characterized, cultivatable plant-pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, the interactions of uncultured insect-vectored plant-pathogenic bacteria, including 'Ca. Liberibacter' spp., with their hosts remain poorly understood. 'Ca. Liberibacter' spp. have been known to cause HLB, which has been rapidly spreading worldwide, resulting in dramatic economic losses. HLB presents an unprecedented challenge to citrus production. In this review, we focus on the most recent research on citrus, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', and psyllid interactions, specifically considering the following topics: evolutionary relationships among 'Ca. Liberibacter' spp., genetic diversity, host range, genome analysis, transmission, virulence mechanisms, and the ecological importance of HLB. Currently, no efficient management strategy is available to control HLB, although some promising progress has been made. Further studies are needed to understand citrus, 'Ca. L. asiaticus', and psyllid interactions to design innovative management strategies. Although HLB has been problematic for over a century, we can only win the battle against HLB with a coordinated and deliberate effort by the citrus industry, citrus growers, researchers, legislatures, and governments.

  4. South Asian high and Asian-Pacific-American climate teleconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peiqun; Song, Yang; Kousky, Vernon E.

    2005-11-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the mid-Pacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion, they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  5. The evolution of CMA bands in Citrus and related genera.

    PubMed

    e Silva, Ana Emília Barros; Marques, André; dos Santos, Karla G B; Guerra, Marcelo

    2010-06-01

    Most species of Citrus and related genera display a similar karyotype with 2n = 18 and a variable number of terminal heterochromatic blocks positively stained with chromomycin A(3) (CMA(+) bands). Some of these blocks are 45S rDNA sites, whereas others may correspond to the main GC-rich satellite DNA found in several Citrus species. In the present work, the distribution of the 45S rDNA and the main satellite DNA isolated from C. sinensis (CsSat) were investigated by in situ hybridization in seven species of Citrus, two species of closely related genera (Fortunella obovata and Poncirus trifoliata) and four species of the subfamily Aurantioideae, which were less related to Citrus (Atalantia monophylla, Murraya paniculata, Severinia buxifolia, and Triphasia trifolia). In Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, most CMA(+) bands colocalized only with CsSat sites, whereas others colocalized only with rDNA sites. However, some of these species displayed a few CMA(+) bands that colocalized with sites of both probes and other CMA(+) bands that did not colocalized with any of the probes. On the other hand, in the four species less related to Citrus, no CsSat signal was found on chromosomes. On Southern blot, the CsSat probe hybridized with genomic DNA from Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus at high stringency only, while under the less stringent conditions, it also hybridized with distantly related species. Therefore, CsSat sequences are the principal component of the heterochromatic blocks of Citrus, Poncirus, and Fortunella, whereas CsSat-like sequences seem to be widespread in the subfamily Aurantioideae. These data further suggest that the variable number of terminal CMA(+) bands observed on chromosomes of Citrus and related genera are probably the consequence of amplification or reduction in the number of CsSat-like sequences distributed on chromosome termini, paralleled by mutation and homogenization events, as proposed by the library hypothesis.

  6. Citrus tristeza virus: a pathogen that changed the course of the citrus industry.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Pedro; Ambrós, Silvia; Albiach-Martí, Maria R; Guerri, José; Peña, Leandro

    2008-03-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) (genus Closterovirus, family Closteroviridae) is the causal agent of devastating epidemics that changed the course of the citrus industry. Adapted to replicate in phloem cells of a few species within the family Rutaceae and to transmission by a few aphid species, CTV and citrus probably coevolved for centuries at the site of origin of citrus plants. CTV dispersal to other regions and its interaction with new scion varieties and rootstock combinations resulted in three distinct syndromes named tristeza, stem pitting and seedling yellows. The first, inciting decline of varieties propagated on sour orange, has forced the rebuilding of many citrus industries using tristeza-tolerant rootstocks. The second, inducing stunting, stem pitting and low bearing of some varieties, causes economic losses in an increasing number of countries. The third is usually observed by biological indexing, but rarely in the field. CTV polar virions are composed of two capsid proteins and a single-stranded, positive-sense genomic RNA (gRNA) of approximately 20 kb, containing 12 open reading frames (ORFs) and two untranslated regions (UTRs). ORFs 1a and 1b, encoding proteins of the replicase complex, are directly translated from the gRNA, and together with the 5' and 3'UTRs are the only regions required for RNA replication. The remaining ORFs, expressed via 3'-coterminal subgenomic RNAs, encode proteins required for virion assembly and movement (p6, p65, p61, p27 and p25), asymmetrical accumulation of positive and negative strands during RNA replication (p23), or suppression of post-transcriptional gene silencing (p25, p20 and p23), with the role of proteins p33, p18 and p13 as yet unknown. Analysis of genetic variation in CTV isolates revealed (1) conservation of genomes in distant geographical regions, with a limited repertoire of genotypes, (2) uneven distribution of variation along the gRNA, (3) frequent recombination events and (4) different selection pressures

  7. [Historical and pharmalogical study of Citrus hassaku.].

    PubMed

    Kubo, Minchinori; Matsuda, Hideaki; Tomohiro, Norimichi; Harima, Shouichi

    2005-01-01

    The original plant of Citrus hassaku Hort. Tanaka was found at the Jyoudo Temple in Inno-shima, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan by Ekei Shounin in the Edo Era. Citrus hassaku has been called "jagada" when it was first discovered. Since this fruit was seasoned for eating around "hassaku" (August 1st of the lunar calendar), it was given the scientific name as "C. hassaku." Today, the fresh raw fruits of C. Hassaku are cultivated as a seasonal food, and the most famous producing district of C. hassaku fruit is Wakayama Prefecture, representing about 60% of the Japanese output. The immature fruits of C. hassaku and its three main flavanone glycosides (naringin, neohesperidin and narirutin) was found to shown inhibitory activities on a compound 48/80 induced histamine released from mast cells, and anti-allergic effects on dinitrofluorobenzen (DNFB)-induced triphasic skin reactions in mice. The contents of the three flavanone glycosides in the immature fruits were higher than those in mature fruits. The application of extracts from the immature fruits of C. hassaku to skin care for patients with atopitic dermatitis has resulted in improving effects for 76% of the patients. Similar efficacy was obtained for patients pollinosis.

  8. Sustainable solutions for solid waste management in Southeast Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Ngoc, Uyen Nguyen; Schnitzer, Hans

    2009-06-01

    Human activities generate waste and the amounts tend to increase as the demand for quality of life increases. Today's rate in the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEANs) is alarming, posing a challenge to governments regarding environmental pollution in the recent years. The expectation is that eventually waste treatment and waste prevention approaches will develop towards sustainable waste management solutions. This expectation is for instance reflected in the term 'zero emission systems'. The concept of zero emissions can be applied successfully with today's technical possibilities in the agro-based processing industry. First, the state-of-the-art of waste management in Southeast Asian countries will be outlined in this paper, followed by waste generation rates, sources, and composition, as well as future trends of waste. Further on, solutions for solid waste management will be reviewed in the discussions of sustainable waste management. The paper emphasizes the concept of waste prevention through utilization of all wastes as process inputs, leading to the possibility of creating an ecosystem in a loop of materials. Also, a case study, focusing on the citrus processing industry, is displayed to illustrate the application of the aggregated material input-output model in a widespread processing industry in ASEAN. The model can be shown as a closed cluster, which permits an identification of opportunities for reducing environmental impacts at the process level in the food processing industry. Throughout the discussion in this paper, the utilization of renewable energy and economic aspects are considered to adapt to environmental and economic issues and the aim of eco-efficiency. Additionally, the opportunities and constraints of waste management will be discussed.

  9. Sustainable solutions for solid waste management in Southeast Asian countries

    SciTech Connect

    Uyen Nguyen Ngoc Schnitzer, Hans

    2009-06-15

    Human activities generate waste and the amounts tend to increase as the demand for quality of life increases. Today's rate in the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEANs) is alarming, posing a challenge to governments regarding environmental pollution in the recent years. The expectation is that eventually waste treatment and waste prevention approaches will develop towards sustainable waste management solutions. This expectation is for instance reflected in the term 'zero emission systems'. The concept of zero emissions can be applied successfully with today's technical possibilities in the agro-based processing industry. First, the state-of-the-art of waste management in Southeast Asian countries will be outlined in this paper, followed by waste generation rates, sources, and composition, as well as future trends of waste. Further on, solutions for solid waste management will be reviewed in the discussions of sustainable waste management. The paper emphasizes the concept of waste prevention through utilization of all wastes as process inputs, leading to the possibility of creating an ecosystem in a loop of materials. Also, a case study, focusing on the citrus processing industry, is displayed to illustrate the application of the aggregated material input-output model in a widespread processing industry in ASEAN. The model can be shown as a closed cluster, which permits an identification of opportunities for reducing environmental impacts at the process level in the food processing industry. Throughout the discussion in this paper, the utilization of renewable energy and economic aspects are considered to adapt to environmental and economic issues and the aim of eco-efficiency. Additionally, the opportunities and constraints of waste management will be discussed.

  10. Infectivity of Two Biotypes of the Citrus Nematode on Citrus and on Some Other Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Baines, R. C.; Miyakawa, T.; Cameron, J. W.; Small, R. H.

    1969-01-01

    The infectivity and development of two biotypes of citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) were compared on highly resistant Poncirus trifoliata selection 'Pomeroy,' moderately susceptible 'Troyer' citrange, and highly susceptible sweet orange selection 'Homosassa' small seedlings in a glasshouse. Biotype-1 was more infective on the above hosts and developed faster on sweet orange and on 'Troyer' citrange than Biotype-2. The differences in infectivity were interpreted to reflect differences in the ability of the nematodes to penetrate the epidermis and hypodermis and become established in host roots. Poncirus selections 'Pomeroy,' 'Webber-Fawcett,' and 'Rubidoux' seedlings were highly resistant to the citrus nematode in California, but seedlings of 'Pomeroy' and 'Rubidoux' were only moderately resistant in Japan. These differences in degree of infection may indicate different biotypes of the nematode. Host range tests with California Biotype-1 indicate that it differs from those occurring in Israel. PMID:19325669

  11. Anti-inflammatory effects of Citrus sinensis L., Citrus paradisi L. and their combinations.

    PubMed

    Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Mallick, Neelam; Feroz, Zeeshan

    2016-05-01

    Citrus bioflavonoids embrace a wide group of phenolic compounds effecting the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species and the processes relating free radical-mediated injury. Keeping in view of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi, present study was undertaken to explore the effects of C. sinensis (orange juice) and C. paradisi (grapefruit juice) at three different doses alone and their two combinations with the objective to examine the effects of these compounds in an experimental model of rat colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). Hence biochemical parameters e.g. myeloperoxidase, alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein (CRP) and glutathione were assessed. Data entry and analysis was accomplished by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17 and was presented as mean ± S.E.M with 95% confidence interval. Present result shows that these juices, mainly C. paradisi, may be efficacious for the management of inflammatory bowel disease. In acute colitis model, C. paradise encouraged a decrease in the extension of the lesion escorted by a decrease in the occurrence of diarrhea and reinstatement of the glutathione content. Related effects were produced by the administration of C. sinensis, which also prevented the myeloperoxidase and alkaline phosphatase actions in acute intestinal inflammatory process. The effect of the citrus juices on the inflammatory process may be associated to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as revealed in present investigation. The favorable effects exerted were demonstrated both by histological and biochemical changes and were related with a progress in the colonic oxidative status.

  12. 9. VIEW SHOWING ARIZONA CANAL WITH CITRUS ORCHARDS, FACING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SHOWING ARIZONA CANAL WITH CITRUS ORCHARDS, FACING NORTH. CAMELBACK MOUNTAIN IS IN THE BACKGROUND Photographer: unknown. No date - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. Biotransformation effects on anti lipogenic activity of citrus extracts.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Vânia Mayumi; Madeira, José Valdo; Macedo, Gabriela Alves; Macedo, Juliana Alves

    2016-04-15

    Citrus peel is a good source of flavonoids, with higher content in relation to pulp. This study proposed to investigate the anti-lipogenic potential of a newly developed citrus flavonoids extract, obtained from citrus industrial residue, bioprocessed in order to generate a commercial source of some flavonoids naturally found in low quantity. The results showed that the citrus peel extract obtained after biotransformation was a good source of hesperitin and naringenin, flavonoids that has no source for production on a large scale, as in supplements or medicines. Still, the results showed that all extracts could be used in obesity treatment. The original extract, "In Natura", would be useful to reduce new adipocytes synthesis and lipid accumulation, and the extract bioprocessed, "Biotransformed" extract could be used to induce lipolysis on fat tissue.

  14. 21 CFR 172.210 - Coatings on fresh citrus fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.210 Coatings on fresh citrus fruit... a 2:1 ratio. Sodium lauryl sulfate Complying with § 172.822. As a film former. Wood rosin Color of...

  15. 21 CFR 172.210 - Coatings on fresh citrus fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.210 Coatings on fresh citrus fruit... a 2:1 ratio. Sodium lauryl sulfate Complying with § 172.822. As a film former. Wood rosin Color of...

  16. The draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ling-Ling; Ruan, Xiaoan; Chen, Dijun; Zhu, Andan; Chen, Chunli; Bertrand, Denis; Jiao, Wen-Biao; Hao, Bao-Hai; Lyon, Matthew P; Chen, Jiongjiong; Gao, Song; Xing, Feng; Lan, Hong; Chang, Ji-Wei; Ge, Xianhong; Lei, Yang; Hu, Qun; Miao, Yin; Wang, Lun; Xiao, Shixin; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Zeng, Wenfang; Guo, Fei; Cao, Hongbo; Yang, Xiaoming; Xu, Xi-Wen; Cheng, Yun-Jiang; Xu, Juan; Liu, Ji-Hong; Luo, Oscar Junhong; Tang, Zhonghui; Guo, Wen-Wu; Kuang, Hanhui; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Roose, Mikeal L; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Ruan, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Oranges are an important nutritional source for human health and have immense economic value. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). The assembled sequence covers 87.3% of the estimated orange genome, which is relatively compact, as 20% is composed of repetitive elements. We predicted 29,445 protein-coding genes, half of which are in the heterozygous state. With additional sequencing of two more citrus species and comparative analyses of seven citrus genomes, we present evidence to suggest that sweet orange originated from a backcross hybrid between pummelo and mandarin. Focused analysis on genes involved in vitamin C metabolism showed that GalUR, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme of the galacturonate pathway, is significantly upregulated in orange fruit, and the recent expansion of this gene family may provide a genomic basis. This draft genome represents a valuable resource for understanding and improving many important citrus traits in the future.

  17. Asian Energy Security

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Hayes, PhD

    2003-12-01

    OAK-B135 In the Asian Energy Security (AES) Project, Nautilus Institute works together with a network of collaborating groups from the countries of Northeast Asia to evaluate the energy security implications of different national and regional energy ''paths''. The goal of the Asia Energy Security project is to illuminate energy paths--and the energy policy choices that might help to bring them about--that result in a higher degree of energy security for the region and for the world as a whole, that is, to identify energy paths that are ''robust'' in meeting many different energy security and development objectives, while also offering flexibility in the face of uncertainty. In work to date, Nautilus has carefully assembled a network of colleagues from the countries of the region, trained them together as a group in the use of a common, flexible, and transparent energy and environmental analysis planning software tool (LEAP, the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning system), and worked with them to prepare base-year energy sector models for each country. To date, complete data sets and models for ''Business as Usual'' (BAU) energy paths have been compiled for China, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea. A partial data set and BAU path has been compiled for the Russian Far East, and a data set is being started in Mongolia, where a team of researchers has just joined the AES project. In several countries, ''Alternative'' energy paths have been developed as well, or partially elaborated. National energy sector developments, progress on national LEAP modeling, additional LEAP training, and planning for the next phase of the AES project were the topics of a recent (early November) workshop held in Vancouver, British Columbia. With funding from the Department of Energy, Nautilus is poised to build upon the successes of the project to date with a coordinated international effort to research the energy security ramifications of

  18. Phenols in citrus peel byproducts. Concentrations of hydroxycinnamates and polymethoxylated flavones in citrus peel molasses.

    PubMed

    Manthey, J A; Grohmann, K

    2001-07-01

    In addition to the main flavanone glycosides (i.e., hesperidin and naringin) in citrus peel, polymethoxylated flavones and numerous hydroxycinnamates also occur and are major phenolic constituents of the molasses byproduct generated from fruit processing. Although a small number of the hydroxycinnamates in citrus occur as amides, most occur as esters and are susceptible to alkaline hydrolysis. This susceptibility to alkaline hydrolysis was used in measuring the concentrations of hydroxycinnamates in citrus peel molasses. The highest concentrations of hydroxycinnamates occurred in molasses of orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and tangerine (C. reticulata Blanco.) compared to grapefruit (C. paradisi Macf.) and lemon [C. limon (L.) Burm.]. Concentrations of two phenolic glucosides, phlorin (phloroglucinol-beta-O-glucoside) and coniferin (coniferyl alcohol-4-beta-O-glucoside), were also measured. Measurements of the polymethoxylated flavones in molasses from several tangerine and orange varieties showed that these compounds occurred in the highest amounts in Dancy tangerine, whereas samples from two other tangerine molasses contained significantly lower levels, similar to those in the molasses samples from late- and early/mid-season oranges.

  19. Depression among Asian Americans: Review and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a review of the prevalence and manifestation of depression among Asian Americans and discusses some of the existing issues in the assessment and diagnosis of depression among Asian Americans. The authors point out the diversity and increasing numbers of Asian Americans and the need to provide better mental health services for this population. While the prevalence of depression among Asian Americans is lower than that among other ethnic/racial groups, Asian Americans receive treatment for depression less often and its quality is less adequate. In addition, the previous belief that Asians somatize depression may become obsolete as more evidence appears to support that Westerners may “psychologize” depression. The cultural validity of the current DSM-IV conceptualization of depression is questioned. In the course of the review, the theme of complexity emerges: the heterogeneity of ethnic Asian American groups, the multidimensionality of depression, and the intersectionality of multiple factors among depressed Asian Americans. PMID:21961060

  20. Candidatus Liberibacter americanus induces significant reprogramming of the transcriptome of the susceptible citrus genotype

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) disease is caused by endogenous, phloem-restricted, Gram negative, uncultured bacteria named Candidatus Liberibacter africanus (CaLaf), Ca. L. asiaticus (CaLas), and Ca. L. americanus (CaLam), depending on the continent where the bacteria were first detected. The Asian citrus psyllid vector, Diaphorina citri, transmits CaLas and CaLam and both Liberibacter species are present in Brazil. Several studies of the transcriptional response of citrus plants manifesting HLB symptoms have been reported, but only for CaLas infection. This study evaluated the transcriptional reprogramming of a susceptible genotype of sweet orange challenged with CaLam, using a customized 385K microarray containing approximately 32,000 unigene transcripts. We analyzed global changes in gene expression of CaLam-infected leaves of sweet orange during the symptomatic stage of infection and compared the results with previously published microarray studies that used CaLas-infected plants. Twenty candidate genes were selected to validate the expression profiles in symptomatic and asymptomatic PCR-positive leaves infected with CaLas or CaLam. Results The microarray analysis identified 633 differentially expressed genes during the symptomatic stage of CaLam infection. Among them, 418 (66%) were upregulated and 215 (34%) were down regulated. Five hundred and fourteen genes (81%) were orthologs of genes from Arabidopsis thaliana. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that several of the transcripts encoded transporters associated with the endomembrane system, especially zinc transport. Among the most biologically relevant gene transcripts in GSEA were those related to signaling, metabolism and/or stimulus to hormones, genes responding to stress and pathogenesis, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, oxidative stress and transcription factors belonging to different families. Real time PCR of 20 candidate genes validated the expression pattern of some genes in