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Sample records for adult attachment projective

  1. Use of the adult attachment projective picture system in psychodynamic psychotherapy with a severely traumatized patient.

    PubMed

    George, Carol; Buchheim, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The following case study is presented to facilitate an understanding of how the attachment information evident from Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) assessment can be integrated into a psychodynamic perspective in making therapeutic recommendations that integrate an attachment perspective. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) is a valid representational measure of internal representations of attachment based on the analysis of a set of free response picture stimuli designed to systematically activate the attachment system (George and West, 2012). The AAP provides a fruitful diagnostic tool for psychodynamic-oriented clinicians to identify attachment-based deficits and resources for an individual patient in therapy. This paper considers the use of the AAP with a traumatized patient in an inpatient setting and uses a case study to illustrate the components of the AAP that are particularly relevant to a psychodynamic conceptualization. The paper discusses also attachment-based recommendations for intervention.

  2. Use of the adult attachment projective picture system in psychodynamic psychotherapy with a severely traumatized patient

    PubMed Central

    George, Carol; Buchheim, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The following case study is presented to facilitate an understanding of how the attachment information evident from Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) assessment can be integrated into a psychodynamic perspective in making therapeutic recommendations that integrate an attachment perspective. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) is a valid representational measure of internal representations of attachment based on the analysis of a set of free response picture stimuli designed to systematically activate the attachment system (George and West, 2012). The AAP provides a fruitful diagnostic tool for psychodynamic-oriented clinicians to identify attachment-based deficits and resources for an individual patient in therapy. This paper considers the use of the AAP with a traumatized patient in an inpatient setting and uses a case study to illustrate the components of the AAP that are particularly relevant to a psychodynamic conceptualization. The paper discusses also attachment-based recommendations for intervention. PMID:25140164

  3. Unresolved Attachment among Immigrants: An Analysis Using the Adult Attachment Projective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ecke, Yolanda

    2006-01-01

    Dutch and Belgian immigrants in California have a high rate of unresolved attachment status compared to nonimmigrant Californians, unrelated to their length of time in the United States, to their marriage status, or to their reasons for immigration. In this study, the author analyzes attachment at the representational level by comparing coherence…

  4. Adult attachment processes: individual and couple perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, K

    1997-09-01

    This paper overviews a new approach to understanding the range of difficulties experienced in close attachment relationships in adulthood. Drawing on the work of Bowlby, four prototypic adult attachment patterns are defined in terms of the intersection of two underlying dimensions, the positivity of the person's self-image and the positivity of the person's image of others (Bartholomew, 1990; Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991). The distinct interpersonal difficulties associated with each attachment pattern are described. Findings are presented indicating that individual differences in attachment have implications for the quality of adults' romantic relationships, and that attachment theory may be helpful in understanding violent spousal relationships. Five current issues in the study of adult attachment are addressed: the stability of attachment patterns, the associations between attachment and general personality factors, the relative merits of categorical and prototype assessments of attachment, the identification of multiple attachments in adulthood, and the specificity of adult attachment patterns. It is suggested that the four-category model of adult attachment is especially sensitive to the range and complexity of attachment-related difficulties experienced in adulthood.

  5. Adult Attachment, Culturally Adjusted Attachment, and Interpersonal Difficulties of Taiwanese Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chia-Chih DC; Scalise, Dominick A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the applicability of Western adult attachment perspectives to interpersonal difficulties experienced by individuals with indigenous Chinese cultural backgrounds. A total of 275 Taiwanese university students completed self-report surveys of adult attachment, ideal attachment, and interpersonal problems. Culturally adjusted…

  6. Modified transmitter attachment method for adult ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, P.J.; Brandt, D.A.; Krapu, G.L.; Buhl, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The value of radio telemetry for waterfowl research depends on the availability of suitable methods of attaching transmitters. In previous studies, external transmitters attached to adult Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) with sutures and glue did not stay on birds reliably. In an attempt to improve transmitter retention, a method of attachment was tested in which 4-g transmitters were attached mid-dorsally with sutures and with a stainless steel anchor-shaped wire inserted subcutaneously (anchor transmitters). Field tests indicated that all of 26 female Mallards and 63 of 65 female Gadwalls (Anas strepera) retained their anchor transmitters during 4369 bird-days of monitoring during nesting and brood rearing. Survival rates of females with anchor transmitters compared favorably with those reported from other studies. In this study, females with and without anchor transmitters did not differ with respect to survival rates of their ducklings. The anchor transmitter may be suitable for a variety of field studies on numerous species.

  7. Examining Relations among Attachment, Religiosity, and New Age Spirituality Using the Adult Attachment Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granqvist, Pehr; Ivarsson, Tord; Broberg, Anders G.; Hagekull, Berit

    2007-01-01

    This study was the first to examine relations between attachment and religion-spirituality in adults using a developmentally validated attachment assessment, the Adult Attachment Interview. Security of attachment was expected to be linked to a religiosity-spirituality that is socially based on the parental relationships and reflects extrapolation…

  8. Discriminant validity of the adult attachment interview.

    PubMed

    Crowell, J A; Waters, E; Treboux, D; O'Connor, E O; Colon-Downs, C; Feider, O; Golby, B; Posada

    1996-10-01

    The Adult Attachment Interview is a semi-structured interview developed to investigate adults' attachment representations. Subjects are asked to describe their parents as caregivers, explain these descriptions, describe how their parents typically responded to distress, and discuss their current relationships with their parents. They are also asked to describe any significant losses and/or instances of abuse during childhood. Scoring focuses on the accessibility of early experiences to memory and the coherence and plausibility of the subject's narrative. Discriminant validity is always an important issue with such measures because IQ and other cognitively loaded variables offer plausible alternative interpretations or represent important correlates that should be treated as covariates when the measure is used. In addition, complex, multifaceted interviews always pose the risk of assessing general social adjustment rather than a more narrowly defined construct. This study examines the discriminant validity of the AAI vis(-)à-vis intelligence, social desirability, discourse style, and general social adjustment in a sample of 53 native-English-speaking, married women with preschool children. They were assessed with the AAI, a written IQ test, the Social Adjustment Scale, the Employment Experience Interview (discourse style), and a measure of social desirability. There were modest but significant correlations with IQ scores and social adjustment. There was no relation between AAI classifications and discourse style or social desirability. These results substantially strengthen the case for interpreting the AAI as an attachment-related measure.

  9. Divergence in Siblings' Adult Attachment Security: Potential Contributors and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortuna, Keren

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has revealed only modest concordance in attachment security between siblings during childhood and adolescence. The first goal of this dissertation was to estimate sibling concordance in adult attachment security and identify factors contributing to divergence. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was administered to young adult…

  10. Attachment, personality, and psychopathology among adult inpatients: self-reported romantic attachment style versus Adult Attachment Interview states of mind.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Shelley A; Paulson, Adrienne; Tunnell, Ellen; Sahl, Gayla; Atkison, Heather; Ross, Colin A

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined self-reported romantic attachment style and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) states of mind regarding early attachment relationships, personality dimensions, and psychopathology in a psychiatric sample of trauma survivors. Inpatients (N = 80) admitted to a hospital trauma treatment program were administered the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale, AAI, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III, Dissociative Experiences Scale, and Dissociative Disorder Interview Schedule. Self-report and AAI attachment classifications were not related, and different results emerged for the two measures. Self-reported romantic attachment style was significantly associated with personality dimensions, with fearful adults showing the most maladaptive personality profiles. Findings suggested that self-report dimensions of self and other independently contribute to different forms of psychological dysfunction. AAI unresolved trauma was uniquely associated with dissociation and posttraumatic stress disorder, whereas unresolved trauma and unresolved loss jointly contributed to schizotypal and borderline personality disorder scores. The differences in findings between the two measures are discussed with a view toward the developmental and clinical implications. PMID:17241494

  11. Parental divorce and adult children's attachment representations and marital status.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Judith A; Treboux, Dominique; Brockmeyer, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore adult attachment as a means of understanding the intergenerational transmission of divorce, that is, the propensity for the children of divorce to end their own marriages. Participants included 157 couples assessed 3 months prior to their weddings and 6 years later. Participants completed the Adult Attachment Interview and questionnaires about their relationships, and were videotaped with their partners in a couple interaction task. Results indicated that, in this sample, adult children of divorce were not more likely to divorce within the first 6 years of marriage. However, parental divorce increased the likelihood of having an insecure adult attachment status. For women, age at the time of their parents' divorce was related to adult attachment status, and the influence on attachment representations may be more enduring. Among adult children of divorce, those who were classified as secure in their attachment representations were less likely to divorce in the early years of marriage than insecure participants.

  12. Attachment in adults with high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Emma L; Target, Mary; Charman, Tony

    2008-06-01

    This study assessed attachment security in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders, using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; George, Kaplan, & Main, 1996). Of 20 participants, three were classified as securely attached, the same proportion as would be expected in a general clinical sample. Participants' AAIs were less coherent and lower in reflective function than those of controls, who were matched for attachment status and mood disorder. A parallel interview suggested that some aspects of participants' responses were influenced by their general discourse style, while other AAI scale scores appeared to reflect their state of mind with respect to attachment more specifically. There was little evidence that attachment security was related to IQ, autistic symptomatology or theory of mind. This study suggests that adults with autism can engage with the AAI and produce scoreable narratives of their attachment experiences, and a minority demonstrate secure attachment. PMID:18773316

  13. Adult Attachment as a Risk Factor for Intimate Partner Violence : The "Mispairing" of Partners' Attachment Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumas, Diana M.; Pearson, Christine L.; Elgin, Jenna E.; McKinley, Lisa L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence and adult attachment in a sample of 70 couples. The attachment style of each partner and the interaction of the partners' attachment styles were examined as predictors of intimate partner violence. Additional analyses were conducted to examine violence reciprocity and to…

  14. Parental Attachment, Interparental Conflict, and Young Adults' Emotional Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Jennifer; Fuertes, Jairo

    2010-01-01

    This study extends Engels et al.'s model of emotional adjustment to young adults and includes the constructs of interparental conflict and conflict resolution. Results indicate that parental attachment is better conceived as a two-factor construct of mother and father attachment and that although attachment to both mothers and fathers directly…

  15. Adult Attachment and Disordered Eating in Undergraduate Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…

  16. Predictors of Child Molestation: Adult Attachment, Cognitive Distortions, and Empathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Eric; Riggs, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual model derived from attachment theory was tested by examining adult attachment style, cognitive distortions, and both general and victim empathy in a sample of 61 paroled child molesters and 51 community controls. Results of logistic multiple regression showed that attachment anxiety, cognitive distortions, high general empathy but low…

  17. Longitudinal association between adolescent attachment, adult romantic attachment, and emotion regulation strategies.

    PubMed

    Pascuzzo, Katherine; Cyr, Chantal; Moss, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Attachment security towards parents and peers in adolescence, and romantic attachment styles and emotion regulation strategies in young adulthood, were evaluated using an eight-year longitudinal design. Fifty-six young adults completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) at age 14, and then, at age 22, the Experience in Close Relationships (ECR) and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), an emotion regulation questionnaire concerning coping strategies, including task-oriented versus emotion-oriented foci. Results indicated that greater insecurity to parents and peers in adolescence predicted a more anxious romantic attachment style and greater use of emotion-oriented strategies in adulthood. Concurrently, anxious adult attachment style was related to more emotion-oriented strategies, whereas an avoidant attachment style was related to less support-seeking. Analyses also identified emotion-oriented coping strategies as a partial mediator of the link between adolescent attachment insecurity to parents and adult anxious attachment, and a complete mediator of the association between adolescent attachment insecurity to peers and adult anxious attachment. These findings support the core assumption of continuity in attachment theory, where relationships to parents influence close romantic relationships in adulthood.

  18. Predictors of child molestation: adult attachment, cognitive distortions, and empathy.

    PubMed

    Wood, Eric; Riggs, Shelley

    2008-02-01

    A conceptual model derived from attachment theory was tested by examining adult attachment style, cognitive distortions, and both general and victim empathy in a sample of 61 paroled child molesters and 51 community controls. Results of logistic multiple regression showed that attachment anxiety, cognitive distortions, high general empathy but low victim empathy significantly increased the odds of child molester status. Findings supported theoretically based hypotheses, suggesting that attachment theory may be useful in the conceptualization and treatment of child molesters.

  19. Adult attachment security and college student substance use.

    PubMed

    Kassel, Jon D; Wardle, Margaret; Roberts, John E

    2007-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated strong links between quality of adult attachment styles and various forms of psychological distress. A burgeoning literature further points to a relationship between insecure attachment and drug use, particularly alcohol consumption. In the present study, we expanded upon the existing literature by examining the relationship between adult attachment style and use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana in a sample of 212 college students. Moreover, based on our previous work [Hankin, B.L., Kassel, J.D., and Abela, J.R.Z. (2005). Adult attachment dimensions and specificity of emotional distress symptoms: prospective investigations of cognitive risk and interpersonal stress generation as mediating mechanisms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 136-151.], we proposed a conceptual model positing that adult attachment style influences both frequency of drug use and stress-motivated drug use through its impact on dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. Initial correlational analyses indicated significant (positive) associations between anxious attachment (tapping neediness and fear of abandonment) and both drug use frequency and stress-motivated drug use. Simultaneous regression analyses revealed that, for drug use frequency, the influence of anxious attachment operated primarily through its effect on dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. Regarding drug use attributable to negative affect reduction, anxious attachment demonstrated direct, independent effects on both cigarette smoking and alcohol use. These findings highlight the potential importance of adult attachment styles as a risk factor for drug use among college students. PMID:16996225

  20. God as the ultimate attachment figure for older adults.

    PubMed

    Cicirelli, Victor G

    2004-12-01

    Attachment to God among older adults is an area of research that has been neglected thus far. The existence of such an attachment was explored in a study of 109 elders aged 70-97. A modest proportion of elders displayed a strong attachment to God, assessed by coding interview data for indicators of attachment. Strength of attachment to God was related (p < .05) to greater religiosity, greater fear of death, loss of other attachment figures, religious affiliation, and being younger in age, Black, and of lower socioeconomic status. Participants belonging to fundamentalist or evangelical Protestant denominations had a stronger attachment to God than those with other affiliations. Findings are interpreted in relation to existing literature on attachment to God. PMID:15764125

  1. Adult attachment styles and the psychological response to infant bereavement

    PubMed Central

    Shevlin, Mark; Boyda, David; Elklit, Ask; Murphy, Siobhan

    2014-01-01

    Background Based on Bowlby's attachment theory, Bartholomew proposed a four-category attachment typology by which individuals judged themselves and adult relationships. This explanatory model has since been used to help explain the risk of psychiatric comorbidity. Objective The current study aimed to identify attachment typologies based on Bartholomew's attachment styles in a sample of bereaved parents on dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, it sought to assess the relationship between the resultant attachment typology with a range of psychological trauma variables. Method The current study was based on a sample of 445 bereaved parents who had experienced either peri- or post-natal death of an infant. Adult attachment was assessed using the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS) while reaction to trauma was assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC). A latent profile analysis was conducted on scores from the RAAS closeness/dependency and anxiety subscales to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes. Emergent classes were used to determine if these were significantly different in terms of mean scores on TSC scales. Results A four-class solution was considered the optimal based on fit statistics and interpretability of the results. Classes were labelled “Fearful,” “Preoccupied,” “Dismissing,” and “Secure.” Females were almost eight times more likely than males to be members of the fearful attachment class. This class evidenced the highest scores across all TSC scales while the secure class showed the lowest scores. Conclusions The results are consistent with Bartholomew's four-category attachment styles with classes representing secure, fearful, preoccupied, and dismissing types. While the loss of an infant is a devastating experience for any parent, securely attached individuals showed the lowest levels of psychopathology compared to fearful, preoccupied, or dismissing attachment styles. This may

  2. Adult Attachment and Developmental Personality Styles: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherry, Alissa; Lyddon, William J.; Henson, Robin K.

    2007-01-01

    The current study was designed to test specific hypotheses associated with W. J. Lyddon and A. Sherry's (2001) attachment theory model of developmental personality styles. More specifically, 4 adult attachment dimensions were correlated with 10 personality scales on the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (T. Millon, R. Davis, & C. Millon,…

  3. Adult Counseling Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone, Phil; Davis, Sandy A.

    In order to determine the specific counseling needs of the adult learner, staff of the Adult Counseling Project began by conducting a literature search pertaining to the problems of returning students and those considering a return to school. The review revealed that little is known about the educational and vocational needs of the returning…

  4. Age Differences in Attachment Orientations among Younger and Older Adults: Evidence from Two Self-Report Measures of Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Daniel L.; Needham, Tracy N.; Coolidge, Frederick L.

    2009-01-01

    The attachment patterns of younger and older adults were studied using two-dimensional self-report measures of adult attachment. Community-dwelling younger (n = 144, M = 22.5 years, SD = 3.6) and older (n = 106, M = 68.6 years, SD = 8.3) adults completed the Measure of Attachment Qualities (MAQ; Carver, 1997) and the Relationship Style…

  5. Adult attachment styles: some thoughts on closeness-distance struggles.

    PubMed

    Pistole, M C

    1994-06-01

    Difficulty with distance regulation is a central source of controversy in couples' relationships. This article describes how attachment theory can contribute to the understanding and treatment of closeness-distance struggles. Discussion focuses on (a) closeness-seeking as a feature of the attachment system, (b) individual differences in adult attachment styles, and (c) the working model that governs how salient interpersonal information is processed and is responded to both emotionally and behaviorally. These elements of the attachment system not only contribute to understanding closeness-distance disturbance but also provide access points for therapeutic intervention.

  6. Anxious attachment as a determinant of adult psychopathology.

    PubMed

    West, M; Rose, M S; Sheldon, A

    1993-07-01

    Traditionally, an excess of interpersonal dependency has been used to characterize disturbed interpersonal relationships in adults. This approach stands in sharp contrast to that of attachment theorists who conceptualize attachment as functionally distinct from dependency. Attachment theory focuses on anxious attachment in the definition and dynamics of disturbed adult interpersonal relationships. The purpose of this study was to examine the relevance of anxious attachment to the differentiation of psychiatric outpatients from nonpatients. Empirically, three scales (feared loss of the attachment figure, proximity seeking, and separation protest) measure the components of anxious attachment as defined by Bowlby. The scales were administered to two research samples. Sample 1 was composed of 136 respondents to a survey within the Calgary community. Sample 2 consisted of 110 psychiatric outpatients drawn from the psychotherapy clinic of the Calgary General Hospital. The results indicate that the three components of anxious attachment offer a clinically relevant system for differentiating between psychiatric outpatients and nonpatients. Of these three components, feared loss has the predominant effect. The implications of this finding for the delineation of disturbed interpersonal relationships in adults is discussed.

  7. Infant attachment, adult attachment, and maternal sensitivity: revisiting the intergenerational transmission gap.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Kazuko Y; Haltigan, John D; Bahm, Naomi I Gribneau

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the intergenerational transmission of attachment, utilizing the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP), and the Maternal Behavioral Q-Set (MBQS). We revisited fundamental questions in attachment theory and research by examining: (1) the level of intergenerational agreement between maternal attachment representations and infant attachment security, and (2) whether maternal sensitivity serves as an intergenerational mediator between adult and infant attachment security. Significant categorical matches between the AAI and the SSP as well as mean differences for MBQS scores between adult attachment secure-insecure groups were found. Consistent with earlier intergenerational research, maternal sensitivity only partially mediated the AAI-SSP link, indicating the transmission gap remains. Consistent with recent mediation studies, using more contemporary analytical techniques, it was confirmed that maternal sensitivity did mediate the direct pathway between AAI security and SSP security. Thus, the transmission gap appears somewhat different depending on the statistical method used to measure mediation. Post hoc analyses considered mothers' childhood experiences of separation/divorce and this helped make sense of intergenerational mismatches.

  8. Infant attachment, adult attachment, and maternal sensitivity: revisiting the intergenerational transmission gap.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Kazuko Y; Haltigan, John D; Bahm, Naomi I Gribneau

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the intergenerational transmission of attachment, utilizing the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP), and the Maternal Behavioral Q-Set (MBQS). We revisited fundamental questions in attachment theory and research by examining: (1) the level of intergenerational agreement between maternal attachment representations and infant attachment security, and (2) whether maternal sensitivity serves as an intergenerational mediator between adult and infant attachment security. Significant categorical matches between the AAI and the SSP as well as mean differences for MBQS scores between adult attachment secure-insecure groups were found. Consistent with earlier intergenerational research, maternal sensitivity only partially mediated the AAI-SSP link, indicating the transmission gap remains. Consistent with recent mediation studies, using more contemporary analytical techniques, it was confirmed that maternal sensitivity did mediate the direct pathway between AAI security and SSP security. Thus, the transmission gap appears somewhat different depending on the statistical method used to measure mediation. Post hoc analyses considered mothers' childhood experiences of separation/divorce and this helped make sense of intergenerational mismatches. PMID:27056466

  9. Authoritarian and homophobic attitudes: gender and adult attachment style differences.

    PubMed

    Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relations of gender and adult attachment styles to college students' scores on several measures of authoritarian attitudes (e.g., right-wing authoritarianism, ethnocentrism, homophobia, and religious fundamentalism). A multivariate analysis of authoritarian attitudes yielded significant main and interaction effects involving students' gender and their (categorical) attachment style scores. Relative to women, men reported higher levels of homophobia, ethnocentrism, and right-wing authoritarianism. Gender differences in homophobia were additionally conditioned by participants' adult attachment styles: Men with dismissing styles evidenced the highest levels of homophobia, whereas women with dismissing styles demonstrated the lowest levels; that is, a fear of intimacy seemed to contribute to homophobic attitudes found among heterosexual men. This was the first U.S. study of the relationship between adult attachment styles and right-wing authoritarianism, and further investigation is warranted.

  10. Adult Attachment and Longterm Effects in Survivors of Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Pamela C.; Anderson, Catherine L.; Brand, Bethany; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Grelling, Barbara Z.; Kretz, Lisa

    1998-01-01

    Ninety-two adult female incest survivors were interviewed and completed measures of current functioning. Hierarchical regression analyses suggested that adult attachment behavior was significantly associated with personality structure, depression, and distress; and abuse severity was associated with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and…

  11. The first 10,000 Adult Attachment Interviews: distributions of adult attachment representations in clinical and non-clinical groups.

    PubMed

    Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2009-05-01

    More than 200 adult attachment representation studies, presenting more than 10,500 Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; George, Kaplan, & Main, 1985) classifications, have been conducted in the past 25 years. In a series of analyses on the distributions of the AAI classifications in various cultural and age groups, fathers, and high-risk and clinical samples, we used the distribution of the combined samples of North American non-clinical mothers (23% dismissing, 58% secure, 19% preoccupied attachment representations, and 18% additionally coded for unresolved loss or other trauma) to examine deviations from this normative pattern, through multinomial tests and analyses of correspondence. The analyses were restricted to AAI classifications coded according to the Main, Goldwyn, and Hesse (2003) system. We did not find gender differences in the use of dismissing versus preoccupied attachment strategies, and the AAI distributions were largely independent of language and country of origin. Clinical subjects showed more insecure and unresolved attachment representations than the norm groups. Disorders with an internalizing dimension (e.g., borderline personality disorders) were associated with more preoccupied and unresolved attachments, whereas disorders with an externalizing dimension (e.g., antisocial personality disorders) displayed more dismissing as well as preoccupied attachments. Depressive symptomatology was associated with insecurity but not with unresolved loss or trauma, whereas adults with abuse experiences or PTSD were mostly unresolved. In order to find more reliable associations with clinical symptoms and disorders, future AAI studies may make more fruitful use of continuous AAI scales in addition to the conventionally used categorical classifications.

  12. Attachment, skin deep? Relationships between adult attachment and skin barrier recovery.

    PubMed

    Robles, Theodore F; Brooks, Kathryn P; Kane, Heidi S; Schetter, Christine Dunkel

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between individual differences in adult attachment and skin barrier recovery. Dating couples (N = 34) completed a self-report measure of attachment anxiety and avoidance, and during two separate laboratory visits, normal skin barrier function was disrupted using a tape-stripping procedure, followed by a 20 min discussion of personal concerns in one visit and relationship problems in the other, counterbalanced randomly across visits. Skin barrier recovery was assessed by measuring transepidermal water loss up to 2 h after skin disruption. Multilevel modeling showed that skin barrier recovery did not differ between the personal concern or relationship problem discussions. Among women, greater attachment anxiety predicted faster skin barrier recovery across the two visits, while greater attachment avoidance predicted slower skin barrier recovery. Among men, greater attachment anxiety predicted slower skin barrier recovery during the personal concern discussion only. The observed effects remained significant after controlling for transepidermal water loss in undisturbed skin, suggesting that the relationship between attachment security and skin barrier recovery was not due to other skin-related factors like sweating. Cortisol changes, self-reported emotions, stress appraisals, and supportiveness ratings were tested as potential mediators, and none explained the relationships between attachment and skin barrier recovery. These findings are the first to demonstrate associations between individual differences in attachment style and restorative biological processes in the skin, even in a sample of young dating couples in satisfied relationships.

  13. Attachment, skin deep? Relationships between adult attachment and skin barrier recovery

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Theodore F.; Brooks, Kathryn P.; Kane, Heidi S.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between individual differences in adult attachment and skin barrier recovery. Dating couples (N = 34) completed a self-report measure of attachment anxiety and avoidance, and during two separate laboratory visits, normal skin barrier function was disrupted using a tape-stripping procedure, followed by a 20 min discussion of personal concerns in one visit and relationship problems in the other, counterbalanced randomly across visits. Skin barrier recovery was assessed by measuring transepidermal water loss up to 2 h after skin disruption. Multilevel modeling showed that skin barrier recovery did not differ between the personal concern or relationship problem discussions. Among women, greater attachment anxiety predicted faster skin barrier recovery across the two visits, while greater attachment avoidance predicted slower skin barrier recovery. Among men, greater attachment anxiety predicted slower skin barrier recovery during the personal concern discussion only. The observed effects remained significant after controlling for transepidermal water loss in undisturbed skin, suggesting that the relationship between attachment security and skin barrier recovery was not due to other skin-related factors like sweating. Cortisol changes, self-reported emotions, stress appraisals, and supportiveness ratings were tested as potential mediators, and none explained the relationships between attachment and skin barrier recovery. These findings are the first to demonstrate associations between individual differences in attachment style and restorative biological processes in the skin, even in a sample of young dating couples in satisfied relationships. PMID:22546664

  14. Adult attachment and approaches to activity engagement in chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Nicole E; Meredith, Pamela J; Strong, Jenny; Donohue, Genevieve F

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The way in which individuals with chronic pain habitually approach activity engagement has been shown to impact daily functioning, with both avoidance of one’s daily activities and overactivity (activity engagement that significantly exacerbates pain) associated with more pain, higher levels of physical disability and poorer psychological functioning. OBJECTIVE: To provide insight into the development of maladaptive habitual approaches to activity engagement in chronic pain by applying an attachment theory framework. METHODS: A sample of 164 adults with chronic pain completed selfreport measures of attachment, approach to activity and pain cognitions. Mediation analyses were undertaken to examine the direct association between attachment variables and maladaptive approaches to activity, and to test for the mediating role of pain cognitions (catastrophizing and thought suppression). RESULTS: Results demonstrated that higher levels of secure attachment were associated with lower levels of activity avoidance, which was fully mediated by lower levels of pain catastrophizing; higher levels of preoccupied or fearful attachment were directly associated with higher levels overactivity; higher levels of preoccupied attachment were associated with higher levels of activity avoidance, which was partially mediated by higher levels of pain catastrophizing; and higher levels of fearful attachment were indirectly associated with higher levels of activity avoidance through higher levels of catastrophizing. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide preliminary support for the suggestion that insecure attachment may be a source of vulnerability to the development of disabling activity patterns in chronic pain. PMID:25337857

  15. Threats to Parental and Romantic Attachment Figures' Availability and Adult Attachment Insecurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Thomas B.; Galbraith, Richard C.; Timmons, Nicole Mead; Steed, April; Tobler, Samuel B.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested hypotheses based on the theoretical idea that threats to parental availability would have a direct effect on later adult attachment insecurity and that this relationship would be partially, but not fully, mediated by threats to the availability of a romantic partner. Participants were 1,063 individuals in a married or unmarried…

  16. Adult Attachment, Social Adjustment, and Well-Being in Drug-Addicted Inpatients.

    PubMed

    Delvecchio, Elisa; Di Riso, Daniela; Lis, Adriana; Salcuni, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, attachment studies have gathered overwhelming evidence for a relation between insecure attachment and drug addiction. The existing literature predominantly addresses attachment styles and little attention is given to attachment-pattern-oriented studies. The current study explored how attachment, social adjustment, and well-being interact in 40 (28 men, 12 women; ages 20-52 years, M = 32.3, SD = 9.4) inpatients with drug addiction. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-report (SAS-SR), and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) were administered. Descriptive statistics were computed as well as differences between patterns of attachment in all variables were measured. None of the inpatients showed a secure attachment pattern: 7 scored as dismissing (18%), 5 preoccupied (12%) and 28 unresolved (70%). AAP stories were mainly connected with themes of danger, lack of protection, and helplessness. Inpatients classified as unresolved reported significantly higher maladjustment on the SAS-SR and GHQ-28 than those with resolved attachment patterns. Implications for clinicians and researchers are presented.

  17. Adult Attachment, Social Adjustment, and Well-Being in Drug-Addicted Inpatients.

    PubMed

    Delvecchio, Elisa; Di Riso, Daniela; Lis, Adriana; Salcuni, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, attachment studies have gathered overwhelming evidence for a relation between insecure attachment and drug addiction. The existing literature predominantly addresses attachment styles and little attention is given to attachment-pattern-oriented studies. The current study explored how attachment, social adjustment, and well-being interact in 40 (28 men, 12 women; ages 20-52 years, M = 32.3, SD = 9.4) inpatients with drug addiction. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-report (SAS-SR), and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) were administered. Descriptive statistics were computed as well as differences between patterns of attachment in all variables were measured. None of the inpatients showed a secure attachment pattern: 7 scored as dismissing (18%), 5 preoccupied (12%) and 28 unresolved (70%). AAP stories were mainly connected with themes of danger, lack of protection, and helplessness. Inpatients classified as unresolved reported significantly higher maladjustment on the SAS-SR and GHQ-28 than those with resolved attachment patterns. Implications for clinicians and researchers are presented. PMID:27154381

  18. Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR): An Item Response Theory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pilkonis, Paul A.; Kim, Yookyung; Yu, Lan; Morse, Jennifer Q.

    2013-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR) include 3 scales for anxious, ambivalent attachment (excessive dependency, interpersonal ambivalence, and compulsive care-giving), 3 for avoidant attachment (rigid self-control, defensive separation, and emotional detachment), and 1 for secure attachment. The scales include items (ranging from 6–16 in their original form) scored by raters using a 3-point format (0 = absent, 1 = present, and 2 = strongly present) and summed to produce a total score. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were conducted with data from 414 participants recruited from psychiatric outpatient, medical, and community settings to identify the most informative items from each scale. The IRT results allowed us to shorten the scales to 5-item versions that are more precise and easier to rate because of their brevity. In general, the effective range of measurement for the scales was 0 to +2 SDs for each of the attachment constructs; that is, from average to high levels of attachment problems. Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity of the scales was investigated by comparing them with the Experiences of Close Relationships–Revised (ECR–R) scale and the Kobak Attachment Q-sort. The best consensus among self-reports on the ECR–R, informant ratings on the ECR–R, and expert judgments on the Q-sort and the AAR emerged for anxious, ambivalent attachment. Given the good psychometric characteristics of the scale for secure attachment, however, this measure alone might provide a simple alternative to more elaborate procedures for some measurement purposes. Conversion tables are provided for the 7 scales to facilitate transformation from raw scores to IRT-calibrated (theta) scores. PMID:24033268

  19. Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR): an item response theory analysis.

    PubMed

    Pilkonis, Paul A; Kim, Yookyung; Yu, Lan; Morse, Jennifer Q

    2014-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR) include 3 scales for anxious, ambivalent attachment (excessive dependency, interpersonal ambivalence, and compulsive care-giving), 3 for avoidant attachment (rigid self-control, defensive separation, and emotional detachment), and 1 for secure attachment. The scales include items (ranging from 6-16 in their original form) scored by raters using a 3-point format (0 = absent, 1 = present, and 2 = strongly present) and summed to produce a total score. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were conducted with data from 414 participants recruited from psychiatric outpatient, medical, and community settings to identify the most informative items from each scale. The IRT results allowed us to shorten the scales to 5-item versions that are more precise and easier to rate because of their brevity. In general, the effective range of measurement for the scales was 0 to +2 SDs for each of the attachment constructs; that is, from average to high levels of attachment problems. Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity of the scales was investigated by comparing them with the Experiences of Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) scale and the Kobak Attachment Q-sort. The best consensus among self-reports on the ECR-R, informant ratings on the ECR-R, and expert judgments on the Q-sort and the AAR emerged for anxious, ambivalent attachment. Given the good psychometric characteristics of the scale for secure attachment, however, this measure alone might provide a simple alternative to more elaborate procedures for some measurement purposes. Conversion tables are provided for the 7 scales to facilitate transformation from raw scores to IRT-calibrated (theta) scores.

  20. Attachment and God Representations among Lay Catholics, Priests, and Religious: A Matched Comparison Study Based on the Adult Attachment Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassibba, Rosalinda; Granqvist, Pehr; Costantini, Alessandro; Gatto, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Based on the idea that believers' perceived relationships with God develop from their attachment-related experiences with primary caregivers, the authors explored the quality of such experiences and their representations among individuals who differed in likelihood of experiencing a principal attachment to God. Using the Adult Attachment Interview…

  1. A Secure Base for Adult Learning: Attachment Theory and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Ted

    2008-01-01

    The attachment theory of John Bowlby has had an enduring impact on our understanding of child development. But these ideas are a neglected and forgotten discourse in adult education. In this paper concepts such as secure and insecure attachments, internal working models, and the strange situation along with the more contemporary concept of…

  2. The Contribution of Attachment to Burden in Adult Children of Institutionalized Parents with Dementia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crispi, Esther Loring; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Studied 108 adults to investigate the impact of adult attachment to parents, perceived disease severity, and caregiving behaviors, moderated by perceived caregiving adequacy. Results indicate that attachment style and the trait aspect of attachment predicted both aspects of caregiver burden. Attachment preoccupation predicted psychologic…

  3. Relationship duration moderates associations between attachment and relationship quality: meta-analytic support for the temporal adult romantic attachment model.

    PubMed

    Hadden, Benjamin W; Smith, C Veronica; Webster, Gregory D

    2014-02-01

    Although research has examined associations between attachment dimensions and relationship outcomes, theory has ignored how these associations change over time in adult romantic relationships. We proposed the Temporal Adult Romantic Attachment (TARA) model, which predicts that the negative associations between anxious and avoidant attachment on one hand and relationship satisfaction and commitment on the other will be more negative as relationship durations increase. Meta-analyses largely confirmed that negative associations between both insecure attachment dimensions and both relationship outcomes were more negative among longer relationship durations in cross-sectional samples. We also explored gender differences in these associations. The present review not only integrates the literature on adult attachment and romantic relationship satisfaction/commitment but also highlights the importance of relationship duration as a key moderator of the associations among these variables. We discuss the broad implications of these effects and our meta-analytic findings for the TARA model, attachment theory, and romantic relationships.

  4. Attachment and Parenting in Adult Patients with Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Picardi, Angelo; Caroppo, Emanuele; Fabi, Elisa; Proietti, Serena; Gennaro, Giancarlo Di; Meldolesi, Giulio Nicolò; Martinotti, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Background: The literature suggests that dysfunctional parenting and insecure attachment may increase risk of anxiety-related psychopathology. This study aimed at testing the association between anxiety disorders, attachment insecurity and dysfunctional parenting while controlling for factors usually not controlled for in previous studies, such as gender, age, and being ill. Methods: A sample of 32 non-psychotic inpatients with SCID-I diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, either alone or in comorbidity, was compared with two age- and sex-matched control groups consisting of 32 non-clinical participants and 32 in-patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Study measures included the Experience in Close Relationships questionnaire (ECR) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Results: The patients with anxiety disorders scored significantly higher on attachment-related anxiety and avoidance than patients with drug-resistant epilepsy and non-clinical participants. These findings were independent of comorbidity for mood disorders. ECR scores did not differ among diagnostic subgroups (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, other anxiety disorders). Patients with anxiety disorders scored significantly lower on PBI mother’s care and borderline significantly lower on PBI father's care than patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Conclusions: Although limitations such as the relatively small sample size and the cross-sectional nature suggest caution in interpreting these findings, they are consistent with the few previous adult studies performed on this topic and corroborate Bowlby's seminal hypothesis of a link between negative attachment-related experiences, attachment insecurity, and clinical anxiety. Attachment theory provides a useful theoretical framework for integrating research findings from several fields concerning the development of anxiety disorders and for planning therapeutic interventions. PMID:24155770

  5. Adult attachment style modulates neural responses in a mentalizing task.

    PubMed

    Schneider-Hassloff, H; Straube, B; Nuscheler, B; Wemken, G; Kircher, T

    2015-09-10

    Adult attachment style (AAS) is a personality trait that affects social cognition. Behavioral data suggest that AAS influences mentalizing proficiency, i.e. the ability to predict and explain people's behavior with reference to mental states, but the neural correlates are unknown. We here tested how the AAS dimensions "avoidance" (AV) and "anxiety" (ANX) modulate neural correlates of mentalizing. We measured brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 164 healthy subjects during an interactive mentalizing paradigm (Prisoner's Dilemma Game). AAS was assessed with the Relationship Scales Questionnaire, including the subscales AV and ANX. Our task elicited a strong activation of the mentalizing network, including bilateral precuneus, (anterior, middle, and posterior) cingulate cortices, temporal poles, inferior frontal gyri (IFG), temporoparietal junctions, superior medial frontal gyri as well as right medial orbital frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and amygdala. We found that AV is positively and ANX negatively correlated with task-associated neural activity in the right amygdala, MFG, midcingulate cortex, and superior parietal lobule, and in bilateral IFG. These data suggest that avoidantly attached adults activate brain areas implicated in emotion regulation and cognitive control to a larger extent than anxiously attached individuals during mentalizing. PMID:26162239

  6. The relationship of adult attachment to emotion, catastrophizing, control, threshold and tolerance, in experimentally-induced pain.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Pamela J; Strong, Jenny; Feeney, Judith A

    2006-01-01

    Although insecure attachment has been associated with a range of variables linked with problematic adjustment to chronic pain, the causal direction of these relationships remains unclear. Adult attachment style is, theoretically, developmentally antecedent to cognitions, emotions and behaviours (and might therefore be expected to contribute to maladjustment). It can also be argued, however, that the experience of chronic pain increases attachment insecurity. This project examined this issue by determining associations between adult attachment characteristics, collected prior to an acute (coldpressor) pain experience, and a range of emotional, cognitive, pain tolerance, intensity and threshold variables collected during and after the coldpressor task. A convenience sample of 58 participants with no history of chronic pain was recruited. Results demonstrated that attachment anxiety was associated with lower pain thresholds; more stress, depression, and catastrophizing; diminished perceptions of control over pain; and diminished ability to decrease pain. Conversely, secure attachment was linked with lower levels of depression and catastrophizing, and more control over pain. Of particular interest were findings that attachment style moderated the effects of pain intensity on the tendency to catastrophize, such that insecurely attached individuals were more likely to catastrophize when reporting high pain intensity. This is the first study to link attachment with perceptions of pain in a pain-free sample. These findings cast anxious attachment as a vulnerability factor for chronic pain following acute episodes of pain, while secure attachment may provide more resilience.

  7. The Development of Father-Child Attachment: Associations between Adult Attachment Representations, Recollections of Childhood Experiences and Caregiving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland-Piazza, Laura; Hazen, Nancy; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Boyd-Soisson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The association between fathers' adult attachment representations and their recollections of childhood experiences with their caregiving quality with their eight-month-old infants and with father-infant attachment classification was examined in a longitudinal study of 117 fathers and their infants. Sensitive caregiving was related to…

  8. Shared and Distinctive Origins and Correlates of Adult Attachment Representations: The Developmental Organization of Romantic Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydon, Katherine C.; Collins, W. A.; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Simpson, Jeffry A.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    To test proposals regarding the hierarchical organization of adult attachment, this study examined developmental origins of generalized and romantic attachment representations and their concurrent associations with romantic functioning. Participants (N = 112) in a 35-year prospective study completed the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Current…

  9. Assessing Adolescent and Adult Attachment: A Review of Current Self-Report Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyddon, William J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Notes that interest in attachment theory among counselors and researchers has led to development of measures of attachment-related constructs. Presents overview of theoretical foundations of attachment theory as conceptualized by Ainsworth (1989) and Bowlby (1988). Reviews four self-report measures of adolescent and adult attachment. Discusses…

  10. Adults and Children with Asperger Syndrome: Exploring Adult Attachment Style, Marital Satisfaction and Satisfaction with Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Winnie; Peterson, Candida C.

    2011-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) is a disorder resembling autism in its problems with social interaction and cognitive flexibility. Today, a number of adults with AS marry and rear children. Yet there has been little research into the quality of their marital and parental relationships. This study explored romantic attachment style, marital satisfaction and…

  11. Adult attachment as mediator between recollections of childhood and satisfaction with life.

    PubMed

    Hinnen, Chris; Sanderman, Robbert; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with attachment theory, the present study investigates whether internal working models of attachment mediated the association between childhood memories and satisfaction about life in adulthood. A convenient sample of 437 participants completed questionnaires assessing a broad range of childhood memories, working models of attachment and life satisfaction. After controlling for demographics, relational status and living condition, Baron and Kenny's mediation criteria were met for the association between memories about childhood, adult attachment and life satisfaction. That is, family warmth and harmony and parental support were associated with attachment security while parental rejection and adverse childhood events (e.g., abuse, parental psychopathology) were associated with an insecure attachment style. More securely attached individuals were in turn more satisfied about their current life than insecurely attached individuals. Sobel test confirmed these findings. These finding are in accordance with attachment theory and highlight the importance of this theory for understanding how early childhood experiences may impact adult life.

  12. Adult attachment as mediator between recollections of childhood and satisfaction with life.

    PubMed

    Hinnen, Chris; Sanderman, Robbert; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with attachment theory, the present study investigates whether internal working models of attachment mediated the association between childhood memories and satisfaction about life in adulthood. A convenient sample of 437 participants completed questionnaires assessing a broad range of childhood memories, working models of attachment and life satisfaction. After controlling for demographics, relational status and living condition, Baron and Kenny's mediation criteria were met for the association between memories about childhood, adult attachment and life satisfaction. That is, family warmth and harmony and parental support were associated with attachment security while parental rejection and adverse childhood events (e.g., abuse, parental psychopathology) were associated with an insecure attachment style. More securely attached individuals were in turn more satisfied about their current life than insecurely attached individuals. Sobel test confirmed these findings. These finding are in accordance with attachment theory and highlight the importance of this theory for understanding how early childhood experiences may impact adult life. PMID:19165809

  13. Attachment and God representations among lay Catholics, priests, and religious: a matched comparison study based on the Adult Attachment Interview.

    PubMed

    Cassibba, Rosalinda; Granqvist, Pehr; Costantini, Alessandro; Gatto, Sergio

    2008-11-01

    Based on the idea that believers' perceived relationships with God develop from their attachment-related experiences with primary caregivers, the authors explored the quality of such experiences and their representations among individuals who differed in likelihood of experiencing a principal attachment to God. Using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), they compared attachment-related experiences and representations in a group of 30 Catholic priests and religious with a matched group of lay Catholics and with the worldwide normal distribution of AAI classifications. They found an overrepresentation of secure-autonomous states regarding attachment among those more likely to experience a principal attachment to God (i.e., the priests and religious) compared with the other groups and an underrepresentation of unresolved-disorganized states in the two groups of Catholics compared with the worldwide normal distribution. Key findings also included links between secure-autonomous states regarding attachment and estimated experiences with loving or nonrejecting parents on the one hand and loving God imagery on the other. These results extend the literature on religion from an attachment perspective and support the idea that generalized working models derived from attachment experiences with parents are reflected in believers' perceptions of God.

  14. The Nature of Attachment Relationships and Grief Responses in Older Adults: An Attachment Path Model of Grief

    PubMed Central

    Kho, Yan; Kane, Robert T.; Priddis, Lynn; Hudson, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    Background Various researchers have theorized that bereaved adults who report non-secure attachment are at higher risk of pathological grief. Yet past findings on avoidant attachment representations and grief have yielded limited and contradictory outcomes. Little research has been conducted with older adults to identify the psychological processes that mediate between self-reported attachment representations and the patterns of grief. Objective To examine the impacts of avoidant attachment and anxious attachment dimensions on emotion and non-acceptance, in response to the loss of a conjugal partner, and the mediating effect of yearning thoughts. Design Men (N = 21) and women (N = 68) aged 60 years and above who had lost a partner within the last 12 to 72 months were invited to participate. Participants rated their levels of yearning thoughts about the deceased, emotions and non-acceptance on the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief (TRIG-Present), and their type and level of general romantic attachment on the Experiences In Close Relationship questionnaire (ECR). Results Structural equation modelling (SEM) indicated that individuals who reported higher levels of avoidant attachment reported less emotional responses and less non-acceptance. SEM also showed that individuals who reported higher levels of anxious attachment reported greater emotional responses and greater non-acceptance. SEM further indicated that these relationships were mediated by yearning thoughts. Conclusion People adopt different grief coping patterns according to their self-reported attachment representations, with the nature of their yearning thoughts influencing the process. Grief therapy may be organized according to individual differences in attachment representations. PMID:26462062

  15. ATTACHMENT AND CORE RELATIONSHIP THEMES: WISHES FOR AUTONOMY AND CLOSENESS IN THE NARRATIVES OF SECURELY AND INSECURELY ATTACHED ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Waldinger, Robert J.; Seidman, Ethan L.; Gerber, Andrew J.; Liem, Joan H.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hauser, Stuart T.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines links between attachment states of mind and relationship schemas in a sample of 40 young adults, half of whom were hospitalized as adolescents for psychiatric treatment. Participants were interviewed about their closest relationships, and, using the Core Conflictual Relationship Theme method, their narratives about these relationships were analyzed for the relative frequency with which they expressed wishes for closeness and for autonomy in relation to others. Participants were also administered the Adult Attachment Interview and were classified with respect to security of attachment. Security of attachment was associated with the relative frequency with which participants expressed wishes for autonomy in their narratives about close relationships, even after accounting for current levels of psychological functioning and history of serious psychopathology in adolescence. Security of attachment was not associated with the relative frequency with which participants expressed wishes for closeness. The study suggests that core relational wishes for autonomy are linked specifically with subtypes of insecure attachment. These findings extend what is known about connections between the representation of early attachment relationships and the wishes and needs expressed in current relationships with significant others. PMID:16946799

  16. Clinical Assessment of Attachment Patterns and Personality Disorder in Adolescents and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westen, Drew; Nakash, Ora; Thomas, Cannon; Bradley, Rebekah

    2006-01-01

    The relevance of attachment theory and research for practice has become increasingly clear. The authors describe a series of studies with 3 aims: (a) to validate measures of attachment for use by clinicians with adolescents and adults (b) to examine the relation between attachment and personality pathology, and (c) to ascertain whether factor…

  17. Association between the Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and Adult Unresolved Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspers, Kristin M.; Paradiso, Sergio; Yucuis, Rebecca; Troutman, Beth; Arndt, Stephan; Philibert, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Research on antecedents of organized attachment has focused on the quality of caregiving received during childhood. In recent years, research has begun to examine the influence of genetic factors on quality of infant attachment. However, no published studies report on the association between specific genetic factors and adult attachment. This…

  18. Quality of Relationships and Romantic Jealousy: Effects of Adult Attachment and Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radecki-Bush, Catherine; Bush, Joseph P.

    Individual differences in adult attachment have been the focus of recent research on personal relationships. Research has indicated that those with insecure attachment histories were more threatened by a partner's attraction to a rival than were persons reporting secure parental attachment. Higher levels of dispositional jealousy have also been…

  19. Adult Children's Attachment and Helping Behavior to Elderly Parents: A Path Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicirelli, Victor G.

    Since adult children are both an essential and a limited support system for elderly parents, it is important to understand the factors which elicit and sustain their helping behavior. A causal path model based on the attachment and equity theories was constructed in which adult children's feelings of attachment to their parents lead to their…

  20. Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism as Mediators of Adult Attachment Styles and Depression, Hopelessness, and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnilka, Philip B.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Noble, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, anxious and avoidant adult attachment styles, depression, hopelessness, and life satisfaction among a sample of 180 undergraduate students. Maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationship between both forms of adult attachment and depression, hopelessness,…

  1. The Association between Adult Attachment Styles and Conflict Resolution in Romantic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Lin

    2003-01-01

    Examined whether adult attachment was predictive of conflict resolution behaviors and satisfaction in romantic relationships. Both adult attachment dimensions, Avoidance and Anxiety, were predictive of conflict resolution behaviors and relationship satisfaction. Gender differences existed in conflict resolution behaviors, but they were not as…

  2. Adult Attachment and Parental Bonding: Correlations between Perceived Relationship Qualities and Self-Reported Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambruster, Ellen W.; Witherington, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Adult attachment and parental bonding have been linked to anxiety disorders, but rarely have these associations been demonstrated in the same study. To fill this gap in the research literature, we utilized several different self-report measures to examine the relationships among adult attachment style, memories of early bonding experiences, and…

  3. Attachment States of Mind and the Quality of Young Adults' Sibling Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortuna, Keren; Roisman, Glenn I.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Groh, Ashley M.; Holland, Ashley S.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines young adults' states of mind regarding their early attachment experiences in relation to the observed and perceived quality of their sibling relationships. Sixty sibling pairs (18-25 years of age) were (a) administered the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1985), (b) videotaped during a conflict resolution…

  4. Adult Attachment; Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity; and Sexual Attitudes of Nonheterosexual Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chia-Chih D. C.; Schale, Codi L.; Broz, Kristina K.

    2010-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students from 12 university campuses (N = 177) participated in this study that examined the relationships between adult attachment, LGB identity, and sexual attitudes. Findings indicated that adult attachment was significantly related to LGB identity and sexual attitudes and that an LGB identity variable…

  5. Adult Attachment States of Mind: Measurement Invariance across Ethnicity and Associations with Maternal Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haltigan, John D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Wong, Maria S.; Fortuna, Keren; Roisman, Glenn I.; Supple, Andrew J.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Plamondon, André

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the developmental significance of mothers' adult attachment representations assessed prenatally with the Adult Attachment Interview in relation to observed maternal sensitivity at 6 months postpartum in an ethnically diverse sample (N = 131 African American; N = 128 European American). Multiple-group confirmatory factor…

  6. ADULT TERTIAN MALARIAL PARASITES ATTACHED TO PERIPHERAL CORPUSCULAR MOUNDS. THE EXTRACELLULAR RELATION OF THE PARASITES TO THE RED CORPUSCLES.

    PubMed

    Lawson, M R

    1915-06-01

    1. The malarial parasite is extracellular throughout its entire life cycle; that is, when it is not free in the blood serum, it is attached to the external surface of the red corpuscle. 2. Adult parasites follow the same procedure in attaching themselves to the outer surface of the red corpuscles as do the young parasites. 3. Adult parasites are most frequently seen attached to surface corpuscular mounds. 4. Corpuscular mounds projecting at the periphery of the red corpuscles and encircled by the pseudopodia of adult parasites, are proof positive of the extracellular relation of the adult parasite to the red corpuscle. 5. Adult parasites attached to peripheral corpuscular mounds are only found in appreciable numbers when the red corpuscles are not badly damaged, so that the mounds show more or less hemoglobin content. 6. The nuclei or protoplasm of adult parasites extending beyond the periphery of the red corpuscles is additional evidence of the extracellular relation of the parasites to the red corpuscle.

  7. Negative childhood experiences and adult love relationships: the role of internal working models of attachment.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Gerard; Maughan, Barbara

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated links between internal working models of attachment and the quality of adult love relationships in a high risk sample of women (n = 34), all of whom reported negative parenting in childhood. Half of the sample was identified as having a history of satisfying adult love relationships, while the remainder had experienced ongoing adult relationship problems. Measures of internal working models of attachment were made using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). A strong association was found between attachment classifications and the quality of adult love relationships. In addition, women with satisfying love relationships demonstrated significantly higher coherence of mind ratings than those with poor relationship histories. Insecure working models of attachment were associated with problems in adult love relationships. Although secure/autonomous attachment status was linked to optimal adult relationship outcomes, some women with a history of satisfying love relationships had insecure working models of attachment. These results suggest that the ways that adults process early experiences may influence later psychosocial functioning.

  8. Preliminary validation of a romantic attachment orientation measure from the California Adult Q-Sort.

    PubMed

    Chopik, William J; Edelstein, Robin S

    2015-01-01

    We present data on the preliminary validation of a measure of romantic attachment orientation from the California Adult Q-Sort (CAQ). The CAQ is found in several longitudinal data sets, and researchers can use the CAQ to answer questions about changes in romantic attachment across the lifespan. Expert raters nominated CAQ items that were characteristic of attachment anxiety and avoidance. In a sample of observers and targets, we compared ratings based on composites of these CAQ items to self- and observer-reports from a widely used scale of adult attachment. These expert-generated measures of CAQ-attachment orientation correlated highly with ECR measures of attachment orientation, suggesting that items from the CAQ can reliably measure an individual's attachment orientation. PMID:26402579

  9. Would you like to play together? Adults' attachment and the mirror game.

    PubMed

    Feniger-Schaal, Rinat; Noy, Lior; Hart, Yuval; Koren-Karie, Nina; Mayo, Avraham E; Alon, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Why is it easy for some people to play together and difficult for others? In this interdisciplinary pilot study, we looked at dyadic interaction in motion as a paradigm to explore the expression of attachment in adulthood. We used a device that gives simple, quantitative and automated indicators for the quality of interaction while playing the mirror game. Forty-seven participants played the mirror game with the same gender-matched expert players. In addition, participants were interviewed on the Adult Attachment Interview to assess their quality of attachment. Using high resolution kinematic measures, we found that secure attachment was correlated with high complexity of the game and low synchrony compared to insecure attachment. The findings suggest that security of attachment is related to a more exploratory and less rigid game than insecure-dismissing attachment. These preliminary findings imply that high resolution analysis of simple movement interaction could carry information about attachment behavior.

  10. Would you like to play together? Adults' attachment and the mirror game.

    PubMed

    Feniger-Schaal, Rinat; Noy, Lior; Hart, Yuval; Koren-Karie, Nina; Mayo, Avraham E; Alon, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Why is it easy for some people to play together and difficult for others? In this interdisciplinary pilot study, we looked at dyadic interaction in motion as a paradigm to explore the expression of attachment in adulthood. We used a device that gives simple, quantitative and automated indicators for the quality of interaction while playing the mirror game. Forty-seven participants played the mirror game with the same gender-matched expert players. In addition, participants were interviewed on the Adult Attachment Interview to assess their quality of attachment. Using high resolution kinematic measures, we found that secure attachment was correlated with high complexity of the game and low synchrony compared to insecure attachment. The findings suggest that security of attachment is related to a more exploratory and less rigid game than insecure-dismissing attachment. These preliminary findings imply that high resolution analysis of simple movement interaction could carry information about attachment behavior. PMID:26608053

  11. Implicit Attitude Toward Caregiving: The Moderating Role of Adult Attachment Styles.

    PubMed

    De Carli, Pietro; Tagini, Angela; Sarracino, Diego; Santona, Alessandra; Parolin, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Attachment and caregiving are separate motivational systems that share the common evolutionary purpose of favoring child security. In the goal of studying the processes underlying the transmission of attachment styles, this study focused on the role of adult attachment styles in shaping preferences toward particular styles of caregiving. We hypothesized a correspondence between attachment and caregiving styles: we expect an individual to show a preference for a caregiving behavior coherent with his/her own attachment style, in order to increase the chance of passing it on to offspring. We activated different representations of specific caregiving modalities in females, by using three videos in which mothers with different Adult Attachment states of mind played with their infants. Participants' facial expressions while watching were recorded and analyzed with FaceReader software. After each video, participants' attitudes toward the category "mother" were measured, both explicitly (semantic differential) and implicitly (single target-implicit association task, ST-IAT). Participants' adult attachment styles (experiences in close relationships revised) predicted attitudes scores, but only when measured implicitly. Participants scored higher on the ST-IAT after watching a video coherent with their attachment style. No effect was found on the facial expressions of disgust. These findings suggest a role of adult attachment styles in shaping implicit attitudes related to the caregiving system.

  12. Implicit Attitude Toward Caregiving: The Moderating Role of Adult Attachment Styles

    PubMed Central

    De Carli, Pietro; Tagini, Angela; Sarracino, Diego; Santona, Alessandra; Parolin, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Attachment and caregiving are separate motivational systems that share the common evolutionary purpose of favoring child security. In the goal of studying the processes underlying the transmission of attachment styles, this study focused on the role of adult attachment styles in shaping preferences toward particular styles of caregiving. We hypothesized a correspondence between attachment and caregiving styles: we expect an individual to show a preference for a caregiving behavior coherent with his/her own attachment style, in order to increase the chance of passing it on to offspring. We activated different representations of specific caregiving modalities in females, by using three videos in which mothers with different Adult Attachment states of mind played with their infants. Participants' facial expressions while watching were recorded and analyzed with FaceReader software. After each video, participants' attitudes toward the category “mother” were measured, both explicitly (semantic differential) and implicitly (single target-implicit association task, ST-IAT). Participants' adult attachment styles (experiences in close relationships revised) predicted attitudes scores, but only when measured implicitly. Participants scored higher on the ST-IAT after watching a video coherent with their attachment style. No effect was found on the facial expressions of disgust. These findings suggest a role of adult attachment styles in shaping implicit attitudes related to the caregiving system. PMID:26779060

  13. Adult attachment among partnered gay men: patterns and associations with sexual relationship quality.

    PubMed

    Starks, Tyrel J; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has found secure adult attachment to be associated positively with dimensions of main partner relationship quality and negatively with sexual risk taking and sex with casual partners among heterosexuals in primary relationships. Potential associations between adult attachment and aspects of relationship functioning have received limited attention among gay men. Data were collected from both members of 344 gay male couples as part of a community survey (M age = 38.6, SD = 9.4). Participants completed a shortened version of the Adult Attachment Inventory (Collins & Read, 1990) and the Dyadic Sexual Communication Scale (Catania, 1998). They reported the frequency of sex with main partners and the number of casual male unprotected sex partners. Data were analyzed using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Securely attached individuals reported the highest levels of sexual communication and men with securely attached partners were the most likely to report having sex with their partners as least once per week. Avoidantly attached men reported significantly more casual unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) partners compared to other attachment styles. Having an avoidantly attached partner was also associated with an increase in the number of UAI partners reported. Attachment style is relevant to the sexual relationship quality and sexual safety of partnered gay men. Cognitive-interpersonal intervention approaches developed to target attachment-related cognitions and behaviors may be relevant to HIV prevention efforts in this population.

  14. Neuroscience of human social interactions and adult attachment style

    PubMed Central

    Vrtička, Pascal; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Since its first description four decades ago, attachment theory (AT) has become one of the principal developmental psychological frameworks for describing the role of individual differences in the establishment and maintenance of social bonds between people. Yet, still little is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of attachment orientations and their well-established impact on a range of social and affective behaviors. In the present review, we summarize data from recent studies using cognitive and imaging approaches to characterize attachment styles and their effect on emotion and social cognition. We propose a functional neuroanatomical framework to integrate the key brain mechanisms involved in the perception and regulation of social emotional information, and their modulation by individual differences in terms of secure versus insecure (more specifically avoidant, anxious, or resolved versus unresolved) attachment traits. This framework describes how each individual's attachment style (built through interactions between personal relationship history and predispositions) may influence the encoding of approach versus aversion tendencies (safety versus threat) in social encounters, implicating the activation of a network of subcortical (amygdala, hippocampus, striatum) and cortical (insula, cingulate) limbic areas. These basic and automatic affective evaluation mechanisms are in turn modulated by more elaborate and voluntary cognitive control processes, subserving mental state attribution and emotion regulation capacities, implicating a distinct network in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), among others. Recent neuroimaging data suggest that affective evaluation is decreased in avoidantly but increased in anxiously attached individuals. In turn, although data on cognitive control is still scarce, it points toward a possible enhancement of mental state representations associated with

  15. Adult Attachment and Transgender Identity in the Italian Context: Clinical Implications and Suggestions for Further Research

    PubMed Central

    Amodeo, Anna Lisa; Vitelli, Roberto; Scandurra, Cristiano; Picariello, Simona; Valerio, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although attachment theory has been recognized as one of the main reference for the study of the general wellbeing, little research has been focused on the attachment styles of transgender people. Attachment styles are deeply influenced by the earliest relationships with caregivers, which, for gender nonconforming children, are often characterized by parental rejection. Consequently, transgender children and adults likely internalize societal stigma, developing internalized transphobia. The current research was aimed to explore the link between adult attachment and internalized transphobia. Method 25 male-to-female (MtF) and 23 female-to-male (FtM) transgender people participated in the survey filling in two self-report questionnaires: the Attachment Style Questionnaire and the Transgender Identity Survey. A cluster analysis, T-Test and multiple regression analysis were conducted to explore the link between attachment styles and internalized transphobia. Results A greater prevalence of secure attachment styles was detected. Participants with secure attachment styles reported higher levels of positive transgender identity than those with insecure attachment styles. Secure attachment styles significantly affect positive transgender identity, while insecure attachment styles influence internalized transphobia. Conclusions A clinical focus on the redefinition of the Internal Working Models of transgender people can inform psychologically-focused interventions, which transgender people can benefit from. PMID:26937224

  16. Adult Attachment Style and Stress as Risk Factors for Early Maternal Sensitivity and Negativity.

    PubMed

    Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Appleyard, Karen; Barnett, Melissa; Deng, Min; Putallaz, Martha; Cox, Martha

    2011-05-01

    The current study examined the individual and joint effects of self-reported adult attachment style, psychological distress, and parenting stress on maternal caregiving behaviors at 6 and 12 months of child age. We proposed a diathesis-stress model to examine the potential deleterious effects of stress for mothers with insecure adult attachment styles. Data from 137 mothers were gathered by the longitudinal Durham Child Health and Development Study. Mothers provided self-reports using Hazan and Shaver's (1987) Adult Attachment Style measure, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Parent Stress Inventory; observations of parenting data were made from 10-minute free play interactions. Consistently avoidant mothers were less sensitive with their infants than consistently secure mothers; however, this effect was limited to avoidant mothers who experienced elevated levels of psychological distress. Results suggest that the association between insecure adult attachment style and insensitive parenting behavior is moderated by concurrent psychosocial stress. Clinical implications for these findings are discussed. PMID:24855326

  17. Interpersonal and Genetic Origins of Adult Attachment Styles: A Longitudinal Study from Infancy to Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Fraley, R. Chris; Roisman, Glenn I.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Holland, Ashley S.

    2013-01-01

    One of the assumptions of attachment theory is that individual differences in adult attachment styles emerge from individuals’ developmental histories. To examine this assumption empirically the authors report data from an age 18 follow-up (Booth-LaForce & Roisman, 2012) of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, a longitudinal investigation that tracked a cohort of children and their parents from birth to age 15. Analyses indicate that individual differences in adult attachment can be traced to variations in the quality of individuals’ caregiving environments, their emerging social competence, and the quality of their best friendship. Analyses also indicate that assessments of temperament and most of the specific genetic polymorphisms thus far examined in the literature on genetic correlates of attachment styles were essentially uncorrelated with adult attachment, with the exception of a polymorphism in the serotonin receptor gene (HTR2A rs6313), which modestly predicted higher attachment anxiety and that revealed a G × E interaction such that changes in maternal sensitivity across time predicted attachment-related avoidance. The implications of these data for contemporary perspectives and debates concerning adult attachment theory are discussed. PMID:23397970

  18. Adult attachment style is associated with cerebral μ-opioid receptor availability in humans.

    PubMed

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Manninen, Sandra; Tuominen, Lauri; Hirvonen, Jussi; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Nuutila, Pirjo; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Hari, Riitta; Dunbar, Robin I M; Sams, Mikko

    2015-09-01

    Human attachment behavior mediates establishment and maintenance of social relationships. Adult attachment characteristically varies on anxiety and avoidance dimensions, reflecting the tendencies to worry about the partner breaking the social bond (anxiety) and feeling uncomfortable about depending on others (avoidance). In primates and other mammals, the endogenous μ-opioid system is linked to long-term social bonding, but evidence of its role in human adult attachment remains more limited. We used in vivo positron emission tomography to reveal how variability in μ-opioid receptor (MOR) availability is associated with adult attachment in humans. We scanned 49 healthy subjects using a MOR-specific ligand [(11) C]carfentanil and measured their attachment avoidance and anxiety with the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised scale. The avoidance dimension of attachment correlated negatively with MOR availability in the thalamus and anterior cingulate cortex, as well as the frontal cortex, amygdala, and insula. No associations were observed between MOR availability and the anxiety dimension of attachment. Our results suggest that the endogenous opioid system may underlie interindividual differences in avoidant attachment style in human adults, and that differences in MOR availability are associated with the individuals' social relationships and psychosocial well-being. PMID:26046928

  19. Goals and Personal Resources that Contribute to the Development and Agency Attachment of Older Adult Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Alayna A.; Gottlieb, Benjamin H.; Maitland, Scott B.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the volunteer service contribution of older adults (N = 100) to volunteer role development and agency attachment. Informed by a developmental regulation framework and socio-emotional selectivity theory, we tested a twofold hypothesis for the premise that greater role development and agency attachment would be experienced by (1) older…

  20. An Investigation of Adult Attachment and Coping with Exam-Related Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Katherine; Kingswell, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Students differ in how they cope with and manage stress associated with university life. This study investigates associations between adult attachment and coping strategies for exam-related stress. Fifty-seven students at a university in the north of England completed online questionnaires to assess attachment anxiety and avoidance, helpful and…

  1. Mapping Young Adults' Use of Fathers for Attachment Support: Implications on Romantic Relationship Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Harry; Almond, Tasha M.

    2010-01-01

    A mixed methods approach was used to examine how young adults (n = 1012) perceive fathers as targets for attachment support. Participants ranked the level of attachment support received and sought from fathers, mothers, best friends, and romantic partners, and provided relationship-specific information on additional indices of social support…

  2. Adult Attachment, Cognitive Appraisal, and University Students' Reactions to Romantic Infidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chia-Chih D. C.; King, Makini L.; Debernardi, Nicholas R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between adult attachment, cognitive appraisal, and university students' behavioral and emotional reactions to infidelity situations in romantic relationships. Results based on 173 university students suggested that both attachment and cognitive appraisals significantly predicted distinct types of infidelity…

  3. Stress Regulation in Adolescents: Physiological Reactivity during the Adult Attachment Interview and Conflict Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beijersbergen, Marielle D.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Juffer, Femmie

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined whether adolescents' attachment representations were associated with differences in emotion regulation during the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; C. George, N. Kaplan, & M. Main, 1996) and during a mother-adolescent conflict interaction task (Family Interaction Task [FIT]; J. P. Allen et al., 2003). Participants were…

  4. Adult social attachment disturbance is related to childhood maltreatment and current symptoms in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Minzenberg, Michael J; Poole, John H; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2006-05-01

    We characterized borderline personality disorder (BPD) along two fundamental dimensions of adult social attachment and evaluated attachment associations with childhood maltreatment and current symptoms using self-report measures in 40 outpatients with DSM-IV BPD. The BPD group had significantly greater dimensional attachment impairment and rate of fearful attachment type compared with a healthy control group. Among BPD subjects, dimensional attachment-anxiety was specifically associated with sexual abuse, whereas attachment-avoidance was associated with all five maltreatment types. The two attachment dimensions showed divergent associations with current interpersonal problems, impulsivity subtypes and mood symptoms. We conclude that (1) BPD is characterized by adult attachment disturbance; (2) these attachment problems are strongly related to childhood maltreatment, and to current interpersonal problems and clinical symptoms that are considered core features of BPD; and (3) the diverse problems of BPD patients may arise from two basic mechanisms, each tied to a different type of attachment disturbance, developmental history, and clinical outcome. PMID:16699383

  5. Religious commitment, adult attachment, and marital adjustment in newly married couples.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Jamie L; Riggs, Shelley A; Pollard, Sara E; Hook, Joshua N

    2011-04-01

    Existing literature on the role of religiosity in marital functioning is often difficult to interpret due to the frequent use of convenience samples, statistical approaches inadequate for interdependent dyadic data, and the lack of a theoretical framework. The current study examined the effects of religious commitment and insecure attachment on marital adjustment. Newly married couples who did not have children (N = 92 couples, 184 individuals) completed measures of religious commitment, adult attachment, and marital functioning. There was a small positive association between religious commitment and marital adjustment. Religious commitment buffered the negative association between attachment avoidance and marital adjustment, but exacerbated the negative association between attachment anxiety and marital adjustment.

  6. Pet dogs as attachment figures for adult owners.

    PubMed

    Kurdek, Lawrence A

    2009-08-01

    This study assessed the extent to which, and under what conditions, owners turn to their pet dogs in times of emotional distress. This feature of an attachment figure-safe haven-is a key characteristic of an attachment bond. Participants (N = 975, mean age = 47.95 years, 789 women and 186 men) were relatively dedicated dog owners who completed an online survey. Relative to other features of an attachment figure, safe haven was the least salient. Nonetheless, participants were more likely to turn to their dogs than they were to turn to their mothers, fathers, brothers, sisters, best friends, and children but less likely to turn to their dogs than to their romantic partners. Characteristics of both owners (being male, widowed, highly involved in the care of the dog, and uncomfortable with self-disclosure) and dogs (strongly meeting owner's needs regarding relatedness) heightened the likelihood that dogs were turned to rather than some humans. It is concluded that some owners develop attachment bonds with their pet dogs. PMID:19685978

  7. Influence of Family of Origin and Adult Romantic Partners on Romantic Attachment Security

    PubMed Central

    Dinero, Rachel E.; Conger, Rand D.; Shaver, Phillip R.; Widaman, Keith F.; Larsen-Rife, Dannelle

    2009-01-01

    According to attachment theory, attachment security or attachment style derives from social experiences that begin early in life and continue into the adult years. In this study we examined these expectations by examining associations between the quality of observed interaction patterns in the family of origin during adolescence and self-reported romantic attachment style and observed romantic relationship behaviors in adulthood (at ages 25 and 27). Family and romantic relationship interactions were rated by trained observers from video recordings of structured conversation tasks. Attachment style was assessed with items from Griffin and Bartholomew's (1994) Relationship Scales Questionnaire. Observational ratings of warmth and sensitivity in family interactions were positively related to similar behaviors by romantic partners and to self-reported attachment security. In addition, romantic interactions characterized by high warmth and low hostility at age 25 predicted greater attachment security at 27, after controlling for attachment security at age 25. However, attachment security at age 25 did not predict later romantic relationship interactions after controlling for earlier interactions. These findings underscore the importance of social experiences in close relationships for the development of romantic attachment security but they are inconsistent with the theoretical expectation that attachment security will predict the quality of interactions in romantic unions. PMID:18729676

  8. Facets of Spirituality Diminish the Positive Relationship between Insecure Attachment and Mood Pathology in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Hiebler-Ragger, Michaela; Falthansl-Scheinecker, Johanna; Birnhuber, Gerhard; Fink, Andreas; Unterrainer, Human Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, in attachment theory, secure attachment has been linked to parameters of mental health, while insecure attachment has been associated with parameters of psychopathology. Furthermore, spirituality and attachment to God have been discussed as corresponding to, or compensating for, primary attachment experiences. Accordingly, they may contribute to mental health or to mental illness. In this cross-sectional observational study, we investigate attachment styles (Avoidant and Anxious Attachment; ECR-RD), spirituality (Religious and Existential Well-Being; MI-RSWB), and mood pathology (Anxiety, Depression, Somatization; BSI-18) in 481 (76% female) young adults (age range: 18-30 years) who had a Roman Catholic upbringing. In accordance with previous research, we found insecure attachment to be associated with low levels of spirituality. Furthermore, insecure attachment and low levels of spirituality were associated with higher levels of mood pathology. In hierarchical regression analyses, only Anxious Attachment positively predicted all three dimensions of mood pathology while Existential Well-Being-but not Religious Well-Being-was an additional negative predictor for Depression. Our results underline that spirituality can correspond to the attachment style, or may also compensate for insecure attachment. Higher Existential Well-Being-comprised of facets such as hope for a better future, forgiveness and the experience of sense and meaning-seems to have an especially corrective effect on mood pathology, independent of attachment styles. Our findings emphasize the vital role of existential well-being in young adults' affective functioning, which might be considered in prevention and treatment. Further research in clinical surroundings is recommended. PMID:27336471

  9. Associations between adult attachment characteristics, medical burden, and life satisfaction among older primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Kirchmann, Helmut; Nolte, Tobias; Runkewitz, Kristin; Bayerle, Lisa; Becker, Simone; Blasczyk, Verena; Lindloh, Julia; Strauss, Bernhard

    2013-12-01

    We investigated whether attachment security, measured by the Adult Attachment Prototype Rating (AAPR), was correlated with life satisfaction, independent of sociodemographic characteristics, medical burden, and age-related coping strategies in a sample of 81 patients (69-73 years) recruited from the register of a general primary care practice. Furthermore, we examined whether patients classified as AAPR-secure reported better adjustment to medical burden in terms of higher life satisfaction than did insecure patients. Attachment security was independently related to life satisfaction. Moreover, the association between medical burden and lower life satisfaction was significantly stronger for insecure than for secure participants. Our findings indicate that interventions to improve attachment security or coping processes related to attachment could help older adults retain life satisfaction.

  10. Caregiving Antecedents of Secure Base Script Knowledge: A Comparative Analysis of Young Adult Attachment Representations

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Ryan D.; Waters, Theodore E. A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Truitt, Warren; Waters, Harriet S.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2015-01-01

    Based on a sub-sample (N = 673) of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) cohort, this paper reports data from a follow-up assessment at age 18 years on the antecedents of secure base script knowledge, as reflected in the ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related difficulties are recognized, competent help is provided, and the problem is resolved. Secure base script knowledge was (a) modestly to moderately correlated with more well established assessments of adult attachment, (b) associated with mother-child attachment in the first three years of life and with observations of maternal and paternal sensitivity from childhood to adolescence, and (c) partially accounted for associations previously documented in the SECCYD cohort between early caregiving experiences and Adult Attachment Interview states of mind (Booth-LaForce & Roisman, 2014) as well as self-reported attachment styles (Fraley, Roisman, Booth-LaForce, Owen, & Holland, 2013). PMID:25264703

  11. Attachment among older adults: current issues and directions for future research.

    PubMed

    Bradley, J M; Cafferty, T P

    2001-09-01

    Although John Bowlby conceptualized attachment theory as applicable across the life span, researchers have been relatively slow to examine attachment phenomena specifically among older adults. The present article reviews the extant research applying attachment theory to older populations; preliminary findings suggest that attachment issues hold particular relevance for older adults, given the increased potential for separation, loss and vulnerability associated with aging. Although many of the studies reviewed are somewhat limited methodologically, the overall pattern of results suggests that attachment patterns are associated with a variety of outcomes in later life (such as adaptation to chronic illness and caregiver burden among family members, reactions to the death of a loved one, and general well-being) in a theoretically consistent manner. The implications of and questions raised by current findings are reviewed, and directions for future research are discussed.

  12. Attachment, self-compassion, empathy, and subjective well-being among college students and community adults.

    PubMed

    Wei, Meifen; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Ku, Tsun-Yao; Shaffer, Phillip A

    2011-02-01

    Research on subjective well-being suggests that it is only partly a function of environmental circumstances. There may be a personality characteristic or a resilient disposition toward experiencing high levels of well-being even in unfavorable circumstances. Adult attachment may contribute to this resilient disposition. This study examined whether the association between attachment anxiety and subjective well-being was mediated by Neff's (2003a, 2003b) concept of self-compassion. It also examined empathy toward others as a mediator in the association between attachment avoidance and subjective well-being. In Study 1, 195 college students completed self-report surveys. In Study 2, 136 community adults provided a cross-validation of the results. As expected, across these 2 samples, findings suggested that self-compassion mediated the association between attachment anxiety and subjective well-being, and emotional empathy toward others mediated the association between attachment avoidance and subjective well-being.

  13. Family environment and adult attachment as predictors of psychopathology and personality dysfunction among inpatient abuse survivors.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Shelley A; Sahl, Gayla; Greenwald, Ellen; Atkison, Heather; Paulson, Adrienne; Ross, Colin A

    2007-01-01

    The current study explored the role of early family environment and adult attachment style in explaining long-term outcomes among child abuse survivors. Adult patients (N = 80) in a trauma treatment program were assessed for clinical diagnosis and administered a multiscale questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analyses were significant for dissociative identity disorder (DID), substance abuse, anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress, somatization, and six personality disorder dimensions. Adult attachment styles were significant predictors of most outcome variables. Of particular note was the strong contribution of attachment avoidance to DID. Five family environment scales (Independence, Organization, Control, Conflict, Expressiveness) also contributed to various psychopathological outcomes. Evidence emerged supporting a mediating role for attachment style in the link between family independence and five personality disorder dimensions.

  14. Adult attachment and reports of pain in experimentally-induced pain.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Nicole Emma; Meredith, Pamela Joy; Strong, Jenny

    2011-05-01

    Attachment theory has been proposed as a framework for understanding the development of chronic pain, with evidence supporting the overrepresentation of insecure attachment styles in chronic pain populations and links between insecure attachment and factors known to impact one's ability to cope with pain. The present study sought to extend two earlier studies exploring the relationships between adult attachment and communication of an acute pain experience, in anticipation of providing insight into individual differences in vulnerability in development of chronic pain. It was hypothesised that: (a) fearful attachment would be associated with perceptions of the pain as less intense, and (b) anxious attachment would be associated with lower pain thresholds. A convenience sample of 82 healthy adults completed self-report measures of attachment, neuroticism, and negative affect prior to taking part in a coldpressor pain inducement task. Results demonstrated that fearful attachment was associated with lower levels of pain intensity throughout the coldpressor task. In addition, dismissing attachment was also associated with less intense pain, as well as increased coldpressor endurance (tolerance) in the presence of a known assessor. These associations were retained after controlling for measures of neuroticism, negative affect, age, and social desirability. The results of this study are consistent with the proposition that fearful and dismissing individuals tend to mask their underlying distress caused by the pain experience, potentially leading to difficulties coping with pain over time.

  15. Control, Attachment Style, and Relationship Satisfaction among Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beesley, Denise; Stoltenberg, Cal D.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates possible differences in need for control, attachment style, and relationship satisfaction between a sample of adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and adult children of nonalcoholics. Analyses reveals that ACOAs reported a significantly higher need for control and significantly lower relationship satisfaction. Includes a discussion of…

  16. Goals and personal resources that contribute to the development and agency attachment of older adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Alayna A; Gottlieb, Benjamin H; Maitland, Scott B

    2011-03-01

    We examined the volunteer service contribution of older adults (N = 100) to volunteer role development and agency attachment. Informed by a developmental regulation framework and socio-emotional selectivity theory, we tested a twofold hypothesis for the premise that greater role development and agency attachment would be experienced by (1) older adults who had multiple goals for volunteering, and (2) older adults who pursued these goals by making greater use of their social resources relative to their physical and cognitive resources. Both hypotheses were supported. Older adults who have numerous motives for volunteering, and who maximize the use of their social skills and prosocial attitudes, are more strongly attached to their host agency and experience higher levels of volunteer role development. Implications for the field of volunteerism are discussed.

  17. From maternal sensitivity in infancy to adult attachment representations: a longitudinal adoption study with secure base scripts.

    PubMed

    Schoenmaker, Christie; Juffer, Femmie; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Linting, Mariëlle; van der Voort, Anja; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether differences in adult attachment representations could be predicted from early and later maternal sensitivity, controlling for early and later assessments of attachment. In this longitudinal study on 190 adoptees, attachment at 23 years was measured with the Attachment Script Assessment. Maternal sensitivity was observed in infancy and at seven and 14 years. Attachment was also measured in infancy and at 14 years. Higher maternal sensitivity in infancy predicted more secure attachment in infancy and more secure attachment representations in young adulthood. Higher maternal sensitivity in middle childhood also predicted more secure attachment representations in young adulthood. There was no continuity of attachment from infancy to young adulthood, but attachment in adolescence and young adulthood were significantly related. Even in genetically unrelated families, maternal sensitivity in early and middle childhood predicts attachment representations in young adults, confirming the importance of sensitive parenting for human development.

  18. An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment.

    PubMed

    Fraley, R C; Waller, N G; Brennan, K A

    2000-02-01

    Self-report measures of adult attachment are typically scored in ways (e.g., averaging or summing items) that can lead to erroneous inferences about important theoretical issues, such as the degree of continuity in attachment security and the differential stability of insecure attachment patterns. To determine whether existing attachment scales suffer from scaling problems, the authors conducted an item response theory (IRT) analysis of 4 commonly used self-report inventories: Experiences in Close Relationships scales (K. A. Brennan, C. L. Clark, & P. R. Shaver, 1998), Adult Attachment Scales (N. L. Collins & S. J. Read, 1990), Relationship Styles Questionnaire (D. W. Griffin & K. Bartholomew, 1994) and J. Simpson's (1990) attachment scales. Data from 1,085 individuals were analyzed using F. Samejima's (1969) graded response model. The authors' findings indicate that commonly used attachment scales can be improved in a number of important ways. Accordingly, the authors show how IRT techniques can be used to develop new attachment scales with desirable psychometric properties.

  19. Facets of Spirituality Diminish the Positive Relationship between Insecure Attachment and Mood Pathology in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hiebler-Ragger, Michaela; Falthansl-Scheinecker, Johanna; Birnhuber, Gerhard; Fink, Andreas; Unterrainer, Human Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, in attachment theory, secure attachment has been linked to parameters of mental health, while insecure attachment has been associated with parameters of psychopathology. Furthermore, spirituality and attachment to God have been discussed as corresponding to, or compensating for, primary attachment experiences. Accordingly, they may contribute to mental health or to mental illness. In this cross-sectional observational study, we investigate attachment styles (Avoidant and Anxious Attachment; ECR-RD), spirituality (Religious and Existential Well-Being; MI-RSWB), and mood pathology (Anxiety, Depression, Somatization; BSI-18) in 481 (76% female) young adults (age range: 18–30 years) who had a Roman Catholic upbringing. In accordance with previous research, we found insecure attachment to be associated with low levels of spirituality. Furthermore, insecure attachment and low levels of spirituality were associated with higher levels of mood pathology. In hierarchical regression analyses, only Anxious Attachment positively predicted all three dimensions of mood pathology while Existential Well-Being–but not Religious Well-Being–was an additional negative predictor for Depression. Our results underline that spirituality can correspond to the attachment style, or may also compensate for insecure attachment. Higher Existential Well-Being–comprised of facets such as hope for a better future, forgiveness and the experience of sense and meaning–seems to have an especially corrective effect on mood pathology, independent of attachment styles. Our findings emphasize the vital role of existential well-being in young adults’ affective functioning, which might be considered in prevention and treatment. Further research in clinical surroundings is recommended. PMID:27336471

  20. Adult attachment, cognitive distortions, and views of self, others, and the future among child molesters.

    PubMed

    Wood, Eric; Riggs, Shelley

    2009-09-01

    A conceptual framework derived from attachment theory was tested examining adult romantic attachment; views of self, world/others, and the future; and cognitive distortions in a sample of 96 child molesters receiving sex offender treatment and 92 nonoffending males. Results showed a significant main effect for child molester status, with nonoffending controls reporting fewer negative perceptions of self, others, and the future; and fewer cognitive distortions regarding adult-child sex. With the exception of views of others, significant interactions were also found between child molester status and attachment categories. However, the patterns of interactions were theoretically counterintuitive and illustrated areas for future research. Overall, the findings supported theoretically based hypotheses, suggesting that attachment theory may be useful in the conceptualization and treatment of child molesters. PMID:19567918

  1. Adult attachment, cognitive distortions, and views of self, others, and the future among child molesters.

    PubMed

    Wood, Eric; Riggs, Shelley

    2009-09-01

    A conceptual framework derived from attachment theory was tested examining adult romantic attachment; views of self, world/others, and the future; and cognitive distortions in a sample of 96 child molesters receiving sex offender treatment and 92 nonoffending males. Results showed a significant main effect for child molester status, with nonoffending controls reporting fewer negative perceptions of self, others, and the future; and fewer cognitive distortions regarding adult-child sex. With the exception of views of others, significant interactions were also found between child molester status and attachment categories. However, the patterns of interactions were theoretically counterintuitive and illustrated areas for future research. Overall, the findings supported theoretically based hypotheses, suggesting that attachment theory may be useful in the conceptualization and treatment of child molesters.

  2. Attachment Relationships and Psychological Adjustment of Married Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaleque, Abdul; Shirin, Anjuman; Uddin, Muhammad Kamal

    2013-01-01

    The present study explored relations among remembered parental (paternal and maternal) acceptance in childhood, spouse acceptance and psychological adjustment of adults. It also explored whether remembered childhood experiences of parental acceptance mediate the relation between perceived spouse acceptance and psychological adjustment. The sample…

  3. Retrospective reports of parenting received in their families of origin: relationships to adult attachment in adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Nair, Veena; Rawlings, Tanaya; Cash, Thomas F; Steer, Kate; Fals-Stewart, William

    2005-09-01

    The present study examined general and romantic attachment and parenting students received in their families of origin among 401 college students who resided with an alcohol-abusing parent prior to age 16 years as compared to those who did not reside with alcohol-abusing parents. Participants completed the Children's Report of Parent Behavior Instrument [Schludermann, E. and Schludermann, S. (1970). Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory (CRPBI). Canada: University of Manitoba], Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised [Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., and Brennan, K. G. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365], Relationship Scale Questionnaire [Griffin, D. W. and Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445], and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test [Jones, J. W. (1983). The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test: Test manual. Chicago: Camelot]. Young adults who met criteria for ACOAs reported more anxious and avoidant behavior in romantic relationships and a more fearful style of general adult attachment. Parenting behavior in one's family of origin predicted anxious behavior in romantic relationships and a fearful overall style of attachment, whereas being an ACOA and parenting in one's family of origin predicted avoidant behavior in romantic relationships. PMID:15896922

  4. Retrospective reports of parenting received in their families of origin: relationships to adult attachment in adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Nair, Veena; Rawlings, Tanaya; Cash, Thomas F; Steer, Kate; Fals-Stewart, William

    2005-09-01

    The present study examined general and romantic attachment and parenting students received in their families of origin among 401 college students who resided with an alcohol-abusing parent prior to age 16 years as compared to those who did not reside with alcohol-abusing parents. Participants completed the Children's Report of Parent Behavior Instrument [Schludermann, E. and Schludermann, S. (1970). Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory (CRPBI). Canada: University of Manitoba], Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised [Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., and Brennan, K. G. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365], Relationship Scale Questionnaire [Griffin, D. W. and Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445], and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test [Jones, J. W. (1983). The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test: Test manual. Chicago: Camelot]. Young adults who met criteria for ACOAs reported more anxious and avoidant behavior in romantic relationships and a more fearful style of general adult attachment. Parenting behavior in one's family of origin predicted anxious behavior in romantic relationships and a fearful overall style of attachment, whereas being an ACOA and parenting in one's family of origin predicted avoidant behavior in romantic relationships.

  5. Adult attachment orientations and anger expression in romantic relationships: a dyadic analysis.

    PubMed

    Nisenbaum, Max G; Lopez, Frederick G

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined how the gender and adult attachment orientations of romantic relationship partners contribute to each participant's experience and expression of anger in their relationship. Specifically, we collected data from both members of a heterosexual relationship to examine how a person's adult attachment orientation influences their own, and their partner's, anger-related behavior. In addition, we examined whether one partner's responses to another's anger predicted the other's anger-related response tendencies. Furthermore, we explored the contribution of participants' sex to their own and their partners' anger-related behavior. Hypotheses were tested using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM), a data analytic strategy that takes into account the nonindependence of dyadic data. Results yielded partial support for theory-based predictions about the influence of adult attachment orientations on anger-related reactions and accommodation behavior. The implications of these findings for counseling practice and future research are discussed.

  6. College men's intimate partner violence attitudes: contributions of adult attachment and gender role stress.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Ryon C; Lopez, Frederick G

    2013-01-01

    Primary prevention of men's intimate partner violence (IPV) toward women in dating relationships is an important area of psychological inquiry and a significant concern for counselors working with college student populations. Previous research has identified that certain beliefs condoning or accepting physical, sexual, and psychological violence in relationships are key risk factors for IPV perpetration; however, comparatively few studies have examined the social and relational variables related to IPV acceptance attitudes. In the present study, we proposed and tested a structural model examining the combined contributions of adult attachment dimensions (i.e., attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance) and masculine gender role stress in the prediction of IPV acceptance attitudes in a large sample of college men (N = 419). We hypothesized that the relationship between attachment insecurity and IPV acceptance attitudes would be partially mediated by men's gender role stress. A partially mediated model produced the best indices of model fit, accounting for 31% of the variance in an IPV acceptance attitudes latent variable. A bootstrapping procedure confirmed the significance of mediation effects. These results suggest that aspects of adult attachment insecurity are associated with tendencies to experience stress from violations of rigidly internalized traditional male role norms, which, in turn, are associated with acceptance of IPV. Findings are further discussed in relation to adult attachment theory (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007), gender role strain theory (Pleck, 1995), and their implications for IPV prevention in college student populations.

  7. The relationships among separation anxiety disorder, adult attachment style and agoraphobia in patients with panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Pini, Stefano; Abelli, Marianna; Troisi, Alfonso; Siracusano, Alberto; Cassano, Giovanni B; Shear, Katherine M; Baldwin, David

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that separation anxiety disorder occurs more frequently in adults than children. It is unclear whether the presence of adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) is a manifestation of anxious attachment, or a form of agoraphobia, or a specific condition with clinically significant consequences. We conducted a study to examine these questions. A sample of 141 adult outpatients with panic disorder participated in the study. Participants completed standardized measures of separation anxiety, attachment style, agoraphobia, panic disorder severity and quality of life. Patients with ASAD (49.5% of our sample) had greater panic symptom severity and more impairment in quality of life than those without separation anxiety. We found a greater rate of symptoms suggestive of anxious attachment among panic patients with ASAD compared to those without ASAD. However, the relationship between ASAD and attachment style is not strong, and adult ASAD occurs in some patients who report secure attachment style. Similarly, there is little evidence for the idea that separation anxiety disorder is a form of agoraphobia. Factor analysis shows clear differentiation of agoraphobic and separation anxiety symptoms. Our data corroborate the notion that ASAD is a distinct condition associated with impairment in quality of life and needs to be better recognized and treated in patients with panic disorder.

  8. Attachment in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Preliminary Investigation of the Psychometric Properties of the Manchester Attachment Scale-Third Party Observational Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penketh, Victoria; Hare, Dougal Julian; Flood, Andrea; Walker, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Manchester Attachment Scale-Third party observational measure (MAST) was developed to assess secure attachment style for adults with intellectual disabilities. The psychometric properties of the MAST were examined. Materials and Methods: Professional carers (N = 40) completed the MAST and measures related to the construct of…

  9. [Affective facial behavior of patients with anxiety disorders during the adult attachment interview: a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Buchheim, Anna; Benecke, Cord

    2007-08-01

    In this study we examined for the first time the difference between patients with an anxiety disorder and healthy controls in their attachment representation and facial affective behavior during the activation of the attachment system. 13 female patients und 14 healthy women were administered with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Facial affective behavior during 6 selected questions of the AAI was coded using the Emotional-Facial-Action-Coding-System (EMFACS). As expected patients with an anxiety disorder, especially panic disorders, were classified significantly more often as insecure-preoccupied with a high proportion of unresolved loss. Against our assumption anxiety patients, independent of their attachment category, did not differ in their facial affective behavior from the control group. A group comparison taking into account diagnosis and attachment status showed that duchenne smile (happiness) was significantly predominant in control subjects classified as secure. Attachment security in healthy subjects, characterized by an overall valuing of positive or negative attachment experiences and coherent discourse in the AAI, was associated with positive facial affectivity. In contrast insecure anxiety patients could be characterized by showing social smile when talking e. g. about former separation experiences from their attachment figures mostly in an incoherent manner. This could be interpreted as a self-regulating defense. Limitations of the study are the small sample size and the heterogeneous clinical group of anxiety disorders.

  10. Sharing the Love: Prebirth Adult Attachment Status and Coparenting Adjustment During Early Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Jean A.; Baker, Jason K.; McHale, James P.

    2009-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective The purpose of this study to consider whether attachment security in mothers and fathers promotes more successful early coparenting adjustment, to assess the role of marital quality in amplifying or diminishing any such effects, and to examine interactive effects of maternal and paternal attachment status on coparenting. Design Eighty-five couples transitioning to new parenthood completed Main and Goldwyn’s Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and a multimethod marital evaluation during the pregnancy’s third trimester and participated in comprehensive assessments of coparenting conflict and cohesion at 3 months postpartum. Results Maternal Insecure attachment status predicted higher levels of coparental conflict, as did father Secure status. Families with Insecure fathers exhibited lower coparental cohesion on the whole. Maternal attachment status moderated the relation between paternal attachment status and cohesion, with Insecure father/Secure mother dyads exhibiting the lowest levels of cohesion, and Secure/Secure dyads showing the highest levels. Prenatal marital quality predicted 3-month coparenting cohesion, but not conflict. Prenatal marital quality did not interact with parental attachment status in the prediction of coparenting, but relations between parents’ attachment status and coparenting maintained after controlling for marital quality. Conclusion Prenatally assessed attachment status in both mothers and fathers predicts dimensions of coparenting early in the family life cycle. The impact of attachment status differs in important ways as a function of parent gender, and security in some cases exacerbated rather than buffered the negative impact of partner insecurity on coparental functioning. Effects of parental attachment security on coparenting cannot be properly estimated without reference to contextual factors. PMID:19662107

  11. Childhood celebrity, parental attachment, and adult adjustment: the young performers study.

    PubMed

    Rapport, L J; Meleen, M

    1998-06-01

    The associations between celebrity, parental attachment, and adult adjustment were examined among 74 famous, former young performers in television and film. As adults, former young performers whose parents served as their professional managers viewed their mothers as less caring and more overcontrolling than did performers whose parents were not their managers. Other factors affecting the quality of the parent-child relationship included dissatisfaction with money management, poor peer support, the perception that involvement in acting was determined by others, and the specific nature of professional experience. Together, these variables accounted for 59% of the variance in perceived caring and 40% of the variance in perceived autonomy support. The relation could not be attributed to a generalized response bias, as attachment was unrelated to degree of positive thinking. A Celebrity x Parental Attachment interaction indicated that the quality of the parent-child relationship moderated the effects of celebrity on adult adjustment: Among participants with good parental attachment, there was no relation between professional experience and adjustment; however, among participants with poor attachment, this relation was strong. Possible implications for parenting child actors and analogous populations of talented children in high-stress arenas are discussed.

  12. The Effect of Secure Attachment State and Infant Facial Expressions on Childless Adults' Parental Motivation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Fangyuan; Zhang, Dajun; Cheng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between infant facial expressions and parental motivation as well as the interaction between attachment state and expressions. Two-hundred eighteen childless adults (M age = 19.22, 118 males, 100 females) were recruited. Participants completed the Chinese version of the State Adult Attachment Measure and the E-prime test, which comprised three components (a) liking, the specific hedonic experience in reaction to laughing, neutral, and crying infant faces; (b) representational responding, actively seeking infant faces with specific expressions; and (c) evoked responding, actively retaining images of three different infant facial expressions. While the first component refers to the "liking" of infants, the second and third components entail the "wanting" of an infant. Random intercepts multilevel models with emotion nested within participants revealed a significant interaction between secure attachment state and emotion on both liking and representational response. A hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to examine the unique contributions of secure attachment state. Findings demonstrated that, after controlling for sex, anxious, and avoidant, secure attachment state positively predicted parental motivations (liking and wanting) in the neutral and crying conditions, but not the laughing condition. These findings demonstrate the significant role of secure attachment state in parental motivation, specifically when infants display uncertain and negative emotions. PMID:27582724

  13. Examining the association between adult attachment style and cortisol responses to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Tara; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew

    2011-07-01

    The quality of social relationships may contribute to variations in biological stress responses, thereby affecting health risk. The association between an important indicator of social relationships, adult attachment style, and cortisol has been relatively unexplored. The present study examined adult romantic attachment style and cortisol responses to acute laboratory stress. Salivary cortisol was measured in response to two behavioural tasks, a colour/word interference task and mirror tracing task, in 498 healthy men and women from the Heart Scan study, a subsample of the Whitehall II cohort. Participants were classified as secure, fearful, preoccupied or dismissive on the basis of responses to the Relationship Questionnaire. Cortisol output was lowest in the fearful group, followed by the preoccupied group, with both secure and dismissive groups having higher levels. The results from this study tentatively support the proposition that attachment style is a factor in determining the manifestation of HPA dysregulation. PMID:21106296

  14. Mothers' versus Fathers' Alcohol Abuse and Attachment in Adult Daughters of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Schroeder, Valarie M.; Cooke, Cathy G.; Gumienny, Leslie; Platter, Amanda Jeffrey; Fals-Stewart, William

    2010-01-01

    Gender of the alcohol-abusing parent was examined in relation to general and romantic attachment (as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised and the Relationship Scales Questionnaire) in female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs; as indicated by the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test) as compared to non-ACOAs. As compared to…

  15. Adult Attachment, Shame, Depression, and Loneliness: The Mediation Role of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Meifen; Shaffer, Philip A.; Young, Shannon K.; Zakalik, Robyn A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined basic psychological needs satisfaction (i.e., the need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness) as a mediator between adult attachment (i.e., anxiety and avoidance) and distress (i.e., shame, depression, and loneliness). A total of 299 undergraduates from a Midwestern university participated. Results from structural equation…

  16. Psychological Abuse Perpetration in College Dating Relationships: Contributions of Gender, Stress, and Adult Attachment Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether gender, stressful problems common among college students, and adult attachment orientations (anxiety and avoidance) contributed to self-reported perpetration of psychological abuse in dating relationships among 127 college students. College men's stress levels were the strongest predictor of perpetration of…

  17. Differences between Taiwanese and U.S. Cultural Beliefs about Ideal Adult Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chia-Chih DC; Mallinckrodt, Brent S.

    2006-01-01

    Some researchers believe that important tenets of attachment theory are culturally universal, whereas others claim that key constructs are rooted in Western values and should not be generalized further. To explore possible cultural differences in adults, undergraduates from Taiwan (n = 280) and the United States (n = 268) were asked in the present…

  18. A Psychometric Study of the Adult Attachment Interview: Reliability and Discriminant Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    1993-01-01

    Examined the validity of the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) measure by interviewing 83 mothers twice over 2 months, using different interviewers on each occasion. The results indicated that the reliability of the AAI classifications was quite high over time and across interviewers. The AAI classifications were independent of nonattachment…

  19. Attachment dimensions and drinking-related problems among young adults: the mediational role of coping motives.

    PubMed

    McNally, Abigail M; Palfai, Tibor P; Levine, Rachel V; Moore, Bianca M

    2003-08-01

    Recent research has found a positive association between insecure adult attachment styles and harmful drinking patterns. In the present study, we examined the relation between alcohol-related consequences and two dimensions underlying attachment, 'model of self' and 'model of others,' among a population of college student drinkers (N=366). It was predicted that a negative model of self would contribute significantly to the variance in drinking problems over and above that accounted for by level of alcohol consumption. In an attempt to clarify the nature of the relationship among these variables, it was further hypothesized that coping drinking motives would mediate the relationship between the self attachment dimension and alcohol consequences. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed results consistent with the predictions. There was a significant relationship between negative model of self and problems which was fully mediated by coping drinking motives. The findings support the basic theoretical supposition that one primary function of interpersonal attachment is the regulation of emotions.

  20. Attachment and Social Support in the Prediction of Psychopathology among Young Adults with and without a History of Physical Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLewin, Lise A.; Muller, Robert T.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the roles that social support and attachment play with regard to psychopathology among young adults with and without a history of physical maltreatment. Attachment was conceptualized in terms of the dimensions of view of self and view of other. Attachment and social support were examined…

  1. The relationship of adult attachment dimensions to pain-related fear, hypervigilance, and catastrophizing.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Lachlan A; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2007-01-01

    Despite the prominence of fear-avoidance models of chronic pain, there is a paucity of research regarding the origins of pain-related fear. Based on the premise that insecure attachment could be a developmentally based origin of elevated fear of pain, associations between adult attachment dimensions and constructs included in fear-avoidance models of chronic pain were investigated. Consistent with Bartholomew and Horowitz's [Bartholomew K, Horowitz LM. Attachment styles among young adults: a test of a four-category model. J Pers Soc Psychol 1991;61:226-44.] model, attachment was conceptualized as being comprised of a model of self dimension (i.e., degree of anxiety regarding rejection based on beliefs of personal unworthiness) and a model of others dimension (i.e., degree of interpersonal mistrust and discomfort with interpersonal closeness). A large university student sample free of chronic pain (N=278) completed a measure of adult romantic attachment (i.e., Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire; [Brennan KA, Clark CL, Shaver PR. Self-report measurement of adult attachment: an integrative overview. In: Simpson JA, Rholes WS, editors. Attachment theory and close relationships. New York: The Guilford Press, 1998. p. 46-76.]), the Fear of Pain Questionnaire-III [McNeil DW, Rainwater AJ. Development of the fear of pain questionnaire - III. J Behav Med 1998;21:389-410.], the Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire [McCracken LM. Attention to pain in persons with chronic pain: a behavioural approach. Behav Ther 1997;28:271-84.], and the Pain Catastrophizing Scale [Sullivan MJ, Bishop SR, Pivik J. The pain catastrophizing scale: development and validation. Psychol Assess 1995;7:24-532.]. It was hypothesized that insecure attachment would be positively associated with reports of pain-related fear, hypervigilance, and catastrophizing and that the model of self dimension would be the attachment variable most strongly associated with these variables

  2. Machiavellianism and Adult Attachment in General Interpersonal Relationships and Close Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Ináncsi, Tamás; Láng, András; Bereczkei, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Up to the present, the relationship between Machiavellianism and adult attachment has remained a question to be answered in the psychological literature. That is why this study focused on the relationship between Machiavellianism and attachment towards significant others in general interpersonal relationships and in intimate-close relationships. Two attachment tests (Relationship Questionnaire and long-form of Experiences in Close Relationship) and the Mach-IV test were conducted on a sample consisting of 185 subjects. Results have revealed that Machiavellian subjects show a dismissing-avoidant attachment style in their general interpersonal relationships, while avoidance is further accompanied by some characteristics of attachment anxiety in their intimate-close relationships. Our findings further refine the relationship between Machiavellianism and dismissing-avoidant attachment. Machiavellian individuals not only have a negative representation of significant others, but they also tend to seek symbiotic closeness in order to exploit their partners. This ambitendency in distance regulation might be particularly important in understanding the vulnerability of Machiavellian individuals. PMID:27247647

  3. Construct Validity of the Relationship Profile Test: Links with measures of psychopathology and adult attachment

    PubMed Central

    Haggerty, Greg; Bornstein, Robert F.; Khalid, Mohammad; Sharma, Vishal; Riaz, Usman; Blanchard, Mark; Siefert, Caleb J; Sinclair, Samuel J.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the construct validity of the Relationship Profile Test (RPT; Bornstein & Languirand, 2003) with a substance abuse sample. One hundred-eight substance abuse patients completed the RPT, Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR-SF; Wei, Russell, Mallinckrodt, & Vogel, 2007), Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991), and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R: Derogatis 1983). Results suggest that the RPT has good construct validity when compared against theoretically related broadband measures of personality, psychopathology and adult attachment. Overall, health hependency was negatively related to measures of psychopathology and insecure attachment, and overdependence was positively related to measures of psychopathology and attachment anxiety. Many of the predictions regarding RPT detachment and the criterion measures were not supported. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26620463

  4. Disentangling the effects of depression symptoms and adult attachment on emotional disclosure.

    PubMed

    Garrison, Angela M; Kahn, Jeffrey H; Sauer, Eric M; Florczak, Michael A

    2012-04-01

    Individuals with high levels of depression symptoms and individuals with insecure attachment orientations have been shown to limit their use of emotional disclosure as a means of emotion regulation. However, little is known about how depression symptoms and insecure attachment orientations might jointly predict whether individuals engage in emotional disclosure. The authors addressed this question using both inter- and intraindividual approaches. College students (N = 121) completed measures of depression symptoms, adult attachment orientation, and generalized disclosure tendencies. To obtain an intraindividual measure of emotional disclosure, participants also completed an online daily diary in which they rated the intensity of the day's most unpleasant event and their disclosure of that event for 7 days. Results indicated that depression symptoms were negatively related to generalized disclosure tendencies and to intraindividual daily intensity-disclosure slopes. Attachment avoidance was negatively related to both generalized disclosure tendencies and to daily disclosure, and attachment anxiety moderated the relation between daily event intensity and disclosure. The authors discuss the implications for theory and counseling psychology practice.

  5. Individual differences in adult attachment are systematically related to dream narratives.

    PubMed

    Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R; Avihou-Kanza, Neta

    2011-03-01

    Self-reported individual differences in attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) are sometimes assumed to tap only conscious mental processes, although many studies have found correlations between such measures and responses to the Thematic Apperception Test, the Rorschach Inkblot Test, and diverse laboratory measures of unconscious mental processes. Dreams offer another route into the unconscious, as Freud famously claimed: a route found useful in psychotherapy. In this study, approximately 1000 dreams reported by 68 young adults who kept dream diaries for a month were analyzed using the Core Conflictual Relationships Theme method, and the themes were examined in relation to (a) scores on the Experiences in Close Relationships measure of attachment anxiety and avoidance and (b) stress experienced the day before each dream. In line with attachment theory and previous research, attachment-related avoidance predicted avoidant wishes and negative representations of other people in dreams. Attachment anxiety predicted wishes for interpersonal closeness, especially in dreams following stressful days, and negative representations of self and both positive and negative representations of others, with negative representations being more common in dreams following stressful days.

  6. Family ties: maternal-offspring attachment and young adult nonmedical prescription opioid use

    PubMed Central

    Cerdá, M.; Bordelois, P.; Keyes, K.M.; Roberts, A.L.; Martins, S.S.; Reisner, S.L.; Austin, S.B.; Corliss, H.L.; Koenen, K.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Nonmedical prescription drug use is prevalent among young adults, yet little is known about modifiable determinants of use. We examined whether maternal-offspring attachment reported at mean age 21 was associated with nonmedical prescription opioid use at mean age 26, and investigated whether a history of depressive symptoms and substance use played a role in associations between maternal-offspring attachment and nonmedical prescription opioid use. Methods We used data from the Growing Up Today Study, a longitudinal cohort of United States adolescents followed into young adulthood. Maternal-offspring attachment was reported by young adults and their mothers, and defined as mutual low, mutual medium or high, and dissonant. Analyses were carried out in the full sample using generalized estimating equation models, and in a sibling subsample, using conditional fixed effects models to control for stable aspects of the family environment. Results Analyses with the full sample and the sibling subsample both showed that mutual medium/high maternal-offspring attachment at age 21 was associated with lower odds of nonmedical prescription opioid use at age 26 (RR=0.74; 95% CI=0.57-0.97 in full sample). The association was partly mediated by mean age 23 offspring smoking, heavy episodic drinking, and illicit drug use. Conclusions Promoting reciprocal attachment in the maternal-offspring dyad should be investigated as a strategy to prevent nonmedical prescription opioid use by young adulthood. Even in young adulthood, programs that target both parents and offspring may have greater impact on offspring substance use than programs that target offspring alone. PMID:25024105

  7. Contribution of parents' adult attachment and separation attitudes to parent-adolescent conflict resolution.

    PubMed

    García-Ruiz, Marta; Rodrigo, María José; Hernández-Cabrera, Juan A; Máiquez, María Luisa

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the contribution to parent-adolescent conflict resolution of parental adult attachment styles and attitudes toward adolescent separation. Questionnaires were completed by 295 couples with early to late adolescent children. Structural equation models were used to test self and partner influences on conflict resolution for three attachment orientations: confidence (model A), anxiety (model B) and avoidance (model C). Model A showed self influences between parents' confidence orientation and negotiation and also via positive attitudes towards separation. Also, the fathers' use of negotiation was facilitated by the mothers' confidence orientation and vice versa, indicating partner influences as well. Model B showed self influences between parents' anxiety orientation and the use of dominance and withdrawal and also via negative attitudes towards separation. Model C showed self influences between parents' avoidance orientation and dominance and withdrawal, and a partner influence between fathers' avoidance and mothers' use of dominance. The results indicated that the parents' adult attachment system and the parenting system were related in the area of conflict resolution, and that self influences were stronger than partner influences.

  8. Dissociation and the Adult Attachment Interview in artists and performing artists.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Attachment patterns were investigated in a group of professional and pre-professional artists (n = 51). Given the high level of absorption/imagination required of artists, this study examined normative and pathological dissociation (PD) and considered links with Adult Attachment Interview responses, with particular attention to the AAI classification Unresolved (U) for past loss or trauma. Results indicated: (1) artists had elevated mean scores for absorption/imagination, (2) all but one artist had adverse trauma or loss experiences, (3) 17 (36%) met criteria for PD and 9 (53%) of those in the PD range had a classification of Unresolved (U) on the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), (4) U was associated with PD, but not normative dissociation (absorption/imagination), (5) even with a primary U classification many individuals had an alternate secure/autonomous classification, and (6) 88% of the artists were classified as secure/autonomous in a three-way analysis on the AAI, but in a four-way analysis 27.5% were classified as U. Although 36% presented with PD, the majority of artists studied were stable, coherent and autonomous.

  9. Influence of adult attachment insecurities on parenting self-esteem: the mediating role of dyadic adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Vincenzo; Bianco, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Background: Parenting self-esteem includes two global components, parents’ self-efficacy and satisfaction with their parental role, and has a crucial role in parent–child interactions. The purpose of this study was to develop an integrative model linking adult attachment insecurities, dyadic adjustment, and parenting self-esteem. Methods: The study involved 118 pairs (236 subjects) of heterosexual parents of a firstborn child aged 0–6 years. They were administered the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) questionnaire, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale. Results: Path analysis was used to design and test a theoretical integrative model, achieving a good fit with the data. Findings showed that dyadic adjustment mediates the negative influence on parenting self-efficacy of both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. Parenting satisfaction is positively influenced by parenting self-efficacy and negatively affected by child’s age. Attachment anxiety negatively influences parenting satisfaction. Conclusion: Our findings are in line with the theoretical expectations and have promising implications for future research and intervention programs designed to improve parenting self-esteem. PMID:26441811

  10. The Emotional Integration of Childhood Experience: Physiological, Facial Expressive, and Self-Reported Emotional Response During the Adult Attachment Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roisman, Glenn I.; Tsai, Jeanne L.; Chiang, Kuan-Hiong Sylvia

    2004-01-01

    Attachment researchers claim that individual differences in how adults talk about their early memories reflect qualitatively distinct organizations of emotion regarding childhood experiences with caregivers. Testing this assumption, the present study examined the relationship between attachment dimensions and physiological, facial expressive, as…

  11. Relationships between Maternal Adult Attachment Security, Child Perceptions of Maternal Support, and Maternal Perceptions of Child Responses to Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leifer, Myra; Kilbane, Teresa; Skolnick, Linda I.

    2002-01-01

    Study assessed the relationships between maternal adult attachment style, children's perceptions of maternal support following disclosure of sexual abuse, and maternal perceptions of children's behavioral and emotional responses to sexual abuse. Findings indicate that fostering parent-child attachment is important in order to decrease the risk for…

  12. How Does Adult Attachment Affect Human Recognition of Love-related and Sex-related Stimuli: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Juan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jinqun; Yao, Fangshu; Huang, Jiani; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Ma, Ru; Zhang, Yuting; Lan, Jing; Liu, Lu; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship among three emotion-motivation systems (adult attachment, romantic love, and sex). We recorded event-related potentials in 37 healthy volunteers who had experienced romantic love while they viewed SEX, LOVE, FRIEND, SPORT, and NEUTRAL images. We also measured adult attachment styles, level of passionate love and sexual attitudes. As expected, results showed that, firstly, response to love-related image-stimuli and sex-related image-stimuli on the electrophysiological data significantly different on N1, N2, and positive slow wave (PSW) components. Secondly, the different adult attachment styles affected individuals’ recognition processing in response to love-related and sex-related images, especially, to sex-related images. Further analysis showed that voltages elicited by fearful attachment style individuals were significantly lower than voltages elicited by secure and dismissing attachment style individuals on sex-related images at frontal sites, on N1 and N2 components. Thirdly, from behavior data, we found that adult attachment styles were not significantly related to any dimension of sexual attitudes but were significantly related to passionate love scale (PLS) total points. Thus, the behavior results were not in line with the electrophysiological results. The present study proved that adult attachment styles might mediate individuals’ lust and attraction systems. PMID:27199830

  13. How Does Adult Attachment Affect Human Recognition of Love-related and Sex-related Stimuli: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Hou, Juan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jinqun; Yao, Fangshu; Huang, Jiani; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Ma, Ru; Zhang, Yuting; Lan, Jing; Liu, Lu; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship among three emotion-motivation systems (adult attachment, romantic love, and sex). We recorded event-related potentials in 37 healthy volunteers who had experienced romantic love while they viewed SEX, LOVE, FRIEND, SPORT, and NEUTRAL images. We also measured adult attachment styles, level of passionate love and sexual attitudes. As expected, results showed that, firstly, response to love-related image-stimuli and sex-related image-stimuli on the electrophysiological data significantly different on N1, N2, and positive slow wave (PSW) components. Secondly, the different adult attachment styles affected individuals' recognition processing in response to love-related and sex-related images, especially, to sex-related images. Further analysis showed that voltages elicited by fearful attachment style individuals were significantly lower than voltages elicited by secure and dismissing attachment style individuals on sex-related images at frontal sites, on N1 and N2 components. Thirdly, from behavior data, we found that adult attachment styles were not significantly related to any dimension of sexual attitudes but were significantly related to passionate love scale (PLS) total points. Thus, the behavior results were not in line with the electrophysiological results. The present study proved that adult attachment styles might mediate individuals' lust and attraction systems.

  14. How Does Adult Attachment Affect Human Recognition of Love-related and Sex-related Stimuli: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Hou, Juan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jinqun; Yao, Fangshu; Huang, Jiani; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Ma, Ru; Zhang, Yuting; Lan, Jing; Liu, Lu; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship among three emotion-motivation systems (adult attachment, romantic love, and sex). We recorded event-related potentials in 37 healthy volunteers who had experienced romantic love while they viewed SEX, LOVE, FRIEND, SPORT, and NEUTRAL images. We also measured adult attachment styles, level of passionate love and sexual attitudes. As expected, results showed that, firstly, response to love-related image-stimuli and sex-related image-stimuli on the electrophysiological data significantly different on N1, N2, and positive slow wave (PSW) components. Secondly, the different adult attachment styles affected individuals' recognition processing in response to love-related and sex-related images, especially, to sex-related images. Further analysis showed that voltages elicited by fearful attachment style individuals were significantly lower than voltages elicited by secure and dismissing attachment style individuals on sex-related images at frontal sites, on N1 and N2 components. Thirdly, from behavior data, we found that adult attachment styles were not significantly related to any dimension of sexual attitudes but were significantly related to passionate love scale (PLS) total points. Thus, the behavior results were not in line with the electrophysiological results. The present study proved that adult attachment styles might mediate individuals' lust and attraction systems. PMID:27199830

  15. Change in heart rate variability after the adult attachment interview in dissociative patients.

    PubMed

    Farina, Benedetto; Speranza, Anna Maria; Imperatori, Claudio; Quintiliani, Maria Isabella; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess heart rate variability (HRV) in individuals with dissociative disorders (DD) before and after the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Electrocardiograms were recorded before, during, and after the AAI in 13 individuals with DD and 13 healthy participants matched for age and gender. Significant change in HRV was observed only in the DD group. After the AAI, those with DD showed significant increases in the low frequency/high frequency ratio (pre-AAI = 1.91 ± 1.19; post-AAI = 4.03 ± 2.40; Wilcoxon test = -2.76, p = .005). Our results suggest that the retrieval of childhood attachment experiences in individuals with DD is associated with a change in HRV patterns that could reflect the emotion dysregulation of dissociative psychopathological processes.

  16. Reflections on an Adult Literacy Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Dominica L.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses a project in Melbourne, Australia developed to explore the nature of the problem of illiteracy amongst non-migrant adults who had passed through the school system, to discover what sort of people were illiterate and to what extent, and to examine the influence of home and educational background, and to assess the ability of sensitive and…

  17. Jefferson County Adult Reading Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson County Board of Education, Louisville, KY.

    The 1980-81 Jefferson County (Kentucky) Adult Reading Program served 601 students functioning below 6.0 grade level during the 1980-81 year. The project's instructional methods and materials were developed based on the experiences of the program for the previous two years. The program was considered a success not only from the viewpoint of the…

  18. Positive Body Image and Sexual Functioning in Dutch Female University Students: The Role of Adult Romantic Attachment.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, Femke; Smeets, Monique A M; Hessen, David J; Woertman, Liesbeth

    2016-07-01

    This study focused on links between romantic attachment, positive body image, and sexual functioning. Dutch female university students (N = 399) completed an online survey that included self-report items about body appreciation, sexual functioning, and romantic attachment. A proposed conceptual model was tested using structural equation modeling and a good fit to the data was found. Results revealed that attachment avoidance in a romantic context was negatively related to sexual arousal, vaginal lubrication, the ability to reach orgasm, and sexual satisfaction. Attachment anxiety was negatively related to body appreciation which, in turn, was positively related to sexual desire and arousal. Findings indicated that romantic attachment is meaningfully linked to body appreciation and sexual functioning. Therefore, the concept of adult attachment may be a useful tool for the treatment of sexual problems of young women.

  19. Adult Attachment and Motivated Attention to Social Images: Attachment-Based Differences in Event-Related Brain Potentials to Emotional Images

    PubMed Central

    Chavis, J. M.; Kisley, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in adult attachment may concord with differences in social perception. The present study aimed to measure neural activity associated with the presentation of visual social stimuli. In an affective oddball paradigm, event-related brain potentials were recorded while participants viewed negative, positive, and neutral images of people and categorized them according to valence. Brain response amplitudes were examined across valence categories and across attachment groups. Results revealed differences between anxious and avoidant groups in “emotion bias.” The avoidant group displayed a bias towards more neural activation in response to negative compared to positive images. The anxious group trended in the opposite direction. Results are discussed in terms of possible attachment-based differences in motivated attention to social stimuli. PMID:22639475

  20. Project ALMS: Adult Literacy Mission Support. An Adult Basic Reading Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polley, Beulah M.

    Project ALMS (Adult Literacy Mission Support) was designed to improve the communication skills of semi-literate or illiterate adults, help participants become more self-sufficient, provide an ongoing program for other such individuals, and provide a manual of guidelines and suggestions for other programs. Three groups were established to make a…

  1. Attachment-site patterns of adult blacklegged ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on white-tailed deer and horses.

    PubMed

    Schmidtmann, E T; Carroll, J F; Watson, D W

    1998-01-01

    The attachment site pattern of adult Ixodes scapularis Say on white-tailed deer and horses in Maryland was determined by whole-body examinations during fall and spring periods of tick host-seeking activity. On deer in the fall, both female and male I. scapularis attached largely to anterior dorsal body regions, with attachment to the ears (outside), head, neck, and brisket accounting for 87.9% of females and 86.6% of males. The attachment pattern of females differed between bucks and does during fall, but not in spring, and both females and males were more abundant on bucks than does during fall, but not in spring. Neither female nor male attachment patterns on deer differed between fall and spring seasons. In contrast to deer, the ears and neck of horses were largely devoid of blacklegged ticks, and 84% of the females were attached either on the chest, in the axillae of the fore and rear legs, or under the jawbone. The restricted attachment of female blacklegged ticks to ventral body regions of horses may reflect avoidance of light. An understanding of the attachment patterns of adult I. scapularis, an increasingly abundant and economically important species, enhances sampling of feeding ticks, deticking to limit host irritation or exposure to tick-borne pathogens, and identifies body areas that should be targeted for delivery of repellents or acaricides. PMID:9542346

  2. Coregulation, dysregulation, self-regulation: an integrative analysis and empirical agenda for understanding adult attachment, separation, loss, and recovery.

    PubMed

    Sbarra, David A; Hazan, Cindy

    2008-05-01

    An integrative framework is proposed for understanding how multiple biological and psychological systems are regulated in the context of adult attachment relationships, dysregulated by separation and loss experiences, and, potentially, re-regulated through individual recovery efforts. Evidence is reviewed for a coregulatory model of normative attachment, defined as a pattern of interwoven physiology between romantic partners that results from the conditioning of biological reward systems and the emergence of felt security within adult pair bonds. The loss of coregulation can portend a state of biobehavioral dysregulation, ranging from diffuse psychophysiological arousal and disorganization to a full-blown (and highly organized) stress response. The major task for successful recovery is adopting a self-regulatory strategy that attenuates the dysregulating effects of the attachment disruption. Research evidence is reviewed across multiple levels of analysis, and the article concludes with a series of testable research questions on the interconnected nature of attachment, loss, and recovery processes.

  3. Perceived Parenting Styles Fail to Mediate Between Anxiety and Attachment Styles in Adult Siblings of Individuals with Developmental Disabilities.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Linda P; Murray, Lindsay E

    2016-09-01

    Adult siblings of individuals with developmental disabilities often experience higher levels of anxiety than individuals in the general population. The present study tested whether perceived parenting could mediate the relationship between attachment styles and anxiety in the sibling group compared to a control group. Little association was found between perceived parenting and attachment styles or anxiety for the siblings but there were robust and expected findings for the control. Adult attachment-related-anxiety was a significant unique predictor of anxiety in the sibling group but there was no mediational role for perceived parenting. Conversely, the majority of parenting styles significantly mediated the relationship between attachment and anxiety in the control. Implications for the atypical findings in the sibling group are discussed.

  4. Catalog of Adult Education Projects. Fiscal Year 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education (ED), Washington, DC. Clearinghouse on Adult Education.

    This catalog, the sixth in a series of annual listings of special adult education projects, is designed to keep practitioners in the field of adult education informed about projects funded by states under section 310 of the Adult Education Act. Included in the catalog are descriptions of a total of 243 projects focusing on the following program…

  5. Perceptions about parents' relationship and parenting quality, attachment styles, and young adults' intimate expectations: a cluster analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Einav, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the associations between young adults' perceptions of their parents' intimate relationship and the quality of their parenting as predictors of their children's expectations about intimacy in their own future relationships. A sample of 111 young adults completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions regarding their parents' intimate relationship and parenting quality, their own attachment styles, and their own expectations regarding intimate relationships. A correlational analysis revealed a positive link between the parents' relationship and parenting quality, and between parenting quality and expectations about intimacy, which supports the attachment theory. A cluster analysis identified three distinct groups of parental profiles interrelated with attachment styles that had varying effects on their children's expectations about intimacy. These findings emphasize the unique characteristics of parental relations in the family of origin relations, which have an enduring effect on the interpersonal styles of adult children, providing additional support to an integrated, intergenerational approach to family dynamics.

  6. Adult attachment orientation and automatic processing of emotional information on a semantic level: A masked affective priming study.

    PubMed

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Zeitschel, Frank; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2015-09-30

    Early adverse social experiences leading to attachment insecurity could cause heightened sensitivity to emotional information. Automatic processing of emotional stimuli conveys information about positive-negative differentiation and the so-called possessor vs. other-relevance of valence. The aim of the present study was to examine automatic processing of emotional and relevance type information on a semantic level as a function of adult attachment avoidance and anxiety. A masked affective priming task, varying valence and relevance of prime and target adjectives, was presented to a sample of 153 healthy adults. The Experiences in Close Relationships scale was administered to assess attachment orientation. Significant priming effects for valence and relevance were observed. Attachment avoidance, but not attachment anxiety, was significantly related to affective priming independently of trait anxiety and depression. Specifically, attachment avoidance was found to be related to affective priming effects based on other-relevant words. It can be concluded that automatic processing of emotional adjectives used to characterize safe or risky social environments is heightened in avoidant individuals. The avoidantly attached processing style has similarities with repressive coping, which is characterized by an enhanced early response to emotion stimuli followed by avoidant biases at a controlled processing level. PMID:26235477

  7. Unresolved loss in the Adult Attachment Interview: implications for marital and parenting relationships.

    PubMed

    Busch, Amy L; Cowan, Philip A; Cowan, Carolyn P

    2008-01-01

    This study examined links between the unresolved loss of a significant person and current functioning in marital and parenting relationships. Participants were 80 women who had experienced loss, their husbands, and their preschool children. Unresolved loss was assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview, and individual, marital, and parenting adaptation was assessed through videotaped observations and women's self-reports. As predicted, women with unresolved loss displayed less positive emotion and more anxiety and anger with both their husbands and children, compared to women who were not unresolved. They also displayed less authoritative and more authoritarian parenting styles with their children. Yet unresolved women did not report more individual or relationship difficulties, suggesting that direct observations are needed to assess the implications of unresolved loss for family functioning.

  8. Attachment style as a mediator between childhood maltreatment and the experience of betrayal trauma as an adult.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Elise C; Simons, Raluca M; Surette, Renata J

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a positive association between child maltreatment and adult interpersonal trauma (Arata, 2000; Crawford & Wright, 2007). From a betrayal trauma theory perspective, evidence suggests that the experience of trauma high in betrayal (e.g., child maltreatment by parents or guardians) increases ones risk of betrayal trauma as an adult (Gobin & Freyd, 2009). However, the mechanisms explaining these associations are not well understood; attachment theory could provide further insight. Child maltreatment is associated with insecure attachment (Baer & Martinez, 2006; Muller et al., 2000). Insecure attachment is also associated with deficits in interpersonal functioning and risk for intimate partner violence, suggesting insecure attachment may mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and the experience of betrayal trauma as an adult. The current study tested this hypothesis in a sample of 601 college students. Participants completed online questionnaires including the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS), the Experiences in Close Relationships - Revised (ECR-R) and the Brief Betrayal Trauma Survey (BBTS). Results indicated that child maltreatment is associated with adult betrayal trauma and anxious attachment partially mediates this relationship.

  9. Unique features of pedicellate attachment of the upper jaw teeth in the adult gobiid fish Sicyopterus japonicus (Teleostei, Gobiidiae): morphological and structural characteristics and development.

    PubMed

    Sahara, Noriyuki; Moriyama, Keita; Iida, Midori; Watanabe, Shun

    2013-05-01

    Sicyopterus japonicus (Teleostei, Gobiidae), a hill-stream herbivorous gobiid fish, possesses an unusual oral dentition among teleost fishes on account of its feeding habitat. By using scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, including vital staining with tetracycline, we examined the development of the attachment tissues of the upper jaw teeth in this fish. The functional teeth of S. japonicus had an asymmetrical dentine shaft. The dentine shaft attached to the underlying uniquely shaped pedicel by means of two different attachment mechanisms. At the lingual base, collagen fiber bundles connected the dentine shaft with the pedicel (hinged attachment), whereas the labial base articulated with an oval-shaped projection of the pedicel (articulate attachment). The pedicel bases were firmly ankylosed to the crest of the thin flange of porous spongy bone on the premaxillary bone, which afforded a flange-groove system on the labial surface of the premaxillary bone. Developmentally, the pedicel and thin flange of spongy bone were completely different mineralized attachment tissues. The pedicel had a dual origin, i.e., the dental papilla cells, which differentiated into odontoblasts that constructed the internal surface of the pedicel, and the mesenchymal cells, which differentiated into osteoblasts that formed the outer face of the pedicel. A thin flange of spongy bone was deposited on the superficial resorbed labial side of the premaxillary bone proper, and later rapid bone remodeling proceeded toward the pedicel base. These unique features of pedicellate tooth attachment for the upper jaw teeth in the adult S. japonicus are highly modified teeth for enhancing the ability of individual functional teeth to move closely over irregularities in the rock surfaces during the scraping of algae.

  10. Attachment Representations and Early Interactions in Drug Addicted Mothers: A Case Study of Four Women with Distinct Adult Attachment Interview Classifications

    PubMed Central

    Porreca, Alessio; De Palo, Francesca; Simonelli, Alessandra; Capra, Nicoletta

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is considered a major risk factor that can influence maternal functioning at multiple levels, leading to less optimal parental qualities and less positive interactive exchanges in mother-child dyads. Moreover, drug abusers often report negative or traumatic attachment representations regarding their own childhood. These representations might affect, to some extent, later relational and developmental outcomes of their children. This study explored whether the development of dyadic interactions in addicted women differed based on attachment status. The longitudinal ongoing of mother-child emotional exchanges was assessed among four mothers with four different attachment statuses (F-autonomous, E-preoccupied, Ds-dismissing, and U-unresolved/with losses). Attachment representations were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (George et al., 1985), while mother-child interactions were evaluated longitudinally during videotaped play sessions, through the Emotional Availability Scales (Biringen, 2008). As expected, the dyad with the autonomous mother showed better interactive functioning during play despite the condition of drug-abuse; the mother proved to be more affectively positive, sensitive, and responsive, while her baby showed a better organization of affects and behaviors. On the other side, insecure mothers seemed to experience more difficulties when interacting with their children showing inconsistency in the ability to perceive and respond to their babies' signals. Finally, children of insecure mothers showed less clear affects and signals. While differences between secure and insecure dyads appeared clear, differences between insecure patterns where less linear, suggesting a possible mediating role played by other factors. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:27014153

  11. Attachment Representations and Early Interactions in Drug Addicted Mothers: A Case Study of Four Women with Distinct Adult Attachment Interview Classifications.

    PubMed

    Porreca, Alessio; De Palo, Francesca; Simonelli, Alessandra; Capra, Nicoletta

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is considered a major risk factor that can influence maternal functioning at multiple levels, leading to less optimal parental qualities and less positive interactive exchanges in mother-child dyads. Moreover, drug abusers often report negative or traumatic attachment representations regarding their own childhood. These representations might affect, to some extent, later relational and developmental outcomes of their children. This study explored whether the development of dyadic interactions in addicted women differed based on attachment status. The longitudinal ongoing of mother-child emotional exchanges was assessed among four mothers with four different attachment statuses (F-autonomous, E-preoccupied, Ds-dismissing, and U-unresolved/with losses). Attachment representations were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (George et al., 1985), while mother-child interactions were evaluated longitudinally during videotaped play sessions, through the Emotional Availability Scales (Biringen, 2008). As expected, the dyad with the autonomous mother showed better interactive functioning during play despite the condition of drug-abuse; the mother proved to be more affectively positive, sensitive, and responsive, while her baby showed a better organization of affects and behaviors. On the other side, insecure mothers seemed to experience more difficulties when interacting with their children showing inconsistency in the ability to perceive and respond to their babies' signals. Finally, children of insecure mothers showed less clear affects and signals. While differences between secure and insecure dyads appeared clear, differences between insecure patterns where less linear, suggesting a possible mediating role played by other factors. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:27014153

  12. Holding Back the Tears: Individual Differences in Adult Crying Proneness Reflect Attachment Orientation and Attitudes to Crying.

    PubMed

    Millings, Abigail; Hepper, Erica G; Hart, Claire M; Swift, Louise; Rowe, Angela C

    2016-01-01

    Despite being a universal human attachment behavior, little is known about individual differences in crying. To facilitate such examination we first recommend shortened versions of the attitudes and proneness sections of the Adult Crying Inventory using two independent samples. Importantly, we examine attachment orientation differences in crying proneness and test the mediating role of attitudes toward crying in this relationship. Participants (Sample 1 N = 623, Sample 2 N = 781), completed online measures of adult attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety), attitudes toward crying, and crying proneness. Exploratory factor analyses in Sample 1 revealed four factors for crying attitudes: crying helps one feel better; crying is healthy; hatred of crying; and crying is controllable; and three factors for crying proneness: threat to self; sadness; and joy. Confirmatory factor analyses in Sample 2 replicated these structures. Theoretically and statistically justified short forms of each scale were created. Multiple mediation analyses revealed similar patterns of results across the two samples, with the attitudes "crying is healthy" and "crying is controllable" consistently mediating the positive links between attachment anxiety and crying proneness, and the negative links between attachment avoidance and crying proneness. Results are discussed in relation to attachment and emotion regulation literature. PMID:27458402

  13. Holding Back the Tears: Individual Differences in Adult Crying Proneness Reflect Attachment Orientation and Attitudes to Crying.

    PubMed

    Millings, Abigail; Hepper, Erica G; Hart, Claire M; Swift, Louise; Rowe, Angela C

    2016-01-01

    Despite being a universal human attachment behavior, little is known about individual differences in crying. To facilitate such examination we first recommend shortened versions of the attitudes and proneness sections of the Adult Crying Inventory using two independent samples. Importantly, we examine attachment orientation differences in crying proneness and test the mediating role of attitudes toward crying in this relationship. Participants (Sample 1 N = 623, Sample 2 N = 781), completed online measures of adult attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety), attitudes toward crying, and crying proneness. Exploratory factor analyses in Sample 1 revealed four factors for crying attitudes: crying helps one feel better; crying is healthy; hatred of crying; and crying is controllable; and three factors for crying proneness: threat to self; sadness; and joy. Confirmatory factor analyses in Sample 2 replicated these structures. Theoretically and statistically justified short forms of each scale were created. Multiple mediation analyses revealed similar patterns of results across the two samples, with the attitudes "crying is healthy" and "crying is controllable" consistently mediating the positive links between attachment anxiety and crying proneness, and the negative links between attachment avoidance and crying proneness. Results are discussed in relation to attachment and emotion regulation literature.

  14. Holding Back the Tears: Individual Differences in Adult Crying Proneness Reflect Attachment Orientation and Attitudes to Crying

    PubMed Central

    Millings, Abigail; Hepper, Erica G.; Hart, Claire M.; Swift, Louise; Rowe, Angela C.

    2016-01-01

    Despite being a universal human attachment behavior, little is known about individual differences in crying. To facilitate such examination we first recommend shortened versions of the attitudes and proneness sections of the Adult Crying Inventory using two independent samples. Importantly, we examine attachment orientation differences in crying proneness and test the mediating role of attitudes toward crying in this relationship. Participants (Sample 1 N = 623, Sample 2 N = 781), completed online measures of adult attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety), attitudes toward crying, and crying proneness. Exploratory factor analyses in Sample 1 revealed four factors for crying attitudes: crying helps one feel better; crying is healthy; hatred of crying; and crying is controllable; and three factors for crying proneness: threat to self; sadness; and joy. Confirmatory factor analyses in Sample 2 replicated these structures. Theoretically and statistically justified short forms of each scale were created. Multiple mediation analyses revealed similar patterns of results across the two samples, with the attitudes “crying is healthy” and “crying is controllable” consistently mediating the positive links between attachment anxiety and crying proneness, and the negative links between attachment avoidance and crying proneness. Results are discussed in relation to attachment and emotion regulation literature. PMID:27458402

  15. Volunteer Client Adult Attachment, Memory for In-Session Emotion, and Mood Awareness: An Affect Regulation Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhouse, Susan S.; Gelso, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined relations between volunteer client adult attachment and both (a) memory for negative affect occurring within the first session of therapy and (b) mood awareness (mood labeling and mood monitoring). Participants were 80 volunteer clients (students with a personal issue who volunteered to participate in the…

  16. Perceived Parenting Styles Fail to Mediate between Anxiety and Attachment Styles in Adult Siblings of Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Linda P.; Murray, Lindsay E.

    2016-01-01

    Adult siblings of individuals with developmental disabilities often experience higher levels of anxiety than individuals in the general population. The present study tested whether perceived parenting could mediate the relationship between attachment styles and anxiety in the sibling group compared to a control group. Little association was found…

  17. Final Report of the Adult Competency Education Project. An Experimental Adult Basic Education Demonstration Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Mateo County Office of Education, Redwood City, CA. Career Preparation Centers.

    The Adult Competency Education (ACE) Project sought to define basic job-related skills and tasks for the development of instructional programs. The programs included a vocational counseling component to assist students in establishing skills needed to increase employability. In phase 1 the 100 entry-level jobs most frequently occurring in San…

  18. The Role of Adult Attachment Style in Forgiveness Following an Interpersonal Offense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler-Row, Kathleen A.; Younger, Jarred W.; Piferi, Rachel L.; Jones, Warren H.

    2006-01-01

    The role of attachment style in relation to forgiveness was investigated in 2 betrayal interviews. Blood pressure and heart rate were assessed, along with attachment style, forgiveness, empathy, and emotional expressiveness. Securely attached individuals were more forgiving of the specific offense, had higher levels of trait forgiveness, and…

  19. Dyadic adjustment and parenting stress in internationally adoptive mothers and fathers: the mediating role of adult attachment dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Salcuni, Silvia; Miconi, Diana; Altoè, Gianmarco; Moscardino, Ughetta

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that a positive marital functioning represents a resource in adoptive families, leading to a decrease in parenting stress, but little is known about the factors mediating such a relationship. This study aimed to explore whether adult attachment avoidance and anxiety mediate the effect of dyadic functioning on parenting stress in 90 internationally adoptive couples (mothers and fathers) who had adopted a child (aged 3–10 years) in the last 36 months. Participants completed self-report measures of dyadic adjustment, adult attachment, and parenting stress. A series of path analyses supported the mediation hypothesis, but differentially for mothers and fathers. Among mothers, there was a direct and negative relationship between dyadic adjustment and parenting stress. In addition, a better dyadic adjustment was related to lower levels of attachment anxiety, which in turn were associated with less parenting stress. Among fathers, increased dyadic adjustment was related to lower levels of attachment avoidance, which in turn were associated with reduced parenting stress. These findings suggest the importance of including both mothers and fathers in adoption research. Adoptive parents could benefit from specific interventions aimed at reducing attachment avoidance and anxiety by supporting parental sense of competence and involvement for mothers and fathers, respectively. PMID:26388799

  20. Attachment, parental bonding and borderline personality disorder features in young adults.

    PubMed

    Nickell, Angela D; Waudby, Carol J; Trull, Timothy J

    2002-04-01

    The relations between parental bonding and attachment constructs and borderline personality disorder features were examined in a sample of 393 18-year-old participants. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that parental bonding and attachment scores (especially insecure attachment, anxious or ambivalent attachment, and a perception of a relative lack of caring from one's mother) were uniquely associated with borderline features beyond what could be accounted for by gender, childhood adversity experiences, Axis I disorder, and nonborderline Axis II symptoms. Although relatively modest, these relations suggest that bonding and attachment constructs might be considered in comprehensive etiological models of borderline personality disorder.

  1. The reporting of maltreatment experiences during the Adult Attachment Interview in a sample of pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Sheri; Vaillancourt, Kyla; McKibbon, Amanda; Benoit, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This present student examines maltreatment experiences reported by 55 high-risk pregnant adolescents in response to a slightly adapted version of the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; George, Kaplan, & Main, 1996 ). Previous research has suggested that the rates of unresolved states of mind regarding trauma in response to the AAI may be underestimated due to the lack of direct questions and associated probes regarding physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. We address this concern by including behaviorally phrased questions and probes regarding maltreatment experiences into the original format of the AAI and examine the concordance between reports of maltreatment experiences in response to the AAI and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Maltreatment experiences in response to the AAI were evaluated using the Maltreatment Classification Scale developed by Barnett, Manly, and Cicchetti (1993). We also examine the association between unresolved states of mind and dissociation using the Adolescent Dissociative Experience Scale. Results revealed a significant concordance between reports of maltreatment in response to the AAI and CTQ measures. Reports of maltreatment were prevalent in this sample: across the AAI and CTQ measures, 96% of pregnant adolescents reported some form of emotional abuse, 84% physical abuse, 59% sexual abuse, and 88% reported neglect. Sexual abuse history uniquely predicted unresolved status in response to the AAI. Self-reports of dissociation were significantly associated with unresolved states of mind. Results suggest that the inclusion of behaviorally focused questions and probes regarding maltreatment in the AAI protocol can further contribute to the clinical and theoretical value of this tool. PMID:22385310

  2. Facing danger: how do people behave in times of need? The case of adult attachment styles

    PubMed Central

    Ein-Dor, Tsachi

    2014-01-01

    Bowlby’s (1982) attachment theory has generated an enormous body of research and conceptual elaborations. Although attachment theory and research propose that attachment security provides a person with many adaptive advantages, during all phases of the life cycle, numerous studies indicate that almost half of the human species can be classified as insecurely attached or insecure with respect to attachment. It seems odd that evolution left humans in this vulnerable position, unless there are some advantages to individuals or groups, under at least some conditions, of anxious and avoidant attachment styles. I argue that a social group containing members with different attachment patterns may be more conducive to survival than a homogeneous group of securely attached individuals because each attachment disposition has specific adaptive advantages that promote the survival of the individual and people around him or her when facing threats and perils. In making this argument, I extend the scope of attachment theory and research by considering a broader range of adaptive functions of insecure attachment strategies, and present data to support my argument. PMID:25540635

  3. Influence of family of origin and adult romantic partners on romantic attachment security.

    PubMed

    Dinero, Rachel E; Conger, Rand D; Shaver, Phillip R; Widaman, Keith F; Larsen-Rife, Dannelle

    2008-08-01

    According to attachment theory, attachment style derives from social experiences throughout the life span. The authors tested this expectation by examining associations between the quality of observed interaction patterns in the family of origin during adolescence and self-reported romantic attachment style and observed romantic relationship behaviors in adulthood (ages 25 and 27). Family and romantic relationship interactions were rated by trained observers from video recordings of structured conversation tasks. Attachment style was assessed with items from D. W. Griffin and K. Bartholomew's (1994a) Relationship Scales Questionnaire. Observational ratings of warmth and sensitivity in family interactions were positively related to similar behaviors by romantic partners and to attachment security. In addition, romantic interactions characterized by high warmth and low hostility at age 25 predicted greater attachment security at 27, after controlling for attachment security at age 25. However, attachment security at age 25 did not predict later romantic relationship interactions after controlling for earlier interactions. These findings underscore the importance of close relationships in the development of romantic attachment security but do not indicate that attachment security predicts the quality of interactions in romantic relationships. PMID:18729676

  4. Influence of family of origin and adult romantic partners on romantic attachment security.

    PubMed

    Dinero, Rachel E; Conger, Rand D; Shaver, Phillip R; Widaman, Keith F; Larsen-Rife, Dannelle

    2008-08-01

    According to attachment theory, attachment style derives from social experiences throughout the life span. The authors tested this expectation by examining associations between the quality of observed interaction patterns in the family of origin during adolescence and self-reported romantic attachment style and observed romantic relationship behaviors in adulthood (ages 25 and 27). Family and romantic relationship interactions were rated by trained observers from video recordings of structured conversation tasks. Attachment style was assessed with items from D. W. Griffin and K. Bartholomew's (1994a) Relationship Scales Questionnaire. Observational ratings of warmth and sensitivity in family interactions were positively related to similar behaviors by romantic partners and to attachment security. In addition, romantic interactions characterized by high warmth and low hostility at age 25 predicted greater attachment security at 27, after controlling for attachment security at age 25. However, attachment security at age 25 did not predict later romantic relationship interactions after controlling for earlier interactions. These findings underscore the importance of close relationships in the development of romantic attachment security but do not indicate that attachment security predicts the quality of interactions in romantic relationships.

  5. Toward Local Collaborative Networks for Adult Learners. Final Report of the Adult Learner Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Gerard G.

    The Adult Learner Project was a two-phase program in which a total of 10 community-level projects received funding to develop collaborative agendas that would meet the learning needs of adults in their respective communities. During the second phase of the project, the following community-level collaborative councils were also given $20,000 each:…

  6. Dissociation and Variability of Adult Attachment Dimensions and Early Maladaptive Schemas in Sexual and Violent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Elina; Beech, Anthony R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of constructs that may indicate the presence of disorganized attachment style in sexual and violent offenders. Constructs measured were dissociation, variability on self-report measures of attachment style and early maladaptive schemas, and variability in observed behavior. Data on variability…

  7. Conflictual Independence, Adult Attachment Orientation, and Career Indecision among Asian American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Chad J.; Brown, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Due to prior research suggesting that relational variables are related to the career development process, we sought to understand how maternal conflictual independence, paternal conflictual independence, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance influence the career decision status of Asian American undergraduate students (N = 113). The…

  8. Disentangling the Effects of Depression Symptoms and Adult Attachment on Emotional Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Angela M.; Kahn, Jeffrey H.; Sauer, Eric M.; Florczak, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with high levels of depression symptoms and individuals with insecure attachment orientations have been shown to limit their use of emotional disclosure as a means of emotion regulation. However, little is known about how depression symptoms and insecure attachment orientations might jointly predict whether individuals engage in…

  9. Postpartum bonding: the impact of maternal depression and adult attachment style.

    PubMed

    Nonnenmacher, N; Noe, D; Ehrenthal, J C; Reck, C

    2016-10-01

    Maternal depression poses a risk for the developing mother-infant relationship. Similarly, maternal insecure attachment styles may limit the ability to adequately connect with the newborn during the postpartum period. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal depression and insecure attachment (insecure and dual/disorganized) on maternal bonding in a sample of n = 34 women with depression according to DSM-IV and n = 59 healthy women. Maternal depression was assessed 3 to 4 months postpartum with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), bonding with the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire, and maternal attachment style with the Attachment Style Interview. Women with current and lifetime depression as well as women with dual/disorganized attachment style reported lower bonding. Explorative analysis revealed that depression partially mediated the link between dual/disorganized attachment style and bonding with a medium-sized mediation effect. The combination of maternal depression and dual/disorganized attachment style may pose a special risk constellation for the developing mother-infant bond that should be addressed in prevention and early intervention programs.

  10. A 5-year study of attachment loss and tooth loss in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Beck, J D; Sharp, T; Koch, G G; Offenbacher, S

    1997-08-01

    Tooth loss is a widely recognized endpoint measure for the effects of periodontal diseases and the impact of periodontal therapy. In fact, traditional clinical measures of periodontal status often are considered to be surrogate endpoints in that they are assumed to be related to tooth loss. However, the strength of the relationship between attachment loss and tooth loss in a representative population of untreated subjects has not been studied extensively. The purpose of this paper is to present the trends in attachment loss over a 5-yr period in a population of community-dwelling elderly blacks and whites. Specifically, this paper presents attachment loss trends both at the person and tooth level to address the following issues; 1) whether teeth that experience attachment loss during 1 time period are more likely to be lost at the next time period; and 2) given similar levels of attachment loss, why are some people more likely to lose teeth? In 1988, the University of North Carolina School of Dentistry initiated the Piedmont 65+ Dental Study, which was designed to elicit 800 dentate respondents in the 5-country area who were examined again at 18, 36 and 60 months. Our findings indicated that teeth with poorer attachment level at baseline had a higher probability of being lost during the next 5 yr and teeth that experienced attachment loss during a time period were more likely to be lost during the next time period than teeth without additional attachment loss. In addition, it appears that there are person-level characteristics associated with increasing tendency towards tooth loss in people with similar periodontal status, a finding that may clarify the relationship between attachment loss and tooth loss. PMID:9379319

  11. Dissociation and variability of adult attachment dimensions and early maladaptive schemas in sexual and violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Baker, Elina; Beech, Anthony R

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of constructs that may indicate the presence of disorganized attachment style in sexual and violent offenders. Constructs measured were dissociation, variability on self-report measures of attachment style and early maladaptive schemas, and variability in observed behavior. Data on variability was collected at four time intervals, approximately 3 weeks apart. No differences between the groups were found in variability of self-reported attachment style. Both offending groups showed greater variability in early schemas and higher levels of dissociation than the nonoffending group. Sex offenders showed greater variability than violent offenders in behaviors related to distress.

  12. Long-term effects of infant attachment organization on adult behavior and health in nursery-reared, captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Clay, Andrea W; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Bard, Kim A; Maple, Terry L; Marr, Marcus J

    2015-05-01

    This research traces the long-term effects on health, well-being, personality, and behavior of adult chimpanzees as a function of their attachment to a primary human caregiver assessed when they were 1 year of age. Of the 46 chimpanzees assessed at 1 year of age, we assessed health in 43 individuals, adult behavior in 20 individuals, and adult well-being and personality in 21 individuals. Attachment disorganization was found to be a significant predictor of stereotypic rocking in adult chimpanzees, F(1, 18) = 7.50, p = .013. For those subjects (N = 24) with a full 20 years (birth through age 20 years) of health data available, both rearing experience and disorganized attachment were significant predictors of upper respiratory infection frequency, F(2, 21) = 8.86, p = .002. Chimpanzees with disorganized attachment exhibited average subjective well-being as adults, whereas chimpanzees with organized strategies exhibited higher than average subjective well-being as adults. These results support the findings of human attachment research and are in line with attachment-based predictions for chimpanzees, such that the consequences of an early history of disorganized attachment may be adverse and long lasting.

  13. An Empirically Derived Approach to the Latent Structure of the Adult Attachment Interview: Additional Convergent and Discriminant Validity Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Haydon, Katherine C.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Marks, Michael J.; Fraley, R. Chris

    2011-01-01

    Building on studies examining the latent structure of attachment-related individual differences as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) via Principal Components Analysis, the current report further explores the validity of four AAI dimensions reported by Haydon, Roisman, and Burt (in press): dismissing states of mind, preoccupied states of mind, and inferred negative experience with maternal and paternal caregivers. Study 1 reports evidence of distinctive cognitive correlates of dismissing v. preoccupied states of mind with reaction time in an attachment Stroop task and the valence of endorsed self-descriptors, respectively. Study 2 replicates prior meta-analytic findings of generally trivial convergence between state of mind dimensions and self-reported avoidance and anxiety (i.e., Roisman, Holland, et al., 2007). Study 3 contrastively demonstrates moderate empirical overlap between inferred experience—but not state of mind—AAI scales and self-reported avoidance and anxiety when the latter were assessed at the level of specific caregivers. Taken together, these findings add to accumulating evidence that an empirically-driven approach to scaling adults on AAI dimensions (Haydon et al., in press; Roisman et al., 2007) aids in identifying theoretically anticipated and distinctive affective, behavioral, and cognitive correlates of dismissing versus preoccupied states of mind. PMID:21838649

  14. Mothers' Attachment Status as Determined by the Adult Attachment Interview Predicts Their 6-Year-Olds' Reunion Responses: A Study Conducted in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Kazuko Y.; Hesse, Erik; Main, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Following a 1986 study reporting a predominance of ambivalent attachment among insecure Sapporo infants, the generalizability of attachment theory and methodologies to Japanese samples has been questioned. In this 2nd study of Sapporo mother-child dyads (N = 43), the authors examined attachment distributions for both (a) child, based on M. Main…

  15. Minnesota STAR Project: Meeting the Needs of Struggling Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kimberly A.; Frank, Margaret M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on findings and implications from a two-year evaluation of the Minnesota STudent Achievement in Reading (STAR) Project. This long-term, job-embedded, professional development activity is provided for Minnesota Adult Basic Education (ABE) practitioners serving intermediate-level adult students reading between 4.0 to 8.9 grade…

  16. THE DIEBOLD LITERACY PROJECT--PROGRAMS FOR THE ILLITERATE ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROHN, BURRILL L.

    ADULT ILLITERACY RESULTS FROM POVERTY, AND, MANY TIMES, SUPPRESSION. ILLITERACY IS SELF-MAINTAINING BECAUSE ILLITERATES CANNOT GAIN NEW KNOWLEDGE OR FULLY PARTICIPATE IN ECONOMIC, CULTURAL OR POLITICAL LIFE OF THEIR SOCIETY. THE PROJECT WAS AN ATTEMPT TO APPLY THE PRINCIPLES OF PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION TO THE TEACHING OF READING TO ADULT ILLITERATES.…

  17. Competency-Based Adult High School Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Elizabeth

    This compilation of program materials serves as an introduction to and overview of Florida's Brevard Community College's (BCC's) Competency-Based Adult High School Completion Project, which was conducted to teach administrators, counselors, and teachers how to organize and implement a competency-based adult education (CBAE) program; to critique…

  18. Adult Education and Technology Project Report 1987-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavin, Richard J.

    A Merrimack Education Center (MEC) project was developed to provide technology consultation, expertise, and advice for capacity building and networking of adult center staff in regional locations in Massachusetts. Two pilot sites were installed to demonstrate the computer/skills center approach of teaching basic skills to adult learners. Six…

  19. Caregiving Antecedents of Secure Base Script Knowledge: A Comparative Analysis of Young Adult Attachment Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Ryan D.; Waters, Theodore E. A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Truitt, Warren; Waters, Harriet S.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2014-01-01

    Based on a subsample (N = 673) of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) cohort, this article reports data from a follow-up assessment at age 18 years on the antecedents of "secure base script knowledge", as reflected in the ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related difficulties are…

  20. Attachment and Individuation of Deaf/Hard-of-Hearing and Hearing Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisel, Amatzia; Kamara, Ahiya

    2005-01-01

    This study examined differences between deaf/hard-of-hearing (D/HH) and hearing persons with regard to two interrelated and continuous developmental processes: attachment (Bowlby, 1969) and individuation (Mahler, 1963). The study also examined intergroup differences in two personal variables assumed to be influenced by these processes: self-esteem…

  1. Relationships among Adult Attachment, Social Support, and PTSD Symptoms in Trauma-Exposed College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau, Genevieve Mary Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Although many people are exposed to trauma, substantially fewer develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Given this, studies have examined risk and protective factors for developing PTSD. This literature has established that there is a robust negative correlation between social support and PTSD. Attachment insecurity may be an informative…

  2. Adult Children of Alcoholics: Security, Avoidance and Ambivalence in Attachment to Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Mary E.

    Children of alcoholics are at risk for socioemotional and behavioral problems. Adult children of alcoholic parents (ACAs) are at risk for problems in interpersonal relationships. ACAs have been found to have decreased self-esteem and self-acceptance in comparison to adults whose parents are not alcoholic (NACAs). College students who were young…

  3. Changes in marital satisfaction across the transition to parenthood: the role of adult attachment orientations.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Jamie L; Rholes, Steven W; Simpson, Jeffry A; Martin, A McLeish; Tran, SiSi; Wilson, Carol L

    2012-11-01

    This longitudinal study investigated marital satisfaction trajectories across the first 2 years of parenthood. Data were collected from new parents (couples) 6 weeks before the birth of their first child, and then at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum. Growth curve models revealed two key findings. First, for highly anxious individuals, satisfaction was lower or declined when they perceived their partners as less supportive and as behaving more negatively toward them. Second, for highly avoidant individuals, satisfaction was lower or declined when they perceived more work-family conflict and greater demands from their families. The findings suggest that attachment insecurities predict dissatisfaction in new parents primarily when stressors block the pursuit of important attachment goals. PMID:22878461

  4. Statistical Literacy: Developing a Youth and Adult Education Statistical Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conti, Keli Cristina; Lucchesi de Carvalho, Dione

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the notion of literacy--general and statistical--in the analysis of data from a fieldwork research project carried out as part of a master's degree that investigated the teaching and learning of statistics in adult education mathematics classes. We describe the statistical context of the project that involved the…

  5. The oxytocin system promotes resilience to the effects of neonatal isolation on adult social attachment in female prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Barrett, C E; Arambula, S E; Young, L J

    2015-07-21

    Genes and social experiences interact to create variation in social behavior and vulnerability to develop disorders of the social domain. Socially monogamous prairie voles display remarkable diversity in neuropeptide receptor systems and social behavior. Here, we examine the interaction of early-life adversity and brain oxytocin receptor (OTR) density on adult social attachment in female prairie voles. First, pups were isolated for 3 h per day, or unmanipulated, from postnatal day 1-14. Adult subjects were tested on the partner preference (PP) test to assess social attachment and OTR density in the brain was quantified. Neonatal social isolation impaired female PP formation, without affecting OTR density. Accumbal OTR density was, however, positively correlated with the percent of time spent huddling with the partner in neonatally isolated females. Females with high accumbal OTR binding were resilient to neonatal isolation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that parental nurturing shapes neural systems underlying social relationships by enhancing striatal OTR signaling. Thus, we next determined whether early touch, mimicking parental licking and grooming, stimulates hypothalamic OT neuron activity. Tactile stimulation induced immediate-early gene activity in OT neurons in neonates. Finally, we investigated whether pharmacologically potentiating OT release using a melanocortin 3/4 agonist, melanotan-II (10 mg kg(-1) subcutaneously), would mitigate the social isolation-induced impairments in attachment behavior. Neonatal melanotan-II administration buffered against the effects of early isolation on partner preference formation. Thus, variation in accumbal OTR density and early OT release induced by parental nurturing may moderate susceptibility to early adverse experiences, including neglect.

  6. The oxytocin system promotes resilience to the effects of neonatal isolation on adult social attachment in female prairie voles

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, C E; Arambula, S E; Young, L J

    2015-01-01

    Genes and social experiences interact to create variation in social behavior and vulnerability to develop disorders of the social domain. Socially monogamous prairie voles display remarkable diversity in neuropeptide receptor systems and social behavior. Here, we examine the interaction of early-life adversity and brain oxytocin receptor (OTR) density on adult social attachment in female prairie voles. First, pups were isolated for 3 h per day, or unmanipulated, from postnatal day 1–14. Adult subjects were tested on the partner preference (PP) test to assess social attachment and OTR density in the brain was quantified. Neonatal social isolation impaired female PP formation, without affecting OTR density. Accumbal OTR density was, however, positively correlated with the percent of time spent huddling with the partner in neonatally isolated females. Females with high accumbal OTR binding were resilient to neonatal isolation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that parental nurturing shapes neural systems underlying social relationships by enhancing striatal OTR signaling. Thus, we next determined whether early touch, mimicking parental licking and grooming, stimulates hypothalamic OT neuron activity. Tactile stimulation induced immediate-early gene activity in OT neurons in neonates. Finally, we investigated whether pharmacologically potentiating OT release using a melanocortin 3/4 agonist, melanotan-II (10 mg kg−1 subcutaneously), would mitigate the social isolation-induced impairments in attachment behavior. Neonatal melanotan-II administration buffered against the effects of early isolation on partner preference formation. Thus, variation in accumbal OTR density and early OT release induced by parental nurturing may moderate susceptibility to early adverse experiences, including neglect. PMID:26196439

  7. The oxytocin system promotes resilience to the effects of neonatal isolation on adult social attachment in female prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Barrett, C E; Arambula, S E; Young, L J

    2015-01-01

    Genes and social experiences interact to create variation in social behavior and vulnerability to develop disorders of the social domain. Socially monogamous prairie voles display remarkable diversity in neuropeptide receptor systems and social behavior. Here, we examine the interaction of early-life adversity and brain oxytocin receptor (OTR) density on adult social attachment in female prairie voles. First, pups were isolated for 3 h per day, or unmanipulated, from postnatal day 1-14. Adult subjects were tested on the partner preference (PP) test to assess social attachment and OTR density in the brain was quantified. Neonatal social isolation impaired female PP formation, without affecting OTR density. Accumbal OTR density was, however, positively correlated with the percent of time spent huddling with the partner in neonatally isolated females. Females with high accumbal OTR binding were resilient to neonatal isolation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that parental nurturing shapes neural systems underlying social relationships by enhancing striatal OTR signaling. Thus, we next determined whether early touch, mimicking parental licking and grooming, stimulates hypothalamic OT neuron activity. Tactile stimulation induced immediate-early gene activity in OT neurons in neonates. Finally, we investigated whether pharmacologically potentiating OT release using a melanocortin 3/4 agonist, melanotan-II (10 mg kg(-1) subcutaneously), would mitigate the social isolation-induced impairments in attachment behavior. Neonatal melanotan-II administration buffered against the effects of early isolation on partner preference formation. Thus, variation in accumbal OTR density and early OT release induced by parental nurturing may moderate susceptibility to early adverse experiences, including neglect. PMID:26196439

  8. Blue Ridge Technical College Adult Reading Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Caren

    The development and implementation of a tutor training program designed to eliminate adult illiteracy in one area of North Carolina are described in this paper. Various sections of the paper provide information about (1) the history of the program, which was initiated by staff members at the learning center of the Blue Ridge Technical College in…

  9. [Study of anatomy of the lateral attachment of the renal fascia in adult with multidetector computed tomography].

    PubMed

    Qi, Rui; Zhou, Xianping; Yu, Jianqun; Chen, Weixia; Li, Zhenlin; Zhang, Chunle

    2012-08-01

    The present paper is aimed to observe the lateral attachment of the renal fascia (RF) in vivo with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanning, and to discuss its diagnostic value. 121 healthy adults were adopted into this experiment. All images were obtained with MDCT and double phase enhancement scanning. Then we observed the lateral attachment of RF. In addition, we mad a fresh body specimen as anatomical basis. The study found that above the renal hilar plane (RHP), the anterior renal fascia laterally fused with the peritoneum of the liver on the right and the peritoneum of the spleen on the left,and the posterior renal fascia fused with the subdiaphragmatic fascia. The lateral attachment of the RF at the RHP and the lower renal pole(LRP)is divided into three types. The RF in Type I is about 47.9% (58/121) at the left RHP, while about 33.9% (41/121) at the right RHP. At the LRP of the kidney is about 55.3% (67/121) on the left, and about 42.1% (51/121) on the right. The RF in Type I is about 38.8% (47/121) on the left side at the RHP, about 26.4% (32/121) on the right side. At the LRP, left side about 27.3% (33/121), right side about 13.3%(16/121). The RF in Type III at the RHP is 13.3% (16/121) on the left side, and on the right side is about 39.7% (48/121). At the LRP, it is about 17.4% (21/121) on the left side, and about 44.6% (54/121) on the right side. MDCT can display the lateral attachment of the RF better as well as the outside connection of the retroperitoneal space.

  10. TLC for Growing Minds. Microcomputer Projects. Advanced Projects for Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taitt, Henry A.

    Designed to improve students' thinking, learning, and creative skills while they learn to program a microcomputer in BASIC programing language, this book for advanced learners at the high school/adult level provides a variety of microcomputer activities designed to extend the concepts learned in the accompanying instructional manuals (volumes 3…

  11. Predicting borderline personality disorder features from personality traits, identity orientation, and attachment styles in Italian nonclinical adults: issues of consistency across age ranges.

    PubMed

    Fossati, Andrea; Borroni, Serena; Feeney, Judith; Maffei, Cesare

    2012-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess whether Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) features could be predicted by Big Five traits, impulsivity, identity orientation, and adult attachment patterns in a sample of 1,192 adult nonclinical participants, and to evaluate the consistency of these regression models across four age groups (<30 years, 30-39 years, 40-49 years, and >50 years, respectively). In the full sample, measures of neuroticism (N), impulsivity, and anxious insecure attachment were substantial predictors of BPD features (adjusted R(2) = .38, p < .001). Attachment scales were significant predictors of BPD features across all age groups, but different scales were relevant in different age groups. Our results suggest that in nonclinical populations, BPD may represent a complex constellation of personality traits and disturbed attachment patterns.

  12. Adult Learning Projects Related to Spiritual Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickett, R.E.Y.

    A study examined significant deliberate learning activities (as demonstrated in learning projects) which were related to spiritual growth. (Spiritual growth was defined in broad terms within which each interviewee interpreted his or her own concept.) Fifty persons between the ages of thirty-five and fifty-five and representing five groups (three…

  13. Use of tritiated thymidine as a marker to compare the effects of matrix proteins on adult human vascular endothelial cell attachment: implications for seeding of vascular prostheses

    SciTech Connect

    Hasson, J.E.; Wiebe, D.H.; Sharefkin, J.B.; D'Amore, P.A.; Abbott, W.M.

    1986-11-01

    We have developed a technique to measure attachment of adult human vascular endothelial cells to test surfaces with tritiated thymidine used as a marker. With this technique, we measured attachment of adult human vascular endothelial cells to a series of extracellular matrix proteins, including fibronectin-coated (10 micrograms/cm/sup 2/), laminin-coated (10 micrograms/cm/sup 2/), and collagen-coated (1% gelatin) surfaces because of the role of these proteins in promoting cell attachment and growth. For a typical experiment, in the presence of serum, initial attachment (at 1 hour) was greatest on fibronectin-coated (63%) and gelatin-coated (60%) tissue culture plastic (polystyrene) and was least on laminin-coated (28%) or untreated polystyrene (18%). The data suggest that fibronectin, either alone, or with a more complex combination of extracellular components may need to be present on prosthetic surfaces to produce maximal cell attachment and subsequent growth to confluence in vivo. The described method of measuring attachment is independent of surface properties, ensures complete recovery of cells, and will allow systematic exploration of those properties that best support human endothelial cell attachment to vascular prosthetic surfaces.

  14. The influence of romantic attachment and intimate partner violence on non-suicidal self-injury in young adults.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Christine; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Bureau, Jean-François; Cloutier, Paula; Dandurand, Cathy

    2010-05-01

    Several theoretical models for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) have been proposed. Despite an abundance of theoretical speculation, few empirical studies have examined the impact of intimate relationship functioning on NSSI. The present study examines the influence of romantic attachment and received intimate partner violence (physical, psychological and sexual) on recent reports of NSSI behaviors and thoughts. The sample was composed of 537 (79.9% female) primarily Caucasian university students between the ages of 18 and 25 years and currently involved in a romantic relationship. The results reveal that anxiety over abandonment was a significant predictor of NSSI thoughts and behaviors in women and a significant predictor of NSSI thoughts in men. Moreover, the experience of intimate partner violence emerged as a significant predictor of NSSI behaviors in both men and women. Continued empirical investigations into the influence of intimate relationship functioning on NSSI will facilitate the development of psychological interventions for young adults dealing with self-harm.

  15. Adult psychosocial assets and depressive mood over time. Effects of internalized childhood attachments.

    PubMed

    Richman, J A; Flaherty, J A

    1987-12-01

    This paper discusses contrasting assumptions in psychiatric epidemiological research regarding the relative significance of childhood and adult social experiences as etiological factors in adult psychopathology. It delineates a set of hypotheses that relate internal parental representations to subsequent depressed mood and to psychosocial assets assumed to mediate the relationships between parental representations and mood states. These hypotheses were prospectively tested using a cohort of medical students surveyed at medical school entrance and 7 months later. The data show that earlier paternal affectivity perceived at time 1 is inversely predictive of time 2 depressed mood, holding time 1 mood constant, whereas earlier maternal and paternal overprotection perceived at time 1 are directly predictive of time 2 depressed mood, holding time 1 mood constant. In addition, parental representations at time 1 are significantly linked to particular personality characteristics at time 1 and 2. However, it is not clear whether these personality characteristics are antecedents or consequences of depressed mood. The paper concludes with a discussion of theoretical and methodological issues involved in the retrospective assessment of remote social experiences as etiological factors in adult psychopathology. PMID:3681282

  16. Three Adult Education Projects: Local History Sparks ABE Class; Teleteacher; Project TARA: An Approach to AE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringley, Ray; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes three instructional approaches in adult basic education: a class in which retired coal miners recorded their experiences in early coal mining camps; a telephone-based instructional system using "Teleteacher" specially designed and built machines; and an approach to ABE in New York emphasizing adult functional literacy, Project TARA…

  17. Project Re-Start. A Program for Homeless Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelzer, Dagmar F.; And Others

    Project Re-Start, of the Dade County Public Schools in Florida, was funded under the Adult Education Act and the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act. Classes in literacy skills, General Educational Development (GED) preparation, English for speakers of other languages, employability skills, and life coping skills were conducted at most of…

  18. Adult Basic Education Outreach Project. Final Report (Executive Summary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Vocational Centre, Edmonton.

    An executive report summarizes the Alberta Vocational Centre's development of a portable individualized, competency-based learning system for use in an adult basic education program in a non-institutional community location. The report deals with the project's rationale, development (including management, curricular development, budget, and site…

  19. Citizenship. Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.

    This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on citizenship is divided into twelve topics. The topics included are How to Become a Citizen, Voter Registration, Political Parties, Nominations, Elections, Evaluating Issues, Public Opinion,…

  20. The role of sexual expectancies of substance use as a mediator between adult attachment and drug use among gay and bisexual men

    PubMed Central

    Starks, Tyrel J.; Millar, Brett M.; Tuck, Andrew N.; Wells, Brooke E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research exploring substance use in gay and bisexual men has increasingly paid attention to interpersonal dynamics and relational concerns associated with the use of substances. The current study explored the role of adult attachment style on drug use as well as the potential mediating role of sexual expectancies of substance use among gay and bisexual men. Methods Online survey data were gathered from 122 gay and bisexual men across the U.S., with a mean age of 33 years of age. All participants were HIV-negative and identified their relationship status as single. Survey measures included attachment style, sexual expectancies of substance use, and recent drug use. Results While neither anxious or avoidant attachment were directly associated with the odds of recent drug use, they were positively associated with sexual expectancies of substance use (β = .27, p < .01, and β = .21, p < .05) which, in turn, were positively associated with the odds of drug use (expB = 1.09, p < .01). Bootstrapping tests of indirect effects revealed a significant indirect relationship between anxious attachment and drug use through sexual expectancies of substance use (β = .11, p < .05), but not for avoidant attachment. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of interpersonal expectancies as motivators for drug use among gay and bisexual men. Sexual expectancies of substance use were associated with drug use and anxious adult attachment was associated indirectly with drug use through these sexual expectancies. PMID:26051159

  1. Psychological Basis of the Relationship Between the Rorschach Texture Response and Adult Attachment: The Mediational Role of the Accessibility of Tactile Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Kazunori; Ogawa, Toshiki

    2016-01-01

    This study clarifies the psychological basis for the linkage between adult attachment and the texture response on the Rorschach by examining the mediational role of the accessibility of tactile knowledge. Japanese undergraduate students (n = 35) completed the Rorschach Inkblot Method, the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale for General Objects (Nakao & Kato, 2004) and a lexical decision task designed to measure the accessibility of tactile knowledge. A mediation analysis revealed that the accessibility of tactile knowledge partially mediates the association between attachment anxiety and the texture response. These results suggest that our hypothetical model focusing on the response process provides a possible explanation of the relationship between the texture response and adult attachment. PMID:26569020

  2. More Bridges: Investigating the Relevance of Self-Report and Interview Measures of Adult Attachment for Marital and Caregiving Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernier, Annie; Matte-Gagne, Celia

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this report was to investigate the associations between attachment state of mind, romantic attachment style, and indices of maternal functioning in two relational spheres: the mother-child relationship (i.e., maternal sensitivity and child attachment security) and the marital relationship (i.e., mothers' and their partners' marital…

  3. Establishing Conceptual Boundaries: What Is an Adult Education Project, Promise and Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, David S.

    2014-01-01

    In a movement toward workforce development as an academic entity, the identity of adult education as projects for inquiry is troubled. In some academic programs, adult education has been termed adult learning in the service of promoting teaching and learning for the workplace. However, adult education's inquiry, its projects, might be more…

  4. Childhood temporary separation: long-term effects of the British evacuation of children during World War 2 on older adults' attachment styles.

    PubMed

    Rusby, James S M; Tasker, Fiona

    2008-06-01

    This study investigates long-term effects on adult attachment due to temporary childhood separation as a result of the British evacuation of children during World War 2. A total of 859 respondents, aged 62-72 years, were recruited who had childhood homes in the county of Kent during the war. Of these, 770 had been evacuated and 89 remained at home and formed a non-evacuated control group. They participated in this retrospective survey of possible associations between childhood experiences of the evacuation, early upbringing, and later life-course variables, with adult attachment style assessed by the Relationship Questionnaire (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991). Reflecting the wartime concerns of Bowlby, male and female respondents evacuated between the ages of 4 and 6 years showed low incidences in secure attachment style of 38% and 27%, compared to those not evacuated at 64% and 44%, respectively, with a corresponding increase in the fearful category. The quality of care received during evacuation and the frequency of parental visits were also found to be significantly associated with attachment style for female respondents. Irrespective of experience of evacuation, both male and female respondents who reported poor home nurture showed a similar low incidence of secure attachment of 23% compared to those from homes with good quality care of 45% and 43%, respectively, with concomitant increases in proportions in the dismissing category for males and the fearful category for females. The clinical implications of the study are briefly discussed.

  5. Design of 8-ft-Diameter Barrel Test Article Attachment Rings for Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Hilburger, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    The Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) project includes the testing of sub-scale cylinders to validate new shell buckling knockdown factors for use in the design of the Ares-I and Ares-V launch vehicles. Test article cylinders represent various barrel segments of the Ares-I and Ares-V vehicles, and also include checkout test articles. Testing will be conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for test articles having an eight-foot diameter outer mold line (OML) and having lengths that range from three to ten feet long. Both ends of the test articles will be connected to the test apparatus using attachment rings. Three multiple-piece and one single-piece design for the attachment rings were developed and analyzed. The single-piece design was chosen and will be fabricated from either steel or aluminum (Al) depending on the required safety factors (SF) for test hardware. This report summarizes the design and analysis of these attachment ring concepts.

  6. Forensic facial reconstruction: Nasal projection in Brazilian adults.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi-Oliveira, Silvia Virginia; Beaini, Thiago Leite; Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff

    2016-09-01

    The nose has a marked cognitive influence on facial image; however, it loses its shape during cadaveric decomposition. The known methods of estimating nasal projection using Facial Reconstruction are lacking in practicality and reproducibility. We attempted to relate the points Rhinion, Pronasale and Prosthion by studying the angle formed by straight lines that connect them. Two examiners measured this angle with the help of analysis and image-processing software, Image J, directly from cephalometric radiographs. The sample consisted of 300 males, aged between 24 and 77 years, and 300 females, aged 24 to 69 years. The proposed angle ranged from 80° to 100° in both sexes and all ages. It was considered possible to use a 90° angle from projections of the Rhinion and Prosthion points in order to determine the Pronasale position, as well as to estimate the nasal projection of Brazilian adults.

  7. Adult Education Dropout Project. 310 Project Report. Evaluation Report, July 1, 1980-June 30, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Patricia

    A project was conducted in Kansas City, Missouri, to diminish the dropout rate by establishing an on-going linkage between the local high school and the adult basic education (ABE) program. The program involved the development of a system of dropout identification, contact, and referral from the secondary school to the ABE program for young adults…

  8. Two subjective factors as moderators between critical incidents and the occurrence of post traumatic stress disorders: adult attachment and perception of social support.

    PubMed

    Declercq, Frédéric; Palmans, Vicky

    2006-09-01

    This paper presents the result of a research which investigated the influence of the subjective factors 'adult attachment style' and 'perception of social support' in the occurrence of post traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) in a population of 544 subjects working for a security company and the Belgian Red Cross. The analysis of the results suggests that 'adult attachment style' and 'perception of social support' moderate between a critical incident and the occurrence of a PTSD. In other words, these independent variables differentiate between individuals who are more, and who are less prone, to suffer from a PTSD after having experienced a critical incident. The results of this research shed light on subjective risk factors related to PTSD. The findings can also suggest guidelines for the treatment of individuals suffering from a PTSD.

  9. Adult-Rated Oceanography Part 1: A Project Integrating Ocean Sciences into Adult Basic Education Programs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowles, S.; Collier, R.; Torres, M. K.

    2004-12-01

    Busy scientists seek opportunities to implement education and outreach efforts, but often don't know where to start. One easy and tested method is to form collaborations with federally-funded adult education and adult literacy programs. These programs exist in every U.S. state and territory and serve underrepresented populations through such major initiatives as adult basic education, adult secondary education (and GED preparation), and English language acquisition. These students are workers, consumers, voters, parents, grandparents, and members of every community. They have specific needs that are often overlooked in outreach activities. This presentation will describe the steps by which the Oregon Ocean Science and Math Collaborative program was developed. It is based on a partnership between the Oregon Department of Community Colleges and Workforce Development, Oregon State University College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon Sea Grant, and the OSU Hatfield Marine Science Center. It includes professional development through instructor institutes; teachers at sea and informal education opportunities; curriculum and web site development. Through the partnership described here, instructors in adult basic education programs participate in a yearlong experience in which they develop, test, and adapt innovative instructional strategies to meet the specific needs of adult learners. This, in turn, leads to new prospects for study in the areas of ocean science and math and introduces non-academic careers in marine science to a new community. Working directly with instructors, we have identified expertise level, instructional environment, instructor background and current teaching strategies used to address science literacy and numeracy goals of the adult learners in the State of Oregon. Preliminary evaluation of our ongoing project in meeting these goals will be discussed. These efforts contribute to national goals of science literacy for all, by providing

  10. Adult separation anxiety in treatment nonresponders with anxiety disorders: delineation of the syndrome and exploration of attachment-based psychotherapy and biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Milrod, Barbara; Altemus, Margaret; Gross, Charles; Busch, Fredric; Silver, Gabrielle; Christos, Paul; Stieber, Joshua; Schneier, Franklin

    2016-04-01

    Clinically significant separation anxiety [SA] has been identified as being common among patients who do not respond to psychiatric interventions, regardless of intervention type (pharmacological or psychotherapeutic), across anxiety and mood disorders. An attachment formation and maintenance domain has been proposed as contributing to anxiety disorders. We therefore directly determined prevalence of SA in a population of adult treatment non-responders suffering from primary anxiety. In these separation anxious nonresponders, we pilot-tested an SA-focused, attachment-based psychotherapy for anxiety, Panic-Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy-eXtended Range [PFPP-XR], and assessed whether hypothesized biomarkers of attachment were engaged. We studied separation anxiety [SA] in 46 adults (ages 23-70 [mean 43.9 (14.9)]) with clinically significant anxiety symptoms (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [HARS]≥15), and reporting a history of past non-response to psychotherapy and/or medication treatments. Thirty-seven (80%) had clinically significant symptoms of separation anxiety (Structured Clinical Interview for Separation Anxiety Symptoms [SCI-SAS] score≥8). Five of these subjects completed an open clinical trial of Panic Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy eXtended Range [PFPP-XR], a 21-24 session, 12-week manualized attachment-focused anxiolytic psychodynamic psychotherapy for anxiety. Patients improved on "adult threshold" SCI-SAS (current separation anxiety) (p=.016), HARS (p=0.002), and global severity, assessed by the Clinical Global Impression Scale (p=.0006), at treatment termination. Salivary oxytocin levels decreased 67% after treatment (p=.12). There was no significant change in high or low frequency HRV after treatment, but change in high frequency HRV inversely correlated with treatment change in oxytocin (p<.02), and change in low frequency HRV was positively associated with change in oxytocin (p<.02). SA is surprisingly prevalent among non-responders to

  11. Regeneration of supraspinal projection neurons in the adult goldfish.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S C; Jadhao, A G; Rao, P D

    1993-08-27

    Regeneration of descending supraspinal projections were identified in adult goldfish following administration of HRP to different levels of the spinal cord. While in the untreated normal fish 17 nuclei were shown to project into the spinal cord, only 11 of them seem to have participated in the process of regeneration. The nuclei whose axons regenerated include the nucleus ventromedialis (NVMD), nucleus of the median longitudinal fasciculus (NMLF), nucleus reticularis superior (NRS), nucleus reticularis medialis (NRM), nucleus reticularis inferior (NRI), anterior octaval nucleus (AON), magnocellular octaval nucleus (MON), descending octaval nucleus (DON) and certain neurons of the facial lobe. The neurons of the magnocellular preoptic nucleus (NPO), raphe nucleus (NR), Mauthner cell (MC), posterior octaval nucleus (PON) and somata located adjacent to the descending trigeminal tract were not labeled. The nuclei that apparently participated in the regeneration process were significantly larger in size than the corresponding cell bodies in the untreated normal fish.

  12. Separation and Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2005-01-01

    Developing secure attachments with babies gives them a very special gift--the foundation for good infant mental health! In this article, the author discusses how to develop secure attachments with babies. Babies who are in the care of others during the day often suffer from separations from their special adults. Thirteen "tips" to ensure that…

  13. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Adult Education 353 Special Demonstration Projects. Project Abstracts for the Fiscal Year 1992-93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Evelyn C., Comp.; Harmon, Cheryl M., Comp.

    This book contains more than 100 abstracts of projects conducted in Pennsylvania during fiscal year 1992-93 funded through Section 353 of the federal Adult Education Act of 1988 (P.L. 100-297). The projects were developed to strengthen the Adult Basic Education (ABE) program through experimentation with new methods, programs, and techniques. In…

  14. Moving Stories: Evaluation of a BSW Oral History Project with Older Adults with Diverse Immigration Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maschi, Tina; MacMillan, Thalia; Pardasani, Manoj; Lee, Ji Seon; Moreno, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate an experiential learning project with BSW students to see if their perceptions of older adults have changed. The project consisted of an oral history project and presentation that matched BSW students with older adults from diverse ethnic backgrounds to gather their immigration narratives. The study used a…

  15. Fear and Attachment in Young Children. Research Project Number 4 of Project Head Start Research and Evaluation Center, Syracuse University Research Institute. Final Report, November 1, 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, J. Conrad

    The objective of this project was to test the effect of the presence of a mother, compared with the presence of an adult female stranger, upon the apprehensiveness of children confronted with novel stimuli. Subjects were 10 children, 3 1/2 to 5 1/2 years old, who were individually placed in a room containing a toy cash register, a marble-race toy,…

  16. Attachment and coercive sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Smallbone, S W; Dadds, M R

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between childhood attachment and coercive sexual behavior. One hundred sixty-two male undergraduate students completed self-report measures of childhood maternal attachment, childhood paternal attachment, adult attachment, antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. As predicted, insecure childhood attachment, especially insecure paternal attachment, was associated with antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. Moreover, childhood attachment independently predicted coercive sexual behavior after antisociality and aggression were statistically controlled. The hypothesis that paternal avoidant attachment would predict coercive sexual behavior independently of its relationship with aggression and antisociality was also supported. Posthoc analysis indicated that maternal anxious attachment was associated with antisociality and that paternal avoidant attachment was associated with both antisociality and coercive sexual behavior. These results are consistent with criminological and psychological research linking adverse early family experiences with offending and lend support to an attachment-theoretical framework for understanding offending behavior in general and sexual offending behavior in particular.

  17. Disparities in depressive distress by sexual orientation in emerging adults: the roles of attachment and stress paradigms.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Margaret; Reisner, Sari L; Corliss, Heather L; Wypij, David; Frazier, A Lindsay; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-07-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (BI) youth have elevated rates of depression compared to heterosexuals. We proposed and examined a theoretical model to understand whether attachment and stress paradigms explain disparities in depressive distress by sexual orientation, using the longitudinal Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). GUTS participants eligible for this analysis reported sexual orientation, childhood gender nonconforming behaviors (GNBs), attachment to mother (all in 2005), and depressive symptoms (in 2007). Mothers of the GUTS participants who are the NHSII participants reported attitudes toward homosexuality (in 2004) and maternal affection (in 2006). The sample had 6,122 participants. Of GUTS youth (M = 20.6 years old in 2005; 64.4 % female), 1.7 % were lesbian/gay (LG), 1.7 % bisexual (BI), 10.0 % mostly heterosexual (MH), and 86.7 % completely heterosexual (CH). After adjusting for demographic characteristics and sibling clustering, LGs, BIs, and MHs reported more depressive distress than CHs. This relation was partially mediated (i.e., explained) for LGs, BIs, and MHs relative to CHs by less secure attachment. A conditional relation (i.e., interaction) indicated that BIs reported more distress than CHs as GNBs increased for BIs; no comparable relation was found for LGs versus CHs. Sibling comparisons found that sexual minorities (LGs, BIs, and MHs) reported more depressive distress, less secure attachment, and more childhood GNBs than CH siblings; the mothers reported less affection for their sexual-minority than CH offspring. The findings suggest that attachment and childhood gender nonconformity differentially pattern depressive distress by sexual orientation. Attachment and related experiences are more problematic for sexual minorities than for their CH siblings.

  18. High Prevalence of Insecure Attachment in Patients with Primary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Balint, Elisabeth M; Gander, Manuela; Pokorny, Dan; Funk, Alexandra; Waller, Christiane; Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major cardiovascular (CV) risk factor and is predicted by heightened CV reactivity to stress in healthy individuals. Patients with hypertension also show an altered stress response, while insecure attachment is linked to a heightened stress reactivity as well. This is the first study aiming to assess attachment representations in patients with primary hypertension and to investigate their CV responses when their attachment system is activated. We studied 50 patients (38 men, 12 women) with primary hypertension. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), a widely used and validated interview, was performed to measure the patients' attachment representations, and to activate their attachment system. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured after 10 min at rest prior to and directly after the AAP interview. Mood and state anxiety were assessed using the Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire (MDBF) and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI-S) before and after the experiment. The prevalence of insecure attachment (dismissing, preoccupied, unresolved) in hypertensive patients was predominant (88%), while in non-clinical populations, only about 50% of individuals had insecure attachment patterns. Blood pressure (p < 0.001), heart rate (p = 0.016), and rate pressure product (p < 0.001) significantly increased in response to the attachment interview. Secure attached patients showed the highest rise in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.020) and the lowest heart rate compared to the other attachment groups (p = 0.043). However, attachment representation showed no significant group or interaction effects on diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and rate pressure product. Insecure attachment was highly over-represented in our sample of patients with primary hypertension. Additionally, a robust CV response to the attachment-activating stimulus was observed. Our data suggest that insecure attachment is significantly linked to primary hypertension

  19. High Prevalence of Insecure Attachment in Patients with Primary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Balint, Elisabeth M.; Gander, Manuela; Pokorny, Dan; Funk, Alexandra; Waller, Christiane; Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major cardiovascular (CV) risk factor and is predicted by heightened CV reactivity to stress in healthy individuals. Patients with hypertension also show an altered stress response, while insecure attachment is linked to a heightened stress reactivity as well. This is the first study aiming to assess attachment representations in patients with primary hypertension and to investigate their CV responses when their attachment system is activated. We studied 50 patients (38 men, 12 women) with primary hypertension. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), a widely used and validated interview, was performed to measure the patients' attachment representations, and to activate their attachment system. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured after 10 min at rest prior to and directly after the AAP interview. Mood and state anxiety were assessed using the Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire (MDBF) and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI-S) before and after the experiment. The prevalence of insecure attachment (dismissing, preoccupied, unresolved) in hypertensive patients was predominant (88%), while in non-clinical populations, only about 50% of individuals had insecure attachment patterns. Blood pressure (p < 0.001), heart rate (p = 0.016), and rate pressure product (p < 0.001) significantly increased in response to the attachment interview. Secure attached patients showed the highest rise in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.020) and the lowest heart rate compared to the other attachment groups (p = 0.043). However, attachment representation showed no significant group or interaction effects on diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and rate pressure product. Insecure attachment was highly over-represented in our sample of patients with primary hypertension. Additionally, a robust CV response to the attachment-activating stimulus was observed. Our data suggest that insecure attachment is significantly linked to primary hypertension

  20. High Prevalence of Insecure Attachment in Patients with Primary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Balint, Elisabeth M; Gander, Manuela; Pokorny, Dan; Funk, Alexandra; Waller, Christiane; Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major cardiovascular (CV) risk factor and is predicted by heightened CV reactivity to stress in healthy individuals. Patients with hypertension also show an altered stress response, while insecure attachment is linked to a heightened stress reactivity as well. This is the first study aiming to assess attachment representations in patients with primary hypertension and to investigate their CV responses when their attachment system is activated. We studied 50 patients (38 men, 12 women) with primary hypertension. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), a widely used and validated interview, was performed to measure the patients' attachment representations, and to activate their attachment system. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured after 10 min at rest prior to and directly after the AAP interview. Mood and state anxiety were assessed using the Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire (MDBF) and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI-S) before and after the experiment. The prevalence of insecure attachment (dismissing, preoccupied, unresolved) in hypertensive patients was predominant (88%), while in non-clinical populations, only about 50% of individuals had insecure attachment patterns. Blood pressure (p < 0.001), heart rate (p = 0.016), and rate pressure product (p < 0.001) significantly increased in response to the attachment interview. Secure attached patients showed the highest rise in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.020) and the lowest heart rate compared to the other attachment groups (p = 0.043). However, attachment representation showed no significant group or interaction effects on diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and rate pressure product. Insecure attachment was highly over-represented in our sample of patients with primary hypertension. Additionally, a robust CV response to the attachment-activating stimulus was observed. Our data suggest that insecure attachment is significantly linked to primary hypertension

  1. The Influence of Romantic Attachment and Intimate Partner Violence on Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levesque, Christine; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Cloutier, Paula; Dandurand, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Several theoretical models for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) have been proposed. Despite an abundance of theoretical speculation, few empirical studies have examined the impact of intimate relationship functioning on NSSI. The present study examines the influence of romantic attachment and received intimate partner violence (physical,…

  2. Adult Attachment and Male Aggression in Couple Relationships: The Demand-Withdraw Communication Pattern and Relationship Satisfaction as Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournier, Benoit; Brassard, Audrey; Shaver, Phillip R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines men's domestic aggression as a function of attachment insecurities, considering the mediating roles of the demand-withdraw communication pattern and relationship satisfaction. The sample included 55 Canadian men undergoing counseling for relationship difficulties including aggression. The men completed questionnaires assessing…

  3. A New Social Capital Paradigm for Adult Literacy: Partnerships, Policy and Pedagogy. An Adult Literacy National Project Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balatti, Jo; Black, Stephen; Falk, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this project is to produce a set of guidelines on how to deliver adult literacy and numeracy education and training using a social capital approach. Social capital in this project refers to the networks that operate during resourcing, course design, recruitment, teaching and evaluation. The study focused on three specific…

  4. Project ACT (Adult Competency Training): Region VIII Adult Education Staff Development: Mid-Year Report: FY '75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Dept. of Education.

    The third-year report of the regional staff development system of the Adult Competency Training Project (Project ACT) examines and evaluates the events, activities, and accomplishments of Individualized Training Programs (ITP), regional policy board meetings, staff and participant travel, and planning during FY 1974. Present and anticipated…

  5. A 309 b Adult Education Special Project. Final Report, FY 1974-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niagara Falls Board of Education, NY.

    The HEW 309(b) Special Project carried out by the Niagara Falls Adult Basic Education program, "The Identification of Preferred Cognitive Styles and Matching Adult Reading Program Alternatives for the 0-4 Grade Levels," involved research, training in cognitive style mapping, and development of a survey and process to assess the adult student's…

  6. Project Link-Four: Pre-Vocational Education for Adults through Community Linkages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Deborah S.

    The Texas adult performance level (APL) project LINK-FOUR implemented a curriculum based on functional competencies at four sites (Austin, Texarkana, Texas City, and Abilene) and formed linkages with local organizations involved in adult vocational education. The concept on which the project was based was that a set of prevocational skills, plus a…

  7. Analysis of Seven Special Projects in Adult Basic Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Electric Co., Washington, DC. TEMPO.

    This report summarizes innovations being developed in seven special adult basic education (ABE) projects: the Washington, D.C. ABE Demonstration Center; Opportunities Industrialization Center pupil recruitment and Adult Armchair Education projects in Philadelphia; Laborers' International Union participation in ABE in Columbus, Ohio; Southwest…

  8. An attachment research perspective on ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kissgen, Ruediger; Franke, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    Since the beginning of clinical attachment research in the mid-1980s the number of research projects in this area has been continuously increasing. The research questions so far can be allocated to numerous medical disciplines such as psychosomatic medicine, adult psychiatry or child and adolescent psychiatry. Recently, children with ADHD and their families have also become subjects of this branch of research. Their specific behavioral characteristics from early childhood on constitute unique challenges on the parent-child interaction. If these interactions develop in a suboptimal way, children may develop an insecure or even a disorganized attachment quality. The latter represents a risk factor for a clinically significant psychopathological development.This article initially presents basic principles of attachment theory and discusses the relevance of the cardinal symptoms of ADHD for clinical attachment research. Subsequently, it outlines and discusses the main results of existing research regarding attachment and ADHD. It concludes with a perspective on research questions that need to be addressed in the future with regard to a transgenerational model that highlights the importance of parental attachment representations to the development of children's attachment quality.

  9. [Adult mother-daughter relationships and psychological well-being: attachment to mothers, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem].

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Kotomi

    2008-06-01

    This study examined how daughter's reported quality of their mother-daughter relationships during childhood and adulthood is related to their psychological well-being (depressive symptoms and self-esteem). A cross-sectional sample of 363 women, age 26 to 35 years, completed questionnaires. The association between the quality of daughters' relationships with their mothers and their psychological well-being depended on the daughters' marital and parental status. Regression estimates suggested that among single daughters and married daughters with children, childhood attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) significantly contributed to psychological well-being, even after controlling for the effects of current closeness and excessive dependence. Current closeness, and excessive care seeking and care giving to their mother contributed to the psychological well-being of single daughters and married daughters without children, even after controlling for the effects of childhood attachment.

  10. Sexual-orientation disparities in substance use in emerging adults: a function of stress and attachment paradigms.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Margaret; Reisner, Sari L; Corliss, Heather L; Wypij, David; Calzo, Jerel; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-09-01

    More lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths than heterosexuals report substance use. We examined a theoretical model to understand these disparities in lifetime and past-year substance use by means of stress and attachment paradigms, using the longitudinal Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). GUTS participants are the children of participants in NHSII; thus, child and maternal data are available. In addition, GUTS contains siblings, allowing for comparisons of LGB and heterosexual siblings. Of 5,647 GUTS youths (M = 20.6 years old in 2005), 1.6% were lesbian/gay (LG), 1.6% bisexual (BI), 9.9% mostly heterosexual (MH), and 86.9% completely heterosexual (CH). After adjusting for sibling clustering in GUTS and covariates, significantly more sexual minorities (LGs, BIs, and MHs) than CHs reported lifetime and past-year smoking, nonmarijuana illicit drug use, and prescription drug misuse. More sexual minorities also reported marijuana use in the past year. The relations between sexual orientation and substance use were moderated by the stress markers: As mother's discomfort with homosexuality increased, more BIs and MHs than CHs used substances. As childhood gender nonconforming behaviors increased, more LGs than CHs used substances. The relations between sexual orientation and substance use were mediated by attachment and maternal affection (percent of effect mediated ranged from 5.6% to 16.8%% for lifetime substance use and 4.9% to 24.5% for past-year use). In addition, sibling comparisons found that sexual minorities reported more substance use, more childhood gender nonconforming behaviors, and less secure attachment than CH siblings; mothers reported less affection for their sexual minority than CH offspring. The findings indicate the importance of stress and attachment paradigms for understanding sexual-orientation disparities in substance use. PMID:25134050

  11. Sexual-Orientation Disparities in Substance Use in Emerging Adults: A Function of Stress and Attachment Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Margaret; Reisner, Sari L.; Corliss, Heather L.; Wypij, David; Calzo, Jerel; Austin, S. Bryn

    2014-01-01

    More lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths than heterosexuals report substance use. We examined a theoretical model to understand these disparities in lifetime and past-year substance use by means of stress and attachment paradigms, using the longitudinal Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) and Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII). GUTS participants are the children of participants in NHSII; thus, child and maternal data are available. In addition, GUTS contains siblings, allowing for comparisons of LGB and heterosexual siblings. Of 5,647 GUTS youths (M = 20.6 years old in 2005), 1.6% were lesbian/gay (LG), 1.6% bisexual (BI), 9.9% mostly heterosexual (MH), and 86.9% completely heterosexual (CH). After adjusting for sibling clustering in GUTS and covariates, significantly more sexual minorities (LGs, BIs, and MHs) than CHs reported lifetime and past-year smoking, non-marijuana illicit drug use, and prescription drug misuse. More sexual minorities also reported marijuana use in the past year. The relations between sexual orientation and substance use were moderated by the stress markers: As mother's discomfort with homosexuality increased, more BIs and MHs than CHs used substances. As childhood gender nonconforming behaviors increased, more LGs than CHs used substances. The relations between sexual orientation and substance use were mediated by attachment and maternal affection (percent of effect mediated ranged from 5.6%–16.8%% for lifetime substance use and 4.9%–24.5% for past-year use). In addition, sibling comparisons found that sexual minorities reported more substance use, more childhood gender nonconforming behaviors, and less secure attachment than CH siblings; mothers reported less affection for their sexual-minority than CH offspring. The findings indicate the importance of stress and attachment paradigms for understanding sexual-orientation disparities in substance use. PMID:25134050

  12. Effectiveness of glues for harmonic radar tag attachment on Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and their impact on adult survivorship and mobility.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doo-Hyung; Wright, Starker E; Boiteau, Gilles; Vincent, Charles; Leskey, Tracy C

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of three cyanoacrylate glues (trade names: Krazy [Elmer's Products Inc., Westerville, OH], Loctite [Henkel Corporation, Rocky Hill, CT], and FSA [Barnes Distribution, Cleveland, OH]) to attach harmonic radar tags securely on adult Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and quantified the effect of the radar tag attachment on insect survivorship and mobility. In the laboratory, the strength of the glue bond between the radar tag and H. halys pronotum was significantly increased when the pronotum was sanded to remove cuticular waxes. The adhesive bond of the radar tag to the sanded pronotum of H. halys had strength of 160-190-g force and there was no significant difference among the three types of glue tested. The three glues had no measurable effect on the survivorship of radar-tagged H. halys over 7 d, compared with untagged insects. Over a 7-d period in the laboratory, horizontal distance traveled, horizontal walking velocity, and vertical climbing distance were all unaffected by the presence of the tags regardless of glue. A field experiment was conducted to compare the free flight behavior of untagged and radar-tagged H. halys. Adults were released on a vertical dowel and their flights were tracked visually up to ≍200 m from the release point. There was no significant difference in take-off time or in flight distance, time, or speed between untagged and radar-tagged individuals. In addition, prevailing flight direction was not significantly different between untagged and radar-tagged individuals. The absence of measurable impact of the radar tag attachment on H. halys survivorship or mobility validates the use of harmonic radar tags to study the dispersal ecology of this insect in field conditions.

  13. Adult Resource Center--A Community/University Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vegso, Kathryn A.

    Cooperative planning, based upon a decade of reentry programs for adults, culminated in the establishment of a public service known as the Adult Resource Center at the University of Akron (Ohio). Located in a renovated building between the campus and the downtown community, the Adult Resource Center serves as a liaison with social service…

  14. Project Upgrade. Working with Adults Who Have Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manhattan Adult Learning and Resource Center, KS.

    This document is designed to help adult educators understand and meet the needs of adults with learning disabilities (ALDs). A research-substantiated rationale for remedial instruction for ALDs is presented in the introduction. Selected terms are defined, and common characteristics of ALDs are examined. Basic assumptions regarding adult learning…

  15. Research in Young Adult Literature: Four Recent Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John Noell; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses a study of young adult literature in light of contemporary literary theories; family relationships in selected young adult novels by Cynthia Vogt and Sue Ellen Bridgers; teaching young adult literature, moral inquiry, and the personal journey toward meaning; and using recorded books in a high school classroom. (RS)

  16. Environmental Projects of Jewish and Arab Youth in Israel: The Adult Leaders' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkaher, Iris; Tal, Tali

    2011-01-01

    Socio-environmental projects involving Arab and Jewish youth in Israel are uncommon. In this study, we interviewed 16 adult leaders of two projects that were carried out in the Galilee in northern Israel, to better understand the views of the leaders and their motives. The two projects focused on mutual environmental issues and dealt with social,…

  17. Learning Democratic Reason: The Adult Education Project of Jurgen Habermas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    The work of Jurgen Habermas is often cited in adult educational literature as underpinning dialogic traditions and practices central to the field. But to many adult educators the density of Habermas's analysis and complexity of his language limit his influence on their practice. This article's intent is to render a comprehensive analysis of the…

  18. Working with Adults Who Have Learning Disabilities. Project Upgrade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manhattan Adult Learning and Resource Center, KS.

    Intended to help educators develop a philosophy and understanding for working with learning disabled adults, this document consists of an introduction, 11 chapters, a 76-item bibliography, materials and resource suggestions, and three appendices. The introduction provides an overview of learning disabled adults. The chapters include (1)…

  19. Project ACT (Adult Competency Training): Region VIII Adult Education Staff Development: Second-Year Report: FY '74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Dept. of Education.

    The second-year report describes Project ACT (Adult Competency Training) efforts from July 1, 1973 to June 30, 1974 to develop a regional staff development system. Three elements were perceived to be essential: a regional consortium organization to effectively implement ACT programs, State-by-State and region-wide; a multi-dimensional trainer…

  20. Motivation Management of Project-Based Learning for Business English Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiaoqin

    2016-01-01

    The paper finds out poor engagement in business English training program prevents adult learners at College of Continuing Education of Guangdong University of Foreign Studies from improving their communication skills. PBL (Project-Based Learning) is proposed to motivate adult learners to get involved with learning a lot. Based on the perspective…

  1. Formulating a Serious-Games Design Project for Adult Offenders with the Probation Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Matthew Ian; Brown, David; Cranton, Wayne; Lewis, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents an investigation evaluating if adult offenders can benefit from a facilitated serious-games design project as part of their probation program. Research has observed a participatory design group of adult offenders working with their probation managers and a PhD researcher to create a new serious-game for use by the probation…

  2. Teaching Botanical Identification to Adults: Experiences of the UK Participatory Science Project "Open Air Laboratories"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagg, Bethan C.; Donkin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Taxonomic education and botany are increasingly neglected in schools and universities, leading to a "missed generation" of adults that cannot identify organisms, especially plants. This study pilots three methods for teaching identification of native plant species to forty-three adults engaged in the participatory science project "Open Air…

  3. Attachment-related psychodynamics.

    PubMed

    Shaver, Phillip R; Mikulincer, Mario

    2002-09-01

    Because there has been relatively little communication and cross-fertilization between the two major lines of research on adult attachment, one based on coded narrative assessments of defensive processes, the other on simple self-reports of 'attachment style' in close relationships, we here explain and review recent work based on a combination of self-report and other kinds of method, including behavioral observations and unconscious priming techniques. The review indicates that considerable progress has been made in testing central hypotheses derived from attachment theory and in exploring unconscious, psychodynamic processes related to affect-regulation and attachment-system activation. The combination of self-report assessment of attachment style and experimental manipulation of other theoretically pertinent variables allows researchers to test causal hypotheses. We present a model of normative and individual-difference processes related to attachment and identify areas in which further research is needed and likely to be successful. One long-range goal is to create a more complete theory of personality built on attachment theory and other object relations theories.

  4. Attachment Disorganization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Judith, Ed.; George, Carol, Ed.

    Disorganized attachment relationships were first formally identified on the basis of the anomalous behavior of some infants during laboratory separations and reunions with the parent. This book presents new research and theory on the topic of attachment disorganization, an area of investigation that is of increasing importance in the study of…

  5. An attachment perspective on psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    MIKULINCER, MARIO; SHAVER, PHILIP R.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, attachment theory, which was originally formulated to describe and explain infant-parent emotional bonding, has been applied to the study of adolescent and adult romantic relationships and then to the study of psychological processes, such as interpersonal functioning, emotion regulation, coping with stress, and mental health. In this paper, we offer a brief overview of the attachment perspective on psychopathology. Following a brief account of attachment theory, we go on to explain how the study of individual differences in adult attachment intersects with the study of psychopathology. Specifically, we review research findings showing that attachment insecurity is a major contributor to mental disorders, and that the enhancement of attachment security can facilitate amelioration of psychopathology. PMID:22294997

  6. Adult Services: A Bibliography and Index. A Component of the Adult Services in the Eighties Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heim, Kathleen M.; Nuttall, Harry D.

    Intended to update the 1954 benchmark study, "Adult Education Activities in Public Libraries" by Helen Lyman, this 152-page bibliography of adult services literature lists journal articles, books, dissertations, and government documents alphabetically by author, or, if no author is given, by title. The subject index provided is organized…

  7. The Adult Basic Education (ABE) Teacher Development Project, July 1, 1999-June 30, 2000. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zane, Lawrence

    This paper describes the 1999-2000 Adult Basic Education (ABE) Teacher Development Project at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The project's goals were to help the Hawaii Department of Education develop the infrastructure to provide continuous support to its ABE teachers and to disseminate information to and among ABE teachers. Its two…

  8. Competency-Based Training for Adults Who Work with Children. Postsecondary Project: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Associates for Renewal in Education, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The objective of this project was to develop and test ten module units of a competency-based training system for adults who work with young children. Phases of the developmental process are described. Training sessions for voluntary participants in the module writing project are outlined, and planning, writing and editing activities are indicated.…

  9. Using Adult Learning Principles as a Framework for Learning ICT Skills Needed for Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyitayo, Oduronke Temitope

    2013-01-01

    Students in higher institutions need to carry out research projects. The focus of this paper explores a model to help students learn ICT skills needed for research projects. Generally students go through the "long and hard route" to learn and use ICT resources because they do not know how to do it. The paper explores the Adult Learning…

  10. Adults Who Learn: Sharing Literacy Project Experience from South-Western Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolawole, Oluwatoyin Dare

    2011-01-01

    The paper reports the outcome of a funded non-formal, functional adult literacy project embarked upon in the university-based "Isoya" rural development programme area in south-western Nigeria from 2005-2007. It specifically presents the approaches used in legitimising the literacy project amongst community people; and reports the positive impact…

  11. Multi-Media Systems in Adult Education; Twelve Project Descriptions in Nine Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyratonis, Dorothee, Ed.; Vonhoff, Renate, Ed.

    Twelve multi-media adult education projects in nine countries are described in this 250-page book. The projects include England's Open University, Japan's Broadcast Correspondence High School and University of the Air, West Germany's Telecolleg, The Netherland's TELEAC, France's RTS-Promotion and Tele-CNAM, Poland's Politechnika Telewizyjna, and…

  12. Pronunciation Lessons for Adults. Vol. 6, Asian Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles City Schools, CA. Div. of Career and Continuing Education.

    This pronunciation text is the sixth in a seven-volume series of curriculum materials for the teaching of English as a second language to adults. The lessons are designed specifically for Asian students and Spanish speakers, focusing mainly on the English sounds that are absent in the non-English languages. The lesson sequence does not reflect a…

  13. Project Job: Vocational Training Program for Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A vocational training program for trainable mentally retarded youth and adults provided instruction on functional skills, travel training, and independent living skills in addition to supervised performance in part time jobs in the community. The program expanded into small business subsidiaries for boat cleaning and detailing and marine serving.…

  14. Global 2000 Project. Pathways. Adult Diploma Program Student Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Continuing Education Inst., Needham, MA.

    This document contains 48 pieces of writing that were authored by employees of six different businesses who participated in an adult diploma program. A variety of genres are represented, including poems, personal narratives, book reviews, essays, letters, and fiction. The works are grouped under the following broad headings: goals, freedom,…

  15. The role of both parents' attachment pattern in understanding childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Laghezza, Loredana; Radi, Giulia; Battistini, Dalila; De Feo, Pierpaolo

    2014-01-01

    Within the research area on the determinants of childhood obesity, a relatively new approach is the use of attachment theory to explore the mechanisms underlying children's obesity risk, especially considered as emotion regulation strategies in parent-child relationship. Few are the empirical researches that have addressed this issue. The empirical investigations have used self-report measures to assess adult attachment. In attachment studies, the use of interview methods and/or performance-based instruments is advised to evaluate the entire range of possible adult attachment patterns and comprehensively explain the emotional strategies, correlates, and consequences of individual differences in attachment system functioning. The aim of this study was to explore the extent to which both parents' attachment patterns serve as self-regulative mechanisms related to childhood overweight/obesity by the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) in a sample of 44 mothers and fathers of children referred for obesity. Insecure attachment was found as a risk factor both for mothers and fathers. Also unresolved/disorganization was found to play a significant role in childhood obesity. The role of father's attachment was explored and findings suggested considering it in etiology and treatment of childhood obesity.

  16. The role of both parents’ attachment pattern in understanding childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Laghezza, Loredana; Radi, Giulia; Battistini, Dalila; De Feo, Pierpaolo

    2014-01-01

    Within the research area on the determinants of childhood obesity, a relatively new approach is the use of attachment theory to explore the mechanisms underlying children’s obesity risk, especially considered as emotion regulation strategies in parent–child relationship. Few are the empirical researches that have addressed this issue. The empirical investigations have used self-report measures to assess adult attachment. In attachment studies, the use of interview methods and/or performance-based instruments is advised to evaluate the entire range of possible adult attachment patterns and comprehensively explain the emotional strategies, correlates, and consequences of individual differences in attachment system functioning. The aim of this study was to explore the extent to which both parents’ attachment patterns serve as self-regulative mechanisms related to childhood overweight/obesity by the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) in a sample of 44 mothers and fathers of children referred for obesity. Insecure attachment was found as a risk factor both for mothers and fathers. Also unresolved/disorganization was found to play a significant role in childhood obesity. The role of father’s attachment was explored and findings suggested considering it in etiology and treatment of childhood obesity. PMID:25120507

  17. YES. The Young-adult Employment Supports Project. School-to-Work Outreach Project 1998 Exemplary Model/Practice/Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Inst. on Community Integration.

    The Young Adults Employment Supports Project (YES) of Matrix Research Institute (MRI) has been identified as an exemplary school-to-work program that includes students with disabilities. The program serves young persons with serious emotional disorders between the ages of 17-22 throughout Philadelphia who are preparing to exit special education…

  18. Adult attachment interviews of women from low-risk, poverty, and maltreatment risk samples: comparisons between the hostile/helpless and traditional AAI coding systems.

    PubMed

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Costantino, Elisabetta; Ceppi, Elisa; Barone, Lavinia

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the correlates of a Hostile-Helpless (HH) state of mind among 67 women belonging to a community sample and two different at-risk samples matched on socio-economic indicators, including 20 women from low-SES population (poverty sample) and 15 women at risk for maltreatment being monitored by the social services for the protection of juveniles (maltreatment risk sample). The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) protocols were reliably coded blind to the samples' group status. The rates of HH classification increased in relation to the risk status of the three samples, ranging from 9% for the low-risk sample to 60% for the maltreatment risk sample to 75% for mothers in the maltreatment risk sample who actually maltreated their infants. In terms of the traditional AAI classification system, 88% of the interviews from the maltreating mothers were classified Unresolved/Cannot Classify (38%) or Preoccupied (50%). Partial overlapping between the 2 AAI coding systems was found, and discussion concerns the relevant contributions of each AAI coding system to understanding of the intergenerational transmission of maltreatment. PMID:23724955

  19. Adult Attachment as a Moderator of Treatment Outcome for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Comparison Between Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Plus Supportive Listening and CBT Plus Interpersonal and Emotional Processing Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Michelle G.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Jacobson, Nicholas C.; Moore, Ginger A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether baseline dimensions of adult insecure attachment (avoidant and anxious) moderated outcome in a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) plus supportive listening (CBT + SL) versus CBT plus interpersonal and emotional processing therapy (CBT + I/EP). Method Eighty-three participants diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) were recruited from the community and assigned randomly to CBT + SL (n = 40) or to CBT + I/EP (n = 43) within a study using an additive design. PhD-level psychologists treated participants. Blind assessors evaluated participants at pretreatment, posttreatment, 6-month, 12-month, and 2-year follow-up with a composite of self-report and assessor-rated GAD symptom measures (Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Clinician’s Severity Rating). Avoidant and anxious attachment were assessed using self-reported dismissing and angry states of mind, respectively, on the Perceptions of Adult Attachment Questionnaire. Results Consistent with our prediction, at all assessments higher levels of dismissing styles in those who received CBT + I/EP predicted greater change in GAD symptoms compared with those who received CBT + SL for whom dismissiveness was unrelated to the change. At postassessment, higher angry attachment was associated with less change in GAD symptoms for those receiving CBT + I/EP, compared with CBT + SL, for whom anger was unrelated to change in GAD symptoms. Pretreatment attachment-related anger failed to moderate outcome at other time points and therefore, these moderation effects were more short-lived than the ones for dismissing attachment. Conclusions When compared with CBT + SL, CBT + I/EP may be better for individuals with GAD who have relatively higher dismissing styles of attachment. PMID:26052875

  20. An Exercise Project by Young Adults for Senior Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jable, J. Thomas; Cheesman, Mary Jane

    1978-01-01

    This pilot project, involving undergraduate physical education majors in an exercise program with senior citizens, revealed that the elderly were receptive to such a program, that young physical educators were capable of working with the elderly, and that the program was evaluated highly by all involved. (MJB)

  1. Project Healthy Bones: An Osteoporosis Prevention Program for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klotzbach-Shimomura, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    Project Healthy Bones is a 24-week exercise and education program for older women and men at risk for or who have osteoporosis. The exercise component is designed to improve strength, balance, and flexibility. The education curriculum stresses the importance of exercise, nutrition, safety, drug therapy, and lifestyle factors. (SK)

  2. Projected impact of polypill use among US adults: medication use, cardiovascular risk reduction and side effects

    PubMed Central

    Muntner, Paul; Mann, Devin; Wildman, Rachel P; Shimbo, Daichi; Fuster, Valentin; Woodward, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background Polypills which include multiple medications for reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in a single pill have been proposed for population-wide use. The number of US adults eligible for polypills and potential benefits are unknown. Methods The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004 and 2007-2008 were analyzed to estimate treatment rates for medications proposed for inclusion in polypills (aspirin, statin, an ACE-inhibitor, and a thiazide-type diuretic for those without, a beta-blocker for those with, a history of myocardial infarction) among US adults. The number of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke events potentially prevented through polypill use was projected by published meta-analyses and three large population-based cohort studies. Two polypill eligibility criteria were analyzed (1) US adults ≥ 55 years and (2) US adults with a history of CVD. Results There are 67.6 million US adults ≥ 55 years and 15.4 million US adults with a history of CVD and, thus, eligible for polypills using the two outlined criteria. In 2007-2008, 37.3% of US adults ≥ 55 years and 57.0% of those with a history of CVD were taking statins. Use of other polypill medications was also low. Polypill use by US adults age ≥ 55 years is projected to potentially prevent 3.2 million CHD events and 1.7 million strokes over 10 years. Amongst those with a history of CVD, the potential to prevent of 0.9 million CHD events and 0.5 million strokes is projected. Conclusions Polypills have the potential to lower CVD incidence substantially among US adults. PMID:21473971

  3. [The projection of autism spectrum disorders in adult life].

    PubMed

    Francis, K

    2012-06-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) consist a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that are usually diagnosed in early childhood but they persist throughout life, although significant changes can happen. The prevalence of the ASDs is estimated to be 1-1.2%. Subjects with the more severe form of the disorder that are usually characterised by the absence of a communicative language and learning difficulties of various severity, are often referred as persons with lower functioning. In the other end of the spectrum we can find subjects with less severe symptomatology, communicative language and at least of normal intelligence that are referred as high functioning autistic people or -in case of an absence of a language delay- as suffering from Asperger syndrome. The lower functioning adults can be referred to an adult psychiatrist mainly due to their behavioral problems and disruptive behaviors. Their inability to express their difficulties, due to their language restrictions and empathy deficits, can lead these people to behavioural deviances (often self- or hetero-destructive) that challenge their personal environment ending up in the pursuit of psychiatric help. In most cases, although not always justified, psychotropic medications will be prescribed in an attempt to control their maladaptive behaviors. Special attention should be paid to the catatonic exacerbation of ASD, which can be exhibited after adolescence. The catatonic features presented shouldn't be perceived as a possible comorbidity with another disorder, such as schizophrenia, but rather as an extreme form anxiety within the context of an ASD. High Functioning adults with ASDs are more difficult to be detected, but they may also need psychiatric consultation. These subjects may have never been diagnosed with an ASD, but they could have in their history a variety of diagnostic categorizations. Their accurate diagnosis could be further hampered in cases where they are exhibiting remarkable abilities

  4. Hypertension among Tunisian adults: results of the TAHINA project.

    PubMed

    Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Ben Ali, Samir; Skhiri, Hajer; Traissac, Pierre; Bougatef, Souha; Maire, Bernard; Delpeuch, Francis; Achour, Noureddine

    2012-03-01

    We performed a national survey to determine the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension, one of the main cardiovascular risk factors, among the adult population in Tunisia. A total of 8007 adults aged 35-70 years were included in the study. Blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken by physicians with a mercury sphygmomanometer, and standard interviewing procedures were used to record medical history, socio-demographic and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Hypertension was defined as a systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg or current treatment with antihypertensive drugs. The prevalence of hypertension was 30.6%, higher in women (33.5%) than in men (27.3%). Multiple logistic regression analyses identified a higher age, urban area, higher body mass index, type 2 diabetes and family history of CVD as important correlates to the prevalence of hypertension. Only 38.8% of those with hypertension were aware of their diagnosis, of which 84.8% were receiving treatment. BP control was achieved in only 24.1% of treated hypertensive persons. Women were more aware than men (44.8 vs. 28.8%), but the rates of treatment and control of hypertension did not differ between the two genders. Higher age, being female, lower education level and urban area emerged as important correlates of hypertension awareness. The study highlights the hypertension problem in a middle-income developing country. There is an urgent need for a comprehensive integrated population-based intervention program to ameliorate the growing problem of hypertension in Tunisians.

  5. Keewatin Regional Education Authority Pilot Education Project (KREA): Computer Assisted Learning, Adult Education Keewatin Region. Report on Year I of 2 Year Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Heidi

    A pilot project in computer-assisted learning was conducted to allow adults who have not succeeded in traditional education programs to work independently at their own level and receive regular constructive feedback. The project was also intended for adults requiring specialized training to get this training in their community and improve their…

  6. Attachment in Middle Childhood: Progress and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosmans, Guy; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the substantial amount of research on infant, preschool, adolescent, and adult attachment, middle childhood has long been neglected by the international attachment research community. In the past two decades, however, there has been a steep increase in research focusing on middle childhood attachment. This article provides an overview…

  7. Neural Response during the Activation of the Attachment System in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder: An fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Buchheim, Anna; Erk, Susanne; George, Carol; Kächele, Horst; Martius, Philipp; Pokorny, Dan; Spitzer, Manfred; Walter, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are characterized by emotional instability, impaired emotion regulation and unresolved attachment patterns associated with abusive childhood experiences. We investigated the neural response during the activation of the attachment system in BPD patients compared to healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eleven female patients with BPD without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 17 healthy female controls matched for age and education were telling stories in the scanner in response to the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), an eight-picture set assessment of adult attachment. The picture set includes theoretically-derived attachment scenes, such as separation, death, threat and potential abuse. The picture presentation order is designed to gradually increase the activation of the attachment system. Each picture stimulus was presented for 2 min. Analyses examine group differences in attachment classifications and neural activation patterns over the course of the task. Unresolved attachment was associated with increasing amygdala activation over the course of the attachment task in patients as well as controls. Unresolved controls, but not patients, showed activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the rostral cingulate zone (RCZ). We interpret this as a neural signature of BPD patients' inability to exert top-down control under conditions of attachment distress. These findings point to possible neural mechanisms for underlying affective dysregulation in BPD in the context of attachment trauma and fear.

  8. Neural Response during the Activation of the Attachment System in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Buchheim, Anna; Erk, Susanne; George, Carol; Kächele, Horst; Martius, Philipp; Pokorny, Dan; Spitzer, Manfred; Walter, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are characterized by emotional instability, impaired emotion regulation and unresolved attachment patterns associated with abusive childhood experiences. We investigated the neural response during the activation of the attachment system in BPD patients compared to healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eleven female patients with BPD without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 17 healthy female controls matched for age and education were telling stories in the scanner in response to the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), an eight-picture set assessment of adult attachment. The picture set includes theoretically-derived attachment scenes, such as separation, death, threat and potential abuse. The picture presentation order is designed to gradually increase the activation of the attachment system. Each picture stimulus was presented for 2 min. Analyses examine group differences in attachment classifications and neural activation patterns over the course of the task. Unresolved attachment was associated with increasing amygdala activation over the course of the attachment task in patients as well as controls. Unresolved controls, but not patients, showed activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the rostral cingulate zone (RCZ). We interpret this as a neural signature of BPD patients’ inability to exert top-down control under conditions of attachment distress. These findings point to possible neural mechanisms for underlying affective dysregulation in BPD in the context of attachment trauma and fear. PMID:27531977

  9. The 4-H Debate Project: Getting Adults and Children Involved in Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwater, Deborah F.

    Intended to enhance adult leadership skills, the 4-H Debate Project, developed by the 4-H Communication Committee of Delaware County (Pennsylvania), was designed to (1) increase the members' knowledge of library skills through research, (2) make them aware of current issues, (3) help them to become better public speakers and communicators, (4)…

  10. Project DyAdd: Visual Attention in Adult Dyslexia and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Marja; Salomaa, Jonna; Cousineau, Denis; Leppamaki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Hokkanen, Laura; Dye, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    In this study of the project DyAdd, three aspects of visual attention were investigated in adults (18-55 years) with dyslexia (n = 35) or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n = 22), and in healthy controls (n = 35). Temporal characteristics of visual attention were assessed with Attentional Blink (AB), capacity of visual attention…

  11. British Columbia Adult Basic Education Student Outcomes Report: 1993-94 Pilot Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Min

    A project was undertaken by Capilano College, Okanagan University College, and Selkirk College, in British Columbia, to provide descriptive information on adult basic education (ABE) students, their motives for enrolling, and assess the effects of ABE programs on their lives. Four survey instruments were developed: a point of entry survey,…

  12. Project DyAdd: Implicit Learning in Adult Dyslexia and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Marja; Väre, Jenni; Oksanen-Hennah, Henna; Leppämäki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Harno, Hanna; Hokkanen, Laura; Pothos, Emmanuel; Cleeremans, Axel

    2014-01-01

    In this study of the project DyAdd, implicit learning was investigated through two paradigms in adults (18-55 years) with dyslexia (n?=?36) or with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n?=?22) and in controls (n?=?35). In the serial reaction time (SRT) task, there were no group differences in learning. However, those with ADHD exhibited…

  13. Rural Adult Education and the Role of Mass Media: A Comparative Analysis of Four Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenglet, Frans; McAnany, Emile G.

    Rural adult education projects using television in Tanzania, the Ivory Coast, Dominican Republic, and Guatemala are described and compared with special attention given to objectives, organization, selection and recruitment of supervisors, monitors and participants, use of communication media, feedback and evaluation systems impact, and…

  14. Environmental Education. Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.

    This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on environmental education is divided into seven topics. The topics included are Human Carrying Capacity (The Ability to Foresee and Forestall), Human Population Growth, The Atmosphere, The…

  15. Reflections on an Energy Education Venture: Colorado's Adult Energy Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Harold M.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews of four-phase project intended to develop a model of adult education for teaching communities about energy needs, alternative energy sources, public policy, and conservation practice. The general conclusion is that the secondary school level is the best for reaching energy education objectives. Journal availability: see SO 506 884. (KC)

  16. Life Science. Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.

    This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on life science is divided into twelve topics. The topics included are Life Process, Cells, Levels of Organization, Organ Systems, Food and Oxygen-Photosynthesis, Cycles, Energy, Resources, Cell…

  17. Office of Education, Region 7, Guidance and Counseling Project for Adult Basic Education. Phase 2 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Extension Teaching and Field Service Bureau.

    This report interprets information from the first phase of a Federally funded adult basic educational guidance and counseling project in Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. Findings and conclusions are presented as to the cultural, psychological, and other characteristics of students; problems encountered in designing guidance…

  18. Earth and Physical Science. Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.

    This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on earth and physical science is divided into twelve topics. The topics included are Geology, Meteorology, Astronomy, Natural Disasters, Chemical Reaction, Laboratory, States of Matter, Force and…

  19. Continued Development and Dissemination of Materials for Serving Senior Adults. FY '83 310 Project Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Iowa Technical Coll., Sheldon.

    A project was conducted in Iowa to develop educational programs for older adults who were not institutionalized. Focus of the activity was on sites that held community meals for the aging on a daily basis. Those who attended were targeted for after-dinner educational programs. A survey was taken of the interests of the senior citizens attending…

  20. SALSA (Southwest Advanced Learning System for Adults). Pilot Project Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rio Salado Community Coll., AZ.

    Researchers at Rio Salado Community College (Arizona) directing an educational research project, called the Southwest Advanced Learning System for Adults (SALSA), placed personal computers in the homes of production line workers as a supplement to traditional classroom basic skills training. Objectives were to determine whether this supplemental…

  1. Physical Activity Intervention for Older Adults with Intellectual Disability: Report on a Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgorski, Carol Ann; Kessler, Karen; Cacia, Barbara; Peterson, Derick R.; Henderson, C. Michael

    2004-01-01

    A 12-week pilot project on physical activity was introduced in a day habilitation setting to a group of 12 older adults with intellectual disability and a variety of physical and behavioral conditions. Our purpose was to determine whether (a) this intervention would positively impact physical function in this population, (b) consumers would choose…

  2. Driving and Dementia in Older Adults: Implementation and Evaluation of a Continuing Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuser, Thomas M.; Carr, David B.; Berg-Weger, Marla; Niewoehner, Pat; Morris, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to develop and evaluate a multimedia workshop curriculum to educate physicians and other health professionals about (a) driving-related assessment in older adults with dementia, and (b) strategies to encourage driving retirement for impaired individuals. Design and Methods: A curriculum developed by the Older Drivers Project of…

  3. A longitudinal study of interpersonal relationships among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents and young adults: Mediational pathways from attachment to romantic relationship quality

    PubMed Central

    Starks, Tyrel J.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the potential for mental health to mediate associations between earlier attachment to parents and peers and later relationship adjustment during adolescence and young adulthood in a sample of sexual minority youth. Secondarily, the study examined associations between peer and parental attachment and relationship/dating milestones. Participants included 219 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth who participated in six waves of data collection over 3.5 years. Parental attachment was associated with an older age of dating initiation, while peer attachment was associated with longer relationship length. Both peer and parental attachment were significantly associated with mental health in later adolescence and young adulthood. Mental health mediated the association between peer attachment and main partner relationship quality. While the total indirect effect of parental attachment on main partner relationship quality was statistically significant, specific indirect effects were not. Implications for the application of attachment theory and integration of interpersonal factors into mental health intervention with sexual minority youth are discussed. PMID:26108898

  4. Model of Care for Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: The Youth Project in Milan

    PubMed Central

    Magni, Chiara; Veneroni, Laura; Silva, Matteo; Casanova, Michela; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Massimino, Maura; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Ferrari, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer form a particular group of patients with unique characteristics, who inhabit a so-called “no man’s land” between pediatric and adult services. In the last 10 years, the scientific oncology community has started to pay attention to these patients, implementing dedicated programs. A standardized model of care directed toward patients in this age range has yet to be developed and neither the pediatric nor the adult oncologic systems perfectly fit these patients’ needs. The Youth Project of the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, dedicated to AYA with pediatric-type solid tumors, can be seen as a model of care for AYA patients, with its heterogeneous multidisciplinary staff and close cooperation with adult medical oncologists and surgeons. Further progress in the care of AYA cancer patients is still needed to improve their outcomes. PMID:27606308

  5. Model of Care for Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: The Youth Project in Milan.

    PubMed

    Magni, Chiara; Veneroni, Laura; Silva, Matteo; Casanova, Michela; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Massimino, Maura; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Ferrari, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer form a particular group of patients with unique characteristics, who inhabit a so-called "no man's land" between pediatric and adult services. In the last 10 years, the scientific oncology community has started to pay attention to these patients, implementing dedicated programs. A standardized model of care directed toward patients in this age range has yet to be developed and neither the pediatric nor the adult oncologic systems perfectly fit these patients' needs. The Youth Project of the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, dedicated to AYA with pediatric-type solid tumors, can be seen as a model of care for AYA patients, with its heterogeneous multidisciplinary staff and close cooperation with adult medical oncologists and surgeons. Further progress in the care of AYA cancer patients is still needed to improve their outcomes. PMID:27606308

  6. Model of Care for Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: The Youth Project in Milan

    PubMed Central

    Magni, Chiara; Veneroni, Laura; Silva, Matteo; Casanova, Michela; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Massimino, Maura; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Ferrari, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer form a particular group of patients with unique characteristics, who inhabit a so-called “no man’s land” between pediatric and adult services. In the last 10 years, the scientific oncology community has started to pay attention to these patients, implementing dedicated programs. A standardized model of care directed toward patients in this age range has yet to be developed and neither the pediatric nor the adult oncologic systems perfectly fit these patients’ needs. The Youth Project of the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, dedicated to AYA with pediatric-type solid tumors, can be seen as a model of care for AYA patients, with its heterogeneous multidisciplinary staff and close cooperation with adult medical oncologists and surgeons. Further progress in the care of AYA cancer patients is still needed to improve their outcomes.

  7. Louisiana Adult Education Staff Development Project. Interim Report, May 1, 1973-May31, 1974. Publication No. 1428.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyet, Robert W., Comp.; And Others

    The report contains summaries and materials describing the second year of a Louisiana project to train teachers of reading for illiterate adults. Meeting a major objective, the project increased the number of State colleges and universities offering credit courses in adult education to 10, for a total of 27 courses enrolling 716 local adult…

  8. Trends and future projections of the prevalence of adult obesity in Saudi Arabia, 1992-2022.

    PubMed

    Al-Quwaidhi, A J; Pearce, M S; Critchley, J A; Sobngwi, E; O'Flaherty, M

    2014-10-20

    The prevalence of obesity among adults in Saudi Arabia increased from 22% in 1990-1993 to 36% in 2005, and future projections of the prevalence of adult obesity are needed by health policy-makers. In a secondary analysis of published data, a number of assumptions were applied to estimate the trends and projections in the age-and sex-specific prevalence of adult obesity in Saudi Arabia over the period 1992-2022. Five studies conducted between 1989 and 2005 were eligible for inclusion, using body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2) to define obesity. The overall prevalence of obesity was projected to increase from around 12% in 1992 to 41% by 2022 in men, and from 21% to 78% in women. Women had much higher projected prevalence than men, particularly in the age groups 35-44, 45-54 and 55-64 years. Effective national strategies are needed to reduce or halt the projected rise in obesity prevalence.

  9. Attachment Apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, Edward F.

    1998-08-18

    The present invention includes an attachment apparatus comprising a rotation limiting member adapted to be threaded onto a threaded member; and a preload nut adapted to be threaded onto the threaded member. The rotation limiting member comprises a plurality of pins; and the preload nut comprises plurality of slots, preferably wherein the plurality of pins and the plurality of slots are the same in number, which is preferably three. The plurality of pins of the rotation limiting member are filled into a corresponding plurality of slots of the preload nut to form a rotatable unit adapted to be threaded onto the threaded member. In use, the rotatable unit is threaded onto the threaded member. The present invention thus provides a unitized removable device for holes, including holes other than circular in shape, which have an established depth before an end of, or before an enlargement of the hole. The configuration of some exposed part of the device, or the head, is shaped and formed for its intended purpose, such as clamping, anchor points, eye bolts, stud anchor, and the like. The device allows for the installation, preloading and removal of all components of the device, as a unit, without damage to the member for which attachment is required by simple rotations of some exposed part of the device.

  10. Attachment Patterns in the Psychotherapy Relationship: Development of the Client Attachment to Therapist Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallinckrodt, Brent; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes development of an instrument, the Client Attachment to Therapist Scale (CATS). CATS factors correlated in expected directions with survey measures of object relations, client-rated working alliance, social self-efficacy, and adult attachment. Cluster analysis revealed four types of client attachment. Discusses implications of attachment…

  11. Attachment and Autism: Parental Attachment Representations and Relational Behaviors in the Parent-Child Dyad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seskin, Lynn; Feliciano, Eileen; Tippy, Gil; Yedloutschnig, Ruby; Sossin, K. Mark; Yasik, Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    While attachment research has demonstrated that parents' internal working models of attachment relationships tend to be transmitted to their children, affecting children's developmental trajectories, this study specifically examines associations between adult attachment status and observable parent, child, and dyadic behaviors among children with…

  12. Anorexia and attachment: dysregulated defense and pathological mourning

    PubMed Central

    Delvecchio, Elisa; Di Riso, Daniela; Salcuni, Silvia; Lis, Adriana; George, Carol

    2014-01-01

    The role of defensive exclusion (Deactivation and Segregated Systems) in the development of early relationships and related to subsequent manifestations of symptoms of eating disorders was assessed using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP). Fifty-one DSM-IV diagnosed women with anorexia participated in the study. Anorexic patients were primarily classified as dismissing or unresolved. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of defensive exclusion were carried out. Results showed potential benefits of using the AAP defense exclusion coding system, in addition to the main attachment classifications, in order to better understand the developmental issues involved in anorexia. Discussion concerned the processes, such as pathological mourning, that may underlie the associations between dismissing and unresolved attachment and anorexia. Implications for developmental research and clinical nosology are discussed. PMID:25389412

  13. Time-Gated Optical Projection Tomography Allows Visualization of Adult Zebrafish Internal Structures

    PubMed Central

    Foglia, Efrem Alessandro; Pistocchi, Anna; D'Andrea, Cosimo; Valentini, Gianluca; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; De Silvestri, Sandro; Cerullo, Giulio; Cotelli, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Optical imaging through biological samples is compromised by tissue scattering and currently various approaches aim to overcome this limitation. In this paper we demonstrate that an all optical technique, based on non-linear upconversion of infrared ultrashort laser pulses and on multiple view acquisition, allows the reduction of scattering effects in tomographic imaging. This technique, namely Time-Gated Optical Projection Tomography (TGOPT), is used to reconstruct three dimensionally the internal structure of adult zebrafish without staining or clearing agents. This method extends the use of Optical Projection Tomography to optically diffusive samples yielding reconstructions with reduced artifacts, increased contrast and improved resolution with respect to those obtained with non-gated techniques. The paper shows that TGOPT is particularly suited for imaging the skeletal system and nervous structures of adult zebrafish. PMID:23185643

  14. Attachment and adolescent psychosocial functioning.

    PubMed

    Allen, J P; Moore, C; Kuperminc, G; Bell, K

    1998-10-01

    To explore the meaning and function of attachment organization during adolescence, its relation to multiple domains of psychosocial functioning was examined in a sample of 131 moderately at-risk adolescents. Attachment organization was assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview; multiple measures of functioning were obtained from parents, adolescents, and their peers. Security displayed in adolescents' organization of discourse about attachment experiences was related to competence with peers (as reported by peers), lower levels of internalizing behaviors (as reported by adolescents), and lower levels of deviant behavior (as reported by peers and by mothers). Preoccupation with attachment experiences, seen in angry or diffuse and unfocused discussion of attachment experiences, was linked to higher levels of both internalizing and deviant behaviors. These relations generally remained even when other attachment-related constructs that had been previously related to adolescent functioning were covaried in analysis. Results are interpreted as suggesting an important role for attachment organization in a wide array of aspects of adolescent psychosocial development. PMID:9839424

  15. Project InSights: An Evaluation of a Community Vision Education Project for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buonocore, Susan; Sussman-Skalka, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Project InSights trained elderly volunteers to conduct peer education programs on vision health. A majority of 55 volunteers felt they provided an important service and made a useful contribution. A majority of 560 participants in the vision education learned something new and about half intended behavior changes related to vision. (Contains 19…

  16. Aberrant Synaptic Integration in Adult Lamina I Projection Neurons Following Neonatal Tissue Damage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Kritzer, Elizabeth; Craig, Paige E.

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that neonatal tissue damage evokes alterations in spinal pain reflexes which persist into adulthood. However, less is known about potential concomitant effects on the transmission of nociceptive information to the brain, as the degree to which early injury modulates synaptic integration and membrane excitability in mature spinal projection neurons remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that neonatal surgical injury leads to a significant shift in the balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition onto identified lamina I projection neurons of the adult mouse spinal cord. The strength of direct primary afferent input to mature spino-parabrachial neurons was enhanced following neonatal tissue damage, whereas the efficacy of both GABAergic and glycinergic inhibition onto the same population was compromised. This was accompanied by reorganization in the pattern of sensory input to adult projection neurons, which included a greater prevalence of monosynaptic input from low-threshold A-fibers when preceded by early tissue damage. In addition, neonatal incision resulted in greater primary afferent-evoked action potential discharge in mature projection neurons. Overall, these results demonstrate that tissue damage during early life causes a long-term increase in the gain of spinal nociceptive circuits, and suggest that the prolonged consequences of neonatal trauma may not be restricted to the spinal cord but rather include excessive ascending signaling to supraspinal pain centers. PMID:25673839

  17. Lower Oxytocin Plasma Levels in Borderline Patients with Unresolved Attachment Representations.

    PubMed

    Jobst, Andrea; Padberg, Frank; Mauer, Maria-Christine; Daltrozzo, Tanja; Bauriedl-Schmidt, Christine; Sabass, Lena; Sarubin, Nina; Falkai, Peter; Renneberg, Babette; Zill, Peter; Gander, Manuela; Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Interpersonal problems and affective dysregulation are core characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD). BPD patients predominantly show unresolved attachment representations. The oxytocin (OT) system is associated with human social attachment and affiliative behavior, and OT dysregulation may be related to distinct attachment characteristics. Here, we investigated whether attachment representations are related to peripheral OT levels in BPD patients. Twenty-one female BPD patients and 20 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) were assessed with clinical scales and measures of interpersonal and attachment-related characteristics, including the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP). Plasma OT concentrations were measured prior to and during social exclusion in a virtual ball tossing game (Cyberball). The majority of BPD patients (63.2%) but no HCs showed unresolved (disorganized) attachment representations. In this subgroup of patients, baseline OT plasma levels were significantly lower than in BPD patients with organized attachment representations. This pilot study extends previous findings of altered OT regulation in BPD as a putative key mechanism underlying interpersonal dysregulation. Our results provide first evidence that altered OT plasma levels are related to disorganized attachment representations in BPD patients.

  18. An Evaluation of the Educational Benefits and Cost Analysis of the Adult General Education/Basic Education Mobile Van Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuVall, Charles R.; And Others

    A study examined the educational benefits and costs of the adult general education/basic education mobile van project designed to provide access to adult basic education and general education programs for citizens of Indiana. An evaluation team interviewed all available persons (including Indiana Office of Occupational Development directors;…

  19. Genetic and environmental influences on adult life outcomes: evidence from the Texas Adoption Project.

    PubMed

    Loehlin, John C; Horn, Joseph M; Ernst, Jody L

    2007-05-01

    A short mail questionnaire was sent to individuals, now adults, who had been studied over 30 years ago as children in the Texas Adoption Project. Their parents and (in many cases) siblings also described them using the same questionnaire, and the parents described themselves as well. The questionnaire was designed to obtain information about educational, occupational, and marital outcomes, as well as adult problems and personality. Results were obtained for 324 adopted and 142 biological children from the original 300 families, and for 266 parents. Although both the adopted and biological offsprings' outcomes were generally positive, those for the adopted offspring were somewhat less so. Biologically related family members tended to be more similar in their life outcomes than biologically unrelated family members, suggesting that genes were playing an important role.

  20. Thalamocortical Projections onto Behaviorally Relevant Neurons Exhibit Plasticity during Adult Motor Learning.

    PubMed

    Biane, Jeremy S; Takashima, Yoshio; Scanziani, Massimo; Conner, James M; Tuszynski, Mark H

    2016-03-16

    Layer 5 neurons of the neocortex receive direct and relatively strong input from the thalamus. However, the intralaminar distribution of these inputs and their capacity for plasticity in adult animals are largely unknown. In slices of the primary motor cortex (M1), we simultaneously recorded from pairs of corticospinal neurons associated with control of distinct motor outputs: distal forelimb versus proximal forelimb. Activation of ChR2-expressing thalamocortical afferents in M1 before motor learning produced equivalent responses in monosynaptic excitation of neurons controlling the distal and proximal forelimb, suggesting balanced thalamic input at baseline. Following skilled grasp training, however, thalamocortical input shifted to bias activation of corticospinal neurons associated with control of the distal forelimb. This increase was associated with a cell-specific increase in mEPSC amplitude but not presynaptic release probability. These findings demonstrate distinct and highly segregated plasticity of thalamocortical projections during adult learning. PMID:26948893

  1. Utilization of a Preemptive, Multimodal Analgesic Regimen in Adult Ambulatory Septoplasty Patients: A Quality Improvement Project.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Brett; Stanik-Hutt, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a quality improvement project designed to decrease postoperative pain, decrease post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV), decrease time in the recovery room, and increase patient satisfaction in adult ambulatory septoplasty patients using a multimodal, preemptive analgesic regimen. The project was conducted in a community hospital setting with nine operating rooms, and a twenty one bed recovery room. Project participants included certified registered nurse anesthetists, anesthesiologists, operating room nurses, recovery room nurses, and otolaryngology surgeons. Following a period of departmental education, adult patients scheduled for outpatient septoplasty surgery received a preoperative regimen of medications that included gabapentin, celecoxib, and acetaminophen. Using a pre-post test design, (intervention group n = 17, non-intervention group n = 17) data was collected from patient and analyzed using SPSS version 18.0. The change in practice resulted in a significant decrease in pain scores in the recovery room and on discharge from the recovery room. In addition, patients who received the preemptive regimen also required significantly fewer opioid medications and were ready to be discharged from the recovery room in less time.

  2. Community Adult Education; Evidence Submitted to the Russell Committee on Adult Education in England and Wales by the Workers' Educational Association (West Lancashire & Cheshire District) and the Liverpool Educational Priority Area Action/Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, T. O.

    This paper discusses six roles which an adult education agency can fill in an Educational Priority Area and illustrates each one with examples from the Liverpool E.P.A. Project. These roles are: (1) adult education cum community development; (2) adult education as a resource in community development work; (3) adult education as an aid to parents…

  3. Maintaining Exercise and Healthful Eating in Older Adults: The SENIOR Project II: Study Design and Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Phillip G.; Blissmer, Bryan J.; Greene, Geoffrey W.; Lees, Faith D.; Riebe, Deborah A.; Stamm, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    The Study of Exercise and Nutrition in Older Rhode Islanders (SENIOR) Project II is an intervention study to promote the maintenance of both exercise and healthful eating in older adults. It is the second phase of an earlier study, SENIOR Project I, that originally recruited 1,277 community-dwelling older adults to participate in behavior-specific interventions designed to increase exercise and/or fruit and vegetable consumption. The general theoretical framework for this research is the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of Health Behavior Change. The current intervention occurs over a 48-month period, using a manual, newsletters, and phone coaching calls. Annual assessments collect standardized data on behavioral outcomes (exercise and diet), TTM variables (stage of change and self-efficacy), psychosocial variables (social support, depression, resilience, and life satisfaction), physical activity and functioning (SF-36, Up and Go, Senior Fitness Test, and disability assessment), cognitive functioning (Trail Making Test and Forward and Backward Digit Span), physical measures (height, weight, and waist circumference), and demographics. The SENIOR Project II is designed to answer the following question as its primary objective: (1) Does an individualized active-maintenance intervention with older adults maintain greater levels of healthful exercise and dietary behaviors for four years, compared to a control condition? In addition, there are two secondary objectives: (2) What are the psychosocial factors associated with the maintenance of health-promoting behaviors in the very old? and (3) What are the effects of the maintenance of health-promoting behaviors on reported health outcomes, psychosocial measures, anthropometrics, and cognitive status? PMID:20955821

  4. Loss and Disorganization from an Attachment Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Paula

    2010-01-01

    In this article, it is hypothesized that disorganizing, disorienting, and unresolved states of mind about loss experiences, as classified by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) coding system, may offer insight into the bereaved mind and may guide clinical treatment approaches. This article discusses pre-loss attachment organizations and the…

  5. A Community-based Education Project: Intertidal Surveys With Student and Adult Volunteers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller-Parker, G.; Bingham, B. L.

    2004-12-01

    The Fidalgo Learning about the Intertidal Project (FLIP) brought together scientists, educators, students and adult volunteers (20-30 total individuals) to conduct studies of the intertidal zone of a section of Fidalgo Island, Wa. in 2003 and 2004. The project goals were to: 1) obtain basic data on diversity and abundance of intertidal species in different habitats, 2) promote public awareness and appreciation of the intertidal zone, and 3) develop a model program for volunteer participation in scientific surveys. The 2-week program began with 2 days of workshops on local intertidal organisms to teach the FLIP participants how to classify and identify the different organisms and substrates they were likely to encounter in the surveys. We provided general lectures on intertidal habitats and on the importance of the intertidal zone to coastal resources. The FLIP participants worked together on identifying organisms, practicing the use of quadrats and data collection before the surveys began. Following 4 days of field surveys, the participants signed up for workshops that included compilation and analysis of the data, photography, nature writing and algae pressing. The final activity was a public tour of the intertidal day held at a local park. 50-60 people of all ages participated. The goal was to educate the public in plant and animal identification and habitat variability as well as "beach etiquette." Successful model program elements included self-selected volunteers and attention to the composition of each survey team, with one scientist/leader per team and one adult and two students or two adults and one student per team (4-5 teams, each completing one transect per site). Program flexibility was also crucial; FLIP volunteers were not required to attend every single day and post-survey workshops were optional. Volunteers participated to different extents and for different lengths of time depending on their abilities and interests. Project ownership was important

  6. Accent on Learning; An Analytical History of the Fund for Adult Education's Experimental Discussion Project, 1951-1959.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Glen

    This book is an analytical history of the experimental study-discussion project, "Accent on Learning," developed by the Fund for Adult Education, a private program sponsored by the Ford Foundation from 1951 to 1961. The project prepared programs around a variety of subjects in the fields of political, international, economic, and social affairs,…

  7. A Prevention Education Project on the Abuse and Mistreatment of Older Adults in Northern Saskatchewan. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regina Univ. (Saskatchewan). Univ. Extension. Seniors Education Centre.

    A project was designed to begin an Elder Abuse Prevention Education initiative specific to northern and Aboriginal needs in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. The key principle in every dimension of the project was getting to know one another and talking with Aboriginal older adults and those who work with them. In early 1993, LaRonge, Saskatchewan,…

  8. Neural Correlates of the Appraisal of Attachment Scenes in Healthy Controls and Social Cognition-An fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Labek, Karin; Viviani, Roberto; Gizewski, Elke R; Verius, Michael; Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The human attachment system is activated in situations of danger such as potential separation, threats of loss of a significant other and potential insecurity on the availability of the attachment figure. To date, however, a precise characterization of the neural correlates of the attachment system in healthy individuals is lacking. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study aims at characterizing the distinctive neural substrates activated by the exposure to attachment vs. non-attachment scenes. Healthy participants (N = 25) were presented scenes from the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), a validated set of standardized attachment-related pictures extended by a control picture stimulus set consisting of scenes without attachment-related content. When compared to the control neutral pictures, attachment scenes activated the inferior parietal lobes (IPLs), the middle temporal gyrus (MTG), and the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). These areas are associated with reasoning about mental representations, semantic memory of social knowledge, and social cognition. This neural activation pattern confirms the distinctive quality of this stimulus set, and suggests its use as a potential neuroimaging probe to assess social cognition/mentalizing related to attachment in healthy and clinical populations.

  9. Neural Correlates of the Appraisal of Attachment Scenes in Healthy Controls and Social Cognition—An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Labek, Karin; Viviani, Roberto; Gizewski, Elke R.; Verius, Michael; Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The human attachment system is activated in situations of danger such as potential separation, threats of loss of a significant other and potential insecurity on the availability of the attachment figure. To date, however, a precise characterization of the neural correlates of the attachment system in healthy individuals is lacking. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study aims at characterizing the distinctive neural substrates activated by the exposure to attachment vs. non-attachment scenes. Healthy participants (N = 25) were presented scenes from the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), a validated set of standardized attachment-related pictures extended by a control picture stimulus set consisting of scenes without attachment-related content. When compared to the control neutral pictures, attachment scenes activated the inferior parietal lobes (IPLs), the middle temporal gyrus (MTG), and the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). These areas are associated with reasoning about mental representations, semantic memory of social knowledge, and social cognition. This neural activation pattern confirms the distinctive quality of this stimulus set, and suggests its use as a potential neuroimaging probe to assess social cognition/mentalizing related to attachment in healthy and clinical populations. PMID:27458363

  10. Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

  11. Carbachol-Induced Reduction in the Activity of Adult Male Zebra Finch RA Projection Neurons.

    PubMed

    Meng, Wei; Wang, Song-Hua; Li, Dong-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Cholinergic mechanism is involved in motor behavior. In songbirds, the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) is a song premotor nucleus in the pallium and receives cholinergic inputs from the basal forebrain. The activity of projection neurons in RA determines song motor behavior. Although many evidences suggest that cholinergic system is implicated in song production, the cholinergic modulation of RA is not clear until now. In the present study, the electrophysiological effects of carbachol, a nonselective cholinergic receptor agonist, were investigated on the RA projection neurons of adult male zebra finches through whole-cell patch-clamp techniques in vitro. Our results show that carbachol produced a significant decrease in the spontaneous and evoked action potential (AP) firing frequency of RA projection neurons, accompanying a hyperpolarization of the membrane potential, an increase in the evoked AP latency, afterhyperpolarization (AHP) peak amplitude, and AHP time to peak, and a decrease in the membrane input resistance, membrane time constant, and membrane capacitance. These results indicate that carbachol reduces the activity of RA projection neurons by hyperpolarizing the resting membrane potential and increasing the AHP and the membrane conductance, suggesting that the cholinergic modulation of RA may play an important role in song production. PMID:26904300

  12. Fitness but not weight status is associated with projected physical independence in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, Luis B; Cyrino, Edilson S; Santos, Leandro Dos; Ekelund, Ulf; Santos, Diana A

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and fitness have been associated with older adults' physical independence. We aimed to investigate the independent and combined associations of physical fitness and adiposity, assessed by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with the projected ability for physical independence. A total of 3496 non-institutionalized older adults aged 65 and older (1167 male) were included in the analysis. BMI and WC were assessed and categorized according to established criteria. Physical fitness was evaluated with the Senior Fitness Test and individual test results were expressed as Z-scores. Projected ability for physical independence was assessed with the 12-item composite physical function scale. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for being physically dependent. A total of 30.1 % of participants were classified as at risk for losing physical independence at age 90 years. Combined fitness and fatness analysis demonstrated that unfit older adults had increased odds ratio for being physically dependent in all BMI categories (normal: OR = 9.5, 95 %CI = 6.5-13.8; overweight: OR = 6.0, 95 %CI = 4.3-8.3; obese: OR = 6.7, 95 %CI = 4.6-10.0) and all WC categories (normal: OR = 10.4, 95%CI = 6.5-16.8; middle: OR = 6.2, 95 %CI = 4.1-9.3; upper: OR = 7.0, 95 %CI = 4.8-10.0) compared to fit participants that were of normal weight and fit participants with normal WC, respectively. No increased odds ratio was observed for fit participants that had increased BMI or WC. In conclusion, projected physical independence may be enhanced by a normal weight, a normal WC, or an increased physical fitness. Adiposity measures were not associated with physical independence, whereas fitness is independently related to physical independence. Independent of their weight and WC status, unfit older adults are at increased risk for losing physical independence.

  13. Attachment: Implications for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how attachment theory can be useful strategy for producing therapeutic change and more productive client functioning. Addresses basic attachment theory concepts and parallels between counseling and attachment. Provides case example to focus, integrate, and elaborate elements presented. (Author)

  14. Educational needs of employed family caregivers of older adults: Evaluation of a workplace project.

    PubMed

    Curry, Linda Cox; Walker, Charles; Hogstel, Mildred O

    2006-01-01

    Family members provide 80% of care for older adults in the United States. Many family caregivers are employed either full or part time. For employed caregivers, personal health, job performance, and the ability to advance their career are affected by the weight of their caregiving responsibilities. Some find it necessary to quit their jobs. Employed caregivers report a need for caregiving information; however, they seldom think of their workplace as a valuable resource. Results of the second of a 3-phase research and service project are discussed. Based on a needs assessment completed by employees of a large institution, educational sessions were offered during 3 consecutive months. Thirty-five employees attended 1 or more sessions. The sessions were evaluated highly on a 5-point Likert-type scale for usefulness of information, quality of presentation, and value of session. Sharing project results with the employing institution's human resources department yielded commitment to integrate caregiver education and referral into a newly organized work-life program. When properly managed, such workplace programs can provide needed assistance to employed caregivers. A nurse working with older adults is an ideal provider to initiate and manage this kind of program. PMID:16757388

  15. See Attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, W. Scott

    2003-01-01

    Since e-mail generates itself on a round-the-clock, daily basis, it's not unusual for me to receive an average of fifty e-mails a day, or more than 300 a week. That s a lot of e-mail. I have spoken with many of my fellow project managers about my relationship with e-mail. In my case, reading and responding to it is a temptation almost too hard to resist. When I receive an e-mail I tend to want to stop everything I m doing, and open and answer it. Indeed, in my life you could say e-mail is a force to be reckoned with. Interestingly, my fascination with mail began a long time ago. I trace it back to my days as a young boy when I started receiving my first letters from friends and family. Walking home from school, I was often filled with curiosity, wondering if I had received any mail that day. In college, I knew the exact time the mail was delivered, and I headed for my mailbox as close to that hour as I could. After that, I served in an Army Reserve Post Office Unit, where I came to realize how important a postal unit was to the military. There were many others like myself, far from home, who relied on the written word to stay connected to the people in their lives. Over the years I have changed in many ways, and so has the mail. But the same sense of connection, and the same urge to respond to someone who has written me, remains. The 24/7 nature of e-mail has compounded the situation. It is relentless in its pursuit of my time and attention-and, as such, e-mail has become something I have had to manage in a variety of situations

  16. Distance Education in European Higher Education--The Potential. Report 3 (of 3) of the IDEAL (Impact of Distance Education on Adult Learning Project. Extended Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu-Boampong, Angela; Holmberg, Carl

    2015-01-01

    This report is the third in a series published by the IDEAL (Impact of Distance Education on Adult Learning) project. The IDEAL project ran from October 2013 to September 2015 with financial support from the EU Lifelong Learning Programme. The project aims to: (1) offer insights on the needs of adult learners to both policymakers and distance…

  17. Distance Education in European Higher Education--The Students. Report 2 (of 3) of the IDEAL (Impact of Distance Education on Adult Learning) Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneller, Chripa; Holmberg, Carl

    2014-01-01

    This report is the second in a series published by the IDEAL (Impact of Distance Education on Adult Learning) project. The IDEAL project ran from October 2013 to September 2015 with financial support from the EU Lifelong Learning Programme. The project aims to: (1) offer insights on the needs of adult learners to both policymakers and distance…

  18. Distance Education in European Higher Education--The Offer. Report 1 (of 3) of the IDEAL (Impact of Distance Education on Adult Learning) Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneller, Chripa; Holmberg, Carl

    2014-01-01

    This report is the first in a series published by the IDEAL (Impact of Distance Education on Adult Learning) project. The IDEAL project ran from October 2013 to September 2015 with financial support from the EU Lifelong Learning Programme. The project aims to: (1) offer insights on the needs of adult learners to both policymakers and distance…

  19. The Intergeneration Transmission of Attachment: How Do We Account for the "Transmission Gap?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verneuil, Ann Marie

    This doctoral research paper reviews the empirical literature examining intergenerational transmission of attachment styles. The relationship between adult caregivers' internal representations of attachment as measured by the Adult Attachment Interview and their infants' attachment status as measured by the Strange Situation procedure has been…

  20. Therapeutic limits from an attachment perspective.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Lisha; Ryan, Virginia

    2009-04-01

    This article applies attachment theory and relevant research to therapeutic limit setting and focuses particularly on child-centred, non-directive play therapy (NDPT) practice. We review the role of limits in therapeutic change and examine whether therapeutic limit setting exhibits properties similar to those evident in typical adult-child relationships, a topic not previously considered in the literature. The first section identifies properties considered inherent in optimal attachment relationships from a limit setting perspective, drawing particularly on Heard and Lake's (1997) extension of Bowlby's attachment theory. The next section discusses therapists' use of limit setting from an attachment standpoint, distinguishing features of therapeutic limit setting which reflect properties evident in sensitive adult-child attachments. Finally, implications for further research and practice in child therapy are explored.

  1. Are anxiously attached women better mindreaders?

    PubMed

    Hünefeldt, Thomas; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Ortu, Francesca

    2013-08-01

    This research was aimed at providing first evidence concerning the relationship between adults' self-reported attachment style and their performance on a standard 'theory of mind' task. Based on adult attachment theory, we hypothesized that the two dimensions of self-reported adult attachment, anxiety and avoidance, are differently related to 'theory of mind,' and that this relationship is moderated by variables concerning the 'theory of mind' stimuli. The 'Experiences in Close Relationships' questionnaire and the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' test were administered to 132 young women. In line with our expectations, women's attachment-related anxiety was associated with better mind reading concerning stimuli that were emotionally neutral or difficult to recognize.

  2. Reframing Adult Literacy and Numeracy Course Outcomes: A Social Capital Perspective. An Adult Literacy National Project Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balatti, Jo; Black, Stephen; Falk, Ian

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether adult literacy and numeracy courses produced social capital outcomes, which are changes in students' connections with networks of people. Interviews seeking information about participation in adult literacy and numeracy courses were conducted with 57 students and 18 teachers in four courses, one each in the Northern…

  3. Project Roadmap: Reeducating Older Adults in Maintaining AIDS Prevention--A Secondary Intervention for Older HIV-Positive Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illa, Lourdes; Echenique, Marisa; Saint Jean, Gilbert; Bustamante-Avellaneda, Victoria; Metsch, Lisa; Mendez-Mulet, Luis; Eisdorfer, Carl; Sanchez-Martinez, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The number of older adults living with HIV/AIDS is larger than ever. Little is known about their sexual behaviors, although contrary to stereotypes, older adults desire and engage in sexual activity. Despite increased recognition of the need for prevention interventions targeting HIV-positive individuals, no secondary HIV prevention interventions…

  4. Construct validity of the Schwartz outcome scale-10: comparisons to interpersonal distress, adult attachment, alexithymia, the five-factor model, romantic relationship length and ratings of childhood memories.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, Greg; Blake, Margaret; Naraine, Melissa; Siefert, Caleb; Blais, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    The Schwartz Outcome Scale-10 (SOS-10) is a 10-item questionnaire that measures the broad domain of psychological well-being and quality of life. The SOS-10 is easy to administer and score. Past research has shown its utility, reliability and validity in different clinical settings (i.e., inpatient, outpatient and non-psychiatry medical settings) and with diverse clinical populations in measuring treatment outcome. The present study looks to extend the construct validity of the SOS-10 to assessing quality of life and psychological health in non-clinical samples as well. The results reveal that the SOS-10 is associated in predicted ways with established measures of attachment, interpersonal distress, alexithymia and the big five model whose construct validity and psychometric soundness has been well documented. The SOS-10 was also associated in predicted ways with ratings of childhood memories and the length of the participants' longest romantic relationship.

  5. Antecedents of Attachment among Education Center Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reio, Thomas G., Jr.; Sanders-Reio, Joanne

    2005-01-01

    In a study of self-reports from 111 adults enrolled in education classes at seven adult education centers, peer relations, positive and negative affect, and curiosity and perception of learning improvement each uniquely predicted secure attachment among the participants. After controlling for age, sex, and income, the hierarchical logistical…

  6. Expanding the concept of unresolved mental states: Hostile/Helpless states of mind on the Adult Attachment Interview are associated with disrupted mother–infant communication and infant disorganization

    PubMed Central

    LYONS–RUTH, KARLEN; YELLIN, CLAUDIA; MELNICK, SHARON; ATWOOD, GWENDOLYN

    2006-01-01

    In a recent meta-analysis, only 53% of disorganized infants were predicted by parental Unresolved states of mind on the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). The goal of this study was to identify additional predictors of infant disorganization on the AAI by developing and validating an interview-wide coding system for Hostile/Helpless (H/H) parental states of mind with respect to attachment. Maternal AAIs were collected from 45 low-income mothers with high rates of childhood trauma when their children were age 7; Strange Situation assessments had been collected at 18 months of age. AAIs were independently coded using both the Main and Goldwyn coding system and newly developed codes for H/H states of mind. Results indicated that the H/H coding system displayed discriminant validity in that it did not overlap substantially with the Unresolved, Cannot Classify, or Fearfully Preoccupied by Traumatic Events categories in the Main and Goldwyn coding system. Second, H/H states of mind accounted for variance in disorganized infant behavior not associated with the Unresolved classification. Third, H/H states of mind were significantly related to maternal disrupted affective communication as coded by the Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification coding system, and maternal disrupted communication mediated the relations between H/H states of mind and infant disorganization. PMID:15971757

  7. Dental implants in edentulous adults with cognitive disabilities: report of a pilot project.

    PubMed

    Durham, Timothy M; King, Thomas; Salinas, Thomas; Franco, Theodore; Ross, Jason

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with cognitive disabilities face many barriers to oral care, often suffering from partial or complete edentulism. While the use of implant reconstruction is becoming more common in the general population, such care is still being used infrequently in individuals with intellectual impairment. A pilot project in 1995 surgically placed and restored implant-supported prostheses in six edentulous adults who had varying degrees of cognitive impairment. This report presents the dentists' reconstruction experiences and the patients' follow-up care, and discusses the results in relationship to current literature. Experiences from these patients suggest that behavior during the restorative process, prosthetic complications post placement, and patients' oral hygiene practices should influence patient selection and prosthetic design. Anteriorly placed fixtures and removable designs, which make self-care and repair easier, can be used to treat an edentulous population. PMID:16703934

  8. Epistemological Development and Attachment in European College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faria, Carla; Soares, Isabel; Silva, Carolina; Bastos, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Epistemological development and attachment theory have been independent frameworks for understanding psychological development. This study examined the association between epistemological development (using the Measure of Epistemological Reflection) and attachment (using the Adult Attachment Interview) in a sample of 60 pre- and postgraduated…

  9. Love Relationships: Attachment Style and the Investment Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, Carole M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined association of adult attachment styles and Rusbult's investment model of relationships. Responses from 239 participants indicated those who are securely attached experience greater satisfaction, fewer costs, and greater commitment in their relationships than do other attachment groups. Other findings and implications for counseling were…

  10. Caregiving in Attachment Relationships: A Perspective for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole

    1999-01-01

    Examines how caregiving, an aspect of attachment theory, can be applied in counseling. Begins with an overview of attachment theory, then focuses on counselor's position as caregiver, adult relationship issues, and termination of counseling. States that a counselor's attention to a client's attachment style during early sessions may enhance…

  11. Attachment State of Mind: Implications for Adjustment to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernier, Annie; Larose, Simon; Boivin, Michel; Soucy, Nathalie

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the associations between attachment state of mind and adjustment to college. A related aim was to examine the moderating role of attachment state of mind in the relation between parental control and school adjustment. One-hundred two college freshmen completed the Adult Attachment Interview and a…

  12. Being Lonely, Falling in Love: Perspectives from Attachment Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, Phillip

    Love and loneliness hold special interest at a time when divorce and geographical mobility pull so many people apart. Attachment theory offers a useful integrative framework to study adolescent and adult love and loneliness. Attachment theory has three propositions: (1) when an individual is confident an attachment figure will be available when he…

  13. Attachment Representations and Characteristics of Friendship Relations during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Attachment theory proposes that experiences with the primary caregivers are an important basis for the development of close social relationships outside the parent-child relationship. This study examined the association between representations of attachment, as assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), representations of friendship and…

  14. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Attachment, and Trauma Symptoms in College Females: The Moderating Role of Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Elliott, Ann N.; Smith, Christopher H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study tests a model linking attachment, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and adult psychological functioning. It expands on previous work by assessing the degree to which attachment security moderates the relationship between a history of child sexual abuse and trauma-related symptoms in college females. Method: Self-reports of…

  15. What promotes secure attachment in early adoption? The protective roles of infants' temperament and adoptive parents' attachment.

    PubMed

    Lionetti, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Life before adoption is characterized by the lack of sensitive and stable caregiving, putting infants at risk for non-secure attachment patterns. What leads to adoptees' attachment security in their adoptive families has not been conclusively determined. We investigated the roles of children's temperament and adoptive parents' attachment on adoptees' attachment security. The variables were studied in a sample of 30 early-placed adoptees (age at adoption placement M = 5.37 months, SD = 4.43) and their adoptive mothers and fathers. Attachment patterns were investigated by means of the Strange Situation Procedure and the Adult Attachment Interview, and temperament via the Infant Behavior Questionnaire. Results showed that mothers' secure attachment, but not fathers' attachment or adoptees' temperament, increased the chance of secure attachment in adoptees. Temperament moderated the mother-child attachment match.

  16. Alterations of Hippocampal Projections in Adult Macaques with Neonatal Hippocampal Lesions: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yuguang; Payne, Christa; Li, Longchuan; Hu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xiaodong; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological and brain imaging studies have demonstrated persistent deficits in memory functions and structural changes after neonatal neurotoxic hippocampal lesion in monkeys. However, the relevant microstructural changes in the white matter of affected brain regions following this early insult remain unknown. This study assessed white matter integrity in the main hippocampal projections of adult macaque monkeys with neonatal hippocampal lesions, by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Data analysis was performed using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and compared with volume of interest statistics. Alterations of fractional anisotropy (FA) and diffusivity indices were observed in fornix, temporal stem, ventromedial prefrontal cortex and optical radiations. To further validate the lesion effects on the prefrontal cortex, probabilistic diffusion tractography was used to examine the integrity of the fiber connections between hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and alterations were found in these connections. In addition, increased radial diffusivity in the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex correlated negatively with the severity of deficits in working memory in the same monkeys. The findings revealed microstructural changes due to neonatal hippocampal lesion, and confirmed that neonatal neurotoxic hippocampal lesions resulted in significant and enduring functional alterations in the hippocampal projection system. PMID:25204865

  17. Adolescents' attachment style and early experiences: a gender difference.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, N; Uji, M; Hiramura, H; Chen, Z; Shikai, N; Kishida, Y; Kitamura, T

    2006-01-01

    We examined gender differences in perceived rearing and adult attachment style in adolescents. A total of 3,912 senior college students (1,149 men and 2,763 women) ages 18-23 (men's M = 20.1 years, women's M = 20.0 years) were administered a set of questionnaires including Relationship Questionnaire (to measure adult attachment), the Parental Bonding Instrument (perceived rearing), and a list of early life events. In the men, positive adult total attachment style was predicted by the scores of paternal care and low scores on maternal overprotection in a hierarchical regression analysis. On the other hand, in the women, positive adult total attachment style was predicted by the scores of paternal and maternal care, and low score on maternal overprotection. Adult attachment was also predicted by fewer Peer Victimization experience as a child in both men and women. However, while men's adult attachment was predicted by Self Disease experiences, women's adult attachment was predicted by Top Star experiences and fewer Relocation experiences. The adult attachment style was predictable from early experiences but there existed some gender differences. PMID:16222424

  18. The 14 Pilot Experiments. Volume I. Switzerland, Spain, Portugal, Italy. The CDCC's Project No. 9: "Adult Education and Community Development."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    This volume, the first in a series of three, contains the reports of four European experiments that were part of a process of cooperative monitoring of a project on adult education and community development. The theme of these experiments is "participation of women and men in decisions affecting their daily lives over a wide range of local and…

  19. What Mathematics Calculations Do Adults Do in Their Everyday Lives? Part 1 of a Report on the Everyday Mathematics Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northcote, Maria; Marshall, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The type of mathematics taught in schools is often criticised for being irrelevant to students' lives and not based in "real life". This article is Part 1 of a three part report that documents the findings of a research project that investigated the mathematical calculations completed by adults in their everyday, non-occupational lives…

  20. Adult Outcomes as a Function of an Early Childhood Educational Program: An Abecedarian Project Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Frances A.; Pungello, Elizabeth P.; Burchinal, Margaret; Kainz, Kirsten; Pan, Yi; Wasik, Barbara H.; Barbarin, Oscar A.; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.

    2012-01-01

    Adult (age 30) educational, economic, and social-emotional adjustment outcomes were investigated for participants in the Abecedarian Project, a randomized controlled trial of early childhood education for children from low-income families. Of the original 111 infants enrolled (98% African American), 101 took part in the age 30 follow-up. Primary…

  1. Adult Education Special Demonstration Project. Special Needs Group--Handicapped: Development of Appropriate Services for the Learning Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattschull, Paula

    A project was conducted to serve directly individuals enrolled in adult education programs whose life potentials have been severely limited by specific learning disabilities. The target group was students whose academic achievement grade levels fell within a 0-4 (and secondarily 4-8) range. Direct service components were diagnostic testing and…

  2. 34 CFR 472.33 - How must projects that serve adults with limited English proficiency provide for the needs of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL WORKPLACE LITERACY PROGRAM What Conditions Must Be Met After an Award? § 472... shall provide for the needs of these adults by teaching literacy skills needed in the workplace. (b) Projects may teach workplace literacy skills— (1) To the extent necessary, in the native language of...

  3. 34 CFR 472.33 - How must projects that serve adults with limited English proficiency provide for the needs of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL WORKPLACE LITERACY PROGRAM What Conditions Must Be Met After an Award? § 472... shall provide for the needs of these adults by teaching literacy skills needed in the workplace. (b) Projects may teach workplace literacy skills— (1) To the extent necessary, in the native language of...

  4. 34 CFR 472.33 - How must projects that serve adults with limited English proficiency provide for the needs of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL WORKPLACE LITERACY PROGRAM What Conditions Must Be Met After an Award? § 472... shall provide for the needs of these adults by teaching literacy skills needed in the workplace. (b) Projects may teach workplace literacy skills— (1) To the extent necessary, in the native language of...

  5. 34 CFR 472.33 - How must projects that serve adults with limited English proficiency provide for the needs of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL WORKPLACE LITERACY PROGRAM What Conditions Must Be Met After an Award? § 472... shall provide for the needs of these adults by teaching literacy skills needed in the workplace. (b) Projects may teach workplace literacy skills— (1) To the extent necessary, in the native language of...

  6. 34 CFR 472.33 - How must projects that serve adults with limited English proficiency provide for the needs of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL WORKPLACE LITERACY PROGRAM What Conditions Must Be Met After an Award? § 472... shall provide for the needs of these adults by teaching literacy skills needed in the workplace. (b) Projects may teach workplace literacy skills— (1) To the extent necessary, in the native language of...

  7. Neonatal melanocortin receptor agonist treatment reduces play fighting and promotes adult attachment in prairie voles in a sex-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Catherine E.; Modi, Meera E.; Zhang, Billy C.; Walum, Hasse; Inuoe, Kiyoshi; Young, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    The melanocortin receptor (MCR) system has been studied extensively for its role in feeding and sexual behavior, but effects on social behavior have received little attention. α-MSH interacts with neural systems involved in sociality, including oxytocin, dopamine, and opioid systems. Acute melanotan-II (MTII), an MC3/4R agonist, potentiates brain oxytocin (OT) release and facilitates OT-dependent partner preference formation in socially monogamous prairie voles. Here we examined the long-term impact of early-life MCR stimulation on hypothalamic neuronal activity and social development in prairie voles. Male and female voles were given daily subcutaneous injections of 10 mg/kg MTII or saline between postnatal days (PND) 1-7. Neonatally-treated males displayed a reduction in initiated play fighting bouts as juveniles compared to control males. Neonatal exposure to MTII facilitated partner preference formation in adult females, but not males, after a brief cohabitation with an opposite-sex partner. Acute MTII injection elicited a significant burst of the immediate early gene EGR-1 immunoreactivity in hypothalamic OT, vasopressin, and corticotrophin releasing factor neurons, when tested in PND 6-7 animals. Daily neonatal treatment with 1 mg/kg of a more selective, brain penetrant MC4R agonist, PF44687, promoted adult partner preferences in both females and males compared with vehicle controls. Thus, developmental exposure to MCR agonists lead to a persistent change in social behavior, suggestive of structural or functional changes in the neural circuits involved in the formation of social relationships. PMID:24923239

  8. Seeds of Change; A Report and Evaluation of a Four-Year Adult Education Project in the Vigo County Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, E. Theodore

    The Adult Education Project, conducted for four years at what is now the Vigo County Public Library, Terre Haute, Indiana, was an attempt to discover what could be done to improve a community's informal adult education programs by adding a doctorate-level adult educator to the staff of the public library and by making his services available to the…

  9. A Perspective of the Effectiveness of Project Based Bilingual Curriculum in Personal Empowerment of the Adult English Language Learner: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Cameron

    This case study offers a perspective on the effectiveness of project-based bilingual curricula in empowering the adult English language learner. The purpose of this study is to examine the English acquisition process of adult Latina women who participate in a project based bilingual language program. The program uses techniques that include…

  10. Project DyAdd: classical eyeblink conditioning in adults with dyslexia and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Laasonen, Marja; Kauppinen, Jenni; Leppämäki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Harno, Hanna; Hokkanen, Laura; Wikgren, Jan

    2012-11-01

    In this study of the project DyAdd (Adult Dyslexia and Attention Deficit Disorder in Finland), classical eyeblink conditioning (EBC) was investigated in both delay and trace paradigms in adults (18-55 years) with dyslexia (n = 37), attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 21), their comorbid combination (n = 8), and healthy controls (n = 35). In addition, the profiles of three participants with a rare autosomal dominant cerebellar disease were assessed (episodic ataxia type 2, EA-2). We found that participants with dyslexia were overall slower learners than controls in eyeblink conditioning. Further, they were the only group that had a reduced number of CRs in mediotemporal-dependent trace paradigm compared to the more cerebellum-dependent delay paradigm. Second, ADHD was found to be related to larger CR amplitude. Third, those with a comorbid condition learned faster and manifested CRs that were not well timed. Fourth, the cerebellar patients showed nearly no conditioning at all. Correlations between EBC and various neuropsychological domains (phonological processing, reading, spelling, arithmetic, executive functions, attention, and fine motor control) over all participants resulted in significant relations only for the delay paradigm: Increased amount of reading errors related with later peak latency and increased amount of self-corrections in fine motor control related with larger response magnitude. Within those who conditioned, relations emerged only for the trace paradigm: better spelling was related to larger response magnitude. These results do not lend support to the cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia. On the contrary, dyslexia in its pure form seems to be related to a relative dysfunction of a larger hippocampal-cerebellar network. Further, larger responses in the ADHD group are suggested to result from their lowered responding threshold.

  11. Social and Economic Benefits of Improved Adult Literacy: Towards a Better Understanding. An Adult Literacy National Project Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Robyn; Horne, Jackie

    2006-01-01

    Assessing the social and economic costs of poor adult literacy and numeracy skills, and the benefits of investing in such skills, is largely unchartered territory in Australia. This feasibility study explores the frameworks and methodologies available for determining and measuring such benefits and costs across a number of life domains, including…

  12. Foster Care for Children and Adults with Handicaps: Child Welfare and Adult Social Services. Project Report Number 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Bradley K.; And Others

    This report summarizes state-by-state data on the number of children and adults in foster homes administered by child welfare or social service agencies. As of December 1985, there were approximately 261,000 children in out-of-home foster care, including 54,000 handicapped children, of whom 14,000 were mentally retarded. Telephone interviews and…

  13. Adult Literacy Research and Development: An Agenda for Action. Background Paper Prepared for Project on Adult Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alamprese, Judith A.

    Recent national concern about the levels of adults' literacy skills has resulted in a demand for expanded and more efficient basic skills programs. In turn, governmental agencies at all levels, politicians, and community organizations are seeking continually increasing amounts of information about a variety of topics pertaining to literacy…

  14. Allergy associations with the adult fecal microbiota: Analysis of the American Gut Project

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Xing; Goedert, James J.; Pu, Angela; Yu, Guoqin; Shi, Jianxin

    2015-01-01

    Background Alteration of the gut microbial population (dysbiosis) may increase the risk for allergies and other conditions. This study sought to clarify the relationship of dysbiosis with allergies in adults. Methods Publicly available American Gut Project questionnaire and fecal 16S rRNA sequence data were analyzed. Fecal microbiota richness (number of observed species) and composition (UniFrac) were used to compare adults with versus without allergy to foods (peanuts, tree nuts, shellfish, other) and non-foods (drug, bee sting, dander, asthma, seasonal, eczema). Logistic and Poisson regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for lowest vs highest richness tertile. Taxonomy associations considered 122 non-redundant taxa (of 2379 total taxa) with ≥ 0.1% mean abundance. Results Self-reported allergy prevalence among the 1879 participants (mean age, 45.5 years; 46.9% male) was 81.5%, ranging from 2.5% for peanuts to 40.5% for seasonal. Fecal microbiota richness was markedly lower with total allergies (P = 10− 9) and five particular allergies (P ≤ 10− 4). Richness odds ratios were 1.7 (CI 1.3–2.2) with seasonal, 1.8 (CI 1.3–2.5) with drug, and 7.8 (CI 2.3–26.5) with peanut allergy. These allergic participants also had markedly altered microbial community composition (unweighted UniFrac, P = 10− 4 to 10− 7). Total food and non-food allergies were significantly associated with 7 and 9 altered taxa, respectively. The dysbiosis was most marked with nut and seasonal allergies, driven by higher Bacteroidales and reduced Clostridiales taxa. Interpretation American adults with allergies, especially to nuts and seasonal pollen, have low diversity, reduced Clostridiales, and increased Bacteroidales in their gut microbiota. This dysbiosis might be targeted to improve treatment or prevention of allergy. PMID:26870828

  15. Belt attachment and system

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  16. Adolescent Attachment and Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Diana S.; Horowitz, Harvey A.

    1996-01-01

    In relationships among attachment classification, psychopathology, and personality, traits were examined in a group of 60 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Attachment was examined in 27 adolescent-mother pairs. Both adolescent and maternal attachment status were overwhelmingly insecure and were highly concordant. Results support a model of…

  17. Praziquantel inhibits Schistosoma mansoni attachment in vitro.

    PubMed

    da-Silva, S P; Noel, F

    1990-01-01

    Male adult Schistosoma mansoni worms were placed in a glass dish containing Tyrode solution and observed for 15 min after addition of praziquantel (0.01 to 1 microM). Praziquantel promoted a concentration- and time-dependent inhibition of sucker-mediated attachment of the worm. Attachment inhibition was correlated with shortening of the parasite. We propose that the rapid and total inhibition of worm attachment observed in vitro with 1 microM praziquantel indicates that therapeutic concentrations of this drug should promote a rapid hepatic shift, in vivo, which may facilitate host tissue reaction. PMID:2101049

  18. Secreted Semaphorins from Degenerating Larval ORN Axons Direct Adult Projection Neuron Dendrite Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Lora B.; Chou, Ya-Hui; Wu, Zhuhao; Joo, William; Komiyama, Takaki; Potter, Christopher J.; Kolodkin, Alex L.; Garcia, K. Christopher; Luo, Liqun

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY During assembly of the Drosophila olfactory circuit, projection neuron (PN) dendrites pre-pattern the developing antennal lobe before the arrival of axons from their presynaptic partners, the adult olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). We previously found that levels of transmembrane Semaphorin-1a, which acts as a receptor, instruct PN dendrite targeting along the dorsolateral-ventromedial axis. Here we show that two secreted semaphorins, Sema-2a and Sema-2b, provide spatial cues for PN dendrite targeting. Sema-2a and Sema-2b proteins are distributed in gradients opposing the Sema-1a protein gradient, and Sema-1a binds to Sema-2a-expressing cells. In Sema-2a and Sema-2b double mutants, PN dendrites that normally target dorsolaterally in the antennal lobe mistarget ventromedially, phenocopying cell-autonomous Sema-1a removal from these PNs. Cell ablation, cell-specific knockdown, and rescue experiments indicate that secreted semaphorins from degenerating larval ORN axons direct dendrite targeting. Thus, a degenerating brain structure instructs the wiring of a developing circuit through the repulsive action of secreted semaphorins. PMID:22153371

  19. Statewide Staff Development Project: Adults with Learning Differences. Final Report, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Richard

    A staff development program was conducted to provide adult educators in Pennsylvania with information about adults with learning differences and information about using alternative instructional tools and techniques to instruct such adults. The following four training sessions were developed: (1) Teaching GED (General Educational Development) Math…

  20. An Intergenerational E-Mail Pal Project on Attitudes of College Students toward Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Carla A.

    2011-01-01

    Intergenerational interactions have demonstrated some success at improving attitudes of college students toward older adults. This quasiexperimental study involved undergraduate college students paired with older adults for a six-week e-mail exchange. Student attitudes toward older adults were measured pre- and posttest with Polizzi's revised…

  1. The role of attachment in current and future parent caregiving.

    PubMed

    Karantzas, Gery C; Evans, Lynette; Foddy, Margaret

    2010-09-01

    Few studies have investigated how attachment bonds between older parents and their adult children influence adult children's provision of care and older parents' seeking of support from kin. The aim of this study was to investigate how the attachment orientations of adult children (N = 119) and older parents (N = 148) predict family caregiving and perceptions of carer burden. Across both samples (that were unrelated), attachment dimensions were associated with current and future caregiving and care receiving and perceptions of carer burden, even when accounting for demographic variables, parental dependence and filial obligation. Specifically, attachment avoidance was associated negatively with adult children's future care of parents and positively with burden. In contrast, attachment anxiety was positively associated with older parents' seeking current support, perceptions of carer burden, and intentions to seek future support. PMID:20595205

  2. Attachment and autism: parental attachment representations and relational behaviors in the parent-child dyad.

    PubMed

    Seskin, Lynn; Feliciano, Eileen; Tippy, Gil; Yedloutschnig, Ruby; Sossin, K Mark; Yasik, Anastasia

    2010-10-01

    While attachment research has demonstrated that parents' internal working models of attachment relationships tend to be transmitted to their children, affecting children's developmental trajectories, this study specifically examines associations between adult attachment status and observable parent, child, and dyadic behaviors among children with autism and associated neurodevelopmental disorders of relating and communicating. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was employed to derive parental working models of attachment relationships. The Functional Emotional Assessment Scale (FEAS) was used to determine the quality of relational and functional behaviors in parents and their children. The sample included parents and their 4- to 16-year-old children with autism and associated neurodevelopmental disorders. Hypothesized relationships between AAI classifications and FEAS scores were supported. Significant correlations were found between AAI classification and FEAS scores, indicating that children with autism spectrum disorders whose parents demonstrated secure attachment representations were better able to initiate and respond in two-way pre-symbolic gestural communication; organize two-way social problem-solving communication; and engage in imaginative thinking, symbolic play, and verbal communication. These findings lend support to the relevance of the parent's state of mind pertaining to attachment status to child and parent relational behavior in cases wherein the child has been diagnosed with autism or an associated neurodevelopmental disorder of relating and communicating. A model emerges from these findings of conceptualizing relationships between parental internal models of attachment relationships and parent-child relational and functional levels that may aid in differentiating interventions.

  3. An Examination of Attachment Styles and Social Skills of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereli, Esra; Karakus, Ozlem

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Attachment organization across the lifespan and across generations, long-term predictions from attachment organization to later psychosocial functioning, and the possibility of altering attachment organization with intervention suggest that attachment theory may potentially shed valuable light on adult social development and deviant…

  4. Blade attachment assembly

    DOEpatents

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell; Miller, Diane Patricia

    2016-05-03

    An assembly and method for affixing a turbomachine rotor blade to a rotor wheel are disclosed. In an embodiment, an adaptor member is provided disposed between the blade and the rotor wheel, the adaptor member including an adaptor attachment slot that is complementary to the blade attachment member, and an adaptor attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot. A coverplate is provided, having a coverplate attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot, and a hook for engaging the adaptor member. When assembled, the coverplate member matingly engages with the adaptor member, and retains the blade in the adaptor member, and the assembly in the rotor wheel.

  5. Twin and sibling attachment in a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Fraley, R Chris; Tancredy, Caroline M

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the hypothesis that twin relationships are attachments, using data from a nationally representative sample. The results indicated that twin siblings were more likely than nontwin siblings to be attached to their siblings. Moreover, analyses indicated that both attachment theoretical and inclusive fitness perspectives are necessary for explaining these findings. Namely, twins were more likely to be attached than nontwin siblings, as expected from an attachment perspective. But identical twins were more likely than fraternal twins to be attached to one another, as might be expected from an inclusive fitness perspective. Cross-sectional analyses indicated that older people are less likely than younger people to use their sibling as an attachment figure compared to younger people and that married adults are less likely to use their sibling as an attachment figure than nonmarried people. PMID:22357709

  6. Symptoms and socio-economic impact of ependymoma on adult patients: results of the Adult Ependymoma Outcomes Project 2.

    PubMed

    Walbert, Tobias; Mendoza, Tito R; Vera-Bolaños, Elizabeth; Acquaye, Alvina; Gilbert, Mark R; Armstrong, Terri S

    2015-01-01

    Ependymoma is a rare central nervous system tumor of adults. Reports of patient symptoms, interference patterns and costs encountered by patients and families are limited. Adult ependymoma patients completed the online Ependymoma Outcomes Questionnaire II. The survey assesses disease and functional status as well as socio-economic factors. Descriptive statistics were used to report disease characteristics as well as economic and social impact. Independent samples t test was used to test if differences exist between high- and low-income groups in terms of symptom severity. Correlations were calculated between symptoms and cost estimates. 86 international patients participated (male = 50 %). The economic analysis focused on 78 respondents from the US. 48 % were employed and 55 % earned ≥$60,000. Tumors were located in the brain (44 %), spine (44 %) or both (12 %). Spine patients compared to brain patients reported significantly worse pain (4.4 versus 2.2, p < .003), numbness (5.3 versus 2.2, p < .001), fatigue (5.1 versus 3.6, p < .03), changes in bowel patterns (3.8 versus 1.4, p < .003) and weakness (4.2 versus 2.1, p < .006). Brain patients compared with spine patients had increased lack of appetite (.4 versus 2, p < .014). Patients with lower income (≤$59,999) had more problems concentrating (p < .024) and worse cognitive module severity scores (p < .024). Estimated average monthly out-of-pocket spending was $168 for medical co-pays and $59 for prescription medication. Patients with ependymoma are highly affected by their symptoms. Spinal patients report higher severity of symptoms. Patients in the lower income group report significantly higher severity of cognitive symptoms independent of disease site.

  7. Symptoms and socio-economic impact of ependymoma on adult patients: results of the Adult Ependymoma Outcomes Project 2.

    PubMed

    Walbert, Tobias; Mendoza, Tito R; Vera-Bolaños, Elizabeth; Acquaye, Alvina; Gilbert, Mark R; Armstrong, Terri S

    2015-01-01

    Ependymoma is a rare central nervous system tumor of adults. Reports of patient symptoms, interference patterns and costs encountered by patients and families are limited. Adult ependymoma patients completed the online Ependymoma Outcomes Questionnaire II. The survey assesses disease and functional status as well as socio-economic factors. Descriptive statistics were used to report disease characteristics as well as economic and social impact. Independent samples t test was used to test if differences exist between high- and low-income groups in terms of symptom severity. Correlations were calculated between symptoms and cost estimates. 86 international patients participated (male = 50 %). The economic analysis focused on 78 respondents from the US. 48 % were employed and 55 % earned ≥$60,000. Tumors were located in the brain (44 %), spine (44 %) or both (12 %). Spine patients compared to brain patients reported significantly worse pain (4.4 versus 2.2, p < .003), numbness (5.3 versus 2.2, p < .001), fatigue (5.1 versus 3.6, p < .03), changes in bowel patterns (3.8 versus 1.4, p < .003) and weakness (4.2 versus 2.1, p < .006). Brain patients compared with spine patients had increased lack of appetite (.4 versus 2, p < .014). Patients with lower income (≤$59,999) had more problems concentrating (p < .024) and worse cognitive module severity scores (p < .024). Estimated average monthly out-of-pocket spending was $168 for medical co-pays and $59 for prescription medication. Patients with ependymoma are highly affected by their symptoms. Spinal patients report higher severity of symptoms. Patients in the lower income group report significantly higher severity of cognitive symptoms independent of disease site. PMID:25359395

  8. Integrating sex and attachment in emotionally focused couple therapy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Susan; Zuccarini, Dino

    2010-10-01

    In this article, sexual functioning is placed in the context of love as an attachment bond. Attachment theory offers the most coherent and empirically validated theory of adult love and is summarized together with the implications of this theory for the practice of couple therapy in which sexual issues are often addressed. Recent research on attachment and sexuality is outlined and a model of healthy sexuality where attachment and sexuality are integrated is offered. The principles of an attachment-oriented approach to sex issues are set out and illustrated with reference to the process of emotionally focused couple therapy. Case descriptions and brief in-session transcripts are included.

  9. Attachment Without Fear

    PubMed Central

    Bell, David C.

    2012-01-01

    John Bowlby hypothesized an attachment system that interacts with caregiving, exploration, and fear systems in the brain, with a particular emphasis on fear. Neurobiological research confirms many of his hypotheses and also raises some new questions. A psychological model based on this neurobiological research is presented here. The model extends conventional attachment theory by describing additional attachment processes independent of fear. In this model, the attachment elements of trust, openness, and dependence interact with the caregiving elements of caring, empathy, and responsibility. PMID:22879835

  10. Normal range of bleeding scores for the ISTH-BAT: adult and pediatric data from the merging project

    PubMed Central

    Elbatarny, M.; Mollah, S.; Grabell, J.; Bae, S.; Deforest, M.; Tuttle, A.; Hopman, W.; Clark, D. S.; Mauer, A. C.; Bowman, M.; Riddel, J.; Christopherson, P. A.; Montgomery, R. R.; Rand, M. L.; Coller, B.; James, P. D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Bleeding Assessment Tools (BATs) have been developed to aid in the standardized evaluation of bleeding symptoms. The Vicenza Bleeding Questionnaire (BQ), published in 2005, established a common framework and scoring key that has undergone subsequent modification over the years, culminating in the publication of the ISTH-BAT in 2010. Understanding the normal range of bleeding scores is critical when assessing the utility of a BAT. Within the context of The Merging Project, a bioinformatics system was created to facilitate the merging of legacy data derived from four different (but all Vicenza-based) BATs; the MCMDM1-VWD BQ, the Condensed MCMDM-1VWD BQ, the Pediatric Bleeding Questionnaire and the ISTH-BAT. Data from 1040 normal adults and 328 children were included in the final analysis, which showed that the normal range is 0–3 for adult males, 0–5 for adult females and 0–2 in children for both males and females. Therefore, the cut-off for a positive or abnormal BS is ≥4 in adult males, ≥6 in adult females and ≥3 in children. This information can now be used to objectively assess bleeding symptoms as normal or abnormal in future studies. PMID:25196510

  11. Normal range of bleeding scores for the ISTH-BAT: adult and pediatric data from the merging project.

    PubMed

    Elbatarny, M; Mollah, S; Grabell, J; Bae, S; Deforest, M; Tuttle, A; Hopman, W; Clark, D S; Mauer, A C; Bowman, M; Riddel, J; Christopherson, P A; Montgomery, R R; Rand, M L; Coller, B; James, P D

    2014-11-01

    Bleeding Assessment Tools (BATs) have been developed to aid in the standardized evaluation of bleeding symptoms. The Vicenza Bleeding Questionnaire (BQ), published in 2005, established a common framework and scoring key that has undergone subsequent modification over the years, culminating in the publication of the ISTH-BAT in 2010. Understanding the normal range of bleeding scores is critical when assessing the utility of a BAT. Within the context of The Merging Project, a bioinformatics system was created to facilitate the merging of legacy data derived from four different (but all Vicenza-based) BATs; the MCMDM1-VWD BQ, the Condensed MCMDM-1VWD BQ, the Pediatric Bleeding Questionnaire and the ISTH-BAT. Data from 1040 normal adults and 328 children were included in the final analysis, which showed that the normal range is 0-3 for adult males, 0-5 for adult females and 0-2 in children for both males and females. Therefore, the cut-off for a positive or abnormal BS is ≥4 in adult males, ≥6 in adult females and ≥3 in children. This information can now be used to objectively assess bleeding symptoms as normal or abnormal in future studies.

  12. Adult Learning Meets the Green Economy: Lessons from a Green Jobs Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Cecelia

    2013-01-01

    The new "green economy" affects adult education and workforce development as adult workers seek skills and knowledge that will help them find success in work and life. Recent years have brought about increased interest in and discussion of training for green jobs. Since the introduction of the Green Jobs Act in 2007, questions about how exactly to…

  13. Adult Education through Technology Project. Program Year 1990-1991. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odessa Coll., TX.

    Many adults in basic literacy programs tend to drop out if they cannot see the program's relevance to the real world. In response to this problem, Odessa College (Odessa, Texas) developed, implemented, and evaluated an innovative program for adult education through technology designed to provide high quality, multimedia literacy education directly…

  14. Adult Educator Exchange Program. Pennsylvania 310 Project. Final Report, July 1, 1980-June 30, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royce, Sherry

    Field experience reports are provided for exemplary adult education programs in Connecticut, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Virginia which were each visited by an adult education administrator from another of the programs. Each report overviews the program, makes observations on unique aspects of the program (such as programs,…

  15. The Adult Teacher Competencies Study. Final Report. A 353 Special Demonstration Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royce, Sherry

    A study was conducted to develop a set of instructor standards that describe high-quality teaching behavior for adult literacy teachers, program administrators, state staff, and stakeholders. The standards were created by a task force of 15 experienced adult literacy practitioners and reviewed and revised by focus groups of practitioners at seven…

  16. Project to Train Adult Basic Education Teachers in Personalizing Instruction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, William D.

    The report briefly describes the workshop in personalizing adult basic education with respect to objectives, organization, and evaluation. Contributions of resource persons to the workshop included the following papers (texts printed in full) which comprise approximately 45 pages of the report: Planning for Adult Education, William P. Miller;…

  17. The Philosophy of Teaching Adult Students. Quality Professional Development Project. Professional Development Manual II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Community Coll., Jacksonville.

    This workbook is one of six professional development manuals designed to help new adult education (AE) instructors find their personal philosophy of teaching adult students. The pretest and post-test appear first. Five units provide useful information on five diverse topics developed by leading (AE) experts and experienced (AE) instructors. Each…

  18. Infant Feeding and Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Mary D. Salter; Tracy, Russel L.

    This paper has two major purposes: first, to consider how infant feeding behavior may fit into attachment theory; and second, to cite some evidence to show how an infant's early interaction with his mother in the feeding situation is related to subsequent development. It was found that sucking and rooting are precursor attachment behaviors that…

  19. Temperament and Attachment Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2004-01-01

    Reviewed in this article is research on children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) who exhibit specific patterns of socially aberrant behavior resulting from being maltreated or having limited opportunities to form selective attachments. There are no data explaining why 2 different patterns of the disorder, an emotionally withdrawn-inhibited…

  20. Attachment Line Blockage Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Photographs shows the attachment-line experiment model with fairing and fence for supersonic attachment-line experiments. The fairing is intended to eliminate the wing/fuselage juncture shock and align the flow for the streamlined fence. The streamlined fence traps the turbulent fuselage boundary layer to prevent turbulent contamination of the leading edge flow.

  1. Attachment and Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Riuter, Corine, Ed.; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The five chapters and epilogue of this special issue present theoretical and empirical contributions on the relevance of attachment theory to cognitive development and education. A literature review is followed by explorations of attachment theory and emotions, cognitive development, literacy, and the communication effectiveness of the mother.…

  2. The Relationship Between Attachment Styles and Lifestyle With Marital Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Korosh; Samavi, Abdolvahab; Ghazavi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Marital satisfaction is one of the deepest and the most basic human pleasures and should be established within the family environment; if not, couples might suffer emotionally. Several factors are involved, including attachment and lifestyle. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between styles of attachment and lifestyle with marital satisfaction. Materials and Methods The population in this study included all of the Bandar Abbas oil refining (BAOR) company employees, for a total of 292 people (146 couples). They were selected by multistage random sampling. The enrich marital satisfaction scale was used to measure marital satisfaction, the Collins and read’s revised adult attachment scale (RAAS) for adult attachment to determine attachment style, and the life style questionnaire (LSQ) for lifestyle. This research was a descriptive-correlative one, and for the data analysis, we used Pearson’s correlation factor and multivariable regression. Results The results indicate that attachment style and lifestyle factors can predict marital satisfaction. There was also a meaningful negative relationship between insecure attachment avoidant and insecure attachment anxious-ambivalent styles and marital satisfaction. However, there was no meaningful relationship between secure attachment style and marital satisfaction. Conclusions The results showed that the early relationship within the family environment supports a certain attachment style and the effects of the avoidant insecure and ambivalent insecure styles affect the interpersonal relations of the couples in adulthood. The effect of attachment styles on interpersonal relations is far greater than that of lifestyle. PMID:27433349

  3. Parents’ Self-Reported Attachment Styles: A Review of Links with Parenting Behaviors, Emotions, and Cognitions

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jason D.; Cassidy, Jude; Shaver, Phillip. R.

    2014-01-01

    For decades, attachment scholars have been investigating how parents’ adult attachment orientations relate to the ways in which they parent. Traditionally, this research has been conducted by developmental and clinical psychologists who typically employ the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) to measure adult attachment. However, dating back to the mid-1990s, social and personality psychologists have been investigating how self-reported adult attachment styles relate to various facets of parenting. The literature on self-reported attachment and parenting has received less attention than AAI research on the same topic and, to date, there is no comprehensive review of this literature. In this article, we review over 60 studies of the links between self-reported attachment styles and parenting, integrate the findings to reach general conclusions, discuss unresolved questions, and suggest future directions. Finally, we discuss the potential benefits to the study of parenting of collaborations among researchers from the developmental and social attachment research traditions. PMID:25024278

  4. Parents' self-reported attachment styles: a review of links with parenting behaviors, emotions, and cognitions.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jason D; Cassidy, Jude; Shaver, Phillip R

    2015-02-01

    For decades, attachment scholars have been investigating how parents' adult attachment orientations relate to the ways in which they parent. Traditionally, this research has been conducted by developmental and clinical psychologists who typically employ the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) to measure adult attachment. However, dating back to the mid-1990s, social and personality psychologists have been investigating how self-reported adult attachment styles relate to various facets of parenting. The literature on self-reported attachment and parenting has received less attention than AAI research on the same topic and, to date, there is no comprehensive review of this literature. In this article, we review more than 60 studies of the links between self-reported attachment styles and parenting, integrate the findings to reach general conclusions, discuss unresolved questions, and suggest future directions. Finally, we discuss the potential benefits to the study of parenting of collaborations among researchers from the developmental and social attachment research traditions.

  5. Adolescent attachment and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, D S; Horowitz, H A

    1996-04-01

    The relationships among attachment classification, psychopathology, and personality traits were examined in a group of 60 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. The concordance of attachment classification was examined in 27 adolescent-mother pairs. Both adolescent and maternal attachment status were overwhelmingly insecure and were highly concordant. Adolescents showing a dismissing attachment organization were more likely to have a conduct or substance abuse disorder, narcissistic or antisocial personality disorder, and self-reported narcissistic, antisocial, and paranoid personality traits. Adolescents showing a preoccupied attachment organization were more likely to have an affective disorder, obsessive-compulsive, histrionic, borderline or schizotypal personality disorder, and self-reported avoidant, anxious, and dysthymic personality traits. The results support a model of development of psychopathology based partially on relational experiences with parents.

  6. Scientific Value and Educational Goals: Balancing Priorities and Increasing Adult Engagement in a Citizen Science Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sickler, Jessica; Cherry, Tammy Messick; Allee, Leslie; Smyth, Rebecca Rice; Losey, John

    2014-01-01

    The Lost Ladybug Project is a citizen science project that engages individuals and groups in research and learning about ladybug population dynamics. With a dual purpose of advancing scientists' research about ladybug populations and achieving learning outcomes with participants, the project's summative evaluation led to critical…

  7. Scientific Literacy of Adult Participants in an Online Citizen Science Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Charles Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Citizen Science projects offer opportunities for non-scientists to take part in scientific research. Scientific results from these projects have been well documented. However, there is limited research about how these projects affect their volunteer participants. In this study, I investigate how participation in an online, collaborative…

  8. Teenagers and young adults with cancer in Europe: from national programmes to a European integrated coordinated project.

    PubMed

    Stark, D; Bielack, S; Brugieres, L; Dirksen, U; Duarte, X; Dunn, S; Erdelyi, D J; Grew, T; Hjorth, L; Jazbec, J; Kabickova, E; Konsoulova, A; Kowalczyk, J R; Lassaletta, A; Laurence, V; Lewis, I; Monrabal, A; Morgan, S; Mountzios, G; Olsen, P R; Renard, M; Saeter, G; van der Graaf, W T; Ferrari, A

    2016-05-01

    Over 14 000 patients aged 15-24 are estimated to be diagnosed with cancer in the European Union (EU) each year. Teenagers and young adults (TYA) often fall down gaps between children's and adults cancer services. The specific challenges of providing optimal care to them are described, but we present a summary of recent progress. Progress to overcome these challenges is happening at different rates across Europe. We summarise the European national projects in this field but more recently we have seen the beginnings of European coordination. Within the EU 7th Funding Programme (FP7) European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents programme (ENCCA), a specific European Network for Teenagers and Young Adults with Cancer has held a series of scientific meetings, including professionals, patients and caregivers. This group has proposed unanswered research questions and agreed key features of a high-quality service that can improve outcomes for TYA with cancer, including the primacy of collaboration between adult and paediatric services to eliminate the gap in the management of TYA with cancer.

  9. Interpersonal trauma, attachment insecurity and anxiety in an inpatient psychiatric population.

    PubMed

    Wiltgen, Anika; Arbona, Consuelo; Frankel, Leslie; Frueh, B Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Current research suggests that interpersonal trauma has an impact on insecure attachment and anxiety. Some research further suggests that attachment may play a mediating role between traumatic events and psychopathology. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the experience of interpersonal trauma, attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance and clinical anxiety severity among adult psychiatric inpatients who reported having experienced interpersonal trauma after the age of 16. It was hypothesized that attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance would mediate the relationship between interpersonal trauma and clinical anxiety level. This study used archival data on 414 adult psychiatric inpatients in a large city in the Southwest U.S. Results suggest that interpersonal trauma was correlated to attachment avoidance but not to attachment anxiety and that attachment avoidance partially mediated the relation of interpersonal trauma to anxiety. The attachment framework appositely explains how a negative model of other contributes to the relation between experiences of interpersonal trauma and anxiety in adulthood.

  10. Attachment theory: a framework for understanding symptoms and interpersonal relationships in psychosis.

    PubMed

    Berry, Katherine; Barrowclough, Christine; Wearden, Alison

    2008-12-01

    We investigated associations between adult attachment, symptoms and interpersonal functioning, including therapeutic relationships in 96 patients with psychosis. Using a prospective design, we also assessed changes in attachment in both psychiatrically unstable and stable groups. We measured attachment using the Psychosis Attachment Measure (PAM) and interpersonal problems and therapeutic relationships were assessed from both psychiatric staff and patient perspectives. Avoidant attachment was associated with positive symptoms, negative symptoms and paranoia. Attachment ratings were relatively stable over time, although changes in attachment anxiety were positively correlated with changes in symptoms. Predicted associations between high levels of attachment anxiety and avoidance and interpersonal problems were supported, and attachment avoidance was associated with difficulties in therapeutic relationships. Findings suggest that adult attachment style is a meaningful individual difference variable in people with psychosis and may be an important predictor of symptoms, interpersonal problems and difficulties in therapeutic relationships over and above severity of illness.

  11. Adolescents' Attachment Representations and Developmental Tasks in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra; Kivenson-Baron, Inbal

    2004-01-01

    The association between attachment representations and adolescents' coping with 3 developmental tasks of emerging adulthood-leaving home, advancing in the capacity for mature intimacy, and developing individuation-was examined. Israeli male adolescents (N = 88) were administered the Adult Attachment Interview during their high-school senior year.…

  12. Attachment, Acculturation, and Psychosomatic Complaints among Hispanic American University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chiachih D. C.; Scalise, Dominick A.; Barajas-Munoz, I. Alejandro; Julio, Kathy; Gomez, Ayleen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated adult attachment and acculturation frameworks of reported psychosomatic complaints related to perceived discrimination among a sample of Latino/Hispanic university students (N = 160). The model supported by the data suggests that attachment anxiety, acculturation toward the dominant cultural norms, and adherence to…

  13. The neurobiology of attachment.

    PubMed

    Insel, T R; Young, L J

    2001-02-01

    It is difficult to think of any behavioural process that is more intrinsically important to us than attachment. Feeding, sleeping and locomotion are all necessary for survival, but humans are, as Baruch Spinoza famously noted, "a social animal" and it is our social attachments that we live for. Over the past decade, studies in a range of vertebrates, including humans, have begun to address the neural basis of attachment at a molecular, cellular and systems level. This review describes some of the important insights from this work.

  14. Attachment representations and characteristics of friendship relations during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Peter

    2004-05-01

    Attachment theory proposes that experiences with the primary caregivers are an important basis for the development of close social relationships outside the parent-child relationship. This study examined the association between representations of attachment, as assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), representations of friendship and peer relations, as assessed with an interview in a sample of 43 adolescents. Secure attachment representations were significantly related to interview-based assessments of close friendships, friendship concept, integration in a peer group, and emotion regulation within close friendships. Attachment experiences reported during the AAI, their integration, and their coherency were related to friendship quality and friendship concept. Results show the close associations between attachment representations and friendship relationships during adolescence. The associations between peer relations and attachment representations differed depending on whether an interview approach or a questionnaire approach was used.

  15. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Hayat, Matthew J.; Gross, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers’ attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95% CI [.97, .98], p < 0.001) and post-partum depressive symptomatology (b = .97, 95% CI [.96-.99], p = .03) were significant predictors of early childhood development. Women demonstrating higher avoidant attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad. PMID:23737011

  16. Passage and behavior of radio-tagged adult Pacific lampreys (Entosphenus tridentatus) at the Willamette Falls Project, Oregon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Magie, Robert J.; Copeland, Elizabeth S.

    2010-01-01

    Populations of Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) in the Columbia River basin have declined and passage problems at dams are a contributing factor. We used radio telemetry to monitor the passage of adult Pacific lampreys at the Willamette Falls Project (a hydroelectric dam integrated into a natural falls) on the Willamette River near Portland, Oregon. In 2005 and 2006, fish were captured at the Project, implanted with a radio tag, and released downstream. We tagged 136 lampreys in 2005 and 107 in 2006. Over 90% of the fish returned to the Project in 7 – 9 h and most were detected from 2000 – 2300 h. In 2005, 43 fish (34%) passed the dam via the fishway, with peak passage in August. No fish passed over the falls, but 13% ascended at least partway up the falls. In 2006, 24 fish (23%) passed the Project using the fishway, with most prior to 9 June when the powerhouse was off. Although 19 lampreys ascended the falls, only two passed via this route. The time for fish to pass through the fishway ranged from 4 – 74 h, depending on route. Many fish stayed in the tailrace for hours to almost a year and eventually moved downstream. Our results indicate that passage of lampreys at the Project is lower than that for lampreys at dams on the Columbia River. Low passage success may result from low river flows, impediments in fishways, delayed tagging effects, changing environmental conditions, or performance or behavioral constraints.

  17. Attachment theory, ageing and dementia: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Browne, C J; Shlosberg, E

    2006-03-01

    The following review draws together recent theoretical contributions and research findings highlighting the pertinence of attachment issues for older adults. Beginning with a brief overview of the principles of attachment theory, the paper proceeds to illustrate that attachment remains a key feature of relationships throughout the life cycle. Research findings suggest that past and present secure attachment relationships function as a protective resource in later life and preliminary studies highlight the continuing salience of parents as attachment figures for older adults. Particular attention is given to the significance of attachment theory in thinking about the subjective experiences of people with dementia, for whom unwilling separation and disruption of attachment bonds can be common themes. Research indicates the frequent occurrence of attachment behaviours and parent fixation amongst people with dementia living in residential care. Pre-morbid attachment style has been shown to interact with emotional and behavioural expression during the course of dementia. Clinical applications of attachment theory in dementia care are discussed and initial evidence for the effectiveness of Simulated Presence Therapy is provided. Methodological issues raised by the review are considered, together with suggestions for future research.

  18. Mirror Attachment For Borescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gearhart, John F.; Peloquin, James E.

    1994-01-01

    Attachment for articulated borescope provides views into small, normally inaccessible spaces. Simple small round mirror on extension arm welded to borescope head. Tilted at angle to axis of borescope head, mirror provides views sideways to borescope head. Disassembly of turbopump blades not necessary to enable fluorescent-penetrant-dye inspection. Attachment used to inspect difficult-to-reach internal parts of other assemblies. Also used for inspection with ordinary white light.

  19. Attachment and Children’s Biased Attentional Processing: Evidence for the Exclusion of Attachment-Related Information

    PubMed Central

    Vandevivere, Eva; Braet, Caroline; Bosmans, Guy; Mueller, Sven C.; De Raedt, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    Research in both infants and adults demonstrated that attachment expectations are associated with the attentional processing of attachment-related information. However, this research suffered from methodological issues and has not been validated across ages. Employing a more ecologically valid paradigm to measure attentional processes by virtue of eye tracking, the current study tested the defensive exclusion hypothesis in late childhood. According to this hypothesis, insecurely attached children are assumed to defensively exclude attachment-related information. We hypothesized that securely attached children process attachment- related neutral and emotional information in a more open manner compared to insecurely attached children. Sixty-two children (59.7% girls, 8–12 years) completed two different tasks, while eye movements were recorded: task one presented an array of neutral faces including mother and unfamiliar women and task two presented the same with happy and angry faces. Results indicated that more securely attached children looked longer at mother’s face regardless of the emotional expression. Also, they tend to have more maintained attention to mother’s neutral face. Furthermore, more attachment avoidance was related to a reduced total viewing time of mother’s neutral, happy, and angry face. Attachment anxiety was not consistently related to the processing of mother’s face. Findings support the theoretical assumption that securely attached children have an open manner of processing all attachment-related information. PMID:25061662

  20. The Content Area Reading Project: An Inservice Education Program for Junior High School Teachers and Teachers of Adults. Appendix C, Model Teaching Materials. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Mary M.; Askov, Eunice N.

    Materials developed by teacher participants in the Content Area Reading Project are presented in this appendix to the Project report. The first section provides group informal reading inventories developed for use in adult education, teaching English as a second language, and nine content areas; it then presents cloze tests developed for use in…

  1. Special Demonstration Project for Involvement of Adult Residents of Soul City, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Volume I: Evaluation and Final Report; Volume II: Supplementary Materials; Volume III: Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Univ., Tuscaloosa.

    This special demonstration project was designed to develop ways of reaching illiterate women and motivating them toward adult basic education goals through programs that support and strengthen family life. Volume I presents the following: Introduction and Purpose: Project Procedure; Program Accomplishments and Evaluation (Description of the…

  2. Micromechanical die attachment surcharge

    DOEpatents

    Filter, William F.; Hohimer, John P.

    2002-01-01

    An attachment structure is disclosed for attaching a die to a supporting substrate without the use of adhesives or solder. The attachment structure, which can be formed by micromachining, functions purely mechanically in utilizing a plurality of shaped pillars (e.g. round, square or polygonal and solid, hollow or slotted) that are formed on one of the die or supporting substrate and which can be urged into contact with various types of mating structures including other pillars, a deformable layer or a plurality of receptacles that are formed on the other of the die or supporting substrate, thereby forming a friction bond that holds the die to the supporting substrate. The attachment structure can further include an alignment structure for precise positioning of the die and supporting substrate to facilitate mounting the die to the supporting substrate. The attachment structure has applications for mounting semiconductor die containing a microelectromechanical (MEM) device, a microsensor or an integrated circuit (IC), and can be used to form a multichip module. The attachment structure is particularly useful for mounting die containing released MEM devices since these devices are fragile and can otherwise be damaged or degraded by adhesive or solder mounting.

  3. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2003 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the seventh season (1997-2003) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the fifth season (1999-2003) of acclimating the resultant progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies. In 2003, acclimation of

  4. Project SEARCH: Work-Based Transition Program for Young Adults with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Teresa D.

    2013-01-01

    Historically people with significant disabilities were restricted to places such as adult activity centers, sheltered workshops, nursing homes, and institutions. Studies have shown the high school drop-out rate for this population is higher than those who are non-disabled. Policy makers concluded that these individuals needed to be better prepared…

  5. Dealing with Law Enforcement Authorities. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 22. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, discusses dealing with law enforcement authorities. It is designed to teach immigrants the following: understand laws and consequences of breaking them; how the law enforcement agencies…

  6. A Randomized Trial of Tailored Skin Cancer Prevention Messages for Adults: Project SCAPE

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Elinor R.; Steffen, Alana

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the impact of a mailed, tailored intervention on skin cancer prevention and skin self-examination behaviors of adults at moderate and high risk for skin cancer. Methods. Adults at moderate and high risk for skin cancer were recruited in primary health care settings in Honolulu, HI, and Long Island, NY. After completing a baseline survey, participants were randomized to 2 groups. The treatment group received tailored materials, including personalized risk feedback, and the control group received general educational materials. Multivariate analyses compared sun protection and skin self-examination between groups, controlling for location, risk level, gender, and age. Results. A total of 596 adults completed the trial. The tailored materials had a significant effect on overall sun-protection habits, the use of hats, the use of sunglasses, and the recency of skin self-examination. Some effects were moderated by location and risk level. Conclusions. Tailored communications including personalized risk feedback can improve sun-protection behaviors and skin self-examination among adults at increased risk for skin cancer. These convenient, low-cost interventions can be implemented in a variety of settings and should be tested further to assess their long-term effectiveness. PMID:20167900

  7. Going the Distance in Adult College Completion: Lessons from the "Non-Traditional No More" Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Patrick; Michelau, Demaree K.; Palmer, Iris

    2012-01-01

    From 2008 to 2011, the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) worked with six states (Arkansas, Colorado, Nevada, New Jersey, North Dakota, and South Dakota) to improve policies and practices to increase adult degree completion as a way to raise overall state educational attainment levels. With funding from Lumina Foundation,…

  8. After Incarceration and Adult Learning: A Collaborative Inquiry and Writing Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Joni

    2015-01-01

    Mass incarceration in America is a moral, economic, and societal crisis with serious implications for many men of color and high school non-completers who are incarcerated at proportionally higher rates than Whites or college graduates. For the formerly incarcerated, engagement in adult learning, whether high school equivalency (HSE) or college,…

  9. Analyzing and Debating Issues. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 18. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, focuses on how to evaluate the facts, opinions, and positions on social issues held by family and friends, neighbors, authority figures, and the media. Topics covered include the following:…

  10. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2007 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the eleventh season (1997-2007) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the ninth season (1999-2007) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies In 2007

  11. Autism and Attachment: The Attachment Q-Sort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, Anna H.; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.

    2007-01-01

    Children with autism are able to show secure attachment behaviours to their parents/caregivers. Most studies on attachment in children with autism used a (modified) Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) to examine attachment security. An advantage of the Attachment Q-Sort (AQS) over the SSP is that it can be attuned to the secure-base behaviour of…

  12. A new method of evaluating attachment representations in young school-age children: the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task.

    PubMed

    Green, J; Stanley, C; Smith, V; Goldwyn, R

    2000-04-01

    We describe a new instrument, using a doll-play vignette completion method, which applies concepts and methodologies from infant and adult attachment research to enable identification and detailed classification of internal representations of attachment relationships in young school-age children. Validation of the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task (MCAST) in a normal population (N = 53) shows good interrater reliability and content validity. Patterns of attachment representation identified show stability over time. Comparisons are made with existing methodologies, and potential applications of the instrument and directions for future research are discussed.

  13. Sexuality examined through the lens of attachment theory: attachment, caregiving, and sexual satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Péloquin, Katherine; Brassard, Audrey; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Shaver, Phillip R

    2014-01-01

    Attachment researchers have proposed that the attachment, caregiving, and sexual behavioral systems are interrelated in adult love relationships (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007 ). This study examined whether aspects of partners' caregiving (proximity, sensitivity, control, compulsive caregiving) mediated the association between their attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) and each other's sexual satisfaction in two samples of committed couples (Study 1: 126 cohabiting or married couples from the general community; Study 2: 55 clinically distressed couples). Partners completed the Experiences in Close Relationships measure (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 ), the Caregiving Questionnaire (Kunce & Shaver, 1994 ), and the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction (Lawrance & Byers, 1998 ). Path analyses based on the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) revealed that caregiving proximity mediated the association between low attachment avoidance and partners' sexual satisfaction in distressed and nondistressed couples. Sensitivity mediated this association in nondistressed couples only. Control mediated the association between men's insecurities (attachment-related avoidance and anxiety) and their partners' low sexual satisfaction in nondistressed couples. Attachment anxiety predicted compulsive caregiving, but this caregiving dimension was not a significant mediator. These results are discussed in light of attachment theory and their implications for treating distressed couples. PMID:23659357

  14. Sexuality examined through the lens of attachment theory: attachment, caregiving, and sexual satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Péloquin, Katherine; Brassard, Audrey; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Shaver, Phillip R

    2014-01-01

    Attachment researchers have proposed that the attachment, caregiving, and sexual behavioral systems are interrelated in adult love relationships (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007 ). This study examined whether aspects of partners' caregiving (proximity, sensitivity, control, compulsive caregiving) mediated the association between their attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) and each other's sexual satisfaction in two samples of committed couples (Study 1: 126 cohabiting or married couples from the general community; Study 2: 55 clinically distressed couples). Partners completed the Experiences in Close Relationships measure (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 ), the Caregiving Questionnaire (Kunce & Shaver, 1994 ), and the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction (Lawrance & Byers, 1998 ). Path analyses based on the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) revealed that caregiving proximity mediated the association between low attachment avoidance and partners' sexual satisfaction in distressed and nondistressed couples. Sensitivity mediated this association in nondistressed couples only. Control mediated the association between men's insecurities (attachment-related avoidance and anxiety) and their partners' low sexual satisfaction in nondistressed couples. Attachment anxiety predicted compulsive caregiving, but this caregiving dimension was not a significant mediator. These results are discussed in light of attachment theory and their implications for treating distressed couples.

  15. Ceramic blade attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, G.L.

    1994-12-13

    A turbine blade having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is attached to a turbine wheel having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine blade. The turbine blade has a root portion having a pair of recessed portions thereon. The turbine wheel includes a plurality of openings in which the turbine blade is positioned. Each of the openings have a pair of grooves therein in which are positioned a pair of pins having a generally rectangular cross-section and a reaction surface thereon. A pair of cylindrical rollers interposed respective ones of the pair of reaction surfaces and the pair of recessed portions. The attachment system or turbine assembly provides an economical, reliable and effective attachment of a component having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion to a component having a greater preestablished rate of thermal expansion. 3 figures.

  16. Ceramic blade attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    A turbine blade having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is attached to a turbine wheel having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine blade. The turbine blade has a root portion having a pair of recessed portions thereon. The turbine wheel includes a plurality of openings in which the turbine blade is positioned. Each of the openings have a pair of grooves therein in which are positioned a pair of pins having a generally rectangular cross-section and a reaction surface thereon. A pair of cylindrical rollers interposed respective ones of the pair of reaction surfaces and the pair of recessed portions. The attachment system or turbine assembly provides an economical, reliable and effective attachment of a component having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion to a component having a greater preestablished rate of thermal expansion.

  17. Projection neurons in the cortex and hippocampus: differential effects of chronic khat and ethanol exposure in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Alele, Paul E; Matovu, Daniel; Imanirampa, Lawrence; Ajayi, Abayomi M; Kasule, Gyaviira T

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that many individuals who chew khat recreationally also drink ethanol to offset the stimulating effect of khat. The objective of this study was to describe the separate and interactive effects of chronic ethanol and khat exposure on key projection neurons in the cortex and hippocampus of young adult male rats. Methods Young adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six treatment groups: 2 g/kg khat, 4 g/kg khat, 4 g/kg ethanol, combined khat and ethanol (4 g/kg each), a normal saline control, and an untreated group. Treatments were administered orally for 28 continuous days; brains were then harvested, sectioned, and routine hematoxylin–eosin staining was done. Following photomicrography, ImageJ® software captured data regarding neuron number and size. Results No differences occurred in counts of both granular and pyramidal projection neurons in the motor cortex and all four subfields of the hippocampal formation. Khat dose-dependently increased pyramidal neuron size in the motor cortex and the CA3 region, but had different effects on granular neuron size in the dentate gyrus and the motor cortex. Mean pyramidal neuron size for the ethanol-only treatment was larger than that for the 2 g/kg khat group, and the saline control group, in CA3 and in the motor cortex. Concomitant khat and ethanol increased granular neuron size in the motor cortex, compared to the 2 g/kg khat group, the 4 g/kg khat group, and the 4 g/kg ethanol group. In the CA3 region, the 4 g/kg ethanol group showed a larger mean pyramidal neuron size than the combined khat and ethanol group. Conclusion These results suggest that concomitant khat and ethanol exposure changes granular and pyramidal projection neuron sizes differentially in the motor cortex and hippocampus, compared to the effects of chronic exposure to these two drugs separately. PMID:27785113

  18. Magnetically attached sputter targets

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.

    1994-02-15

    An improved method and assembly for attaching sputtering targets to cathode assemblies of sputtering systems which includes a magnetically permeable material is described. The magnetically permeable material is imbedded in a target base that is brazed, welded, or soldered to the sputter target, or is mechanically retained in the target material. Target attachment to the cathode is achieved by virtue of the permanent magnets and/or the pole pieces in the cathode assembly that create magnetic flux lines adjacent to the backing plate, which strongly attract the magnetically permeable material in the target assembly. 11 figures.

  19. Magnetically attached sputter targets

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; McKernan, Mark A.

    1994-01-01

    An improved method and assembly for attaching sputtering targets to cathode assemblies of sputtering systems which includes a magnetically permeable material. The magnetically permeable material is imbedded in a target base that is brazed, welded, or soldered to the sputter target, or is mechanically retained in the target material. Target attachment to the cathode is achieved by virtue of the permanent magnets and/or the pole pieces in the cathode assembly that create magnetic flux lines adjacent to the backing plate, which strongly attract the magnetically permeable material in the target assembly.

  20. Internal pipe attachment mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Bast, R.M.; Chesnut, D.A.; Henning, C.D.; Lennon, J.P.; Pastrnak, J.W.; Smith, J.A.

    1994-12-13

    An attachment mechanism is described for repairing or extending fluid carrying pipes, casings, conduits, etc. utilizing one-way motion of spring tempered fingers to provide a mechanical connection between the attachment mechanism and the pipe. The spring tempered fingers flex to permit insertion into a pipe to a desired insertion depth. The mechanical connection is accomplished by reversing the insertion motion and the mechanical leverage in the fingers forces them outwardly against the inner wall of the pipe. A seal is generated by crushing a sealing assembly by the action of setting the mechanical connection. 6 figures.

  1. Internal pipe attachment mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Bast, Richard M.; Chesnut, Dwayne A.; Henning, Carl D.; Lennon, Joseph P.; Pastrnak, John W.; Smith, Joseph A.

    1994-01-01

    An attachment mechanism for repairing or extending fluid carrying pipes, casings, conduits, etc. utilizing one-way motion of spring tempered fingers to provide a mechanical connection between the attachment mechanism and the pipe. The spring tempered fingers flex to permit insertion into a pipe to a desired insertion depth. The mechanical connection is accomplished by reversing the insertion motion and the mechanical leverage in the fingers forces them outwardly against the inner wall of the pipe. A seal is generated by crushing a sealing assembly by the action of setting the mechanical connection.

  2. Ladder attachment platform

    DOEpatents

    Swygert,; Richard, W [Springfield, SC

    2012-08-28

    A ladder attachment platform is provided that includes a base for attachment to a ladder that has first and second side rails and a plurality of rungs that extend between in a lateral direction. Also included is a user platform for having a user stand thereon that is carried by the base. The user platform may be positioned with respect to the ladder so that it is not located between a first plane that extends through the first side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction and a second plane that extends through the second side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction.

  3. Scientific literacy of adult participants in an online citizen science project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Charles Aaron

    Citizen Science projects offer opportunities for non-scientists to take part in scientific research. Scientific results from these projects have been well documented. However, there is limited research about how these projects affect their volunteer participants. In this study, I investigate how participation in an online, collaborative astronomical citizen science project can be associated with the scientific literacy of its participants. Scientific literacy is measured through three elements: attitude towards science, belief in the nature of science and competencies associated with learning science. The first two elements are measured through a pre-test given to 1,385 participants when they join the project and a post-test given six months later to 125 participants. Attitude towards science was measured using nine Likert-items custom designed for this project and beliefs in the nature of science were measured using a modified version of the Nature of Science Knowledge scale. Responses were analyzed using the Rasch Rating Scale Model. Competencies are measured through analysis of discourse occurring in online asynchronous discussion forums using the Community of Inquiry framework, which describes three types of presence in the online forums: cognitive, social and teaching. Results show that overall attitudes did not change, p = .225. However, there was significant change towards attitudes about science in the news (positive) and scientific self efficacy (negative), p < .001 and p = .035 respectively. Beliefs in the nature of science exhibited a small, but significant increase, p = .04. Relative positioning of scores on the belief items did not change much, suggesting the increase is mostly due to reinforcement of current beliefs. The cognitive and teaching presence in the online forums did not change, p = .807 and p = .505 respectively. However, the social presence did change, p = .011. Overall, these results suggest that multi-faceted, collaborative citizen

  4. Snake River Sockeye Salmon, Sawtooth Valley Project : 1992 Juvenile and Adult Trapping Program : Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-04-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) runs in the Snake River Basin have severely declined. Redfish Lake near Stanley, Idaho is the only lake in the drainage known to still support a run. In 1989, two adults were observed returning to this lake and in 1990, none returned. In the summer of 1991, only four adults returned. If no action is taken, the Snake River sockeye salmon will probably cease to exist. On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) declared the Snake River sockeye salmon ``endangered`` (effective December 20, 1991), pursuant to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. In 1991, in response to a request from the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded efforts to conserve and begin rebuilding the Snake River sockeye salmon run. The initial efforts were focused on Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Valley of southcentral Idaho. The 1991 measures involved: trapping some of the juvenile outmigrants (O. nerka) from Redfish Lake and rearing them in the Eagle Fish Health Facility (Idaho Department of Fish and Game) near Boise, Idaho; Upgrading of the Eagle Facility where the outmigrants are being reared; and trapping adult Snake River sockeye salmon returning to Redfish Lake and holding and spawning them at the Sawtooth Hatchery near Stanley, Idaho. This Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluates the potential environmental effects of the proposed actions for 1992. It has been prepared to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 and section 7 of the ESA of 1973.

  5. Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 6. Connecting Research, Policy and Practice: A Project of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice, Volume 6," is the newest volume in a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. Each…

  6. Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 5. Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice: A Project of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "The Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice, Volume 5" is a volume in a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. Each…

  7. Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 4. Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice: A Project of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "The Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research Policy, and Practice, Volume 4" is an addition to a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. "Volume 4"…

  8. Study Visit and Seminar: Work-Oriented Adult Literacy Pilot Project in Iran. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand).

    The Work-Oriented Literacy Pilot Project in Iran is based on the hypothesis that illiteracy on the part of workers hinders the growth of productivity and must therefore be considered as a factor retarding development. The study visit and seminar was intended to enable the participants to gain insight into the potentialities revealed by work…

  9. The Mentally Retarded in an Adult Correctional Institute Project CAMIO, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Jimmy R.; Friel, Charles M.

    Evaluated were 500 male inmates admitted to the Texas Department of Corrections over a 2-month period. The study was part of Project CAMIO (Correctional Administration and the Mentally Incompetent Offender), a Texas study to determine the incidence of criminal incarceration of the mentally retarded (MR) and to identify laws, procedures, and…

  10. A Longitudinal Examination of Parental Attachment, College Adjustment, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolkhorst, Brittany B.; Yazedjian, Ani; Toews, Michelle L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the connection between the parent-adult child attachment relationship, adjustment, and achievement among a sample of 168 college students and explored how the attachment relationship changed over time. Our findings indicated the attachment variables were all positively related to adjustment to college during years one and three…

  11. Reactive Attachment Disorder: Challenges for Early Identification and Intervention within the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Kimberly K.; Hester, Peggy; Griffin, Harold C.; Golden, Jeannie; Canter, Lora Lee Smith

    2008-01-01

    Attachment is of key importance in childhood development. The quality of attachment relationship between the child and parent/primary caregiver may have an effect on the child and future relationships and social success (Rubin, Bukowski, & Parker, 1998). When a child fails to bond with a caring adult, attachment becomes disordered and children may…

  12. Secure Relationships: Nurturing Infant/Toddler Attachment in Early Care Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Noting that research and clinical findings confirm the connection to later emotional well-being of a secure attachment between each infant or young child and a warm, stable adult, this book addresses aspects of attachment important for caregivers of infants and toddlers. The book focuses on those aspects of attachment caregivers need to understand…

  13. The Relation of Attachment Security to Adolescents' Paternal and Peer Relationships, Depression, and Externalizing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Joseph P.; Porter, Maryfrances; McFarland, Christy; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Marsh, Penny

    2007-01-01

    The relation of attachment security to multiple domains of psychosocial functioning was examined in a community sample of 167 early adolescents. Security of attachment organization, assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview, was linked to success in establishing autonomy while maintaining a sense of relatedness both with fathers and with…

  14. Neurobiology of social attachments.

    PubMed

    Coria-Avila, Genaro A; Manzo, Jorge; Garcia, Luis I; Carrillo, Porfirio; Miquel, Marta; Pfaus, James G

    2014-06-01

    Many types of social attachments can be observed in nature. We discuss the neurobiology of two types (1) intraspecific (with a partner) and (2) parental (with the offspring). Stimuli related to copulation facilitate the first, whereas pregnancy, parturition and lactation facilitate the second. Both types develop as consequence of cohabitation. These events seem to stimulate similar neural pathways that increase (1) social recognition, (2) motivation, reward; and (3) decrease fear/anxiety. Subregions of the amygdala and cortex facilitate social recognition and also disinhibition to decrease rejection responses. The interrelationship between MeA, BNST, LS may mediate the activation of NAcc via the mPOA to increase motivation and reward. Cortical areas such as the ACC discriminate between stimuli. The interaction between OT and D2-type receptors in NAcc shell facilitates intraspecific attachment, but D1-type appears to facilitate parental attachment. This difference may be important for maternal females to direct their attention, motivation and expression of attachment toward the appropriate target. PMID:24769402

  15. Quick-attach clamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vano, A. E.

    1968-01-01

    Clamp of the slideable jaw type can be applied to moving lines such as cables or ropes. The clamp has a trigger-operated jaw that can be attached to a redrop parachute on a moving tow cable. The trigger mechanism maintains the jaws retracted in the housing until they are released for clamping.

  16. Attachment and Personality Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Preeti; Sharan, Pratap

    2007-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) arise from core psychopathology of interpersonal relationships and understanding of self and others. The distorted representations of self and others, as well as unhealthy relationships that characterize persons with various PDs, indicate the possibility that persons with PDs have insecure attachment. Insecure…

  17. The Building Bridges Project: Involving Older Adults in the Design of a Communication Technology to Support Peer-to-Peer Social Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wherton, Joseph; Prendergast, David

    There are a variety of factors that can lead to social isolation and loneliness in old age, including decline in physical and mental health, as well as change to social environment. The Building Bridges project explores how communication technology can help older adults remain socially connected. This paper will first provide an overview of a prototype communication system designed to support peer-to-peer group interaction. A description of the user-centered design process will be provided to demonstrate the importance of involving older adults at the earliest stages. The implications for designing new technology for older adults are discussed.

  18. Effects of naringin, a flavanone glycoside in grapefruits and citrus fruits, on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic projection in the adult brain

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Sang Ryong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated the ability of naringin, a well-known flavanone glycoside of grapefruits and citrus fruits, to prevent neurodegeneration in a neurotoxin model of Parkinson's disease. Intraperitoneal injection of naringin protected the nigrostriatal dopaminergic projection by increasing glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor expression and decreasing the level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in dopaminergic neurons and microglia, respectively. These results suggest that naringin can impart to the adult dopaminergic neurons the ability to produce glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor against Parkinson's disease with anti-inflammatory effects. Based on these results, we would like to describe an important perspective on its possibility as a therapeutic agent for Parkinson's disease. PMID:25317167

  19. God attachment, mother attachment, and father attachment in early and middle adolescence.

    PubMed

    Sim, Tick Ngee; Yow, Amanda Shixian

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined the interplay of attachment to God, attachment to mother, and attachment to father with respect to adjustment (hope, self-esteem, depression) for 130 early and 106 middle adolescents in Singapore. Results showed that the parental attachments were generally linked (in expected directions) to adjustment. God attachment, however, had unique results. At the bivariate level, God attachment was only linked to early adolescents' self-esteem. When considered together with parental attachments (including interactions), God attachment did not emerge as the key moderator in attachment interactions and yielded some unexpected results (e.g., being positively linked to depression). These results are discussed viz-a-viz the secure base and safe haven functions that God and parental attachments may play during adolescence.

  20. The relevance of security: A latent domain of attachment relationships.

    PubMed

    Mannarini, Stefania; Boffo, Marilisa

    2014-02-01

    In the present study an adult attachment dimension, latent to the constructs of security, anxiety, and avoidance, was hypothesized, wherein security was expected to occupy the most relevant position. Furthermore, the reciprocal functioning of attachment constructs and their interactions with self-esteem were explored. Four hundreds and thirty-four Italian university students responded to two adult attachment questionnaires (Attachment Style Questionnaire and Adult Attachment Questionnaire) and to the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale. A Many-Facet Rasch Measurement modeling approach was adopted. The main results can be summarized as follows: (a) security, anxiety, and avoidance are nested under one latent attachment dimension; (b) security occupies the most prominent position on the dimension; (c) security is positively associated with a moderate level of attachment anxiety and negatively related to avoidance; and (d) a positive interaction between self-esteem and security, and a negative relation between self-esteem and anxiety, were detected. Theoretical, clinical, and empirical implications of the results are further discussed. PMID:24303992

  1. Estimation and projection of adult AIDS cases: a simple epidemiological model.

    PubMed

    Chin, J; Lwanga, S K

    1991-01-01

    Many HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) models have been developed to help our understanding of the dynamics and interrelationships of the determinants of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) spread and/or to develop reliable estimates of the eventual extent of such spread. These models range from very simple to very complex. WHO has developed a simple model for short-term projections of AIDS, details of which are presented here along with results obtained using the model to estimate and project AIDS cases for the USA, sub-Saharan Africa, and south/south-east Asia. WHO has also developed, based on the model described in this paper, a computer program (Epi Model), which will enable the user to easily change the values of any of the variables required by the WHO model.

  2. Insecure attachment style is associated with chronic widespread pain.

    PubMed

    Davies, K A; Macfarlane, G J; McBeth, J; Morriss, R; Dickens, C

    2009-06-01

    Individuals with "insecure" adult attachment styles have been shown to experience more pain than people with secure attachment, though results of previous studies have been inconsistent. We performed a cross-sectional study on a large population-based sample to investigate whether, compared to pain free individuals, subjects with chronic widespread pain were more likely to report insecure adult attachment style. Subjects in a population-based cross-sectional study completed a self-rated assessment of adult attachment style. Attachment style was categorised as secure (i.e., normal attachment style); or preoccupied, dismissing or fearful (insecure attachment styles). Subjects completed a pain questionnaire from which three groups were identified: pain free; chronic widespread pain; and other pain. Subjects rated their pain intensity and pain-related disability on an 11 point Likert scale. Subjects (2509) returned a completed questionnaire (median age 49.9 years (IQR 41.2-50.0); 59.2% female). Subjects with CWP were more likely to report a preoccupied (RRR 2.6; 95%CI 1.8-3.7), dismissing (RRR 1.9; 95%CI 1.2-3.1) or fearful attachment style (RRR 1.4; 95%CI 1.1-1.8) than those free of pain. Among CWP subjects, insecure attachment style was associated with number of pain sites (Dismissing: RRR 2.8; 95%CI 1.2-2.3, Preoccupied: RRR=1.8, 95%CI 0.98-3.5) and degree of pain-related disability (Preoccupied: RRR=2.1, 95%CI 1.0-4.1), but not pain intensity. These findings suggest that treatment strategies based on knowledge of attachment style, possibly using support and education, may alleviate distress and disability in people at risk of, or affected by, chronic widespread pain. PMID:19345016

  3. Cadmium levels in a representative sample of the Spanish adult population: The BIOAMBIENT.ES project.

    PubMed

    López-Herranz, Ana; Cutanda, Francisco; Esteban, Marta; Pollán, Marina; Calvo, Eva; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Victoria Cortes, Maria; Castaño, Argelia

    2016-09-01

    Urinary cadmium levels (U-Cd) were measured in 1770 adults (aged 18-65 years) as a representative sample of the Spanish workforce. The geometric mean (GM) was 0.28 μg/l with 95% CI: 0.27-0.32 μg/l (GM: 0.20 μg/g 95% CI: 0.18-022 μg/g creatinine). The 95% percentile was 1.03 μg/l. U-Cd increased with age, with women showing higher U-Cd than men (p<0.001; 0.24 μg/g vs 0.17 μg/g). A multivariate analysis confirmed that sex, age and smoking habit significantly influence U-Cd. Smoking habit increases U-Cd by ∼90% per 10 years of age, almost twice the increase observed for non-smoking. Female smokers had 85% higher U-Cd than non-smokers, whereas the corresponding value for male smokers and non-smokers was 45%. No regional differences were observed with respect to the national reference level. The Spanish population studied here exhibits similar urinary cadmium levels to its European counterparts in Germany and slightly lower levels than in France, the Czech Republic, Italy and the United Kingdom. This paper provides the first baseline information concerning cadmium exposure in the Spanish adult population on a national scale. As such, these findings will help us to establish reference levels, follow temporal trends and identify high-exposure groups, thereby enabling comparisons with other countries and contributing to the improvement of public health and environmental quality.

  4. A Study of Perfectionism, Attachment, and College Student Adjustment: Testing Mediational Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Camille A.; Kubal, Anne E.; Pfaller, Joan; Rice, Kenneth G.

    Mediational models predicting college students' adjustment were tested using regression analyses. Contemporary adult attachment theory was employed to explore the cognitive/affective mechanisms by which adult attachment and perfectionism affect various aspects of psychological functioning. Consistent with theoretical expectations, results…

  5. Attachment Styles and Psychological Profiles of Child Sex Offenders in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsa, Fiona; O'Reilly, Gary; Carr, Alan; Murphy, Paul; O'Sullivan, Maura; Cotter, Anthony; Hevey, David

    2004-01-01

    When 29 child sex offenders, 30 violent offenders, 30 nonviolent offenders, and 30 community controls were compared, a secure adult attachment style was 4 times less common in the child sex offender group than in any of the other three groups. Ninety-three percent of sex offenders had an insecure adult attachment style. Compared with community…

  6. Turbine nozzle attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, P.F.; Shaffer, J.E.

    1995-10-24

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and is attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes a pair of legs extending radially outwardly from an outer shroud and a pair of mounting legs extending radially inwardly from an inner shroud. Each of the pair of legs and mounting legs have a pair of holes therein. A plurality of members attached to the gas turbine engine have a plurality of bores therein which axially align with corresponding ones of the pair of holes in the legs. A plurality of pins are positioned within the corresponding holes and bores radially positioning the nozzle guide vane assembly about a central axis of the gas turbine engine. 3 figs.

  7. Turbine nozzle attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, Paul F.; Shaffer, James E.

    1995-01-01

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes a pair of legs extending radially outwardly from an outer shroud and a pair of mounting legs extending radially inwardly from an inner shroud. Each of the pair of legs and mounting legs have a pair of holes therein. A plurality of members attached to the gas turbine engine have a plurality of bores therein which axially align with corresponding ones of the pair of holes in the legs. A plurality of pins are positioned within the corresponding holes and bores radially positioning the nozzle guide vane assembly about a central axis of the gas turbine engine.

  8. Leadership and attachment theory.

    PubMed

    Bresnahan, Christopher G; Mitroff, Ian I

    2007-09-01

    Comments on the six articles contained in the special issue of the American Psychologist (January 2007) devoted to leadership, written by W. Bennis; S. J. Zaccaro; V. H. Vroom and A. G. Yago; B. J. Avolio; R. J. Sternberg; and R. J. Hackman and R. Wageman. The current authors opine that the inclusion of attachment theory in the study of leadership could strengthen leadership theories as a whole.

  9. Magnetic attachment mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Mitchell B. (Inventor); Harwell, William D. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A magnetic attachment mechanism adapted for interfacing with the manipulator arm of a remote manipulator system and comprising a pair of permanent magnets of rare earth material are arranged in a stator-rotor relationship. The rotor magnet is journalled for rotation about its longitudinal axis between pole plates of the stator magnet, each of which includes an adhering surface. In a first rotary position corresponding to the ON condition, each of the poles of the rotor magnet is closely adjacent to a stator magnet pole plate of like polarity whereby the respective magnet fields are additive for producing a strong magnetic field emanating from the adhering surfaces for attracting a ferrous magnetic plate, or the like, affixed to the payload. When the rotor magnet is rotated to a second position corresponding to the OFF condition, each of the poles of the rotor magnet is disposed closely adjacent to a pole plate of unlike polarity whereby the magnetic fields of the magnets are in cancelling relationship at the adhering surfaces, which permits the release of a payload. An actuator for selectively rotating the rotor magnet between the ON and OFF positions is provided for interfacing and connecting the magnetic attachment mechanism with a manipulator arm. For affecting an optimal rigidized attachment the payload is provided with guide means cooperable with guide means on the housing of the mechanism for directing adhering surfaces of the polar plates to the ferrous plate.

  10. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2006 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the tenth season (1997-2006) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the eighth season (1999-2006) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies In 2006

  11. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2004 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the eighth season (1997-2004) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the sixth season (1999-2004) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progency for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies. In 2004

  12. Childhood sexual abuse and attachment: An intergenerational perspective.

    PubMed

    Kwako, Laura E; Noll, Jennie G; Putnam, Frank W; Trickett, Penelope K

    2010-07-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a recognized risk factor for various negative outcomes in adult survivors and their offspring. We used the Dynamic-Maturational Model of attachment theory as a framework for exploring the impact of maternal CSA on children's attachment relationships in the context of a longitudinal sample of adult survivors of CSA and non-abused comparison mothers and their children. Results indicated that children of CSA survivors were more likely to have extreme strategies of attachment than the children of non-abused mothers. However, because both groups were at socioeconomic risk, both were typified by anxious attachment. Explanations for findings and implications for children's development are explored. PMID:20603427

  13. Ultrasonic device for measuring periodontal attachment levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, J. E.; Hinders, M. K.

    2002-07-01

    Periodontal disease is manifested clinically by a degradation of the ligament that attaches the tooth to the bone. The most widely used diagnostic tool for assessment of periodontal diseases, measurement of periodontal attachment loss with a manual probe, may overestimate attachment loss by as much as 2 mm in untreated sites, while underestimating attachment loss by an even greater margin following treatment. Manual probing is also invasive, which causes patient discomfort. This work describes the development and testing of an ultrasonographic periodontal probe designed to replace manual probing. It uses a thin stream of water to project an ultrasonic beam into the periodontal pocket, and then measures echoes off features within the pocket. To do so, the ultrasonic beam must be narrowed from 2 (the diameter of the transducer) to 0.5 mm (the approximate width of the periodontal pocket at the gingival margin). The proper choice of transducer frequency, the proper method for controlling water flow from the probe, and a model for interpreting these echoes are also addressed. Initial results indicate that the device measures echoes from the hard tissue of the tooth surface, and that the periodontal attachment level can be inferred from these echoes.

  14. Unmet Needs of Low Academic Level Adult (0-4th Grade Level) Students: A Follow-Up Study. A Special Demonstration/Teacher Training Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portage Township Schools, IN.

    An Indiana 310 Project was conducted to determine the needs of very low level adult basic education students (0-4th grade). Specifically, the study sought to answer the following four questions: (1) What brings low academic level students into ABE programs? (2) What aspects of the ABE programs do low academic level students dislike? (3) Why do low…

  15. Senior Nursing Students' Participation in a Community Research Project: Effect on Student Self-Efficacy and Knowledge Concerning Drug Interactions Arising from Self-Medication in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neafsey, Patricia J.; Shellman, Juliette

    2002-01-01

    Of 13 nursing students in a community nursing clinical project, 7 worked with older adults who received instruction about drug interaction. Compared to the six whose patients did not receive instruction, these students achieved greater knowledge and self-efficacy scores related to drug interaction. (Contains 16 references.) (SK)

  16. Making Meaning about Educational Experiences through Participatory Action Research: A Project Conducted with Adults Enrolled in a Community College Mathematics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, German Alonso

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the findings of a group of co-researchers involved in a participatory action research (PAR) project conducted with adults in a developmental education program. The co-researchers were mostly individuals of Hispanic descent, who had struggled in the past with schooling. Because the educational experiences of Hispanics often…

  17. Oily Fish Intake and Cognitive Performance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: The Atahualpa Project.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M; Gillman, Jennifer; Zambrano, Mauricio; Ha, Jung-eun

    2016-02-01

    Due to their high content of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, oily fish consumption is likely associated with a better cognitive performance. However, information on this association is controversial, with some studies showing a positive effect while others showing no association. We aimed to assess the effects of oily fish consumption on cognitive performance in a population of frequent fish consumers living in rural coastal Ecuador. Atahualpa residents aged ≥60 years were identified during a door-to-door survey and evaluated by the use of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Oily fish servings per week were calculated in all participants. We estimated whether fish intake correlated with MoCA scores in generalized multivariate linear models adjusted for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, edentulism and symptoms of depression. Out of 330 eligible persons, 307 (93%) were enrolled. Mean MoCA scores were 19 ± 4.8 points, and mean oily fish consumption was 8.6 ± 5.3 servings per week. In multivariate analyses, MoCA scores were related to fish servings (β 0.097, 95% CI 0.005-0.188, p = 0.038). Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing showed an inflection point in the total MoCA score curve at four fish servings per week. However, predictive margins of the MoCA score were similar across groups below and above this point, suggesting a direct linear relationship between oily fish intake and cognitive performance. Simple preventive measures, such as modifying dietary habits might be of value to reduce the rate of cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults living in underserved populations.

  18. The 2006 Project Progress Report for 1987-099-00 Dworshak Kokanee Population and Entrainment Assessment (contract # 26850) is attached to project 2007-003-00, contract #31598. [POINTER

    SciTech Connect

    2008-12-18

    During this contract, we continued testing underwater strobe lights to determine their effectiveness at repelling kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka away from Dworshak Dam. Strobe light tests were conducted on four nights from April 24-27, 2006, in front of the middle reservoir outlet (RO) 2. The density and distribution of fish, (thought to be mostly kokanee), were monitored with a split-beam echo sounder. We then compared fish counts and densities during nights when the lights were flashing to counts and densities during adjacent nights without the lights on. On two nights, April 25 and 27, 2006, when no lights were present, fish counts near RO 2 averaged 12.4 fish and densities averaged 31.0 fish/ha. When strobe lights were turned on during the nights of April 24 and 26, mean counts dropped to 4.7 fish and densities dropped to 0.5 fish/ha. The decline in counts (62%) and densities (99%) was statistically significant (p = 0.009 and 0.002, respectively). Test results indicated that strobe lights were able to reduce fish densities by at least 50% in front of a discharging reservoir outlet, which would be sufficient to improve sport fish harvest. We also used split-beam hydroacoustics to monitor the kokanee population in Dworshak Reservoir during 2006. Estimated abundance of kokanee increased from the 2005 population estimate. Based on hydroacoustic surveys, we estimated approximately 5,815,000 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 27.6%) in Dworshak Reservoir in August 2006. This included 2,183,000 age-0 (90% CI {+-} 24.2%), 1,509,000 age-1 (90% CI {+-} 29.0%), and 2,124,000 age-2 (90% CI {+-} 27.6%) kokanee. This resulted in a density of age-2 kokanee above the management goal of 30-50 adults/ha. Entrainment sampling was conducted with fixed-site, split-beam hydroacoustics from May through September for a continuous 24 h period when dam operations permitted. The highest fish detection rates from entrainment assessments were found during dawn periods, unlike previous year's results, which

  19. The Rorschach texture response: a construct validation study using attachment theory.

    PubMed

    Cassella, Michael J; Viglione, Donald J

    2009-11-01

    Using attachment theory, in this research, we explored the construct validity of the Rorschach (Exner, 1974) Texture (T) response as a measure of interpersonal closeness and contact. A total of 40 men and 39 women completed the Rorschach and 2 attachment inventories. Their romantic partners also completed an informant version of the attachment measures. Attachment styles were measured by factor scores involving both self-report and partner report. Results indicate that attachment theory, as a broad conceptual framework, is associated with T. Specifically, T = 1 is most closely associated with a secure attachment style, T > 1 with aspects of the preoccupied style, and T = 0 with aspects of the avoidant style and an absence of secure attachment. Needs for closeness and contact associated with T can be couched within an adult attachment theory, but in this study, we did not test for problematic aspects of insecure attachment. Gender is a complicating factor and deserves more study.

  20. Sexual Functioning in Young Women and Men: Role of Attachment Orientation.

    PubMed

    Dunkley, Cara R; Dang, Silvain S; Chang, Sabrina C H; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2016-07-01

    Prior research has documented various ways in which adult attachment styles are characteristic of differential behavioral and cognitive patterns within romantic relationships and sexuality. However, few studies have examined the direct influence of anxious or avoidant attachment orientation on sexual function. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of insecure attachment on sexual function. Undergraduate students completed questionnaires measuring attachment style and sexual functioning. Among women, attachment avoidance tended to be associated with impairments in all aspects of sexual function, whereas anxious attachment tended to be associated with declines in arousal, satisfaction, and ability to achieve orgasm. A different trend was seen in men: Anxious attachment tended to be associated with multiple facets of sexual dysfunction, while avoidant attachment did not correlate with any sexual function deficits and was associated with superior physiological competence. These results suggest that both anxious and avoidant attachment styles are important yet differential predictors of sexual function in men and women.

  1. Memories of attachment hamper EEG cortical connectivity in dissociative patients.

    PubMed

    Farina, Benedetto; Speranza, Anna Maria; Dittoni, Serena; Gnoni, Valentina; Trentini, Cristina; Vergano, Carola Maggiora; Liotti, Giovanni; Brunetti, Riccardo; Testani, Elisa; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated cortical connectivity modifications by electroencephalography (EEG) lagged coherence analysis, in subjects with dissociative disorders and in controls, after retrieval of attachment memories. We asked thirteen patients with dissociative disorders and thirteen age- and sex-matched healthy controls to retrieve personal attachment-related autobiographical memories through adult attachment interviews (AAI). EEG was recorded in the closed eyes resting state before and after the AAI. EEG lagged coherence before and after AAI was compared in all subjects. In the control group, memories of attachment promoted a widespread increase in EEG connectivity, in particular in the high-frequency EEG bands. Compared to controls, dissociative patients did not show an increase in EEG connectivity after the AAI. Conclusions: These results shed light on the neurophysiology of the disintegrative effect of retrieval of traumatic attachment memories in dissociative patients.

  2. Adopting Children with Attachment Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Daniel A.

    1999-01-01

    Notes that attachment behavior in infants is a facet of normal child development, and that children with attachment problems require special attention during and after the adoption process. Presents actions needed to increase the probability that such children can be successfully adopted, detailed attachment patterns, and parenting strategies and…

  3. Understanding Attachment: Beliefs about Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole; Arricale, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Examines attachment prototype, attachment-related feelings about conflict, style of expressing conflict, and conflict tactics using self-report questionnaires from 188 volunteer college students. Analysis indicated that persons who endorsed secure attachment reported feeling less threat from arguing; persons endorsing dismissing attachment…

  4. Attachment and Relationships: Beyond Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Using a question-answer format, this paper examines the concept of attachment and its importance for parents and caregivers of young children. Twenty topics are addressed through an examination of relevant theory, research findings, and clinical evidence: (1) a "who's who" list of researchers on attachment; (2) definition of attachment; (3)…

  5. Attachment: Theoretical Development and Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Zeanah argues that ethological attachment theory, as outlined by John Bowlby, has provided one of the most important frameworks for understanding crucial risk and protective factors in social and emotional development. However, although attachment theory and the notion of attachment disorders have influenced such initiatives, many psychologists,…

  6. Attachment Theory: Retrospect and Prospect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretherton, Inge

    1985-01-01

    Provides overview of attachment theory as parented by John Bowlby in "Attachment and Loss". Uses two major concepts from this work to interpret refinements and elaborations of attachment theory attibuted to Mary Ainsworth. Considers how recent insights into development of socioemotional understanding and development of event representation can be…

  7. Bowlby's attachment theory: implications for health visiting.

    PubMed

    Partis, M

    2000-10-01

    This article reviews the current state of research in attachment theory. It also examines the relations between attachment, child care and development, and the significance of attachment to adult functioning and well-being. It seems likely that humans need close emotional relationships or bonds with others. This need applies particularly to infants, who look to parents or other care givers for love and security. The best-known psychological explanation of this need is attachment theory, which has been influential in increasing our understanding of the early mother-infant relationship, and in the formulation of guidelines for child care (Melhuish, 1998). Good-quality parental care may be difficult to define, and questions remain regarding the nature of child care and the consequences that it can have for later development. This article concludes with a discussion of the possible implications for health-visitor intervention within families, which are intended to improve the quality of the relationship between parents or care givers and the infant.

  8. Ammonium and attachment of Rhodopirellula baltica.

    PubMed

    Frank, Carsten S; Langhammer, Philipp; Fuchs, Bernhard Maximilian; Harder, Jens

    2011-05-01

    A dimorphic life cycle has been described for the planctomycete Rhodopirellula baltica SH1(T), with juvenile motile, free-swimming cells and adult sessile, attached-living cells. However, attachment as a response to environmental factors was not investigated. We studied the response of R. baltica to nitrogen limitation. In batch cultures, ammonium limitation coincided with a dominance of free-swimming cells and a low number of aggregates. Flow cytometry revealed a quantitative shift with increasing ammonium availability, from single cells towards attached cells in large aggregates. During growth of R. baltica on glucose and ammonium in chemostats, an ammonium addition caused a macroscopic change of the growth behaviour, from homogeneous growth in the liquid phase to a biofilm on the borosilicate glass wall of the chemostat vessel. Thus, an ammonium limitation-a carbon to nitrogen supply ratio of 30:1-sustained free-living growth without aggregate formation. A sudden increase in ammonium supply induced sessile growth of R. baltica. These observations reveal a response of Rhodopirellula baltica cells to ammonium: they abandon the free-swimming life, attach to particles and form biofilms. PMID:21340506

  9. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Hayat, Matthew J; Gross, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents, resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers' attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated that an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95 % CI [.97, .98], p < 0.001) and post-partum depressive symptomatology (b = .97, 95 % CI [.96-.99], p = 0.03) were significant predictors of early childhood development. Women demonstrating higher avoidant attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles, and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad.

  10. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Hayat, Matthew J; Gross, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents, resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers' attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated that an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95 % CI [.97, .98], p < 0.001) and post-partum depressive symptomatology (b = .97, 95 % CI [.96-.99], p = 0.03) were significant predictors of early childhood development. Women demonstrating higher avoidant attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles, and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad. PMID:23737011

  11. Cerebrovascular correlates of vitamin D deficiency in older adults living near the Equator: results from the Atahualpa Project.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M; Macias, Jorge; Morales, Gabriela; Zambrano, Mauricio

    2015-12-01

    All studies attempting to find an association between vitamin D deficiency and cerebrovascular diseases have been conducted at latitudes far away from the Equator, where living conditions, cardiovascular risk factors, and sunshine exposure are different from tropical regions. We aimed to assess cerebrovascular correlates of vitamin D deficiency in community-dwelling older adults living in Atahualpa, a village located in rural coastal Ecuador. Out of 267 individuals enrolled in the neuroimaging substudy of the Atahualpa Project, 220 (82%) signed the informed consent. Mean age of participants was 70·9 ± 7·8 years, and 126 (57%) were women. Fifty-four (25%) persons have vitamin D levels <20 ng/ml, 47 (21%) had ischemic strokes, and 53 (24%) had moderate-to-severe white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin. Exposure effect models constructed with vitamin D deficiency as the exposure, white matter hyperintensities and ischemic stroke as the outcomes, and confounders--age, gender, body mass index, physical activity, blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, ionized calcium, phosphorus, intact parathormone, and serum creatinine--as independent variables revealed a significant association of vitamin D deficiency with white matter hyperintensities (P = 0·006) but not with ischemic strokes (P = 0·359). This study shows an association of vitamin D deficiency with diffuse subcortical brain damage in older adults living in a tropical region. Lack of awareness of the importance of vitamin D deficiency might be one of the factors influencing the high prevalence of white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin in underserved Latin American populations.

  12. Some Conclusions from the Co-operation of 14 Development Projects. Studied in the Framework of Three Co-operative Monitoring Groups. The CDCC's Project No. 9: "Adult Education and Community Development."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Walter

    The reports are presented from three Cooperative Monitoring Groups of the Council for Cultural Cooperation. The groups studied 14 projects that contributed to local and regional development through their provision or encouragement of the provision by others of adult education and training as a component of that development. A brief introduction…

  13. Magnetic attachment mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwell, William D. (Inventor); Wu, Mitchell B. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic attachment mechanism adapted for interfacing with the manipulator arm (11) of a remote manipulator system and comprising a pair of permanent magnets (31,32) of rare earth material which are arranged in a stator-rotor relationship. The rotor magnet (32), is journalled for rotation about its longitudinal axis between pole plates (35,36) of the stator magnet (31), each of which includes an adhering surface (35a,36a). In a first rotary position corresponding to the ON condition, each of the poles of the rotor magnet (32) is closely adjacent a stator magnet pole plate of like polarity whereby the respective magnet fields are additive for producing a strong magnetic field emanating from the adhering surfaces (35a,36a) for attracting a ferrous magnetic plate 20, or the like, affixed to the payload (20 or 50). When the rotor magnet (32) is rotated to a second position corresponding to the OFF condition, each of the poles of the rotor magnet (31) is disposed closely adjacent a pole plate of unlike polarity whereby the magnetic fields of the magnets are in cancelling relationship at the adhering surfaces (35a,36a) which permits the release of a payload. An actuator (51 or 70) for selectively rotating the rotor magnet (32) between the ON and OFF positions is provided for interfacing and connecting the magnetic attachment mechanism with a manipulator arm. For effecting an optimal rigidized attachment the payload is provided with guides (91,92) cooperable with guides (96,16,17) on the housing of the mechanism for directing adhering surfaces (35a,36a) of the polar plates to the ferrous plate (20).

  14. Space Station attached payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Lenwood G.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom is being designed and developed with user requirements being used to shape the configuration. Plans include accommodation provisions for a wide variety of attached payloads including the Earth sciences research activities which are the focus of this conference. The station program is even beginning some preliminary payload manifesting which involves planning for accommodation of payload during the station's assembly flights. Potential payload organizations should be aware of the station's plans for payload accommodations so as to guide their own payload activities for future space station use.

  15. Flared tube attachment fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkire, I. D.; King, J. P., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Tubes can be flared first, then attached to valves and other flow line components, with new fitting that can be disassembled and reused. Installed fitting can be disassembled so parts can be inspected. It can be salvaged and reused without damaging flared tube; tube can be coated, tempered, or otherwise treated after it has been flared, rather than before, as was previously required. Fitting consists of threaded male portion with conical seating surface, hexagonal nut with hole larger than other diameter of flared end of tube, and split ferrule.

  16. Developing a User-Centred Planning Tool for Young Adults with Development Disorders: A Research-Based Teaching Project.

    PubMed

    Ribu, Kirsten; Patel, Tulpesh

    2016-01-01

    People with development disorders, for instance autism, need structured plans to help create predictability in their daily lives. Digital plans can facilitate enhanced independency, learning, and quality of life, but existing apps are largely general purpose and lack the flexibility required by this specific but heterogeneous user group. Universal design is both a goal and a process and should be based on a holistic approach and user-centered design, interacting with the users in all stages of the development process. At Oslo and Akershus University College (HiOA) we conducted a research-based teaching project in co-operation with the Department of Neuro-habilitation at Oslo University Hospital (OUS) with two employees acting as project managers and students as developers. Three groups of Computer Science bachelor students developed digital prototypes for a planning tool for young adults with pervasive development disorders, who live either with their families or in supervised residences, and do not receive extensive public services. The students conducted the initial planning phase of the software development process, focusing on prototyping the system requirements, whilst a professional software company programmed the end solution. The goal of the project was to develop flexible and adaptive user-oriented and user-specific app solutions for tablets that can aid this diverse user group in structuring daily life, whereby, for example, photos of objects and places known to the individual user replace general pictures or drawings, and checklists can be elaborate or sparse as necessary. The three student groups worked independently of each other and created interactive working prototypes based on tests, observations and short interviews with end users (both administrators and residents) and regular user feedback from the project managers. Three very different solutions were developed that were of high enough quality that an external software company were able to

  17. Developing a User-Centred Planning Tool for Young Adults with Development Disorders: A Research-Based Teaching Project.

    PubMed

    Ribu, Kirsten; Patel, Tulpesh

    2016-01-01

    People with development disorders, for instance autism, need structured plans to help create predictability in their daily lives. Digital plans can facilitate enhanced independency, learning, and quality of life, but existing apps are largely general purpose and lack the flexibility required by this specific but heterogeneous user group. Universal design is both a goal and a process and should be based on a holistic approach and user-centered design, interacting with the users in all stages of the development process. At Oslo and Akershus University College (HiOA) we conducted a research-based teaching project in co-operation with the Department of Neuro-habilitation at Oslo University Hospital (OUS) with two employees acting as project managers and students as developers. Three groups of Computer Science bachelor students developed digital prototypes for a planning tool for young adults with pervasive development disorders, who live either with their families or in supervised residences, and do not receive extensive public services. The students conducted the initial planning phase of the software development process, focusing on prototyping the system requirements, whilst a professional software company programmed the end solution. The goal of the project was to develop flexible and adaptive user-oriented and user-specific app solutions for tablets that can aid this diverse user group in structuring daily life, whereby, for example, photos of objects and places known to the individual user replace general pictures or drawings, and checklists can be elaborate or sparse as necessary. The three student groups worked independently of each other and created interactive working prototypes based on tests, observations and short interviews with end users (both administrators and residents) and regular user feedback from the project managers. Three very different solutions were developed that were of high enough quality that an external software company were able to

  18. 75 FR 60407 - Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary Permit Application Project Titled: Fine Scale...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Application Project Titled: Fine Scale, Long-Term Tracking of Adult White Sharks AGENCY: Office of National... attraction and approach of white sharks in the sanctuary. The purpose of the proposed study is to improve our knowledge of the full migratory cycle of white sharks by attaching location transmitters to up to eleven...

  19. The 2005 Project Progress Report for 1987-099-00 Dworshak Kokanee Population and Entrainment Assessment (contract # 16791) is attached to project 1987-099-00, contract # 26850. [POINTER

    SciTech Connect

    2008-12-18

    During this contract, we continued testing underwater strobe lights to determine their effectiveness at repelling kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka away from Dworshak Dam. We tested one set of nine strobe lights flashing at a rate of 360 flashes/min in front of turbine 3 while operating at higher discharges than previously tested. The density and distribution of fish, (thought to be mostly kokanee), were monitored with a split-beam echo sounder. We then compared fish counts and densities during nights when the lights were flashing to counts and densities during adjacent nights without the lights on. On five nights between January 31 and February 28, 2006, when no lights were present, fish counts near turbine 3 averaged eight fish and densities averaged 91 fish/ha. When strobe lights were turned on during five adjacent nights during the same period, mean counts dropped to four fish and densities dropped to 35 fish/ha. The decline in counts (49%) was not statistically significant (p = 0.182), but decline in densities (62%) was significant (p = 0.049). There appeared to be no tendency for fish to habituate to the lights during the night. Test results indicated that strobe lights were able to reduce fish densities by at least 50% in front of turbines operating at higher discharges, which would be sufficient to improve sportfish harvest. We also used split-beam hydroacoustics to monitor the kokanee population in Dworshak Reservoir during 2005. Estimated abundance of kokanee decreased from the 2004 population estimate. Based on hydroacoustic surveys, we estimated 3,011,626 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 15.2%) in Dworshak Reservoir, July 2005. This included 2,135,986 age-0 (90% CI {+-} 15.9%), 769,175 age-1 (90% CI {+-} 16.0%), and 107,465 age-2 (90% CI {+-} 15.2%). Poor survival of kokanee from age-1 to age-2 continued to keep age-2 densities below the management goal of 30-50 adults/ha. Entrainment sampling was conducted with fixed-site split-beam hydroacoustics a minimum of two days

  20. Ceramic blade attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Frey, G.A.; Jimenez, O.D.

    1996-12-03

    A turbine blade having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is attached to a turbine flange having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine blade. The turbine flange includes a first upstanding flange and a second upstanding flange having a groove formed between them. The turbine flange further includes a recess. Each of the first and second upstanding flanges have a plurality of bores therein. A turbine blade has a first member and a second member positioned in one of the groove and the recess. Each of the first member and the second member have a plurality of bores therein. A pin is positioned in respective ones of the plurality of bores in the first and second upstanding members and the first and second members and attach the blade to the turbine flange. The pin has a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being substantially equal to the rate of thermal expansion of the blade. 4 figs.

  1. Ceramic blade attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Frey, deceased, Gary A.; Jimenez, Oscar D.

    1996-01-01

    A turbine blade having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is attached to a turbine flange having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine blade. The turbine flange includes a first upstanding flange and a second upstanding flange having a groove formed therebetween. The turbine flange further includes a recess. Each of the first and second upstanding flanges have a plurality of bores therein. A turbine blade has a first member and a second member positioned in one of the groove and the recess. Each of the first member and the second member have a plurality of bores therein. And, a pin is positioned in respective ones of the plurality of bores in the first and second upstanding members and the first and second members and attach the blade to the turbine flange. The pin has a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being substantially equal to the rate of thermal expansion of the blade.

  2. [Quantitative analysis of the isthmo-optic nucleus and projection neurons to the retina in adult fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus)].

    PubMed

    Sugita, S; Yamada, M

    1992-08-01

    Quantitative analysis of the isthmo-optic nucleus (IO) and centrifugal projection to the retina in the fowl was made using Nissl preparation and retrograde horseradish peroxidase (HRP) methods. Seven adult fowls (Gallus gallus domesticus) were used for Nissl stain. Serial sections were cut on a freezing microtome at 60 microns and stained with cresyl violet. IO was situated just medial to the caudal part of the tectum and laterodorsal surface of the brain stem. Rostrocaudal extension of IO was about 800-1,000 microns. The average total volume and neuronal population of the IO was 280 x 10(-3) mm3 and 5,600 neurons, respectively. Eight animals were used for HRP study. One hundred microliters of 30% HRP solution in physiological saline was injected into the vitreous body of one eye of each hen. Serial transverse sections of 60 microns were treated with tetramethyl benzidine (TMB). Many labeled neurons were found in contralateral brain stem. Average total number of contralateral HRP-labeled cells in IO and peri-IO were 5,268 and 1,492, respectively. Labeled neurons peri-IO were mainly distributed ventrally and rostrally to IO. No labeled neurons in IO, and only a few labeled neurons peri-IO were found ipsilaterally. The number of HRP-labeled neurons in IO corresponded to the neuronal population of IO in Nissl preparation, which suggested that most of isthmo-optic neurons might be projecting to the contralateral retina. In contrast to the round and small IO neurons (long axis 15-20 microns, short axis 10-20 microns), peri-IO neurons were multipolar and longer (long axis 15-30 microns, short axis 10-25 microns).

  3. A Client-Centered Community Engagement Project: Improving the Health and Wellness of Older Adults in an Assisted Living Facility.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne-Rice, Madeleine; Chopp, Kayla; Evans, Lisa; Ho, Vanessa; Hsiung, Wan Ping; Simon, Marian Alexandra; Wu, Kaiyu; Donnelly, Tam Truong

    2016-08-01

    Central to nursing practice is the promotion of health and wellness practices. Drawing on the Community as Partner Model, nursing process, Nursing Interventions Classification, and Logic Model, second-year nursing students collaborated with staff and residents of an assisted living facility to promote health and wellness in the older adult population. Windshield surveys, resident surveys, key informant interviews, and focus group interviews were conducted to gain insight into the perceptions and experiences of staff and residents. The majority of residents indicated they were satisfied with life at the facility and their needs have been adequately met. Strengths and areas for improvement were identified in several aspects, including the facility atmosphere and location, quality of staff and health care services, recreational and dietary services, and social support networks. By partnering with community key stakeholders, valuing all different perspectives, and connecting theory to practice, a successful client-centered community clinical project was demonstrated. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(8), 44-51.]. PMID:27263539

  4. Ceramic blade attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, J.E.

    1995-07-11

    A turbine blade having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is attached to a turbine disc having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine blade and forms a turbine assembly. The turbine blade has a root portion defining a pair of sides having a pair of grooves therein. The turbine assembly includes a pair of flanges between which the turbine blades are positioned. Each of the pair of flanges has a plurality of grooves defined therein. The grooves within the pair of flanges are aligned with the grooves in the blades and have a space formed therebetween. A plurality of spherical balls are positioned within the space. The plurality of spherical balls has a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being equal to the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine blade. 4 figs.

  5. Ceramic blade attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, James E.

    1995-01-01

    A turbine blade having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is attached to a turbine disc having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine blade and forms a turbine assembly. The turbine blade has a root portion defining a pair of sides having a pair of grooves therein. The turbine assembly includes a pair of flanges between which the turbine blades are positioned. Each of the pair of flanges has a plurality of grooves defined therein. The grooves within the pair of flanges are aligned with the grooves in the blades and have a space formed therebetween. A plurality of spherical balls are positioned within the space. The plurality of spherical balls has a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being equal to the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine blade.

  6. Ceramic blade attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, James E.

    1995-01-01

    A turbine blade having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is attached to a turbine wheel having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine blade. The turbine blade has a root portion having a first groove and a second groove therein. The turbine wheel includes a plurality of openings in which the turbine blade is positioned. Each of the openings has a first groove and a second groove therein. The space or void formed between the first grooves and the second grooves has a plurality of spherical balls positioned therein. The plurality of spherical balls has a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being equal to the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine blade.

  7. Ceramic blade attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, J.E.

    1995-01-10

    A turbine blade having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is attached to a turbine wheel having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine blade. The turbine blade has a root portion having a first groove and a second groove therein. The turbine wheel includes a plurality of openings in which the turbine blade is positioned. Each of the openings has a first groove and a second groove therein. The space or void formed between the first grooves and the second grooves has a plurality of spherical balls positioned therein. The plurality of spherical balls has a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being equal to the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine blade. 4 figures.

  8. The paths leading from attachment to ageism: a structural equation model approach.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Ehud; Cohen-Fridel, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The study introduces a model in which attachment patterns serve as predictors, empathy and fear of death as mediators, and ageism as the predicted variable. Data were collected from young adults (N = 440). Anxious attachment was directly and positively correlated with ageism, and also indirectly and positively by the mediator "fear of death." Avoidant attachment was indirectly and negatively correlated with ageism by the mediator "empathy". It is suggested that interventions for reducing ageist attitudes among younger adults would focus on existential fears, as well as on empathic ability, according to the attachment tendencies of these individuals. PMID:24758211

  9. Attachment style predicts affect, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning in daily life.

    PubMed

    Sheinbaum, Tamara; Kwapil, Thomas R; Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Chun, Charlotte A; Silvia, Paul J; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2015-01-01

    The way in which attachment styles are expressed in the moment as individuals navigate their real-life settings has remained an area largely untapped by attachment research. The present study examined how adult attachment styles are expressed in daily life using experience sampling methodology (ESM) in a sample of 206 Spanish young adults. Participants were administered the Attachment Style Interview (ASI) and received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times per day for 1 week to complete questionnaires about their current experiences and social context. As hypothesized, participants' momentary affective states, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning varied in meaningful ways as a function of their attachment style. Individuals with an anxious attachment, as compared with securely attached individuals, endorsed experiences that were congruent with hyperactivating tendencies, such as higher negative affect, stress, and perceived social rejection. By contrast, individuals with an avoidant attachment, relative to individuals with a secure attachment, endorsed experiences that were consistent with deactivating tendencies, such as decreased positive states and a decreased desire to be with others when alone. Furthermore, the expression of attachment styles in social contexts was shown to be dependent upon the subjective appraisal of the closeness of social contacts, and not merely upon the presence of social interactions. The findings support the ecological validity of the ASI and the person-by-situation character of attachment theory. Moreover, they highlight the utility of ESM for investigating how the predictions derived from attachment theory play out in the natural flow of real life.

  10. “A child’s nightmare. Mum comes and comforts her child.” Attachment evaluation as a guide in the assessment and treatment in a clinical case study

    PubMed Central

    Salcuni, Silvia; Di Riso, Daniela; Lis, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    There is a gap between proposed theoretical attachment theory frameworks, measures of attachment in the assessment phase and their relationship with changes in outcome after a psychodynamic oriented psychotherapy. Based on a clinical case study of a young woman with Panic Attack Disorder, this paper examined psychotherapy outcome findings comparing initial and post-treatment assessments, according to the mental functioning in S and M-axis of the psychodynamic diagnostic manual. Treatment planning and post-treatment changes were described with the main aim to illustrate from a clinical point of view why a psycho-dynamic approach, with specific attention to an “attachment theory stance,” was considered the treatment of choice for this patient. The Symptom Check List 90 Revised (SCL-90-R) and the Shedler–Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP–200) were administered to detect patient’s symptomatic perception and clinician’s diagnostic points of view, respectively; the Adult Attachment Interview and the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) were also administered as to pay attention to patient’s unconscious internal organization and changes in defense processes. A qualitative description of how the treatment unfolded was included. Findings highlight the important contribution of attachment theory in a 22-month psychodynamic psychotherapy framework, promoting resolution of patient’s symptoms and adjustment. PMID:25191293

  11. Borderline disorder and attachment pathology.

    PubMed

    West, M; Keller, A; Links, P; Patrick, J

    1993-02-01

    In this paper, the authors investigate the theoretical and empirical association between dysfunctions of the attachment system and borderline personality disorder. Attachment theory focuses on the maintenance of a sense of safety and security through a close personal relationship with a particular person. Based on a biological behavioural system, functional attachment relationships in adulthood rely on experiences and expectations of security within the relationship. These issues are also important to the definition and dynamics of borderline personality disorder. The dimensions and patterns of reciprocal attachment were compared with other scales measuring components of psychopathology and interpersonal relationships. In a sample of 85 female outpatients, only four of the attachment scales--feared loss, secure base, compulsive care-seeking and angry withdrawal--identified patients with high scores on a measure of borderline disorder. Of these four scales, feared loss had the predominant effect. These empirical results support the hypothesized relationship between dysfunctions of the attachment system and borderline disorder.

  12. The relationship between attachment, personality and antisocial tendencies in a prison sample: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anita Lill; Waage, Leif; Eid, Jarle; Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Hart, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the role of adult attachment and personality in relation to antisocial tendencies (i.e. convictions for violence and interpersonal problems in romantic relationships) in Norwegian prison inmates (N=92). Attachment styles and personality were measured using self-report questionnaires (RSQ; Griffin & Bartholomew, 1994; and NEO-FFI, Costa & McCrae, 1992a). The prison inmates scored higher on avoidant than on anxious attachment style. While age and agreeableness (negatively associated) emerged as significant predictors of violence, anxious attachment explained most of the variances in aggression in intimate relationships. The study suggests that different types of antisocial tendencies could have different attachment and general personality correlates.

  13. Asotin Creek Instream Habitat Alteration Projects : Habitat Evaluation, Adult and Juvenile Habitat Utilization and Water Temperature Monitoring : 2001 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.

    2002-01-01

    projects to improve fish habitat. In 1998, the ACCD identified the need for a more detailed analysis of these instream projects to fully evaluate their effectiveness at improving fish habitat. Therefore, ACCD contracted with WDFW's Snake River Lab (SRL) to take pre- and post-construction measurements of the habitat (i.e., pools, LOD, width, depth) at each site, and to evaluate fish use within some of the altered sites. These results have been published annually as progress reports to the ACCD (Bumgarner et al. 1999, Wargo et al. 2000, and Bumgarner and Schuck 2001). The ACCD also contracted with the WDFW SRL to conduct other evaluation and monitoring in the stream such as: (1) conduct snorkel surveys at habitat alteration sites to document fish usage following construction, (2) deploy temperature monitors throughout the basin to document summer water temperatures, and (3) attempt to document adult fish utilization by documenting the number of steelhead redds associated with habitat altered areas. This report provides a summary of pre-construction measurements taken on three proposed Charley Creek habitat sites during 2001, two sites in main Asotin Creek, and one site in George Creek, a tributary that enters in the lower Asotin Creek basin. Further, it provides a comparison of measurements taken pre- and post-construction on three 1999 habitat sites taken two years later, but at similar river flows. It also presents data collected from snorkel surveys, redd counts, and temperature monitoring.

  14. Trans-Nationalization of Educational Policy Making: From European Innovation Projects in Adult Education to an Emerging European Space for Lifelong Learning: What Model for the European Vocational Education and Training Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnafous, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    This article is drawn from broader qualitative research on innovation in the field of professional adult training within the framework of European pilot projects such as the LEONARDO projects. This research aims at contributing to a general understanding of the phenomenon of innovation, in the context of European calls for projects, as an…

  15. Stigma Reduction in Adolescents and Young Adults Newly Diagnosed with HIV: Findings from the Project ACCEPT Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Diana; Hosek, Sybil G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article describes the influence of a group-based behavioral intervention for adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV (Project ACCEPT) on four dimensions of HIV-related stigma—personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes about people with HIV—as measured by the Berger HIV Stigma Scale. Stigma was addressed in a holistic manner during the intervention by providing HIV/AIDS-related information, facilitating the acquisition of coping skills, and providing contact with other youth living with HIV in order to improve social support. Fifty youth (28 male, 22 female; mean age=19.24 years) newly diagnosed with HIV from four geographically diverse clinics participated in a one-group pretest-posttest design study whereby they received the intervention over a 12-week period, and completed assessments at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. Results from the combined sample (males and females) revealed overall reductions in stigma in three dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, and negative self-image, although only the combined-sample effects for negative self-image were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Gender-specific analyses revealed that the intervention reduced stigma for males across all four dimensions of stigma, with all effects being maintained to some degree at the 3-month follow-up. Only personalized stigma demonstrated a decrease for females, although this effect was not maintained at the 3-month follow-up; while the other three types of stigma increased at post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. Findings are discussed in terms of gender specific outcomes and the need for a different type of intervention to reduce stigma for young women. PMID:25216106

  16. Stigma reduction in adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV: findings from the Project ACCEPT intervention.

    PubMed

    Harper, Gary W; Lemos, Diana; Hosek, Sybil G

    2014-10-01

    This article describes the influence of a group-based behavioral intervention for adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV (Project ACCEPT) on four dimensions of HIV-related stigma-personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes about people with HIV-as measured by the Berger HIV Stigma Scale. Stigma was addressed in a holistic manner during the intervention by providing HIV/AIDS-related information, facilitating the acquisition of coping skills, and providing contact with other youth living with HIV in order to improve social support. Fifty youth (28 male, 22 female; mean age=19.24 years) newly diagnosed with HIV from four geographically diverse clinics participated in a one-group pretest-posttest design study whereby they received the intervention over a 12-week period, and completed assessments at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. Results from the combined sample (males and females) revealed overall reductions in stigma in three dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, and negative self-image, although only the combined-sample effects for negative self-image were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Gender-specific analyses revealed that the intervention reduced stigma for males across all four dimensions of stigma, with all effects being maintained to some degree at the 3-month follow-up. Only personalized stigma demonstrated a decrease for females, although this effect was not maintained at the 3-month follow-up; while the other three types of stigma increased at post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. Findings are discussed in terms of gender specific outcomes and the need for a different type of intervention to reduce stigma for young women.

  17. Electromagnetic attachment mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, Leo G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An electromagnetic attachment mechanism is disclosed for use as an end effector of a remote manipulator system. A pair of electromagnets, each with a U-shaped magnetic core with a pull-in coil and two holding coils, are mounted by a spring suspension system on a base plate of the mechanism housing with end pole pieces adapted to move through openings in the base plate when the attractive force of the electromagnets is exerted on a strike plate of a grapple fixture affixed to a target object. The pole pieces are spaced by an air gap from the strike plate when the mechanism first contacts the grapple fixture. An individual control circuit and power source is provided for the pull-in coil and one holding coil of each electromagnet. A back-up control circuit connected to the two power sources and a third power source is provided for the remaining holding coils. When energized, the pull-in coils overcome the suspension system and air gap and are automatically de-energized when the pole pieces move to grapple and impose a preload force across the grapple interface. A battery backup is a redundant power source for each electromagnet in each individual control circuit and is automatically connected upon failure of the primary source. A centerline mounted camera and video monitor are used in cooperation with a target pattern on the reflective surface of the strike plate to effect targeting and alignment.

  18. Dissociative Electron Attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arreola, Esmeralda; Esmeralda Arreola Collaboration; Leigh Hargreaves Collaboration

    Since the pioneering work of Boudiaffa et al., it has been understood that electrons, even with energies near or below the ionization threshold, are capable of initiating strand-breaks in human DNA. This discovery raised important questions for cancer treatments, since sub-ionizing electrons are known to be the most copiously produced secondary product of radiation therapy. But even to date these factors are largely excluded from dosimetry calculations. This lack of inclusion is, at least in part, certainly due to the dearth of fundamental data describing low-energy electron interactions with nucleotide molecules that form the basis of DNA. Understanding of how such slow electrons are able to damage DNA remains incomplete, but the strongly peaked nature of Boudiaffa et al.'s data gives strong hints at resonantly driven collision processes. DNA damage is therefore most likely driven by ``dissociative electron attachment'' (DEA). DEA is a rather complicated process to model due to the coupling of electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom in the molecule. At the California State University Fullerton, we are currently commissioning a new spectrometer to study dissociation channels, reaction rates and orientation effects in DEA collisions between slow electrons and nucleotide molecules. At the meeting we will present design parameters and commissioning data for this new apparatus.

  19. Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Connections with Self-Reported Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jude; Lichtenstein-Phelps, June; Sibrava, Nicholas J.; Thomas, Charles L., Jr.; Borkovec, Thomas D.

    2009-01-01

    Even though generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most common of the anxiety disorders, relatively little is known about its precursors. Bowlby's attachment theory provides a framework within which these precursors can be considered. According to Bowlby, adult anxiety may be rooted in childhood experiences that leave a child uncertain…

  20. Homonegativity and its relationship to religiosity, nationalism and attachment style.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Timothy; Brown, Jac

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the relationships between negative attitudes towards homosexuals and two traditional ideologies: religiosity and nationalism, and explored the link with attachment style. An Internet survey yielded 290 participants, of highly diverse ages, nationalities, and religious backgrounds. The participants provided demographic details, and completed measures of adult attachment, nationalism, religiosity, and both explicit and implicit measures of homonegativity. The results indicated that both nationalism and religiosity were highly significant predictors of homonegativity. In the religious group, homonegativity and religiosity were positively related. This finding was greater for less securely attached individuals. Avoidance moderated the relationship in religious females, while anxiety moderated the relationship in religious males. No significant attachment moderation was found between the nationalism-homonegativity relationships. PMID:19830564