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Sample records for adult asperger assessment

  1. The Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA): A Diagnostic Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; Robinson, Janine; Woodbury-Smith, Marc

    2005-01-01

    At the present time there are a large number of adults who have "suspected" Asperger syndrome (AS). In this paper we describe a new instrument, the Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA), developed in our clinic for adults with AS. The need for a new instrument relevant to the diagnosis of AS in adulthood arises because existing instruments are designed…

  2. Theory of Mind in Adults with HFA and Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spek, Annelies A.; Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    2010-01-01

    Theory of mind was assessed in 32 adults with HFA, 29 adults with Asperger syndrome and 32 neurotypical adults. The HFA and Asperger syndrome groups were impaired in performance of the Strange stories test and the Faux-pas test and reported more theory of mind problems than the neurotypical adults. The three groups did not differ in performance of…

  3. Clinical Characteristics of Adults with Asperger's Syndrome Assessed with Self-Report Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanai, Chieko; Iwanami, Akira; Ota, Haruhisa; Yamasue, Hidenori; Matsushima, Eisuke; Yokoi, Hideki; Shinohara, Kazuyuki; Kato, Nobumasa

    2011-01-01

    Diagnosis of Asperger's Syndrome (AS) in adults is difficult, and clinical sample-based studies that systematically illustrate the clinical characteristics of adult AS patients are needed so that appropriate treatment can be provided. Here we examined the clinical characteristics of AS in 112 adults (median age, 28.0 years [range, 18-52]; 71 men…

  4. Asperger Syndrome in Adolescent and Young Adult Males. Interview, Self- and Parent Assessment of Social, Emotional, and Cognitive Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederlund, Mats; Hagberg, Bibbi; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Descriptive and comparative follow-up studies of young adult males with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood, using both interview, self- and parent assessment instruments for the study of aspects of emotional well-being, social functioning, and cognitive-practical skills have not been performed in the past. One-hundred males with AS…

  5. Anxiety in Asperger's syndrome: Assessment in real time.

    PubMed

    Hare, Dougal J; Wood, Christopher; Wastell, Sarah; Skirrow, Paul

    2015-07-01

    Anxiety is a major problem for many people with Asperger's syndrome who may have qualitatively different fears from a non-Asperger's syndrome population. Research has relied on measures developed for non-Asperger's syndrome populations that require reporting past experiences of anxiety, which may confound assessment in people with Asperger's syndrome due to problems with autobiographical memory as are often reported in this group.Experience sampling methodology was used to record real-time everyday experiences in 20 adults with Asperger's syndrome and 20 neurotypical adults. Within-subject analysis was used to explore the phenomenology of thoughts occurring in people with Asperger's syndrome when they were anxious. Comparisons were made with the group that did not have Asperger's syndrome. The Asperger's syndrome group were significantly more anxious than the comparison group. Factors associated with feelings of anxiety in the Asperger's syndrome group were high levels of self-focus, worries about everyday events and periods of rumination lasting over 10 min. People in the Asperger's syndrome group also had a tendency to think in the image form, but this was not associated with feelings of anxiety. The results are discussed with reference to psychological models of Asperger's syndrome, cognitive models of anxiety and implications for psychological therapy for this group. PMID:24811968

  6. Offending Behaviour in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David; Evans, Carys; Hider, Andrew; Hawkins, Sarah; Peckett, Helen; Morgan, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    Considerable speculation is evident both within the scientific literature and popular media regarding possible links between Asperger syndrome and offending. A survey methodology that utilised quantitative data collection was employed to investigate the prevalence of offending behaviour amongst adults with Asperger Syndrome in a large geographical…

  7. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Adult Asperger Assessment: the association of symptom domains within a clinical population.

    PubMed

    Kuenssberg, Renate; McKenzie, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a behaviourally defined disorder characterised by impairments in three domains of social interaction, communication, and repetitive, stereotyped behaviours and activities. Proposed changes to diagnostic criteria suggest that the diagnostic triad may no longer fit as the best way to conceptualise ASD, and that social and communication impairments should be considered as a single domain. The aim of this study was to examine the structure of symptom domains within the Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA; Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Robinson, & Woodbury-Smith, 2005), a diagnostic tool for high functioning adults. As theoretical models already exist, confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine data from a clinical population of adults (n = 153) diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and High Functioning Autism (HFA). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to fit different models based on the structure proposed by the authors of the AAA, the traditional triad and the newly proposed diagnostic dyad. Analysis suggested that none of the tested models were a good fit on the AAA dataset. However, it did highlight very high correlations between social and communication factors (r > 0.9) within unmodified models. The results of the analysis provide tentative support for the move towards considering ASD as a dyad of 'social-communication' impairments and repetitive/restricted interests behaviours and activities, rather than the traditional triad. PMID:21831593

  8. Support Groups for Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantz, Kathryn Mederise

    2011-01-01

    A total of 35 adults (24-77 years; 24 males and 11 females) with Asperger syndrome (AS) who were in, were waiting to get in, or had been in support groups participated in the study. In general, the adults were highly educated but unemployed or underemployed and living alone with family members as friends. The participants were interviewed,…

  9. Clinical Characterization of Adults with Asperger's Syndrome Assessed by Self-Report Questionnaires Based on Depression, Anxiety, and Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanai, Chieko; Iwanami, Akira; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Ota, Haruhisa; Tani, Masayuki; Yamada, Takashi; Kato, Nobumasa

    2011-01-01

    Diagnosing Asperger's syndrome (AS) in adults is difficult and efficient indicators for a precise diagnosis are important in the clinical setting. We examined the clinical characteristics of AS in 129 adults (median age, 32.0 years [range, 19-57]; 102 men and 27 women; AS group (n = 64; median age, 32.0 years [range, 19-50]; 50 men and 14 women),…

  10. Anxiety in Asperger's Syndrome: Assessment in Real Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Dougal J.; Wood, Christopher; Wastell, Sarah; Skirrow, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety is a major problem for many people with Asperger's syndrome who may have qualitatively different fears from a non-Asperger's syndrome population. Research has relied on measures developed for non-Asperger's syndrome populations that require reporting past experiences of anxiety, which may confound assessment in people with Asperger's…

  11. Psychological Disorder in Adolescents and Adults with Asperger Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tantam, Digby

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of psychological disorder in adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome suggests that these individuals commonly develop a psychological disorder secondary to Asperger syndrome including affective disorders, anxiety-related disorders, and conduct disorders. Treatment usually involves a combination of psychoeducation, social change,…

  12. Advanced Mind-Reading in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponnet, Koen S.; Roeyers, Herbert; Buysse, Ann; De Clercq, Armand; Van Der Heyden, Eva

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the mind-reading abilities of 19 adults with Asperger syndrome and 19 typically developing adults. Two static mind-reading tests and a more naturalistic empathic accuracy task were used. In the empathic accuracy task, participants attempted to infer the thoughts and feelings of target persons, while viewing a videotape of…

  13. Narrative Discourse in Adults with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colle, Livia; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; van der Lely, Heather K. J.

    2008-01-01

    We report a study comparing the narrative abilities of 12 adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger Syndrome (AS) versus 12 matched controls. The study focuses on the use of referential expressions (temporal expressions and anaphoric pronouns) during a story-telling task. The aim was to assess pragmatics skills in people with HFA/AS in…

  14. Temperament and Character in Adults with Asperger Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderstrom, Henrik; Rastam, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    A study of personality characteristics of 31 adults with Asperger syndrome found they scored significantly higher on harm avoidance and lower on self-directedness and cooperativeness on the Temperament and Character Inventory. Reward dependence and novelty seeking tended to be low. The most common temperament configurations were obsessional,…

  15. Neuropsychological Functioning in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambery, Fiona Z.; Russell, Ailsa J.; Perry, Katie; Morris, Robin; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2006-01-01

    There is some consensus in the literature regarding the cognitive profile of people with Asperger syndrome (AS). Findings to date suggest that a proportion of people with AS have higher verbal than performance IQ, a non-verbal learning disability (NVLD) and impairments in some aspects of executive function (EF). However, there are few published…

  16. Mentalising and social problem solving in adults with Asperger's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Channon, Shelley; Crawford, Sarah; Orlowska, Danuta; Parikh, Nimmi; Thoma, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction It is well established that autistic spectrum disorder is linked to difficulties with mentalising, but the ways in which this affects everyday behaviour is less well understood. This study explored the nature and extent of difficulties in everyday social functioning in adults with Asperger's syndrome (AS), since increased understanding can enhance the development of more effective intervention strategies. Methods Individuals with AS (n = 21) were compared with healthy control participants (n = 21) on three tests of social cognition: the Mentalistic Interpretation task, which assesses interpretation of sarcasm and actions; the Social Problem Fluency task, which assesses ability to generate problem solutions; and the Social Problem Resolution task, which assesses judgement in selecting problem solutions. Results Comprehension of both sarcastic remarks and actions was impaired in those with AS on the mentalistic interpretation task. Participants with AS showed difficulties in identifying the awkward elements of everyday social scenarios, and they were also impaired in generating problem solutions but not in judging alternative solutions on the social problem fluency and resolution tasks. Conclusions These tasks potentially provide a means of profiling strengths and weaknesses in social processing, which in turn has implications for informing clinical evaluation and training. PMID:23875885

  17. The Use of WAIS-III in Adults with HFA and Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spek, Antoinette A.; Scholte, Evert M.; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    2008-01-01

    The WAIS III was administered to 16 adults with high functioning autism (HFA) and 27 adults with Asperger syndrome. Differences between Verbal Intelligence (VIQ) and Performance Intelligence (PIQ) were not found. Processing Speed problems in people with HFA appeared. At the subtest level, the Asperger syndrome group performed weak on Digit Span.…

  18. Recognition of Facial Expressions and Prosodic Cues with Graded Emotional Intensities in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doi, Hirokazu; Fujisawa, Takashi X.; Kanai, Chieko; Ohta, Haruhisa; Yokoi, Hideki; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of adults with Asperger syndrome to recognize emotional categories of facial expressions and emotional prosodies with graded emotional intensities. The individuals with Asperger syndrome showed poorer recognition performance for angry and sad expressions from both facial and vocal information. The group…

  19. "We Are All There Silently Coping." The Hidden Experiences of Parents of Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Gemma M.; Totsika, Vasiliki; Nash, Susie; Jones, Robert S. P.; Hastings, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The experiences of older parents of adults with Asperger syndrome have not been explored in the research literature. Method: Four families who had middle-aged offspring with Asperger syndrome were interviewed (3 mothers and 1 couple), and the interviews were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Results: Six…

  20. Parental Retrospective Assessment of Development and Behavior in Asperger Syndrome during the First 2 Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewrang, Petra; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2010-01-01

    Development and behavior during the first 2 years of life was assessed retrospectively by the parents to 23 adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome and 13 typically developing adolescents and young adults. The groups were matched on chronological age and the participants were within the normal range of intelligence. The questionnaire,…

  1. A Scale to Assist the Diagnosis of Autism and Asperger's Disorder in Adults (RAADS): A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritvo, Riva Ariella; Ritvo, Edward R.; Guthrie, Donald; Yuwiler, Arthur; Ritvo, Max Joseph; Weisbender, Leo

    2008-01-01

    An empirically based 78 question self-rating scale based on DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 criteria was developed to assist clinicians' diagnosis of adults with autism and Asperger's Disorder-the Ritvo Autism and Asperger's Diagnostic Scale (RAADS). It was standardized on 17 autistic and 20 Asperger's Disorder and 57 comparison subjects. Both autistic and…

  2. Adults with Asperger Syndrome: A Childhood Disorder Grows Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Lee A.

    2007-01-01

    Asperger syndrome is a chronic developmental disorder characterized by problems in social relatedness, empathic communication and understanding, and circumscribed interests. The inclusion of Asperger's Disorder (Asperger syndrome) in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994), has…

  3. Adults and Children with Asperger Syndrome: Exploring Adult Attachment Style, Marital Satisfaction and Satisfaction with Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Winnie; Peterson, Candida C.

    2011-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) is a disorder resembling autism in its problems with social interaction and cognitive flexibility. Today, a number of adults with AS marry and rear children. Yet there has been little research into the quality of their marital and parental relationships. This study explored romantic attachment style, marital satisfaction and…

  4. Recognition of facial expressions and prosodic cues with graded emotional intensities in adults with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Doi, Hirokazu; Fujisawa, Takashi X; Kanai, Chieko; Ohta, Haruhisa; Yokoi, Hideki; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the ability of adults with Asperger syndrome to recognize emotional categories of facial expressions and emotional prosodies with graded emotional intensities. The individuals with Asperger syndrome showed poorer recognition performance for angry and sad expressions from both facial and vocal information. The group difference in facial expression recognition was prominent for stimuli with low or intermediate emotional intensities. In contrast to this, the individuals with Asperger syndrome exhibited lower recognition accuracy than typically-developed controls mainly for emotional prosody with high emotional intensity. In facial expression recognition, Asperger and control groups showed an inversion effect for all categories. The magnitude of this effect was less in the Asperger group for angry and sad expressions, presumably attributable to reduced recruitment of the configural mode of face processing. The individuals with Asperger syndrome outperformed the control participants in recognizing inverted sad expressions, indicating enhanced processing of local facial information representing sad emotion. These results suggest that the adults with Asperger syndrome rely on modality-specific strategies in emotion recognition from facial expression and prosodic information. PMID:23371506

  5. Social Perception and WAIS-IV Performance in Adolescents and Adults Diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdnack, James; Goldstein, Gerald; Drozdick, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Previous research using the Wechsler scales has identified areas of cognitive weaknesses in children, adolescents, and adults diagnosed with Autism or Asperger's syndrome. The current study evaluates cognitive functioning in adolescents and adults diagnosed with Autism or Asperger's syndrome using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth…

  6. Metacognitive processes in emotion recognition: are they different in adults with Asperger's disorder?

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Alyssa C P; Williamson, Paul; Young, Robyn

    2014-06-01

    Deficits in emotion recognition and social interaction characterize individuals with Asperger's Disorder (AS). Moreover they also appear to be less able to accurately use confidence to gauge their emotion recognition accuracy (i.e., metacognitive monitoring). The aim of this study was to extend this finding by considering both monitoring and control processes in emotion recognition among adults with AS. Those with AS were found to have difficulties acting on the basis of their metacognitive monitoring despite showing no deficits in their ability to discriminate accurate from inaccurate decisions. It is suggested that adults with AS have difficulties interacting socially because they are less able to assess when they are making accurate emotion recognition decisions despite having the capability to do so. PMID:24272525

  7. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Young Adults with a Clinical Diagnosis of Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugnegard, Tove; Hallerback, Maria Unenge; Gillberg, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    In children with autism spectrum disorders, previous studies have shown high rates of psychiatric comorbidity. To date, studies on adults have been scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate psychiatric comorbidity in young adults with Asperger syndrome. Participants were 26 men and 28 women (mean age 27 years) with a clinical…

  8. Theory of Mind and Central Coherence in Adults with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaumont, Renae; Newcombe, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated theory of mind and central coherence abilities in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger syndrome (AS) using naturalistic tasks. Twenty adults with HFA/AS correctly answered significantly fewer theory of mind questions than 20 controls on a forced-choice response task. On a narrative task, there were no…

  9. The Impact of Labels and Behaviors on the Stigmatization of Adults with Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Robert C.; Gillis, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, there is a paucity of literature on stigmatization of adults with Asperger's Disorder (AD). Therefore, this study examined whether young adults hold stigmatizing views towards individuals with AD and if that stigmatization is elicited by behaviors or labels. College students (N = 195) read one of six vignettes. A modified Social…

  10. Fascination and Isolation: A Grounded Theory Exploration of Unusual Sensory Experiences in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard S.; Sharp, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Unusual sensory experiences are commonly seen in people with Asperger syndrome (AS). They correlate with functional impairments and cause distress. The current study investigates how these experiences have affected nine adults with AS's lives, as well as the coping strategies utilised. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using Instant…

  11. Pragmatic Inferences in High-Functioning Adults with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijnacker, Judith; Hagoort, Peter; Buitelaar, Jan; Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Geurts, Bart

    2009-01-01

    Although people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have severe problems with pragmatic aspects of language, little is known about their pragmatic reasoning. We carried out a behavioral study on high-functioning adults with autistic disorder (n = 11) and Asperger syndrome (n = 17) and matched controls (n = 28) to investigate whether they…

  12. Global and Configural Visual Processing in Adults with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rondan, Cecilie; Deruelle, Christine

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to explore how adults with autism and Asperger syndrome (ASD) would visually process compound figures. They were tested in two tasks, one involving hierarchical global/local stimuli, the other involving face-like or geometrical stimuli where the processing of the inter-elemental spatial relationships was emphasized. Adults…

  13. Audiovisual Speech Perception and Eye Gaze Behavior of Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saalasti, Satu; Katsyri, Jari; Tiippana, Kaisa; Laine-Hernandez, Mari; von Wendt, Lennart; Sams, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Audiovisual speech perception was studied in adults with Asperger syndrome (AS), by utilizing the McGurk effect, in which conflicting visual articulation alters the perception of heard speech. The AS group perceived the audiovisual stimuli differently from age, sex and IQ matched controls. When a voice saying /p/ was presented with a face…

  14. Linguistic Alignment in Adults with and without Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slocombe, Katie E.; Alvarez, Ivan; Branigan, Holly P.; Jellema, Tjeerd; Burnett, Hollie G.; Fischer, Anja; Li, Yan Hei; Garrod, Simon; Levita, Liat

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Asperger's Syndrome (AS) often have difficulties with social interactions and conversations. We investigated if these difficulties could be attributable to a deficit in the ability to linguistically converge with an interlocutor, which is posited to be important for successful communication. To that end, participants completed two…

  15. Empathising and Systemising in Adults with and without Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was devised to test the empathising-systemising (E-S) theory of autism. Three groups of participants took part in the study: males with Asperger Syndrome (AS) (n = 18), males without AS, (n = 44) and females from the general population (n = 45). Each participant completed two tasks: one that involved empathising and another that…

  16. Pragmatic inferences in high-functioning adults with autism and Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pijnacker, Judith; Hagoort, Peter; Buitelaar, Jan; Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Geurts, Bart

    2009-04-01

    Although people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have severe problems with pragmatic aspects of language, little is known about their pragmatic reasoning. We carried out a behavioral study on high-functioning adults with autistic disorder (n = 11) and Asperger syndrome (n = 17) and matched controls (n = 28) to investigate whether they are capable of deriving scalar implicatures, which are generally considered to be pragmatic inferences. Participants were presented with underinformative sentences like "Some sparrows are birds". This sentence is logically true, but pragmatically inappropriate if the scalar implicature "Not all sparrows are birds" is derived. The present findings indicate that the combined ASD group was just as likely as controls to derive scalar implicatures, yet there was a difference between participants with autistic disorder and Asperger syndrome, suggesting a potential differentiation between these disorders in pragmatic reasoning. Moreover, our results suggest that verbal intelligence is a constraint for task performance in autistic disorder but not in Asperger syndrome. PMID:19052858

  17. The effects of context processing on social cognition impairments in adults with Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Baez, Sandra; Ibanez, Agustin

    2014-01-01

    Social cognition-the basis of all communicative and otherwise interpersonal relationships-is embedded in specific contextual circumstances which shape intrinsic meanings. This domain is compromised in the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), including Asperger's syndrome (AS) (DSM-V). However, the few available reports of social cognition skills in adults with AS have largely neglected the effects of contextual factors. Moreover, previous studies on this population have also failed to simultaneously (a) assess multiple social cognition domains, (b) examine executive functions, (c) follow strict sample selection criteria, and (d) acknowledge the cognitive heterogeneity typical of the disorder. The study presently reviewed (Baez et al., 2012), addressed all these aspects in order to establish the basis of social cognition deficits in adult AS patients. Specifically, we assessed the performance of AS adults in multiple social cognition tasks with different context-processing requirements. The results suggest that social cognition deficits in AS imply a reduced ability to implicitly encode and integrate contextual cues needed to access social meaning. Nevertheless, the patients' performance was normal when explicit social information was presented or when the situation could be navigated with abstract rules. Here, we review the results of our study and other relevant data, and discuss their implications for the diagnosis and treatment of AS and other neuropsychiatric conditions (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, frontotemporal dementia). Finally, we analyze previous results in the light of a current neurocognitive model of social-context processing. PMID:25232301

  18. Effective Methylphenidate Treatment of an Adult Aspergers Syndrome and a Comorbid ADHD: A Clinical Investigation with fMRI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Mandy; Dillo, Wolfgang; Bessling, Svenja; Emrich, Hinderk M.; Ohlmeier, Martin D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Aspergers Syndrome can present as comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Very few cases of the assessment and treatment of this comorbidity in adulthood are described in the research literature. Method: A 26-year-old patient as suffering from ADHD in combination with Aspergers Syndrome is diagnosed. Treatment is…

  19. Normal for an Asperger: Notions of the Meanings of Diagnoses among Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosqvist, Hanna Bertilsdotter

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the production of a counterhegemonic discourse of "autistic normalcy" among adults with high-functioning autism by analyzing notions of diagnosis. The discourse analyses are based on material from ethnographic fieldwork in a Swedish educational setting. Study participants were 3 male and 9 female adults who had been diagnosed…

  20. Do Adults with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome Differ in Empathy and Emotion Recognition?

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Charlotte B; Allison, Carrie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Cassidy, Sarah; Langdon, Peter E; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined whether adults with high functioning autism (HFA) showed greater difficulties in (1) their self-reported ability to empathise with others and/or (2) their ability to read mental states in others' eyes than adults with Asperger syndrome (AS). The Empathy Quotient (EQ) and 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' Test (Eyes Test) were compared in 43 adults with AS and 43 adults with HFA. No significant difference was observed on EQ score between groups, while adults with AS performed significantly better on the Eyes Test than those with HFA. This suggests that adults with HFA may need more support, particularly in mentalizing and complex emotion recognition, and raises questions about the existence of subgroups within autism spectrum conditions. PMID:26883645

  1. Quantitative Assessment of Neuromotor Function in Adolescents with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitag, Christine M.; Kleser, Christina; Schneider, Marc; von Gontard, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Background: Motor impairment in children with Asperger Syndrome (AS) or High functioning autism (HFA) has been reported previously. This study presents results of a quantitative assessment of neuromotor skills in 14-22 year old HFA/AS. Methods: 16 HFA/AS and 16 IQ-matched controls were assessed by the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (ZNA). Results:…

  2. Social perception and WAIS-IV Performance in adolescents and adults diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome and Autism.

    PubMed

    Holdnack, James; Goldstein, Gerald; Drozdick, Lisa

    2011-06-01

    Previous research using the Wechsler scales has identified areas of cognitive weaknesses in children, adolescents, and adults diagnosed with Autism or Asperger's syndrome. The current study evaluates cognitive functioning in adolescents and adults diagnosed with Autism or Asperger's syndrome using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and the Social Perception subtest from the Advanced Clinical Solutions. Deficits in social perception, verbal comprehension, and processing speed were found in the Autism sample. Additionally, they exhibited inconsistent performance on auditory working memory and perceptual reasoning tasks. The Asperger's syndrome group had better overall cognitive skills than the Autism group, but compared with controls, they had weaknesses in processing speed, social perception, and components of auditory working memory. Both groups had relatively low scores on the WAIS-IV Comprehension subtest compared with the other verbal comprehension subtests. Clinical application and utility of the WAIS-IV and Social Perception in Autism Spectrum Disorders are discussed. PMID:21220381

  3. Employment Activities and Experiences of Adults with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Susanna; Costley, Debra; Warren, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    There is limited large-scale empirical research into the working lives of adults who have an autism spectrum disorder with no co-occurring intellectual disability. Drawing on data from a national survey, this report describes the employment activities and experiences of 130 adults with Asperger's Disorder (AD) and high functioning autism…

  4. Assessment of Social Skills for Students with Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winner, Michelle Garcia

    2002-01-01

    This article introduces a framework to summarize areas of social cognition that affect the ability of students with Asperger syndrome to relate to others. A five-step approach to assessment is reviewed to provide information regarding the nature of students' social cognition and related skills. Informal assessment tools are then described.…

  5. The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-10-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and whether cognitive profiles, derived using a multivariate classification method with data from multiple cognitive tasks, could distinguish between the two groups. Second, to establish whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of autistic symptom severity, and third, whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of comorbid psychopathology. Fourth, cognitive characteristics of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared. After controlling for IQ, ASD and control groups scored significantly differently on tasks of social cognition, motor performance, and executive function (P's < 0.05). To investigate cognitive profiles, 12 variables were entered into a support vector machine (SVM), which achieved good classification accuracy (81%) at a level significantly better than chance (P < 0.0001). After correcting for multiple correlations, there were no significant associations between cognitive performance and severity of either autistic or comorbid symptomatology. There were no significant differences between AS and HFA groups on the cognitive tasks. Cognitive classification models could be a useful aid to the diagnostic process when used in conjunction with other data sources-including clinical history. PMID:24903974

  6. The Neuropsychology of Male Adults With High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome†

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, C Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and whether cognitive profiles, derived using a multivariate classification method with data from multiple cognitive tasks, could distinguish between the two groups. Second, to establish whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of autistic symptom severity, and third, whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of comorbid psychopathology. Fourth, cognitive characteristics of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared. After controlling for IQ, ASD and control groups scored significantly differently on tasks of social cognition, motor performance, and executive function (P's < 0.05). To investigate cognitive profiles, 12 variables were entered into a support vector machine (SVM), which achieved good classification accuracy (81%) at a level significantly better than chance (P < 0.0001). After correcting for multiple correlations, there were no significant associations between cognitive performance and severity of either autistic or comorbid symptomatology. There were no significant differences between AS and HFA groups on the cognitive tasks. Cognitive classification models could be a useful aid to the diagnostic process when used in conjunction with other data sources—including clinical history. Autism Res 2014, 7: 568–581. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24903974

  7. Diagnostic Assessment of Asperger's Disorder: A Review of Five Third-Party Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jonathan M.

    2005-01-01

    Five rating scales for screening and detection of Asperger's Disorder, three commercially available and two research instruments, are evaluated with reference to psychometric criteria outlined by Bracken in 1987 ("Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment," 4, 313). Reliability and validity data reported in examiner's manuals or published reports…

  8. The Cambridge Mindreading (CAM) Face-Voice Battery: Testing Complex Emotion Recognition in Adults with and without Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golan, Ofer; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Hill, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    Adults with Asperger Syndrome (AS) can recognise simple emotions and pass basic theory of mind tasks, but have difficulties recognising more complex emotions and mental states. This study describes a new battery of tasks, testing recognition of 20 complex emotions and mental states from faces and voices. The battery was given to males and females…

  9. Group training in interpersonal problem-solving skills for workplace adaptation of adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Bonete, Saray; Calero, María Dolores; Fernández-Parra, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Adults with Asperger syndrome show persistent difficulties in social situations which psychosocial treatments may address. Despite the multiple studies focusing on social skills interventions, only some have focused specifically on problem-solving skills and have not targeted workplace adaptation training in the adult population. This study describes preliminary data from a group format manual-based intervention, the Interpersonal Problem-Solving for Workplace Adaptation Programme, aimed at improving the cognitive and metacognitive process of social problem-solving skills focusing on typical social situations in the workplace based on mediation as the main strategy. A total of 50 adults with Asperger syndrome received the programme and were compared with a control group of typical development. The feasibility and effectiveness of the treatment were explored. Participants were assessed at pre-treatment and post-treatment on a task of social problem-solving skills and two secondary measures of socialisation and work profile using self- and caregiver-report. Using a variety of methods, the results showed that scores were significantly higher at post-treatment in the social problem-solving task and socialisation skills based on reports by parents. Differences in comparison to the control group had decreased after treatment. The treatment was acceptable to families and subject adherence was high. The Interpersonal Problem-Solving for Workplace Adaptation Programme appears to be a feasible training programme. PMID:24569569

  10. Strategies to Increase the Physical Activity Participation of Young Adults with Asperger Syndrome in Community Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Jessica; Driver, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Currently one in 50 American school-age children is diagnosed with Autism. Although Asperger Syndrome is no longer acknowledged as a separate diagnosis, this article refers to high-functioning individuals with Autism as having Asperger Syndrome, since it is a culturally relevant term. One of the most challenging times for individuals with Asperger…

  11. Cognitive Profiles of Adults with Asperger's Disorder, High-Functioning Autism, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Based on the WAIS-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanai, Chieko; Tani, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Yamada, Takashi; Ota, Haruhisa; Watanabe, Hiromi; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the cognitive profiles of high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) in adults based on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale III (WAIS-III). We examined cognitive profiles of adults with no intellectual disability (IQ greater than 70), and in adults with Asperger's disorder (AS; n = 47), high-functioning autism (HFA;…

  12. Asperger syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001549.htm Asperger syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Asperger syndrome is often considered a high functioning form ...

  13. Asperger syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Asperger syndrome is often considered a high functioning form of autism. It can lead to difficulty interacting socially, repeat behaviors, and clumsiness. Asperger syndrome is a part of the larger developmental disorder ...

  14. The Swedish Version of the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale: Revised (RAADS-R). A Validation Study of a Rating Scale for Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lisa M. J.; Naswall, Katharina; Manouilenko, Irina; Nylander, Lena; Edgar, Johan; Ritvo, Riva Ariella; Ritvo, Edward; Bejerot, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    There is a paucity of diagnostic instruments for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R), an 80-item self-rating scale designed to assist clinicians diagnosing ASD in adults. It was administered to 75…

  15. Group Training in Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills for Workplace Adaptation of Adolescents and Adults with Asperger Syndrome: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonete, Saray; Calero, María Dolores; Fernández-Parra, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Adults with Asperger syndrome show persistent difficulties in social situations which psychosocial treatments may address. Despite the multiple studies focusing on social skills interventions, only some have focused specifically on problem-solving skills and have not targeted workplace adaptation training in the adult population. This study…

  16. The systemizing quotient: an investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism, and normal sex differences.

    PubMed Central

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Richler, Jennifer; Bisarya, Dheraj; Gurunathan, Nhishanth; Wheelwright, Sally

    2003-01-01

    Systemizing is the drive to analyse systems or construct systems. A recent model of psychological sex differences suggests that this is a major dimension in which the sexes differ, with males being more drawn to systemize than females. Currently, there are no self-report measures to assess this important dimension. A second major dimension of sex differences is empathizing (the drive to identify mental states and respond to these with an appropriate emotion). Previous studies find females score higher on empathy measures. We report a new self-report questionnaire, the Systemizing Quotient (SQ), for use with adults of normal intelligence. It contains 40 systemizing items and 20 control items. On each systemizing item, a person can score 2, 1 or 0, so the SQ has a maximum score of 80 and a minimum of zero. In Study 1, we measured the SQ of n = 278 adults (114 males, 164 females) from a general population, to test for predicted sex differences (male superiority) in systemizing. All subjects were also given the Empathy Quotient (EQ) to test if previous reports of female superiority would be replicated. In Study 2 we employed the SQ and the EQ with n = 47 adults (33 males, 14 females) with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA), who are predicted to be either normal or superior at systemizing, but impaired at empathizing. Their scores were compared with n = 47 matched adults from the general population in Study 1. In Study 1, as predicted, normal adult males scored significantly higher than females on the SQ and significantly lower on the EQ. In Study 2, again as predicted, adults with AS/HFA scored significantly higher on the SQ than matched controls, and significantly lower on the EQ than matched controls. The SQ reveals both a sex difference in systemizing in the general population and an unusually strong drive to systemize in AS/HFA. These results are discussed in relation to two linked theories: the 'empathizing-systemizing' (E-S) theory of sex

  17. Tactile Sensitivity in Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Tavassoli, Teresa; Calo, Susana; Thomas, Richard M.; Catmur, Caroline; Frith, Uta; Haggard, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    People with autism and Asperger syndrome are anecdotally said to be hypersensitive to touch. In two experiments, we measured tactile thresholds and suprathreshold tactile sensitivity in a group of adults with Asperger syndrome. In the first experiment, tactile perceptual thresholds were measured. Two frequencies of vibrotactile stimulation were…

  18. High-Functioning Autism/Asperger Syndrome in Schools: Assessment and Intervention. Practical Intervention in the Schools Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sansosti, Frank J.; Powell-Smith, Kelly A.; Cowan, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Meeting a growing need for school-based practitioners, this book provides vital tools for improving the academic, behavioral, and social outcomes of students with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS). Research-based best practices are presented for conducting meaningful assessments; collaborating with teachers, students, and…

  19. Asperger syndrome and nonverbal learning difficulties in adult males: self- and parent-reported autism, attention and executive problems.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Nydén, Agneta; Gillberg, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    A specific overlap between Asperger syndrome (AS) and nonverbal learning difficulties (NLD) has been proposed, based on the observation that, as a group, people with AS tend to have significantly higher verbal IQ (VIQ) than performance IQ (PIQ), one of the core features of NLD. The primary aim was to assess the longer term outcome of NLD--broken down into persistent and transient forms. The present study of 68 individuals was performed in the context of a larger prospective longitudinal study to late adolescence/early adult life of 100 boys with AS. Using self- and parent-report measures, we studied the longer term outcome of the NLD (defined as VIQ > PIQ by 15 points) as regards social communication, repetitive behaviour, attention, and executive function (EF) was studied. Three subgroups were identified: (1) Persistent NLD (P-NLD), (2) Childhood "only" NLD (CO-NLD) and (3) Never NLD (NO-NLD). The P-NLD group had the worst outcome overall. The CO-NLD group had better reported EF scores than the two other AS subgroups. There were no differences between the subgroups regarding social communication, repetitive behaviour, or attentional skills. Low PIQ increased the risk of ADHD symptoms. In the context of AS in males, P-NLD carries a relatively poor outcome, particularly with regard to self-reported EF. However, CO-NLD appears to entail a significantly better outcome. The results underscore the importance of analysing the cognitive profile both at diagnosis and after several years, so as to be able to formulate a realistic prognosis. PMID:25399237

  20. An 8 Year Follow-Up of a Specialist Supported Employment Service for High-Ability Adults with Autism or Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlin, Patricia; Alcock, Jennifer; Burkin, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Few supported employment programmes have been specifically designed for people with autism, especially those who are more able. This study examines the outcome of a supported employment service (NAS Prospects) for adults with autism or Asperger syndrome (IQ 60+) over an 8 year period. Approximately 68 percent of clients found employment. Of the…

  1. The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R): A Scale to Assist the Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adults--An International Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritvo, Riva Ariella; Ritvo, Edward R.; Guthrie, Donald; Ritvo, Max J.; Hufnagel, Demetra H.; McMahon, William; Tonge, Bruce; Mataix-Cols, David; Jassi, Amita; Attwood, Tony; Eloff, Johann

    2011-01-01

    The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R) is a valid and reliable instrument to assist the diagnosis of adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The 80-question scale was administered to 779 subjects (201 ASD and 578 comparisons). All ASD subjects met inclusion criteria: DSM-IV-TR, ADI/ADOS diagnoses and standardized IQ…

  2. Taking on the Real World: Helping the Teenager with Asperger Syndrome Prepare for the Transition from High School to the Adult World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurlbutt, Karen S.

    2008-01-01

    As more and more children are being diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS), more parents are wondering what the future will be like for their child. Because of the challenges faced by youth with AS, it is important for parents and teachers to work together to guide high school students with AS through a successful transition to the adult world.…

  3. Recognition of Facially Expressed Emotions and Visual Search Strategies in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falkmer, Marita; Bjallmark, Anna; Larsson, Matilda; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2011-01-01

    Can the disadvantages persons with Asperger syndrome frequently experience with reading facially expressed emotions be attributed to a different visual perception, affecting their scanning patterns? Visual search strategies, particularly regarding the importance of information from the eye area, and the ability to recognise facially expressed…

  4. Right Hemisphere Dysfunction and Metaphor Comprehension in Young Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Rinat; Faust, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether the known difficulties in metaphor comprehension exhibited by persons with Asperger syndrome (AS) can be explained by a dysfunctional right hemisphere (RH). Using the divided visual field paradigm, 27 AS participants and 36 matched controls were presented with word pairs of four types (literal, conventional metaphors,…

  5. The Neurophysiological Correlates of Face Processing in Adults and Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kate; Hamm, Jeff P.; Kirk, Ian J.

    2005-01-01

    Past research has found evidence for face and emotional expression processing differences between individuals with Asperger's syndrome (AS) and neurotypical (NT) controls at both the neurological and behavioural levels. The aim of the present study was to examine the neurophysiological basis of emotional expression processing in children and…

  6. Metacognitive Processes in Emotion Recognition: Are They Different in Adults with Asperger's Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Alyssa C. P.; Williamson, Paul; Young, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in emotion recognition and social interaction characterize individuals with Asperger's Disorder (AS). Moreover they also appear to be less able to accurately use confidence to gauge their emotion recognition accuracy (i.e., metacognitive monitoring). The aim of this study was to extend this finding by considering both monitoring and…

  7. The Relationship of Asperger's Characteristics and Schizotypal Personality Traits in a Non-Clinical Adult Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Ruth M.; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.; Mitchell, John T.; Kwapil, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    The study examines the relationship between Asperger's Disorder (AD) and Schizotypal Personality Disorder (SPD), mutually exclusive but similar diagnoses ["DSM-IV-TR;" American Psychiatric Association (2000). "Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders." Washington, DC: Author]. The literature and comparison of diagnostic criteria…

  8. Sleep Disturbances in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyane, Nicolas M. F.; Bjorvatn, Bjorn

    2005-01-01

    Sleep problems are commonly reported in children with autistic disorders. Most studies are based on sleep questionnaires and sleep diaries, but polysomnographic and actigraphic data have also been used. In this study we investigated sleep in older individuals (aged 15-25 years) with autism and Asperger syndrome, using sleep questionnaires, sleep…

  9. The Assessment and Identification of Language Impairment in Asperger's Syndrome: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worth, Sarah; Reynolds, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    Although sharing many of the identified difficulties associated with autism, Asperger's syndrome (AS) is widely believed to differ in the domain of linguistic deficit. While researchers may disagree in detail about the language and communication performance of pupils with Asperger's syndrome, there seems to be general consensus that such…

  10. Increased coherence of white matter fiber tract organization in adults with Asperger syndrome: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Roine, Ulrika; Roine, Timo; Salmi, Juha; Nieminen-Von Wendt, Taina; Leppämäki, Sami; Rintahaka, Pertti; Tani, Pekka; Leemans, Alexander; Sams, Mikko

    2013-12-01

    To investigate whether there are global white matter (WM) differences between autistic and healthy adults, we performed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in 14 male adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) and 19 gender-, age-, and intelligence quotient-matched controls. We focused on individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD), AS, to decrease heterogeneity caused by large variation in the cognitive profile. Previous DTI studies of ASD have mainly focused on finding local changes in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), two indexes used to characterize microstructural properties of WM. Although the local or voxel-based approaches may be able to provide detailed information in terms of location of the observed differences, such results are known to be highly sensitive to partial volume effects, registration errors, or placement of the regions of interest. Therefore, we performed global histogram analyses of (a) whole-brain tractography results and (b) skeletonized WM masks. In addition to the FA and MD, the planar diffusion coefficient (CP) was computed as it can provide more specific information of the complexity of the neural structure. Our main finding indicated that adults with AS had higher mean FA values than controls. A less complex neural structure in adults with AS could have explained the results, but no significant difference in CP was found. Our results suggest that there are global abnormalities in the WM tissue of adults with AS. PMID:24089369

  11. Autobiographical memory and social problem-solving in Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Lorna; Howlin, Patricia; Dritschel, Barbara; Patel, Trishna

    2007-02-01

    Difficulties in social interaction are a central feature of Asperger syndrome. Effective social interaction involves the ability to solve interpersonal problems as and when they occur. Here we examined social problem-solving in a group of adults with Asperger syndrome and control group matched for age, gender and IQ. We also assessed autobiographical memory, on a cueing task and during social problem-solving, and examined the relationship between access to specific past experiences and social problem-solving ability. Results demonstrated a social problem-solving impairment in the Asperger group. Their solutions were less detailed, less effective and less extended in time. Autobiographical memory performance was also impaired with significantly longer latencies to retrieve specific memories and fewer specific memories retrieved in comparison to controls. PMID:16874561

  12. Adult Survival Skills Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsko, Gregory M.

    The purpose of this instrument is to supplement data from the Adult Basic Learning Examination in assessing the functional level of adults in daily situations. It may also be used as a teaching tool for adults requesting tutoring in specific concepts and skills presented in the instrument. This instrument is an informal assessment instrument and…

  13. Understanding Asperger Syndrome: A Professor's Guide [DVD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organization for Autism Research (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    College can be a trying time in any individual's life. For adults with Asperger Syndrome this experience can be overwhelming. This title in the new DVD series Asperger Syndrome and Adulthood focuses on educating professors, teaching assistants, and others on what it means to be a college student on the spectrum and how they might best be able to…

  14. Assessing Motor Skills as a Differentiating Feature between High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cid, Maria R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate if motor skills could be used as a differentiating feature between Asperger's Disorder (AD) and High Functioning (HFA) in children under the age of 9 years, 0 months, in order to provide additional information regarding the usefulness and validity of distinguishing these two disorders. There is…

  15. The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R): a scale to assist the diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder in adults: an international validation study.

    PubMed

    Ritvo, Riva Ariella; Ritvo, Edward R; Guthrie, Donald; Ritvo, Max J; Hufnagel, Demetra H; McMahon, William; Tonge, Bruce; Mataix-Cols, David; Jassi, Amita; Attwood, Tony; Eloff, Johann

    2011-08-01

    The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R) is a valid and reliable instrument to assist the diagnosis of adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The 80-question scale was administered to 779 subjects (201 ASD and 578 comparisons). All ASD subjects met inclusion criteria: DSM-IV-TR, ADI/ADOS diagnoses and standardized IQ testing. Mean scores for each of the questions and total mean ASD vs. the comparison groups' scores were significantly different (p < .0001). Concurrent validity with Constantino Social Responsiveness Scale-Adult = 95.59%. Sensitivity = 97%, specificity = 100%, test-retest reliability r = .987. Cronbach alpha coefficients for the subscales and 4 derived factors were good. We conclude that the RAADS-R is a useful adjunct diagnostic tool for adults with ASD. PMID:21086033

  16. Emotional Intelligence, Theory of Mind, and Executive Functions as Predictors of Social Outcomes in Young Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Janine M.; Stoesz, Brenda M.; McCrimmon, Adam W.

    2013-01-01

    Social difficulties are frequently cited as a core deficit of individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS). This deficit is particularly evident when processing of emotional information is required in social situations. Deficits in theory of mind and executive functions are the two explanatory hypotheses for social deficits in AS that are predominant…

  17. Adults with Asperger Syndrome with and without a Cognitive Profile Associated with "Non-Verbal Learning Disability." A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyden, Agneta; Niklasson, Lena; Stahlberg, Ola; Anckarsater, Henrik; Dahlgren-Sandberg, Annika; Wentz, Elisabet; Rastam, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) and non-verbal learning disability (NLD) are both characterized by impairments in motor coordination, visuo-perceptual abilities, pragmatics and comprehension of language and social understanding. NLD is also defined as a learning disorder affecting functions in the right cerebral hemisphere. The present study investigates…

  18. School Administrator Assessment of the Personality Traits of General Education Teachers for Suitability to Teach a Student with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Arthur Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Most students with Asperger's syndrome are taught in general education classes by teachers who do not have special education training and it is the usually the administrator's responsibility to determine which general education teacher will teach a child with Asperger's syndrome. It is likely that most such decisions rely heavily on the…

  19. Assessing the Readiness of Higher Education to Instruct and Support Students with Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, L. Marc

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the current ability of higher education to effectively educate and support college students diagnosed with Asperger's Disorder. As the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders increased dramatically during the past decade, it is estimated that tens of thousands of individuals diagnosed with Asperger's Disorder are…

  20. Assessment Matters in Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donley, Jan; Napper, Rosemary

    This handbook was developed to give tutors of adult education information and ideas about assessing adult learning. It can be used as a reference for information about assessment and as a practical tool for tutors. Section 1, Introduction to Assessment in Adult Learning, includes information on these topics: what assessment is, how to assess, why…

  1. Can Asperger syndrome be diagnosed at 26 months old? A genetic high-risk single-case study.

    PubMed

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Scott, Fiona; Wheelwright, Sally; Johnson, Mark; Bisarya, Dheraj; Desai, Atman; Ahluwalia, Jag

    2006-04-01

    Asperger syndrome, a heritable condition entailing empathy deficits together with unusually narrow interests in individuals of normal or even above-average intelligence, was recognized only recently. Here we report the first-ever prospective study of a child born to two adults with a formal diagnosis of Asperger syndrome. The child's parents are both scientists (a mathematician and a chemist). The aim of study 1 was to test if the child also developed Asperger syndrome, given the heritability of the condition, and if Asperger syndrome can be detected at 26 months. At 18 months, the child was given the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers, and at 26 months, she was assessed diagnostically for autism spectrum conditions using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observational Scale. The child failed the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers at 18 months and met the criteria for Asperger syndrome at 26 months. This single case is consistent with the hypersystemizing, assortative mating theory of autism. This theory requires further testing with large samples. This study also demonstrates that Asperger syndrome can be diagnosed by age 26 months. The aim of study 2 was to test if dyadic eye contact in infancy is intact in a child later diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. The same child's eye contact was measured at three time points (3, 6, and 9 months) over her first year of life and compared with that of age-matched controls. Although the child had low rates of eye contact at 6 months, it was within the normal range at all three points in the first year of life. We conclude that low levels of eye contact are not predictive of later development of Asperger syndrome. PMID:16900937

  2. Autobiographical Memory and Social Problem-Solving in Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Lorna; Howlin, Patricia; Dritschel, Barbara; Patel, Trishna

    2007-01-01

    Difficulties in social interaction are a central feature of Asperger syndrome. Effective social interaction involves the ability to solve interpersonal problems as and when they occur. Here we examined social problem-solving in a group of adults with Asperger syndrome and control group matched for age, gender and IQ. We also assessed…

  3. Assessment Tools for Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shefrin, Carol; Shafer, Dehra; Forlizzi, Lori

    The Assessment Tools for Adult Education project was designed to provide training and support to staff of the Pennsylvania Bureau of Adult Basic and Literacy Education (ABLE) funded programs to help them use assessment tools and procedures to document the learning gains of the adult students they serve. The following candidate assessment…

  4. Asperger syndrome and "non-verbal learning problems" in a longitudinal perspective: neuropsychological and social adaptive outcome in early adult life.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, Bibbi S; Nydén, Agneta; Cederlund, Mats; Gillberg, Christopher

    2013-12-15

    Co-existence of Asperger syndrome (AS) and non-verbal learning disability (NLD) has been proposed based on the observation that people with AS tend to have significantly higher verbal than performance IQ (VIQ > PIQ by ≥ 15 points), one of the core features of NLD. In the present study we examined neuropsychological and social adaptive profiles with "non-verbal learning problems" associated with NLD in a group of individuals with AS followed from childhood into early adult life. The group was divided into three subgroups: (i) persistent NLD (P-NLD), i.e. NLD (VIQ > PIQ) both in childhood and early adulthood occasions, (ii) childhood NLD (CO-NLD), i.e. NLD (VIQ > PIQ) only at original diagnosis, or (iii) No NLD (VIQ > PIQ) ever (NO-NLD). All three subgroups were followed prospectively from childhood into adolescence and young adult life. One in four to one in five of the whole group of males with AS had P-NLD. The P-NLD subgroup had poorer neuropsychological outcome in early adult life than did those with CO-NLD and those with NO-NLD. There were no unequivocal markers in early childhood that predicted subgroup status in early adult life, but early motor delay and a history of early speech-language problems tended to be associated with P-NLD. PMID:23871410

  5. The Perspective of Young Adult Siblings of Individuals with Asperger Syndrome and High Functioning Autism: An Exploration of Grief and Implications for Developmental Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allgood, Nicole R.

    2010-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism are complex developmental disabilities that have a significant impact on the individual and his/her family. Asperger syndrome is characterized by challenges with understanding non-verbal communication, difficulties with social relationships, and restricted interests. Having a brother or sister…

  6. A Comparative Study of Circadian Rhythm Functioning and Sleep in People with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Dougal Julian; Jones, Steven; Evershed, Kate

    2006-01-01

    The circadian rhythm functioning and sleep patterns of 10 adults with Asperger syndrome were investigated using actigraphy. When compared with data from neurotypical adults, both statistical and clinically significant differences were found between the two groups, with the adults with Asperger syndrome showing marked abnormalities in both the…

  7. Presentation of Depression in Autism and Asperger Syndrome: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Mary E.; Barnard, Louise; Pearson, Joanne; Hasan, Reem; O'Brien, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Depression is common in autism and Asperger syndrome, but despite this, there has been little research into this issue. This review considers the current literature on the prevalence, presentation, treatment and assessment of depression in autism and Asperger syndrome. There are diagnostic difficulties when considering depression in autism and…

  8. Multirater Congruence on the Social Skills Assessment of Children with Asperger Syndrome: Self, Mother, Father, and Teacher Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyva, Efrosini

    2010-01-01

    Children with Asperger Syndrome (AS) who attend mainstream settings face social skills deficits that have not been adequately explored. This study aims to examine social skills through self-reports of children with AS (N = 21) and a matched group of typically developing peers, as well as reports from their mothers, fathers, and teachers. Results…

  9. Who Cares? Revisiting Empathy in Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Kimberley; Dziobek, Isabel; Hassenstab, Jason; Wolf, Oliver T.; Convit, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    A deficit in empathy has consistently been cited as a central characteristic of Asperger syndrome (AS), but previous research on adults has predominantly focused on cognitive empathy, effectively ignoring the role of affective empathy. We administered the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), a multi-dimensional measure of empathy, and the Strange…

  10. An Islet of Social Ability in Asperger Syndrome: Judging Social Attributes from Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sarah; Hill, Elisabeth; Winston, Joel; Frith, Uta

    2006-01-01

    We asked adults with Asperger Syndrome to judge pictorial stimuli in terms of certain social stereotypes to evaluate to what extent they have access to this type of social knowledge. Sixteen adults with Asperger Syndrome and 24 controls, matched for age and intelligence, were presented with sets of faces, bodies and objects, which had to be rated…

  11. [Asperger syndrome. Diagnosis criteria and clinical picture].

    PubMed

    Wahlberg, Ernesto

    2005-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (A.S) is not a very well-known disorder due to its recent incorporation to the international nosography of mental disorders during the early 90s. The intention of this article is to describe the clinical picture with its symptomatic diversity. It will show how the diagnostic criteria were developed since the presentation by Asperger in 1944, to the classification consensed nowadays. It also presents the situations in which this diagnosis is most frequent to facilitate its detection and to permit a more extensive assessment leading to a more accurate treatment. PMID:16077869

  12. Adult nutrition assessment tutorial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This tutorial presents a systematic approach to nutrition assessment based on a modern appreciation for the contributions of inflammation that serve as the foundation for newly proposed consensus definitions for malnutrition syndromes. Practical indicators of malnutrition and inflammation have been ...

  13. The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jo; Scott, Fiona; Stott, Carol; Allison, Carrie; Bolton, Patrick; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol

    2005-01-01

    The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST) is a parental questionnaire to screen for autism spectrum conditions. In this validation study, the CAST was distributed to 1925 children aged 5-11 in mainstream Cambridgeshire schools. A sample of participants received a full diagnostic assessment, conducted blind to screen status. The sensitivity of…

  14. The "Not Guilty Verdict": Psychological Reactions to a Diagnosis of Asperger Syndrome in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punshon, C.; Skirrow, P.; Murphy, G.

    2009-01-01

    Asperger syndrome is a relatively new diagnostic classification. A number of factors make receiving a diagnosis of Asperger syndrome in adulthood a unique experience. This study used a phenomenological approach to examine the experiences of 10 adults receiving such a diagnosis. Results suggested that six major themes were associated with receiving…

  15. Asperger Syndrome and Schizophrenia: A Comparative Neuropsychological Study.

    PubMed

    Marinopoulou, Maria; Lugnegård, Tove; Hallerbäck, Maria Unenge; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2016-07-01

    There has been an increasing interest in possible connections between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia in the last decade. Neuropsychological comparison studies have, however, been few. The present study examined similarities and differences in intellectual and executive functioning between adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) and adults with schizophrenic psychosis (SP). A group with AS and a group with SP were assessed neuropsychologically with WAIS-III and D-KEFS. Similarities were found between groups, as displayed by an uneven cognitive profile, limitations in working memory, processing speed and some aspects of executive functioning. Full Scale IQ was higher in the AS group. These results add to the current research illuminating similarities and differences between ASD and schizophrenia on a cognitive level. PMID:26936160

  16. Camp Campus: College Preparation for Adolescents and Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, and Other Social Communication Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retherford, Kristine S.; Schreiber, Linda R.

    2015-01-01

    Camp Campus is a 1-week campus experience for juniors or seniors in high school or high school graduates who are diagnosed with high-functioning autism, Asperger syndrome, or a related social communication disorder and who plan to attend college. Participants experience campus life by partaking of campus services, living and dining on campus,…

  17. [Early outcomes of Asperger's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Bobrov, A E; Somova, V M

    2013-01-01

    Mental state of adult patients, who since childhood had features of Asperger's syndrome (AS), was studied. We examined 107 patients (89 men and 18 women). At the moment of inclusion in the study, all the patients met criteria of ICD=10 for AS. This was confirmed by the examination of the patients with the help of ASDASQ and ASDI scales. Based on the results of psychopathological and psychological five variants of AS outcomes in the age of early adulthood were identified as follows: integrated, inhibitory, peculiar, border-line and hypernormative. At the moment of examination, psychosocial compensation was observed in 38% of patients, only 28% of patients were on treatment and 20% had a history of transitory psychotic episodes. The authors conclude that the results of the study suggest the relatively favorable prognosis of AS. The differential clinical evaluation of this group as well as implication of adequate psychosocial and psychotherapeutic methods in their treatment is needed. PMID:24077546

  18. Neurofeedback outcomes in clients with Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Lynda; Thompson, Michael; Reid, Andrea

    2010-03-01

    This paper summarizes data from a review of neurofeedback (NFB) training with 150 clients with Asperger's Syndrome (AS) and 9 clients with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) seen over a 15 year period (1993-2008) in a clinical setting. The main objective was to investigate whether electroncephalographic (EEG) biofeedback, also called neurofeedback (NFB), made a significant difference in clients diagnosed with AS. An earlier paper (Thompson et al. 2009) reviews the symptoms of AS, highlights research findings and theories concerning this disorder, discusses QEEG patterns in AS (both single and 19-channel), and details a hypothesis, based on functional neuroanatomy, concerning how NFB, often paired with biofeedback (BFB), might produce a change in symptoms. A further aim of the current report is to provide practitioners with a detailed description of the method used to address some of the key symptoms of AS in order to encourage further research and clinical work to refine the use of NFB plus BFB in the treatment of AS. All charts were included for review where there was a diagnosis of AS or ASD and pre- and post-training testing results were available for one or more of the standardized tests used. Clients received 40-60 sessions of NFB, which was combined with training in metacognitive strategies and, for most older adolescent and adult clients, with BFB of respiration, electrodermal response, and, more recently, heart rate variability. For the majority of clients, feedback was contingent on decreasing slow wave activity (usually 3-7 Hz), decreasing beta spindling if it was present (usually between 23 and 35 Hz), and increasing fast wave activity termed sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) (12-15 or 13-15 Hz depending on assessment findings). The most common initial montage was referential placement at the vertex (CZ) for children and at FCz (midway between FZ and CZ) for adults, referenced to the right ear. Metacognitive strategies relevant to social understanding, spatial

  19. Asperger's syndrome and memory: similarity to autism but not amnesia.

    PubMed

    Bowler, D M; Matthews, N J; Gardiner, J M

    1997-01-01

    Two experiments are described in which the memory of adults with Asperger's syndrome is compared with that of verbal IQ controls. The results of the first experiment showed that the Asperger subjects resembled autistic adults and children in their failure to use category information to aid their free recall. In the second experiment, both groups of subjects showed similar priming effects in an implicit stem completion task and similar performance on an explicit cued recall task. Moreover, both groups also showed more priming for items that they had read at study and better recall for items that they had to generate at study, suggesting that the cued recall of the Asperger subjects did not result from contamination by automatic or involuntary processes. PMID:8981378

  20. Comparison of Pausing Behavior in Children Who Stutter and Children Who Have Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltrame, Jessica Monique; Viera, Renata Alves Torello; Tamanaha, Ana Carina; Arcuri, Claudia Fassin; Osborn, Ellen; Perissinoto, Jacy; Schiefer, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this research was to compare the number and types of grammatical and non-grammatical silent pauses presented by stutterers and subjects with Asperger syndrome in their narratives. Method: Ten children who stutter and four participants with Asperger syndrome (mean ages of both groups 10 years) were assessed at the Speech…

  1. [Behavior analytic approach to Asperger syndrome].

    PubMed

    Haramaki, Shigeru; Bondy, Andy

    2007-03-01

    We describe the behavior analytic approach to helping people with Asperger syndrome regarding social interaction and communication issues. In the behavior analytic approach, the cause of maladaptive behavior is not attributed to the disability itself. Maladaptive behaviors are viewed as a function of the interaction between an individual and the environment. Therefore, we assess these functional relationships and intervene by modifying aspects of the environment. Functional assessment is one of the most effective methods to evaluate the cause of problem behaviors and helps in the selection of an intervention strategy. We teach students functionally equivalent alternative behaviors that are socially appropriate and yet met the needs of the individual. Furthermore, we discuss the importance of teaching individuals with Asperger syndrome critical skills, including communication skills, self-management skills, and how to deal with anxiety. PMID:17354569

  2. The Source for Asperger's Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Timothy P.

    This book is intended as a comprehensive source of information on the diagnosis and treatment of Asperger syndrome. Chapter 1 discusses major classification of characteristics and chapter 2 describes prevalence, comorbidity, and causal factors of Asperger syndrome. Chapter 3 examines clinical diagnosis and misdiagnosis and the influence of…

  3. Asperger's in the Holmes family.

    PubMed

    Altschuler, Eric L

    2013-09-01

    I show that Mycroft Holmes (Sherlock Holmes' brother) is a formally described case of Asperger's syndrome a half century before Asperger's description of the syndrome. Further, given the genetic similarity and links between the brothers stated by Sherlock, this also cinches the same diagnosis for Sherlock. PMID:23381486

  4. Understanding Asperger's through Cinematherapy: Part I--"Parenthood"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Leighann; Pennington, Brianna

    2011-01-01

    "Parenthood" is a television show that revolves around one family, the Bravermans, including several adult siblings and their respective families. Two parents, Adam and Kristina, have a son named Max. The show follows them as they notice Max's curious behavior and his diagnosis with Asperger's syndrome (AS) early in Season 1. This article details…

  5. Brief Report: Should the DSM V Drop Asperger Syndrome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaziuddin, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    The DSM IV defines Asperger syndrome (AS) as a pervasive developmental (autistic spectrum) disorder characterized by social deficits and rigid focused interests in the absence of language impairment and cognitive delay. Since its inclusion in the DSM-IV, there has been a dramatic increase in its recognition both in children and adults. However,…

  6. Asperger Syndrome and Schizophrenia: A Comparative Neuropsychological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinopoulou, Maria; Lugnegård, Tove; Unenge Hallerbäck, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in possible connections between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia in the last decade. Neuropsychological comparison studies have, however, been few. The present study examined similarities and differences in intellectual and executive functioning between adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) and…

  7. Health Literacy and Adult Basic Education Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golbeck, Amanda L.; Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R.; Paschal, Angelia M.

    2005-01-01

    Adult basic education (ABE) is an ideal venue for developing health literacy skills. Literacy and numeracy assessments used in ABE were identified and the most common were examined for health components. Only the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS) included health. The two most common health literacy assessments used in general…

  8. Teaching Adult Learners: An Assessment, A Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Susan C.; And Others

    A resource for adult educators, this guide was developed as a teacher aid to be used with "Learning Activities for Adults," a curriculum supplement developed by adult education teachers in Florida that is based on Florida's Minimum Student Performance Standards. This assessment and resource is divided into five general knowledge areas: adult…

  9. Adult Literacy and Numeracy: Assessing Change. Adult Literacy Research Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, J. Joy, Ed.; van Kraayenoord, Christina E., Ed.

    This document contains eight papers from an action research program to foster good practice in adult literacy provision and policy. "Introduction" (J. Joy Cumming, Christina E. van Kraayenoord) presents an overview of the action research project and individual reports. "Assessment: Making a Difference in Adult Literacy and Numeracy Learning" (J.…

  10. Agreement in Multi-Informant Assessment of Behaviour and Emotional Problems and Social Functioning in Adolescents with Autistic and Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jepsen, Matthew I.; Gray, Kylie M.; Taffe, John R.

    2012-01-01

    There is a paucity of evidence concerning the patterns of multi-informant agreement in populations with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study compared ratings of behaviour and emotional problems and social functioning provided by 45 adolescents aged 12-18 years, with Autistic or Asperger's Disorder with ratings by their parents and teachers.…

  11. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  12. Asperger's syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Carol M.

    1987-01-01

    A case report is presented of an 11-year-old boy who has been diagnosed as having Asperger's syndrome. There follows a review of the clinical features, course, prognosis and management of this condition. PMID:2453672

  13. Young Adult Literature and Alternative Assessment Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The principal purpose of assessment, regardless of teaching level, should be to guide instruction. Unlike evaluation, the goal of assessment is not to arrive at a grade for students. Rather, it is to inform the educator as to what needs to be addressed in the classroom. Assessment in a young adult literature (YAL) curriculum is no different. Its…

  14. Brief Report: Human Figure Drawings by Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Hui Keow; Slaughter, Virginia

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-nine children with Asperger's syndrome and 28 typically developing children, matched on gender, chronological age and nonverbal IQ, were asked to produce a free drawing, then requested to draw a person, a house and a tree. The drawings were scored using standardized procedures for assessing accuracy, detail and complexity. There were no…

  15. Predictive Validity of Self-Report Questionnaires in the Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sizoo, Bram B.; Horwitz, E. H.; Teunisse, J. P.; Kan, C. C.; Vissers, C. T. W. M.; Forceville, E. J. M.; Van Voorst, A. J. P.; Geurts, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    While various screening instruments for autism spectrum disorders are widely used in diagnostic assessments, their psychometric properties have not been simultaneously evaluated in the outpatient setting where these instruments are used most. In this study, we tested the Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised and two short versions of the…

  16. Brief Report: The Impact of Changing from DSM-IV "Asperger's" to DSM-5 "Autistic Spectrum Disorder" Diagnostic Labels on Stigma and Treatment Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohan, Jeneva L.; Ellefson, Sarah E.; Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    In the DSM-5, "Asperger's Disorder" was incorporated into "Autistic Spectrum Disorder" (ASD). One key concern in this change has been that the ASD label will increase negative attitudes relative to the Asperger's label. To test this, we asked 465 American adults to read a vignette describing a child with autistic symptoms that…

  17. "I Just Don't Fit Anywhere": Support Experiences and Future Support Needs of Individuals with Asperger Syndrome in Middle Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Gemma M.; Totsika, Vasiliki; Nash, Susie; Hastings, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    The experiences of individuals in middle adulthood with Asperger syndrome have been the subject of little previous research, especially in terms of their experience of support services. In the present research, 11 adults with Asperger syndrome were interviewed. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used to interpret the interviews.…

  18. Challenging Stereotypes: Sexual Functioning of Single Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, E. Sandra; Nichols, Shana; Voyer, Susan D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the sexual functioning of single adults (61 men, 68 women) with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome living in the community with and without prior relationship experience. Participants completed an on-line questionnaire assessing autism symptoms, psychological functioning, and various aspects of sexual functioning. In…

  19. Cognitive Processes in ADHD and Asperger's Disorder: Overlaps and Differences in PASS Profiles.

    PubMed

    Taddei, Stefano; Contena, Bastianina

    2013-11-01

    Objective: Many studies report on the usefulness of the evaluation of Executive Functions (EF) in the assessment of participants with ADHD, while others underline how deficits of EF in these participants are not consistent and that the same executive deficits are present in many other disorders, particularly in Asperger's disorder. Using the Planning Attention Simultaneous Successive (PASS) theory, the present study explores the cognitive profiles of participants with ADHD or Asperger's disorder and compares the cognitive functioning of these two diagnostic groups. Method: Forty-four children, 24 with a diagnosis of ADHD and 20 with a diagnosis of Asperger's disorder, participated and their cognitive processes were evaluated with the Cognitive Assessment System. Results: Results underline specific cognitive profiles in ADHD and Asperger's disorder characterized by weaknesses in planning and attention, but with a diverse level of severity. Conclusion: Implications of the different cognitive profiles of these diagnostic groups are discussed. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX). PMID:24196344

  20. Feasibility and validity of ecological momentary assessment in adolescents with high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder.

    PubMed

    Khor, Angela S; Gray, Kylie M; Reid, Sophie C; Melvin, Glenn A

    2014-01-01

    Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) may increase accuracy of data compared with retrospective questionnaires by assessing behaviours as they occur, hence decreasing recall biases and increasing ecological validity. This study examined the feasibility and concurrent validity of an EMA tool for adolescents with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (HFASD). Thirty-one adolescents with HFASD completed a mobile phone EMA application that assessed stressors and coping for two weeks. Parents and adolescents also completed retrospective measures of the adolescent's coping/stressors. Moderate compliance with the EMA tool was achieved and some concurrent validity was established with the retrospective measure of coping. Concordance was found between the types of stressors reported by parents and adolescents but not the quantity. The results suggest adolescents with HFASD are capable of reporting on their stressors and coping via EMA. EMA has the potential to be a valuable research tool in this population. PMID:24331303

  1. Stimulus-Reward Association and Reversal Learning in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalla, Tiziana; Sav, Anca-Maria; Leboyer, Marion

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, performance of a group of adults with Asperger Syndrome (AS) on two series of object reversal and extinction was compared with that of a group of adults with typical development. Participants were requested to learn a stimulus-reward association rule and monitor changes in reward value of stimuli in order to gain as many…

  2. Repetitive Behaviour and Obsessive-Compulsive Features in Asperger Syndrome: Parental and Self-Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewrang, Petra; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2011-01-01

    Symptoms of repetitive, obsessive and compulsive behaviour were explored in a group of adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome and compared to a typically developing group. By means of self-evaluations and an interview regarding such symptoms with the adolescents and young adults and parental evaluations, the parents retrospectively…

  3. A Qualitative Analysis of the School Experiences of Students with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciutto, Mark; Richwine, Sally; Mentrikoski, Janelle; Niedzwiecki, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    In this study, adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) and caregivers of children with AS provided firsthand accounts of school-related challenges and influential instructional practices. A total of 94 participants (59 parents, 27 adults with AS, and 8 unspecified) completed an online survey containing open-ended questions about their (or their…

  4. Brief Report: Biochemical Correlates of Clinical Impairment in High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Richards, Todd; Weaver, Kurt E.; Liang, Olivia; Dawson, Geraldine; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Amygdala dysfunction has been proposed as a critical contributor to social impairment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The current study investigated biochemical abnormalities in the amygdala in 20 high functioning adults with autistic disorder or Asperger's disorder and 19 typically developing adults matched on age and IQ. Magnetic resonance…

  5. Parental migration and Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lehti, Venla; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Gissler, Mika; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Brown, Alan S; Sourander, Andre

    2015-08-01

    Parental immigration has been suggested as a possible risk factor for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but findings have been inconsistent. Very few studies have focused specifically on Asperger's syndrome. The aim of this study was to examine the association between maternal and paternal immigration and the diagnosis of Asperger's syndrome in offspring. The study was a nested case-control study based on a national birth cohort in Finland. Children born in 1987-2005 and diagnosed with Asperger's syndrome by the year 2007 were identified from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (N = 1,783). Four matched controls for each case were selected from the Finnish Medical Birth Register (N = 7,106). Information on maternal and paternal country of birth and mother tongue was collected from the Finnish Central Population Register. The study showed that children whose parents are both immigrants have a significantly lower likelihood of being diagnosed with Asperger's syndrome than those with two Finnish parents [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.2, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.1-0.4]. No significant associations were found between having only one immigrant parent and the diagnosis of Asperger's syndrome. A regional analysis showed a significantly decreased likelihood of the diagnosis of Asperger's syndrome in children whose mother (aOR 0.1, 95 % CI 0.01-0.5) or father (aOR 0.2, 95 % CI 0.05-0.5) was born in Sub-Saharan Africa. The findings may help in identifying risk factors for different ASD subtypes. On the other hand, they might reflect service use of immigrant families in Finland. PMID:25381114

  6. [Environmental factors in Asperger syndrome].

    PubMed

    Abe, Takaaki; Kato, Satoshi

    2007-03-01

    This paper reviews what is currently known about the environmental factors in Asperger syndrome that is a neurodevelopmental disorder of genetic origins. Its characteristics tend to occur in families of those with the syndrome. The rate of complications during pregnancy or the neonatal period in the patients with Asperger syndrome was about the same as that in the control group. It is true that their involvement in their outer world could not influence the core social deficits very much. But it might facilitate the appearance of the second symptoms such as dissociation, anxiety, depression, persecutory delusion as well as antisocial behavior including serious criminal acts. PMID:17354554

  7. Introducing MASC: A Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziobek, Isabel; Fleck, Stefan; Kalbe, Elke; Rogers, Kimberley; Hassenstab, Jason; Brand, Matthias; Kessler, Josef; Woike, Jan K.; Wolf, Oliver T.; Convit, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    In the present study we introduce a sensitive video-based test for the evaluation of subtle mindreading difficulties: the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC). This new mindreading tool involves watching a short film and answering questions referring to the actors' mental states. A group of adults with Asperger syndrome (n = 19) and…

  8. Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC): Spanish Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahera, G.; Boada, L.; Pousa, E.; Mirapeix, I.; Morón-Nozaleda, G.; Marinas, L.; Gisbert, L.; Pamiàs, M.; Parellada, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present the Spanish validation of the "Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition" instrument (MASC-SP). We recruited 22 adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome and 26 participants with typical development. The MASC-SP and three other social cognition instruments (Ekman Pictures of Facial Affect test, Reading the Mind in…

  9. Asperger Syndrome and Medication Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Luke Y.

    2007-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) is a neurobiological disorder whose core clinical symptoms include impairment in social interaction, impairments in verbal and nonverbal communication, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. AS is often accompanied by coexisting neuropsychiatric disorders, including…

  10. Narrative Representations of Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This discussion focuses on literary works written by individuals with Asperger's Syndrome (AS), a Pervasive Developmental Disorder that causes severe impairment in social development. Individuals with AS have trouble understanding their own emotions as well as the feelings of others; they are not able to read social cues and facial expressions;…

  11. Higher Education and Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jennifer Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Asperger's syndrome, first listed in the American Psychiatric Association's manual of mental disorders in 1994, affects two to six of every 1,000 Americans, according to the National Institutes of Health. People who have the disorder often have social difficulties, verbal and nonverbal communication problems, and repetitive and restricted…

  12. Boys with Asperger Syndrome Grow Up: Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Disorders 20 Years After Initial Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gillberg, I Carina; Helles, Adam; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We examined comorbid psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders in fifty adult males (mean age 30 years) with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood and followed up prospectively for almost two decades (13-26 years). Only three of the 50 men had never met criteria for an additional psychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnosis and more than half had ongoing comorbidity (most commonly either ADHD or depression or both). Any psychiatric comorbidity increased the risk of poorer outcome. The minority of the AS group who no longer met criteria for a full diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder were usually free of current psychiatric comorbidity. The high rate of psychiatric/neurodevelopmental comorbidities underscores the need for a full psychiatric/neurodevelopmental assessment at follow-up of males with AS. PMID:26210519

  13. An islet of social ability in Asperger Syndrome: judging social attributes from faces.

    PubMed

    White, Sarah; Hill, Elisabeth; Winston, Joel; Frith, Uta

    2006-06-01

    We asked adults with Asperger Syndrome to judge pictorial stimuli in terms of certain social stereotypes to evaluate to what extent they have access to this type of social knowledge. Sixteen adults with Asperger Syndrome and 24 controls, matched for age and intelligence, were presented with sets of faces, bodies and objects, which had to be rated on a 7-point scale in terms of trustworthiness, attractiveness, social status, and age, or, in the case of objects, price. Despite impaired performance on two important aspects of social cognition (second-order mentalizing and face recognition) the social judgements of the individuals with Asperger Syndrome were just as competent and consistent as those of their matched controls, with only one exception: there was a trend for them to be less able to judge the attractiveness of faces if they were the same sex. We explain this difference in terms of a weakness in mentalizing, specifically the ability to take a different point of view: While all other stereotypic attributions could be made from an egocentric point of view, judging the attractiveness of faces of one's own sex requires taking the perspective of someone of the opposite sex, a challenge for people with mentalizing problems. We conclude that individuals with Asperger Syndrome show preserved aspects of social knowledge, as revealed in the attribution of stereotypes to pictures of people. These findings suggest that there are dissociable subcomponents to social cognition and that not all of these are compromised in Asperger Syndrome. PMID:16458402

  14. Assessing shyness in Chinese older adults.

    PubMed

    Chou, Kee-Lee

    2005-09-01

    The Shyness Scale (SS) is a brief instrument for assessing shyness as a personality trait. The psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the SS were investigated in a random sample of 192 Macau Chinese older adults. The Chinese version of the SS possesses high internal consistency and exhibited satisfactory short-term test-retest reliability. The Chinese version of the SS exhibited acceptable convergent validity with other negative measures of psychological well-being including negative emotional states (assessed by the Negative Affect Scale), loneliness (assessed by the UCLA Loneliness Scale), and state anxiety and trait anxiety (assessed by STAI). The divergent validity of the Chinese version of the SS was demonstrated by the negative but significant association between the SS and self esteem (assessed by Rosenberg Self Esteem Inventory). PMID:16024405

  15. Creating a Positive Elementary Environment for Asperger Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batesko, Mary Lee

    2007-01-01

    Asperger's Syndrome is a neurological based disorder that primarily affects a person's ability to be successful with social relationships. Asperger's Disorder or Asperger's Syndrome is defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (2000) as, "The essential features of Asperger's Disorder are severe and…

  16. A review on adult pragmatic assessments

    PubMed Central

    Sobhani Rad, Davood

    2014-01-01

    Pragmatics is defined as appropriate use of language either to comprehend ideas or to interact in social situations effectively. Pragmatic competence, which is processed in the right hemisphere, comprises a number of interrelated skills that manifest in a range of adaptive behaviors. Due to the widespread influence of language in communication, studying pragmatic profiles, by developing appropriate tools, is of importance. Here, a range of pragmatic theories and assessment instruments available for use in adult patients is reviewed. PMID:25422728

  17. [Asperger syndrome - a fashionable diagnosis?].

    PubMed

    Haker, Helene

    2014-10-01

    The Asperger Syndrome is - in contrast to early childhood autism - a disorder at the lighter end of the autism spectrum. Although first described in 1943, it was included in the ICD-10 not before 1992. The knowledge about this lighter autistic disorder spread only slowly. The increasing prevalence rates can be explained by the increased knowledge about this disorder and the growing clinical experience. In contrast to the public that gives repeated medial attention to it, and to would-be affected who seem to see an attractive excuse for social problems in an Asperger diagnosis, many psychiatrists appear cautious to state a diagnosis with which they are not familiar and which is discredited as a fashionable diagnosis. PMID:25270748

  18. Asperger's disorder will be back.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Luke Y

    2013-12-01

    This review focuses on identifying up-to-date number of publications that compared DSM-IV/ICD-10 Asperger's disorder (AspD) to Autistic Disorder/High-functioning Autism (AD/HFA). One hundred and twenty-eight publications were identified through an extensive search of major electronic databases and journals. Based on more than 90 clinical variables been investigated, 94 publications concluded that there were statistically significant or near significant level of quantitative and/or qualitative differences between AspD and AD/HFA groups; 4 publications found both similarities and differences between the two groups; 30 publications concluded with no differences between the two groups. Although DSM-5 ASD will eliminate Asperger's disorder. However, it is plausible to predict that the field of ASD would run full circle during the next decade or two and that AspD will be back in the next edition of DSM. PMID:23644916

  19. Nonverbal Expression in Autism of Asperger Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tantam, Digby; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Two experiments evaluated the social interactions of 15 Asperger-type autistic subjects with either normal or schizoid control subjects. Asperger subjects tended to avoid gazing at the interviewer when the interviewer was talking. Results suggest that a lifelong absence of gaze response to social clues including speech may explain some features of…

  20. Asperger Syndrome: Associated Psychiatric and Medical Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaziuddin, Mohammad

    2002-01-01

    This article explores the association of medical and psychiatric conditions with Asperger syndrome, based mainly on publications from the last two decades. It examines comorbidity of Asperger syndrome with mood disorders, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, tic disorders, violence and aggression,…

  1. Iron Deficiency in Autism and Asperger Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latif, A.; Heinz, P.; Cook, R.

    2002-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of the full blood count and, when available, serum ferritin measurements of 96 children (52 with autism and 44 with Asperger syndrome) found six autistic children had iron deficiency and 12 of the 23 autistic children with serum ferritin measures were iron deficient. Far fewer Asperger children were iron deficient. Results…

  2. Avoidance of Emotionally Arousing Stimuli Predicts Social-Perceptual Impairment in Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corden, Ben; Chilvers, Rebecca; Skuse, David

    2008-01-01

    We combined eye-tracking technology with a test of facial affect recognition and a measure of self-reported social anxiety in order to explore the aetiology of social-perceptual deficits in Asperger's syndrome (AS). Compared to controls matched for age, IQ and visual-perceptual ability, we found a group of AS adults was impaired in their…

  3. Brief Report: Should Asperger Syndrome Be Excluded from the Forthcoming DSM-V?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaland, Nils

    2011-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) is a "pervasive developmental disorder," characterized by social impairments and focused, circumscribed interests and activities in the absence of significant language impairment and cognitive delay. Since its inclusion in the DSM-IV, there has been a dramatic increase in its recognition both in children and adults. Some…

  4. Faux Pas Detection and Intentional Action in Asperger Syndrome. A Replication on a French Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalla, Tiziana; Sav, Anca-Maria; Stopin, Astrid; Ahade, Sabrina; Leboyer, Marion

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated mindreading abilities in a group of adults with Asperger Syndrome (AS) by using the faux pas task, an advanced test of theory of mind (Baron-Cohen et al. (1999). "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29," 407-418). The faux pas is a particular case of a non-intentional action reflecting an…

  5. Mental and Behavioral Symptoms of Person's with Asperger's Syndrome: Relationships with Social Isolation and Handicaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tani, Masayuki; Kanai, Chieko; Ota, Haruhisa; Yamada, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiromi; Yokoi, Hideki; Takayama, Yuko; Ono, Taisei; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Kato, Nobumasa; Iwanami, Akira

    2012-01-01

    People with Asperger's syndrome (AS) experience mental comorbidities, and behavioral symptoms that can deepen social isolation and handicaps. We compared the frequency of mental and behavioral symptoms, motor abnormality, and life history between adults with AS and those with no mental disorders but with disturbance of social functions and…

  6. Aripiprazole Improved Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Asperger's Disorder.

    PubMed

    Celik, Gonca; Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Firat, Sunay; Avci, Ayşe

    2011-12-01

    There are many comorbid disorders associated with autism spectrum disorders in child and adolescent population. Although obsessive compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comorbidity has common in clinical practice, there are few reports about psychopharmacological treatment for obsessive compulsive symptoms in children with ASD in the literacy. We report a successful treatment case with aripiprazole in Asperger's Disorder with obsessive compulsive symptoms. The Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale was performed to assess symptom variety. This case report supports the effectiveness of aripiprazole in treatment of obsessive compulsive symptoms in Asperger's Disorder or ASDs. Aripiprazole may be beneficial to obsessive compulsive disorder comorbid autism spectrum disorders in child and adolescent age group. PMID:23429759

  7. Brief report: cognitive performance in autism and Asperger's syndrome: what are the differences?

    PubMed

    Taddei, Stefano; Contena, Bastianina

    2013-12-01

    Autism spectrum disorders include autistic and Asperger's Syndrome (AS), often studied in terms of executive functions (EF), with controversial results. Using Planning Attention Simultaneous Successive theory (PASS; Das et al. in Assessment of cognitive processes: the PASS theory of intelligence. Allyn and Bacon, Boston, MA, 1994), this research compares the cognitive profiles obtained by the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS; Naglieri and Das in Cognitive assessment system. Riverside, Itasca, IL, 1997) of 15 subjects with typical development, 18 with autistic disorder and 20 with AS. Results highlight lower profiles for children with autistic and AS compared with typical development and even lower Planning and Attention processes for the group with autistic disorders than that with Asperger's. Subjects with Asperger's diagnosis do not differ from those with typical development as regards Simultaneous and Successive processes. Results are discussed in the light of current studies about EF. PMID:23609958

  8. Authentic Literacy Assessment: NASA Technology Addressing Adult Illiteracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaden, David B. Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This article gives a brief overview of issues in adult literacy; an assessment of workplace literacy; and components, concepts, and steps of the NASA Adult Literacy Evaluator project. The Adult Literacy Evaluator project applies NASA's technical experience to the problem of adult literacy and workplace literacy by finding ways to use interactive…

  9. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Adult Asperger Assessment: The Association of Symptom Domains within a Clinical Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuenssberg, Renate; McKenzie, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a behaviourally defined disorder characterised by impairments in three domains of social interaction, communication, and repetitive, stereotyped behaviours and activities. Proposed changes to diagnostic criteria suggest that the diagnostic triad may no longer fit as the best way to conceptualise ASD, and that…

  10. (Re-)Conceptualisation in Asperger's Syndrome and Typical Individuals with Varying Degrees of Autistic-Like Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Hollie G.; Jellema, Tjeerd

    2013-01-01

    The abilities to form new concepts from scratch (conceptualisation), and to flexibly switch from one concept to another (re-conceptualisation), were investigated in adults with Asperger's Syndrome and in typically-developed adults with low and high autism spectrum quotients. In consecutively presented morphs, containing increasing percentages of…

  11. Relationship between Motor Skill Impairment and Severity in Children with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Claudia; Wente, Lyndsay; LaVesser, Patricia; Ito, Max; Reed, Carol; Herzberg, Georgiana

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the correlation between severity and motor impairment in children with Asperger syndrome (AS). Children, ages 6-12 with AS (N = 51) and a control group of typical children (N = 56), were assessed using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Movement Assessment Battery For Children (MABC). A bivariate correlational design…

  12. The construction and evaluation of three measures of affectionate behaviour for children with Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sofronoff, Kate; Lee, Jessica; Sheffield, Jeanie; Attwood, Tony

    2014-11-01

    Children with Asperger's syndrome are often reported by their parents as having difficulties communicating affection. This study aimed to develop a valid measure of affectionate behaviour that could be used to investigate and quantify these anecdotal reports and then be used in further intervention research. Using parent and expert focus groups, three measures (Affection for Others Questionnaire, Affection for You Questionnaire and General Affection Questionnaire) were developed with reference to the existing affection literature. The measures were completed by 131 parents of children with a clinician-confirmed diagnosis of Asperger's syndrome. Psychometric assessment of the measures revealed clear factor structures with high internal consistencies and significant concurrent validities. The findings suggest many children with Asperger's syndrome have difficulties with affectionate behaviour that significantly impact their daily functioning and relationships with others, signalling future research needs to develop interventions in this area. Limitations of the research are also discussed. PMID:24343335

  13. The McGurk effect in children with autism and Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bebko, James M; Schroeder, Jessica H; Weiss, Jonathan A

    2014-02-01

    Children with autism may have difficulties in audiovisual speech perception, which has been linked to speech perception and language development. However, little has been done to examine children with Asperger syndrome as a group on tasks assessing audiovisual speech perception, despite this group's often greater language skills. Samples of children with autism, Asperger syndrome, and Down syndrome, as well as a typically developing sample, were presented with an auditory-only condition, a speech-reading condition, and an audiovisual condition designed to elicit the McGurk effect. Children with autism demonstrated unimodal performance at the same level as the other groups, yet showed a lower rate of the McGurk effect compared with the Asperger, Down and typical samples. These results suggest that children with autism may have unique intermodal speech perception difficulties linked to their representations of speech sounds. PMID:24136870

  14. Assessing the Literacy Skills of Adult Immigrants and Adult English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrigley, Heide Spruck; Chen, Jing; White, Sheida; Soroui, Jaleh

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines the characteristics and performance of adult immigrants and adult English language learners on the National Assessment of Adult Literacy. These factors are related to key social outcomes such as involvement in the labor force, income, and welfare participation, and the data reported can be used in making decisions about…

  15. Giftedness and Asperger's Syndrome: A New Agenda for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Shelagh A.; Gallagher, James J.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the characteristics of students with Asperger syndrome and discusses identifying students with Asperger syndrome who are also gifted. Classroom interventions for these twice exceptional students are addressed and the need for intervention that is highly individualized is stressed. Diagnostic criteria for Asperger's disorder…

  16. Asperger Syndrome: A Guide for Educators and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myles, Brenda Smith; Simpson, Richard L.

    This book provides basic information about Asperger Syndrome by addressing issues related to the characteristics of the disorder and outlining basic methods to facilitate the growth and development of children and youth with Asperger Syndrome. Chapter 1, "Understanding the Meaning and Nature of Asperger Syndrome," provides the diagnostic criteria…

  17. Which Is It? Asperger's Syndrome or Giftedness? Defining the Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Cindy

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the differences between individuals with Asperger syndrome and gifted individuals. It describes the characteristics of students with Asperger syndrome, including highly literal speech, intensive focus, difficulties in social behavior, and inability to mind read. Characteristics of gifted students with Asperger syndrome are…

  18. Naturalistic Intervention for Asperger Syndrome: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Serene Hyun-Jin; Nieminen, Timo A.

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of their cognitive abilities, children with Asperger syndrome are attractive candidates for inclusive education and, in Australia, most are in integrated settings. However, social interaction between children with Asperger syndrome and their peers remains problematic, with the children with Asperger syndrome often being left alone…

  19. Use of a Social Story Intervention To Improve Mealtime Skills of an Adolescent with Asperger Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bledsoe, Rebecca; Myles, Brenda Smith; Simpson, Richard L.

    2003-01-01

    A study assessed the utility of a social story intervention to improve the lunchtime eating behaviors of an adolescent with Asperger syndrome. The social story program resulted in a decrease in the number of food and drink skills and an increase in the frequency of appropriate mouth-wiping during school lunch. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  20. Brief Report: Cognitive Performance in Autism and Asperger's Syndrome: What Are the Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taddei, Stefano; Contena, Bastianina

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders include autistic and Asperger's Syndrome (AS), often studied in terms of executive functions (EF), with controversial results. Using Planning Attention Simultaneous Successive theory (PASS; Das et al. in "Assessment of cognitive processes: the PASS theory of intelligence." Allyn and Bacon, Boston, MA,…

  1. Differentiating Autism and Asperger Syndrome on the Basis of Language Delay or Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Terry; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Volden, Joanne; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Vaccarella, Liezanne; Duku, Eric; Boyle, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) is differentiated from high-functioning autism (HFA) largely on a history of "language delay." This study examined "specific language impairment" as a predictor of outcome. Language skills of 19 children with AS and 45 with HFA were assessed at 4-6 years of age (Time 1) and 2 years later (Time 2). Children's symptoms and…

  2. Comparing Neuropsychological Profiles between Girls with Asperger's Disorder and Girls with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Megan E.; Culotta, Vincent P.

    2012-01-01

    Research examining neuropsychological profiles of girls with Asperger's disorder (AD) is sparse. In this study, we sought to characterize neurocognitive profiles of girls with AD compared to girls with learning disabilities (LD). Two groups of school-age girls referred for neuropsychological assessment participated in the study. A total of 23…

  3. From Acoustics to Grammar: Perceiving and Interpreting Grammatical Prosody in Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevallier, Coralie; Noveck, Ira; Happe, Francesca; Wilson, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    We report findings concerning the understanding of prosody in Asperger Syndrome (AS), a topic which has attracted little attention and led to contradictory results. Ability to understand grammatical prosody was tested in three novel experiments. Experiment 1 assessed the interpretation of word stress, Experiment 2 focused on grammatical pauses,…

  4. Estimation of the Intelligence Quotient Using Wechsler Intelligence Scales in Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchan-Naranjo, Jessica; Mayoral, Maria; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Llorente, Cloe; Boada, Leticia; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) patients show heterogeneous intelligence profiles and the validity of short forms for estimating intelligence has rarely been studied in this population. We analyzed the validity of Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WIS) short forms for estimating full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and assessing intelligence profiles in 29…

  5. Brief report: the impact of changing from DSM-IV 'Asperger's' to DSM-5 'autistic spectrum disorder' diagnostic labels on stigma and treatment attitudes.

    PubMed

    Ohan, Jeneva L; Ellefson, Sarah E; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2015-10-01

    In the DSM-5, 'Asperger's Disorder' was incorporated into 'Autistic Spectrum Disorder' (ASD). One key concern in this change has been that the ASD label will increase negative attitudes relative to the Asperger's label. To test this, we asked 465 American adults to read a vignette describing a child with autistic symptoms that included an ASD label, an Asperger's label, or no label, and rate their stigma and treatment attitudes (help-seeking and perceived effectiveness). Contrary to predictions, label did not impact stigma. Label did impact treatment attitudes, with greater help-seeking and perceived treatment effectiveness for both Asperger's and ASD labels. In sum, concern that the ASD label will increase negative perceptions, at least amongst the general public, is not supported. PMID:26043847

  6. The Forgotten: Formal Assessment of the Adult Writer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Daniel J.; Curry, Toi L.

    2013-01-01

    This review of current writing assessment practices focuses upon the adult population, an area significantly underrepresented within psychoeducational literature. As compared to other populations, such as K-12 students, there are few options for the practitioner wishing to evaluate adult writers by means of standardized assessment instruments.…

  7. 'DSM-V is taking away our identity': the reaction of the online community to the proposed changes in the diagnosis of Asperger's disorder.

    PubMed

    Giles, David C

    2014-03-01

    This article considers the fate of Asperger's disorder in the light of proposals for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) to collapse Asperger's disorder along with other pervasive developmental disorders into a general spectrum of autism. It is argued that a powerful lay and scientific culture has evolved around the concept of Asperger's disorder, which has found a particularly compelling voice over the last decade in the online Asperger community, with websites such as Wrong Planet recruiting tens of thousands of members. In order to assess the impact of these proposed changes on the online Asperger community, 19 threads on the topic of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) are analysed according to the arguments that community members put forward in favour of, or in opposition to, the proposals. Many members embrace the notion of the spectrum and have already coined a new identity - 'spectrumite' - to adapt to the diagnostic shift. Others, however, are suspicious of the motives behind the absorption of Asperger's disorder, and potential threats to the provision of services as well as the strong 'aspie' identity that reflects the large literature and the online public sphere around Asperger's disorder. To what extent this culture poses a challenge to the authority of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is uncertain at present. PMID:23739773

  8. Enhancing the Conversation Skills of a Boy with Asperger's Disorder through Social Stories[TM] and Video Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scattone, Dorothy

    2008-01-01

    This study combined Social Stories with video modeling in an effort to enhance the conversation skills of a boy with Asperger's Disorder. Treatment consisted of two components: (a) observation of video taped Social Stories that included two adults modeling targeted conversational skills and (b) 5-min social interactions. A multiple baseline design…

  9. Social Challenges and Supports from the Perspective of Individuals with Asperger Syndrome and Other Autism Spectrum Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Eve; Schuler, Adriana; Yates, Gregory B.

    2008-01-01

    The study describes the perspectives of individuals with Asperger syndrome and other autism spectrum disabilities (ASDs) regarding social challenges and supports. Eighteen adults with ASDs were individually interviewed. They were asked to describe their experiences navigating their social worlds, and recommend effective social supports and…

  10. Support for Learning Goes beyond Academic Support: Voices of Students with Asperger's Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolic Baric, Vedrana; Hellberg, Kristina; Kjellberg, Anette; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and explore the experiences of support at school among young adults with Asperger's disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and also to examine what support they, in retrospect, described as influencing learning. Purposive sampling was used to enroll participants. Data were collected through…

  11. Oral Language Impairments in Developmental Disorders Characterized by Language Strengths: A Comparison of Asperger Syndrome and Nonverbal Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stothers, M. E.; Cardy, J. Oram

    2012-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) and nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) are developmental disorders in which linguistic ability is reported to be stronger than in disorders from which they must be distinguished for diagnosis. Children and adults with AS and NLD share pragmatic weaknesses, atypical social behaviours, and some cognitive features. To date,…

  12. Boys with Asperger Syndrome Grow Up: Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Disorders 20 Years after Initial Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, I. Carina; Helles, Adam; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We examined comorbid psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders in fifty adult males (mean age 30 years) with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood and followed up prospectively for almost two decades (13-26 years). Only three of the 50 men had "never" met criteria for an additional psychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnosis and…

  13. Memory for Self-Performed Actions in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zalla, Tiziana; Daprati, Elena; Sav, Anca-Maria; Chaste, Pauline; Nico, Daniele; Leboyer, Marion

    2010-01-01

    Memory for action is enhanced if individuals are allowed to perform the corresponding movements, compared to when they simply listen to them (enactment effect). Previous studies have shown that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have difficulties with processes involving the self, such as autobiographical memories and self performed actions. The present study aimed at assessing memory for action in Asperger Syndrome (AS). We investigated whether adults with AS would benefit from the enactment effect when recalling a list of previously performed items vs. items that were only visually and verbally experienced through three experimental tasks (Free Recall, Old/New Recognition and Source Memory). The results showed that while performance on Recognition and Source Memory tasks was preserved in individuals with AS, the enactment effect for self-performed actions was not consistently present, as revealed by the lower number of performed actions being recalled on the Free Recall test, as compared to adults with typical development. Subtle difficulties in encoding specific motor and proprioceptive signals during action execution in individuals with AS might affect retrieval of relevant personal episodic information. These disturbances might be associated to an impaired action monitoring system. PMID:20967277

  14. History and First Descriptions of Autism: Asperger Versus Kanner Revisited.

    PubMed

    Chown, Nick; Hughes, Liz

    2016-06-01

    When reading Michael Fitzgerald's chapter entitled 'Autism: Asperger's Syndrome-History and First Descriptions' in 'Asperger's Disorder' edited by Rausch, Johnson and Casanova, a while ago, one of us was struck by his contention that Kanner was guilty of plagiarism as well as non-attribution of Asperger's 1938 paper 'Das psychisch abnorme kind' (Fitzgerald in Asperger's disorder. Informa Healthcare, New York, 2008) published in a Vienna weekly. Steve Silberman has discovered evidence that Kanner rescued Asperger's chief diagnostician from the Nazis in 1944 so must have been aware of Asperger's work and conclusions. Fitzgerald was on the right track but it appears that Kanner may have plagiarised Asperger's ideas rather than his 1938 paper. PMID:26883648

  15. Assessment of adult neurogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yung-Wei; Wang, Wenbin; Xia, Zhengui

    2013-05-01

    Adult neurogenesis is a lifelong developmental process that occurs in two discrete regions in the adult mammalian brain: the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG) and the subventricular zone (SVZ) along the lateral ventricles. Despite immense interest in the therapeutic potential of adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) residing along these two neurogenic regions, molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating this process are not fully defined. Defining the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the genesis of new neurons in the adult brain is integral to understanding the basic biology of aNSCs. The techniques described here provide a basic blueprint to isolate, culture, and perform experiments using aNSCs in vitro as well as providing methods to perform immunohistochemistry on brain sections. Curr. Protoc. Toxicol. 56:12.20.1-12.20.16. © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:23670864

  16. Parents' Criticisms and Attributions about Their Adult Children with High Functioning Autism or Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Stephanie; Weisman de Mamani, Amy; Mundy, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the criticism component of expressed emotion (EE) and attributions in parents of adults diagnosed with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (S/SA) or high functioning autism/Asperger's. Consistent with study hypotheses, parents of adults diagnosed with autism/Asperger's disorder exhibited lower levels of high…

  17. The Importance of Interviewing Adults on the Autism Spectrum About Their Depression and Suicidal Ideation Experiences.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    This letter will summarise the current body of literature on adults with Asperger syndrome and their depression and suicidal ideation experiences. The purpose of this summary is to highlight the lack of published research on adults with Asperger syndrome or autism describing these experiences. PMID:26667149

  18. Predictive validity of self-report questionnaires in the assessment of autism spectrum disorders in adults.

    PubMed

    Sizoo, Bram B; Horwitz, E H; Teunisse, J P; Kan, C C; Vissers, Ctwm; Forceville, Ejm; Van Voorst, Ajp; Geurts, H M

    2015-10-01

    While various screening instruments for autism spectrum disorders are widely used in diagnostic assessments, their psychometric properties have not been simultaneously evaluated in the outpatient setting where these instruments are used most. In this study, we tested the Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised and two short versions of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient, the AQ-28 and AQ-10, in 210 patients referred for autism spectrum disorder assessment and in 63 controls. Of the 210 patients, 139 received an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis and 71 received another psychiatric diagnosis. The positive predictive values indicate that these tests correctly identified autism spectrum disorder patients in almost 80% of the referred cases. However, the negative predictive values suggest that only half of the referred patients without autism spectrum disorder were correctly identified. The sensitivity and specificity of each of these instruments were much lower than the values reported in the literature. In this study, the sensitivity of the Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised was the highest (73%), and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient short forms had the highest specificity (70% and 72%). Based on the similar area under the curve values, there is no clear preference for any of the three instruments. None of these instruments have sufficient validity to reliably predict a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in outpatient settings. PMID:26088060

  19. Can a Diagnosis of Asperger Syndrome Be Made in Very Young Children with Suspected Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConachie, Helen; Le Couteur, Ann; Honey, Emma

    2005-01-01

    Of a cohort of 104 children with Autism, PDD-NOS or specific language disorder, recruited at age 2-3 years of age, only three appeared to meet diagnostic assessment criteria for Asperger syndrome (AS). The children were followed up at 4-5 years, and assessments at both time points included the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R), the Autism…

  20. Inter-individual cognitive variability in children with Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Tripicchio, Paula; Rattazzi, Alexia; Baez, Sandra; Marino, Julian; Roca, Maria; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2014-01-01

    Multiple studies have tried to establish the distinctive profile of individuals with Asperger's syndrome (AS). However, recent reports suggest that adults with AS feature heterogeneous cognitive profiles. The present study explores inter-individual variability in children with AS through group comparison and multiple case series analysis. All participants completed an extended battery including measures of fluid and crystallized intelligence, executive functions, theory of mind, and classical neuropsychological tests. Significant group differences were found in theory of mind and other domains related to global information processing. However, the AS group showed high inter-individual variability (both sub- and supra-normal performance) on most cognitive tasks. Furthermore, high fluid intelligence correlated with less general cognitive impairment, high cognitive flexibility, and speed of motor processing. In light of these findings, we propose that children with AS are characterized by a distinct, uneven pattern of cognitive strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25132817

  1. Inter-individual cognitive variability in children with Asperger's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Tripicchio, Paula; Rattazzi, Alexia; Baez, Sandra; Marino, Julian; Roca, Maria; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2014-01-01

    Multiple studies have tried to establish the distinctive profile of individuals with Asperger's syndrome (AS). However, recent reports suggest that adults with AS feature heterogeneous cognitive profiles. The present study explores inter-individual variability in children with AS through group comparison and multiple case series analysis. All participants completed an extended battery including measures of fluid and crystallized intelligence, executive functions, theory of mind, and classical neuropsychological tests. Significant group differences were found in theory of mind and other domains related to global information processing. However, the AS group showed high inter-individual variability (both sub- and supra-normal performance) on most cognitive tasks. Furthermore, high fluid intelligence correlated with less general cognitive impairment, high cognitive flexibility, and speed of motor processing. In light of these findings, we propose that children with AS are characterized by a distinct, uneven pattern of cognitive strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25132817

  2. Asperger Syndrome: A Primer for Behavioral Interventionists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polirstok, Susan Rovet; Houghteling, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Children and adolescents with Asperger Syndrome are intellectually capable, rigid and often obsessive, adhere to stereotypic routines, demonstrate difficulties with pragmatic language and characteristically lack social skills. While the extent of these behaviors may wax and wane and vary by individual, they are in stark contrast with the high…

  3. Review of the Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sam

    2002-01-01

    The reliability, validity, and clinical utility of the Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Scale in the diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorders are reviewed. While the measure holds promise as a research tool, there appears little evidence that it can distinguish among the variety of types of pervasive developmental disorders, or diagnose Asperger…

  4. Facilitating Support for Students with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Yegan; Bhat, Christine Suniti

    2012-01-01

    The number of students with Asperger's Syndrome enrolled at tertiary institutions in the United States continues to increase. This can be attributed to: (a) the passage of legislations such as the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA); (b) revisions to the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual"…

  5. Language Abilities of Children with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saalasti, Satu; Lepisto, Tuulia; Toppila, Esko; Kujala, Teija; Laakso, Minna; Nieminen-von Wendt, Taina; von Wendt, Lennart; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira

    2008-01-01

    Current diagnostic taxonomies (ICD-10, DSM-IV) emphasize normal acquisition of language in Asperger syndrome (AS). Although many linguistic sub-skills may be fairly normal in AS there are also contradictory findings. There are only few studies examining language skills of children with AS in detail. The aim of this study was to study language…

  6. Comparison of Diagnostic Methods for Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopra, Kristiina; von Wendt, Lennart; Nieminen-von Wendt, Taina; Paavonen, E. Julia

    2008-01-01

    Several different diagnostic sets of criteria exist for Asperger syndrome (AS), but there is no agreement on a gold standard. The aim of this study was to compare four diagnostic sets of criteria for AS: the ICD-10, the DSM-IV, the Gillberg & Gillberg, and the Szatmari criteria. The series consists of 36 children who had been referred to two…

  7. Intervention ABCs for Children with Asperger Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.; Safran, Joan S.; Ellis, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    This article first describes the indicators of Asperger syndrome (AS), followed by an overview of screening and diagnostic procedures. Next, it discusses knowledge-based interventions addressing deficits in academics, behavior, and communication. Implications for speech language pathologists and related professionals working with students with…

  8. A Family History Study of Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaziuddin, Mohammad

    2005-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) is a childhood-onset disorder often described as a mild variant of autism. Although classified as a distinct disorder in the DSM-IV, its overlap with autism continues to be a matter of ongoing debate. While the family genetic origins of autism are well established, few studies have investigated this topic in AS using current…

  9. Sleep in Children with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paavonen, E. Juulia; Vehkalahti; Kimmo; Vanhala, Raija; von Wendt, Lennart; Nieminen-von Wendt, Taina; Aronen, Eeva T.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of sleep disturbances in 52 children with Asperger syndrome (AS) as compared with 61 healthy controls (all subjects aged 5-17 years) was investigated. Problems with sleep onset and maintenance, sleep-related fears, negative attitudes toward sleeping, and daytime somnolence were more frequent among children with AS than among…

  10. Emotional Modulation of Perception in Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corden, Ben; Chilvers, Rebecca; Skuse, David

    2008-01-01

    Using an attentional blink paradigm, we show that the typical enhancement of perception for emotionally arousing events is significantly reduced in Asperger's syndrome (AS) at short inter-target intervals. Control experiments demonstrate that this finding cannot be attributed to differences in the perceived arousal of the stimuli, or to a global…

  11. Educational Interventions for Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Harold C.; Griffin, Linda W.; Fitch, Christine W.; Albera, Veronica; Gingras, Happy

    2006-01-01

    Children with Asperger syndrome may frequently exhibit problems in the areas of social, behavioral, academic, motor, and sensory skills. Interventions are most effective if they are consistently implemented, use concrete information and visual structures, and utilize the assistance of parents, teachers, peers, and therapists.

  12. Asperger Syndrome: Advice for School Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamarine, Roland J.

    2001-01-01

    This guide to Asperger syndrome first reviews clinical features (such as social isolation and a lack of empathy) and diagnosis. It then considers epidemiology and prevalence data and offers a case study. Principles of management and education are discussed, including use of structured, routine regimens, focus on the child's strengths, guided…

  13. Perspectives of College Students with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the perspectives of college students with Asperger's syndrome (AS) concerning their primary social needs, and their experiences of how those social needs are met at the higher education level. Individuals with AS who were enrolled in or had completed at least one semester of an undergraduate program, or graduated from a college…

  14. Exploring the Perception of Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kite, Donna M.; Tyson, Graham A.; Gullifer, Judith M.

    2011-01-01

    With current preparation for the release of the fifth edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM-5) in 2013, many changes have been proposed for the diagnostic criteria, including changes to the pervasive development disorder category--of which Asperger's disorder is a part. Using focus group discussions this study…

  15. Napoleon Dynamite: Asperger's Disorder or Geek NOS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Hope W.; Schlozman, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Napoleon Dynamite, the quirky hit film from 2004, is a fascinating portrayal of a teenager with social difficulties. The character Napoleon provokes intriguing diagnostic questions in distinguishing between mental illness and the spectrum of normal behavior. He demonstrates several symptoms of Asperger's disorder, yet he also challenges the notion…

  16. Modified Assessment for Adult Readers: Collage. User's Guide. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilt, Gaie Isett

    A project was conducted to design an alternative assessment tool for use with adult learners traditionally identified as reading below fifth-grade level. This assessment allows for the creation of a goal-oriented Individual Education Plan that is personalized to the learner's needs and educational goals. The approach, analogous to the art…

  17. Asperger syndrome in India: findings from a case-series with respect to clinical profile and comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Sreedaran, Priya; Ashok, M V

    2015-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) is an autism spectrum disorder with a high rate of psychiatric comorbidity. We describe the clinical profile and psychiatric comorbidity in a series of affected individuals referred to an Indian general hospital psychiatry setting. Gilliam Asperger's disorder scale was used to evaluate the clinical characteristics while Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI)-KID and MINI-PLUS were used to assess psychiatric comorbidity. The profile of subjects with AS in our case-series appears similar to that published elsewhere with high rates of psychiatric comorbidity. Mental health professionals should evaluate for psychiatric comorbidity in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. PMID:25969609

  18. Aspergers--different, not less: occupational strengths and job interests of individuals with Asperger's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Timo; Heinitz, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Rooted in the neurodiversity approach, this study provides an overview of the strengths and interests of individuals with Asperger's Syndrome. We interviewed 136 individuals with Asperger's Syndrome and 155 neurotypical individuals via an online survey with regards to (a) demography, (b) occupational strengths, (c) general self-efficacy, (d) occupational self-efficacy, and (e) the job interest profile according to Holland. The vocational and educational fields of the individuals with Asperger's in the sample are more diverse than and surpass those classical fields stated in research and biographical literature. The comparison of both groups in cross-tables showed that the indicated strengths differ in several areas (ΦCramer = .02-.47), which means that a specific strength profile can be derived, and this profile goes beyond the clinical view of the diagnostic criteria. Individuals with Asperger's indicate lower self-efficacy, both general and occupational. Furthermore, a high concentration of individuals with Asperger's can be found in the areas I (Investigative) and C (Conventional) of Holland's RIASEC model. PMID:24950060

  19. Aspergers – Different, Not Less: Occupational Strengths and Job Interests of Individuals with Asperger's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Timo; Heinitz, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Rooted in the neurodiversity approach, this study provides an overview of the strengths and interests of individuals with Asperger's Syndrome. We interviewed136 individuals with Asperger's Syndrome and 155 neurotypical individuals via an online survey with regards to (a) demography, (b) occupational strengths, (c) general self-efficacy, (d) occupational self-efficacy, and (e) the job interest profile according to Holland. The vocational and educational fields of the individuals with Asperger's in the sample are more diverse than and surpass those classical fields stated in research and biographical literature. The comparison of both groups in cross-tables showed that the indicated strengths differ in several areas (ΦCramer = .02–.47), which means that a specific strength profile can be derived, and this profile goes beyond the clinical view of the diagnostic criteria. Individuals with Asperger's indicate lower self-efficacy, both general and occupational. Furthermore, a high concentration of individuals with Asperger's can be found in the areas I (Investigative) and C (Conventional) of Holland's RIASEC model. PMID:24950060

  20. Asperger Syndrome and Autism: A Comparative Longitudinal Follow-Up Study More than 5 Years after Original Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederlund, Mats; Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, I. Carina; Gillberg, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Prospective follow-up study of 70 males with Asperger syndrome (AS), and 70 males with autism more than 5 years after original diagnosis. Instruments used at follow-up included overall clinical assessment, the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders, Wechsler Intelligence Scales, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and Global…

  1. Language and ToM Development in Autism versus Asperger Syndrome: Contrasting Influences of Syntactic versus Lexical/Semantic Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paynter, Jessica; Peterson, Candida

    2010-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) development by a sample of 63 children aged 5-12 years (24 with Asperger syndrome, 19 with high-functioning autism, and 20 age-matched typical developers) was assessed with a five-task false-belief battery in relation to both lexical (vocabulary) and syntactic (grammar) language skills. Contrary to some previous research, no…

  2. Motor Proficiency and Emotional/Behavioural Disturbance in Autism and Asperger's Disorder: Another Piece of the Neurological Puzzle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Nicole; McGinley, Jennifer; Tonge, Bruce; Bradshaw, John; Saunders, Kerryn; Murphy, Anna; Rinehart, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The relationship of motor proficiency with emotional/behavioural disturbance, autistic symptoms and communication disturbance was investigated in children diagnosed with autism and Asperger's disorder (AD). The Movement Assessment Battery for Children was used as a measure of motor impairment, and the Developmental Behavioural Checklist was used…

  3. Perception of Social Relationships with Classmates and Social Support in Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome Attending Mainstream Schools in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisula, Ewa; Lukowska, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    One of the factors affecting successful inclusion of adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS) in mainstream schools is positive relationships with classmates. The present study investigates how adolescents with AS: (1) perceive their classmates' attitude towards them; (2) what attitude towards classmates they declare; and (3) how they assess the…

  4. Support to Students with Asperger Syndrome in Higher Education--The Perspectives of Three Relatives and Three Coordinators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischer, Ann Simmeborn

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of students with disabilities attend institutes of higher education (HE). Among this group are persons with Asperger syndrome (AS). Persons with AS have a cognitive impairment that can interfere with their studies and the ability to describe their needs and ask for support. This study deals with an assessment of the support…

  5. Brief Report: Comparison of Sensory-Motor and Cognitive Function between Autism and Asperger Syndrome in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwanaga, Ryoichiro; Kawasaki, Chisato; Tsuchida, Reiko

    2000-01-01

    This study examined differences in sensory-motor, cognitive, and verbal impairment between 10 Japanese preschool children with Asperger Syndrome (AS) 10 children with high functioning autism (HFA) using the Japanese version of the Miller Assessment for Preschoolers. AS children surpassed HFA children in verbal skills but HFA children were better…

  6. Long-Term, Multimodal Treatment of a Child with Asperger's Syndrome and Comorbid Disruptive Behavior Problems: A Case Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Robb, Jessica A.; Chronis, Andrea M.; Massetti, Greta M.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Arnold, Frances W.; Brice, Anne-Christina; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Hoffman, Martin T.

    2005-01-01

    Despite Asperger's Syndrome (AS) becoming a widely recognized disorder on the pervasive developmental spectrum, surprisingly few studies have assessed the utility of psychosocial and/or pharmacological treatments for children with AS. Further, studies have not examined the effects of treatment on disruptive behavior problems commonly exhibited by…

  7. Supporting Self-Regulated Learning for College Students with Asperger Syndrome: Exploring the "Strategies for College Learning" Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Bryan M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, I piloted the feasibility, effects, and perceived acceptability of a peer mentoring intervention targeting academic achievement and self-regulated learning (SRL) for three college students with Asperger syndrome. The approach, dubbed Strategies for College Learning (SCL), features individualized assessment of academic performance in…

  8. Recidivism Risk Assessment for Adult Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Holoyda, Brian J; Newman, William J

    2016-02-01

    Sexual offending is a significant public health problem in the USA due to its prevalence and the substantial impact it has on victims, victims' families, and the legal and mental health systems. The assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk is an important aspect of developing effective management strategies for sexual offenders in terms of placement, treatment, and other interventions. Researchers have developed numerous tools to aid in the assessment of sexual violence recidivism risk, including actuarial measures, structured professional judgment methods, and psychophysiologic assessment of sexual interests. The Static-99R and Sexual Violence Risk-20 are two instruments that have received substantial research attention for their ability to accurately compare offenders' risk of recidivism to normative group data. Penile plethysmography and visual reaction time are used to evaluate subjects' responses to sexual stimuli in an effort to characterize offenders' sexual arousal and interest, respectively. Though current research has focused on risk assessment tools' predictive utility, future research will need to examine the impact that actuarial and structured professional judgment tools have on reducing recidivism if they are to have relevance in the management of sexual offenders. PMID:26781555

  9. Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC): Spanish validation.

    PubMed

    Lahera, G; Boada, L; Pousa, E; Mirapeix, I; Morón-Nozaleda, G; Marinas, L; Gisbert, L; Pamiàs, M; Parellada, M

    2014-08-01

    We present the Spanish validation of the "Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition" instrument (MASC-SP). We recruited 22 adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome and 26 participants with typical development. The MASC-SP and three other social cognition instruments (Ekman Pictures of Facial Affect test, Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, and Happé's Strange Stories) were administered to both groups. Individuals with Asperger syndrome had significantly lower scores in all measures of social cognition. The MASC-SP showed strong correlations with all three measures and relative independence of general cognitive functions. Internal consistency was optimal (0.86) and the test-retest was good. The MASC-SP is an ecologically valid and useful tool for assessing social cognition in the Spanish population. PMID:24522969

  10. P300 component of event-related potentials in persons with asperger disorder.

    PubMed

    Iwanami, Akira; Okajima, Yuka; Ota, Haruhisa; Tani, Masayuki; Yamada, Takashi; Yamagata, Bun; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Kanai, Chieko; Takashio, Osamu; Inamoto, Atsuko; Ono, Taisei; Takayama, Yukiko; Kato, Nobumasa

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, we investigated auditory event-related potentials in adults with Asperger disorder and normal controls using an auditory oddball task and a novelty oddball task. Task performance and the latencies of P300 evoked by both target and novel stimuli in the two tasks did not differ between the two groups. Analysis of variance revealed that there was a significant interaction effect between group and electrode site on the mean amplitude of the P300 evoked by novel stimuli, which indicated that there was an altered distribution of the P300 in persons with Asperger disorder. In contrast, there was no significant interaction effect on the mean P300 amplitude elicited by target stimuli. Considering that P300 comprises two main subcomponents, frontal-central-dominant P3a and parietal-dominant P3b, our results suggested that persons with Asperger disorder have enhanced amplitude of P3a, which indicated activated prefrontal function in this task. PMID:25271690

  11. Perinatal Immunotoxicity: Why Adult Exposure Assessment Fails to Predict Risk

    PubMed Central

    Dietert, Rodney R.; Piepenbrink, Michael S.

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has pointed to the developing immune system as a remarkably sensitive toxicologic target for environmental chemicals and drugs. In fact, the perinatal period before and just after birth is replete with dynamic immune changes, many of which do not occur in adults. These include not only the basic maturation and distribution of immune cell types and selection against autoreactive lymphocytes but also changes designed specifically to protect the pregnancy against immune-mediated miscarriage. The newborn is then faced with critical immune maturational adjustments to achieve an immune balance necessary to combat myriad childhood and later-life diseases. All these processes set the fetus and neonate completely apart from the adult regarding immunotoxicologic risk. Yet for decades, safety evaluation has relied almost exclusively upon exposure of the adult immune system to predict perinatal immune risk. Recent workshops and forums have suggested a benefit in employing alternative exposures that include exposure throughout early life stages. However, issues remain concerning when and where such applications might be required. In this review we discuss the reasons why immunotoxic assessment is important for current childhood diseases and why adult exposure assessment cannot predict the effect of xenobiotics on the developing immune system. It also provides examples of developmental immunotoxicants where age-based risk appears to differ. Finally, it stresses the need to replace adult exposure assessment for immune evaluation with protocols that can protect the developing immune system. PMID:16581533

  12. Did Mozart suffer from Asperger syndrome?

    PubMed

    Raja, Michele

    2015-05-01

    The most reliable biographies of Mozart highlight elements that are compatible with current diagnostic criteria for Asperger syndrome including qualitative impairment in social interaction and stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms. Furthermore, numerous features are documented including difficulty in communicating his emotional state and in inferring the mental state of his interlocutors, motor clumsiness, specific skills and genius, left-handedness, special sense of humour, physical developmental abnormalities, bizarre thinking, overvalued ideas and delusions. PMID:24585598

  13. Asperger's in the Holmes Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altschuler, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    I show that Mycroft Holmes (Sherlock Holmes' brother) is a formally described case of Asperger's syndrome a half century before Asperger's description of the syndrome. Further, given the genetic similarity and links between the brothers stated by Sherlock, this also cinches the same diagnosis for Sherlock.

  14. Life Journey through Autism: An Educator's Guide to Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myles, Brenda Smith; Hagen, Kristen; Holverstott, Jeanne; Hubbard, Anastasia; Adreon, Diane; Trautman, Melissa

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to help educators understand and be able to respond effectively to the needs of children with Asperger Syndrome in an inclusive classroom setting. This guide is meant to orient educators to the challenges and skills of students with Asperger Syndrome and outline strategies that can be easily implemented to meet their…

  15. Embracing Asperger's: A Primer for Parents and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromfield, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Parents and teachers of children with Asperger's know only too well the feeling that they are not quite reaching the child, not quite hearing or getting it, not communicating just right, or at all. Offering rich insights into what Asperger's is like for the child himself or herself, this compassionate book will empower parents and teachers,…

  16. Emanuel Miller Lecture: Confusions and Controversies about Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frith, Uta

    2004-01-01

    Background: Hans Asperger drew attention to individuals who show the core symptoms of autism in the presence of high verbal intelligence. Methods: A review of the literature explores current issues concerning the diagnosis and nature of Asperger syndrome. Results: The behavioural and neurophysiological evidence to date suggests that Asperger…

  17. Superior Fluid Intelligence in Children with Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Mika; Kato, Motoichiro; Igarashi, Kazue; Kashima, Haruo

    2008-01-01

    Asperger's disorder is one of autistic spectrum disorders; sharing clinical features with autism, but without developmental delay in language acquisition. There have been some studies of intellectual functioning in autism so far, but very few in Asperger's disorder. In the present study, we investigated abstract reasoning ability, whose form of…

  18. Asperger Syndrome and the English Curriculum: Addressing the Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbinson, Hilary; Alexander, Joy

    2009-01-01

    A major criterion for the diagnosis of Asperger syndrome is an impairment of the imagination. This article focuses on the specific difficulties that students with Asperger syndrome have with the imaginative content of the English curriculum. It examines the problems with reading and writing imaginatively of a group of students with AS in a…

  19. Autobiographical Memory, Autonoetic Consciousness, and Identity in Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanweer, Tilait; Rathbone, Clare J.; Souchay, Celine

    2010-01-01

    Previous results from research on individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) suggest a diminished ability for recalling episodic autobiographical memory (AM). The primary aim of this study was to explore autobiographical memory in individuals with Asperger syndrome and specifically to investigate whether memories in those with AS are characterized by…

  20. Pain Assessment in Noncommunicative Adult Palliative Care Patients.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Deborah B; Kaiser, Karen Snow; Haisfield-Wolfe, Mary Ellen; Iyamu, Florence

    2016-09-01

    Palliative care patients who have pain are often unable to self-report their pain, placing them at increased risk for underrecognized and undertreated pain. Use of appropriate pain assessment tools significantly enhances the likelihood of effective pain management and improved pain-related outcomes. This paper reviews selected tools and provides palliative care clinicians with a practical approach to selecting a pain assessment tool for noncommunicative adult patients. PMID:27497016

  1. Multi-County Assessment of Adult Needs Project: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLennan Community Coll., TX.

    The document is a summarized final report of the Multi-County Assessment of Adult Needs Project (MAP) which took place in central Texas (Bosque, Falls, Hill, and McLennan Counties). It summarizes the major activities and accomplishments of the project and contains all materials except Attachments 1 and 2, the reports on Phase I (Survey of Adult…

  2. GIFT. Good Ideas for Teaching. Assessing the Adult Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Robert K.; And Others

    This resource guide provides a set of assessment instruments to help the adult basic education teacher appropriately place each learner at Level I, Level II, and/or General Education Development Level of instruction. An introduction briefly describes instruments and suggests examples of implementation. A teacher's guide contains general directions…

  3. Clinical Assessment of Adult Sexual Offenders with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudway, Jeremy A.; Darmoody, Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    Assessment and treatment of adults with learning disabilities who commit sexual offences presents a number of challenges. Much of the professional forensic and psychiatric literature on work with this group concentrates on the development of interventions based on theoretical models of sexual offending originating from the mainstream criminal…

  4. Asperger's disorder in adulthood: a case report.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Y; Miralles, M C; Mulet, B; Serret, V

    2007-01-01

    Asperger's disorder is a pervasive development disorder. It involves qualitative disorders in social relationship and communication as well as restricted and repetitive interests and activities, with no delay in language acquisition. Although Asperger's disorder is an illness that begins in childhood, its diagnosis may frequently not be done until later stages. The case presented is about a 21 year old man with a diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder who, after several admissions, was sent to the Rehabilitation Hospital Unit for stabilization and diagnostic study given the atypical features of his case. The psychopathological examination showed disorders in social relationships, psychomotricity and communications that had begun in his childhood. All these data, and the results of the biomedical and psychological diagnostic tests oriented us towards the presence of a dual diagnosis of Asperger's disorder and schizoaffective disorder. The presence of common symptoms between the AD and other psychiatric diseases as well as the possible existence of comorbidity may lead to an incorrect or late diagnosis. PMID:17597426

  5. The 5-HT(2A) receptor and serotonin transporter in Asperger's disorder: A PET study with [¹¹C]MDL 100907 and [¹¹C]DASB.

    PubMed

    Girgis, Ragy R; Slifstein, Mark; Xu, Xiaoyan; Frankle, W Gordon; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Wasserman, Stacey; Pepa, Lauren; Kolevzon, Alexander; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Laruelle, Marc; Hollander, Eric

    2011-12-30

    Evidence from biochemical, imaging, and treatment studies suggest abnormalities of the serotonin system in autism spectrum disorders, in particular in frontolimbic areas of the brain. We used the radiotracers [(11)C]MDL 100907 and [(11)C]DASB to characterize the 5-HT(2A) receptor and serotonin transporter in Asperger's Disorder. Seventeen individuals with Asperger's Disorder (age=34.3 ± 11.1 years) and 17 healthy controls (age=33.0 ± 9.6 years) were scanned with [(11)C]MDL 100907. Of the 17 patients, eight (age=29.7 ± 7.0 years) were also scanned with [¹¹C]DASB, as were eight healthy controls (age=28.7 ± 7.0 years). Patients with Asperger's Disorder and healthy control subjects were matched for age, gender, and ethnicity, and all had normal intelligence. Metabolite-corrected arterial plasma inputs were collected and data analyzed by two-tissue compartment modeling. The primary outcome measure was regional binding potential BP(ND). Neither regional [¹¹C]MDL 100907 BP(ND) nor [¹¹C]DASB BP(ND) was statistically different between the Asperger's and healthy subjects. This study failed to find significant alterations in binding parameters of 5-HT(2A) receptors and serotonin transporters in adult subjects with Asperger's disorder. PMID:22079057

  6. Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems Braille Reading Assessment: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey, Virginia K.; Henderson, Barbara W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This exploratory study determined whether transcribing selected test items on an adult life and work skills reading test into braille could maintain the same approximate scale-score range and maintain fitness within the item response theory model as used by the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (CASAS) for developing…

  7. Neurocognitive stability in Asperger syndrome, ADHD, and reading and writing disorder: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nydén, A; Billstedt, E; Hjelmquist, E; Gillberg, C

    2001-03-01

    Boys with Asperger syndrome (n=20), attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (n=20), and reading and writing disorder (n=20) were followed up and retested on several neuropsychological measures 1 to 2 years after initial assessments. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) Full Scale, Verbal, and Performance IQ scores remained stable for all diagnostic groups. Kaufman factors and 'fluid' and 'crystallized' abilities were also stable measures. Subtest stability over time, was slightly more variable. There was a tendency for the group with Asperger syndrome to deteriorate over time with respect to logical reasoning abilities. Measures of executive function/attention ('go-no-go' and 'conflict' tests) showed good test-retest stability in all diagnostic groups. This is the first study of its kind. PMID:11263686

  8. Assessing Dyslexia in Higher Education: The "York Adult Assessment Battery-Revised"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmington, Meesha; Stothard, Susan E.; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    Although there are a number of standardised measures to assess dyslexia in children, there are comparatively fewer instruments suitable for the assessment of dyslexia in adults. Given the growing number of students entering UK higher education institutions, there is a need to develop reliable tools for assessing the additional needs of those with…

  9. Assessing Adult Learning: A Guide for Practitioners. Revised Edition. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Joseph J.

    This book, which is intended for adult educators and human resource developers, presents guidelines for assessing adult learning. The following are among the topics covered in the book's eight chapters: (1) basic principles of informal assessment (relationship between learning and assessment activities; sequencing learning and assessment…

  10. Communication Self-Assessment Scale Inventory for Deaf Adults.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, H; Bally, S J; Brandt, F

    1991-07-01

    The Communication Self-Assessment Scale for Deaf Adults (CSDA) evaluates difficult communication situations, their importance to the respondent, communication strategies, and communication attitudes. Scale items use simple descriptive language in active declarative form. Each scale is comprised of three or more subscales. The subject responds using a three point semantic differential based on frequency of occurrence or degree of importance. Item analysis, factor analysis, internal consistency reliability studies, and collection of normative data have been performed on a population of 290 deaf adults. PMID:1768885

  11. Pain Assessment in Hospitalized Older Adults With Dementia and Delirium

    PubMed Central

    Paulson, Christina May; Monroe, Todd; Mion, Lorraine C.

    2015-01-01

    Pain can have negative effects leading to prolonged hospital stays. Determining the presence of uncontrolled and untreated pain in patients with cognitive impairments such as delirium, dementia, and delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD) is challenging. One tool commonly suggested for use in assessment of pain in older adults with cognitive impairment is the Pain Assessment In Advanced Dementia (PAINAD) scale. Proper use of the PAINAD scale as part of a comprehensive pain management plan can help reduce the likelihood of a patient experiencing unrecognized and untreated pain. Using an individual example, this article illustrates best practices in pain assessment and management for a woman experiencing DSD during an acute hospitalization. PMID:24800815

  12. Introducing MASC: a movie for the assessment of social cognition.

    PubMed

    Dziobek, Isabel; Fleck, Stefan; Kalbe, Elke; Rogers, Kimberley; Hassenstab, Jason; Brand, Matthias; Kessler, Josef; Woike, Jan K; Wolf, Oliver T; Convit, Antonio

    2006-07-01

    In the present study we introduce a sensitive video-based test for the evaluation of subtle mindreading difficulties: the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC). This new mindreading tool involves watching a short film and answering questions referring to the actors' mental states. A group of adults with Asperger syndrome (n = 19) and well-matched control subjects (n = 20) were administered the MASC and three other mindreading tools as part of a broader neuropsychological testing session. Compared to control subjects, Asperger individuals exhibited marked and selective difficulties in social cognition. A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis for the mindreading tests identified the MASC as discriminating the diagnostic groups most accurately. Issues pertaining to the multidimensionality of the social cognition construct are discussed. PMID:16755332

  13. Basic Reading Skills and the Literacy of America's Least Literate Adults: Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) Supplemental Studies. NCES 2009-481

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Justin; Kutner, Mark; Sabatini, John; White, Sheida

    2009-01-01

    The 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) assessed the English literacy of adults in the United States for the first time since the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey. The assessment was administered to more than 19,000 adults (ages 16 and older) in households and prisons. The tasks included on the assessment were designed to measure…

  14. Assessing Function and Endurance in Adults with Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy: Validity of the Adult Myopathy Assessment Tool

    PubMed Central

    Harris-Love, Michael O.; Fernandez-Rhodes, Lindsay; Joe, Galen; Shrader, Joseph A.; Kokkinis, Angela; La Pean Kirschner, Alison; Auh, Sungyoung; Chen, Cheunju; Li, Li; Levy, Ellen; Davenport, Todd E.; Di Prospero, Nicholas A.; Fischbeck, Kenneth H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The adult myopathy assessment tool (AMAT) is a performance-based battery comprised of functional and endurance subscales that can be completed in approximately 30 minutes without the use of specialized equipment. The purpose of this study was to determine the construct validity and internal consistency of the AMAT with a sample of adults with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). Methods. AMAT validity was assessed in 56-male participants with genetically confirmed SBMA (mean age, 53 ± 10 years). The participants completed the AMAT and assessments for disease status, strength, and functional status. Results. Lower AMAT scores were associated with longer disease duration (r = −0.29; P < 0.03) and lower serum androgen levels (r = 0.49–0.59; P < 0.001). The AMAT was significantly correlated with strength and functional status (r = 0.82–0.88; P < 0.001). The domains of the AMAT exhibited good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.77–0.89; P < 0.001). Conclusions. The AMAT is a standardized, performance-based tool that may be used to assess functional limitations and muscle endurance. The AMAT has good internal consistency, and the construct validity of the AMAT is supported by its significant associations with hormonal, strength, and functional characteristics of adults with SBMA. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00303446. PMID:24876969

  15. Asperger's Syndrome, Subjectivity and the Senses.

    PubMed

    Badone, Ellen; Nicholas, David; Roberts, Wendy; Kien, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Situated at the intersection of anthropological work on illness narratives and research on the anthropology of autism, this paper is a close reading of an autobiographical narrative recounted by Peter, a young man diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome, a type of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Responding to Solomon's (2010a:252) call for phenomenologically grounded accounts of "the subjective, sensory, and perceptual experiences of autism … based on personal narratives and practices of being and self-awareness," this paper calls into question key assumptions in the clinical and popular literature about ASD relating to theory of mind, empathy, capacity for metaphorical thinking, and ASD as a life-long condition. PMID:26838589

  16. Adopting a Clinical Assessment Framework in Older Adult Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Hung, Lillian; Lee, Patience Anne; Au-Yeung, Andy T; Kucherova, Irina; Harrigan, MaryLou

    2016-07-01

    Obtaining new knowledge accepted and used by practitioners remains a slow process. A dearth of knowledge translation research exists that explores how to effectively move knowledge to practice in the field of older adult mental health. The current article reports findings of a knowledge translation study that examined what factors enabled the adoption of a new clinical assessment framework, P.I.E.C.E.S.™, into practice in an older adult tertiary mental health unit. Theoretical insights of appreciative inquiry were used to guide the study. Qualitative methods were used, including focus groups with 20 staff and individual interviews with three leaders. The appreciative inquiry approach helped researchers successfully facilitate knowledge translation. Enabling factors included: (a) fostering positive energy to make continuous improvement, (b) working with team members across disciplines at all levels, and (c) using knowledge translation tools to enable and sustain the new practice. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54 (7), 26-31.]. PMID:27362382

  17. Napoleon Dynamite: Asperger's disorder or Geek NOS?

    PubMed

    Levin, Hope W; Schlozman, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Napoleon Dynamite, the quirky hit film from 2004, is a fascinating portrayal of a teenager with social difficulties. The character Napoleon provokes intriguing diagnostic questions in distinguishing between mental illness and the spectrum of normal behavior. He demonstrates several symptoms of Asperger's disorder, yet he also challenges the notion that children and adolescents with Asperger's spectrum disorders will not be accepted or understood. He forms genuine, connected friendships, and fans of the movie appear to celebrate his quirkiness rather than ridicule his oddities. The authors explore the extent to which cultural issues have an impact on psychiatric phenomenology, as well as the potential treatment issues for someone with his apparent social challenges. Finally, the authors offer possible explanations for Napoleon's immense popularity, especially among adolescents. With the rise of computer technology, our culture has fully embraced the idea of what has come to be called "geekdom," and the authors consider the idea that Napoleon's popularity may be a more rural equivalent for this phenomenon. The success of the movie appears to be related to a genuine celebration of Napoleon himself. PMID:17021155

  18. Utility of telephone assessments in an older adult population.

    PubMed

    Senior, Ashley C; Kunik, Mark E; Rhoades, Howard M; Novy, Diane M; Wilson, Nancy L; Stanley, Melinda A

    2007-06-01

    Telephone assessments are commonly used in mental health research and may be especially beneficial in older populations. The current study assessed the psychometric properties of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (T. J. Meyer, M. L. Miller, R. L. Metzger, & T. D. Borkovec, 1990) and the Beck Depression Inventory--II (A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown, 1996), when administered over the telephone in an older adult population. Results indicate no differences in mean symptom level or internal consistency across two modes of administration. Correlations between the in-person and telephone-administered measures and diagnostic categories suggest adequate validity of the telephone-administered measures. With this demonstrated evidence, the telephone assessment method can be applied in a variety of research and clinical settings. PMID:17563195

  19. Early-onset anorexia nervosa in girls with Asperger syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dudova, Iva; Kocourkova, Jana; Koutek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders frequently occur in conjunction with autism spectrum disorders, posing diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. The comorbidity of anorexia nervosa and Asperger syndrome is a significant clinical complication and has been associated with a poorer prognosis. The authors are presenting the cases of an eleven-year-old girl and a five-and-a-half-year-old girl with comorbid eating disorders and Asperger syndrome. PMID:26170676

  20. Early-onset anorexia nervosa in girls with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dudova, Iva; Kocourkova, Jana; Koutek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders frequently occur in conjunction with autism spectrum disorders, posing diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. The comorbidity of anorexia nervosa and Asperger syndrome is a significant clinical complication and has been associated with a poorer prognosis. The authors are presenting the cases of an eleven-year-old girl and a five-and-a-half-year-old girl with comorbid eating disorders and Asperger syndrome. PMID:26170676

  1. [Asperger syndrome associated with macrosomia and sexual identity disorder].

    PubMed

    Fleta Zaragozano, J; Zapata Usábel, M; López Moreno, María J; Olivares López, J L

    2005-10-01

    Asperger Syndrome is a pervasive developmental disorder of unknown origin, characterized by pedantic language, lack of reciprocity in social interactions, unusual interests, motor clumsiness and normal or above average intelligence quotient, among other symptoms. Since 1994 it has been defined as a specific entity. We describe the case of a boy with this syndrome, with elevated body weight and height and sexual identity disorder. These alterations have not previously been described in the scientific literature on Asperger syndrome. PMID:16219258

  2. Evaluating Adult's Competency: Application of the Competency Assessment Process

    PubMed Central

    Giroux, Dominique; Tétreault, Sylvie; Landry, Marie-Pier

    2015-01-01

    Competency assessment of adults with cognitive impairment or mental illness is a complex process that can have significant consequences for their rights. Some models put forth in the scientific literature have been proposed to guide health and social service professionals with this assessment process, but none of these appear to be complete. A new model, the Competency Assessment Process (CAP), was presented and validated in other studies. This paper adds to this corpus by presenting both the CAP model and the results of a survey given to health and social service professionals on its practical application in their clinical practice. The survey was administered to 35 participants trained in assessing competency following the CAP model. The results show that 40% of participants use the CAP to guide their assessment and the majority of those who do not yet use it plan to do so in the future. A large majority of participants consider this to be a relevant model and believe that all interdisciplinary teams should use it. These results support the relevance of the CAP model. Further research is planned to continue the study of the application of CAP in healthcare facilities. PMID:26257978

  3. Abnormal cerebral effective connectivity during explicit emotional processing in adults with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fonlupt, Pierre; Hubert, Bénédicte; Tardif, Carole; Gepner, Bruno; Deruelle, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Several recent studies suggest that autism may result from abnormal communication between brain regions. We directly assessed this hypothesis by testing the presence of abnormalities in a model of the functional cerebral network engaged during explicit emotion processing in adults with high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome. Comparison of structural equation models revealed abnormal patterns of effective connectivity, with the prefrontal cortex as a key site of dysfunction. These findings provide evidence that abnormal long-range connectivity between structures of the ‘social brain’ could explain the socio-emotional troubles that characterize the autistic pathology. PMID:19015104

  4. Functional Fitness Assessment for Adults Over 60 Years (A Field Based Assessment).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osness, Wayne H.; And Others

    This field test to assess the functional fitness of adults over 60 covers of the following areas: (1) body composition; (2) body weight; (3) standing height measurement; (4) flexibility; (5) agility/dynamic balance; (6) coordination; (7) strength; and (8) endurance. Posttest activities are suggested, and a data sheet and exercise consent form are…

  5. Accommodating Asperger's: An Autoethnography on the Learning Experience in an E-Learning Music Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Riley Jarrett

    2013-01-01

    A student with Asperger's Syndrome faces a complex myriad of learning disabilities and social difficulties. The co-morbid conditions of dyslexia, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Attention Deficit Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder and anxiety further complicate Asperger's Syndrome. Asperger's Syndrome and these conditions, singularly…

  6. A Review of Co-Morbid Disorders of Asperger's Disorder and the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Stephanie; Curwen, Tracey; Ryan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    This review includes empirical peer-reviewed articles which support the examination of Asperger's Disorder and co-morbid disorders, as well as an analysis of how adolescents with Asperger's Disorder transition to adulthood. Although the focus was on Asperger's Disorder, some studies include Autism Spectrum Disorder samples. It was found that…

  7. A Comparative Study of the Use and Understanding of Self-Presentational Display Rules in Children with High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbaro, Josephine; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    The use and understanding of self-presentational display rules (SPDRs) was investigated in 21 children with high-functioning autism (FHA), 18 children with Asperger's disorder (AspD) and 20 typically developing (TD) children (all male, aged 4- to 11-years, matched on mental age). Their behaviour was coded during a deception scenario to assess use…

  8. A multimodal assessment of balance in elderly and young adults.

    PubMed

    King, Gregory W; Abreu, Eduardo L; Cheng, An-Lin; Chertoff, Keyna K; Brotto, Leticia; Kelly, Patricia J; Brotto, Marco

    2016-03-22

    Falling is a significant health issue among elderly adults. Given the multifactorial nature of falls, effective balance and fall risk assessment must take into account factors from multiple sources. Here we investigate the relationship between fall risk and a diverse set of biochemical and biomechanical variables including: skeletal muscle-specific troponin T (sTnT), maximal strength measures derived from isometric grip and leg extension tasks, and postural sway captured from a force platform during a quiet stance task. These measures were performed in eight young and eleven elderly adults, along with estimates of fall risk derived from the Tinetti Balance Assessment. We observed age-related effects in all measurements, including a trend toward increased sTnT levels, increased postural sway, reduced upper and lower extremity strength, and reduced balance scores. We observed a negative correlation between balance scores and sTnT levels, suggesting its use as a biomarker for fall risk. We observed a significant positive correlation between balance scores and strength measures, adding support to the notion that muscle strength plays a significant role in postural control. We observed a significant negative correlation between balance scores and postural sway, suggesting that fall risk is associated with more loosely controlled center of mass regulation. PMID:26934319

  9. A multimodal assessment of balance in elderly and young adults

    PubMed Central

    King, Gregory W.; Abreu, Eduardo L.; Cheng, An-Lin; Chertoff, Keyna K.; Brotto, Leticia; Kelly, Patricia J.; Brotto, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Falling is a significant health issue among elderly adults. Given the multifactorial nature of falls, effective balance and fall risk assessment must take into account factors from multiple sources. Here we investigate the relationship between fall risk and a diverse set of biochemical and biomechanical variables including: skeletal muscle-specific troponin T (sTnT), maximal strength measures derived from isometric grip and leg extension tasks, and postural sway captured from a force platform during a quiet stance task. These measures were performed in eight young and eleven elderly adults, along with estimates of fall risk derived from the Tinetti Balance Assessment. We observed age-related effects in all measurements, including a trend toward increased sTnT levels, increased postural sway, reduced upper and lower extremity strength, and reduced balance scores. We observed a negative correlation between balance scores and sTnT levels, suggesting its use as a biomarker for fall risk. We observed a significant positive correlation between balance scores and strength measures, adding support to the notion that muscle strength plays a significant role in postural control. We observed a significant negative correlation between balance scores and postural sway, suggesting that fall risk is associated with more loosely controlled center of mass regulation. PMID:26934319

  10. Context focused older adult mobility and gait assessment.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kenneth; Reginatto, Brenda; Patterson, Matthew R; Power, Dermot; Komaba, Yusuke; Maeda, Kazuho; Inomata, Akihiro; Caulfield, Brian

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents an initial overview of insights gained into how older adults mobilize in the home and community, based on data from inertial sensors which were worn by study participants over a 7-day period. The addition of a wearable camera provided additional contextual information which can be used to assess mobility and understand the factors that influence it in the free living environment. Seven days of data collected from a group of older adults who had experienced one or more falls in the previous six months was compared to that of a control group with no history of falling. Results showed that both groups spent relatively little time walking in challenging environmental conditions, and that the fallers spent significantly less time walking under regular conditions (no effect on gait) and outdoors. Analysis of gait metrics showed that the fallers were slightly slower in general, and more noticeable differences were observed when the participants were regrouped according to mobility levels determined from baseline assessments using traditional methods. PMID:26737889

  11. Asperger's syndrome: diagnosis, comorbidity and therapy.

    PubMed

    Tarazi, F I; Sahli, Z T; Pleskow, J; Mousa, S A

    2015-03-01

    Asperger's syndrome (AS), a behavioral disorder that is related to autism, is associated with abnormal social functioning and repetitive behaviors but not with a decrease in intelligence or linguistic functionality. This article reviews the clinical diagnosis of AS and discusses the comorbid disorders that may be present with AS, as well as the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of pharmacotherapies given to AS patients, as reported in preclinical and clinical studies. AS may be present with several comorbid disorders including: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and Tourette's syndrome. The difficulty in distinguishing AS from autism results in treating the comorbid disorder symptoms, rather than treating the symptoms of AS. Accordingly, there is a great need to further understand the psychobiology of AS and its association with other disorders, which should expand the pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapeutic options and improve the quality of life for AS patients. PMID:25655905

  12. Sukhareva--Prior to Asperger and Kanner.

    PubMed

    Manouilenko, Irina; Bejerot, Susanne

    2015-08-01

    As early as 1926, the Kiev-based child psychiatrist Grunya Efimovna Sukhareva (Груня Ефимовна Сухарева) (1891-1981) published a detailed description of autistic traits in a number of children in a scientific German psychiatry and neurology journal. She initially used the term "schizoid (eccentric) psychopathy" but later replaced it with "autistic (pathological avoidant) psychopathy" to describe the clinical picture of autism. Her original article was available almost two decades before the case reports of Asperger and Kanner; nevertheless, Sukhareva's pioneer work has been greatly overlooked. Here we present her description of autistic psychopathy in relation to the DSM-5 criteria of today. PMID:25826582

  13. Assessing illicit drug use among adults with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Desmarais, Sarah L.; Young, M. Scott; Sellers, Brian G.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate drug use assessment is vital to understanding the prevalence, course, treatment needs, and outcomes among individuals with schizophrenia because they are thought to remain at long-term risk for negative drug use outcomes, even in the absence of drug use disorder. This study evaluated self-report and biological measures for assessing illicit drug use in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness study (N=1460). Performance was good across assessment methods, but differed as a function of drug type, measure, and race. With the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R as the criterion, self-report evidenced greater concordance, accuracy and agreement overall, and for marijuana, cocaine, and stimulants specifically, than did urinalysis and hair assays, whereas biological measures outperformed self-report for detection of opiates. Performance of the biological measures was better when self-report was the criterion, but poorer for black compared white participants. Overall, findings suggest that self-report is able to garner accurate information regarding illicit drug use among adults with schizophrenia. Further work is needed to understand the differential performance of assessment approaches by drug type, overall and as a function of race, in this population. PMID:22796100

  14. Assessing Violence Risk and Psychopathy in Juvenile and Adult Offenders: A Survey of Clinical Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viljoen, Jodi L.; McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Vincent, Gina M.

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed 199 forensic clinicians about the practices that they use in assessing violence risk in juvenile and adult offenders. Results indicated that the use of risk assessment and psychopathy tools was common. Although clinicians reported more routine use of psychopathy measures in adult risk assessments compared with juvenile risks…

  15. Using concept maps for assessing adult learners in training situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Patrice Ann

    The use of predrawn fill-in concept maps for assessing adult learning in training situations was investigated. A 40-hour training course called Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) was taught to personnel working with hazardous waste and offered in various sites across the U.S. Two types of testing were used, a multiple-choice format and three predrawn fill-in concept maps. To identify differences among trainees that might affect concept map scores, the relationship of ethnicity, administration order of the posttests, a repeated measure of time, and their interactions with concept map test scores were investigated. For traditional testing, a 23-question multiple-choice format was used. For the alternative measure, three predrawn concept maps required trainees to fill in 30 map nodes. These maps were developed using a unique, rigorous, and systematic procedural framework. The multiple-choice test was used by the instructors offering the training. Reliability for the multiple-choice test was moderate; reliability for the concept map measure was high. There was a positive, moderate correlation between concept map posttest scores and multiple-choice posttest scores. Ethnic groups included Black, Hispanic, and White/Caucasian. Ethnicity was related to concept map scores, but its effect was mediated by administration order and by time. When the concept map posttest was given first, White/Caucasians obtained a higher concept map mean score than did Hispanics. Administration order had an effect on concept map scores, but was mediated by ethnicity. White/Caucasians scored higher on the concept map measure when given the concept map posttest first. Time was related to concept map scores, but it too was mediated by ethnicity. For time, posttest means were higher than pretest means for all three ethnic groups, with Blacks showing the greatest gain. This study shows that predrawn fill-in concept maps can be used as an alternative method for

  16. Electrophysiologic Assessment of Auditory Training Benefits in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Samira; Jenkins, Kimberly

    2015-11-01

    Older adults often exhibit speech perception deficits in difficult listening environments. At present, hearing aids or cochlear implants are the main options for therapeutic remediation; however, they only address audibility and do not compensate for central processing changes that may accompany aging and hearing loss or declines in cognitive function. It is unknown whether long-term hearing aid or cochlear implant use can restore changes in central encoding of temporal and spectral components of speech or improve cognitive function. Therefore, consideration should be given to auditory/cognitive training that targets auditory processing and cognitive declines, taking advantage of the plastic nature of the central auditory system. The demonstration of treatment efficacy is an important component of any training strategy. Electrophysiologic measures can be used to assess training-related benefits. This article will review the evidence for neuroplasticity in the auditory system and the use of evoked potentials to document treatment efficacy. PMID:27587912

  17. Development and Validation of an Assessment of Adult Educators' Reading Instructional Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sherry Mee; McCallum, R. Steve; Ziegler, Mary; Davis, C. A.; Coleman, MariBeth

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe briefly the development and utility of the "Assessment of Reading Instructional Knowledge-Adults" ("ARIK-A"), the only nationally normed (n?=?468) measure of adult reading instructional knowledge, created to facilitate professional development of adult educators. Developmental data…

  18. Information Literacy and Adult Learners: Using Authentic Assessment to Determine Skill Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapchak, Marcia E.; Lewis, Leslie A.; Motyka, Julie K.; Balmert, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Information literacy (IL) skills are essential for adult learners in higher education, especially those unfamiliar with information systems. Citing a lack of literature assessing such skills in adult learners, this article examines the IL abilities of adult learners in an IL course. Using a rubric and annotated bibliographies from study…

  19. Technical Report and Data File User's Manual: For the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy. NCES 2009-476

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldi, Stephane, Ed.; Kutner, Mark; Greenberg, Elizabeth; Jin, Ying; Baer, Justin; Moore, Elizabeth; Dunleavy, Eric; Berlin, Martha; Mohadjer, Leyla; Binzer, Greg; Krenzke, Thomas; Hogan, Jacqueline; Amsbary, Michelle; Forsyth, Barbara; Clark, Lyn; Annis, Terri; Bernstein, Jared; White, Sheida

    2009-01-01

    The 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) assessed the English literacy skills of a nationally representative sample of more than 19,000 U.S. adults (age 16 and older) residing in households and correctional institutions. NAAL is the first national assessment of adult literacy since the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS). The…

  20. Literacy in Everyday Life: Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy. NCES 2007-490

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutner, Mark; Greenberg, Elizabeth; Jin, Ying; Boyle, Bridget; Hsu, Yung-chen; Dunleavy, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) assessed the English literacy skills of a nationally representative sample of more than 19,000 U.S. adults (age 16 and older) residing in households and prisons. NAAL is the first national assessment of adult literacy since the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey. Three types of literacy were…

  1. Nutritional assessment and eating habits analysis in young adults.

    PubMed

    Nieradko-Iwanicka, Barbara; Borzecki, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    Good eating habit is an essential part of a healthy lifestyle. It helps prevent civilisation diseases. The BMI and eating plan analysis are useful in individual's nutritional assessment. The aim of the study was to assess nutritional status and eating habits in young adults. An average BMI was 23.63 kg/ m2 in the interviewed men, and 20.6 kg/m2 in women. Caloric value of the daily eating plans was average: in men 2943 kcal, in women 2272 kcal. Four people were on diets, but none of BMI over 25 kg/m2. There were no people suffering from food allergies nor gastrointestinal diseases. Only one male did sports (weight-lifting) regularly. The majority of the students ate at lunchtime at the university cafeteria or prepared meals themselves. The eating plans varied very much: the majority was based on the Eating Guide Pyramid and consisted of three balanced meals during the day-time; there were also single cases where students stuck to eating high-calorie meals at night-time mostly. PMID:16146124

  2. Validation of a shortened assessment of physical self in adults.

    PubMed

    Ninot, Grégory; Fortes, Marina; Delignières, Didier

    2006-10-01

    The purpose was to adapt a brief tool, the Physical Self Inventory-Version b, for the assessment of physical self in adults. The inventory is a refined version of the previously validated version, which was derived from the Physical Self Inventory (25 items). This French validation of the Physical Self-Perception Profile of Fox and Corbin includes a global self-esteem scale. As in the earlier version the current one has 6 single items to assess dimensions of global self-esteem, physical selfworth, sport competence, physical condition, attractive body, and physical strength. Rating is performed on a visual analog scale. Items in the new inventory were stated in the first person and in more general terms to be acceptable to a wider range of subjects. An item of measurement error was added. Analysis of responses of 185 men and 148 women to the new version supported the hierarchical structure. Significant correlations between the scores and constructs like masculinity, neuroticism, and depression indicated external validity. The new inventory showed acceptable psychometric properties for use in idiographic studies. PMID:17165418

  3. Exploratory Study of Childbearing Experiences of Women With Asperger Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Marcia; Suplee, Patricia D; Bloch, Joan; Lecks, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of girls have been diagnosed with Asperger syndrome and other autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) over the past two decades; therefore, more women with ASDs are entering the childbearing phase of their lives. Little is known about the childbearing experiences of women with ASDs. This qualitative study describes the childbearing experiences of eight women with Asperger syndrome. Four major themes emerged: Processing Sensations, Needing to Have Control, Walking in the Dark, and Motherhood on My Own Terms. Clinicians can provide sensitive, individualized care by asking women with Asperger syndrome about their specific sensory experiences, counseling them about coping strategies for sensory intrusions, providing targeted support, and modifying the clinical environment to decrease distressing stimuli. PMID:26902438

  4. Adult protective services and animal welfare: should animal abuse and neglect be assessed during adult protective services screening?

    PubMed

    Peak, Terry; Ascione, Frank; Doney, Jylisa

    2012-01-01

    Past research has examined links among animal abuse, child maltreatment, and intimate partner violence and demonstrated the importance of addressing the needs of both human and animal victims. We hypothesized that there might be a similar link between animal abuse and older adult welfare issues. As a first step in the earlier research was the development of a screening protocol that shed light on the link between domestic violence and animal abuse, we decided to follow a similar route to explore this new topic by asking state government representatives about their experiences, if any, with this topic. Here we report the results of a national survey of state Adult Protective Services agencies regarding their protocols for assessing animal welfare issues in the context of older adult maltreatment. We also describe a model assessment protocol we developed in collaboration with the Utah Division of Aging and Adult Services. PMID:22206511

  5. Assessment of mercury health risks to adults from coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.; Saroff, L.

    1994-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is preparing, for the U.S. Congress, a report evaluating the need to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from electric utilities. This study, to be completed in 1995, will have important health and economic implications. In support of these efforts, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1000 MW{sub e} coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. The approach draws on the extant knowledge in each of the important steps in the calculation chain from emissions to health effects. Estimated results at key points in the chain were compared with actual measurements to help validate the modeled estimates. Two cases were considered: the baseline case (no local impacts), and the impact case (maximum local power-plant impact). The BNL study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Many implicit and explicit sources of uncertainty exist in this analysis. Those that appear to be most in need of improvement include data on doses and responses for potentially sensitive subpopulations (e.g., fetal exposures). Rather than considering hypothetical situations, it would also be preferable to assess the risks associated with actual coal-fired power plants and the nearby sensitive water bodies and susceptible subpopulations. Finally, annual total Hg emissions from coal burning and from other anthropogenic sources are still uncertain; this makes it difficult to estimate the effects of U.S. coal burning on global Hg concentration levels, especially over the long term.

  6. Effects of Computer versus Paper Administration of an Adult Functional Writing Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jing; White, Sheida; McCloskey, Michael; Soroui, Jaleh; Chun, Young

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the comparability of paper and computer versions of a functional writing assessment administered to adults 16 and older. Three writing tasks were administered in both paper and computer modes to volunteers in the field test of an assessment of adult literacy in 2008. One set of analyses examined mode effects on scoring by…

  7. Investigating the Self-Assessment of Adult Literacy Learners with Dyslexia across Several Cognitive Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandman-Hurley, Kelli

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation evaluated the ability of adult literacy learners with dyslexia to assess their cognitive abilities in two separate domains: reading and memory. This study also evaluated the effect that one-on-one tutoring had on the learner's ability to accurately self-assess these cognitive abilities. Twenty adult literacy learners (n = 20) with…

  8. Withdrawal Study of Memantine in Pediatric Patients With Autism, Asperger's Disorder, or Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Previously Treated With Memantine

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-31

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); Autism; Autistic Disorder; Asperger's Disorder; Asperger's; Pediatric Autism; Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS); Pervasive Child Development Disorder

  9. Saccade adaptation in autism and Asperger's disorder.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B P; Rinehart, N J; White, O; Millist, L; Fielding, J

    2013-07-23

    Autism and Asperger's disorder (AD) are neurodevelopmental disorders primarily characterized by deficits in social interaction and communication, however motor coordination deficits are increasingly recognized as a prevalent feature of these conditions. Although it has been proposed that children with autism and AD may have difficulty utilizing visual feedback during motor learning tasks, this has not been directly examined. Significantly, changes within the cerebellum, which is implicated in motor learning, are known to be more pronounced in autism compared to AD. We used the classic double-step saccade adaptation paradigm, known to depend on cerebellar integrity, to investigate differences in motor learning and the use of visual feedback in children aged 9-14 years with high-functioning autism (HFA; IQ>80; n=10) and AD (n=13). Performance was compared to age and IQ matched typically developing children (n=12). Both HFA and AD groups successfully adapted the gain of their saccades in response to perceived visual error, however the time course for adaptation was prolonged in the HFA group. While a shift in saccade dynamics typically occurs during adaptation, we revealed aberrant changes in both HFA and AD groups. This study contributes to a growing body of evidence centrally implicating the cerebellum in ocular motor dysfunction in autism. Specifically, these findings collectively imply functional impairment of the cerebellar network and its inflow and outflow tracts that underpin saccade adaptation, with greater disturbance in HFA compared to AD. PMID:23562581

  10. Assessment of food chemical intolerance in adult asthmatic subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, L.; Yan, K. Y.; Loblay, R. L.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of food chemical intolerance in asthmatic subjects can be reliably assessed by changes in the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) in response to double blind, placebo controlled challenges on a strict elimination diet. However, this method is cumbersome and time consuming. A study was undertaken to determine whether changes in bronchial responsiveness to histamine following food chemical challenge without an elimination diet might be a faster, more convenient method. METHODS: Eleven adult asthmatic subjects were challenged twice with metabisulphite, aspirin, monosodium glutamate, artificial food colours, sodium nitrite/ nitrate, 0.5% citric acid solution (placebo), and sucrose (placebo) on separate days. During the first set of challenges subjects consumed a normal diet. Bronchial responsiveness to histamine was assessed 90 minutes after each challenge. A greater than twofold increase in bronchial responsiveness was considered positive. For one month prior to and during the second set of challenges subjects followed a strict elimination diet and FEV1 was monitored during and for two hours after each challenge. A fall in FEV1 of 20% or more was considered positive. RESULTS: Of the 77 food chemical challenges performed on an unmodified diet, 20 were positive (six placebo responses). In two subjects it was not possible to perform a histamine test after one of the chemical challenges because of poor spirometric function. Of the 77 food chemical challenges performed on an elimination diet, 11 were positive (no placebo responses). Excluding the two challenges in which there were no corresponding histamine tests, only on two occasions did the positive responses in both methods coincide, giving the unmodified diet method a sensitivity of 22%. CONCLUSIONS: Strict dietary elimination and measurement of FEV1 after double blind food chemical challenge remains the most reliable method for the detection of food chemical intolerance in

  11. Faux pas detection and intentional action in Asperger Syndrome. A replication on a French sample.

    PubMed

    Zalla, Tiziana; Sav, Anca-Maria; Stopin, Astrid; Ahade, Sabrina; Leboyer, Marion

    2009-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated mind reading abilities in a group of adults with Asperger Syndrome (AS) by using the faux pas task, an advanced test of theory of mind (Baron-Cohen et al. (1999). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29, 407-418). The faux pas is a particular case of a non-intentional action reflecting an involuntary socially inappropriate behavior. Here, individuals with AS over-detected faux pas stories, failed to provide correct justifications of the speaker's behavior and were unaware of the mistaken belief and of the resulting emotional impact, whereas they appeared to be responsive to social rule violations. We hypothesized that because of an impaired theory-of-mind, individuals with AS may develop compensatory cognitive strategies based on overlearned abstract knowledge about normative rules. PMID:18726150

  12. Comprehensive Assessment of Learning Outcomes and Processes for Working Adult Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Robert W.; Murphy, John D.

    The University of Phoenix has developed a comprehensive outcomes and impact assessment program to assess the effects of a university education on students, particularly adult students. The program is integrated with the existing process assessment systems. Process assessments, which the university refers to as the Academic Quality Management…

  13. Cell Phone Use by Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, Kevin; Whitehouse, Andrew; Jaquet, Emma; Ziatas, Kathy; Walker, Allan J.

    2010-01-01

    While young people have generally been at the forefront of the adoption and use of new communications technologies, little is known of uses by exceptional youth. This study compares cell phone use by a group of adolescents with Asperger Syndrome (n = 35) with that by a group of adolescents with typical development (n = 35). People with Asperger…

  14. Understanding Asperger Disorder: A Primer for Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahle, Karen Bowen; Gargiulo, Richard M.

    2004-01-01

    The psychiatric community has only recognized Asperger Disorder (AD) as a distinct syndrome since 1994. Therefore, for most early childhood educators, AD is still a new diagnosis. The majority of the children with AD are being educated in the general education classroom although it's not uncommon to see specialized placements. Unfortunately, due…

  15. Timing Deficits Are Implicated in Motor Dysfunction in Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Kelly J.; Edgell, Dorothy; Kerns, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    This study addressed what role movement timing irregularities have in producing the motor deficits documented in Asperger's Syndrome (AS). Participants included males with AS (n = 14) and without (n = 16), matched by age (7-23 years) and with no significant IQ differences. They completed measures of timing perception (comparisons of tempo of…

  16. Theory of Mind, Causal Attribution and Paranoia in Asperger Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackshaw, Alison J.; Kinderman, Peter; Hare, Dougal J.; Hatton, Chris

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-five participants (ages 15-40) with Asperger syndrome scored significantly higher on a measure of paranoia and lower on a measure of theory of mind, compared with a control group. They did not differ in self-concept and causal attributions. A regression analysis highlighted private self-consciousness as the only predictor of paranoia.…

  17. Asperger's Disorder Will Be Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Luke Y.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on identifying up-to-date number of publications that compared DSM-IV/ICD-10 Asperger's disorder (AspD) to Autistic Disorder/High-functioning Autism (AD/HFA). One hundred and twenty-eight publications were identified through an extensive search of major electronic databases and journals. Based on more than 90 clinical…

  18. The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (Cast): Test--Retest Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jo; Allison, Carrie; Scott, Fiona; Stott, Carol; Bolton, Patrick; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol

    2006-01-01

    The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST) is a 37-item parental self-completion questionnaire to screen for autism spectrum conditions in research. Good test accuracy was demonstrated in studies with primary school aged children in mainstream schools. The aim of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability of the CAST. Parents of…

  19. Asperger Syndrome: A Qualitative Study of Successful Educational Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fondacaro, Donna M.

    This paper reports the outcomes of a study that utilized descriptive, qualitative methods and a series of case studies to investigate how students are diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorders, specifically Asperger syndrome under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The study focuses on students attending elementary schools in…

  20. School-Based Practices for Asperger Syndrome: A Canadian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrimmon, Adam W.; Altomare, Alyssa A.; Matchullis, Ryan L.; Jitlina, Katia

    2012-01-01

    Educators face increasing demands to provide quality education in their classrooms, particularly to students with exceptional needs. Students with Asperger syndrome (AS) represent a population experiencing significant nonacademic barriers to learning (e.g., social, emotional, and behavioural needs). However, educational policies that identify and…

  1. Getting to Know the Child with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Melinda M.; Goins, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) is a disorder characterized by social skill deficits and display of repetitive behaviors. This article explores the diagnostic components of AS and describes the major school-related issues for children who have the disorder. Specific interventions that school counselors can implement to help increase these students'…

  2. Teaching Social Savvy to Students with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Carol L.; Wilkerson, James M.

    2004-01-01

    Asperger Syndrome (AS) is a neurological condition marked by a significant impairment in social interaction. Individuals with AS have brains that are literally wired differently from those of neurologically "typical" people. This difference in the brain affects sensory processing, motor skills, attention issues, emotional control, and most…

  3. Violent Crime in Asperger Syndrome: The Role of Psychiatric Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Stewart S.; Ghaziuddin, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    Although several studies have suggested an association between violent crime and Asperger syndrome (AS), few have examined the underlying reasons. The aim of this review is to determine to what extent psychiatric factors contribute to offending behavior in this population. Online databases were used to identify relevant articles which were then…

  4. Movement Perception and Movement Production in Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Kelly J.; Shiffrar, Maggie; Kerns, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether motor difficulties documented in Asperger's Syndrome (AS) are related to compromised visual abilities, this study examined perception and movement in response to dynamic visual environments. Fourteen males with AS and 16 controls aged 7-23 completed measures of motor skills, postural response to optic flow, and visual…

  5. An Investigation of Teachers' Attitudes towards Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alenizi, Mogbel Aid K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to measure the teachers' awareness of, and attitudes towards children with Asperger's Syndrome (AS, hereafter). The main intention was to sample primary school teachers; however time constraints dictated that the 30 teachers (male and female), who participated in this study, were postgraduate students and teaching…

  6. Processing of Affective Speech Prosody Is Impaired in Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korpilahti, Pirjo; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Kuusikko, Sanna; Suominen, Kalervo; Rytky, Seppo; Pauls, David L.; Moilanen, Irma

    2007-01-01

    Many people with the diagnosis of Asperger syndrome (AS) show poorly developed skills in understanding emotional messages. The present study addressed discrimination of speech prosody in children with AS at neurophysiological level. Detection of affective prosody was investigated in one-word utterances as indexed by the N1 and the mismatch…

  7. Brief Report: Asperger's Syndrome and Sibling Birth Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Karmen; Zimmerman, Andrew; Bauman, Margaret; Ferrone, Christine; Venter, Jacob; Spybrook, Jessaca; Henry, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Prior investigations suggest that birth order position may be associated with the risk for developing a pervasive developmental disorder. This retrospective chart review examined the birth order status of 29 psychiatrically-referred patients with Asperger's Syndrome (AS). Eighty-six percent of the subjects were first born. The finding was…

  8. Brief Report: Identical Male Twins Concordant for Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishijima, Michiko; Kurita, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    The first case study of identical male twins concordant for DSM-IV Asperger's disorder (ASD) was presented. Their monozygocity was confirmed by short tandem repeat analyses with a probability of 99.999963%. Despite sharing the same DNA and environment, the twins are different in comorbidity (i.e., major depressive disorder in the elder and absence…

  9. Asperger's and Girls: What Teachers Need to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarman, Belinda; Rayner, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with the pervasive developmental disorder Asperger's syndrome (AS) are generally of average or above average intelligence and attend mainstream schools. Despite their intelligence, some of the characteristics and challenges associated with AS can impact upon the quality of life they experience at school. Although both males and females…

  10. Supporting Students with Asperger's Syndrome in General Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Joan S.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses social difficulties of children with Asperger's syndrome and provides strategies for helping children practice and learn the classroom and life rules that many students naturally acquire. Suggestions include: carefully structure seating arrangements and group work, provide a safe haven, prepare for changes in routine, and…

  11. Stimulus Characteristics Affect Humor Processing in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Andrea C.; Hegenloh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS…

  12. The Use of Psychodrama Techniques for Students with Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munir, Samira; Scholwinski, Edward; Lasser, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Asperger's Disorder (AD) is a pervasive developmental disorder affecting social functioning and behavioral interest and activities. The purpose of this article is to inform school counselors of the characteristic features of AD, common interventions being implemented, and the techniques associated with the practice of psychodrama that appear to…

  13. Atypical Prosody in Asperger Syndrome: Perceptual and Acoustic Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipe, Marisa G.; Frota, Sónia; Castro, São Luís; Vicente, Selene G.

    2014-01-01

    It is known that individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) may show no problems with regard to what is said (e.g., lexical content) but tend to have difficulties in how utterances are produced, i.e., they may show prosodic impairments. In the present study, we focus on the use of prosodic features to express grammatical meaning. Specifically, we…

  14. Art Lessons for a Young Artist with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furniss, Gillian J.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the art lessons of a young artist with Asperger Syndrome (AS). It discusses the interpersonal relationship between the author, an art teacher, and this young art student with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). It also describes some of the behavior modification techniques the author used during art lessons to instruct the…

  15. Exploring Fathers' Perceptions of Parenting a Child with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O' Halloran, Maeve; Sweeney, John; Doody, Owen

    2013-01-01

    This study explores Irish fathers' perceptions of parenting a child with Asperger syndrome (AS). Ethical approval was granted by the service provider, and Husserlian phenomenological approach facilitated the exploration. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews of nine fathers in the West region of Ireland. Data were transcribed and…

  16. Semantic Integration during Metaphor Comprehension in Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Rinat; Faust, Miriam; Goldstein, Abraham

    2010-01-01

    Previous research indicates severe disabilities in processing figurative language in people diagnosed on the autism spectrum disorders. However, this aspect of language comprehension in Asperger syndrome (AS) specifically has rarely been the subject of formal study. The present study aimed to examine the possibility that in addition to their…

  17. Physical Education and Implications for Students with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Cynthia G.; Gaus, Mark D.; Biggs, Mary Jo Garcia; Williams, James, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, James Williams, a young man with Asperger's syndrome (AS) shares his experiences taking physical education in a generalized education setting and discusses the implications for students with AS. He was diagnosed with AS when he was 9 years old. School was tough at times, especially when social interactions came into play. One of…

  18. Teachers' Social Representation of Students with Asperger Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linton, Ann-Charlotte; Germundsson, Per; Heimann, Mikael; Danermark, Berth

    2013-01-01

    While progress has been made for including students with disability into mainstream schools, trends point to problems for students with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosis who have a propensity to dropping out of school. Teachers' perceptions and understanding of AS will affect expectations and the attainment of educational targets. Thus, to…

  19. Three Diagnostic Approaches to Asperger Syndrome: Implications for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klin, Ami; Pauls, David; Schultz, Robert; Volkmar, Fred

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the implications for research of the use of three alternative definitions for Asperger syndrome (AS). Differences across the three nosologic systems were examined in terms of diagnostic assignment, IQ profiles, comorbid symptoms, and familial aggregation of social and other psychiatric symptoms. Method: Standard data on…

  20. Social Vulnerability and Bullying in Children with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofronoff, Kate; Dark, Elizabeth; Stone, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    Children with Asperger syndrome (AS) have IQ within the normal range but specific impairments in theory of mind, social interaction and communication skills. The majority receive education in mainstream schools and research suggests they are bullied more than typically developing peers. The current study aimed to evaluate factors that predict…

  1. Secondary School Success for Students with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konza, Deslea

    2005-01-01

    Many students approach the transition to secondary school with feelings of both excitement and apprehension, but it is excitement that usually prevails. For students with Asperger's Syndrome, however, those aspects of secondary school that most students anticipate with great enthusiasm, such as being in a new and larger environment, having…

  2. Asperger Syndrome: The Emerging Challenge to Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.

    2001-01-01

    This article provides a synthesis of recent literature on Asperger syndrome, a condition that has received little attention in American special education. The analysis addresses the syndrome's history, definition, differential diagnosis from other pervasive developmental disorders, screening procedures, and emerging educational interventions.…

  3. A Practitioner's Guide to Resources on Asperger Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Joan S.

    2002-01-01

    This article identifies and describes a selection of print and electronic resources to help educators understand and support students with Asperger syndrome, a disorder characterized by significant impairment in social interaction and relationships. The annotated bibliography of 31 items is organized into general overviews, strategies, personal…

  4. Supporting Students with Asperger Syndrome on College Campuses: Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhill, Gena P.

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing number of students with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism (HFA) enrolling in college, it has become apparent that support services are greatly needed to assist these students in navigating college life, both academically and socially. Yet, there is a dearth of research describing the specific supports needed…

  5. Computerized Adaptive Assessment of Cognitive Abilities among Disabled Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engdahl, Brian

    This study examined computerized adaptive testing and cognitive ability testing of adults with cognitive disabilities. Adult subjects (N=250) were given computerized tests on language usage and space relations in one of three administration conditions: paper and pencil, fixed length computer adaptive, and variable length computer adaptive.…

  6. Teaching, Learning and Assessment for Adults: Improving Foundation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Many adults in OECD countries have low language, literacy and numeracy (LLN) skills. The consequences of these low foundation skills span the economic, health and social well-being of individuals, families and communities. Investment in this sector of adult education is therefore crucial. This study looks specifically inside the programmes for…

  7. Assessing Adult Student Reactions to Assistive Technology in Writing Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Julie; Wood, Eileen; Hunt, Jen; Specht, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the implementation of assistive technology in a community literacy centre's writing program for adult learners. Quantitative and qualitative analyses indicated that (a) software and instructional methods for writing must be selected according to the needs of and in conjunction with adult learners, (b) learners needed…

  8. Assessment of a Professional Development Program on Adult Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Librarians at colleges and universities invested in graduate education must understand and incorporate adult learning theories in their reference and instruction interactions with graduate students to more effectively support the students' learning. After participating in a professional development program about adult learning theory, librarians…

  9. Clinical Assessment of Functional Movement in Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Christopher T.; Horvat, Michael; Williams, Michael; Blasch, Bruce B.

    2007-01-01

    Adults with visual impairments have significantly more health risks than do sighted adults because of a number of factors, including the lower mineral density of their femoral neck bones, which is indicative of reduced weight-bearing exercise; their lesser maximal strength; and their higher rates of stroke, osteoporosis, depression, hypertension,…

  10. Assessment of Interpersonal Risk (AIR) in Adults with Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour--Piloting a New Risk Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Martin; McCue, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A new risk assessment tool, "Assessment of Interpersonal Risk" (AIR), was piloted and evaluated to measure risk factors and compatibility between individuals living in an assessment and treatment unit in one NHS area. The adults with learning disabilities in this unit had severe and enduring mental health problems and/or behaviour that is severely…

  11. Source Memory in Adolescents and Adults with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowler, Dermot M.; Gardiner, John M.; Berthollier, Natasha

    2004-01-01

    Memory difficulties in autism are observed mainly on measures like free recall, where test procedures provide no support for memory. When support is present, such as in cued recall, difficulties are less evident. Such observations may explain the mixed findings on source memory in autism. Bennetto, Pennington and Rogers (Child Development, 67,…

  12. Increasing Socialization in Adults with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koegel, Lynn Kern; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Koegel, Robert L.; Detar, Whitney J.; Regester, April

    2013-01-01

    Difficulties engaging in social activities are considered to be a core symptom of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both the literature and our clinical observations suggest that most individuals with ASD have a desire to engage in social activities, but social skill deficits make social interaction challenging, and in turn can lead…

  13. Ecological momentary assessment of eating episodes in obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Cao, Li; Engel, Scott G.; Durkin, Nora; Beach, Heather M.; Berg, Kelly C.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Crow, Scott J.; Peterson, Carol B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The context of eating episodes in obesity is poorly understood. This study examined emotional, physiological, and environmental correlates of pathological and non-pathological eating episodes in a heterogeneous sample of obese adults. Methods Community-based participants [n=50; 84% female (n=42); M body mass index=40.3±8.5; M age=43.0±11.9] with (n=5; 10%) and without binge eating disorder (BED; n=45; 90%) recorded all eating episodes and their associated emotional, physiological, and environmental factors via ecological momentary assessment for two weeks. Generalized estimating equations examined relations between these variables and eating episodes characterized by both self-identified loss of control while eating and overeating (binge eating; BE), loss of control only (LOC), overeating only (OE), and neither loss of control nor overeating (non-pathological eating; NE). Results Episodes involving loss of control (BE and LOC) were associated with the highest levels of pre- and post-episode negative affect (Wald chi-square range=15.67–24.39; ps≤.001), while those involving overeating (BE and OE) were associated with the lowest levels of pre- and post-episode hunger (Wald chi-square range=18.14–39.75; ps<.001). LOC episodes were followed by the highest level of post-episode cravings (Wald chi-square=25.87; p<.001) and were most likely to occur when participants were alone (Wald chi-square=13.20; p=.004). Conclusion Binge and loss of control eating were more consistently associated with emotional and physiological cues than overeating and non-pathological eating, while most environmental variables did not differ among eating episode types. Results support distinctions among the different objective and subjective constructs characterizing aberrant eating, and should be used to inform interventions for obesity and related eating pathology. PMID:25373891

  14. [The problems of diagnosis and correction of autism in children (an example of Asperger's syndrome)].

    PubMed

    Iovchuk, N M; Severnyĭ, A A

    2014-01-01

    Based on the analysis of literature and own clinical experience, we discuss diagnostic issues of early autistic disorders in children. Main differential-diagnostic signs that permit to differentiate mild forms of autism in childhood diagnosed as Asperger's syndrome from childhood schizophrenia, residual organic CNS damage, circular affective disorders are described. Cases of Asperger's syndrome followed up for many years and recommendations for social and psychological adaptation of children and adolescents with Asperger's syndrome in different age periods are presented. PMID:24637822

  15. [Assessment of the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults].

    PubMed

    Gross, J; Blocher, D; Trott, G E; Rösler, M

    1999-01-01

    The attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common disorders in childhood and adolescence with a prevalence of app. 5%. The importance of ADHD in childhood as a factor of vulnerability for psychiatric disorders in adults is becoming a focus of discussion. It was shown that there is a comorbidity in adults with substance abuse, delinquency and personality disorders. There is a growing evidence that ADHD will persist in a significant number of patients during adulthood. This is the first german study to evaluate this interdependence. We examined 164 adult inpatients and 48 healthy volunteers with the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), a retrospective self-evaluation scale for the diagnosis of ADHD in childhood, and the Eysenck impulsiveness questionnaire I7. It could be shown that the WURS and the I7 are suitable instruments for the evaluation of the ADHD in adults especially concerning the aspects of attention deficits and impulsiveness. PMID:10087514

  16. Literacy Behind Bars: Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy Prison Survey. NCES 2007-473

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Elizabeth; Dunleavy, Eric; Kutner, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) assessed the English literacy of incarcerated adults for the first time since 1992. The assessment was administered to approximately 1,200 inmates (ages 16 and older) in state and federal prisons, as well as to approximately 18,000 adults (ages 16 and older) living in households. Three types of…

  17. Support for learning goes beyond academic support: Voices of students with Asperger's disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Bolic Baric, Vedrana; Hellberg, Kristina; Kjellberg, Anette; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and explore the experiences of support at school among young adults with Asperger's disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and also to examine what support they, in retrospect, described as influencing learning. Purposive sampling was used to enroll participants. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 13 young adults aged between 20 and 29 years. A qualitative analysis, based on interpreting people's experiences, was conducted by grouping and searching for patterns in data. The findings indicate that the participants experienced difficulties at school that included academic, social, and emotional conditions, all of which could influence learning. Support for learning included small groups, individualized teaching methods, teachers who cared, and practical and emotional support. These clusters together confirm the overall understanding that support for learning aligns academic and psychosocial support. In conclusion, academic support combined with psychosocial support at school seems to be crucial for learning among students with Asperger's disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:25911093

  18. Literacy Independent Cognitive Assessment: Assessing Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults with Low Literacy Skills

    PubMed Central

    Shim, YongSoo; Ryu, Hui Jin; Lee, Dong Woo; Lee, Jun-Young; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Choi, Seong Hye; Han, Seol-Heui

    2015-01-01

    Objective Comprehensive neuropsychological tests are important in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with MCI; however, most were developed without consideration of illiteracy. We developed the Literacy Independent Cognitive Assessment (LICA) as a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment battery applicable to older adults who are either literate or illiterate. This study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the LICA for diagnosis of MCI. Methods Normal controls (n=634) and patients with MCI (n=128) were recruited from 13 centers were included in this study. Participants were divided into illiterate or literate groups, based on their performance on a brief reading and writing test. The LICA, Korean Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE), and Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB) were administered. Results Total LICA scores distinguished MCI patients from controls (p<0.001). They were closely and positively correlated to the K-MMSE scores (r=0.632, p<0.001) but negatively correlated to clinical dementia rating (CDR) (r=-0.358, p<0.001) and CDR sum of boxes (r=-0.339, p<0.001). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for patients with MCI by total LICA score was 0.827 (0.783-0.870), superior to that presented by the K-MMSE. For the classification of MCI subtypes, inter-method reliability of LICA with the SNSB was good (κ 0.773; 0.679-0.867, p<0.001). Conclusion The results of this study show that the LICA may be reliably used to distinguish MCI patients from cognitively intact adults, to identify MCI subtypes and monitor progression toward dementia, regardless of illiteracy. PMID:26207127

  19. Rasch Measurement in the Assessment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adult Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto, Luis; Roset, Montse; Badia, Xavier

    2001-01-01

    Tested the metric properties of a Spanish version of the Assessment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults (AGHDA) questionnaire through Rasch analysis with a sample of 356 adult patients in Spain. Results suggest that the Spanish AGHDA could be a useful complement of the clinical evaluation of growth hormone deficiency patients at group and…

  20. An Assessment of Cognitive Behavior of Economically Disadvantaged Young Adults in North Mississippi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Lillian S.; And Others

    This study sought to determine the appropriateness of two conventional intelligence tests for assessing the ability of economically deprived young adults participating in job training programs by comparing their test results with those of the test standardization groups. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), and the Langmuir Oral Direction…

  1. Outcomes Assessment: Responding to Societal and Economic Challenges through Adult Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, John D.; And Others

    Despite the fact that students over age 25 will soon comprise the majority in higher education, programming and resource allocation at many universities remain inadequate to meet adult needs. Institutions have also failed to invest in adult education research. At the same time, pressures for objective assessment of student learning in higher…

  2. Adults with Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: Assessment and Treatment Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, John S.; Harper, Dennis C.

    2007-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among adults is characterized by inattentiveness and impulsivity. This article provides counselors with information about the etiology, assessment, and treatment of adult ADHD. The identification of the genetic and neurological features of ADHD has led to improvements in evaluation and treatment.…

  3. Assessing adult mortality in HIV-1-afflicted Zimbabwe (1998 -2003).

    PubMed Central

    Lopman, Ben A.; Barnabas, Ruanne; Hallett, Timothy B.; Nyamukapa, Constance; Mundandi, Costa; Mushati, Phyllis; Garnett, Geoff P.; Gregson, Simon

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare alternative methods to vital registration systems for estimating adult mortality, and describe patterns of mortality in Manicaland, Zimbabwe, which has been severely affected by HIV. METHODS: We compared estimates of adult mortality from (1) a single question on household mortality, (2) repeated household censuses, and (3) an adult cohort study with linked HIV testing from Manicaland, with a mathematical model fitted to local age-specific HIV prevalence (1998 -2000). FINDINGS: The crude death rate from the single question (29 per 1000 person-years) was roughly consistent with that from the mathematical model (22 -25 per 1000 person-years), but much higher than that from the household censuses (12 per 1000 person-years). Adult mortality in the household censuses (males 0.65; females 0.51) was lower than in the cohort study (males 0.77; females 0.57), while mathematical models gave a much higher estimate, especially for females (males 0.80 -0.83; females 0.75 -0.80). The population attributable fraction of adult deaths due to HIV was 0.61 for men and 0.70 for women, with life expectancy estimated to be 34.3 years for males and 38.2 years for females. CONCLUSION: Each method for estimating adult mortality had limitations in terms of loss to follow-up (cohort study), under-ascertainment (household censuses), transparency of underlying processes (single question), and sensitivity to parameterization (mathematical model). However, these analyses make clear the advantages of longitudinal cohort data, which provide more complete ascertainment than household censuses, highlight possible inaccuracies in model assumptions, and allow direct quantification of the impact of HIV. PMID:16583077

  4. Assessing the Concordance of Measures Used to Diagnose Adult ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Clarke, Tana L.; Chronis, Andrea M.; Raggi, Veronica L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Recent evidence suggests that ADHD persists into adulthood, but the best means of diagnosis and the concordance of measures used to diagnose adult ADHD are unknown. Method: The current study explores the relationships of these measures in a sample of 69 mothers of children with ADHD. Results: This study determines the concordance of (a)…

  5. Psychological Assessment of Adolescents and Adults with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Juan; del Sol Fortea Sevilla, Maria

    1993-01-01

    This study compared scores of 17 children with autism and mental retardation on the Psychoeducational Profile with scores on the Adolescent and Adult Psychoeducational Profile 5 years later. Eye-hand coordination predicted scores in vocational skills, independent functioning, and vocational behavior; imitation predicted interpersonal behavior;…

  6. Medication Management Assessment for Older Adults in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orwig, Denise; Brandt, Nicole; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the Medication Management Instrument for Deficiencies in the Elderly (MedMaIDE) and to provide results of reliability and validity testing. Design and Methods: Participants were 50 older adults, aged 65 and older, who lived in the community, took at least one prescription medication, and were then…

  7. Assessing Decision Making in Young Adult Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vennum, Amber; Fincham, Frank D.

    2011-01-01

    Romantic relationships among young adults are rich with ambiguity and without a clear, universal progression emphasizing the need for active decision making. Lack of active decision making in romantic relationships can lead to increases in constraints (e.g. pregnancy, shared living space or finances) that promote the continuation of relationships…

  8. The Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery and the WAIS-R in Assessment of Adults with Specific Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lynda; Goldstein, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    Compared intellectual (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale for Adults-Revised) and neuropsychological (Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery) assessment as valid methods of identifying learning disabilities in adults. Findings from 155 subjects revealed that both instruments were able to distinguish adults with and without learning disabilities.…

  9. Writing, Asperger Syndrome and Theory of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Heather M.; Klein, Perry D.

    2011-01-01

    This research compared the written compositions of 16 adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders and 16 neurotypical control participants, and examined the influence of theory of mind on their writing. Participants ranging in age from 17 years to 42 years, matched on Vocabulary subtest scores from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale…

  10. [Asperger's syndrome in family context--review of studies].

    PubMed

    Zmijewska, Anna

    2010-01-01

    In recent years in the face of still growing number of diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorders there has been an increase in number of research in the functioning of family of children with autism or Asperger's Syndrome. Studies concerning families of children with autism have been predominantly occupied with the stress-coping strategies and also with the therapeutic effect of interaction between disabled children and the rest of the family. New studies with families of children with Asperger's Syndrome, apart from the coping styles of parents and the received support, are also examining the properties of the system of these families, like: cohesion, adaptability, organisation, control, expressiveness or conflict. Such a perspective enables researchers to describe the circularity of influences in these families, on the other hand, however, some methodological deficiencies of this research, as well as the lack of longitudinal studies prevent researchers from creating a comprehensive picture of functioning of these families. PMID:21452506

  11. Personality Assessment Screener, Childhood Abuse, and Adult Partner Violence in African American Women Using Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Porcerelli, John H; Hurrell, Kristen; Cogan, Rosemary; Jeffries, Keturah; Markova, Tsveti

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship between psychopathology with the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) and childhood physical and sexual abuse and adult physical and sexual partner violence in a primary care sample of 98 urban-dwelling African American women. Patients completed the PAS, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The PAS total score significantly correlated with all measures of childhood and adult abuse. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that PAS element scores of Suicidal Thinking and Hostile Control significantly predicted a history of childhood physical abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Hostile Control, and Acting Out significantly predicted a history of childhood sexual abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Negative Affect, and Alienation significantly predicted current adult partner physical violence; and Psychotic Features, Alcohol Problems, and Anger Control significantly predicted current adult sexual partner violence. The PAS appears to be a useful measure for fast-paced primary care settings for identifying patients who need a more thorough assessment for abuse. PMID:26374084

  12. A Holistic Approach to Assess Older Adults' Wellness Using e-Health Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Demiris, George; Rue, Tessa; Shatil, Evelyn; Wilamowska, Katarzyna; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Reeder, Blaine

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To date, methodologies are lacking that address a holistic assessment of wellness in older adults. Technology applications may provide a platform for such an assessment, but have not been validated. We set out to demonstrate whether e-health applications could support the assessment of older adults' wellness in community-dwelling older adults. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven residents of independent retirement community were followed over 8 weeks. Subjects engaged in the use of diverse technologies to assess cognitive performance, physiological and functional variables, as well as psychometric components of wellness. Data were integrated from various e-health sources into one study database. Correlations were assessed between different parameters, and hierarchical cluster analysis was used to explore the validity of the wellness model. Results: We found strong associations across multiple parameters of wellness within the conceptual model, including cognitive, functional, and physical. However, spirituality did not correlate with any other parameter studied in contrast to prior studies of older adults. Participants expressed overall positive attitudes toward the e-health tools and the holistic approach to the assessment of wellness, without expressing any privacy concerns. Conclusions: Parameters were highly correlated across multiple domains of wellness. Important clusters were noted to be formed across cognitive and physiological domains, giving further evidence of need for an integrated approach to the assessment of wellness. This finding warrants further replication in larger and more diverse samples of older adults to standardize and deploy these technologies across population groups. PMID:22011052

  13. Effects of multisensory yoga on behavior in a male child with Apert and Asperger syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Scroggins, Michaela L; Litchke, Lyn G; Liu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This case focused on a 7-year-old boy with Apert and Asperger's syndrome who attended 8, 45 min multisensory yoga sessions, twice a week, during 4-week camp. Results from the pre- and post-tests on Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Social Skills Assessment showed improvements in the total score changes from 19 to 7 for disruptive behaviors. Sparks Target Behavior Checklist scores changed from eight to one showing progression in ability to stay on task. Yoga Pose Rating Scale displayed the transformation in total scores from 80 = emerging to 115 = consistency in pose performance. The field notes revealed the positive development in expressive emotions, social engagement, and decline in looking around. Outside class parent and school behavioral specialist reported the improved ability to self-regulate stress using lion's breath and super brain. These findings indicate an improvement in behaviors that influenced the physical performance, emotional expression, and social interaction after yoga training for this child. PMID:26865777

  14. Social competence intervention for youth with Asperger Syndrome and high-functioning autism: an initial investigation.

    PubMed

    Stichter, Janine P; Herzog, Melissa J; Visovsky, Karen; Schmidt, Carla; Randolph, Jena; Schultz, Tia; Gage, Nicholas

    2010-09-01

    Individuals with high functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger Syndrome (AS) exhibit difficulties in the knowledge or correct performance of social skills. This subgroup's social difficulties appear to be associated with deficits in three social cognition processes: theory of mind, emotion recognition and executive functioning. The current study outlines the development and initial administration of the group-based Social Competence Intervention (SCI), which targeted these deficits using cognitive behavioral principles. Across 27 students age 11-14 with a HFA/AS diagnosis, results indicated significant improvement on parent reports of social skills and executive functioning. Participants evidenced significant growth on direct assessments measuring facial expression recognition, theory of mind and problem solving. SCI appears promising, however, larger samples and application in naturalistic settings are warranted. PMID:20162344

  15. Effects of multisensory yoga on behavior in a male child with Apert and Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Scroggins, Michaela L; Litchke, Lyn G; Liu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This case focused on a 7-year-old boy with Apert and Asperger's syndrome who attended 8, 45 min multisensory yoga sessions, twice a week, during 4-week camp. Results from the pre- and post-tests on Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Social Skills Assessment showed improvements in the total score changes from 19 to 7 for disruptive behaviors. Sparks Target Behavior Checklist scores changed from eight to one showing progression in ability to stay on task. Yoga Pose Rating Scale displayed the transformation in total scores from 80 = emerging to 115 = consistency in pose performance. The field notes revealed the positive development in expressive emotions, social engagement, and decline in looking around. Outside class parent and school behavioral specialist reported the improved ability to self-regulate stress using lion's breath and super brain. These findings indicate an improvement in behaviors that influenced the physical performance, emotional expression, and social interaction after yoga training for this child. PMID:26865777

  16. Early Identification of Asperger Syndrome in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, Wiebke; Konig, Udo; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Mattejat, Fritz; Becker, Katja; Kamp-Becker, Inge

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to identify items of the ADI-R that allow an early and sensitive identification of children with possible Asperger syndrome (AS). The aim was to obtain an economic short interview suitable for screening purposes. The study was based on data from a clinical sample of 5-18-year-old children and adolescents (mean age 10.9…

  17. Practitioner Views of Aspergers' Disorder: Clinical Diagnosis and Special Education Eligibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swisher, Arthur H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of school psychology practitioners regarding Asperger's Disorder, focusing on practitioner perceptions of self-competence, conceptualization of the clinical characteristics of the disorder, and how Asperger's Disorder is conceptualized for the purpose of determining special education…

  18. Qualitative or Quantitative Differences between Asperger's Disorder and Autism? Historical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, James Ladell

    2009-01-01

    The histories of autism and Asperger's Disorder (AD), based on original contributions by Kanner and Asperger, are reviewed in relation to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Their original articles appear to have influenced the distinction between AD and autism made in the DSM-IV. Based on up-to-date empirical research, however, it appears that AD and…

  19. Career Development for College Students with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mynatt, Blair Sumner; Gibbons, Melinda M.; Hughes, Amber

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of students with Asperger's syndrome are entering college today. Students with Asperger's syndrome face complex symptomology such as difficulty with social skills, narrowed interests, sensory issues, and lack of self-awareness that may affect their ability to complete college and successfully enter the workforce.…

  20. Lexical Processing in Individuals with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speirs, Samantha; Yelland, Greg; Rinehart, Nicole; Tonge, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The presence or absence of clinically delayed language development prior to 3 years of age is a key, but contentious, clinical feature distinguishing autism from Asperger's disorder. The aim of this study was to examine language processing in children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's disorder (AD) using a task which taps lexical…

  1. Classroom Needs of Community College Students with Asperger's Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobbo, Ken; Shmulsky, Solvegi

    2012-01-01

    Community college students with Asperger's Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders can experience significant challenges from the social aspect of classroom learning and college life in comparison to their peers. This article explains unique challenges of postsecondary learners with Asperger's Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders. It also…

  2. Can Asperger's Disorder Be Differentiated from Autism Using "DSM-IV" Criteria?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryon, Patti Ann; Mayes, Susan D.; Rhodes, Robert L.; Waldo, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Parents of 26 children with diagnoses of Asperger's disorder completed a symptom checklist to determine whether the children met "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition, Text Revision" ("DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria for Asperger's disorder, autism, or pervasive developmental disorder…

  3. An Experimental Investigation of the Phenomenology of Delusional Beliefs in People with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abell, Frances; Hare, Dougal Julian

    2005-01-01

    There is evidence that Asperger syndrome is associated with delusional beliefs. Cognitive theories of delusions in psychosis literature propose a central role for impaired theory of mind ability in the development of delusions. The present study investigates the phenomenology of delusional ideation in Asperger syndrome. Forty-six individuals with…

  4. Constructing Normalcy: A Qualitative Study of Parenting Children with Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasser, Jon; Corley, Kristyn

    2008-01-01

    Children with Asperger's Disorder present unique challenges due to their impairments in social functioning. In order to better understand the experiences of parents of children with Asperger's Disorder, interviews were conducted with 20 parents. The interviews were taped, transcribed, and coded using the systematic methods of Grounded Theory. The…

  5. Pervasive Developmental Disorders: PDD-NOS, Asperger's Disorder and Autism. Parent Information Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Karen

    This information booklet is designed for parents who have a child who has been diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) or Asperger's Disorder. It provides information on: (1) the definition of PDD; (2) the five subtypes of PDD, including PDD "not otherwise specified," Asperger's disorder, autistic disorder, childhood disintegrative…

  6. Asperger Syndrome and Difficult Moments: Practical Solutions for Tantrums, Rage, and Meltdowns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myles, Brenda Smith; Southwick, Jack

    This book discusses characteristics of individuals with Asperger syndrome that affect behavior, and presents strategies for preventing behavioral problems. Chapter 1, "An Overview of the Characteristics of Asperger Syndrome that May Impact Behavior," discusses specific characteristics that affect cognition, language, socialization, sensory…

  7. Referral Pattern and Special Interests in Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome: A Turkish Referred Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanidir, Canan; Mukaddes, Nahit M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the most frequent reasons for referral, the most common special interests, age at first referral to a mental health service, and the age of diagnosis in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome living in Turkey. Methods: This study includes 61 children and adolescents diagnosed with Asperger syndrome using…

  8. Power Cards to Improve Conversational Skills in Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kathy M.; Boon, Richard T.; Cihak, David F.; Fore, Cecil, III

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Power Cards on the initiation and maintenance of conversational skills in students with Asperger syndrome. Three high school students with Asperger Syndrome participated in this study. Power Cards were used to prompt students' previously learned conversational skills in a multiple-baseline…

  9. Unveiling the Training Needs of the School Counselor: Implementing Effective Interventions with Students with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify school counselors' specific training needs in order to provide leadership and consultation for effective interventions for students with Asperger syndrome. The study examined school counselors' level of knowledge, skill, and training in working with students with Asperger syndrome and…

  10. Asperger's Syndrome and the Voyage through High School: Not the Final Frontier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graetz, Janet E.; Spampinato, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Asperger's syndrome (AS) is a neurological disorder included in the spectrum of autism disorders. Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are said to exhibit characteristics that fall into a "triad of deficits" that include (a) communication, (b) socialization, and (c) interests and activities. For children and adolescents with Asperger's…

  11. Social Skills Training for Adolescents with Asperger's Syndrome Using a Consultation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minihan, Aileen; Kinsella, William; Honan, Rita

    2011-01-01

    A case study design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioural consultation as a method for improving the social skills of adolescents with Asperger's syndrome. Two case studies were conducted. In each study, two teachers implemented a social skills programme with two to three adolescents with Asperger's syndrome in a group setting with…

  12. Self-Perceptions of a High School Female Adolescent with Asperger Syndrome: A Case History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Kemberly V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to increase the knowledge base about female adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS). The findings will be useful in providing educators with an insight into the social world of Asperger syndrome in order to give them a better understanding of the syndrome, and to assist them in teaching students more effectively. The…

  13. The Efficacy of Social Skills Treatment for Children with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Lisa M.; Caterino, Linda C.; Chao, Janet; Shaknai, Dina; De Simone, Gina

    2006-01-01

    Children with Asperger Syndrome present with significant social skills deficits, which may contribute to clinical problems such as anxiety, depression, and/or other behavioral disorders. This article provides a description of the nature of Asperger Syndrome and provides possible treatment interventions, specifically focusing on the efficacy of…

  14. Brief Report: No Increase in Criminal Convictions in Hans Asperger's Original Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hippler, Kathrin; Viding, Essi; Klicpera, Christian; Happe, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Hans Asperger originally used the term "autistic psychopathy" to describe his patients on the autism spectrum, leading to a possible confusion with psychopathic disorder and delinquent behaviour. We conducted a penal register search for 177 former patients of Asperger's clinic with a childhood diagnosis of "autistic psychopathy" or features of the…

  15. Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome: Can We Differentiate Their Cognitive Profiles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planche, Pascale; Lemonnier, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's syndrome (AS) can be differentiated from each other and from typically developing children on their cognitive profiles. The present study included a total of 45 participants: children with autism (high-functioning autism or Asperger's…

  16. The Quality of Life of Young Men with Asperger Syndrome: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennes-Coussens, Marieke; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Koning, Cyndie

    2006-01-01

    Factors influencing quality of life for persons with Asperger syndrome are not yet understood. Men, ages 18 to 21, completed the World Health Organization Quality Of Life measure, the Perceived Support Network Inventory, and a semi-structured interview. Asperger syndrome affects quality of life beyond the obvious social impact. The 12 men with…

  17. Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome Can Use a Mindfulness-Based Strategy to Control Their Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Angela D. A.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome occasionally exhibit aggressive behavior against peers and parents. In a multiple baseline design across subjects, three adolescents with Asperger syndrome were taught to use a mindfulness-based procedure called "Meditation on the Soles of the Feet" to control their physical aggression in the family…

  18. Assessing the Validity of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire--Short Form in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas; Zhang, Huabin F.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-QSF) in adults with ADHD. Method: One hundred fifty ADHD and 134 non-ADHD adults from a case-control study and 173 adults randomized to placebo or methylphenidate were assessed with the Q-LES-QSF and the…

  19. National Assessment of Adult Literacy, 2003: Public-Use Data File User's Guide. NCES 2007-464

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Elizabeth; Jin, Ying; White, Sheida

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics has updated the household and prison public-use data files for the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy and the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey. The accompanying 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy Public-Use Data File User's Guide explains how the data…

  20. Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    A prospective risk assessment was conducted for adult butterflies potentially exposed to the mosquito control insecticide naled. Published acute mortality data, exposure data collected during field studies, and morphometric data (total surface area and fresh body weight) for adult butterflies were combined in a probabilistic estimate of the likelihood that adult butterfly exposure to naled following aerial applications would exceed levels associated with acute mortality. Adult butterfly exposure was estimated based on the product of (1) naled residues on samplers and (2) an exposure metric that normalized total surface area for adult butterflies to their fresh weight. The likelihood that the 10th percentile refined effect estimate for adult butterflies exposed to naled would be exceeded following aerial naled applications was 67 to 80%. The greatest risk would be for butterflies in the family Lycaenidae, and the lowest risk would be for those in the family Hesperidae, assuming equivalent sensitivity to naled. A range of potential guideline naled deposition levels is presented that, if not exceeded, would reduce the risk of adult butterfly mortality. The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed.

  1. Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled.

    PubMed

    Bargar, Timothy A

    2012-04-01

    A prospective risk assessment was conducted for adult butterflies potentially exposed to the mosquito control insecticide naled. Published acute mortality data, exposure data collected during field studies, and morphometric data (total surface area and fresh body weight) for adult butterflies were combined in a probabilistic estimate of the likelihood that adult butterfly exposure to naled following aerial applications would exceed levels associated with acute mortality. Adult butterfly exposure was estimated based on the product of (1) naled residues on samplers and (2) an exposure metric that normalized total surface area for adult butterflies to their fresh weight. The likelihood that the 10th percentile refined effect estimate for adult butterflies exposed to naled would be exceeded following aerial naled applications was 67 to 80%. The greatest risk would be for butterflies in the family Lycaenidae, and the lowest risk would be for those in the family Hesperidae, assuming equivalent sensitivity to naled. A range of potential guideline naled deposition levels is presented that, if not exceeded, would reduce the risk of adult butterfly mortality. The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed. PMID:22278732

  2. The Assessment of Adult Needs: Phase 1 of Multi-County Assessment of Adult Needs Project (MAP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLennan Community Coll., TX.

    The McLennan Community College Multi-County Needs Assessment Project's (MAP) survey, assessing the felt and perceived needs, problems, and interests of the local population relative to education and training programs, is discussed in the document. The Needs Assessment Survey, one component of MAP, was conducted in the central Texas area (Bosque,…

  3. Assessment of Adult Psychopathology: Meta-Analyses and Implications of Cross-Informant Correlations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achenbach, Thomas M.; Krukowsi, Rebecca A.; Dumenci, Levent; Ivanova, Masha Y.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of adult psychopathology relies heavily on self-reports. To determine how well self-reports agree with reports by "informants" who know the person being assessed, the authors examined 51,000 articles published over 10 years in 52 peer-reviewed journals for correlations between self-reports and "informants" reports. Qualifying…

  4. Self-Assessment and Development Planning for Adult and Community Learning Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Mike; Reisenberger, Anna

    This document is designed to help adult and community learning (ACL) services across the United Kingdom complete the annual self-assessment reports (SARs). The guide begins with background information on the purposes of self-assessment, the new context of ACL and the elements and format of the new SARs. The remaining four sections examine the…

  5. Discrimination Skills Predict Effective Preference Assessment Methods for Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, May S. H.; Nguyen, Duong; Yu, C. T.; Thorsteinsson, Jennifer R.; Martin, Toby L.; Martin, Garry L.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the relationship between three discrimination skills (visual, visual matching-to-sample, and auditory-visual) and four stimulus modalities (object, picture, spoken, and video) in assessing preferences of leisure activities for 7 adults with developmental disabilities. Three discrimination skills were measured using the Assessment of…

  6. A Review of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test: An Advancement in Cognitive Assessment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Dawn P.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Flanagan, Rosemary

    1994-01-01

    Reviews Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT), a new assessment of cognitive function for technical qualities such as reliability, validity, and standardization characters. Concludes that KAIT represents advancements in cognitive assessment but cannot be regarded as superior to existing intelligence measures until data is available…

  7. Dynamic Assessment in a Yugtun Second Language Intermediate Adult Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Stephen Walkie

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic Assessment is a new theoretical framework for language assessment, and it is particularly relevant for underrepresented languages and learners. For this study the process is investigated in the context of Yugtun second language learners at a university level. This qualitative teacher action research was a study that involved seven…

  8. Asperger through the looking glass: an exploratory study of self-understanding in people with Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Paul; Skirrow, Paul; Hare, Dougal Julian

    2012-05-01

    Hobson (Autism and the development of mind. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hove, UK 1993) has proposed that the cognitive and linguistic disabilities that characterise autism result from abnormalities in inter-subjective engagement during infancy, which in turn results in impaired reflective self-awareness. The aim of the present study was to test Hobson's hypothesis by examining self-understanding in Asperger's syndrome (AS) using Damon and Hart's (Self-understanding in childhood and adolescence. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1988) model of self-concept. Ten participants with Asperger's syndrome were compared with ten non AS controls using the Self-understanding Interview (Damon and Hart in Self-understanding in Childhood and Adolescence. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1988). The study found that the Asperger's group demonstrated impairment in the "self-as-object" and "self-as-subject" domains of the Self-understanding Interview, which supported Hobson's concept of an impaired capacity for self-awareness and self-reflection in people with ASD. The results are discussed with reference to previous research regarding the development of self-understanding in people with ASD. PMID:21647793

  9. National Assessment of Adult Literacy: Indirect County and State Estimates of the Percentage of Adults at the Lowest Literacy Level for 1992 and 2003. Research and Development Report. NCES 2009-482

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohadjer, Leyla; Kalton, Graham; Krenzke, Tom; Liu, Benmei; Van de Kerckhove, Wendy; Li, Lin; Sherman, Dan; Dillman, Jennifer; Rao, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) assessed the English literacy skills of a nationally representative sample of 18,500 U.S. adults (age 16 and older) residing in private households. NAAL is the first national assessment of adult literacy since the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS). The NAAL and NALS produced direct…

  10. Pain assessment and management in critically ill older adults.

    PubMed

    Kirksey, Kenn M; McGlory, Gayle; Sefcik, Elizabeth F

    2015-01-01

    Older adults comprise approximately 50% of patients admitted to critical care units in the United States. This population is particularly susceptible to multiple morbidities that can be exacerbated by confounding factors like age-related safety risks, polypharmacy, poor nutrition, and social isolation. The elderly are particularly vulnerable to health conditions (heart disease, stroke, and diabetes) that put them at greater risk of morbidity and mortality. When an older adult presents to the emergency department with 1 or more of these life-altering diagnoses, an admission to the intensive care unit is often inevitable. Pain is one of the most pervasive manifestations exhibited by intensive care unit patients. There are myriad challenges for critical care nurses in caring for patients experiencing pain-inadequate communication (cognitively impaired or intubated patients), addressing the concerns of family members, or gaps in patients' knowledge. The purpose of this article was to discuss the multidimensional nature of pain and identify concepts innate to pain homeostenosis for elderly patients in the critical care setting. Evidence-based strategies, including an interprofessional team approach and best practice recommendations regarding pharmacological and nonpharmacological pain management, are presented. PMID:26039645

  11. Needs Assessment in Adult Education: Its Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackhaus, Bonnie

    1984-01-01

    This article focuses on the problems affecting needs assessment and, in doing so, addresses itself to the inadequate definition of needs, administrators' lack of training, difficulty of obtaining relevant literature, expense, methodological concerns, and political considerations. (Author/SSH)

  12. Development and Validation of a New Questionnaire Assessing Quality of Life in Adults with Hypopituitarism: Adult Hypopituitarism Questionnaire (AHQ)

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Hitoshi; Shimatsu, Akira; Okimura, Yasuhiko; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Hizuka, Naomi; Kaji, Hidesuke; Hanew, Kunihiko; Oki, Yutaka; Yamashiro, Sayuri; Takano, Koji; Chihara, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate the Adult Hypopituitarism Questionnaire (AHQ) as a disease-specific, self-administered questionnaire for evaluation of quality of life (QOL) in adult patients with hypopituitarism. Methods We developed and validated this new questionnaire, using a standardized procedure which included item development, pilot-testing and psychometric validation. Of the patients who participated in psychometric validation, those whose clinical conditions were judged to be stable were asked to answer the survey questionnaire twice, in order to assess test-retest reliability. Results Content validity of the initial questionnaire was evaluated via two pilot tests. After these tests, we made minor revisions and finalized the initial version of the questionnaire. The questionnaire was constructed with two domains, one psycho-social and the other physical. For psychometric assessment, analyses were performed on the responses of 192 adult patients with various types of hypopituitarism. The intraclass correlations of the respective domains were 0.91 and 0.95, and the Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were 0.96 and 0.95, indicating adequate test-retest reliability and internal consistency for each domain. For known-group validity, patients with hypopituitarism due to hypothalamic disorder showed significantly lower scores in 11 out of 13 sub-domains compared to those who had hypopituitarism due to pituitary disorder. Regarding construct validity, the domain structure was found to be almost the same as that initially hypothesized. Exploratory factor analysis (n = 228) demonstrated that each domain consisted of six and seven sub-domains. Conclusion The AHQ showed good reliability and validity for evaluating QOL in adult patients with hypopituitarism. PMID:22984490

  13. Naturalistic Assessment of Executive Function and Everyday Multitasking in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McAlister, Courtney; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Everyday multitasking and its cognitive correlates were investigated in an older adult population using a naturalistic task, the Day Out Task. Fifty older adults and 50 younger adults prioritized, organized, initiated and completed a number of subtasks in a campus apartment to prepare for a day out (e.g., gather ingredients for a recipe, collect change for a bus ride). Participants also completed tests assessing cognitive constructs important in multitasking. Compared to younger adults, the older adults took longer to complete the everyday tasks and more poorly sequenced the subtasks. Although they initiated, completed, and interweaved a similar number of subtasks, the older adults demonstrated poorer task quality and accuracy, completing more subtasks inefficiently. For the older adults, reduced prospective memory abilities were predictive of poorer task sequencing, while executive processes and prospective memory were predictive of inefficiently completed subtasks. The findings suggest that executive dysfunction and prospective memory difficulties may contribute to the age-related decline of everyday multitasking abilities in healthy older adults. PMID:23557096

  14. External biomarkers to assess chromium toxicity in adult Lepomis macrochirus

    SciTech Connect

    Gendusa, T.C.; Beitinger, T.L. )

    1992-02-01

    Chromium is widely used in the production of stainless steel, bricks, pigments, dyes, and in the tanning, textile, and chemical industries, commonly found in the aquatic environment and known to elicit acute and chronic toxicity to aquatic life. In water, chromium tends to speciate into Cr{sup 3+} (trivalent) and Cr{sup +6} (hexavalent). Speciation of chromium is primarily dependent upon water chemistry, e.g., oxygenation, pH, organic content and amount of particulate matter and the bioavailability of each chromium form is different mainly because of the low solubility of Cr{sup +3}. The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of eight potential biomarkers to indicate stress of chromium exposure in adult bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus).

  15. Imaging assessment and clinical significance of pneumatosis in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Lassandro, Francesco; Valente, Tullio; Rea, Gaetano; Lassandro, Giulia; Golia, Erica; Brunese, Luca; Laghi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Gas detection in the bowel wall and in portomesenteric venous vessels in adults has long been related to intestinal infarction and poor outcome; many case reports have shown that pneumatosis may be associated with a large variety of pathological situations, ranging from absolutely benign and asymptomatic forms to abdominal catastrophes. Several studies have been conducted on this topic with different conclusions, probably due to differences in population so that the clinical value of these signs is still questioned. Intestinal pneumatosis, especially if presenting with a band-like pattern and if associated with portomesenteric vein gas, when observed in an acute abdominal setting should raise the suspicion of mesenteric infarct and prompt a careful search for other signs of intestinal involvement, so as not to miss cases of life-threatening intestinal infarct or allow them to further evolve into extensive necrosis with worse prognosis. In this review we illustrate the most relevant aspects of these debated but significant radiological signs. PMID:25297049

  16. Social Literacy: A Social Skills Seminar for Young Adults with ASDs, NLDs, and Social Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Mary Riggs

    2011-01-01

    All adults need strong social skills to find and keep a job, establish relationships, and participate fully in adult life--but building these skills can be a special challenge for people with autism, Asperger syndrome, nonverbal learning disorder, social anxiety, and other disorders affecting social learning. Give them the essential support they…

  17. Using Telerehabilitation to Assess Apraxia of Speech in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Anne Jane; Theodoros, Deborah; Russell, Trevor; Ward, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Background: Telerehabilitation is the remote delivery of rehabilitation services via information technology and telecommunication systems. There have been a number of studies that have used videoconferencing to assess speech and language skills in people with acquired neurogenic communication disorders. However, few studies have focused on cases…

  18. Confidence-Based Assessments within an Adult Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novacek, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Traditional knowledge assessments rely on multiple-choice type questions that only report a right or wrong answer. The reliance within the education system on this technique infers that a student who provides a correct answer purely through guesswork possesses knowledge equivalent to a student who actually knows the correct answer. A more complete…

  19. Assessing cognitive function and capacity in older adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    McKoy, June M; Burhenn, Peggy S; Browner, Ilene S; Loeser, Kari L; Tulas, Katrina M; Oden, Megan R; Rupper, Randall W

    2014-01-01

    The number of older individuals with cancer is increasing exponentially, mandating that oncologists contemplate more comprehensive and multidisciplinary approaches to treatment of this cohort. Recruitment of assessment instruments validated in older patients can be invaluable for guiding treatment and decision-making by both patients and providers, and can arguably contribute to improving outcomes and health-related quality of life. The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment is one such validated instrument that can be used by oncologists to assess patient readiness and appropriateness for prescribed cancer therapy. As a multidisciplinary diagnostic and treatment process, it comprises functional status, cognitive status, social support, and advance care preferences, and is an ideal instrument for evaluating complex older individuals. It is well established that many older individuals with cancer travel with multiple comorbid illnesses, including cognitive impairment, and when presented with a cancer diagnosis struggle to choose from multiple treatment options. In addition to the complete medical history, the ability of patients to decide on a course of therapy in concert with their oncologist is critically important. Alternatively, many oncologists are conflicted as to whether true informed consent for treatment can be obtained from many older patients. Having a roadmap to decision-making capacity is therefore an inescapable imperative in geriatric oncology, because careful attention must be directed at identifying older patients with cancer who might benefit from these assessments and the individualized treatment plans that emerge. PMID:24453297

  20. [Assessment and treatment of developmental disorder traits in adult mental disorder: from the viewpoint of maladjustment in a company and university].

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Shinya

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the maladjustment reaction of adults with autism spectrum disorders such as Asperger syndrome to a working environment or university setting, from the viewpoint of a psychiatrist seeing them in areas of occupational and college mental health. The author is in charge of a day care program for company workers, called "The Return-to-Work Support Course", at a mental clinic. A total of 176 patients attended the program and most of them were originally diagnosed with depression and/or adjustment disorder. The author noted that five of them showed some traits of developmental disorder. They initially had been capable specialists at work, but started showing mental and psychosocial dysfunction as they received promotions and became team leaders or managers. It seems that changes in their work environment involving their superiors, co-workers, the organization, etc., easily affected their work performance and triggered their maladjustment, and finally caused their leave of absence. The author also works in a university student counseling room, and noted that some students started to show maladjustment in the course of writing their graduation thesis or applying for jobs, although they previously had performed fairly well at university. They could not maintain good communication with thesis advisers, could not perform adequately during a group discussion at a job interview, or could not cope with personnel offices appropriately. After being interviewed, they were diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. Not only child psychiatrists but all psychiatrists should have a sufficient knowledge of developmental disorders, and they need to be cautious when they diagnose patients and inform them. PMID:23944126

  1. [Toward providing individualized educational support for children with Asperger's disorder].

    PubMed

    Sato, Satoru

    2007-03-01

    In the present study, I examined educational support for children with Asperger' s disorder. From the viewpoint of individualized support and class-wide management, means of some effective educational support in regular education classroom was introduced. In the practice of individualized support, importance of the case meeting where teachers and parents participated in was pointed out. In addition, it was necessary to make support tools to realize effective support. On the other hand, in the practice of class-wide management, guidance of making human relations between children was one of the top priority problems. PMID:17354571

  2. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System: integrating attachment into clinical assessment.

    PubMed

    George, Carol; West, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the development and validation of the Adult Attachment Projective System (AAP), a measure we developed from the Bowlby-Ainsworth developmental tradition to assess adult attachment status. The AAP has demonstrated excellent concurrent validity with the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1984/1985/1996; Main & Goldwyn, 1985-1994; Main, Goldwyn, & Hesse, 2003), interjudge reliability, and test-retest reliability, with no effects of verbal intelligence or social desirability. The AAP coding and classification system and application in clinical and community samples are summarized. Finally, we introduce the 3 other articles that are part of this Special Section and discuss the use of the AAP in therapeutic assessment and treatment. PMID:21859280

  3. Use of body mass index of adults in assessing individual and community nutritional status.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, K. V.; Ferro-Luzzi, A.

    1995-01-01

    Adult malnutrition is much more widespread than is commonly recognized. Described in this article is the use of body mass index (BMI = weight in kg/(height in metres)2) as a measure of adult nutritional status, both of individuals and of communities. Concurrent assessment of the nutritional status of children and adults permits conclusions to be drawn about whether there is generalized undernutrition in a community or whether other factors (e.g., childhood infections or feeding practices) are more important in childhood malnutrition. Included is a tabular presentation that permits rapid assessment of both thinness or underweight (BMI values < 16, 17 and 18.5) and overweight (BMI > 25, 30 and 40). Examples of the use of BMI in both clinical and public health practice are also given. PMID:8846494

  4. Depression in Multiple Sclerosis: A Review of Assessment and Treatment Approaches in Adult and Pediatric Populations

    PubMed Central

    Skokou, Maria; Soubasi, Evanthia; Gourzis, Philippos

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating disease affecting one million people worldwide, with a significant burden of psychiatric comorbidity. Depression is the commonest psychiatric manifestation but still remains largely underdiagnosed and undertreated. The present work reviews current knowledge on diagnosis, assessment, and somatic and psychotherapeutic treatment interventions for depression in adult and pediatric populations of patients with multiple sclerosis. PMID:23097716

  5. Empowering or Disabling? Emotional Reactions to Assessment amongst Part-Time Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramp, Andy; Lamond, Catherine; Coleyshaw, Liz; Beck, Sue

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on emotional reactions to learning and assessment. It draws on a qualitative research project involving first-generation adult students on a foundation degree programme. Endorsing the notion of emotional reactions as situated in participants' lived power relations, we map out emotional patterns to Semester 1 and then explore…

  6. Educational Needs Assessment for Wisconsin Adults with Less than High School Graduation or GED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreitlow, Burton W.; And Others

    This study was conducted to assess the educational needs of Wisconsin adults aged 16 years and older who had not graduated from and were not attending high school or had not received a high school equivalency credential. The project staff interviewed 1,680 Wisconsin residents who met these criteria by telephone, using computerized random digit…

  7. Credit Card Usage among Older Adults: Assessing Financial Literacy and Pressures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pierre, Eileen; Shreffler, Karina

    2013-01-01

    The research reported here assessed the financial literacy of older adults living in rural communities, current use of and attitudes towards debt, and debt pressures. Those surveyed exhibit low credit card usage and responsible payment practices. Most never use credit to pay medical expenses. Respondents display a financial literacy level similar…

  8. Facing Learning Disabilities in the Adult Years. Understanding Dyslexia, ADHD, Assessment, Intervention, and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Joan; Rich, Rebecca

    This text provides information on learning disabilities in adults and offers practical ways to compensate. Chapters address: (1) definitions of learning disability; (2) etiology of learning disabilities; (3) our cognitive or thinking systems; (4) different assessment settings and some of the tests used to diagnose a learning disability; (5)…

  9. More than a Set of Teeth: Assessing and Enhancing Dental Students' Perceptions of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldrop, Deborah P.; Fabiano, Jude A.; Nochajski, Thomas H.; Zittel-Palamara, Kimberly; Davis, Elaine L.; Goldberg, Louis J.

    2006-01-01

    Dental professionals play a key role in maintaining the well-being of older adults by identifying problems that disturb systemic health. A 3-part instrument was used to assess dental students' knowledge of aging, comfort with patient diversity and patient care strategies (Years 1-4; N = 321). Collaborative education and services were developed by…

  10. Assessing dietary intake of drug abusing Hispanic adults with and without HIV infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drug abuse is an important risk factor for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among Hispanics in the Northeastern United States and both drug abuse and HIV are associated with nutritional deficiencies. The selection of a dietary assessment method most appropriate for Hispanic adults with/without HIV...

  11. Development of a Health Literacy Assessment for Young Adult College Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a comprehensive health literacy assessment tool for young adult college students. Participants: Participants were 144 undergraduate students. Methods: Two hundred and twenty-nine questions were developed, which were based on concepts identified by the US Department of Health and Human Services,…

  12. Evaluation of Multiple-Stimulus Preference Assessment with Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Gareth; Chand, Carly; Yu, C. T.; Martin, Toby L.; Martin, Garry L.

    2013-01-01

    We compared multiple-stimulus without replacement (MSWO) and paired-stimulus (PS) procedures to assess stimulus preferences of adults with developmental disabilities. Stimulus preference rankings for six food items obtained by the two procedures were positively correlated for all participants (M = 0.72, range 0.41 to 1). However, four participants…

  13. A Retrospective Chart Study: The Pathway to a Diagnosis for Adults Referred for ASD Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geurts, Hilde M.; Jansen, Marcel D.

    2012-01-01

    Charts of 125 adults (18 to 82 years), referred to an autism expert team for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) assessment, were reviewed to explore the pathway to an adulthood ASD diagnosis. The participants first contacted the mental health care clinic at a median age of 19 years (range 2 to 78 years). Men contacted the clinic slightly earlier than…

  14. The Summary Paper: An Effective Assessment Tool for Adult Collegiate Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemecek, John

    A "summary paper" can be defined as self-reported, written documentation of learning from a class or module. A clearly defined and well-written summary paper is an effective instrument for assessing the learning of adult students in higher education. Properly implemented, the summary paper accomplishes the following: addressing the particular…

  15. COCOA: A New Validated Instrument to Assess Medical Students' Attitudes towards Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollar, David; Roberts, Ellen; Busby-Whitehead, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the reliability and validity of the Carolina Opinions on Care of Older Adults (COCOA) survey compared with the Geriatric Assessment Survey (GAS). Participants were first year medical students (n = 160). A Linear Structural Relations (LISREL) measurement model for COCOA had a moderately strong fit that was significantly better…

  16. Assessment of Selective Attention with CSCWT (Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test) among Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afsaneh, Zarghi; Alireza, Zali; Mehdi, Tehranidost; Farzad, Ashrafi; Reza, Zarindast Mohammad; Mehdi, Moazzezi; Mojtaba, Khodadadi Seyed

    2012-01-01

    The SCWT (Stroop Color-Word Test) is a quick and frequently used measure for assessing selective attention and cognitive flexibility. This study determines age, sex and education level influence on attention and cognitive flexibility by CSCWT (Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test) among healthy Iranian children and adults. There were 78 healthy…

  17. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Social Comparisons, and the Subjective Assessment of Ambient Problems among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieman, Scott; Pearlin, Leonard I.

    2006-01-01

    Using data from adults age 65 and older in the District of Columbia and two adjoining counties in Maryland, we examine the association between community-level structural disadvantage and individuals' subjective assessments of neighborhood problems. In addition, we test whether or not perceptions of relative financial equality or inequality with…

  18. Adult Students' Perceptions of Automated Writing Assessment Software: Does It Foster Engagement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGuerre, Joselle L.

    2013-01-01

    Generally, this descriptive study endeavored to include the voice of adult learners to the scholarly body of research regarding automated writing assessment tools (AWATs). Specifically, the study sought to determine the extent to which students perceive that the AWAT named Criterion fosters learning and if students' opinions differ depending…

  19. A Conceptual Model and Assessment Template for Capacity Evaluation in Adult Guardianship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Jennifer; Butz, Steven W.; Marson, Daniel C.; Wood, Erica

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We develop a conceptual model and associated assessment template that is usable across state jurisdictions for evaluating the independent-living capacity of older adults in guardianship proceedings. Design and Methods: We used an iterative process in which legal provisions for guardianship and prevailing clinical practices for capacity…

  20. A Helping Hand in Assessing Children's Knowledge: Instructing Adults To Attend to Gesture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Spencer D.; Singer, Melissa; Hicks, Janna; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Three experiments tested whether it is possible to teach college students who are not trained investigators to comprehend information regarding knowledge of conservation problems and mathematical equivalence conveyed through children's hand gestures. Findings suggest that instructing adults to attend to gesture enhances their assessment of…

  1. Assessment of the Component Skills for Cognitive Therapy in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Theresa; Globe, Amanda; Moody, Clare

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study examines the extent to which a random sample of adults with intellectual disabilities possess the component skills necessary to undergo cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). Method: Seventy-two individuals underwent a range of assessments, including measures of language ability, ability to identify and to label emotions,…

  2. Assessing Fatigability in Mobility-Intact Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Schrack, Jennifer A.; Glynn, Nancy W.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Evaluate criterion validity of two measures of fatigability defined as performance deterioration or perceived effort to perform a standardized task. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA). SETTING National Institute on Aging, Intramural Research Program, Clinical Research Unit, Baltimore, Maryland. PARTICIPANTS Six hundred five men (53.7%) and women (aged 65–97) participating in the BLSA eligible for endurance walk testing without a walking aid. MEASUREMENTS Fatigability was assessed using (1) completion status and lap times from a 400m-walk performed “as quickly as possible” and (2) perceived exertion rating using the Borg scale (range 6–20) following 5 minutes of treadmill walking at 1.5mph (0.67m/s). Criterion measures include self-report of tiredness, level of weakness and energy in past month and walking ability and objective measures of usual and fast gait speed, time to complete 10 chair stands and grip strength. Co-variates include age, race, sex, obesity, smoking status and walking activity. RESULTS Among mobility intact older persons, 23% exhibited performance deterioration (i.e., slowed or stopped) during the 400m-walk and1/3 reported more than very light exertion following a 5-minute slow walk. Slowing was strongly associated with self-reported fatigue and walking ability, but weakly associated with performance-based mobility measures. High perceived exertion was associated with tiredness and weakness and reported and observed mobility deficits. CONCLUSION Slowing down may have low sensitivity for identifying fatigability in older persons, but ascertaining perceived exertion during a defined workload shows promise. In seemingly healthy, motivated individuals, fatigue and fatigability were common and may impact socially meaningful mobility behaviors. Assessment of fatigability in well-elderly examinations may help identify threats to independent functioning earlier in the decline

  3. The Effects of Parental Health Shocks on Adult Offspring Smoking Behavior and Self-Assessed Health.

    PubMed

    Darden, Michael; Gilleskie, Donna

    2016-08-01

    An important avenue for smoking deterrence may be through familial ties if adult smokers respond to parental health shocks. In this paper, we merge the Original Cohort and the Offspring Cohort of the Framingham Heart Study to study how adult offspring smoking behavior and subjective health assessments vary with elder parent smoking behavior and health outcomes. These data allow us to model the smoking behavior of adult offspring over a 30-year period contemporaneously with parental behaviors and outcomes. We find strong 'like father, like son' and 'like mother, like daughter' correlations in smoking behavior. We find that adult offspring significantly curtail their own smoking following an own health shock; however, we find limited evidence that offspring smoking behavior is sensitive to parent health, with the notable exception that women significantly reduce both their smoking participation and intensity following a smoking-related cardiovascular event of a parent. We also model the subjective health assessment of adult offspring as a function of parent health, and we find that women report significantly worse health following the smoking-related death of a parent. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25981179

  4. Motivational processes and autonomic responsivity in Asperger's disorder: evidence from the Iowa Gambling Task.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Shannon A; Yechiam, Eldad; Murphy, Robin R; Queller, Sarah; Stout, Julie C

    2006-09-01

    Asperger's disorder (ASP), like other autism spectrum disorders, is associated with altered responsiveness to social stimuli. This study investigated learning and responsiveness to nonsocial, but motivational, stimuli in ASP. We examined choice behavior and galvanic skin conductance responses (SCRs) during the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; Bechara et al., 1994) in 15 adolescents and young adults with ASP and 14 comparison subjects. We examined aspects of learning, attention to wins and losses, and response style with a formal cognitive model, the Expectancy-Valence Learning model (Busemeyer & Stout, 2002). The ASP group did not differ from the comparison group in proportions of selections from advantageous decks. However, ASP participants showed a distinct pattern of selection characterized by frequent shifts between the four IGT decks, whereas comparison participants developed clear deck preferences. SCR results showed some evidence of reduced responsiveness in the ASP group during the IGT. Results from the cognitive model indicated that, in contrast to the comparison group, the ASP group's selections were less consistent with the motivational significance they assigned to decks. Findings are discussed in the context of the neurobiological substrates associated with IGT performance. PMID:16961948

  5. A Smart-Home System to Unobtrusively and Continuously Assess Loneliness in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Austin, Johanna; Dodge, Hiroko H; Riley, Thomas; Jacobs, Peter G; Thielke, Stephen; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Loneliness is a common condition in older adults and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, decreased sleep quality, and increased risk of cognitive decline. Assessing loneliness in older adults is challenging due to the negative desirability biases associated with being lonely. Thus, it is necessary to develop more objective techniques to assess loneliness in older adults. In this paper, we describe a system to measure loneliness by assessing in-home behavior using wireless motion and contact sensors, phone monitors, and computer software as well as algorithms developed to assess key behaviors of interest. We then present results showing the accuracy of the system in detecting loneliness in a longitudinal study of 16 older adults who agreed to have the sensor platform installed in their own homes for up to 8 months. We show that loneliness is significantly associated with both time out-of-home ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]) and number of computer sessions ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]). [Formula: see text] for the model was 0.35. We also show the model's ability to predict out-of-sample loneliness, demonstrating that the correlation between true loneliness and predicted out-of-sample loneliness is 0.48. When compared with the University of California at Los Angeles loneliness score, the normalized mean absolute error of the predicted loneliness scores was 0.81 and the normalized root mean squared error was 0.91. These results represent first steps toward an unobtrusive, objective method for the prediction of loneliness among older adults, and mark the first time multiple objective behavioral measures that have been related to this key health outcome. PMID:27574577

  6. Individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibit difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Masatoshi; Kasai, Tetsuko; Kamio, Yoko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibit difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level. Eleven participants with Asperger's disorder and 11 age- and gender-matched healthy controls performed a level-repetition switching task using Navon-type hierarchical stimuli. In both groups, level-repetition was beneficial at both levels. Furthermore, individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibited difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level compared to control individuals. These findings suggested that there is a problem with the inhibitory mechanism that influences the output of enhanced local visual processing in Asperger's disorder. PMID:22729383

  7. Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder as Behavior Technicians for Young Children with Autism: Outcomes of a Behavioral Skills Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Dorothea C.; Hawkins, Lynn; Hillman, Conrad; Shireman, Molly; Nissen, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who were interested in working as behavior technicians for young children with autism, participated in 2 experiments. Participants included 5 adults with Asperger syndrome or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, 19 to 23 years old, and 11 children with autism, 3 to 7 years old. In…

  8. Coping, daily hassles and behavior and emotional problems in adolescents with high-functioning autism/Asperger's Disorder.

    PubMed

    Khor, Angela S; Melvin, Glenn A; Reid, Sophie C; Gray, Kylie M

    2014-03-01

    Although daily hassles and coping are associated with behavior and emotional problems in non-clinical populations, few studies have investigated these relationships in individuals with high-functioning autism/Asperger's Disorder (HFASD). This study examined the relationships between daily hassles, coping and behavior and emotional problems in adolescents with HFASD. Thirty-one adolescents with HFASD completed questionnaires assessing their coping and behavior and emotional problems, and completed an Ecological Momentary Assessment run via a mobile phone application on their coping and daily hassles. Parents completed questionnaires of the adolescents' daily hassles, coping, and behavior and emotional problems. The disengagement coping style was associated with significantly higher levels of behavior and emotional problems regardless of respondent or methodology, suggesting it may be a valuable target for intervention. PMID:23933998

  9. Adventures in Assessment: Learner-Centered Approaches to Assessment and Evaluation in Adult Literacy, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cora, Maria, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    Articles in this volume include the following: "Assessment Challenges in Supported Distance Learning: How the ABE Distance Learning Project Is Implementing the Massachusetts ABE Assessment Policies and Procedures" (Roger Hooper); "The NIFL LINCS Assessment Special Collection" (Dianna Baycich, Tim Ponder); "Making Sense of REEP" (Luanne Teller);…

  10. Targeting Assessment for Developing Adult Lifelong Learners: Assessing the Ability to Commit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Ya-Hui

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I propose that neither traditional assessment nor alternative, competence-based assessment is adequate to meet the challenges of uncertain change. Existentialist assessment that focuses on developing learners' commitment, rather than their competence, may be more decisive in empowering learners who are facing adversity.…

  11. Functional Assessments Used by Occupational Therapists with Older Adults at Risk of Activity and Participation Limitations: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wales, Kylie; Clemson, Lindy; Lannin, Natasha; Cameron, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The use of functional assessments to evaluate patient change is complicated by a lack of consensus as to which assessment is most suitable for use with older adults. Objective: To identify and appraise the properties of assessments used to evaluate functional abilities in older adults. Methods A systematic review of randomised controlled trials of occupational therapy interventions was conducted up to 2012 to identify assessments used to measure function. Two authors screened and extracted data independently. A second search then identified papers investigating measurement properties of each assessment. Studies from the second search were included if: i) published in English, ii) the assessment was not modified from its original published form, iii) study aim was to evaluate the quality of the tool, iv) and was original research. Translated versions of assessments were excluded. Measurement quality was rated using the COSMIN checklist and Terwee criteria. Results Twenty-eight assessments were identified from the systematic search of occupational therapy interventions provided to older adults. Assessments were of varied measurement quality and many had been adapted (although still evaluated as though the original tool had been administered) potentially altering the conclusions drawn about measurement quality. Synthesis of best evidence established 15 functional assessments have not been tested in an older adult population. Conclusions The Functional Autonomy Measurement System (SMAF) appears to be a promising assessment for use with older adults. Only two tools (the SMAF and the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS)) were deemed to be responsive to change when applied to older adults. Health professionals should use functional assessments that have been validated with their population and in their setting. There are reliable and valid assessments to capture the functional performance of older adults in community and hospital settings, although

  12. Clinical assessment and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults.

    PubMed

    Asherson, Philip

    2005-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood disorder that frequently persists into adulthood, with significant levels of inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behavior. Impairments associated with adult ADHD include distress from the symptoms, impaired ability to function in work and academic settings, and problems sustaining stable relationships. The disorder is commonly associated with volatile moods, antisocial behavior, and drug and alcohol misuse. There is an increased risk of developing comorbid anxiety, depression, personality disorders, and drug and alcohol dependence. Despite the proven effectiveness of drugs such as methylphenidate, dexamphetamine and atomoxetine, few cases of ADHD are recognized and treated in the UK. The reasons for this are unclear, since most psychiatrists working with children and adolescents are aware that ADHD commonly persists into adult life and they also see the disorder affecting parents of children with ADHD. Issues of transition from the care of child to adult psychiatry and the need to refer adult relatives of children with ADHD to suitable psychiatric services are a major concern. Furthermore, many cases of adult ADHD go unrecognized or are seen by mental health teams that are not familiar with the subtleties of the adult presentation. As a result, misdiagnosis and treatment for conditions such as atypical depression, mixed affective disorder, cyclothymia, and borderline and unstable emotional personality disorders is not uncommon. There is therefore a requirement for further training in this area. This review will describe the common clinical presentation and provide guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in adults. Any psychiatrically trained physician using standard psychiatric assessment procedures can perform clinical evaluations for adult ADHD. As with other psychiatric disorders in adulthood, ADHD has its own characteristic onset, course and psychopathology. Symptoms of ADHD are

  13. Assessing elder mistreatment: instrument development and implications for adult protective services.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Elizabeth K; Lehning, Amanda J; Austin, Michael J; Peck, Michael D

    2009-11-01

    Assessment of elder mistreatment is hindered by a myriad of factors, including inconsistent definitions, divergent and untested theories of causation, and limited research attention to the problem. In addition to these difficulties, professionals encounter complex situations requiring considerable clinical assessment skills and decision-making capacity. Adult Protective Services (APS) workers, as well as mandated reporters such as healthcare providers and social workers, need an assessment tool that can reliably and accurately assess for elder mistreatment. Based on a structured review of screening and assessment instruments, this article discusses the psychometric properties of 15 instruments and the relevance to APS. Implications of the findings for future research, practice, and policy are discussed. PMID:19830609

  14. Reliability and validity of center of pressure measures for balance assessment in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; Liang, Yan-Yi; Wang, Lei; Sheng, Jing; Ma, Shao-Jun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to assess the reliability and validity of center of pressure-based parameters for balance assessment. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred and forty older adults were evaluated using a force platform and the Berg Balance Scale at 1-week intervals. The intra-class correlation coefficient and the Pearson correlation coefficient were used to test reliability and validity respectively. [Results] The reliability of the 12 selected center of pressure measures was satisfactory (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.75–0.99) and the validity between the parameters and the Berg Balance Scale was moderate to good (r = −0.62 to −0.88). [Conclusion] Center of pressure-based parameters are reliable and valid measures in older adults. PMID:27190484

  15. A closer look at visually guided saccades in autism and Asperger's disorder.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Beth P; Rinehart, Nicole J; Papadopoulos, Nicole; Tonge, Bruce; Millist, Lynette; White, Owen; Fielding, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Motor impairments have been found to be a significant clinical feature associated with autism and Asperger's disorder (AD) in addition to core symptoms of communication and social cognition deficits. Motor deficits in high-functioning autism (HFA) and AD may differentiate these disorders, particularly with respect to the role of the cerebellum in motor functioning. Current neuroimaging and behavioral evidence suggests greater disruption of the cerebellum in HFA than AD. Investigations of ocular motor functioning have previously been used in clinical populations to assess the integrity of the cerebellar networks, through examination of saccade accuracy and the integrity of saccade dynamics. Previous investigations of visually guided saccades in HFA and AD have only assessed basic saccade metrics, such as latency, amplitude, and gain, as well as peak velocity. We used a simple visually guided saccade paradigm to further characterize the profile of visually guided saccade metrics and dynamics in HFA and AD. It was found that children with HFA, but not AD, were more inaccurate across both small (5°) and large (10°) target amplitudes, and final eye position was hypometric at 10°. These findings suggest greater functional disturbance of the cerebellum in HFA than AD, and suggest fundamental difficulties with visual error monitoring in HFA. PMID:23162442

  16. Puppy Temperament Assessments Predict Breed and American Kennel Club Group but Not Adult Temperament.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Lauren M; Skiver Thompson, Rebekah; Ha, James C

    2016-01-01

    Puppy assessments for companion dogs have shown mixed long-term reliability. Temperament is cited among the reasons for surrendering dogs to shelters. A puppy temperament test that reliably predicts adult behavior is one potential way to lower the number of dogs given to shelters. This study used a longitudinal design to assess temperament in puppies from 8 different breeds at 7 weeks old (n = 52) and 6 years old (n = 34) using modified temperament tests, physiological measures, and a follow-up questionnaire. For 7-week-old puppies, results revealed (a) puppy breed was predictable using 3 variables, (b) 4 American Kennel Club breed groups had some validity based on temperament, (c) temperament was variable within litters of puppies, and (d) certain measures of temperament were related to physiological measures (heart rate). Finally, puppy temperament assessments were reliable in predicting the scores of 2 of the 8 adult dog temperament measures. However, overall, the puppy temperament scores were unreliable in predicting adult temperament. PMID:26882034

  17. Assessment of Preschooler's Scientific Reasoning in Adult-Child Interactions: What Is the Optimal Context?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meindertsma, Heidi B.; van Dijk, Marijn W. G.; Steenbeek, Henderien W.; van Geert, Paul L. C.

    2014-04-01

    In educational settings, continuous assessment of the child's level of understanding is necessary to effectively utilize the principles of scaffolding and to create contexts that can advance the scientific reasoning of the child. In this article, we argue that a child's performance is a dynamic notion that is created by all elements in an interaction, including the task. Therefore, we studied preschoolers' levels of scientific reasoning varying different properties of the assessment context. Young children were interviewed about four scientific tasks using one out of four different protocols (varying in the degree of flexibility and adaptiveness) by an adult. In the first study, different task contents resulted in different performance levels. The second study indicated that the most structured protocol elicited the highest maximum level of reasoning in children and the highest percentage of correct predictions. The third study showed differences between the protocols in the adult's verbal behavior. Adaptation in verbal behavior to different children by the adult did not result in higher scientific understanding by the children, whereas a higher degree of task structure did. Combined, the studies emphasize the importance of context, which has implications for assessment and teaching situations.

  18. Assessing prosthodontic dental treatment needs in older adults in Thailand: normative vs. sociodental approaches.

    PubMed

    Srisilapanan, Patcharawan; Korwanich, Narumanas; Sheiham, Aubrey

    2003-01-01

    The authors compared the estimated prosthodontic treatment needs of edentulous older adults when using normative and sociodental approaches. This cross-sectional study involved a non-random sample of 158 edentulous adults, aged 60 to 74 years, who were living independently in metropolitan Chiang Mai, Thailand. Each subject was given an oral examination and was interviewed. The dental questionnaire and the clinical criteria were adapted from the National Diet and Nutritional Survey for People Aged 65 and Older and included the Oral Impacts on Daily Performances sociodental indicator. Of the 158 subjects, we found using a normative assessment that 79.7% had a treatment need for complete dentures; 60.5% of those adults had impact-related treatment needs. Estimated treatment need dropped by about 40% when subjects were assessed using the sociodental approach. We concluded that large reductions in normative need estimates for complete dentures were apparent using a sociodental approach to assess prosthodontic dental treatment needs of older people. PMID:14765891

  19. Assessment and instruction of oral reading fluency among adults with low literacy

    PubMed Central

    Mellard, Daryl; Woods, Kari; Fall, Emily

    2011-01-01

    We statistically examined 295 low-literacy adults’ oral reading fluency measured by total word and word error rates with connected prose. Based on four fluency ability groupings in relation to standardized assessments of reading-related skills (e.g., phonemic awareness, word recognition, vocabulary, comprehension, and general ability) the results suggest that adults that read at comparable correct word rates vary significantly in the number of total words and word errors. These differences were independent of assessed general ability level. Total word and word error rates, thus, offer a picture of learner reading ability that can help instructors emphasize instruction in deficit reading components. PMID:23795231

  20. Pain assessment in the critically ill adult: Recent evidence and new trends.

    PubMed

    Gélinas, Céline

    2016-06-01

    Pain assessment in the critically ill adult remains a daily clinical challenge. Position statements and practice guidelines exist to guide the ICU care team in the pain assessment process. The patient's self-report of pain remains the gold standard measure for pain and should be obtained as often as possible. When self-report is impossible to obtain, observational pain scales including the Behavioural Pain Scale (BPS) and the Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool (CPOT) have been recommended for clinical use in the critically ill adult. However, their adaptation and validation in brain-injured and burn ICU patients is required. Family caregivers may help in the identification of pain-related behaviours and should be more involved in the ICU pain assessment process. Fluctuations in vital signs should only be considered as cues for further assessment of pain with appropriate tools, and may better represent adverse events of severe pain. Other physiologic measures of pain should be explored in the ICU, and pupillometry appears as a promising technique to further study. Implementation of systematic pain assessment approaches using tools adapted to the patient's ability to communicate and condition has shown positive effects on ICU pain practices and patient outcomes, but randomised control trials are needed to confirm these conclusions. PMID:27067745

  1. Neuropsychological Assessment of Driving Safety Risk in Older Adults With and Without Neurologic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Steven W.; Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Uc, Ergun Y.; Johnson, Amy M.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Decline in cognitive abilities can be an important contributor to the driving problems encountered by older adults, and neuropsychological assessment may provide a practical approach to evaluating this aspect of driving safety risk. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate several commonly used neuropsychological tests in the assessment of driving safety risk in older adults with and without neurological disease. A further goal of this study was to identify brief combinations of neuropsychological tests that sample performances in key functional domains and thus could be used to efficiently assess driving safety risk. 345 legally licensed and active drivers over the age of 50, with either no neurologic disease (N=185), probable Alzheimer's disease (N=40), Parkinson's disease (N=91), or stroke (N=29), completed vision testing, a battery of 10 neuropsychological tests, and an 18 mile drive on urban and rural roads in an instrumented vehicle. Performances on all neuropsychological tests were significantly correlated with driving safety errors. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to identify 3 key cognitive domains assessed by the tests (speed of processing, visuospatial abilities, and memory), and several brief batteries consisting of one test from each domain showed moderate corrected correlations with driving performance. These findings are consistent with the notion that driving places demands on multiple cognitive abilities that can be affected by aging and age-related neurological disease, and that neuropsychological assessment may provide a practical off-road window into the functional status of these cognitive systems. PMID:22943767

  2. Improving Written Language Performance of Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Delano, Monica E

    2007-01-01

    The effects of a multicomponent intervention involving self-regulated strategy development delivered via video self-modeling on the written language performance of 3 students with Asperger syndrome were examined. During intervention sessions, each student watched a video of himself performing strategies for increasing the number of words written and the number of functional essay elements. He then wrote a persuasive essay. The number of words written and number of functional essay elements included in each essay were measured. Each student demonstrated gains in the number of words written and number of functional essay elements. Maintenance of treatment effects at follow-up varied across targets and participants. Implications for future research are suggested. PMID:17624076

  3. Is synesthesia more common in patients with Asperger syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Janina; Roy, Mandy; Zapf, Antonia; Sinke, Christopher; Emrich, Hinderk M.; Prox-Vagedes, Vanessa; Dillo, Wolfgang; Zedler, Markus

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence from case reports that synesthesia is more common in individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Further, genes related to synesthesia have also been found to be linked to ASC and, similar to synaesthetes, individuals with ASC show altered brain connectivity and unusual brain activation during sensory processing. However, up to now a systematic investigation of whether synesthesia is more common in ASC patients is missing. The aim of the current pilot study was to test this hypothesis by investigating a group of patients diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome (AS) using questionnaires and standard consistency tests in order to classify them as grapheme-color synaesthetes. The results indicate that there are indeed many more grapheme-color synaesthetes among AS patients. This finding is discussed in relation to different theories regarding the development of synesthesia as well as altered sensory processing in autism. PMID:24367321

  4. Adventures in Assessment: Learner-Centered Approaches to Assessment and Evaluation in Adult Literacy, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cora, Marie, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This journal presents the following articles: "Introduction: Volume 14--Examining Performance" (Marie Cora) "Fair Assessment Practices: Giving Students Equitable Opportunities to Demonstrate Learning" (Linda Suskie); "Assessing Oral Communication at the Community Learning Center Development of the OPT (Oral Proficiency Test)" (JoAnne Hartel and…

  5. Echocardiographic Assessment of Right Atrial Pressure in a Pediatric and Young Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Arya, Bhawna; Kerstein, Diane; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Hayes, Denise; Zuckerman, Warren A; Krishnan, Usha; Lai, Wyman W

    2016-03-01

    Right atrial pressure (RAP) reflects right-sided cardiac hemodynamics and is useful in management of patients with cardiac and systemic disease. Studies in older adults demonstrated that inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter, IVC collapsibility index, hepatic vein systolic filling fraction (SFF), and right atrial volume (RAV) correlated with mean RAP at catheterization. This study aimed to assess the utility of echocardiographic parameters for assessment of RAP in children and young adults. Patients with pulmonary hypertension or heart transplantation undergoing right heart catheterization were recruited for this prospective observational pilot study. Transthoracic echocardiographic assessment of RAP was performed simultaneously with catheterization. For each parameter, three consecutive cardiac cycles were recorded. Long- and short-axis images of the IVC were obtained. RAV was assessed by area-length and biplane methods. IVC diameters and RAV were indexed to body surface area (BSA)(0.5) and (BSA)(1.4), respectively. Relationships between echocardiographic parameters and mean RAP were correlated using "Pearson's r." Fifty subjects aged 0.3-23 years (median 13, mean 12.3 ± 7 years) were enrolled. Mean RAP correlated modestly with RAV (r = 0.51, p < 0.001). Long-axis IVCmax (r = 0.30, p < 0.05) and tricuspid E wave velocity (r = 0.36, p < 0.01) also correlated with mean RAP. RV free wall tissue Doppler velocities, IVC collapsibility index, and hepatic vein SFF had no relation to mean RAP. In a pediatric and young adult population with pulmonary hypertension or heart transplantation, echocardiographic assessment of RAV and long-axis IVCmax provided a reasonable estimate of mean RAP. IVC collapsibility index and hepatic vein SFF demonstrated no association with mean RAP. PMID:26667961

  6. Skills of U.S. Unemployed, Young, and Older Adults in Sharper Focus: Results from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) 2012/2014. First Look. NCES 2016-039

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampey, Bobby D.; Finnegan, Robert; Goodman, Madeline; Mohadjer, Leyla; Krenzke, Tom; Hogan, Jacquie; Provasnik, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The "Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies" (PIAAC) is a cyclical, large-scale study of adult skills and life experiences focusing on education and employment. Nationally representative samples of adults between the ages of 16 and 65 are administered an assessment of literacy, numeracy, and problem solving in…

  7. Comorbid psychiatric disorders associated with Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism: a community- and clinic-based study.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Marja-Leena; Hurtig, Tuula; Haapsamo, Helena; Jussila, Katja; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Kielinen, Marko; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Ebeling, Hanna; Bloigu, Risto; Joskitt, Leena; Pauls, David L; Moilanen, Irma

    2010-09-01

    The present study identifies the prevalence and types of comorbid psychiatric disorders associated with Asperger syndrome (AS)/high-functioning autism (HFA) in a combined community- and clinic-based sample of fifty 9- to 16-year-old subjects using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, Present and Lifetime Version. The level of functioning was estimated using the Children's Global Assessment Scale. The results support common (prevalence 74%) and often multiple comorbid psychiatric disorders in AS/HFA; behavioral disorders were shown in 44%, anxiety disorders in 42% and tic disorders in 26%. Oppositional defiant disorder, major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders as comorbid conditions indicated significantly lower levels of functioning. To target interventions, routine evaluation of psychiatric comorbidity in subjects with AS/HFA is emphasized. PMID:20177765

  8. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Reasons for Living-Older Adults Scale: A Suicide Risk Assessment Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelstein, Barry A.; Heisel, Marnin J.; McKee, Deborah R.; Martin, Ronald R.; Koven, Lesley P.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Britton, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of these studies were to develop and initially evaluate the psychometric properties of the Reasons for Living Scale-Older Adult version (RFL-OA), an older adults version of a measure designed to assess reasons for living among individuals at risk for suicide. Design and Methods: Two studies are reported. Study 1 involved…

  9. Analysis and Assessment of the Newark Literacy Campaign's Adult Tutorial Reading Program: A Report to the Ford Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darkenwald, Gordon G.; Silvestri, Kenneth

    An assessment of the Newark Literacy Campaign's (NLC's) Adult Tutorial Reading Program studied 20 long-term (in the program for at least 1 year) and 20 new adult learners; all but 2 were African-Americans. The following data sources were used: in-depth interviews with learners, logs completed by tutors, follow-up interviews 6-8 months later,…

  10. Co-Constructional Task Analysis: Moving beyond Adult-Based Models to Assess Young Children's Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Scott Weng Fai

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of young children's thinking competence in task performances has typically followed the novice-to-expert regimen involving models of strategies that adults use when engaged in cognitive tasks such as problem-solving and decision-making. Socio-constructivists argue for a balanced pedagogical approach between the adult and child…

  11. Diagnosis and management of autism in adults.

    PubMed

    Valkanova, Vyara; Rhodes, Fiona; Allan, Charlotte L

    2013-05-01

    Autism affects 1.1% of the adult population. The spectrum of symptoms is wide; some individuals have above average intelligence and are fully independent, while others have limited independence because of a learning disability. Developmental delay is a core feature, and autism is usually diagnosed in childhood. High-functioning individuals with autism, Asperger's syndrome, may remain undiagnosed until adulthood. Autism is a life-long condition characterised by problems in two core dimensions: difficulties with social communication and strongly repetitive behaviour, resistance to change or restricted interests.The history should identify early developmental and behavioural problems in different settings e.g. at home, in education or employment. Sensory and GI problems are very common, and should be asked about. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ-10) is a 10-item questionnaire for people with suspected autism. The advantage of using this in primary care is that it provides a time-efficient, structured way of ascertaining key symptoms and clearly signals those who should be referred for further assessment. Patients should be referred if autism is suspected clinically and a diagnosis of autism should be confirmed by a specialist multidisciplinary team. If a diagnosis of autism is made, clinicians should do a risk assessment and formulate risk and crisis management plans. These should include details of the roles and responsibilities of both the specialist team and primary care team in managing crisis situations. For adults with autism a group-based or an individual learning programme to improve social interaction is recommended. Adults with autism have high rates of unemployment, and employment programmes have been successfully used to support people PMID:23808126

  12. Functional assessments of the knee joint biomechanics by using pendulum test in adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Casabona, Antonino; Valle, Maria Stella; Pisasale, Mariangela; Pantò, Maria Rosita; Cioni, Matteo

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we assessed kinematics and viscoelastic features of knee joint in adults with Down syndrome (DS) by means of the Wartenberg pendulum test. This test allows the measuring of the kinematics of the knee joint during passive pendular motion of leg under the influence of gravity. In addition, by a combination of kinematic and anthropometric data, pendulum test provides estimates of joint viscoelastic properties by computing damping and stiffness coefficients. To monitor the occurrences of muscle activation, the surface electromyogram (EMG) of muscle rectus femoris was recorded. The experimental protocol was performed in a group of 10 adults with DS compared with 10 control adults without DS. Joint motion amplitude, velocity, and acceleration of the leg during the first knee flexion significantly decreased in persons with DS with respect to those without DS. This behavior was associated with the activation of rectus femoris in subjects with DS that resulted in increasing of joint resistance shortly after the onset of the first leg flexion. The EMG bursts mostly occurred between 50 and 150 ms from the leg flexion onset. During the remaining cycles of pendular motion, persons with DS exhibited passive leg oscillations with low tonic EMG activity and reduced damping coefficient compared with control subjects. These results suggest that adults with DS might perform preprogrammed contractions to increase joint resistance and compensate for inherent joint instability occurring for quick and unpredictable perturbations. The reduction of damping coefficients observed during passive oscillations could be a predictor of muscle hypotonia. PMID:22995394

  13. Functional assessments of the knee joint biomechanics by using pendulum test in adults with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Casabona, Antonino; Valle, Maria Stella; Pisasale, Mariangela; Pantò, Maria Rosita

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we assessed kinematics and viscoelastic features of knee joint in adults with Down syndrome (DS) by means of the Wartenberg pendulum test. This test allows the measuring of the kinematics of the knee joint during passive pendular motion of leg under the influence of gravity. In addition, by a combination of kinematic and anthropometric data, pendulum test provides estimates of joint viscoelastic properties by computing damping and stiffness coefficients. To monitor the occurrences of muscle activation, the surface electromyogram (EMG) of muscle rectus femoris was recorded. The experimental protocol was performed in a group of 10 adults with DS compared with 10 control adults without DS. Joint motion amplitude, velocity, and acceleration of the leg during the first knee flexion significantly decreased in persons with DS with respect to those without DS. This behavior was associated with the activation of rectus femoris in subjects with DS that resulted in increasing of joint resistance shortly after the onset of the first leg flexion. The EMG bursts mostly occurred between 50 and 150 ms from the leg flexion onset. During the remaining cycles of pendular motion, persons with DS exhibited passive leg oscillations with low tonic EMG activity and reduced damping coefficient compared with control subjects. These results suggest that adults with DS might perform preprogrammed contractions to increase joint resistance and compensate for inherent joint instability occurring for quick and unpredictable perturbations. The reduction of damping coefficients observed during passive oscillations could be a predictor of muscle hypotonia. PMID:22995394

  14. Extension of the Contingency Naming Test to adult assessment: psychometric analysis in a college student sample.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Tara; Suhr, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The Contingency Naming Test (CNT; Taylor, Albo, Phebus, Sachs, & Bierl, 1987) was initially designed to assess aspects of executive functioning, such as processing speed and response inhibition, in children. The measure has shown initial utility in identifying differences in executive function among child clinical groups; however, there is an absence of adequate psychometric data for use with adults. The current study expanded psychometric data upward for use with a college student sample and explored the measure's test-retest reliability and factor structure. Performance in the adult sample showed continued improvement above child norms, consistent with theories of executive function development. Exploratory factor analysis showed that the CNT is most closely related to measures of processing speed, as well as elements of response inhibition within the latter trials. Overall, results from the current study provide added support for the utility of the CNT as a measure of executive functioning in young adults. However, more research is needed to determine patterns of performance among adult clinical groups, as well as to better understand how performance patterns may change in a broader age range, including middle and older adulthood. PMID:22432965

  15. Reaction Time of Facial Affect Recognition in Asperger's Disorder for Cartoon and Real, Static and Moving Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyahara, Motohide; Bray, Anne; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Fujita, Chikako; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2007-01-01

    This study used a choice reaction-time paradigm to test the perceived impairment of facial affect recognition in Asperger's disorder. Twenty teenagers with Asperger's disorder and 20 controls were compared with respect to the latency and accuracy of response to happy or disgusted facial expressions, presented in cartoon or real images and in…

  16. The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test): Preliminary Development of a UK Screen for Mainstream Primary-School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Fiona J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Bolton, Patrick; Brayne, Carol

    2002-01-01

    This article describes a pilot and follow-up study of the development of a screening test for Asperger Syndrome (AS) and relates social and communication conditions in children aged 4-11. Results suggest that the Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test may be useful for identifying children at risk for AS and related conditions, in a mainstream…

  17. A Preliminary Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study of Cortical Inhibition and Excitability in High-Functioning Autism and Asperger Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enticott, Peter G.; Rinehart, Nicole J.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Bradshaw, John L.; Fitzgerald, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Controversy surrounds the distinction between high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger disorder, but motor abnormalities are associated features of both conditions. This study examined motor cortical inhibition and excitability in HFA and Asperger disorder using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Method: Participants were diagnosed by…

  18. Views on the Diagnostic Labels of Autism and Asperger's Disorder and the Proposed Changes in the DSM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kite, Donna M.; Gullifer, Judith; Tyson, Graham A.

    2013-01-01

    With the approaching release of the DSM V in 2013, there has been much debate about the proposal to remove the diagnostic label of Asperger's disorder from the new DSM. This study explored how health and education professionals perceive the conditions of autism and Asperger's disorder and their views on the proposed diagnostic changes.…

  19. DSM-IV-Defined Asperger Syndrome: Cognitive, Behavioral and Early History Differentiation from High-Functioning Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozonoff, Sally; South, Mikle; Miller, Judith N.

    2000-01-01

    This study compared 23 children with high-functioning autism with 12 children with Asperger syndrome using DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Findings indicated few group differences in current functioning but many early history differences. The Asperger syndrome group generally demonstrated less severe early symptoms, a milder developmental course, and…

  20. Social Skills and Problem Behaviours in School Aged Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macintosh, Kathleen; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    The social skills and problem behaviours of children with high-functioning autism and Asperger's Disorder were compared using parent and teacher reports on the Social Skills Rating System. The participants were 20 children with high-functioning autism, 19 children with Asperger's Disorder, and 17 typically developing children, matched on…

  1. A Comparative Study of the Spontaneous Social Interactions of Children with High-Functioning Autism and Children with Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macintosh, Kathleen; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    A comparative observational study was undertaken of the spontaneous social interactions of children with high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder. The sample comprised 20 children with high-functioning autism, 19 children with Asperger's disorder and 17 typically developing children matched on chronological age and overall mental age. A…

  2. Individuals with Asperger's Disorder Exhibit Difficulty in Switching Attention from a Local Level to a Global Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katagiri, Masatoshi; Kasai, Tetsuko; Kamio, Yoko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibit difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level. Eleven participants with Asperger's disorder and 11 age- and gender-matched healthy controls performed a level-repetition switching task using Navon-type hierarchical…

  3. Task Dependent Prefrontal Dysfunction in Persons with Asperger's Disorder Investigated with Multi-Channel Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwanami, Akira; Okajima, Yuka; Ota, Haruhisa; Tani, Masayuki; Yamada, Takashi; Hashimoro, Ryuichiro; Kanai, Chieko; Watanabe, Hiromi; Yamasue, Hidenori; Kawakubo, Yuki; Kato, Nobumasa

    2011-01-01

    Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex has been previously reported in individuals with Asperger's disorder. In the present study, we used multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect changes in the oxygenated hemoglobin concentration ([oxy-Hb]) during two verbal fluency tasks. The subjects were 20 individuals with Asperger's disorder…

  4. Using Symbolic Interactionism Insights as an Approach to Helping the Individual with Asperger's Syndrome Overcome Barriers to Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines a case for using symbolic interactionism as a tool to help individuals with Asperger's syndrome reconcile situations in which communication might prove challenging. This study builds on previous work carried out by the author which describes an autoethnographical approach to help the individual with Asperger's syndrome gain…

  5. How Well Can Young People with Asperger's Disorder Recognize Threat and Learn about Affect in Faces?: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyahara, Motohide; Ruffman, Ted; Fujita, Chikako; Tsujii, Masatsugu

    2010-01-01

    The abilities to identify threat and learn about affect in facial photographs were compared between a non-autistic university student group (NUS), a matched Asperger's group (MAS) on the Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM), and an unmatched Asperger's group (UAS) who scored lower on the SPM. Participants were given pairs of faces and asked which…

  6. Essential Points of a Support Network Approach for School Counselors Working with Children Diagnosed with Asperger's

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Yuh-Jen; Wang, Shu-Ching; Corbin-Burdick, Marilyn F.; Statz, Shelly R.

    2013-01-01

    Asperger Syndrome (AS) presents unique challenges to both families and schools. Children diagnosed with Asperger's possess unparalleled characteristics in cognitive functioning and behavioral pattern. These children need extra attention and assistance in schools. School counselors require a strategy to successfully engage and support these…

  7. An Autoethnographic Approach to Understanding Asperger's Syndrome: A Personal Exploration of Self-Identity through Reflexive Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This article makes use of autoethnography in which I, as researcher, explore my own awareness of Asperger's syndrome and how this, in turn, has helped me deal with many day to day situations I have encountered. The work illustrates how actively engaging with one's own life story narratives can help the Asperger's learner come to terms with his or…

  8. Exploring Asperger's Syndrome, Schlossberg's Transition Theory and Federally Mandated Transition Planning: Seeking Improvements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Tracy Lynne Wright Lyons

    2013-01-01

    Federally mandated transition planning has done little to improve the postsecondary outcomes of people with Asperger's syndrome. Current high school transition planning for students with Asperger's attempts to address some of these areas through family involvement, community inclusion, and the active participation of the student in…

  9. Towards a Passive Low-Cost In-Home Gait Assessment System for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Stone, Erik; Skubic, Marjorie; Keller, James M.; Abbott, Carmen; Rantz, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a webcam-based system for in-home gait assessment of older adults. A methodology has been developed to extract gait parameters including walking speed, step time and step length from a three-dimensional voxel reconstruction, which is built from two calibrated webcam views. The gait parameters are validated with a GAITRite mat and a Vicon motion capture system in the lab with 13 participants and 44 tests, and again with GAITRite for 8 older adults in senior housing. An excellent agreement with intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.99 and repeatability coefficients between 0.7% and 6.6% was found for walking speed, step time and step length given the limitation of frame rate and voxel resolution. The system was further tested with 10 seniors in a scripted scenario representing everyday activities in an unstructured environment. The system results demonstrate the capability of being used as a daily gait assessment tool for fall risk assessment and other medical applications. Furthermore, we found that residents displayed different gait patterns during their clinical GAITRite tests compared to the realistic scenario, namely a mean increase of 21% in walking speed, a mean decrease of 12% in step time, and a mean increase of 6% in step length. These findings provide support for continuous gait assessment in the home for capturing habitual gait. PMID:24235111

  10. Toward a passive low-cost in-home gait assessment system for older adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Stone, Erik; Skubic, Marjorie; Keller, James M; Abbott, Carmen; Rantz, Marilyn

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a webcam-based system for in-home gait assessment of older adults. A methodology has been developed to extract gait parameters including walking speed, step time, and step length from a 3-D voxel reconstruction, which is built from two calibrated webcam views. The gait parameters are validated with a GAITRite mat and a Vicon motion capture system in the laboratory with 13 participants and 44 tests, and again with GAITRite for 8 older adults in senior housing. Excellent agreement with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.99 and repeatability coefficients between 0.7% and 6.6% was found for walking speed, step time, and step length given the limitation of frame rate and voxel resolution. The system was further tested with ten seniors in a scripted scenario representing everyday activities in an unstructured environment. The system results demonstrate the capability of being used as a daily gait assessment tool for fall risk assessment and other medical applications. Furthermore, we found that residents displayed different gait patterns during their clinical GAITRite tests compared to the realistic scenario, namely a mean increase of 21% in walking speed, a mean decrease of 12% in step time, and a mean increase of 6% in step length. These findings provide support for continuous gait assessment in the home for capturing habitual gait. PMID:24235111

  11. Assessment of Behavior Problems in Childhood and Adolescence as Predictors of Early Adult Depression.

    PubMed

    Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J David; Mason, W Alex; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Lengua, Liliana J; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2009-05-21

    Behavior and psychological problems assessed prospectively by teachers and parents and by youths' self-reports through late childhood and adolescence were examined as possible predictors of early adult depression. Data were from 765 participants in the Seattle Social Development Project, a multiethnic and gender-balanced urban sample. Analyses examined 7 waves of data from ages 10 to 21, and included measures from the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist and assessments of past-year depressive episode based on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Self-reported conduct problems as early as age 10 (Mason et al., 2001) and throughout adolescence consistently predicted depression at age 21. Parent reports of conduct and other externalizing problems in adolescence also significantly predicted adult depression. None of the available teacher reports through age 14 were significant predictors. Results suggest that externalizing problems can be useful indicators of risk for adult depression. Prevention efforts that target externalizing problems in youth may hold promise for reducing later depression. PMID:20383270

  12. Social competence intervention for elementary students with Aspergers syndrome and high functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Stichter, Janine P; O'Connor, Karen V; Herzog, Melissa J; Lierheimer, Kristin; McGhee, Stephanie D

    2012-03-01

    Despite frequent reports of academic success, individuals with high functioning autism or Aspergers Syndrome (HFA/AS) often manifest deficits in social abilities. These deficits can lead to daily difficulties, and negative long-term outcomes. Deficits in social competency are evident in this population from an early age, as children with HFA/AS present unique challenges relating to peers, interpreting complex contextual cues, and transitioning across settings. A paucity of social interventions exist that target elementary-age children with HFA/AS and their combination of core social competence deficit areas: theory of mind (ToM), emotional recognition, and executive functioning. The current study expanded on the Social Competence Intervention (for adolescents; SCI-A), as detailed in Stichter et al. (J Autism Dev Disorders 40:1067-1079, 2010), by adjusting the curriculum to meet the needs of an elementary population. Results indicate significant improvements on direct assessments measuring theory of mind and problem solving, and parent perceptions of overall social abilities and executive functioning for 20 students, aged 6-10, with HFA/AS. The elementary SCI program appears promising, however, additional replications are necessary including expansion to school settings. PMID:21503797

  13. A scoring system for assessing the severity of acute diarrhea of adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hong-li; Ma, Su-xia; Qi, Hai-yu; Li, Xiaoli; Wang, Yan; Yin, Cheng-hong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is frequently seen in developed and developing countries, and severe diarrhea is characterized by the high risk of death. Thus, it is very important to assess the severity of diarrhea early. We conducted a multi-center study to identify risk factors for the severity of diarrhea in adult patients and formulate an adult diarrhea state score (ADSS) for out-patient clinicians. METHODS: A total of 219 adult patients with acute diarrhea were divided into two groups: 132 patients with mild diarrhea and 87 with severe diarrhea. Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for the severity of diarrhea. The risk factors were assessed and an ADSS was formulated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was made to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ADSS, and the Kappa test was used to confirm the diagnostic reliability. RESULTS: Five risk factors for evaluating the severity of diarrhea in adults included age (P<0.05), axillary temperature (P<0.01), mean arterial pressure (P<0.01), white blood cell count (WBC; P<0.01), and WBC in stool (P<0.01). The area under the ROC curve for ADSS was 0.958 when the cut off value was 4 (a sensitivity of 0.909; a specificity of 0.874), and the Kappa value was 0.781 (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The risk factors associated with the pathogenic condition of diarrhea were identified, quantified and formulated into an ADSS, which has high diagnostic accuracy and reliability for the early identification of patients with severe acute diarrhea. PMID:27313808

  14. Interdisciplinary development of manual and automated product usability assessments for older adults with dementia: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Boger, Jennifer; Taati, Babak; Mihailidis, Alex

    2016-10-01

    The changes in cognitive abilities that accompany dementia can make it difficult to use everyday products that are required to complete activities of daily living. Products that are inherently more usable for people with dementia could facilitate independent activity completion, thus reducing the need for caregiver assistance. The objectives of this research were to: (1) gain an understanding of how water tap design impacted tap usability and (2) create an automated computerized tool that could assess tap usability. 27 older adults, who ranged from cognitively intact to advanced dementia, completed 1309 trials on five tap designs. Data were manually analyzed to investigate tap usability as well as used to develop an automated usability analysis tool. Researchers collaborated to modify existing techniques and to create novel ones to accomplish both goals. This paper presents lessons learned through the course of this research, which could be applicable in the development of other usability studies, automated vision-based assessments and the development of assistive technologies for cognitively impaired older adults. Collaborative interdisciplinary teamwork, which included older adult with dementia participants, was key to enabling innovative advances that achieved the projects' research goals. Implications for Rehabilitation Products that are implicitly familiar and usable by older adults could foster independent activity completion, potentially reducing reliance on a caregiver. The computer-based automated tool can significantly reduce the time and effort required to perform product usability analysis, making this type of analysis more feasible. Interdisciplinary collaboration can result in a more holistic understanding of assistive technology research challenges and enable innovative solutions. PMID:26135222

  15. Sex differences in the timing of identification among children and adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Begeer, Sander; Mandell, David; Wijnker-Holmes, Bernadette; Venderbosch, Stance; Rem, Dorien; Stekelenburg, Fred; Koot, Hans M

    2013-05-01

    To examine differences by sex in the timing of identification of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), survey data were collected in the Netherlands from 2,275 males and females with autistic disorder, Asperger's syndrome and PDD-NOS. Among participants < 18 years of age, females with Asperger's syndrome were identified later than males. Among participants ≥ 18 years of age, females with autistic disorder were identified later than males. In more recent years, girls with Asperger's syndrome are diagnosed later than boys, confirming earlier findings. In adults, the delayed timing of diagnosis in females with autistic disorder may be related to changing practices in diagnosis over time. Strategies for changing clinician behaviour to improve recognition of ASD in females are needed. PMID:23001766

  16. Research on and Guidelines for Effective Use of Assessment Instruments and Strategies for Adult Learners Enrolled in Adult Basic and Literacy Education Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. Inst. for the Study of Adult Literacy.

    The goal of this research project was to create a guide on the effective use of assessment instruments and methodologies, related resources, and guidelines for measuring adult learners' attainment of basic skills and competencies to document educational gains and demonstrate program quality. The project focused on confirming current use of…

  17. Racial bias in the assessment of cognitive functioning of older adults.

    PubMed

    Jones, R N

    2003-03-01

    This study was undertaken to determine if the difference in assessed cognition between Black/African-American and White older adults was due differential item functioning (DIF) and/or differences in the effect of background variables. Participants were 15257 adults aged 50 and older surveyed in the Study of Asset and Health Dynamics of the Oldest Old (AHEAD) and Health and Retirement Study (HRS). The cognitive measure was a modified telephone interview for cognitive status. The analytic strategy was a multiple group structural equation model grounded in item response theory. Results suggest that most (89%) of the group difference could be attributed to measurement or structural differences, the remainder being not significantly different from zero (p=0.193). Most items displayed racial DIF, accounting for most of the group difference. After controlling for DIF, the group difference that remained could be attributed to heterogeneity in the effect of background variables. For example, low education was more deleterious for Black/African-Americans, and high income conferred an advantage only for Whites. These findings underscore the importance of efforts to generate culture-fair measurement devices. However, culture-fair assessments may attenuate, but not eliminate, group differences in assessed cognition due to the incommensurate action of background variables PMID:12745387

  18. Quantitative risk assessment on the dietary exposure of Finnish children and adults to nitrite.

    PubMed

    Suomi, Johanna; Ranta, Jukka; Tuominen, Pirkko; Putkonen, Tiina; Bäckman, Christina; Ovaskainen, Marja-Leena; Virtanen, Suvi M; Savela, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Nitrite intake from the consumption of cured meat and tap water was estimated for Finnish children of 1, 3 and 6 years as well as Finnish adults of 25-74 years. Nitrite content in the foods was measured by capillary electrophoresis, and was then used together with individual food consumption data from the FINDIET 2007 and DIPP studies in a stochastic exposure assessment by a Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) program. Nitrite intake from additive sources and tap water was assessed, and more than every 10th child between the ages 3 and 6 years was estimated to have a nitrite intake exceeding the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of nitrite. The high exposure levels were caused by frequent consumption of large portions of sausages, up to 350 g day(-1) or 750 g in 3 days, among the children. Median nitrite intake from cured meat was 0.016, 0.040, 0.033 and 0.005 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for children of 1, 3 and 6 years and adults, respectively. Bayesian estimation was employed to determine safe consumption levels of sausages and cold cuts for children, and these results gave rise to new national food consumption advice. PMID:26609554

  19. Reliability of the Adult Myopathy Assessment Tool in Individuals with Myositis

    PubMed Central

    Harris-Love, Michael O.; Joe, Galen; Davenport, Todd E.; Koziol, Deloris; Rose, Kristen Abbett; Shrader, Joseph A.; Vasconcelos, Olavo M.; McElroy, Beverly; Dalakas, Marinos C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Adult Myopathy Assessment Tool (AMAT) is a 13-item performance-based battery developed to assess functional status and muscle endurance. The purpose of this study was to determine the intrarater and interrater reliability of the AMAT in adults with myosits. Methods Nineteen raters (13 physical therapists and 6 physicians) scored videotaped recordings of patients with myositis performing the AMAT for a total of 114 tests and 1,482 item observations per session. Raters rescored the AMAT test and item observations during a follow up session (19 ±6 days between scoring sessions). All raters completed a single, self-directed, electronic training module prior to the initial scoring session. Results Intrarater and interrater reliability correlation coefficients were .94 or greater for the AMAT Functional Subscale, Endurance Subscale, and Total score (all p < 0.02 for Ho:ρ ≤ 0.75). All AMAT items had satisfactory intrarater agreement (Kappa statistics with Fleiss-Cohen weights, Kw = .57-1.00). Interrater agreement was acceptable for each AMAT item (K = .56-.89) except the sit up (K = .16). The standard error of measurement and 95% confidence interval range for the AMAT Total scores did not exceed 2 points across all observations (AMAT Total score range = 0-45). Conclusions The AMAT is a reliable, domain-specific assessment of functional status and muscle endurance for adult subjects with myositis. Results of this study suggest that physicians and physical therapists may reliably score the AMAT following a single training session. The AMAT Functional Subscale, Endurance Subscale, and Total score exhibit interrater and intrarater reliability suitable for clinical and research use. PMID:25201624

  20. Assessing Capacity for Providing Culturally Competent Services to LGBT Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Portz, Jennifer Dickman; Retrum, Jessica H.; Wright, Leslie A.; Boggs, Jennifer M.; Wilkins, Shari; Grimm, Cathy; Gilchrist, Kay; Gozansky, Wendolyn S.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative, interview-based study assessed the cultural competence of health and social service providers to meet the needs of LGBT older adults in an urban neighborhood in Denver, Colorado, known to have a large LGBT community. Only 4 of the agencies were categorized as “high competency” while 12 were felt to be “seeking improvement” and 8 were considered “not aware.” These results indicate significant gaps in cultural competency for the majority of service providers. Social workers are well-suited to lead efforts directed at improving service provision and care competencies for the older LGBT community. PMID:24798180

  1. Normal P50 Gating in Children with Autism, Yet Attenuated P50 Amplitude in the Asperger Subcategory.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Gitte Falcher; Bilenberg, Niels; Jepsen, Jens Richardt; Glenthøj, Birte; Cantio, Cathriona; Oranje, Bob

    2015-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia are separate disorders, but there is evidence of conversion or comorbid overlap. The objective of this paper was to explore whether deficits in sensory gating, as seen in some schizophrenia patients, can also be found in a group of ASD children compared to neurotypically developed children. An additional aim was to investigate the possibility of subdividing our ASD sample based on these gating deficits. In a case-control design, we assessed gating of the P50 and N100 amplitude in 31 ASD children and 39 healthy matched controls (8-12 years) and screened for differences between groups and within the ASD group. We did not find disturbances in auditory P50 and N100 filtering in the group of ASD children as a whole, nor did we find abnormal P50 and N100 amplitudes. However, the P50 amplitude to the conditioning stimulus was significantly reduced in the Asperger subgroup compared to healthy controls. In contrast to what is usually reported for patients with schizophrenia, we found no evidence for sensory gating deficits in our group of ASD children taken as a whole. However, reduced P50 amplitude to conditioning stimuli was found in the Asperger group, which is similar to what has been described in some studies in schizophrenia patients. There was a positive correlation between the P50 amplitude of the conditioning stimuli and anxiety score in the pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified group, which indicates a relation between anxiety and sensory registration in this group. PMID:25599888

  2. Risk factors for autism and Asperger syndrome. Perinatal factors and migration.

    PubMed

    Haglund, Nils G S; Källén, Karin B M

    2011-03-01

    Using the Swedish Medical Birth Registry (MBR), obstetrical and demographic information was retrieved for 250 children with autism or Asperger syndrome who were born in Malmoe, Sweden, and enrolled at the local Child and Youth Habilitation Center. The reference group consisted of all children born in Malmoe during 1980-2005. Obstetric sub-optimality (prematurity, low Apgar scores, growth restriction, or macrosomia) was positively associated with autism but not with Asperger syndrome. Maternal birth outside the Nordic countries was positively associated with autism (adjusted OR: 2.2; 95%CI: 1.6-3.1) and negatively associated with Asperger syndrome (OR: 0.6; 95%CI: 0.3-0.97). The highest risk estimate for autism was found among children to women who were born in sub-Saharan Africa (OR: 7.3), or in East Asia (OR: 3.4). PMID:20923887

  3. Assessing Quality of Life in Older Adult Patients with Skin Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Sherman, Susan N.; Tsevat, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Significance for Public Health The global population is aging. In the industrial world, adults over 65 outnumber children and comprise almost 20% of the population in some countries. Older adults experience a number of skin diseases and disorders that substantially affect their quality of life. Opportunity exists for developing and validating health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures specifically for dermatological conditions most pertinent to older patients. Older adults experience a number of skin diseases and disorders that substantially affect quality of life. In the last two decades, a number of instruments have been developed for use among general dermatology patients to assess the effects of treatment and disease progression, perceptions of well-being, and the value that patients place on their dermatologic state of health. This chapter reviews some health-related quality of life (HRQoL) (HRQoL) measures developed and validated specifically for dermatological conditions. However, opportunity exists for developing and validating HRQoL measures specifically for dermatological conditions most pertinent to older patients. PMID:22980159

  4. Assessment of physical health status and quality of life among Saudi older adults.

    PubMed

    Al Senany, Samira; Al Saif, Amer

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated physical health status and quality of life among older Saudi adults. [Subjects and Methods] Participants included older adults (N = 55) aged 60-90 years (mean = 67.9± 7.71) from a major hospital in Jeddah. Subjects completed surveys and evaluations including assessments of personal and socio-demographic characteristics, caregiver presence, personal habits, perceived health, primary physical and psychological complaints, physician-diagnosed chronic diseases, and functional capacity (i.e., activities of daily living). [Results] Results showed a significant positive correlation between age and ADL; age and memory problems, anxiety, and loneliness; and sleep disturbance and falls. Main factors contributing to quality of life decline were chronic disease, falls, sedentary lifestyle, sleep disturbances, and financial concerns. Participants with diabetes mellitus (58.18%) and hypertension (29.0%) had a very high fall rate. Participants engaged in minimal physical activity (63%), often due to bone and joint pain (90.0%), and led sedentary lives (69%). Single sensory impairments were significantly and independently linked to high depression risk and decreased self-sufficiency. [Conclusion] Healthy lifestyle and behavioral changes should be promoted through community-based health education programs for older Saudi adults. Chronic disease screening programs for the elderly population (especially diabetes and hypertension) are recommended. PMID:26180299

  5. Evidence-Based Reading and Writing Assessment for Dyslexia in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Kathleen; Abbott, Robert; Griffin, Whitney; Lott, Joe; Raskind, Wendy; Berninger, Virginia W.

    2016-01-01

    The same working memory and reading and writing achievement phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variants) validated in prior research with younger children and older adults in a multi-generational family genetics study of dyslexia were used to study 81 adolescent and young adults (ages 16 to 25) from that study. Dyslexia is impaired word reading and spelling skills below the population mean and ability to use oral language to express thinking. These working memory predictor measures were given and used to predict reading and writing achievement: Coding (storing and processing) heard and spoken words (phonological coding), read and written words (orthographic coding), base words and affixes (morphological coding), and accumulating words over time (syntax coding); Cross-Code Integration (phonological loop for linking phonological name and orthographic letter codes and orthographic loop for linking orthographic letter codes and finger sequencing codes), and Supervisory Attention (focused and switching attention and self-monitoring during written word finding). Multiple regressions showed that most predictors explained individual difference in at least one reading or writing outcome, but which predictors explained unique variance beyond shared variance depended on outcome. ANOVAs confirmed that research-supported criteria for dyslexia validated for younger children and their parents could be used to diagnose which adolescents and young adults did (n=31) or did not (n=50) meet research criteria for dyslexia. Findings are discussed in reference to the heterogeneity of phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variables) and their application to assessment for accommodations and ongoing instruction for adolescents and young adults with dyslexia. PMID:26855554

  6. Removal of Asperger's syndrome from the DSM V: community response to uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Parsloe, Sarah M; Babrow, Austin S

    2016-01-01

    The May 2013 release of the new version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM V) subsumed Asperger's syndrome under the wider diagnostic label of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The revision has created much uncertainty in the community affected by this condition. This study uses problematic integration theory and thematic analysis to investigate how participants in Wrong Planet, a large online community associated with autism and Asperger's syndrome, have constructed these uncertainties. The analysis illuminates uncertainties concerning both the likelihood of diagnosis and value of diagnosis, and it details specific issues within these two general areas of uncertainty. The article concludes with both conceptual and practical implications. PMID:26400415

  7. Can Asperger syndrome be distinguished from autism? An anatomic likelihood meta-analysis of MRI studies

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kevin K.; Cheung, Charlton; Chua, Siew E.; McAlonan, Gráinne M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The question of whether Asperger syndrome can be distinguished from autism has attracted much debate and may even incur delay in diagnosis and intervention. Accordingly, there has been a proposal for Asperger syndrome to be subsumed under autism in the forthcoming Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, in 2013. One approach to resolve this question has been to adopt the criterion of absence of clinically significant language or cognitive delay — essentially, the “absence of language delay.” To our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of people with autism to compare absence with presence of language delay. It capitalizes on the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) approach to systematically explore the whole brain for anatomic correlates of delay and no delay in language acquisition in people with autism spectrum disorders. Methods We conducted a systematic search for VBM MRI studies of grey matter volume in people with autism. Studies with a majority (at least 70%) of participants with autism diagnoses and a history of language delay were assigned to the autism group (n = 151, control n = 190). Those with a majority (at least 70%) of individuals with autism diagnoses and no language delay were assigned to the Asperger syndrome group (n = 149, control n = 214). We entered study coordinates into anatomic likelihood estimation meta-analysis software with sampling size weighting to compare grey matter summary maps driven by Asperger syndrome or autism. Results The summary autism grey matter map showed lower volumes in the cerebellum, right uncus, dorsal hippocampus and middle temporal gyrus compared with controls; grey matter volumes were greater in the bilateral caudate, prefrontal lobe and ventral temporal lobe. The summary Asperger syndrome map indicated lower grey matter volumes in the bilateral amygdala/hippocampal gyrus and prefrontal lobe, left occipital gyrus, right

  8. Assessing Social Support, Companionship, and Distress: NIH Toolbox Adult Social Relationship Scales

    PubMed Central

    Cyranowski, Jill M.; Zill, Nicholas; Bode, Rita; Butt, Zeeshan; Kelly, Morgen A. R.; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Salsman, John M.; Cella, David

    2013-01-01

    Objective The quality of our daily social interactions – including perceptions of support, feelings of loneliness, and distress stemming from negative social exchanges – influence physical health and well-being. Despite the importance of social relationships, brief yet precise, unidimensional scales that assess key aspects of social relationship quality are lacking. As part of the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function, we developed brief self-report scales designed to assess aspects of social support, companionship, and social distress across age cohorts. This report details the development and psychometric testing of the adult NIH Toolbox Social Relationship scales. Methods Social relationship concepts were selected, and item sets were developed and revised based on expert feedback and literature review. Items were then tested across a community-dwelling U.S. internet panel sample of adults aged 18 and above (N=692) using traditional (classic) psychometric methods and item response theory (IRT) approaches to identify items for inclusion in 5–8 item unidimensional scales. Finally, concurrent validity of the newly-developed scales was evaluated with respect to their inter-relationships with classic social relationship validation instruments. Results Results provide support for the internal reliability and concurrent validity of resulting self-report scales assessing Emotional Support, Instrumental Support, Friendship, Loneliness, Perceived Rejection, and Perceived Hostility. Conclusion These brief social relationship scales provide the pragmatic utility and enhanced precision needed to promote future epidemiological and social neuroscience research on the impact of social relationships on physical and emotional health outcomes. PMID:23437856

  9. [Instability of personality characteristics and personality disorders during the lifespan: effects for assessment in older adults].

    PubMed

    Tummers, J H A; Derksen, J L L; van Alphen, S P J

    2010-04-01

    The instability of personality characteristics and personality disorders during the lifespan is the topic of this literature search. It concerns the effects of this instability for personality assessment in older adults. Five longitudinal studies, based on the Big Five model of Costa & McCrae, support the hypothesis that personality characteristics change during the lifespan. Neuroticism, extraversion and openness decrease with age. In contrast, altruism and conscientiousness increase with age. One longitudinal and three cross-sectional studies of personality pathology indicate age-specific changes in the expression of (mal) adaptive personality characteristics. Besides that, nearly one third of the DSM criteria for Axis II personality disorders are insufficiently applicable to older people, based on a large cross sectional study. Therefore the temporal instability of personality characteristics and the limited validity of the Axis II criteria complicate personality assessment in older adults. Improvements could be found in major standardization studies of personality questionnaires in elderly patients in mental health care and nursing home care. Significant changes in the DSM, such as the development of an age specific and multidimensional approach to personality disorders is also recommended. PMID:20443285

  10. Recommendations for assessing and preventing falls in adults of all ages with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Stanmore, Emma K

    2015-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating disease that affects younger as well as older adults. It is associated with a high risk of injurious falls due to problems such as lower-limb muscle weakness, balance impairment, swollen and tender joints, pain, and fatigue. Falls are typically associated with older people; hence, many professionals do not recognise the risks for younger persons with diseases such as RA. Falls can lead to devastating consequences, such as fatalities, hip fractures (with 50% of those affected never regaining their previous level of mobility and 30% dying within 1 year), or loss of independence and confidence. Research has shown that many people are either unaware or deny their risk of falling. Therefore, it is important that health professionals, such as community nurses, are aware of the risk factors, methods of assessment, and evidence-based preventative measures, so that falls can be avoided in this population. This article presents research and practice implications for community nurses to enable them to assess, treat, and appropriately refer adults with RA who are also at risk of falls. PMID:26551381

  11. Aerodynamic assessment of the speech of adults undergoing multichannel cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Leeper, H A; Gagné, J P; Parnes, L S; Vidas, S

    1993-04-01

    This investigation was designed to evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics of the speech of adult multichannel cochlear implant (Nucleus, 21-channel) recipients. Five adults with an acquired profound sensorineural hearing loss were tested before implantation, immediately following implantation, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after implantation. A commercially available computerized pressure-flow instrumentation system was employed to assess the respiratory, laryngeal, velopharyngeal, and oral articulatory subsystems of speech of the implantees. The results of the investigation indicated 1) a slight increase in airflow rate values for sustained vowel /a/phonation after implantation, 2) a slight increase in duration of sustained vowel phonation from the preimplant period to the last postimplant period, 3) an increase in laryngeal airway resistance after implantation that resulted from a larger increase in estimated transglottal pressure than in transglottal airflow, 4) maintenance of normal velopharyngeal closure in oral-nasal contrastive contexts, and 5) slight increases in oral orifice area for fricative syllable utterances following implantation. Individual strategies for coordinated control of the speech mechanism appear to be potent variables to consider when assessing speech production. PMID:8476171

  12. Visual Habituation Paradigm with Adults with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: A New Way for Cognitive Assessment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chard, Melissa; Roulin, Jean-Luc; Bouvard, Martine

    2014-01-01

    Background: The use of common psychological assessment tools is invalidated with persons with PIMD. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of using a visual habituation procedure with a group of adults with PIMD, to develop a new theoretical and practical framework for the assessment of cognitive abilities. Methods: To test the…

  13. The P15--A Multinational Assessment Battery for Collecting Data on Health Indicators Relevant to Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, J.; Linehan, C.; Kerr, M.; Salvador-Carulla, L.; Zeilinger, E.; Weber, G.; Walsh, P.; Van Schrojenstein Lantman-De-Valk, H.; Haveman, M.; Azema, B.; Buono, S.; Cara, A. C.; Germanavicius, A.; Van Hove, G.; Maatta, T.; Berger, D. M.; Tossebro, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health disparities between adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and the general population have been well documented but, to date, no dedicated assessment battery for measuring health disparity has been available. This paper reports on the development and testing of a multinational assessment battery for collecting data on a…

  14. Students with Reading and Writing Challenges: Using Informal Assessment to Assist in Planning for the Transition to Adult Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitlington, Patricia L.

    2008-01-01

    The transition to adult life for students with reading and writing challenges is an area that is not often addressed. The purpose of this article is to relate the informal assessment process to the broader context of high stakes assessment, high school exit exams, diploma options, and transition planning; identify the competencies needed for a…

  15. Assessment of adult hip dysplasia and the outcome of surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Troelsen, Anders

    2012-06-01

    Hip dysplasia and hip joint deformities in general are recognized as possible precursors of osteoarthritic development. Early and correct identification of hip dysplasia is important in order to offer timely joint preserving treatment. In the contemporary literature, several controversies exist, and some of these were the focus of this doctoral thesis. Categorized into subjects, the major findings and their possible importance are listed below. DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT OF HIP DYSPLASIA: A multi-observer study quantified the variability of different methods for diagnostic assessment of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis and resulted in general recommendations regarding diagnostic assessment of hip dysplasia. Pelvic tilt was shown to differ significantly between the supine and weight-bearing positions in patients with dysplastic hip joints. This is a finding that adds controversy to the application of neutral pelvic positioning during assessment of hip deformities because pelvic tilt affects the appearance of acetabular version. Weight-bearing assessment of acetabular version showed the presence of retroversion in 33% of dysplastic hips. The establishment of retroversion as a rather frequent entity in dysplastic hips is contradictory to the historical finding that hip dysplasia is characterized by insufficient anterior and lateral coverage. In general, the findings have important implications for orthopedic surgeons and radiologists dealing with diagnostic assessment of painful hips in young adults, and for surgeons planning and performing joint-preserving periacetabular osteotomies. ASSESSMENT OF ACETABULAR LABRAL TEARS IN HIP DYSPLASIA: The roles of ultrasound and clinical tests in acetabular labral tear diagnostics were established. After overcoming an initial learning curve, ultrasound investigation was highly reliable in diagnosing labral tears, whereas only a positive impingement or FABER test was reliable in identifying a labral tear. It seems that non-invasive and

  16. [Asperger's syndrome: continuum or spectrum of autistic disorders?].

    PubMed

    Bryńska, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PPD) refers to the group of disorders characterised by delayed or inappropriate development of multiple basic functions including socialisation, communication, behaviour and cognitive functioning. The term,,autistic spectrum disorders" was established as a result of the magnitude of the intensity of symptoms and their proportions observed in all types of pervasive developmental disorders. Asperger's Syndrome (AS) remains the most controversial diagnosis in terms of its place within autism spectrum disorders. AS if often described as an equivalent of High Functioning Autism (HFA) or as a separate spectrum-related disorder with unique diagnostic criteria. Another important issue is the relationship between AS and speech disorders. Although it is relatively easy to draw a line between children with classical autism and speech disorders, the clear cut frontiers between them still remain to be found. The main distinguishing feature is the lack of stereotypic interests and unimpaired social interaction observed in children with speech disorders, such as semantic-pragmatic disorder. PMID:22220491

  17. A Pooled Genome-Wide Association Study of Asperger Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Warrier, Varun; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Murphy, Laura; Chan, Allen; Craig, Ian; Mallya, Uma; Lakatošová, Silvia; Rehnstrom, Karola; Wheelwright, Sally; Allison, Carrie; Fisher, Simon E.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Asperger Syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, alongside the presence of unusually repetitive, restricted interests and stereotyped behaviour. Individuals with AS have no delay in cognitive and language development. It is a subset of Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC), which are highly heritable and has a population prevalence of approximately 1%. Few studies have investigated the genetic basis of AS. To address this gap in the literature, we performed a genome-wide pooled DNA association study to identify candidate loci in 612 individuals (294 cases and 318 controls) of Caucasian ancestry, using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping version 6.0 array. We identified 11 SNPs that had a p-value below 1x10-5. These SNPs were independently genotyped in the same sample. Three of the SNPs (rs1268055, rs7785891 and rs2782448) were nominally significant, though none remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Two of our top three SNPs (rs7785891 and rs2782448) lie in loci previously implicated in ASC. However, investigation of the three SNPs in the ASC genome-wide association dataset from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium indicated that these three SNPs were not significantly associated with ASC. The effect sizes of the variants were modest, indicating that our study was not sufficiently powered to identify causal variants with precision. PMID:26176695

  18. Neurobehavioral assessment following e-cigarette refill liquid exposure in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Golli, Narges El; Dallagi, Yosra; Rahali, Dalila; Rejeb, Ines; Fazaa, Saloua El

    2016-07-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the toxic effect of e-cigarette refill liquid on cognitive and motor functions in adult rats. Animals were administered 28 μl/kg of body weight of e-liquid with/without a dose of 0.5 mg of nicotine/kg of body weight, using the intraperitoneally route for a period of 4 weeks. They were then evaluated by novel object recognition test (NORT) and spontaneous alternation T-maze test for cognitive functions. Results indicated that e-liquid without nicotine induced, in the NORT, a decrease in time exploring the novel object during the test session and lower discrimination and recognition indexes compared to control and e-liquid with nicotine treated rats. Furthermore, short-term spatial memory was affected after e-liquid treatment in the spontaneous alternation T-maze test, identifying recognition memory impairments. However, none of the treatments altered motor functions assessed by inclined plane test, Kondziela's inverted screen test and weights test. Cell cytotoxicity assessment following e-liquid exposure showed a significant decrease in hippocampal cell viability, but no change in cortical cell viability. Thereby, e-liquid without nicotine causes cognitive impairments, especially on the hippocampus. Based on these results, more extensive assessments on e-cigarettes must be carried out. PMID:27401341

  19. A Smart-Home System to Unobtrusively and Continuously Assess Loneliness in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Hiroko H.; Riley, Thomas; Jacobs, Peter G.; Thielke, Stephen; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Loneliness is a common condition in older adults and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, decreased sleep quality, and increased risk of cognitive decline. Assessing loneliness in older adults is challenging due to the negative desirability biases associated with being lonely. Thus, it is necessary to develop more objective techniques to assess loneliness in older adults. In this paper, we describe a system to measure loneliness by assessing in-home behavior using wireless motion and contact sensors, phone monitors, and computer software as well as algorithms developed to assess key behaviors of interest. We then present results showing the accuracy of the system in detecting loneliness in a longitudinal study of 16 older adults who agreed to have the sensor platform installed in their own homes for up to 8 months. We show that loneliness is significantly associated with both time out-of-home (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$ {\\beta } = -0.88$ \\end{document} and \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$p<0.01$ \\end{document}) and number of computer sessions (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$ {\\beta } = 0.78$ \\end{document} and \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength

  20. Views on the diagnostic labels of autism and Asperger's disorder and the proposed changes in the DSM.

    PubMed

    Kite, Donna M; Gullifer, Judith; Tyson, Graham A

    2013-07-01

    With the approaching release of the DSM V in 2013, there has been much debate about the proposal to remove the diagnostic label of Asperger's disorder from the new DSM. This study explored how health and education professionals perceive the conditions of autism and Asperger's disorder and their views on the proposed diagnostic changes. Analysis of the 547 participant responses confirmed an increase stigma is associated with the label of autism, with autism considered to be a more severe than the condition of Asperger's disorder. Approximately half of the participants reported being opposed to proposed diagnostic changes and of the remaining participants, 22% supported the proposed changes and 28% expressed uncertainty. PMID:23143130

  1. The brief cognitive assessment tool (BCAT): cross-validation in a community dwelling older adult sample.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, Elizabeth E; Mansbach, William E; Clark, Kristen; Mace, Ryan A

    2014-08-13

    ABSTRACT Background: Cognitive impairment is underrecognized and misdiagnosed among community-dwelling older adults. At present, there is no consensus about which cognitive screening tool represents the "gold standard." However, one tool that shows promise is the Brief Cognitive Assessment Tool (BCAT), which was originally validated in an assisted living sample and contains a multi-level memory component (e.g. word lists and story recall items) and complex executive functions features (e.g. judgment, set-shifting, and problem-solving). Methods: The present study cross-validated the BCAT in a sample of 75 community-dwelling older adults. Participants completed a short battery of several individually administered cognitive tests, including the BCAT and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Using a very conservative MoCA cut score of <26, the base rate of cognitive impairment in this sample was 35%. Results: Adequate internal consistency and strong evidence of construct validity were found. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated from sensitivity and 1-specificity values for the classification of cognitively impaired versus cognitively unimpaired. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for the BCAT was .90, p < 0.001, 95% CI [0.83, 0.97]. A BCAT cut-score of 45 (scores below 45 suggesting cognitive impairment) resulted in the best balance between sensitivity (0.81) and specificity (0.80). Conclusions: A BCAT cut-score can be used for identifying persons to be referred to appropriate healthcare professionals for more comprehensive cognitive assessment. In addition, guidelines are provided for clinicians to interpret separate BCAT memory and executive dysfunction component scores. PMID:25115580

  2. Assessing readiness for transition from paediatric to adult health care: Revision and psychometric evaluation of the ‘Am I ON TRAC for Adult Care’ questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    MOYNIHAN, Melissa; SAEWYC, Elizabeth; WHITEHOUSE, Sandra; PAONE, Mary; MCPHERSON, Gladys

    2015-01-01

    Aim To refine and psychometrically test the Am I ON TRAC for Adult Care questionnaire. Background. Inadequate transition to adult care for adolescents with special health care needs has been associated with greater risk of treatment non-adherence, lack of medical follow-up, increased morbidity and mortality. Presently there are no well-validated measures assessing adolescents’ readiness to transition from paediatric to adult medical care. Design Descriptive cross-sectional study. Methods The Am I ON TRAC for Adult Care questionnaire was refined to improve the instrument’s methodological soundness. A literature review informed the revisions. A convenience sample of 200 adolescents, 12–19 years, was recruited from four outpatient clinics at a paediatric hospital in Western Canada between April – June 2012. Construct validity was evaluated by Exploratory Factory Analysis; concurrent validity was assessed using the Psychosocial Maturity Index. Internal consistency was evaluated by computing Cronbach’s alpha estimates. Results Factor analysis of the knowledge items identified a 14-item unidimensional scale. Knowledge and behaviour sub-scale scores increased with age, with a stronger relationship between knowledge and age. Psychosocial maturity correlated with both sub-scale scores, but had a stronger association with behaviour. Psychosocial maturity and age had a weak but significant correlation suggesting age is a loose proxy for maturity. Only 27% of 17-year-olds, but 62% 18-year-olds, scored above the behaviour cut-off for transition readiness. Conclusion The Am I ON TRAC for Adult Care questionnaire is a psychometrically sound measure that has potential to be used as a readiness assessment tool in both clinical practice and research. PMID:25616006

  3. Assessment of atrial septal defects in adults comparing cardiovascular magnetic resonance with transoesophageal echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many adult patients with secundum-type atrial septal defects (ASDs) are able to have these defects fixed percutaneously. Traditionally, this has involved an assessment of ASD size, geometry and atrial septal margins by transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) prior to percutaneous closure. This is a semi-invasive technique, and all of the information obtained could potentially be obtained by non-invasive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). We compared the assessment of ASDs in consecutive patients being considered for percutaneous ASD closure using CMR and TOE. Methods Consecutive patients with ASDs diagnosed on transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) were invited to undergo both CMR and TOE. Assessment of atrial septal margins, maximal and minimal defect dimensions was performed with both techniques. Analyses between CMR and TOE were made using simple linear regression and Bland Altman Analyses. Results Total CMR scan time was 20 minutes, and comparable to the TOE examination time. A total of 20 patients (M:F = 5:15, mean age 42.8 years ± 15.7) were included in the analyses. There was an excellent agreement between CMR and TOE for estimation of maximum defect size (R = 0.87). The anterior inferior, anterior superior and posterior inferior margins could be assessed in all patients with CMR. The posterior superior margin could not be assessed in only one patient. Furthermore, in 1 patient in whom TOE was unable to be performed, CMR was used to successfully direct percutaneous ASD closure. Conclusions CMR agrees with TOE assessment of ASDs in the work-up for percutaneous closure. Potentially CMR could be used instead of TOE for this purpose. PMID:20663157

  4. Balance and its Clinical Assessment in Older Adults – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Nnodim, Joseph O.; Yung, Raymond L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Human beings rely on multiple systems to maintain their balance as they perform their activities of daily living. These systems may be undermined functionally by both disease and the normal aging process. Balance impairment is associated with increased fall risk. Purpose This paper examines the dynamic formulation of balance as activity and reviews the biological mechanisms for its control. A “minimal-technology” scheme for its clinical evaluation in the ambulatory care setting is proposed. Methods The PubMed, Scopus and CINAHL databases were searched for relevant articles using the following terms in combination with balance: aging, impairment, control mechanisms, clinical assessment. Only articles which describe test procedures, their psychometrics and rely exclusively on equipment found in a regular physician office were reviewed. Results Human bipedal stance and gait are inherently low in stability. Accordingly, an elaborate sensory apparatus comprising visual, vestibular and proprioceptive elements, constantly monitors the position and movement of the body in its environment and sends signals to the central nervous system. The sensory inputs are processed and motor commands are generated. In response to efferent signals, the musculoskeletal system moves the body as is necessary to maintain or regain balance. The combination of senescent decline in organ function and the higher prevalence of diseases of the balance control systems in older adults predisposes this population subset to balance impairment. Older adults with balance impairment are likely to present with “dizziness”. The history should concentrate on the first experience, with an attempt made to categorize it as a Drachman type. Since the symptomatology is often vague, several of the recommended physical tests are provocative maneuvers aimed at reproducing the patient’s complaint. Well-validated questionnaires are available for evaluating the impact of “dizziness” on various

  5. The road not taken: social vs. private comparisons in Asperger׳s syndrome and high functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Dvash, Jonathan; Ben-Zèev, Aaron; Noga, Adler; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone

    2014-05-30

    Evaluation of the outcomes of our decisions may instigate comparisons of our actual outcome with those of others (social comparisons) or comparisons with alternative outcomes of choices not made (private comparisons). Previous research has suggested a deficit in attention to social information among individuals with autism spectrum disorders. As social comparison involves the processing of social information, here we investigated the orientation towards and sensitivity to social vs. private comparisons in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. We compared the sensitivity to social vs. private comparisons among individuals diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome (AS) or High Functioning Autism, using a task that entailed monetary rewards. Results showed that while individuals with AS generally demonstrate comparable sensitivity to absolute and relative rewards, they show less sensitivity to social comparison as compared to controls. Furthermore, they are characterized by a higher sensitivity to private rather than social comparison. These results suggest that low sensitivity to social comparisons is an important factor to consider in autism spectrum disorders. PMID:24629710

  6. Snake River Sockeye Salmon, Sawtooth Valley Project : 1992 Juvenile and Adult Trapping Program : Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-04-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) runs in the Snake River Basin have severely declined. Redfish Lake near Stanley, Idaho is the only lake in the drainage known to still support a run. In 1989, two adults were observed returning to this lake and in 1990, none returned. In the summer of 1991, only four adults returned. If no action is taken, the Snake River sockeye salmon will probably cease to exist. On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) declared the Snake River sockeye salmon ``endangered`` (effective December 20, 1991), pursuant to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. In 1991, in response to a request from the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded efforts to conserve and begin rebuilding the Snake River sockeye salmon run. The initial efforts were focused on Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Valley of southcentral Idaho. The 1991 measures involved: trapping some of the juvenile outmigrants (O. nerka) from Redfish Lake and rearing them in the Eagle Fish Health Facility (Idaho Department of Fish and Game) near Boise, Idaho; Upgrading of the Eagle Facility where the outmigrants are being reared; and trapping adult Snake River sockeye salmon returning to Redfish Lake and holding and spawning them at the Sawtooth Hatchery near Stanley, Idaho. This Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluates the potential environmental effects of the proposed actions for 1992. It has been prepared to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 and section 7 of the ESA of 1973.

  7. Functional assessment in older adults: should we use timed up and go or gait speed test?

    PubMed

    Kubicki, Alexandre

    2014-08-01

    In order to assess functional skills of older adults, both timed up and go (TUG) test and gait speed (GS) test are well validated concerning their predictive capacities. However, the question remains unclear which one of these tests represents better the whole physical performance of older adults. The aim of this study is to determine the more representative test, between TUG and GS, of the whole motor control quality. To study links between locomotion capacities and arm function, we measured, in a population of frail aged patients, the locomotion tests and the mean arm maximal velocity developed during a speed-accuracy trade-off. This arm movement consisted in reaching the hand toward a target in a virtual game scene. We plotted the different couples of variables obtained on graphs, and calculate Pearson correlation coefficients between each couple. The Pearson correlation between GS and hand maximal velocity was significant (r=0.495; p=0.046). Interestingly, we found a non significant Pearson correlation between timed up and go score (TUG) and hand maximal velocity (r=-0.139; p=0.243). Our results suggest that GS score is more representative of the whole motor ability of frail patients than the TUG. We propose that the relative complexity of the TUG motor sequence could be involved in this difference. For a few patients with motor automatisms deficiencies, this motor sequence complexity could leads to a dual task perturbation. In this way, we conclude that GS should be preferred over the TUG with older adults. PMID:24933540

  8. Vascular risk assessment in older adults without a history of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Bambrick, P; Tan, W S; Mulcahy, R; Pope, G A; Cooke, J

    2016-06-15

    Modern cardiovascular risk prediction tools, which have their genesis in the Framingham Heart Study, have allowed more accurate risk stratification and targeting of treatments worldwide over the last seven decades. Better cardiovascular risk factor control during this time has led to a reduction in cardiovascular mortality and, at least in part, to improved life expectancy. As a result, western societies as a whole have seen a steady increase in the proportion of older persons in their populations. Unfortunately, several studies have shown that the same tools which have contributed to this increase cannot be reliably extrapolated for use in older generations. Recent work has allowed recalibration of existing models for use in older populations but these modified tools still require external validation before they can be confidently applied in clinical practice. Another complication is emerging evidence that aggressive risk factor modification in older adults, particularly more frail individuals, may actually be harmful. This review looks at currently available cardiovascular risk prediction models and the specific challenges faced with their use in older adults, followed by analysis of recent attempts at recalibration for this cohort. We discuss the issue of frailty, looking at our evolving understanding of its constituent features and various tools for its assessment. We also review work to date on the impact of frailty on cardiovascular risk modification and outline its potentially central role in determining the most sensible approach in older patients. We summarise the most promising novel markers of cardiovascular risk which may be of use in improving risk prediction in older adults in the future. These include markers of vascular compliance (such as aortic pulse wave velocity and pulse wave analysis), of endothelial function (such as flow mediated dilation, carotid intima-media thickness and coronary artery calcium scores), and also biochemical and

  9. The Health Literacy of America's Adults: Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy. NCES 2006-483

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutner, Mark; Greenburg, Elizabeth; Jin, Ying; Paulsen, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the health literacy of America's adults is important because so many aspects of finding health care and health information, and maintaining health, depend on understanding written information. Many reports have suggested that low health literacy is associated with poor communication between patients and health care providers and with…

  10. Ecological momentary assessment versus standard assessment instruments for measuring mindfulness, depressed mood, and anxiety among older adults.

    PubMed

    Moore, Raeanne C; Depp, Colin A; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Lenze, Eric J

    2016-04-01

    As mobile data capture tools for patient-reported outcomes proliferate in clinical research, a key dimension of measure performance is sensitivity to change. This study compared performance of patient-reported measures of mindfulness, depression, and anxiety symptoms using traditional paper-and-pencil forms versus real-time, ambulatory measurement of symptoms via ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Sixty-seven emotionally distressed older adults completed paper-and-pencil measures of mindfulness, depression, and anxiety along with two weeks of identical items reported during ambulatory monitoring via EMA before and after participation in a randomized trial of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) or a health education intervention. We calculated effect sizes for these measures across both measurement approaches and estimated the Number-Needed-to-Treat (NNT) in both measurement conditions. Study outcomes greatly differed depending on which measurement method was used. When EMA was used to measure clinical symptoms, older adults who participated in the MBSR intervention had significantly higher mindfulness and significantly lower depression and anxiety than participants in the health education intervention at post-treatment. However, these significant changes in symptoms were not found when outcomes were measured with paper-and-pencil measures. The NNT for mindfulness and depression measures administered through EMA were approximately 25-50% lower than NNTs derived from paper-and-pencil administration. Sensitivity to change in anxiety was similar across administration modes. In conclusion, EMA measures of depression and mindfulness substantially outperformed paper-and-pencil measures with the same items. The additional resources associated with EMA in clinical trials would seem to be offset by its greater sensitivity to detect change in key outcome variables. PMID:26851494

  11. A Monte Carlo approach to assessing 147Pm in the liver of the adult phantom.

    PubMed

    Bhati, S

    1993-06-01

    A low-background phoswich detector is used to detect small amounts of 147Pm--a pure beta-emitting nuclide--present in the liver of an occupational worker. The assessment was based on the measurement of bremsstrahlung radiation produced by the beta particles in the tissue. Computer programs based on Monte Carlo techniques for photon transport have been developed to calculate the response of an external phoswich detector to 1) a 147Pm point source embedded in tissue-equivalent slabs of various thicknesses; and 2) various source distributions of 147Pm in the liver of an adult phantom. The goal is to theoretically calibrate the phoswich detector for each source distribution and to study the variation of maxima of the spectra with the depth of the source in the adult phantom liver and tissue-equivalent slabs. The initial bremsstrahlung photon distribution of 147Pm in water has been computed using Wyard's and Pratt's methods. These calculations have been compared with experimental measurements using Perspex acrylic sheet slabs. Good agreements have been noted when the initial bremsstrahlung spectrum is obtained by using Wyard's method. These results find applications in monitoring the liver burdens in occupational workers handling 147Pm-based radioluminous paints. PMID:8491620

  12. Comparative Performance of Adult Social Care Research, 1996–2011: A Bibliometric Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, David; Côté, Grégoire; Grant, Jonathan; Knapp, Martin; Mehta, Anji; Morgan Jones, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Decision makers in adult social care are increasingly interested in using evidence from research to support or shape their decisions. The scope and nature of the current landscape of adult social care research (ASCR) need to be better understood. This paper provides a bibliometric assessment of ASCR outputs from 1996 to 2011. ASCR papers were retrieved using three strategies: from key journals; using keywords and noun phrases; and from additional papers preferentially citing or being cited by other ASCR papers. Overall, 195,829 ASCR papers were identified in the bibliographic database Scopus, of which 16 per cent involved at least one author from the UK. The UK output increased 2.45-fold between 1996 and 2011. Among selected countries, those with greater research intensity in ASCR generally had higher citation impact, such as the USA, UK, Canada and the Netherlands. The top five UK institutions in terms of volume of papers in the UK accounted for 26 per cent of total output. We conclude by noting the limitations to bibliometric analysis of ASCR and examine how such analysis can support the strategic development of the field. PMID:27559228

  13. Subacute toxicity assessment of diflubenzuron, an insect growth regulator, in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    de Barros, Aline Lima; Cavalheiro, Gabriela Finoto; de Souza, Alexsandra Vila Maior; Traesel, Giseli Karenina; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite; Arena, Arielle Cristina

    2016-04-01

    Diflubenzuron (DFB), an insecticide and acaricide insect growth regulator, can be used in agriculture against insect predators and in public health programs, to control insects and vectors, mainly Aedes aegypti larvae. Due to the lack of toxicological assessments of this compound, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the toxicological effects of subacute exposure to the DFB insecticide in adult male rats. Adult male rats were exposed (gavage) to 0, 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg of DFB for 28 days. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed in the DFB-treated animals of the experimental groups. However, there was an increase in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase in the group that received 8 mg/kg/DFB/day and urea at doses of 4 and 8 mg/kg/DFB/day, without altering other biochemical or hematological parameters. The subacute exposure to the lowest dose of DFB caused significant decrease in testis weight, daily sperm production, and in number of sperm in the epididymis in relation to the control group. However, no alterations were observed in the sperm morphology, testicular, epididymis, liver and kidney histology, or testosterone levels. These findings unveiled the hazardous effects of DFB on male reproduction after the subacute exposure and special attention should be addressed to the effects of low doses of this pesticide. PMID:25266294

  14. Risk Factors for Autism and Asperger Syndrome: Perinatal Factors and Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haglund, Nils G. S.; Kallen, Karin B. M.

    2011-01-01

    Using the Swedish Medical Birth Registry (MBR), obstetrical and demographic information was retrieved for 250 children with autism or Asperger syndrome who were born in Malmoe, Sweden, and enrolled at the local Child and Youth Habilitation Center. The reference group consisted of all children born in Malmoe during 1980-2005. Obstetric…

  15. Working Memory in Early-School-Age Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Jifang; Gao, Dingguo; Chen, Yinghe; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Ya

    2010-01-01

    Using a battery of working memory span tasks and n-back tasks, this study aimed to explore working memory functions in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Twelve children with AS and 29 healthy children matched on age and IQ were recruited. Results showed: (a) children with AS performed better in digit and word recall tasks,…

  16. A Survey of Sleep Problems in Autism, Asperger's Disorder and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polimeni, M. A.; Richdale, A. L.; Francis, A. J. P.

    2005-01-01

    Sleep problems are common in typically developing (TD) children and in children with autism, however, less is known about the sleep of children with Asperger's disorder (AD). The aim of this study was to compare sleep patterns of children with autism and AD to a TD group of children. Sixty-six parents of TD children, 53 parents of children with…

  17. Understanding the Friendship Processes of Individuals with Asperger's Syndrome: A Phenomenological Study of Reflective College Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kammie Bohlken

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study shed light on the reflective college experiences of 11 individuals with Asperger's Syndrome and High Functioning Autism from a competence rather than a deficit model of disability (Biklen, 2005). Using Goleman's model of Social Intelligence (2006) as a theoretical framework, the cognitive, behavioral, and affective…

  18. Social Competence Intervention for Youth with Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism: An Initial Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stichter, Janine P.; Herzog, Melissa J.; Visovsky, Karen; Schmidt, Carla; Randolph, Jena; Schultz, Tia; Gage, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with high functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger Syndrome (AS) exhibit difficulties in the knowledge or correct performance of social skills. This subgroup's social difficulties appear to be associated with deficits in three social cognition processes: theory of mind, emotion recognition and executive functioning. The current study…

  19. A Social-Behavioral Learning Strategy Intervention for a Child with Asperger Syndrome: Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Marjorie A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a social-behavioral learning strategy intervention (Stop-Observe-Deliberate-Act; SODA) on the social interaction skills of one middle school student with Asperger syndrome (AS). More specifically, the study investigated the effect of SODA training on the ability of one student with AS to participate in cooperative…

  20. Brief Report: CANTAB Performance and Brain Structure in Pediatric Patients with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Liane; Zotter, Sibylle; Pixner, Silvia; Starke, Marc; Haberlandt, Edda; Steinmayr-Gensluckner, Maria; Egger, Karl; Schocke, Michael; Weiss, Elisabeth M.; Marksteiner, Josef

    2013-01-01

    By merging neuropsychological (CANTAB/Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery) and structural brain imaging data (voxel-based-morphometry) the present study sought to identify the neurocognitive correlates of executive functions in individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to healthy controls. Results disclosed subtle group…