strange sit- uation” scenario (Ainsworth & Wittig, 1969). By studying how individual children reacted to the same situation, Ains- worth was able to...Solomon (1986) which they called Insecure-Disorganized/Disoriented. Children classified into this attachment category may appear con- fused and dazed in...Separated 72 5.6 Divorced 76 5.9 Widowed 3 0.2 ADULT ATTACHMENT STYLE, HARDINESS, AND MOOD 131 D ow nl oa de d by [ Pa ul T . B ar to ne ] at 1 2: 35
Sherry, Alissa; Lyddon, William J.; Henson, Robin K.
The current study was designed to test specific hypotheses associated with W. J. Lyddon and A. Sherry's (2001) attachment theory model of developmental personality styles. More specifically, 4 adult attachment dimensions were correlated with 10 personality scales on the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (T. Millon, R. Davis, & C.…
Shevlin, Mark; Boyda, David; Elklit, Ask; Murphy, Siobhan
Background Based on Bowlby's attachment theory, Bartholomew proposed a four-category attachment typology by which individuals judged themselves and adult relationships. This explanatory model has since been used to help explain the risk of psychiatric comorbidity. Objective The current study aimed to identify attachment typologies based on Bartholomew's attachment styles in a sample of bereaved parents on dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, it sought to assess the relationship between the resultant attachment typology with a range of psychological trauma variables. Method The current study was based on a sample of 445 bereaved parents who had experienced either peri- or post-natal death of an infant. Adult attachment was assessed using the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS) while reaction to trauma was assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC). A latent profile analysis was conducted on scores from the RAAS closeness/dependency and anxiety subscales to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes. Emergent classes were used to determine if these were significantly different in terms of mean scores on TSC scales. Results A four-class solution was considered the optimal based on fit statistics and interpretability of the results. Classes were labelled “Fearful,” “Preoccupied,” “Dismissing,” and “Secure.” Females were almost eight times more likely than males to be members of the fearful attachment class. This class evidenced the highest scores across all TSC scales while the secure class showed the lowest scores. Conclusions The results are consistent with Bartholomew's four-category attachment styles with classes representing secure, fearful, preoccupied, and dismissing types. While the loss of an infant is a devastating experience for any parent, securely attached individuals showed the lowest levels of psychopathology compared to fearful, preoccupied, or dismissing attachment styles. This may
Schneider-Hassloff, H; Straube, B; Nuscheler, B; Wemken, G; Kircher, T
Adult attachment style (AAS) is a personality trait that affects social cognition. Behavioral data suggest that AAS influences mentalizing proficiency, i.e. the ability to predict and explain people's behavior with reference to mental states, but the neural correlates are unknown. We here tested how the AAS dimensions "avoidance" (AV) and "anxiety" (ANX) modulate neural correlates of mentalizing. We measured brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 164 healthy subjects during an interactive mentalizing paradigm (Prisoner's Dilemma Game). AAS was assessed with the Relationship Scales Questionnaire, including the subscales AV and ANX. Our task elicited a strong activation of the mentalizing network, including bilateral precuneus, (anterior, middle, and posterior) cingulate cortices, temporal poles, inferior frontal gyri (IFG), temporoparietal junctions, superior medial frontal gyri as well as right medial orbital frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and amygdala. We found that AV is positively and ANX negatively correlated with task-associated neural activity in the right amygdala, MFG, midcingulate cortex, and superior parietal lobule, and in bilateral IFG. These data suggest that avoidantly attached adults activate brain areas implicated in emotion regulation and cognitive control to a larger extent than anxiously attached individuals during mentalizing.
Beauchamp, Guy; Martineau, Marc; Gagnon, André
Although previous research indicates that both employment and adult attachment style have an influence on academic achievement, the interaction of these two factors has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating effect of adult attachment style on the relationship between employment status and first semester…
Vrtička, Pascal; Vuilleumier, Patrik
Since its first description four decades ago, attachment theory (AT) has become one of the principal developmental psychological frameworks for describing the role of individual differences in the establishment and maintenance of social bonds between people. Yet, still little is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of attachment orientations and their well-established impact on a range of social and affective behaviors. In the present review, we summarize data from recent studies using cognitive and imaging approaches to characterize attachment styles and their effect on emotion and social cognition. We propose a functional neuroanatomical framework to integrate the key brain mechanisms involved in the perception and regulation of social emotional information, and their modulation by individual differences in terms of secure versus insecure (more specifically avoidant, anxious, or resolved versus unresolved) attachment traits. This framework describes how each individual's attachment style (built through interactions between personal relationship history and predispositions) may influence the encoding of approach versus aversion tendencies (safety versus threat) in social encounters, implicating the activation of a network of subcortical (amygdala, hippocampus, striatum) and cortical (insula, cingulate) limbic areas. These basic and automatic affective evaluation mechanisms are in turn modulated by more elaborate and voluntary cognitive control processes, subserving mental state attribution and emotion regulation capacities, implicating a distinct network in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), among others. Recent neuroimaging data suggest that affective evaluation is decreased in avoidantly but increased in anxiously attached individuals. In turn, although data on cognitive control is still scarce, it points toward a possible enhancement of mental state representations associated with
De Carli, Pietro; Tagini, Angela; Sarracino, Diego; Santona, Alessandra; Parolin, Laura
Attachment and caregiving are separate motivational systems that share the common evolutionary purpose of favoring child security. In the goal of studying the processes underlying the transmission of attachment styles, this study focused on the role of adult attachment styles in shaping preferences toward particular styles of caregiving. We hypothesized a correspondence between attachment and caregiving styles: we expect an individual to show a preference for a caregiving behavior coherent with his/her own attachment style, in order to increase the chance of passing it on to offspring. We activated different representations of specific caregiving modalities in females, by using three videos in which mothers with different Adult Attachment states of mind played with their infants. Participants' facial expressions while watching were recorded and analyzed with FaceReader software. After each video, participants' attitudes toward the category “mother” were measured, both explicitly (semantic differential) and implicitly (single target-implicit association task, ST-IAT). Participants' adult attachment styles (experiences in close relationships revised) predicted attitudes scores, but only when measured implicitly. Participants scored higher on the ST-IAT after watching a video coherent with their attachment style. No effect was found on the facial expressions of disgust. These findings suggest a role of adult attachment styles in shaping implicit attitudes related to the caregiving system. PMID:26779060
Lau, Winnie; Peterson, Candida C.
Asperger syndrome (AS) is a disorder resembling autism in its problems with social interaction and cognitive flexibility. Today, a number of adults with AS marry and rear children. Yet there has been little research into the quality of their marital and parental relationships. This study explored romantic attachment style, marital satisfaction and…
Gnilka, Philip B.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Noble, Christina M.
This study examined the relationships between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, anxious and avoidant adult attachment styles, depression, hopelessness, and life satisfaction among a sample of 180 undergraduate students. Maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationship between both forms of adult attachment and depression, hopelessness,…
Surcinelli, Paola; Rossi, Nicolino; Montebarocci, Ornella; Baldaro, Bruno
The aim of the present study was to examine differences in anxiety and depression related to differences in attachment models of the self and of others and whether personality traits mediate this relationship. The authors assessed attachment styles, anxiety, depression, and personality traits among 274 adult volunteers. Participants were classified into 4 attachment groups (secure, preoccupied, fearful, and dismissing-avoidant) according to K. Bartholomew's (1990) model. The present authors found significant differences among attachment groups on anxiety and depressive symptoms with attachment styles involving a negative self-model showing higher scores than attachment styles characterized by a positive self-model. The authors also found that differences between attachment styles in anxiety and depression remained significant when personality factors related to attachment prototypes were entered as covariates. Results indicate that secure attachment in adults was associated with better mental health, while insecure attachment styles characterized by negative thinking about the self were associated with higher depression and anxiety scores. Our findings seem to evidence that attachment and personality are only partly overlapping and that attachment cannot be considered as redundant with personality in the explanation of psychological disease.
O'Neill, Linda P; Murray, Lindsay E
Adult siblings of individuals with developmental disabilities often experience higher levels of anxiety than individuals in the general population. The present study tested whether perceived parenting could mediate the relationship between attachment styles and anxiety in the sibling group compared to a control group. Little association was found between perceived parenting and attachment styles or anxiety for the siblings but there were robust and expected findings for the control. Adult attachment-related-anxiety was a significant unique predictor of anxiety in the sibling group but there was no mediational role for perceived parenting. Conversely, the majority of parenting styles significantly mediated the relationship between attachment and anxiety in the control. Implications for the atypical findings in the sibling group are discussed.
Woodhouse, Sarah; Ayers, Susan; Field, Andy P
There is increasing evidence that adult attachment plays a role in the development and perseverance of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This meta-analysis aims to synthesise this evidence and investigate the relationship between adult attachment styles and PTSD symptoms. A random-effects model was used to analyse 46 studies (N=9268) across a wide range of traumas. Results revealed a medium association between secure attachment and lower PTSD symptoms (ρˆ=-.27), and a medium association, in the opposite direction, between insecure attachment and higher PTSD symptoms (ρˆ=.26). Attachment categories comprised of high levels of anxiety most strongly related to PTSD symptoms, with fearful attachment displaying the largest association (ρˆ=.44). Dismissing attachment was not significantly associated with PTSD symptoms. The relationship between insecure attachment and PTSD was moderated by type of PTSD measure (interview or questionnaire) and specific attachment category (e.g. secure, fearful). Results have theoretical and clinical significance.
Bonache, Helena; Gonzalez-Mendez, Rosaura; Krahé, Barbara
Although there is ample evidence linking insecure attachment styles and intimate partner violence (IPV), little is known about the psychological processes underlying this association, especially from the victim's perspective. The present study examined how attachment styles relate to the experience of sexual and psychological abuse, directly or indirectly through destructive conflict resolution strategies, both self-reported and attributed to their opposite-sex romantic partner. In an online survey, 216 Spanish undergraduates completed measures of adult attachment style, engagement and withdrawal conflict resolution styles shown by self and partner, and victimization by an intimate partner in the form of sexual coercion and psychological abuse. As predicted, anxious and avoidant attachment styles were directly related to both forms of victimization. Also, an indirect path from anxious attachment to IPV victimization was detected via destructive conflict resolution strategies. Specifically, anxiously attached participants reported a higher use of conflict engagement by themselves and by their partners. In addition, engagement reported by the self and perceived in the partner was linked to an increased probability of experiencing sexual coercion and psychological abuse. Avoidant attachment was linked to higher withdrawal in conflict situations, but the paths from withdrawal to perceived partner engagement, sexual coercion, and psychological abuse were non-significant. No gender differences in the associations were found. The discussion highlights the role of anxious attachment in understanding escalating patterns of destructive conflict resolution strategies, which may increase the vulnerability to IPV victimization.
Kidd, Tara; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew
The quality of social relationships may contribute to variations in biological stress responses, thereby affecting health risk. The association between an important indicator of social relationships, adult attachment style, and cortisol has been relatively unexplored. The present study examined adult romantic attachment style and cortisol responses to acute laboratory stress. Salivary cortisol was measured in response to two behavioural tasks, a colour/word interference task and mirror tracing task, in 498 healthy men and women from the Heart Scan study, a subsample of the Whitehall II cohort. Participants were classified as secure, fearful, preoccupied or dismissive on the basis of responses to the Relationship Questionnaire. Cortisol output was lowest in the fearful group, followed by the preoccupied group, with both secure and dismissive groups having higher levels. The results from this study tentatively support the proposition that attachment style is a factor in determining the manifestation of HPA dysregulation.
O'Neill, Linda P.; Murray, Lindsay E.
Adult siblings of individuals with developmental disabilities often experience higher levels of anxiety than individuals in the general population. The present study tested whether perceived parenting could mediate the relationship between attachment styles and anxiety in the sibling group compared to a control group. Little association was found…
Fraley, R. Chris; Roisman, Glenn I.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Holland, Ashley S.
One of the assumptions of attachment theory is that individual differences in adult attachment styles emerge from individuals’ developmental histories. To examine this assumption empirically the authors report data from an age 18 follow-up (Booth-LaForce & Roisman, 2012) of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, a longitudinal investigation that tracked a cohort of children and their parents from birth to age 15. Analyses indicate that individual differences in adult attachment can be traced to variations in the quality of individuals’ caregiving environments, their emerging social competence, and the quality of their best friendship. Analyses also indicate that assessments of temperament and most of the specific genetic polymorphisms thus far examined in the literature on genetic correlates of attachment styles were essentially uncorrelated with adult attachment, with the exception of a polymorphism in the serotonin receptor gene (HTR2A rs6313), which modestly predicted higher attachment anxiety and that revealed a G × E interaction such that changes in maternal sensitivity across time predicted attachment-related avoidance. The implications of these data for contemporary perspectives and debates concerning adult attachment theory are discussed. PMID:23397970
Berry, Katherine; Shah, Rakhi; Cook, Amy; Geater, Ellie; Barrowclough, Christine; Wearden, Alison
The attachment styles of psychiatric staff are likely to impact on their capacity to form positive therapeutic relationships with patients with psychosis. Twenty staff completed a measure assessing levels of attachment anxiety and avoidance. Staff and patients completed a measure of patients' interpersonal problems and staff completed the Five-Minute Speech Sample, which was used to derive ratings of psychological mindedness and therapeutic relationships. Higher staff avoidance was associated with greater discrepancies in staff and patient ratings of patients' interpersonal problems and poorer staff psychological mindedness. Lower staff anxiety and avoidance were associated with positive therapeutic relationships. Findings warrant replication in larger samples, but suggest that staff attachment style may be important in the development of better quality staff and patient relationships.
Pini, Stefano; Abelli, Marianna; Troisi, Alfonso; Siracusano, Alberto; Cassano, Giovanni B; Shear, Katherine M; Baldwin, David
Epidemiological studies indicate that separation anxiety disorder occurs more frequently in adults than children. It is unclear whether the presence of adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) is a manifestation of anxious attachment, or a form of agoraphobia, or a specific condition with clinically significant consequences. We conducted a study to examine these questions. A sample of 141 adult outpatients with panic disorder participated in the study. Participants completed standardized measures of separation anxiety, attachment style, agoraphobia, panic disorder severity and quality of life. Patients with ASAD (49.5% of our sample) had greater panic symptom severity and more impairment in quality of life than those without separation anxiety. We found a greater rate of symptoms suggestive of anxious attachment among panic patients with ASAD compared to those without ASAD. However, the relationship between ASAD and attachment style is not strong, and adult ASAD occurs in some patients who report secure attachment style. Similarly, there is little evidence for the idea that separation anxiety disorder is a form of agoraphobia. Factor analysis shows clear differentiation of agoraphobic and separation anxiety symptoms. Our data corroborate the notion that ASAD is a distinct condition associated with impairment in quality of life and needs to be better recognized and treated in patients with panic disorder.
This study explored possible differences in adult attachment style dimensions between women with gay or bisexual fathers (n = 68) and women with heterosexual fathers (n = 68) using a revised version of the Adult Attachment Scale (Collins & Read, 1990b). Data analysis revealed highly significant differences between groups on all three adult attachment dimensions. Women with gay or bisexual fathers were significantly less comfortable with closeness and intimacy (t = 5.264, P = .0001), less able to trust and depend on others (t = 6.621, P = .0001), and experienced more anxiety in relationships (t = 4.368, P = .0001) than women with heterosexual fathers. Theoretical and methodological issues, conclusions, and implications related to the findings are discussed.
Palitsky, Daniel; Mota, Natalie; Afifi, Tracie O; Downs, A Craig; Sareen, Jitender
Attachment theory categorically assesses how a person perceives and experiences interpersonal relationships. Attachment style is linked to numerous physical and psychological phenomena; however, there is a paucity of research examining its relationship to suicide ideation and attempt in adults. Our study addresses this and investigates the relationship of adult attachment style and mental disorders in a nationally representative sample. Using data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (N = 5692, aged >18 years), multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine these relationships. After adjusting for confounding variables, insecure attachment styles were associated with greater reporting of suicidal ideation, attempt, and all mental disorder categories analyzed (adjusted odds ratio range, 1.13-1.81). Secure attachment styles were associated with a decreased likelihood of reporting suicidal ideation, attempt, and any anxiety disorder (adjusted odds ratio range, 0.67-0.91). Clinicians should be aware of attachment issues in their patients to ensure better health outcomes and more effective physician-patient relationships.
Lawler-Row, Kathleen A.; Younger, Jarred W.; Piferi, Rachel L.; Jones, Warren H.
The role of attachment style in relation to forgiveness was investigated in 2 betrayal interviews. Blood pressure and heart rate were assessed, along with attachment style, forgiveness, empathy, and emotional expressiveness. Securely attached individuals were more forgiving of the specific offense, had higher levels of trait forgiveness, and…
Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Ginzburg, Karni; Chartier, Maggie; Gardner, William; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; McGarvey, Elizabeth; Weiss, Elizabeth; Koopman, Cheryl
Research indicates that a significant proportion of people living with HIV/AIDS report symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Moreover, attachment style has been associated with psychological and behavioral outcomes among persons living with HIV/AIDS. Attachment style may influence the ability to cope with traumatic stress and affect PTSD symptoms. To examine the association between attachment style and coping with PTSD symptoms, we assessed 94 HIV-positive adults on self-report measures of posttraumatic stress, coping, and attachment style. In multiple regression analysis, avoidant attachment and emotion-focused coping were positively and significantly associated with greater PTSD symptomatology. Support was also found for the moderating effects of avoidant and insecure attachment styles on emotion-focused coping in relation to greater PTSD symptoms. Taken altogether, these results suggest that interventions that develop adaptive coping skills and focus on the underlying construct of attachment may be particularly effective in reducing trauma-related symptoms in adults living with HIV/AIDS.
This study examines the associations between young adults' perceptions of their parents' intimate relationship and the quality of their parenting as predictors of their children's expectations about intimacy in their own future relationships. A sample of 111 young adults completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions regarding their parents' intimate relationship and parenting quality, their own attachment styles, and their own expectations regarding intimate relationships. A correlational analysis revealed a positive link between the parents' relationship and parenting quality, and between parenting quality and expectations about intimacy, which supports the attachment theory. A cluster analysis identified three distinct groups of parental profiles interrelated with attachment styles that had varying effects on their children's expectations about intimacy. These findings emphasize the unique characteristics of parental relations in the family of origin relations, which have an enduring effect on the interpersonal styles of adult children, providing additional support to an integrated, intergenerational approach to family dynamics.
Nonnenmacher, N; Noe, D; Ehrenthal, J C; Reck, C
Maternal depression poses a risk for the developing mother-infant relationship. Similarly, maternal insecure attachment styles may limit the ability to adequately connect with the newborn during the postpartum period. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal depression and insecure attachment (insecure and dual/disorganized) on maternal bonding in a sample of n = 34 women with depression according to DSM-IV and n = 59 healthy women. Maternal depression was assessed 3 to 4 months postpartum with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), bonding with the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire, and maternal attachment style with the Attachment Style Interview. Women with current and lifetime depression as well as women with dual/disorganized attachment style reported lower bonding. Explorative analysis revealed that depression partially mediated the link between dual/disorganized attachment style and bonding with a medium-sized mediation effect. The combination of maternal depression and dual/disorganized attachment style may pose a special risk constellation for the developing mother-infant bond that should be addressed in prevention and early intervention programs.
Holman, Natalie; Kirkby, Antonia; Duncan, Susan; Brown, Richard J
Non-epileptic attack disorder (NEAD) poses a significant clinical problem but is poorly understood. Attachment theory provides a framework for understanding the development and maintenance of NEAD and the contribution of childhood abuse and neglect to these processes. A cross-sectional design was used to study attachment style and early traumatic experiences in individuals with NEAD (N=17) compared to those with epilepsy (N=26). A significant difference in predominant attachment style between the two groups was found, with fearful attachment occurring more frequently in the NEAD group. Abuse and neglect were also significantly more common in the NEAD patients. Both early traumatic experiences and fearful attachment added significantly to the predictive power of a logistic regression equation after controlling for anxiety and dysthymia. The findings suggest a link between disturbed attachment and NEAD and have clinical implications for therapeutic intervention with this group.
Bowlby’s (1982) attachment theory has generated an enormous body of research and conceptual elaborations. Although attachment theory and research propose that attachment security provides a person with many adaptive advantages, during all phases of the life cycle, numerous studies indicate that almost half of the human species can be classified as insecurely attached or insecure with respect to attachment. It seems odd that evolution left humans in this vulnerable position, unless there are some advantages to individuals or groups, under at least some conditions, of anxious and avoidant attachment styles. I argue that a social group containing members with different attachment patterns may be more conducive to survival than a homogeneous group of securely attached individuals because each attachment disposition has specific adaptive advantages that promote the survival of the individual and people around him or her when facing threats and perils. In making this argument, I extend the scope of attachment theory and research by considering a broader range of adaptive functions of insecure attachment strategies, and present data to support my argument. PMID:25540635
Ben-Israel, Yuval; Shadach, Eran; Levy, Sigal; Sperber, Ami; Aizenberg, Dov; Niv, Yaron; Dickman, Ram
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adults as well as separation anxiety disorder (SAD) and recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in childhood are associated with anxiety and somatization. Our aim was to examine possible associations between IBS in adulthood and SAD in childhood. Patients with IBS and healthy subjects completed a demographic questionnaire, the Separation Anxiety Symptom Inventory (SASI), the Somatization Subscale of Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), the Attachment Style Questionnaire, and a retrospective self-report questionnaire regarding RAP. Compared with controls, patients with IBS were characterized by an avoidant attachment style and scored higher on the SCL-90-R scale regarding the tendency to somatization (25.35 ± 7.47 versus16.50 ± 4.40, p < 0.001). More patients with IBS (25% versus 7.5%) reported RAP in childhood, but contrary to prediction, also had significantly lower SASI scores. Adults with IBS were characterized by somatization, insecure attachment style and recalled higher rates of RAP and surprisingly less symptoms of SAD in childhood. Based on these results, an etiological model for IBS is suggested, in which an avoidant attachment style and a tendency to somatization play an important role in the development of IBS. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Meng, Xiangfei; D'Arcy, Carl; Adams, G Camelia
This study investigated the association between attachment style and the use of a range of mental health services controlling socio-demographic, physical and psychological risk factors. Using a large nationally representative sample from the US National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), a total of 5645 participants (18+) were included. The majority of participants reported their attachment as secure (63.5%), followed by avoidant (22.2%), unclassified (8.8%), and anxious (5.5%). The percentages using different health services studied varied widely (1.1-31.1%). People with insecure (anxious and avoidant) attachment were more likely to report accessing a hotline, having had a session of psychological counselling or therapy, getting a prescription or medicine for mental and behavioural problems. Individuals with anxious attachment only were also more likely to report the use of internet support groups or chat rooms. This is a first analysis to explore relationships between self-reported adult attachment style and a wide range of health care services. Insecurely attached individuals were more likely to use a wide range of health care services even after controlling for socio-demographic factors, psychiatric disorders and chronic health conditions. These findings suggest that adult attachment plays an important role in the use of mental health care services.
Yaghobi, Abolghasem; Mohagheghy, Hosseyn; Moghadam, Nafiseh Yari; Ghodarzi, Marzieh
Background: In recent years, the researchers had worked on attachment style theory in studying different aspects of individual and social life of adults and announce that attachment style is related to most behavior, thought and motivational behaviors. The aim of the current study was investigating the relationship between attachment styles with…
Berry, Katherine; Barrowclough, Christine; Wearden, Alison
Attachment styles reflect individual differences in beliefs about self and others, interpersonal functioning and affect regulation. We review and critically appraise studies suggesting higher levels of insecure attachment, and dismissing attachment in particular, in samples with psychosis compared to controls. We also review the role of social cognition, interpersonal factors, and affect regulation in the development and maintenance of psychosis, and specific symptoms associated with the diagnosis. We review studies showing that insecure attachment is associated with poorer interpersonal relationships and less integrative recovery styles and highlight how recent theories and empirical findings in the psychosis literature can be understood within the framework of attachment theory. In doing so, we argue that investigations of the nature of attachment styles in psychosis and how they relate to the cognitive, interpersonal and affective factors that have been implicated in psychosis will help develop theoretical knowledge in relation to the condition. We conclude by outlining the clinical implications of applying attachment theory to the understanding of psychosis and summarising the conceptual and methodological limitations of the theory which should be addressed, including the need for studies with longitudinal designs, larger, more representative samples, and more valid measures of assessing attachment styles in psychosis.
Mohammadi, Korosh; Samavi, Abdolvahab; Ghazavi, Zahra
Background Marital satisfaction is one of the deepest and the most basic human pleasures and should be established within the family environment; if not, couples might suffer emotionally. Several factors are involved, including attachment and lifestyle. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between styles of attachment and lifestyle with marital satisfaction. Materials and Methods The population in this study included all of the Bandar Abbas oil refining (BAOR) company employees, for a total of 292 people (146 couples). They were selected by multistage random sampling. The enrich marital satisfaction scale was used to measure marital satisfaction, the Collins and read’s revised adult attachment scale (RAAS) for adult attachment to determine attachment style, and the life style questionnaire (LSQ) for lifestyle. This research was a descriptive-correlative one, and for the data analysis, we used Pearson’s correlation factor and multivariable regression. Results The results indicate that attachment style and lifestyle factors can predict marital satisfaction. There was also a meaningful negative relationship between insecure attachment avoidant and insecure attachment anxious-ambivalent styles and marital satisfaction. However, there was no meaningful relationship between secure attachment style and marital satisfaction. Conclusions The results showed that the early relationship within the family environment supports a certain attachment style and the effects of the avoidant insecure and ambivalent insecure styles affect the interpersonal relations of the couples in adulthood. The effect of attachment styles on interpersonal relations is far greater than that of lifestyle. PMID:27433349
Lyddon, William J.; Sherry, Alissa
Using K. Bartholomew's (1990) 4-dimensional model of adult attachment as an organizational framework, 10 developmental personality styles are differentiated regarding their unique attachment experiences, working models of self and other, and feedforward beliefs. Implications of an attachment theory framework for counseling clients with problematic…
Cologon, John; Schweitzer, Robert D; King, Robert; Nolte, Tobias
This study investigated the relationship between two therapist attributes (reflective functioning and attachment style) and client outcome. Twenty-five therapists treated a total of 1001 clients. Therapists were assessed for reflective functioning and attachment style using the Adult Attachment Interview and the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale. Clinical outcome was measured using the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45). Data were analysed using hierarchical linear modelling. Results indicated that therapist reflective functioning predicted therapist effectiveness, whereas attachment style did not. However, there was evidence of an interaction between therapist attachment style and therapist reflective functioning. Secure attachment compensated somewhat for low reflective functioning and high reflective functioning compensated for insecure attachment. Possible implications for the selection of therapy training candidates and therapist training are discussed.
Ikeda, Mari; Hayashi, Momoko; Kamibeppu, Kiyoko
Although an increasing number of studies show an association between adult attachment style and mood disorders, the relationship between adult attachment style and depression associated with childbirth is largely unknown. This study investigated the association between women's attachment style, postpartum depression (PPD), and other risk factors. During the 32nd week of pregnancy, 84 women were interviewed using the Attachment Style Interview. Participants also completed self-report questionnaires about reaction to pregnancy, family relationships, current life stresses, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. At one-month postpartum, they were evaluated for postpartum depressive symptoms using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Eighty-two women completed the second self-report questionnaires and were evaluated for PPD. The data of 76 women were eligible for analysis. PPD was present in 21%. An insecure attachment style was significantly related to depression. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed significant effects for insecure attachment, social economic status, and antenatal depression on PPD. Adding the insecure attachment style factor to the logistic model that predicted PPD increased the area under the curve to 0.87 (95% CI .77-.98; p < .05). The inclusion of attachment styles in assessments of perinatal depressive disorders could improve screening and the design of interventions.
Davies, K A; Macfarlane, G J; McBeth, J; Morriss, R; Dickens, C
Individuals with "insecure" adult attachment styles have been shown to experience more pain than people with secure attachment, though results of previous studies have been inconsistent. We performed a cross-sectional study on a large population-based sample to investigate whether, compared to pain free individuals, subjects with chronic widespread pain were more likely to report insecure adult attachment style. Subjects in a population-based cross-sectional study completed a self-rated assessment of adult attachment style. Attachment style was categorised as secure (i.e., normal attachment style); or preoccupied, dismissing or fearful (insecure attachment styles). Subjects completed a pain questionnaire from which three groups were identified: pain free; chronic widespread pain; and other pain. Subjects rated their pain intensity and pain-related disability on an 11 point Likert scale. Subjects (2509) returned a completed questionnaire (median age 49.9 years (IQR 41.2-50.0); 59.2% female). Subjects with CWP were more likely to report a preoccupied (RRR 2.6; 95%CI 1.8-3.7), dismissing (RRR 1.9; 95%CI 1.2-3.1) or fearful attachment style (RRR 1.4; 95%CI 1.1-1.8) than those free of pain. Among CWP subjects, insecure attachment style was associated with number of pain sites (Dismissing: RRR 2.8; 95%CI 1.2-2.3, Preoccupied: RRR=1.8, 95%CI 0.98-3.5) and degree of pain-related disability (Preoccupied: RRR=2.1, 95%CI 1.0-4.1), but not pain intensity. These findings suggest that treatment strategies based on knowledge of attachment style, possibly using support and education, may alleviate distress and disability in people at risk of, or affected by, chronic widespread pain.
Critchfield, Kenneth L; Levy, Kenneth N; Clarkin, John F; Kernberg, Otto F
Attachment theory provides a framework for understanding and predicting critical aspects of aggression in the personality disorders. An association between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and insecure forms of adult attachment marked by high relationship anxiety has been repeatedly observed in the empirical literature. Aggression also has been linked to insecure attachment. The present study extends previous work by exploring the degree to which the underlying attachment dimensions of relationship anxiety and avoidance are associated in BPD with the following forms of hostility: (a) direct aggression (verbal or physical) initiated towards others, (b) expectation/perception of aggression from others (including "reactive" counteraggression when/if provoked), (c) aggression directed towards the self in the form of suicidality or parasuicidality, and (d) affective experience of irritability or anger. The issue was studied in a sample of 92 patients diagnosed with BPD. Results show significant association between more fearful forms of attachment (simultaneous presence of relationship anxiety and avoidance) and the more reactive form of aggression involving expectation of hostility from others. Self-harm was significantly associated only with relational avoidance while anger and irritability were associated only with relational anxiety. Implications for understanding relational aspects of BPD aggression in research and clinical work are discussed.
Permuy, Beatriz; Merino, Hipólito; Fernandez-Rey, Jose
We analysed the mediational role of the personality dimensions of sociotropy and autonomy in the relationship between certain styles of attachment and depressive symptoms. In order for us to do so, a group of university students filled out the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Revised Personal Style Inventory (PSI-II) and the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ). Individuals having attachment styles with a negative model of self (preoccupied and fearful) obtained significantly higher scores in the BDI than those having attachment styles with a positive model of self (secure and dismissing), which coincides with previous research. We followed the standard procedure of Baron and Kenny of linear regression in order to perform the mediational analyses. The preoccupied attachment style-depressive symptoms relationship was mediated by sociotropy. It was also found that autonomy exerted a significant mediational effect on the relationship between the fearful attachment style and depressive symptoms. These results are consistent with the notion that insecure attachment predisposes individuals to the development of depressogenic personality styles. Thus, the findings of the present study contribute to improving the understanding of the factors involved in the development of vulnerability to depression. Furthermore, the results point out the importance of evaluating both attachment style and sociotropy/autonomy personality dimensions for the treatment of depressive patients.
Marsa, Fiona; O'Reilly, Gary; Carr, Alan; Murphy, Paul; O'Sullivan, Maura; Cotter, Anthony; Hevey, David
When 29 child sex offenders, 30 violent offenders, 30 nonviolent offenders, and 30 community controls were compared, a secure adult attachment style was 4 times less common in the child sex offender group than in any of the other three groups. Ninety-three percent of sex offenders had an insecure adult attachment style. Compared with community…
Introduction: The fact that emotional and social experiences in early childhood period within the family influence the experiences in adolescence and adulthood (communication skills, interpersonal relations) is not a new case. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and attachment styles. Method: The…
Gunduz, Bulent; Capri, Burhan; Akbay, Sinem Evin; Tunc, Aygul
This study aims to examine the relationship between abuse experiences, depression and attachment styles. The data for this study was collected from 251 students (123 females and 128 males) who attend Mersin University. As a part of the data collection, students completed the Experiences in Affiliation Inventory, Childhood Trauma Scale and Brief…
Szabó, Csanád; Altmayer, Anita; Lien, Lars; Poot, Françoise; Gieler, Uwe; Tomas-Aragones, Lucía; Kupfer, Jörg; Jemec, Gregor B E; Misery, Laurent; Linder, M Dennis; Sampogna, Francesca; Middendorp, Henriët van; Halvorsen, Jon Anders; Balieva, Flora; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Romanov, Dmitry; Marron, Servando E; Altunay, Ilknur K; Finlay, Andrew Y; Salek, Sam S; Dalgard, Florence
Attachment styles of dermatological outpatients and satisfaction with their dermatologists were investigated within the framework of a multicentre study conducted in 13 European countries, organized by the European Society for Dermatology and Psychiatry. Attachment style was assessed with the Adult Attachment Scale. Patient satisfaction with the dermatologist was assessed with an 11-degree scale. A total of 3,635 adult outpatients and 1,359 controls participated in the study. Dermatological outpatients were less able to depend on others, were less comfortable with closeness and intimacy, and experienced similar rates of anxiety in relationships as did the controls. Participants who had secure attachment styles reported stressful life events during the last 6 months significantly less often than those who had insecure attachment styles. Patients with secure attachment styles tended to be more satisfied with their dermatologist than did insecure patients. These results suggest that secure attachment of dermatological outpatients may be a protective factor in the management of stress.
Oskis, Andrea; Loveday, Catherine; Hucklebridge, Frank; Thorn, Lisa; Clow, Angela
Background: Attachment style has been linked with basal cortisol secretion in healthy adult women. We investigated whether dysregulation in basal cortisol secretion may be evident in younger healthy females. Methods: Sixty healthy females aged 9-18 years (mean 14.16, SD [plus or minus] 2.63 years) participated in the Attachment Style Interview…
Jones, Jason D.; Cassidy, Jude; Shaver, Phillip. R.
For decades, attachment scholars have been investigating how parents’ adult attachment orientations relate to the ways in which they parent. Traditionally, this research has been conducted by developmental and clinical psychologists who typically employ the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) to measure adult attachment. However, dating back to the mid-1990s, social and personality psychologists have been investigating how self-reported adult attachment styles relate to various facets of parenting. The literature on self-reported attachment and parenting has received less attention than AAI research on the same topic and, to date, there is no comprehensive review of this literature. In this article, we review over 60 studies of the links between self-reported attachment styles and parenting, integrate the findings to reach general conclusions, discuss unresolved questions, and suggest future directions. Finally, we discuss the potential benefits to the study of parenting of collaborations among researchers from the developmental and social attachment research traditions. PMID:25024278
Jones, Jason D; Cassidy, Jude; Shaver, Phillip R
For decades, attachment scholars have been investigating how parents' adult attachment orientations relate to the ways in which they parent. Traditionally, this research has been conducted by developmental and clinical psychologists who typically employ the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) to measure adult attachment. However, dating back to the mid-1990s, social and personality psychologists have been investigating how self-reported adult attachment styles relate to various facets of parenting. The literature on self-reported attachment and parenting has received less attention than AAI research on the same topic and, to date, there is no comprehensive review of this literature. In this article, we review more than 60 studies of the links between self-reported attachment styles and parenting, integrate the findings to reach general conclusions, discuss unresolved questions, and suggest future directions. Finally, we discuss the potential benefits to the study of parenting of collaborations among researchers from the developmental and social attachment research traditions.
Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary
Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…
Wood, Eric; Riggs, Shelley
A conceptual model derived from attachment theory was tested by examining adult attachment style, cognitive distortions, and both general and victim empathy in a sample of 61 paroled child molesters and 51 community controls. Results of logistic multiple regression showed that attachment anxiety, cognitive distortions, high general empathy but low…
Marsh, Timothy; Brown, Jac
This study investigated the relationships between negative attitudes towards homosexuals and two traditional ideologies: religiosity and nationalism, and explored the link with attachment style. An Internet survey yielded 290 participants, of highly diverse ages, nationalities, and religious backgrounds. The participants provided demographic details, and completed measures of adult attachment, nationalism, religiosity, and both explicit and implicit measures of homonegativity. The results indicated that both nationalism and religiosity were highly significant predictors of homonegativity. In the religious group, homonegativity and religiosity were positively related. This finding was greater for less securely attached individuals. Avoidance moderated the relationship in religious females, while anxiety moderated the relationship in religious males. No significant attachment moderation was found between the nationalism-homonegativity relationships.
Dickson, Joanne M; Moberly, Nicholas J; Marshall, Yehuda; Reilly, James
Although the supervisory relationship is thought to be critical in training clinical psychologists, little is known about factors affecting the supervisory alliance. We conducted an Internet survey of British clinical doctoral trainees (N = 259) in which participants rated their supervisory working alliance, parental style during childhood, pathological adult attachment behaviours and attachment style for themselves and their supervisors. Trainees' ratings of the working alliance were associated with perceptions of supervisors' attachment style, but not with perceptions of trainees' own attachment styles. Path analysis supported a causal chain linking parental indifference, compulsive self-reliance, insecure supervisor attachment style and lower ratings of the working alliance. Our results broadly replicate data from a US sample and suggest that attachment theory is helpful in understanding clinical supervisory processes.
Sheinbaum, Tamara; Kwapil, Thomas R; Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Chun, Charlotte A; Silvia, Paul J; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus
The way in which attachment styles are expressed in the moment as individuals navigate their real-life settings has remained an area largely untapped by attachment research. The present study examined how adult attachment styles are expressed in daily life using experience sampling methodology (ESM) in a sample of 206 Spanish young adults. Participants were administered the Attachment Style Interview (ASI) and received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times per day for 1 week to complete questionnaires about their current experiences and social context. As hypothesized, participants' momentary affective states, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning varied in meaningful ways as a function of their attachment style. Individuals with an anxious attachment, as compared with securely attached individuals, endorsed experiences that were congruent with hyperactivating tendencies, such as higher negative affect, stress, and perceived social rejection. By contrast, individuals with an avoidant attachment, relative to individuals with a secure attachment, endorsed experiences that were consistent with deactivating tendencies, such as decreased positive states and a decreased desire to be with others when alone. Furthermore, the expression of attachment styles in social contexts was shown to be dependent upon the subjective appraisal of the closeness of social contacts, and not merely upon the presence of social interactions. The findings support the ecological validity of the ASI and the person-by-situation character of attachment theory. Moreover, they highlight the utility of ESM for investigating how the predictions derived from attachment theory play out in the natural flow of real life.
Sheinbaum, Tamara; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Chun, Charlotte A.; Silvia, Paul J.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus
The way in which attachment styles are expressed in the moment as individuals navigate their real-life settings has remained an area largely untapped by attachment research. The present study examined how adult attachment styles are expressed in daily life using experience sampling methodology (ESM) in a sample of 206 Spanish young adults. Participants were administered the Attachment Style Interview (ASI) and received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times per day for 1 week to complete questionnaires about their current experiences and social context. As hypothesized, participants’ momentary affective states, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning varied in meaningful ways as a function of their attachment style. Individuals with an anxious attachment, as compared with securely attached individuals, endorsed experiences that were congruent with hyperactivating tendencies, such as higher negative affect, stress, and perceived social rejection. By contrast, individuals with an avoidant attachment, relative to individuals with a secure attachment, endorsed experiences that were consistent with deactivating tendencies, such as decreased positive states and a decreased desire to be with others when alone. Furthermore, the expression of attachment styles in social contexts was shown to be dependent upon the subjective appraisal of the closeness of social contacts, and not merely upon the presence of social interactions. The findings support the ecological validity of the ASI and the person-by-situation character of attachment theory. Moreover, they highlight the utility of ESM for investigating how the predictions derived from attachment theory play out in the natural flow of real life. PMID:25852613
Draper, Thomas W; Holman, Thomas B; White, Whitney; Grandy, Shannon
Attachment scores for 658 young adults living in the U.S.A. were obtained using the Experiences in Close Relationships scale. The participants came from a subsample of the RELATE data set, who had also filled out the adult attachment measure. Those young adults living in Utah County, Utah, an area of the country with a higher than normal birthrate (88% members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints), also had higher than average adult attachment scores. While the methodology was not sufficient to assess causal direction nor eliminate the possibility of unidentified influences, an undiscussed psychological factor, adult attachment, may play a role in the numerical declines observed among nonimmigrant communities in the USA and Europe.
Attachment theory provides a frame for understanding the role of attachment styles in the development of bullying behaviour in adolescence. The present study examined attachment styles (secure, avoidant and anxious/ambivalent) that differentiated bullies, victims, bully/victims and uninvolved adolescents. A total of 1,921 students (1,006 girls and…
Hollist, Cody S.; Miller, Richard B.
Based on attachment theory, Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) theorizes that attachment styles influence marital quality. Although research supports this relationship among young couples, no research has examined attachment styles and marital quality in midlife marriages. We examined this issue using data from 429 married people between the ages…
Yaghoobi, Abolghasem; Mohammadzade, Serwa; Chegini, Ali Asghar; Yarmohammadi Vasel, Mosaeib; Zoghi Paidar, Mohammad Reza
Background The anonymity in the cyberspace environment, as well as the rapid advent of and improvements to online activities has increased cybercrime. Objectives The aim of this paper was to survey the relationship between attachment styles, self-monitoring and cybercrime in social network users. Patients and Methods The Collins and Read Adult Attachment Scale, and the Snyder self-monitoring and cybercrime scales were sent to 500 social network users. Of these, 203 users (103 men and 100 women) filled out the questionnaires. Results The results showed that women achieved higher scores in self-monitoring and the anxious attachment style, and men achieved higher scores in cybercrime and the anxious attachment style. There was a negative correlation between self-monitoring and cybercrime, and the anxious attachment style had a positive correlation with cybercrime and a negative correlation with self-monitoring. The secure attachment style had a positive correlation with self-monitoring and a negative correlation with cybercrime. The dependent attachment style had a positive correlation with self-monitoring and a negative correlation with cybercrime. All correlations were significant. Conclusions Attachment styles have significant relationships with both self-monitoring and cybercrime. Self-monitoring and attachment styles are significant predictors of cybercrimes. PMID:27818964
Moghadam, Marzyeh; Rezaei, Farzin; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Rostamian, Negar
Background: Attachment theory is one of the most important achievements of contemporary psychology. Role of medical students in the community health is important, so we need to know about the situation of happiness and attachment style in these students. Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the relationship between medical students’ attachment styles and demographic characteristics. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected students of Medical Sciences in Kurdistan University, in 2012. To collect data, Hazan and Shaver's attachment style measure and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire were used. The results were analyzed using the SPSS software version 16 (IBM, Chicago IL, USA) and statistical analysis was performed via t-test, Chi-square test, and multiple regression tests. Results: Secure attachment style was the most common attachment style and the least common was ambivalent attachment style. Avoidant attachment style was more common among single persons than married people (P = 0.03). No significant relationship was observed between attachment style and gender and grade point average of the studied people. The mean happiness score of students was 62.71. In multivariate analysis, the variables of secure attachment style (P = 0.001), male gender (P = 0.005), and scholar achievement (P = 0.047) were associated with higher happiness score. Conclusion: The most common attachment style was secure attachment style, which can be a positive prognostic factor in medical students, helping them to manage stress. Higher frequency of avoidant attachment style among single persons, compared with married people, is mainly due to their negative attitude toward others and failure to establish and maintain relationships with others. PMID:28217589
Fossati, Andrea; Borroni, Serena; Feeney, Judith; Maffei, Cesare
The aims of this study were to assess whether Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) features could be predicted by Big Five traits, impulsivity, identity orientation, and adult attachment patterns in a sample of 1,192 adult nonclinical participants, and to evaluate the consistency of these regression models across four age groups (<30 years, 30-39 years, 40-49 years, and >50 years, respectively). In the full sample, measures of neuroticism (N), impulsivity, and anxious insecure attachment were substantial predictors of BPD features (adjusted R(2) = .38, p < .001). Attachment scales were significant predictors of BPD features across all age groups, but different scales were relevant in different age groups. Our results suggest that in nonclinical populations, BPD may represent a complex constellation of personality traits and disturbed attachment patterns.
Wood, Eric; Riggs, Shelley
A conceptual model derived from attachment theory was tested by examining adult attachment style, cognitive distortions, and both general and victim empathy in a sample of 61 paroled child molesters and 51 community controls. Results of logistic multiple regression showed that attachment anxiety, cognitive distortions, high general empathy but low victim empathy significantly increased the odds of child molester status. Findings supported theoretically based hypotheses, suggesting that attachment theory may be useful in the conceptualization and treatment of child molesters.
Petrowski, Katja; Schurig, Susan; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Brähler, Elmar; Stöbel-Richter, Yve
Since the percentage of single adults is steadily increasing, the reasons for this development have become a matter of growing interest. Hereby, an individual's attachment style may have a connection to the partnership status. In the following analysis, attachment style, gender, age, education, and income were compared in regard to the partnership status. Furthermore, an analysis of variance was computed to compare the attachment style within different groups. In 2012, a sample of 1,676 representative participants was used. The participants were aged 18 to 60 (M = 41.0, SD = 12.3); 54% of the sample were female, and 40% were single. Attachment-related attitudes were assessed with the German version of the adult attachment scale (AAS). Single adult males did not show a more anxious attachment style than single adult females or females in relationships. Younger, i.e., 18 to 30 years old, paired individuals showed greater attachment anxiety than single individuals, whereby single individuals between the ages of 31 to 45 showed greater attachment anxiety than individuals in relationships. In addition, single individuals more frequently had obtained their high school diploma in contrast to individuals in relationships. Concerning attachment style, the individuals who had not completed their high school diploma showed less faith in others independent of singlehood or being in a relationship. Concerning age, older single individuals, i.e., 46 to 60 years, felt less comfortable in respect to closeness and showed less faith in others compared to paired individuals. Logistic regression showed that individuals were not single if they did not mind depending on others, showed high attachment anxiety, were older, and had lower education. An income below € 2000/month was linked to a nearly 13-fold increase of likelihood of being single. In sum, the attachment style had a differential age-dependent association to singlehood versus being in a relationship. Education played also a
Escolas, Sandra M; Arata-Maiers, Rachel; Hildebrandt, Erika J; Maiers, Alan J; Mason, Shawn T; Baker, Monty T
This study examined the effects of attachment style on self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a population of service members (N=561). Active duty, postdeployment service members completed anonymous questionnaires including 2 measures of adult attachment and the PTSD checklist-military as a measure of PTSD symptoms. Results confirmed the central hypothesis that attachment style was related to reported PTSD symptoms. Secure attachment style was associated with less reported PTSD symptoms and therefore may be involved in mechanisms associated with protection from developing PTSD after experiencing wartime trauma. Results were consistent when tested across continuous and dichotomous assessments that captured diagnostic criteria. This study demonstrates a significant relationship between attachment style and PTSD symptoms within a military population, potentially providing the basis for future research in this area.
Hobdy, Juliann; Hayslip, Bert; Kaminski, Patricia L.; Crowley, Barbara J.; Riggs, Shelley; York, Christina
The current study employed a life events perspective to examine the relationship between attachment style and both adjustment and coping processes in adults during two specific life events involving both the loss of and a renegotiation of an attachment relationship: the launching of children from the family of origin and job loss, which represent…
Nia, Anvar Sadat Nayebi; Salari, Parvin; Sharifi, Nasibeh; Nooghani, Hadi Jabbari
Introduction According to Bowbly attachment theory, attachment of a baby and its main care provider, influences on social growth and the baby’s feelings throughout its life. The present study was performed aim to determine the effect of attachment style to parents on domains of sexual dysfunction in married women. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out on two hundred married women who were fertile, and referred private and governmental gynecology clinics in Mashhad, Iran, in 2014. Data collection tools were three questionnaires; Demographic and marital questionnaire, Female sexual function index questionnaire, and Adult attachment style questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 (IBM© SPSS© Statistics version 20 using independent-samples t-test and logistic regression. The statistical tests were performed at the 95% confidence interval. Result Mean of safe attachment style to parents in all aspect of sexual dysfunction was significantly lower (p≤0.01), however, mean of distant attachment style to parents in all aspects of sexual dysfunction was significantly higher (p≤0.05). Conclusion Secure and distance attachment style to the mother showed maximum power of prediction for sexual dysfunction, which indicates the importance of attachment to parents and its impact on adult relationships. PMID:28243413
Kamel Abbasi, Amir Reza; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mahmoud; Aghamohammadiyan Sharbaf, Hamidreza; Karshki, Hossein
Background The early relationships between infant and care takers are significant and the emotional interactions of these relationships play an important role in forming personality and adulthood relationships. Objectives The current study aimed to investigate the relationship of attachment styles (AS) and emotional intelligence (EI) with marital satisfaction (MS). Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional research, 450 married people (226 male, 224 female) were selected using multistage sampling method in Mashhad, Iran, in 2011. Subjects completed the attachment styles questionnaire (ASQ), Bar-On emotional quotient inventory (EQ-i) and Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire. Results The results indicated that secure attachment style has positive significant relationship with marital satisfaction (r = 0.609, P < 0.001), also avoidant attachment style and ambivalent attachment style have negative significant relationship with marital satisfaction (r = -0.446, r = -0.564) (P < 0.001). Also, attachment styles can significantly predict marital satisfaction (P < 0.001). Therefore, emotional intelligence and its components have positive significant relationship with marital satisfaction; thus, emotional intelligence and intrapersonal, adaptability and general mood components can significantly predict marital satisfaction (P < 0.001). But, interpersonal and stress management components cannot significantly predict marital satisfaction (P > 0.05). Conclusions According to the obtained results, attachment styles and emotional intelligence are the key factors in marital satisfaction that decrease marital disagreement and increase the positive interactions of the couples. PMID:27843473
Previous studies have traced a relationship between the attachment styles of nurses working as in healthcare teams and their empathy which is an essential characteristic required of people concerned with managing relationships, supporting social events, and improving the of nurse-patient relationships. Since determining the effective variables in the quality of nurse-patient relationships in clinical settings is of paramount importance, current investigation is an effort to examine the relationship between attachment styles and empathy in nursing students. 260 university students (male = 130 and female = 130) were chosen as the sample of the study based upon specific inclusion criteria. All participants completed the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ) and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Data was collected and analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis with SPSS (v.18). The results showed that secure and insecure attachment styles have significant positive and negative correlation with empathy respectively. Based on the results of regression analysis, it was shown that secure attachment style is predicting 53% of the variance empathy variable, whereas insecure attachment styles are explaining up to 76% of the variance empathy variable collectively. The increase of attention to instructions that focus on empathetic relationships with patients and that are based upon the secure attachment style can result in positive changes in the area of nurse-patient relations and in increasing attention to medical ethics. Findings are consistent with prediction derived from attachment theory and add to our understanding of relationship between attachment styles with empathy in nursing students. The meaning and limitations of this study and suggestions for further research are also discussed.
Klest, Bridget; Philippon, Olivia
Attachment style is a person's approach to interpersonal relationships, which develops from early experiences with primary caregivers and can remain stable into adulthood. Depending on a person's attachment style, the amount of trust one has in others can vary when forming relationships, and trust is important in formation of the patient-physician relationship. The purpose of this study was to see if there is an association between attachment style and trust in physicians in general. Participants were recruited from an emergency department (ED) and an online university participant pool, and completed short questionnaires assessing attachment style and trust in the medical profession. Results revealed that individuals with a fearful attachment style reported significantly lower levels of trust in the medical profession than those with a secure attachment style. ED participants also reported higher levels of trust in the medical profession in comparison to student participants. This study provides a better understanding of trust in the medical profession, and insight into future care for patients who have low trust.
van der Watt, Ronél
Research that focuses on combining attachment, parenting styles, bullying and the reciprocal nature thereof in the parent-adolescent and peer relationships is limited. The bio-psychosocial changes that adolescents experience open up broader social realities and are perceived differently by parents and adolescents. Attachment processes and parenting styles may elicit dissimilar perceptions. These processes are also associated with the multifaceted dynamics of bullying. The aim of the article is to advocate for research on the possible link between the implications of attachment, parenting styles and bullying. Exploring the association between attachment, parenting styles and bullying can deepen the understanding of the developmental challenges within the parent-adolescent relationship, add insight to the different perceptions of adolescents and parents, and complement intervention programmes accordingly. Firstly, this article outlines bio-psychosocial changes in the pubertal years as related to the social realities of the adolescent. Secondly, a discussion on the concepts 'attachment', 'parenting styles', 'bullying', and the potential link between these concepts will follow. Thirdly, an outline of the clinical implications of the apparent association between these concepts is given. The article concludes with recommendations that researchers can consider while exploring the relationship between attachment, parenting styles, and bullying and the delineation thereof in the parent-adolescent relationship.
Cetin, Fusun Cuhadaroglu; Tuzun, Zeynep; Pehlivanturk, Berna; Unal, Fatih; Gokler, Bahar
The purpose of this article is to examine the attachment styles and the relation of these styles to the self-image in Turkish adolescents. The study included 378 adolescents (196 females and 182 males) from high schools with different socioeconomic status (SES) who were administered Relationship Scale Questionnaires and Offer Self-Image…
Ng, Sin Man; Hou, Wai Kai
Relatively little is known about the emotional processes underlying the association between adult attachment styles and psychological distress. This study aims to examine the role of contentment in terms of intensity and duration in the positive associations between anxious and avoidant attachment styles and psychological distress. A sample of 284 Chinese university students completed a self-reported questionnaire on attachment styles, intensity and duration of contentment, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling revealed that duration of contentment mediated the positive associations of anxious attachment style with anxiety symptoms [β = 0.05, p = 0.004; BC 95% CI (0.02,0.11)] and depressive symptoms [β = 0.04, p = 0.03; BC 95% CI (0.003,0.09)], model fit: χ(2)(259) = 455.06, p < 0.001, CFI = 0.95, TLI = 0.94, RMSEA = 0.05, SRMR = 0.07. Participants with higher anxious attachment style were more likely to report shorter duration of contentment, which was, in turn, associated with higher anxiety and depressive symptoms. The results suggest a positive emotional pathway underlying the association between anxious attachment style and psychological distress. Implications based on the findings are discussed.
Ng, Sin Man; Hou, Wai Kai
Relatively little is known about the emotional processes underlying the association between adult attachment styles and psychological distress. This study aims to examine the role of contentment in terms of intensity and duration in the positive associations between anxious and avoidant attachment styles and psychological distress. A sample of 284 Chinese university students completed a self-reported questionnaire on attachment styles, intensity and duration of contentment, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling revealed that duration of contentment mediated the positive associations of anxious attachment style with anxiety symptoms [β = 0.05, p = 0.004; BC 95% CI (0.02,0.11)] and depressive symptoms [β = 0.04, p = 0.03; BC 95% CI (0.003,0.09)], model fit: χ2(259) = 455.06, p < 0.001, CFI = 0.95, TLI = 0.94, RMSEA = 0.05, SRMR = 0.07. Participants with higher anxious attachment style were more likely to report shorter duration of contentment, which was, in turn, associated with higher anxiety and depressive symptoms. The results suggest a positive emotional pathway underlying the association between anxious attachment style and psychological distress. Implications based on the findings are discussed. PMID:28275363
Amodeo, Anna Lisa; Vitelli, Roberto; Scandurra, Cristiano; Picariello, Simona; Valerio, Paolo
Introduction Although attachment theory has been recognized as one of the main reference for the study of the general wellbeing, little research has been focused on the attachment styles of transgender people. Attachment styles are deeply influenced by the earliest relationships with caregivers, which, for gender nonconforming children, are often characterized by parental rejection. Consequently, transgender children and adults likely internalize societal stigma, developing internalized transphobia. The current research was aimed to explore the link between adult attachment and internalized transphobia. Method 25 male-to-female (MtF) and 23 female-to-male (FtM) transgender people participated in the survey filling in two self-report questionnaires: the Attachment Style Questionnaire and the Transgender Identity Survey. A cluster analysis, T-Test and multiple regression analysis were conducted to explore the link between attachment styles and internalized transphobia. Results A greater prevalence of secure attachment styles was detected. Participants with secure attachment styles reported higher levels of positive transgender identity than those with insecure attachment styles. Secure attachment styles significantly affect positive transgender identity, while insecure attachment styles influence internalized transphobia. Conclusions A clinical focus on the redefinition of the Internal Working Models of transgender people can inform psychologically-focused interventions, which transgender people can benefit from. PMID:26937224
Domingo, Meera; Keppley, Sharon; Chambliss, Catherine
As growing numbers of mothers enter the workforce, understanding the effects of maternal employment on children and adolescents has become increasingly important. The effects of maternal employment after infancy on adult attachment, and how these effects vary as a function of children's personality style are examined in this paper. It was…
Discusses the benefits of attachment parenting, which emphasizes parental commitment, a low-stress pregnancy, childbirth preparation, breast-feeding with child-led weaning, prompt response to the baby's crying, flexible sleeping arrangements, close-knit father-mother-baby functioning, and the avoidance of detachment parenting. Attachment parenting…
Shanmugam, Vaithehy; Jowett, Sophia; Meyer, Caroline
The aims of the study were two-fold; first to determine the associations between current attachment styles, and eating psychopathology amongst athletes, and second to simultaneously assess the mediating effects of self-esteem, perfectionism, and depression in this association. Four hundred and eleven British athletes completed self-report instruments pertaining to eating psychopathology, attachment styles, self-esteem, depression, and perfectionism. Athletes who scored highly on both avoidant and anxious attachment styles, reported elevated eating psychopathology scores. However, such associations were indirect and mediated via athletes' levels of self-esteem, self-critical perfectionism, and depression, with self-esteem and depression identified as more salient mediators than self-critical perfectionism. The current findings provide evidence to suggest that insecure attachment styles influence athletes' eating psychopathology via their impact on self-esteem, depression, and self-critical perfectionism. Moreover, self-esteem and depression may play more significant role in transferring the impact of insecure attachment styles on elevated eating psychopathology.
Jenkins-Guarnieri, Michael A.; Wright, Stephen L.; Hudiburgh, Lynette M.
Among emerging adult populations, the increasingly prevalent use of online social media, such as Facebook, and its relationship to individual personality traits and interpersonal relationships are of growing interest to researchers. The current study sought to investigate how attachment style, personality traits based on the Five Factor Model, and…
Granot, Michal; Zisman-Ilani, Yaara; Ram, Einat; Goldstick, Orly; Yovell, Yoram
In this study, the authors explored the relations among painful experience during sexual intercourse, attachment style, and somatization. The authors assessed these variables by self-report of dyspareunia (painful vaginal intercourse) and by completion of the Experience in Close Relationships Scale and the short version of the Brief Symptom Inventory. The sample included 110 women, 45 of whom reported painful intercourse and were defined as the dyspareunia group, and the remaining 65 were defined as the control group. The dyspareunia group showed greater incidence, compared with the control group, of insecure attachment styles defined by higher scores of anxiety and/or avoidance as well as higher somatization levels. Regression analyses revealed that increased level of somatization and higher level of avoidance predicted higher probability for dyspareunia. The authors' findings suggest that women with higher frequency of physical complaints in various body areas and insecure attachment style are more susceptible to report pain during intercourse.
Nosko, Amanda; Tieu, Thanh-Thanh; Lawford, Heather; Pratt, Michael W.
In this longitudinal study, a quantitative and qualitative examination of the associations among parent-child relations, adult attachment styles, and relationship quality and theme in romantic narratives was conducted. Parenting and adult attachment style were assessed through questionnaires, whereas overall quality of romantic relationships…
Zakiei, Ali; Farnia, Vahid; Khkian, Zinab; Shakeri, Jalal; Golshani, Sanobar
Background The goal of the present study was to determine the relationships between attachment styles and resiliency in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Methods A random sample of 260 subjects was obtained from the population of undergraduate students of the Nour Branch of Islamic Azad University, which is located in Mazandaran, and these subjects were enrolled in this descriptive and correlational study. The collected data included the subjects' responses to an adult attachment style questionnaire, resilience scale, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder questionnaire. The data were analyzed with Pearson correlation coefficient indices and multiple regressions. Results The results of the data analysis showed a positive correlation (relationship) between ambivalent/avoidant attachment styles and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and a negative correlation between resilience and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Furthermore, these results demonstrated that attachment style and resiliency can predict obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. In addition, no significant relationships were found between the demographic variables (convertibles) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Conclusion These results suggested that attachment style and resiliency contribute to the development of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. PMID:28197331
Knez, Rajna; Francisković, Tanja; Samarin, Radenka Munjas; Niksić, Milan
Attachment is a point of interest in psychosomatic research since it influences a wide array of biopsychosocial phenomena. Data from literature highlights the role of this concept in the context of Inflammatory Bowel disease (IBD), still, there is a lack of data regarding attachment among parents of children with chronic gastrointestinal diseases. The main hypothesis for the current study is that parents of children with IBD will have a more insecure attachment than parents of children with celiac disease (CD) and parents of healthy children. The second hypothesis is that insecure attachment among parents of sick children will be associated with lower parental quality of life (QoL). 46 parents of children with IBD, 42 parents of children with CD and 43 parents of healthy children completed the validated modification of the Brennan's Experiences in Close Relationship Inventory. Results were categorized as secure and insecure attachment. In order to assess parental QoL, the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was used. The Total QoL was calculated as a sum of all domain items. Secure attachment was found in 45.7% parents of children with IBD, in 35.7% parents of children with CD and in 32.6% parents of healthy children. Surprisingly, the lowest rate of secure attachment was found in parents of healthy children. However, significant differences among groups do not exist. For all groups of parents the attachment style is associated with Total QoL, although only among parents of children with IBD, the secure attachment independently and significantly predicts higher parental Total QoL. According to results, we might say that parental attachment style does not have a role that exclusively belongs in the context of paediatric chronic gastrointestinal diseases. However, parents of children with IBD who have insecure attachment represent target group for psychosocial support in order to improve their QoL.
Cooley, Eileen L.; Van Buren, Amy; Cole, Steven P.
Attachment styles, social skills, and depression were studied in 3 college women using the Relationship Questionnaire (K. Bartholomew & L. M. Horowitz, 1991), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown, 1996), and the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire (D. Buhrmester, W. Furman, M. T. Wittenberg, & H.…
Kondo-Ikemura, Kiyomi; Matsuoka, Yoko
The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of attachment styles in Japanese university students. Participating were 104 university students ranging in age from 18 to 26 years. Subjects completed the Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR) Scale, modified to include relationships in addition to romantic partners, and the Adult…
The purpose of this study is to examine relationships between attachment styles and relational self-construal. The study was carried out with 376 students (223 male, 153 female) enrolled in different faculties of Bayburt University. The data was collected using the Relationship Scales Questionnaire and Relational-Interdependent Self-Construal…
Bogaerts, Stefan; Vanheule, Stijn; Desmet, Mattias
This study analyzed personality disorders in a group of 33 securely and 51 insecurely attached child molesters. A total of 51 child molesters were selected from a community based educational training program, and the other group was selected from a Belgian prison (n = 33). Research shows that adult attachment styles and personality disorders share a common underlying structure. It is remarkable that very little is known about differences between securely and insecurely attached child molesters. In this study, the authors found that the schizoid personality disorder differed between securely and insecurely attached child molesters. These findings have implications for the aetiology and treatment of child molesters. Future research is necessary to determine patterns of attachment in relationship to personality disorders.
Jones, Jason D.; Brett, Bonnie E.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Cassidy, Jude
SYNOPSIS Objective Previous research has examined the developmental consequences, particularly in early childhood, of parents’ supportive and unsupportive responses to children’s negative emotions. Much less is known about factors that explain why parents respond in ways that may support or undermine their children’s emotions, and even less is known about how these parenting processes unfold with adolescents. We examined the associations between mothers’ attachment styles and their distress, harsh, and supportive responses to their adolescents’ negative emotions two years later and whether these links were mediated by maternal emotion regulation difficulties. Design Mothers in a longitudinal study (n = 230) reported on their attachment style, difficulties regulating their emotions, and their hypothetical responses to their adolescents’ negative emotions, respectively, at consecutive laboratory visits one year apart. Results Mothers who reported greater attachment-related avoidance and anxiety reported having greater difficulties with emotion regulation one year later. Emotion dysregulation, in turn, predicted more distressed, harsher, and less supportive maternal responses to adolescents’ negative emotions the following year. In addition, greater avoidance directly predicted harsher maternal responses two years later. Conclusions These findings extend previous research by identifying maternal attachment style as a predictor of responses to adolescent distress and by documenting the underlying role of emotion dysregulation in the link between adult attachment style and parenting. PMID:25568638
Bifulco, Antonia; Moran, Patricia; Jacobs, Catherine; Bunn, Amanda
An intergenerational study examined mothers' insecure attachment style using the Attachment Style Interview (ASI; Bifulco et al., 2002a) in relation to her history of partner relationships, her parenting competence, and depression or anxiety disorder in her offspring. The sample comprised 146 high-risk, mother-adolescent offspring pairs in London, who were recruited on the basis of the mothers' psychosocial vulnerability for depression. Retrospective, biographical, and clinical interviews were undertaken independently with mother and offspring. A path model was developed, which showed that mothers' insecure attachment style had no direct link to either recalled child neglect/abuse or currently assessed disorder in their adolescent and young adult offspring. The connections appeared to be indirect, through the quality of relationships in the family system: mothers' insecure attachment and their partners' problem behavior accounted for variance in mothers' incompetent parenting as rated by interviewers. These variables predicted her neglect/abuse of the child, which was the only variable directly associated with internalizing disorder in her offspring. Mother's lifetime depression did not add to the model. It is argued that an ecological approach (emphasizing social adversity and different role domains) and a lifespan approach (emphasizing a history of adverse relationships a different life stages) is important in understanding the mechanisms by which parental insecure attachment style influences transmission of risk to the next generation.
Ambruster, Ellen W.; Witherington, David C.
Adult attachment and parental bonding have been linked to anxiety disorders, but rarely have these associations been demonstrated in the same study. To fill this gap in the research literature, we utilized several different self-report measures to examine the relationships among adult attachment style, memories of early bonding experiences, and…
Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Radi, Giulia; Raspa, Veronica; Buratta, Livia
The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent–child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers’ postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers’ attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th months of gestation) and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress 3 months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety) was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress 3 months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers. PMID:26441808
Deniz, M. Engin
The aim of this research is to investigate if the attachment styles significantly predict the decision self-esteem, decision making styles and five-factor personality traits. Subjects of the study were 567 students in total from different faculties of Selcuk University. The results of the study showed that the attachment styles of the students…
Yarkovsky, Nicole; Timmons Fritz, Patti A
The present study examined relations between attachment style, age at first sexual intercourse, and dating aggression (DA) victimization. In all, 137 heterosexual female undergraduate students 18 to 25 years of age (M = 20.76, SD = 1.87) completed an online questionnaire that included questions regarding sexual history, attachment style (Experiences in Close Relationships Scale), and DA (Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory). Initial bivariate correlations revealed that women reported higher rates of DA victimization if they were more anxiously attached (r = .30, p = .000), had an earlier age at vaginal sexual debut (r = -.19, p = .015), and had an earlier age at oral sexual debut (r = -.15, p = .046); however, when entered into a predictive multivariate model, neither the addition of anxious attachment nor an early age at sexual debut accounted for a significant amount of variance above and beyond control variables. Although we were unable to affirm anxious attachment and an early age at first intercourse as risk factors for DA victimization, posthoc analyses emphasized the need to control for social desirability when gathering information on sensitive topics in clinical and research settings.
Wang, Chia-Chih DC; Scalise, Dominick A.
This study examines the applicability of Western adult attachment perspectives to interpersonal difficulties experienced by individuals with indigenous Chinese cultural backgrounds. A total of 275 Taiwanese university students completed self-report surveys of adult attachment, ideal attachment, and interpersonal problems. Culturally adjusted…
Deniz, M Engin; Işik, Erkan
The purpose was to investigate positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, and coping with stress in relation to attachment styles. Undergraduate students (N=421) completed the Relationship Scales Questionnaire, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the Coping with Stress Scale. Results indicated that secure attachment style was the unique predictor of positive affect while fearful and preoccupied attachment styles significantly predicted negative affect. Regarding life satisfaction, a positive correlation with secure attachment style and a negative correlation with fearful and preoccupied styles were seen. However, the unique predictor of life satisfaction was preoccupied attachment style. In terms of coping with stress, there was no significant association between attachment variables and avoidance coping style, but significant links were observed between problem-focused coping and dismissing, and fearful and preoccupied attachment styles.
Konok, Veronika; Kosztolányi, András; Rainer, Wohlfarth; Mutschler, Bettina; Halsband, Ulrike; Miklósi, Ádám
Previous research has suggested that owners' attitude to their family dogs may contribute to a variety of behaviour problems in the dog, and authors assume that dogs with separation-related disorder (SRD) attach differently to the owner than typical dogs do. Our previous research suggested that these dogs may have an insecure attachment style. In the present study we have investigated whether owners' attachment style, personality traits and the personality of the dog influence the occurrence of SRD in the dog. In an internet-based survey 1508 (1185 German and 323 Hungarian) dog-owners filled in five questionnaires: Demographic questions, Separation Behaviour Questionnaire (to determine SRD), Human and Dog Big Five Inventory and Adult Attachment Scale. We found that with owners' higher score on attachment avoidance the occurrence of SRD in the dog increases. Dogs scoring higher on the neuroticism scale were more prone to develop SRD. Our results suggest that owners' attachment avoidance may facilitate the development of SRD in dogs. We assume that avoidant owners are less responsive to the dog's needs and do not provide a secure base for the dog when needed. As a result dogs form an insecure attachment and may develop SRD. However, there may be alternative explanations of our findings that we also discuss.
Hooley, Jill M; Wilson-Murphy, Molly
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by tumultuous, unstable personal relationships, difficulty being alone, and an inability to self-soothe. This may explain why patients with BPD tend to develop strong attachments to transitional objects such as stuffed animals. Research in hospital settings has linked the use of transitional objects to the presence of BPD. Using a nonclinical community sample (N = 80) we explored the link between attachments to transitional objects and various aspects of personality pathology, as well as to childhood trauma, and parental rearing styles. People who reported intense current attachments to transitional objects were significantly more likely to meet criteria for a BPD diagnosis than those who did not; they also reported more childhood trauma, rated their early caregivers as less supportive, and had more attachment problems as adults. Heavy emotional reliance on transitional objects in adulthood may be an indicator of underlying pathology, particularly BPD.
Hinnen, Chris; Schreuder, Imke; Jong, Eefje; van Duijn, Miranda; Dahmen, Rutger; van Gorp, Eric C M
The present study investigated the relationship between adult attachment style and depressive symptomatology in patients with HIV. Moreover, perceived social support was investigated as a potential mediator between adult attachment and depressive symptoms. A sample of 233 HIV-infected patients (90% male) completed questionnaires assessing adult attachment style (Relationship Questionnaire), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), and perceived social support (Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey). After controlling for demographic and medical variables, an insecure adult attachment style was found to be strongly related with depressive symptoms. Half of the insecurely attached patients reported clinically elevated levels of distress, while one in nine securely attached patients reported elevated levels of distress (χ(2)=32.25, p=0.001). Moreover, the association between attachment style and depressive symptomatology was found to be partly mediated through perceived social support. This study strongly supports the notion that an insecure attachment style is a vulnerability factor for developing depressive symptoms that would warrant clinical attention when confronted with a chronic illness such as HIV. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.
Robles, Theodore F; Brooks, Kathryn P; Kane, Heidi S; Schetter, Christine Dunkel
This study examined the relationship between individual differences in adult attachment and skin barrier recovery. Dating couples (N = 34) completed a self-report measure of attachment anxiety and avoidance, and during two separate laboratory visits, normal skin barrier function was disrupted using a tape-stripping procedure, followed by a 20 min discussion of personal concerns in one visit and relationship problems in the other, counterbalanced randomly across visits. Skin barrier recovery was assessed by measuring transepidermal water loss up to 2 h after skin disruption. Multilevel modeling showed that skin barrier recovery did not differ between the personal concern or relationship problem discussions. Among women, greater attachment anxiety predicted faster skin barrier recovery across the two visits, while greater attachment avoidance predicted slower skin barrier recovery. Among men, greater attachment anxiety predicted slower skin barrier recovery during the personal concern discussion only. The observed effects remained significant after controlling for transepidermal water loss in undisturbed skin, suggesting that the relationship between attachment security and skin barrier recovery was not due to other skin-related factors like sweating. Cortisol changes, self-reported emotions, stress appraisals, and supportiveness ratings were tested as potential mediators, and none explained the relationships between attachment and skin barrier recovery. These findings are the first to demonstrate associations between individual differences in attachment style and restorative biological processes in the skin, even in a sample of young dating couples in satisfied relationships.
Sambo, Chiara F; Howard, Matthew; Kopelman, Michael; Williams, Steven; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini
Other people can have a significant impact on one's pain. Although correlational data abound, causal relationships between one's pain experience, individual traits of social relating (e.g. attachment style), and social factors (e.g. empathy) have not been investigated. Here, we studied whether the presence of others and 'perceived empathy' (defined as participants' knowledge of the extent to which observers felt they understood and shared their pain) can modulate subjective and autonomic responses to pain; and whether these influences can be explained by individual traits of pain coping and social attachment. Participants received noxious thermal stimuli via a thermode attached to their forearm and were asked to rate their pain. In separate blocks they were witnessed by (a) high-empathic and (b) low-empathic unfamiliar observers, and in a third condition (c) no observer was present (alone condition). We found that the effects of social presence and empathy on pain ratings depended on individual differences in attachment style. Higher scores on attachment anxiety predicted higher pain ratings in the low-empathy than in the high-empathy condition; and higher scores on attachment avoidance predicted lower pain ratings in the alone condition than with social presence. In addition, social presence decreased autonomic responses to pain irrespective of individual personality traits. To our knowledge this is the first time that adult attachment style has been shown to modulate the effects of social presence and 'perceived empathy' on experimentally induced pain. The results are discussed in relation to recent cognitive models of pain coping and attachment theory.
Millings, Abigail; Walsh, Judi; Hepper, Erica; O'Brien, Margaret
This cross-sectional, dyadic questionnaire study examined the contribution of romantic attachment and responsive caregiving to parenting style, investigating both gender and partner effects. One hundred and twenty-five couples with children aged 7 to 8 years completed measures of attachment styles, responsive caregiving toward partner, and parenting styles. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the intra- and interpersonal associations between romantic attachment, caregiving responsiveness, and parenting styles. Attachment avoidance and anxiety were both negatively associated with responsive caregiving to partner, which in turn was positively associated with authoritative (optimal) parenting styles and negatively associated with authoritarian and permissive (nonoptimal) parenting styles. Responsive caregiving mediated all links between attachment and parenting, with an additional direct association between attachment anxiety and nonoptimal parenting styles that was not explained by caregiving responsiveness. Findings are discussed with reference to attachment theory.
van der Meer, Lucienne B; van Duijn, Erik; Giltay, Erik J; Tibben, Aad
Predictive genetic testing for a neurogenetic disorder evokes strong emotions, and may lead to distress. The aim of this study is to investigate whether attachment style and emotion regulation strategies are associated with distress in persons who present for predictive testing for a neurogenetic disorder, and whether these psychological traits predict distress after receiving test results. Self-report scales were used to assess attachment insecurity (anxiety and avoidance) and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies (self-blame, rumination, catastrophizing) in adults at 50 % risk for Huntington's Disease (HD), Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), and Hereditary Cerebral Hemorrhage With Amyloidosis - Dutch type (HCHWA-D), when they presented for predictive testing. Distress was measured before testing and twice (within 2 months and between 6 and 8 months) after receiving test results. Pearson correlations and linear regression were used to analyze whether attachment style and emotion regulation strategies indicated distress. In 98 persons at risk for HD, CADASIL, or HCHWA-D, attachment anxiety and catastrophizing were associated with distress before predictive testing. Attachment anxiety predicted distress up to 2 months after testing. Clinicians may consider looking for signs of attachment anxiety and catastrophizing in persons who present for predictive testing, to see who may be vulnerable for distress during and after testing.
Marganska, Anna; Gallagher, Michelle; Miranda, Regina
Differences in attachment style have been linked to both emotion regulation and psychological functioning, but the emotion regulatory mechanism through which attachment style might impact symptoms of depression and anxiety is unclear. The present study examined the explanatory role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between adult attachment style and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a sample of 284 adults. Secure attachment was associated with lower depression and GAD symptoms and lower emotion dysregulation, whereas insecure attachment styles were generally associated with higher depression and GAD scores and higher emotion dysregulation. Perceived inability to generate effective emotion regulation strategies mediated the relation between insecure attachment and both depression and GAD symptoms. Nonacceptance of negative emotions and inability to control impulsive behaviors emerged as additional mediators of the relation between insecure attachment styles and GAD symptoms. The differential contribution of attachment style and emotion regulation to the prediction of depression and GAD symptoms may reflect differences in vulnerability to depression and GAD.
Torquati, Julia C.; Raffaelli, Marcela
This study examined daily emotions and social contexts of young adults who differed in global attachment style (secure vs. insecure). Sixty-nine college students (41% male, 59% female) completed self-report measures of attachment and provided time-sampling data on moods, companionship, and activities using the experience sampling method. Secure (n…
Riggs, Shelley A; Sahl, Gayla; Greenwald, Ellen; Atkison, Heather; Paulson, Adrienne; Ross, Colin A
The current study explored the role of early family environment and adult attachment style in explaining long-term outcomes among child abuse survivors. Adult patients (N = 80) in a trauma treatment program were assessed for clinical diagnosis and administered a multiscale questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analyses were significant for dissociative identity disorder (DID), substance abuse, anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress, somatization, and six personality disorder dimensions. Adult attachment styles were significant predictors of most outcome variables. Of particular note was the strong contribution of attachment avoidance to DID. Five family environment scales (Independence, Organization, Control, Conflict, Expressiveness) also contributed to various psychopathological outcomes. Evidence emerged supporting a mediating role for attachment style in the link between family independence and five personality disorder dimensions.
Underwood, Rehema; Mohr, David; Ross, Michelle
The quality of organizational leadership can have a significant impact on organizational success and employee well-being. Some research has shown that leaders with secure attachment styles are more effective leaders, but the connection between different attachment styles and different leadership styles is unclear. Relationships between attachment…
Browne, C J; Shlosberg, E
This study replicates and extends exploratory research into the occurrence of attachment behaviours and parent fixation amongst people with dementia. Relationships between cognitive functioning, pre-morbid attachment style, attachment behaviours and parent fixation were examined. Fifty-three people with dementia, living in residential or nursing homes, completed the Standardised Mini-Mental State Examination and were interviewed about their parents. A family member or friend rated pre-morbid attachment style and care staff made observations of attachment behaviour. Results indicated that parent fixation occurred more often in participants with lower levels of cognitive functioning. Parent fixation was not related to pre-morbid attachment style. The occurrence of overt attachment behaviour was inconsistently associated with both high and low levels of cognitive functioning, at different times of the day. Participants with an avoidant attachment style exhibited more overt attachment behaviour than participants with a secure attachment style. Findings are interpreted in terms of attachment theory and the clinical and research implications of the study are discussed.
Choi-Kain, Lois W; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Zanarini, Mary C; Laverdière, Olivier; Gunderson, John G
Clinical theories of borderline personality disorder (BPD) identify attachment insecurity as the basis of its characteristic disturbed interpersonal functioning. The purpose of this study was to compare attachment ratings in rigorously diagnosed BPD, depressed (MDD), and nonborderline comparison groups and their correlations to features of interpersonal disturbance. Subjects self-reported ratings on attachment styles using the relationship questionnaire. BPD subjects reported higher scores on both preoccupied and fearful attachment styles than both MDD and nonborderline comparison groups. A mixed model of preoccupied and fearful attachment was more prevalent in the BPD group and was associated with 3 to 20 times greater risk for diagnosis of BPD. Scores on preoccupied and fearful attachment styles were correlated with features of interpersonal disturbance in BPD. A combination of preoccupied and fearful self-reported attachment styles is more specific to BPD than either style alone or attachment insecurity in general.
Guerrero, Laura K.
Tests whether individuals with different attachment styles vary in the degree to which they display intimacy and nonverbal involvement to their romantic partners. Provides preliminary behavioral validation of K. Bartholomew's four-category model of attachment. Interprets findings in light of the dimensions underlying attachment styles and the…
Lingiardi, Vittorio; Giovanardi, Guido; Fortunato, Alexandro; Nassisi, Valentina; Speranza, Anna Maria
The main aim of this study was to investigate the associations between personality features and attachment patterns in transsexual adults. We explored mental representations of attachment, assessed personality traits, and possible personality disorders. Forty-four individuals diagnosed with gender identity disorder (now gender dysphoria), 28 male-to-female and 16 female-to-male, were evaluated using the Shedler-Westen assessment procedure-200 (SWAP-200) to assess personality traits and disorders; the adult attachment interview was used to evaluate their attachment state-of-mind. With respect to attachment, our sample differed both from normative samples because of the high percentage of disorganized states of mind (50% of the sample), and from clinical samples for the conspicuous percentage of secure states of mind (37%). Furthermore, we found that only 16% of our sample presented a personality disorder, while 50% showed a high level of functioning according to the SWAP-200 scales. In order to find latent subgroups that shared personality characteristics, we performed a Q-factor analysis. Three personality clusters then emerged: Healthy Functioning (54% of the sample); Depressive/Introverted (32%) and Histrionic/Extroverted (14%). These data indicate that in terms of personality and attachment, GD individuals are a heterogeneous sample and show articulate and diverse types with regard to these constructs.
Pietz, P.J.; Brandt, D.A.; Krapu, G.L.; Buhl, D.A.
The value of radio telemetry for waterfowl research depends on the availability of suitable methods of attaching transmitters. In previous studies, external transmitters attached to adult Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) with sutures and glue did not stay on birds reliably. In an attempt to improve transmitter retention, a method of attachment was tested in which 4-g transmitters were attached mid-dorsally with sutures and with a stainless steel anchor-shaped wire inserted subcutaneously (anchor transmitters). Field tests indicated that all of 26 female Mallards and 63 of 65 female Gadwalls (Anas strepera) retained their anchor transmitters during 4369 bird-days of monitoring during nesting and brood rearing. Survival rates of females with anchor transmitters compared favorably with those reported from other studies. In this study, females with and without anchor transmitters did not differ with respect to survival rates of their ducklings. The anchor transmitter may be suitable for a variety of field studies on numerous species.
This paper proposes that attachment theory, with its emphasis on stability and security, accentuates the positive aspects of affectional relationships and suggests a way to look at the process of adult psychotherapy. Attachment-based research has shown that positive attachment experiences are related to feelings of joy, comfort, and contentment throughout life. In contrast, experiences that are hurtful or traumatic, and especially if they are chronic or repeated, can have negative effects on thoughts and emotions as well as the body. In applying these findings to psychotherapy, the role of the therapist can be seen as providing a positive emotional experience within which to examine and gain a new perspective on the origins and development of distress. Through therapy, the opportunity to experience a relationship of secure attachment enhances psychological and physical well-being and the capacity to make and maintain lasting affectional bonds with others.
Sandberg, Jonathan G; Bradford, Angela B; Brown, Andrew P
The purpose of this study was to distinguish between the influence of attachment styles and behaviors on marital quality for couples. Data were gathered from 680 couples in a married relationship. Results showed attachment style and behaviors predicted marital quality for both men and women, with higher levels of attachment related to greater quality. Attachment behaviors predicted more of the variance in quality than did styles. Specific implications regarding how therapists may wish to foster behaviors that promote attachment security in marriages are discussed.
Tiryaki, M Sefik; Cepikkurt, Fatma
The relations of attachment styles with group cohesion were monitored for premier league female volleyball teams. 74 volleyball players from 8 teams responded to the Relationship Scales Questionnaire and Group Environment Questionnaire. Pearson correlations indicated significant association of attachment styles with group cohesion. Specifically, a significant negative correlation was found between female volleyball players' individual attraction to the group-social subscale and fearful attachment style. In addition, there was a significant positive correlation for scores on the group integration-social and secure and preoccupied attachment subscales and a significant negative correlation for scores on the group integration-task subscale and preoccupied attachment style. In conclusion, attachment styles might be considered important in predicting group cohesion
Penketh, Victoria; Hare, Dougal Julian; Flood, Andrea; Walker, Samantha
Background: The Manchester Attachment Scale-Third party observational measure (MAST) was developed to assess secure attachment style for adults with intellectual disabilities. The psychometric properties of the MAST were examined. Materials and Methods: Professional carers (N = 40) completed the MAST and measures related to the construct of…
Monti, Jennifer D.; Rudolph, Karen D.
Although research links insecure adult attachment with depression, the emotional processes accounting for this association over time remain relatively unexplored. To address this gap, this study investigated whether deficits in emotional awareness serve as one explanatory process. Adult females caregivers (N = 417, M age = 37.83) completed questionnaires annually for three years. As anticipated, attachment avoidance exerted an indirect effect on depression via emotional awareness. Attachment anxiety directly predicted subsequent depression but the indirect effect through emotional awareness was nonsignificant. These results suggest that an avoidant attachment style interferes with the effective processing of emotions, thereby placing women at risk for depression. This research implicates emotional awareness as a potential target for interventions aimed at reducing depressive symptoms in mothers with avoidant attachment styles. PMID:25019541
Linares, Leticia; Jauregui, Paula; Herrero-Fernández, David; Estévez, Ana
Attachment styles and dysfunctional symptoms have been associated. This relationship could be affected by metacognitive capacity. The aim of this study is to clarify the relationship between depressive symptoms, attachment styles, and metacognitive capacity. In addition, the mediating role of metacognition between attachment and depressive symptoms has been studied. A total of 505 participants recruited from the general population of the province of Bizkaia (Spain) completed questionnaires regarding depression, anxiety, mindfulness, decentering, and attachment. Results showed positive and significant relations between (a) dysfunctional symptoms and insecure attachment styles and (b) metacognitive capacity and secure attachment style. Additionally, the mediating role of metacognition between attachment and depressive symptoms was confirmed. Intervention in metacognitive abilities such as mindfulness could be a useful therapeutic tool for depressive symptoms.
Dinero, Rachel E.; Conger, Rand D.; Shaver, Phillip R.; Widaman, Keith F.; Larsen-Rife, Dannelle
According to attachment theory, attachment security or attachment style derives from social experiences that begin early in life and continue into the adult years. In this study we examined these expectations by examining associations between the quality of observed interaction patterns in the family of origin during adolescence and self-reported romantic attachment style and observed romantic relationship behaviors in adulthood (at ages 25 and 27). Family and romantic relationship interactions were rated by trained observers from video recordings of structured conversation tasks. Attachment style was assessed with items from Griffin and Bartholomew's (1994) Relationship Scales Questionnaire. Observational ratings of warmth and sensitivity in family interactions were positively related to similar behaviors by romantic partners and to self-reported attachment security. In addition, romantic interactions characterized by high warmth and low hostility at age 25 predicted greater attachment security at 27, after controlling for attachment security at age 25. However, attachment security at age 25 did not predict later romantic relationship interactions after controlling for earlier interactions. These findings underscore the importance of social experiences in close relationships for the development of romantic attachment security but they are inconsistent with the theoretical expectation that attachment security will predict the quality of interactions in romantic unions. PMID:18729676
Hou, Juan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jinqun; Yao, Fangshu; Huang, Jiani; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Ma, Ru; Zhang, Yuting; Lan, Jing; Liu, Lu; Fang, Xiaoyi
In the present study, we investigated the relationship among three emotion-motivation systems (adult attachment, romantic love, and sex). We recorded event-related potentials in 37 healthy volunteers who had experienced romantic love while they viewed SEX, LOVE, FRIEND, SPORT, and NEUTRAL images. We also measured adult attachment styles, level of passionate love and sexual attitudes. As expected, results showed that, firstly, response to love-related image-stimuli and sex-related image-stimuli on the electrophysiological data significantly different on N1, N2, and positive slow wave (PSW) components. Secondly, the different adult attachment styles affected individuals’ recognition processing in response to love-related and sex-related images, especially, to sex-related images. Further analysis showed that voltages elicited by fearful attachment style individuals were significantly lower than voltages elicited by secure and dismissing attachment style individuals on sex-related images at frontal sites, on N1 and N2 components. Thirdly, from behavior data, we found that adult attachment styles were not significantly related to any dimension of sexual attitudes but were significantly related to passionate love scale (PLS) total points. Thus, the behavior results were not in line with the electrophysiological results. The present study proved that adult attachment styles might mediate individuals’ lust and attraction systems. PMID:27199830
Hou, Juan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jinqun; Yao, Fangshu; Huang, Jiani; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Ma, Ru; Zhang, Yuting; Lan, Jing; Liu, Lu; Fang, Xiaoyi
In the present study, we investigated the relationship among three emotion-motivation systems (adult attachment, romantic love, and sex). We recorded event-related potentials in 37 healthy volunteers who had experienced romantic love while they viewed SEX, LOVE, FRIEND, SPORT, and NEUTRAL images. We also measured adult attachment styles, level of passionate love and sexual attitudes. As expected, results showed that, firstly, response to love-related image-stimuli and sex-related image-stimuli on the electrophysiological data significantly different on N1, N2, and positive slow wave (PSW) components. Secondly, the different adult attachment styles affected individuals' recognition processing in response to love-related and sex-related images, especially, to sex-related images. Further analysis showed that voltages elicited by fearful attachment style individuals were significantly lower than voltages elicited by secure and dismissing attachment style individuals on sex-related images at frontal sites, on N1 and N2 components. Thirdly, from behavior data, we found that adult attachment styles were not significantly related to any dimension of sexual attitudes but were significantly related to passionate love scale (PLS) total points. Thus, the behavior results were not in line with the electrophysiological results. The present study proved that adult attachment styles might mediate individuals' lust and attraction systems.
Karairmak, Ozlem; Duran, Nagihan Oguz
This study was designed to examine gender differences in attachment styles and explore the relationship between attachment styles and preference for conflict handling behavior in close relationships among Turkish adolescents. The participants comprised 371 Turkish undergraduate students (252 females and 119 males; with a mean age of 21.98 years;…
Wang, Sheng; Noe, Raymond A.; Wang, Zhong-Ming; Greenberger, David B.
This study examined the influence of attachment styles and mentoring experiences on willingness to mentor in the future in a formal mentoring program in China. For both mentors and proteges, avoidance and anxiety dimensions of attachment styles and their interaction had a significant influence on willingness to mentor in the future. Mentoring…
Reio, Thomas G., Jr.; Marcus, Robert F.; Sanders-Reio, Joanne
The authors investigated how student-student friendships, student-teacher relationships, and attachment styles link to General Educational Development program completion among 127 women and 117 men. Students' relationships with students and instructors, as well as secure attachment style were positively associated with earning a GED. After…
Cooley, Eileen L.; Garcia, Amber L.
This study examined ethnic differences in attachment styles and depression among African American and European American college women. African American women reported less favorable views of others, which suggests that attachment styles emphasizing caution in relationships may be normative and adaptive for these women. There were no differences…
Arslan, Emel; Arslan, Coskun; Ari, Ramazan
The purpose of this study was to investigate interpersonal problem solving approaches with respect to attachment styles. The participants were 554 (279 female and 275 male) university students. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis were used. The results of the study showed that the attachment styles of…
Westen, Drew; Nakash, Ora; Thomas, Cannon; Bradley, Rebekah
The relevance of attachment theory and research for practice has become increasingly clear. The authors describe a series of studies with 3 aims: (a) to validate measures of attachment for use by clinicians with adolescents and adults, (b) to examine the relation between attachment and personality pathology, and (c) to ascertain whether factor analysis can recover dimensions of attachment reflecting both interpersonal and narrative style. In 3 studies, experienced clinicians provided psychometric data using 1 of 4 attachment questionnaires (2 adolescent and 2 adult samples). Attachment dimensions predicted both personality pathology and developmental experiences in predictable ways. Factor analysis identified 4 dimensions that replicated across adolescent and adult samples on the basis of a combination of interpersonal and narrative indicators: secure, dismissing, preoccupied, and incoherent/disorganized.
Sheinbaum, Tamara; Bifulco, Antonia; Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus
Background Insecure attachment styles have received theoretical attention and some initial empirical support as mediators between childhood adverse experiences and psychotic phenomena; however, further specificity needs investigating. The present interview study aimed to examine (i) whether two forms of poor childhood care, namely parental antipathy and role reversal, were associated with subclinical positive and negative symptoms and schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorder (PD) traits, and (ii) whether such associations were mediated by specific insecure attachment styles. Method A total of 214 nonclinical young adults were interviewed for subclinical symptoms (Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States), schizophrenia-spectrum PDs (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders), poor childhood care (Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Interview), and attachment style (Attachment Style Interview). Participants also completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II and all the analyses were conducted partialling out the effects of depressive symptoms. Results Both parental antipathy and role reversal were associated with subclinical positive symptoms and with paranoid and schizotypal PD traits. Role reversal was also associated with subclinical negative symptoms. Angry-dismissive attachment mediated associations between antipathy and subclinical positive symptoms and both angry-dismissive and enmeshed attachment mediated associations of antipathy with paranoid and schizotypal PD traits. Enmeshed attachment mediated associations of role reversal with paranoid and schizotypal PD traits. Conclusions Attachment theory can inform lifespan models of how adverse developmental environments may increase the risk for psychosis. Insecure attachment provides a promising mechanism for understanding the development of schizophrenia-spectrum phenomenology and may offer a useful target for prophylactic intervention. PMID:26247601
Miga, Erin M.; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.; Manning, Nell
The relation of attachment states of mind and self reported attachment relationship styles to romantic partner aggression was examined in a community sample of 93 adolescents. Higher levels of insecure-preoccupied and insecure-dismissing states of mind, as assessed by the Adolescent Attachment Interview at age 14, were predictive, respectively, of perpetration and victimization of psychological aggression in romantic relationships four years later. Partners’ romantic attachment anxiety was linked to both psychological and physical aggression perpetration in romantic relationships. Results are interpreted as suggesting the value of assessing aggression in adolescent romantic relationships in the context of broader patterns of regulation of affect and behavior via the attachment system. PMID:20730640
Yue, Xiao D; Leung, Chun-Lok; Hiranandani, Neelam A
Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed that adult playfulness was positively correlated with affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor, and subjective happiness in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou samples. By its implication, highly playful Chinese students preferred using affiliative and self-enhancing humor to amuse themselves and others.
Cohen, Lisa J; Ardalan, Firouz; Tanis, Thachell; Halmi, Winter; Galynker, Igor; Von Wyl, Agnes; Hengartner, Michael P
This paper tests the hypothesis that the association between childhood maltreatment and adult personality dysfunction is at least partially attributable to insecure attachment, that is that attachment style mediates the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adult personality dysfunction. Associations between childhood trauma, as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), anxious and avoidant attachment in romantic relationships, as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R), and five personality domains, as measured by the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118), were examined in a sample of 72 psychiatric inpatients. The SIPP-118 domains included relational capacities, identity integration, self-control, responsibility, and social concordance. The direct effect of childhood trauma on all SIPP-118 domains was not significant after controlling for the indirect effect of attachment. In regression modeling, a significant indirect effect of childhood trauma via adult attachment style was found for SIPP-118 relational capacities, identity integration, self-control, and social concordance. Specifically, anxious attachment was a significant mediator of the effect of childhood trauma on self-control, identity integration, and relational domains. These results suggest that childhood trauma impacts a broad range of personality domains and does so in large part through the pathway of anxious romantic attachment style.
Smyth, Nina; Thorn, Lisa; Oskis, Andrea; Hucklebridge, Frank; Evans, Phil; Clow, Angela
Insecure attachment style is associated with poor health outcomes. A proposed pathway implicates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis), dysregulation of which is associated with a wide range of mental and physical ill-health. However, data on stress reactivity in relation to attachment style is contradictory. This relationship was examined using the novel Trier Social Stress Test for groups (TSST-G): a group-based acute psychosocial stressor. Each participant, in the presence of other group members, individually performed public speaking and mental arithmetic tasks. Seventy-eight healthy young females (20.2 ± 3.2 years), in groups of up to six participants completed demographic information and the Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ), and were then exposed to the TSST-G. Physiological stress reactivity was assessed using salivary cortisol concentrations, measured on seven occasions at 10-min intervals. Vulnerable attachment predicted greater cortisol reactivity independent of age, smoking status, menstrual phase and body mass index. Supplementary analysis indicated that insecure anxious attachment style (high scores on the insecurity and proximity-seeking sub-scales of the VASQ) showed greater cortisol reactivity than participants with secure attachment style. Avoidant attachment style (high scores for insecurity and low scores for proximity seeking) was not significantly different from the secure attachment style. Attachment style was not associated with the timing of the cortisol peak or post-stress recovery in cortisol concentrations. These findings in healthy young females indicate subtle underlying changes in HPA axis function in relation to attachment style and may be important for future mental health and well-being.
Isaac, Sherin K.
Introduced by Jonathan Bowlby in the early 1960s, attachment theory seeks to explain an individual's depth of bonding with others throughout one's life. Attachment styles can affect family life, life interactions, career choices, friendships, relationships, marriage, and parenting (Turner, 2005). Attachment theory is composed of four different…
Kharsati, Naphisabet; Bhola, Poornima
Context: Intentional self-directed acts of injury are the most common among adolescents and young adults. Developmental psychopathology theories that conceptualize pathways to self-injurious behaviors (SIBs) implicate insecure attachment representations and inadequate self-regulatory skills to cope with emotional distress. Aims: The study aimed to examine relationships between SIBs, attachment, and emotion regulation among college students. Materials and Methods: A total of 470 participants from undergraduate and postgraduate colleges completed the functional assessment of self-mutilation questionnaire, attachment style questionnaire, and the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. Results: Results indicated that 31.2% of the participants reported SIB in the past year, with the mean age of onset being 15.9 years. Moderate/severe forms of self-injury (e.g. cutting, burning) were reported by 19.8% of the sample. Self-injuring youth reported higher levels of anxious attachment, preoccupation with relationships and need for approval in relationships, and difficulties in all domains of emotion regulation. Logistic regression analysis identified preoccupation with relationships and impulse control difficulties as predictors of SIB. Conclusions: The findings have implications for comprehensive interventions for self-injuring youth. PMID:28163404
Edel, Marc-Andreas; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin
Research into attachment and emotion regulation has shown that children with ADHD are at risk of developing attachment disorders and emotion regulation disturbances, which in part may be due to the rearing style of their parents. No such data exists for adults with persistent ADHD. We hypothesized that current attachment style and emotion processing of adult patients with ADHD may be influenced by the presence of parental ADHD symptoms when the now adult patients were children, assuming that ADHD symptoms of parents have an impact on their parenting style. We examined recalled parental ADHD symptoms and rearing style as well as current attachment and emotion regulation abilities in a sample of 73 adults with ADHD using several self-rating instruments. Recalled prevalence of ADHD symptoms in the mother, and less so in the father, of adult patients with ADHD was significantly associated with partly adverse parental rearing styles, current attachment problems in romantic partnerships and emotion regulation disturbances compared with adult ADHD patients without possibly affected parent. ADHD symptoms in parents of children with ADHD may present a risk factor for attachment problems and poor emotion regulation when ADHD children are grown.
Romeo, Annunziata; Tesio, Valentina; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Castelli, Lorys
Chronic pain (CP) is a burdensome symptom. Different psychological models have been proposed to explain the role of psychological and social factors in developing and maintaining CP. Attachment, for example, is a psychological construct of possible relevance in CP. The first studies on the role of attachment in CP did not investigate the partner's psychological factors, thus neglecting the influence of the latter. The main aim of this mini-review was to examine the more recent literature investigating the relationship between CP and attachment style. In particular, whether or not more recent studies assessed the psychological variables of a patient's partner. The articles were selected from the Medline/PubMed database using the search terms "attachment" AND "pain"; "CP" AND "attachment style," which led to nine papers being identified. The results showed that, even though the key point was still the hypothesis that an insecure attachment style is associated with CP, in recent years researchers have focused on the possible psychological aspects mediating between attachment style and CP. In particular, worrying, coping strategies, catastrophizing and perceived spouse responses to pain behavior were taken into account. Only one study considered the role of the reciprocal influence of attachment style of both patient and partner, underlining the role of real significant others' responses to pain behaviors. In conclusion, the results of the present mini-review highlight how in recent years researchers have moved toward investigating those psychological aspects that could mediate the relationship between attachment and CP, while only partially evaluating the interpersonal perspective.
Schmidt, Steven D; Blank, Thomas O; Bellizzi, Keith M; Park, Crystal L
This cross-sectional study investigated attachment style, coping strategies, social support, and posttraumatic growth (PTG) in 54 cancer survivors. Secure attachment was significantly associated with active coping, positive reframing, and religion, and these were all associated with PTG. Insecure types of attachment and social support variables were unrelated to PTG. Regression analysis suggests that positive reframing and religion as coping strategies may mediate the relationship between secure attachment and PTG.
Previous research has revealed only modest concordance in attachment security between siblings during childhood and adolescence. The first goal of this dissertation was to estimate sibling concordance in adult attachment security and identify factors contributing to divergence. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was administered to young adult…
Peter, Burkhard; Vogel, Sarah E; Prade, Tanja; Geiger, Emilia; Mohl, John C; Piesbergen, Christoph
This article is an exploratory study investigating the relationship between hypnotizability, personality style, and attachment. Data were collected from 99 students by means of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A; Personality Styles and Disorders Inventory; and Relationship Scale Questionnaire. Results suggest that individual personality styles accounted for a significant amount of variance in hypnotizability in: (a) the whole sample, (b) the securely attached, and (c) the insecurely attached. High hypnotizables among both the whole sample and securely attached individuals shared the unselfish/self-sacrificing personality style as a main predictor of hypnotizability and displayed elevated scores for the charming/histrionic and the optimistic/rhapsodic personality style. Furthermore, two groups were identified among the high hypnotizables that differed mainly according to attachment style: one consists of securely attached, charming/histrionic, and optimistic/rhapsodic people, who are best described by socio-cognitive theories. The other is composed of insecurely attached intuitive/schizotypal people, who are better depicted by dissociation theories.
Hiebler-Ragger, Michaela; Falthansl-Scheinecker, Johanna; Birnhuber, Gerhard; Fink, Andreas; Unterrainer, Human Friedrich
Traditionally, in attachment theory, secure attachment has been linked to parameters of mental health, while insecure attachment has been associated with parameters of psychopathology. Furthermore, spirituality and attachment to God have been discussed as corresponding to, or compensating for, primary attachment experiences. Accordingly, they may contribute to mental health or to mental illness. In this cross-sectional observational study, we investigate attachment styles (Avoidant and Anxious Attachment; ECR-RD), spirituality (Religious and Existential Well-Being; MI-RSWB), and mood pathology (Anxiety, Depression, Somatization; BSI-18) in 481 (76% female) young adults (age range: 18–30 years) who had a Roman Catholic upbringing. In accordance with previous research, we found insecure attachment to be associated with low levels of spirituality. Furthermore, insecure attachment and low levels of spirituality were associated with higher levels of mood pathology. In hierarchical regression analyses, only Anxious Attachment positively predicted all three dimensions of mood pathology while Existential Well-Being–but not Religious Well-Being–was an additional negative predictor for Depression. Our results underline that spirituality can correspond to the attachment style, or may also compensate for insecure attachment. Higher Existential Well-Being–comprised of facets such as hope for a better future, forgiveness and the experience of sense and meaning–seems to have an especially corrective effect on mood pathology, independent of attachment styles. Our findings emphasize the vital role of existential well-being in young adults’ affective functioning, which might be considered in prevention and treatment. Further research in clinical surroundings is recommended. PMID:27336471
Grant-Marsney, Holly A.; Grotevant, Harold D.; Sayer, Aline G.
This study examined whether adolescents’ closeness to adoptive parents (APs) predicted attachment styles in close relationships outside their family during young adulthood. In a longitudinal study of domestic infant adoptions, closeness to adoptive mother and adoptive father was assessed in 156 adolescents (M = 15.7 years). Approximately nine years later (M = 25.0 years), closeness to parents was assessed again as well as attachment style in their close relationships. Multilevel modeling was used to predict attachment style in young adulthood from the average and discrepancy of closeness to adolescents’ adoptive mothers and fathers and the change over time in closeness to APs. Less avoidant attachment style was predicted by stronger closeness to both APs during adolescence. Increased closeness to APs over time was related to less anxiety in close relationships. Higher closeness over time to either AP was related to less avoidance and anxiety in close relationships. PMID:25859067
Aaronson, Cindy J; Bender, Donna S; Skodol, Andrew E; Gunderson, John G
The intense, unstable interpersonal relationships characteristic of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are thought to represent insecure attachment. The Reciprocal Attachment Questionnaire was used to compare the attachment styles of patients with BPD to the styles of patients with a contrasting personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). The results showed that patients with BPD were more likely to exhibit angry withdrawal and compulsive care-seeking attachment patterns. Patients with BPD also scored higher on the dimensions of lack of availability of the attachment figure, feared loss of the attachment figure, lack of use of the attachment figure, and separation protest. The findings may be relevant for understanding the core interpersonal psychopathology of BPD and for managing therapeutic relationships with these patients.
Dereli, Esra; Karakus, Ozlem
Introduction: Attachment organization across the lifespan and across generations, long-term predictions from attachment organization to later psychosocial functioning, and the possibility of altering attachment organization with intervention suggest that attachment theory may potentially shed valuable light on adult social development and deviant…
Brown, Jac; Trevethan, Robert
This study reports on a survey of 166 gay men in Sydney, Australia, that explores the links between internalized shame, internalized homophobia, and attachment style. These variables were linked to the age of coming out, family and peer acceptance of their sexuality, relationship status, and previous marriage. Findings suggest a strong relationship between shame, internalized homophobia, and anxious and avoidant attachment style. Shame was predicted by internalized homophobia and anxious and avoidant attachment style. A significant proportion of gay men reported that they were not easily accepted when they first came out. There was a significant relationship between coming out and internalized homophobia but not with shame and attachment style. Furthermore, men who had never come out to family and friends reported higher levels of internalized homophobia but not higher levels of shame and attachment style. Of particular significance was the connection between previous marriage and higher levels of shame and internalized homophobia. Finally, gay men who were not currently in a relationship reported higher levels of shame anxious and avoidant attachment style. These findings are related to therapeutic work with gay men who have previously been married and those who are concerned with their current single status.
Crowell, Judith A; Treboux, Dominique; Brockmeyer, Susan
The purpose of this study was to explore adult attachment as a means of understanding the intergenerational transmission of divorce, that is, the propensity for the children of divorce to end their own marriages. Participants included 157 couples assessed 3 months prior to their weddings and 6 years later. Participants completed the Adult Attachment Interview and questionnaires about their relationships, and were videotaped with their partners in a couple interaction task. Results indicated that, in this sample, adult children of divorce were not more likely to divorce within the first 6 years of marriage. However, parental divorce increased the likelihood of having an insecure adult attachment status. For women, age at the time of their parents' divorce was related to adult attachment status, and the influence on attachment representations may be more enduring. Among adult children of divorce, those who were classified as secure in their attachment representations were less likely to divorce in the early years of marriage than insecure participants.
Although both giftedness and secure attachment are associated with advanced language and good socioemotional adjustment, not all gifted children are well adjusted. This article explores the consequences of attachment style on gifted development and examines whether early trauma can be rectified. The dearth of research on giftedness and attachment…
Doyle, Anna Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy
Contributions of 3 dimensions of parenting (psychological control, warmth, and behavioural control), marital conflict, and attachment style (anxiety and avoidance) to adjustment from early to middle adolescence were assessed. Mediation of marital conflict effects by parenting, and of parenting effects by attachment were examined. Adolescents (n =…
Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 July – September 2012 55 adult attachment category was added by Bartholomew .13...year, 10.8 months), ranging from one month to 14 years. MEASURES Attachment Adult attachment was measured 2 ways: one with the Bartholomew and...as were reported by Scharfe and Bartholomew .36 Schmitt and colleagues9 validated the attachment questionnaire in 62 cultures suggesting that
ÖZER, Ürün; YILDIRIM, Ejder Akgün; ERKOÇ, Şahap Nurettin
Introduction The attachment theory aims to understand close relationships in adulthood based on the relationship of a child with the caregiver. Attachment styles are classified as secure, preoccupied, fearful and dismissing, which are the subtypes of insecure attachment style. Insecure attachment is suggested to be related to depression and suicide. In this study, the relationship of suicidal ideation and behavior to attachment style is investigated in patients diagnosed with major depression. Methods Sixty-two patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria were taken and divided into two groups, 31 patients with and 31 patients without a past suicide attempt. Sixty healthy volunteers matched with the patients for age, gender and education and comprised the control group. Sociodemographic and clinical data form, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR), Scale of Suicidal Ideation and Suicidal Behavior Scale were applied to the groups. Results In the patients with depression, ECR anxiety and avoidance scores were found to be higher compared with those in the control group. There were no differences in the anxiety and avoidance scores between the patients with and without suicide attempt. The rate of participants who showed secure attachment style in the control group was higher than that of those with depression. In the patients with fearful attachment style, the suicide attempt rate was found to be higher than the other groups. A positively significant relationship was detected between ECR anxiety score and scores of HDRS suicide item, Scale of Suicidal Ideation and Suicidal Behavior Scale. Conclusion Patients with depression were more anxious and more avoidant and showed more insecure attachment. In patients with depression with fearful attachment style, suicide attempts were more common.
Hamilton, Scott; Martin, Magy; Martin, Don
The purpose of this study was to examine if parishioners' relational attachment style influences their satisfaction with evangelical church membership. A sample of parishioners aged 18 and over completed the Relationship Questionnaire and the Congregation Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ), along with an accompanying demographic profile. The research design employed a one-way analysis of variance to determine if securely attached persons reported greater satisfaction with their evangelical church participation than those who reported preoccupied, dismissing, or fearful attachment. This study furthered existing research, suggesting that attachment style influences how people measure congregational satisfaction. In this study, securely attached individuals reported greater satisfaction, as measured by the CSQ, with their evangelical church membership than those who were not securely attached.
Prigerson, H G; Shear, M K; Bierhals, A J; Zonarich, D L; Reynolds, C F
The purpose of this study was to examine the ways in which childhood adversity, attachment and personality styles influenced the likelihood of having an anxiety disorder among aged caregivers for terminally ill spouses. We also sought to determine how childhood adversity and attachment/personality styles jointly influenced the likelihood of developing an anxiety disorder among aged caregivers. Data were derived from semistructured interviews with 50 spouses (aged 60 and above) of terminally ill patients. The Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA) record provided retrospective, behaviorally based information on childhood adversity. Measures of attachment and personality styles were obtained from self-report questionnaires, and the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-III-R (SCID) was used to determine diagnoses for anxiety disorders. Logistic regression models estimated the effects of childhood adversity, attachment/personality disturbances, and the interaction between the two on the likelihood of having an anxiety disorder. Results indicated that childhood adversity and paranoid, histrionic and self-defeating styles all directly increase the odds of having an anxiety disorder as an elderly spousal caregiver. In addition, childhood adversity in conjunction with borderline, antisocial and excessively dependent styles increased the likelihood of having an anxiety disorder. The results indicate the need to investigate further the interaction between childhood experiences and current attachment/personality styles in their effects on the development of anxiety disorders.
Kelley, Michelle L; Nair, Veena; Rawlings, Tanaya; Cash, Thomas F; Steer, Kate; Fals-Stewart, William
The present study examined general and romantic attachment and parenting students received in their families of origin among 401 college students who resided with an alcohol-abusing parent prior to age 16 years as compared to those who did not reside with alcohol-abusing parents. Participants completed the Children's Report of Parent Behavior Instrument [Schludermann, E. and Schludermann, S. (1970). Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory (CRPBI). Canada: University of Manitoba], Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised [Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., and Brennan, K. G. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365], Relationship Scale Questionnaire [Griffin, D. W. and Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445], and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test [Jones, J. W. (1983). The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test: Test manual. Chicago: Camelot]. Young adults who met criteria for ACOAs reported more anxious and avoidant behavior in romantic relationships and a more fearful style of general adult attachment. Parenting behavior in one's family of origin predicted anxious behavior in romantic relationships and a fearful overall style of attachment, whereas being an ACOA and parenting in one's family of origin predicted avoidant behavior in romantic relationships.
Rodriguez, Christina M
To explore cognitive and emotional factors that may exacerbate child-abuse potential among domestic violence victims, 80 participants reported on their depression, hopelessness, anxiety, and anger as well as their attachment style and attributional style. Increased emotional difficulties as well as insecure attachment styles were significantly positively correlated with child abuse potential, although depression and anxiety were the strongest predictors. Externalizing blame for the spousal abuse was not associated with abuse risk. Women residing in shelters demonstrated significantly greater abuse risk than those in transitional housing programs, suggesting that greater temporal proximity to the spousal abuse may in part account for the increased abuse potential. Depression and hopelessness, however, appeared particularly relevant to increased abuse risk in domestic violence victims in the transitional housing system. Implications of these findings for working with battered women in terms of their emotional functioning and attachment style are discussed.
Verbeke, Willem; Bagozzi, Richard P.; van den Berg, Wouter E.
Two classic strategic orientations have been found to pervade the behavior of modern salespersons: a sales orientation (SO) where salespersons use deception or guile to get customers to buy even if they do not need a product, and a customer orientation (CO) where salespersons first attempt to discover the customer's needs and adjust their product and selling approach to meet those needs. Study 1 replicates recent research and finds that the Taq A1 variant of the DRD2 gene is not related to either sales or CO, whereas the 7-repeat variant of the DRD4 gene is related to CO but not SO. Study 2 investigates gene × phenotype explanations of orientation of salespersons, drawing upon recent research in molecular genetics and biological/psychological attachment theory. The findings show that attachment style regulates the effects of DRD2 on CO, such that greater avoidant attachment styles lead to higher CO for persons with the A2/A2 variant but neither the A1/A2 nor A1/A1 variants. Likewise, attachment style regulates the effects of DRD4 on CO, such that greater avoidant attachment styles lead to higher CO for persons with the 7-repeat variant but not other variants. No effects were found on a SO, and secure and anxious attachment styles did not function as moderators. PMID:24550811
Ciechanowski, Paul S; Worley, Linda LM; Russo, Joan E; Katon, Wayne J
Background Patient-provider relationships in primary care are characterized by greater continuity and depth than in non-primary care specialties. We hypothesized that relationship styles of medical students based on attachment theory are associated with specialty choice factors and that such factors will mediate the association between relationship style and ultimately matching in a primary care specialty. Methods We determined the relationship styles, demographic characteristics and resident specialty match of 106 fourth-year medical students. We assessed the associations between 1) relationship style and specialty choice factors; 2) specialty choice factors and specialty match, and 3) relationship style and specialty match. We also conducted mediation analyses to determine if factors examined in a specialty choice questionnaire mediate the association between relationship style and ultimately matching in a primary care specialty. Results Prevalence of attachment styles was similar to that found in the general population and other medical school settings with 59% of students rating themselves as having a secure relationship style. Patient centeredness was directly associated, and career rewards inversely associated with matching in a primary care specialty. Students with a self-reliant relationship style were significantly more likely to match in a non-primary care specialty as compared to students with secure relationship style (OR = 5.3, 95% CI 1.8, 15.6). There was full mediation of the association between relationship style and specialty match by the specialty choice factor characterized by patient centeredness. Conclusion Assessing relationship styles based on attachment theory may be a potentially useful way to improve understanding and counsel medical students about specialty choice. PMID:16405723
Eryigit, Suna; Kerpelman, Jennifer
This paper reports on two studies with Turkish young adults that used the Turkish version of the Identity Processing Style Q-Sort (IPSQ). The IPSQ is based on Berzonsky's informational, normative, and diffused identity styles. Participants sort descriptors of the styles into columns ranging from most to least like them. Patterns in Turkish young…
River, Laura M; Borelli, Jessica L; Nelson-Coffey, S Katherine
Evidence has suggested that parental romantic attachment style and depressive and anxiety symptoms are related to experiences of caregiving (Creswell, Apetroaia, Murray, & Cooper, 2013; Jones, Cassidy, & Shaver, 2014; Lovejoy, Graczyk, O'Hare, & Neuman, 2000), but more research is necessary to clarify the nature of these relations, particularly in the context of attachment-salient events such as reunions. In a cross-sectional study of 150 parents of children ages 1 to 3 years, we assessed participants' attachment styles (self-reported anxiety and avoidance) and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Participants generated a narrative describing their most recent reunion with their child, which we coded for caregiving outcomes of negative emotion and secure base script content. Attachment style and depressive and anxiety symptoms separately predicted each caregiving outcome. Depressive and anxiety symptoms mediated the associations between attachment style and caregiving outcomes. These results suggest that parental attachment insecurity and depressive and anxiety symptoms contribute to negative emotion and reduced secure base script content. Further, depressive and anxiety symptomatology partially accounts for the relation between attachment insecurity and caregiving outcomes, suggesting that parental mental health is a critical point for intervention.
Tahmasebi, Siyamak; Mafakheri Bashmaq, Saman; Karimzadeh, Mansoureh; Teymouri, Robab; Amini, Mahdi; Vaghefi, Maryam Sadat M; Mazaheri, M Ali
If mothers work outside the home, some degree of mother-child separation will be experienced and mother-child attachment will be affected. In this study, regarding the attachment styles, sociobehavioral problems in first-grade children with experience of preschool and in those taught by their mothers at-home are compared. A casual-comparative method was used to compare children in the two groups. A total of 320 first-grade children participated in the study. The study measures included a separation anxiety test, an adaptive behavior scale, and a children's symptom inventory. Data were analyzed using multivariate statistics. Secure attachment in the group with experience of preschool was significantly higher than that in the at-home group. None of the variables, including parents' education and father's income, significantly affected attachment style. Neither father's education, father's income, or attachment significantly influenced adjustment. Father's education significantly influenced children's symptoms. Attachment style and hours of preschool attendance had no effect on Child Symptom Inventory scores. Associations among age at joining preschool, attachment style, and behavioral and adaptive problems in first-grade children were nonlinear and multivariate. By taking into account parents' awareness, sensitivity, and responsiveness, relative welfare, appropriate quality of child-care centers, and having fewer hours of preschool attendance, the risk factors for early parent-child separation and institutional care can be reduced.
Brown, Amy M; Whiteside, Stephen P
The present study extended the findings of Muris et al. [Muris, P., Meesters, C., Merckelbach, H., & Hulsenbeck, P. (2000). Worry in children is related to perceived parental rearing and attachment. Behavior Research and Therapy, 38, 487-497] regarding the relations between perceived parental rearing behaviors, self-reported attachment style, and worry in a community sample to a clinical sample of anxious children. Sixty-four children and adolescents, aged 7-18 years, with a primary anxiety disorder completed (a) the EMBU-C, a questionnaire measuring perceptions of parental rearing behaviors, (b) a single-item measure of attachment style, and (c) an index of worry severity. Findings revealed that child rated parental rearing behaviors, particularly parental rejection, were positively related to child worry. Self-reported attachment style was also related to worry, such that children who classified themselves as ambivalently attached reported higher levels of worry than did children who classified themselves as securely attached. Parenting style and attachment were found to make independent contributions to worry. The results are compared to those from Muris et al.'s community study, and implications for future research are discussed.
Tahmasebi, Siyamak; Mafakheri Bashmaq, Saman; Karimzadeh, Mansoureh; Teymouri, Robab; Amini, Mahdi; vaghefi, Maryam Sadat M; Mazaheri, M Ali
If mothers work outside the home, some degree of mother–child separation will be experienced and mother–child attachment will be affected. In this study, regarding the attachment styles, sociobehavioral problems in first-grade children with experience of preschool and in those taught by their mothers at-home are compared. A casual-comparative method was used to compare children in the two groups. A total of 320 first-grade children participated in the study. The study measures included a separation anxiety test, an adaptive behavior scale, and a children’s symptom inventory. Data were analyzed using multivariate statistics. Secure attachment in the group with experience of preschool was significantly higher than that in the at-home group. None of the variables, including parents’ education and father’s income, significantly affected attachment style. Neither father’s education, father’s income, or attachment significantly influenced adjustment. Father’s education significantly influenced children’s symptoms. Attachment style and hours of preschool attendance had no effect on Child Symptom Inventory scores. Associations among age at joining preschool, attachment style, and behavioral and adaptive problems in first-grade children were nonlinear and multivariate. By taking into account parents’ awareness, sensitivity, and responsiveness, relative welfare, appropriate quality of child-care centers, and having fewer hours of preschool attendance, the risk factors for early parent–child separation and institutional care can be reduced. PMID:27994490
Karantzas, Gery C; McCabe, Marita P; Karantzas, Kellie M; Pizzirani, Bengianni; Campbell, Hilary; Mullins, Ellie R
Few studies have examined how attachment insecurity (i.e., attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance) is associated with the more subtle and less severe forms of sexual coercion, such as verbal threats and partner manipulation. This is despite the fact that past research has indicated some of the relationship behaviors exhibited by insecurely attached individuals represent behaviors indicative of either the perpetration or victimization of less severe forms of sexual coercion. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the association between attachment style and less severe forms of sexual coercion. Our search, which included published journal papers, book chapters, and theses published between January 1970 and October 2014, yielded 1091 records. Examination of these records against exclusion criteria yielded 11 studies that focused on the associations between attachment orientation and perpetration of sexual coercion (n = 3), sexual coercion victimization (n = 3), or both perpetration and victimization (n = 5). Findings revealed that attachment anxiety appeared to be more consistently associated with being the victim of sexual coercion than attachment avoidance. In terms of perpetration, attachment avoidance was more consistently associated with sexual coercion. These findings were observed when examining the association between attachment dimensions and motives for sexual coercion. The findings also revealed gender to be a moderator for victimization. This review provides insights into how attachment style may influence the perpetration and victimization of sexual coercion.
Ross, Jennifer; Fuertes, Jairo
This study extends Engels et al.'s model of emotional adjustment to young adults and includes the constructs of interparental conflict and conflict resolution. Results indicate that parental attachment is better conceived as a two-factor construct of mother and father attachment and that although attachment to both mothers and fathers directly…
Sandberg, David A
This study examined whether K. Bartholomew's (1990) self-report dimensions of adult attachment (secure, dismissing, preoccupied, and fearful) mediate or moderate links from victimization/abuse to posttraumatic stress and dissociation. Participants were 199 college women with and without a history of childhood physical abuse, childhood sexual victimization, and adolescent/adult sexual victimization. Path analysis revealed no significant mediation effects for attachment; however, hierarchical multiple linear regression indicated that dismissing attachment moderated the link between victimization/abuse and posttraumatic stress (i.e., the relationship was strongest for women with high dismissing scores). All 4 attachment dimensions uniquely predicted posttraumatic stress, whereas only fearful attachment uniquely predicted dissociation.
San Cristobal, Pamela; Santelices, Maria P.; Miranda Fuenzalida, Daniel A.
There are many risk factors that make the transition to parenthood difficult, even in the best of circumstances. One such risk factor is the experience of parental childhood trauma, which has the potential to affect the parent/child relationship, both in terms of attachment style parental reflective functioning. This study aims to expand on the line of research concerned with the effects that trauma has once that child transitions into adulthood and into parenthood by looking at the role that the experience of trauma and adult attachment has in relation to parental reflective functioning. This study assessed mothers (N = 125) by using the CTQ (childhood experience of trauma), ECR (adult attachment), and the PRFQ (parental RF). Our study found that in the presence of physical neglect, insecure attachment had a particularly deleterious effect on maternal reflective functioning. This relationship was not as strong in the absence of physical neglect. PMID:28392776
Hecht, Diana Taylor; Baum, Steven K.
Investigated the relationship between loneliness and patterns of attachment in 47 college students. Results revealed a moderate to strong relationship between feeling lonely and early disrupted attachment, consistent with the notion that underlying attachment disorders may affect psychological development and social behavior. (JAC)
Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask; Bilenberg, Niels; Støving, René Klinky
Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels of excitement-seeking and achievement striving whereas scores on straightforwardness and compliance were lower than in the exercise control group. The addiction group reported more bodily pain and injuries. This study supports the hypothesis that exercise addiction is separate to an eating disorder, but shares some of the concerns of body and performance. It is driven by a striving for high goals and excitement which results in pain and injuries from overuse.
Anolli, Luigi; Balconi, Michela
Links between mental working models, attachment style, and linguistic strategies were analyzed in the present research, which focused on linguistic choices made by marital couples. Eight couples (16 Italian subjects, M age=49.1, SD=0.4) with drug-addicted sons and undergoing systemic therapeutic treatment were recruited. Conversational transcripts were coded by two judges. The research analyzed (a) the definition of a topics map derived from the Adult Attachment Interview, using the discursive level of the topic; (b) the systemic-functional analysis of the topics, through both the micro- and macro-unit levels and the lexical/semantic indexes of the discourse; (c) the within-couple convergence in terms of linguistic moves, and, more generally, of their cognitive strategies. Specifically, a hierarchical model of the topic organization was used to explain the recursivity of the thematic choices made by the participants. Secondly, the characterization of the topics in terms of their cognitive/emotive values (high/low "critical" topics) was explained, especially through some "linguistic markers" as disfluency or lexical/semantic indexes (i.e., linguistic variety and completeness indexes). Third, it was found that different and specific linguistic strategies were adopted by the couples in order to reiterate their internal working models. The high convergence of linguistic patterns inside the marital couple was discussed as representative of "dysfunctional" working models, from both the communicative and relational points of view.
Andrews, Nicole Emma; Meredith, Pamela Joy; Strong, Jenny
Attachment theory has been proposed as a framework for understanding the development of chronic pain, with evidence supporting the overrepresentation of insecure attachment styles in chronic pain populations and links between insecure attachment and factors known to impact one's ability to cope with pain. The present study sought to extend two earlier studies exploring the relationships between adult attachment and communication of an acute pain experience, in anticipation of providing insight into individual differences in vulnerability in development of chronic pain. It was hypothesised that: (a) fearful attachment would be associated with perceptions of the pain as less intense, and (b) anxious attachment would be associated with lower pain thresholds. A convenience sample of 82 healthy adults completed self-report measures of attachment, neuroticism, and negative affect prior to taking part in a coldpressor pain inducement task. Results demonstrated that fearful attachment was associated with lower levels of pain intensity throughout the coldpressor task. In addition, dismissing attachment was also associated with less intense pain, as well as increased coldpressor endurance (tolerance) in the presence of a known assessor. These associations were retained after controlling for measures of neuroticism, negative affect, age, and social desirability. The results of this study are consistent with the proposition that fearful and dismissing individuals tend to mask their underlying distress caused by the pain experience, potentially leading to difficulties coping with pain over time.
Nitzburg, George C; Farber, Barry A
Social networking sites (SNS) like Facebook can increase interpersonal connections but also intensify jealousy, envy, and surveillance behaviors. Attachment styles may help explain differences in experiencing SNS. This study investigated the role of attachment in influencing emerging adults' perceptions and feelings about SNS and their disclosures on SNS. Disorganized and anxious attachment predicted subjects' use of SNS to avoid more personal face-to-face communication, suggesting individuals with these tendencies use SNS to hold relationships at a psychological arm's distance. Anxious attachment also predicted feelings of intimacy when using SNS, perhaps reflecting online needs for comfort from others. A case narrative is presented to show how those with insecure attachment patterns may struggle to avoid interpersonal conflict when being continuously presented with ambiguous social information.
Shin, Sang-Eun; Kim, Nam-Seok; Jang, Eun-Young
The objective of this article is to fully understand Internet addiction, we aimed to compare the attachment styles and psychopathologies associated with problematic Internet use with those related to alcohol use. Through the participation of 141 male participants, the present study assessed problematic Internet and alcohol use, attachment, psychopathology, and demographic data via the use of self-rating questionnaires. We explored the significant predictors among avoidant and anxious attachments, depression, anxiety, and phobia to explain problematic Internet and alcohol use. The results showed that anxious attachment, depression, and anxiety could explain problematic alcohol use. In contrast, both anxious and avoidant attachment as well as depression and phobia explained problematic Internet use. Additionally, depression moderated the effects of avoidant attachment on problematic Internet use. We demonstrated that the interaction of attachment and psychopathology predicts problematic Internet use originating from an earlier stage of life than that associated with problematic alcohol use.
Molero, Fernando; Moriano, Juan A; Shaver, Phillip R
The aim of this research is to explore the extent to which employees establish attachment bonds with their leaders and the effects these bonds have on organizational outcomes. A sample of 225 participants reported on their supervisor's leadership style (transformational, transactional, or passive-avoidant), their attachment bonds to this supervisor (anxious or avoidant), and four organizational variables (subordinate's satisfaction, identification with the organization, extra effort, and perceived leadership effectiveness). Results, analyzed using a Partial Least Squares (PLS) approach, indicated that (a) transformational leadership was negatively associated with employees' insecure (anxious or avoidant) attachment to their leader; (b) passive/avoidant leadership was positively associated with subordinates' insecure attachment to their leader; (c) transactional leadership was positively associated with employee's anxious attachment but not with their avoidant attachment; (d) avoidant, but not anxious, attachment to the leader was negatively associated with employee satisfaction, perceived leader effectiveness, employee's extra effort, and organizational identification.
Romeo, Annunziata; Tesio, Valentina; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Castelli, Lorys
Chronic pain (CP) is a burdensome symptom. Different psychological models have been proposed to explain the role of psychological and social factors in developing and maintaining CP. Attachment, for example, is a psychological construct of possible relevance in CP. The first studies on the role of attachment in CP did not investigate the partner’s psychological factors, thus neglecting the influence of the latter. The main aim of this mini-review was to examine the more recent literature investigating the relationship between CP and attachment style. In particular, whether or not more recent studies assessed the psychological variables of a patient’s partner. The articles were selected from the Medline/PubMed database using the search terms “attachment” AND “pain”; “CP” AND “attachment style,” which led to nine papers being identified. The results showed that, even though the key point was still the hypothesis that an insecure attachment style is associated with CP, in recent years researchers have focused on the possible psychological aspects mediating between attachment style and CP. In particular, worrying, coping strategies, catastrophizing and perceived spouse responses to pain behavior were taken into account. Only one study considered the role of the reciprocal influence of attachment style of both patient and partner, underlining the role of real significant others’ responses to pain behaviors. In conclusion, the results of the present mini-review highlight how in recent years researchers have moved toward investigating those psychological aspects that could mediate the relationship between attachment and CP, while only partially evaluating the interpersonal perspective. PMID:28286493
Gore, Jonathan S; Rogers, Mary Jill
Past research has shown the importance of considering close others' interests when pursuing goals, but no research has examined potential moderators of this effect. Two studies examined how attachment style moderates the association between reasons for studying and academic outcomes. In Study 1, 119 participants reported their attachment style, the reasons why they study, and their study habits. As predicted, the association between relational reasons and studying was positive for secure individuals and negative for avoidant individuals. In Study 2, 195 participants reported their attachment style and reasons for studying, as well as their GPA and academic well-being. As predicted, the association between relational reasons and GPA was positive for secure individuals, whereas the associations between personal reasons for studying and academic well-being were positive for avoidant individuals. These results indicate the importance of considering individual differences as moderators of the association between goal motives and outcomes.
Lubetzky, Ofra; Gilat, Itzhak
The differences between adolescents born pre-term (n = 50) and a matched sample of adolescents born full-term were examined in relation to fear of personal death, attachment styles, and the relation between the two variables. Findings revealed that adolescents born pre-term showed a higher level of fear of personal death and a lower frequency of secure attachment style than adolescents born full-term. In addition, secure full-term born adolescents exhibited a lower level of fear of personal death compared with insecure adolescents; whereas among those born pre-term, attachment styles did not affect the level of fear of personal death. Results are discussed in terms of the long-term impact of premature birth on affect regulation in adolescence.
Deng, Yanhe; Yan, Mengge; Chen, Henry; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Zeng, Xianglong; Liu, Xiangping; Lye, Yue
Highly optimistic explanatory style (HOES) and highly pessimistic explanatory style (HPES) are two maladaptive ways to explain the world and may have roots in attachment insecurity. The current study aims to explore the effects of security priming - activating supportive representations of attachment security - on ameliorating these maladaptive explanatory styles. 57 participants with HOES and 57 participants with HPES were randomized into security priming and control conditions. Their scores of overall optimistic attribution were measured before and after priming. Security priming had a moderating effect: the security primed HOES group exhibited lower optimistic attribution, while the security primed HPES group evinced higher scores of optimistic attribution. Furthermore, the security primed HOES group attributed positive outcomes more externally, while the security primed HPES group attributed successful results more internally. The results support the application of security priming interventions on maladaptive explanatory styles. Its potential mechanism and directions for future study are also discussed.
Deng, Yanhe; Yan, Mengge; Chen, Henry; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Zeng, Xianglong; Liu, Xiangping; Lye, Yue
Highly optimistic explanatory style (HOES) and highly pessimistic explanatory style (HPES) are two maladaptive ways to explain the world and may have roots in attachment insecurity. The current study aims to explore the effects of security priming – activating supportive representations of attachment security – on ameliorating these maladaptive explanatory styles. 57 participants with HOES and 57 participants with HPES were randomized into security priming and control conditions. Their scores of overall optimistic attribution were measured before and after priming. Security priming had a moderating effect: the security primed HOES group exhibited lower optimistic attribution, while the security primed HPES group evinced higher scores of optimistic attribution. Furthermore, the security primed HOES group attributed positive outcomes more externally, while the security primed HPES group attributed successful results more internally. The results support the application of security priming interventions on maladaptive explanatory styles. Its potential mechanism and directions for future study are also discussed. PMID:27610092
Ma, Yuanxiao; Chen, Xu; Ran, Guangming; Ma, Haijing; Zhang, Xing; Liu, Guangzeng
There is broad evidence indicating that contextual information influence the processing of emotional stimuli. However, attachment theory suggests that attachment styles contribute to the ways in which people perceive emotional events. To shed light on whether the processing of body expressions during different emotional scenes is modulated by attachment styles, attachment-related electrophysiological differences were measured using event-related potentials. For avoidantly attached group, our results suggested that larger N170 amplitudes were educed by neutral bodies than angry bodies, which was found only in neutral scene. Moreover, significant differences were found in P300 amplitudes in response to angry bodies compared with neutral ones only during angry scene. However, securely and anxiously attached individuals were associated with larger P300 amplitudes in response to angry bodies versus neutral ones in both emotional scenes. The current study highlights the characteristics of cognitive processing of attachment styles on body expressions during different emotional scenes, with the variation of N170 and P300 amplitude in different emotional scenes as the best example. PMID:28303949
Nosko, Amanda; Tieu, Thanh-Thanh; Lawford, Heather; Pratt, Michael W
In this longitudinal study, a quantitative and qualitative examination of the associations among parent-child relations, adult attachment styles, and relationship quality and theme in romantic narratives was conducted. Parenting and adult attachment style were assessed through questionnaires, whereas overall quality of romantic relationships (regard and importance), intimacy, and romantic story theme were examined with a life story approach (McAdams, 1993). At ages 17 and 26 years, 100 participants completed a series of questionnaires and also, at age 26, told a story about a "relationship-defining moment" with a romantic partner. Parent-child relations when participants were 17 years old were related predictably to all three attachment styles. About 70% of the sample told romantic stories with a "true love" type of theme. Associations between parent-child relations when the child was 17 and this type of theme in the story told when the participant was 26 were mediated by a more secure (and a less avoidant) attachment style when the participant was 26, as predicted. The implications of these findings for links between attachment models and the life story are discussed.
Delvecchio, Elisa; Di Riso, Daniela; Lis, Adriana; Salcuni, Silvia
In recent years, attachment studies have gathered overwhelming evidence for a relation between insecure attachment and drug addiction. The existing literature predominantly addresses attachment styles and little attention is given to attachment-pattern-oriented studies. The current study explored how attachment, social adjustment, and well-being interact in 40 (28 men, 12 women; ages 20-52 years, M = 32.3, SD = 9.4) inpatients with drug addiction. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-report (SAS-SR), and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) were administered. Descriptive statistics were computed as well as differences between patterns of attachment in all variables were measured. None of the inpatients showed a secure attachment pattern: 7 scored as dismissing (18%), 5 preoccupied (12%) and 28 unresolved (70%). AAP stories were mainly connected with themes of danger, lack of protection, and helplessness. Inpatients classified as unresolved reported significantly higher maladjustment on the SAS-SR and GHQ-28 than those with resolved attachment patterns. Implications for clinicians and researchers are presented.
Eryigit, Suna; Kerpelman, Jennifer
This paper reports on two studies with Turkish young adults that used the Turkish version of the Identity Processing Style Q-Sort (IPSQ). The IPSQ is based on Berzonsky's informational, normative, and diffused identity styles. Participants sort descriptors of the styles into columns ranging from most to least like them. Patterns in Turkish young adults' identity styles were examined in the first study. The construct validity of the IPSQ-Turkish version based on associations between the IPSQ and measures of cultural orientation, self-definitions, self-concept clarity, self-esteem, and coping was tested in the second study. Results of the first study were consistent with the current literature in terms of a negative correlation between informational and diffuse/avoidant styles, and a relatively weaker relationship between informational and normative styles. Support for the construct validity of the Turkish version of the IPSQ was found in the second study, with results consistent with other IPSQ research.
Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Gazzotti, Simona; Albizzati, Alessandro
Early motherhood is considered a risk factor for an adequate relationship between mother and infant and for the subsequent development of the infant. The principal aim of the study is to analyze micro-analytically the effect of motherhood in adolescence on the quality of mother-infant interaction and emotion regulation at three months, considering at the same time the effect of maternal attachment on these variables. Participants were 30 adolescent mother-infant dyads compared to 30 adult mother-infant dyads. At infant 3 months, mother-infant interaction was video-recorded and coded with a modified version of the Infant Caregiver Engagement Phases and the Adult Attachment Interview was administered to the mother. Analysis showed that adolescent mothers (vs. adult mothers) spent more time in negative engagement and their infants spent less time in positive engagement and more time in negative engagement. Adolescent mothers are also less involved in play with their infants than adult mothers. Adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. adult mother-infant dyads) showed a greater duration of negative matches and spent less time in positive matches. Insecure adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. insecure adult mother-infant dyads) demonstrated less involvement in play with objects and spent less time in positive matches. To sum up adolescent mother-infant dyads adopt styles of emotion regulation and interaction with objects which are less adequate than those of dyads with adult mothers. Insecure maternal attachment in dyads with adolescent mothers (vs. adult mother infant dyads) is more influential as risk factor.
The aim of this study was to obtain better insight into the associations between attachment styles and employees' life satisfaction. This was achieved by examining the mediating roles of burnout and job satisfaction. Three hundred and thirty-nine employees, from a convenience community sample, participated in the current study. Results of the mediation model indicated that the associations between avoidance and life satisfaction were mediated by burnout and job satisfaction. However, the associations between attachment anxiety and life satisfaction were mediated by burnout but not by job satisfaction. Theoretical and practical implications for organizations and for attachment theory at work are discussed.
In this research, the contributions of styles of attachment, irrational beliefs and psychological symptoms to the prediction of cognitive flexibility were analysed. The sample consists of 436 students studying in various departments and faculties in Mersin University. The Cognitive Flexibility Scale, Relationships Scale, Irrational Beliefs Scale…
Finzi-Dottan, Ricky; Manor, Iris; Tyano, Sam
This study investigates the impact of temperament and parenting styles on attachment patterns in children with ADHD. The study included 65 children aged 7-15 and their parents. Children diagnosed as Combined or Predominantly Hyperactive Impulsive Type had significantly higher scores than those diagnosed as Predominantly Inattentive Type in anxious…
Di Trani, Michela; Renzi, Alessia; Vari, Chiara; Zavattini, Giulio Cesare; Solano, Luigi
The aim of the present study was to explore the dimensions of alexithymia and attachment styles in a group of disordered gamblers and to evaluate the relationship between alexithymia, attachment styles, and the severity of gambling disorder. Sixty disordered gamblers diagnosed according to the diagnostic and statistical manual-5 filled out the Kurzfragebogen zum Glücksspielverhalten, the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised. Approximately 70 % of the sample displayed 'intermediate' and 'severe' gambling severity levels on the Kurzfragebogen zum Glücksspielverhalten, and 77 % showed 'high' or 'borderline' levels of alexithymia on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (mean = 56.40). Regarding attachment styles, 70 % of the sample displayed an 'insecure' attachment, with a particularly high prevalence of the 'fearful' style (26.66 %). A linear regression analysis revealed that only the anxiety dimension of the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire predicted the severity of gambling. Our data appear to confirm that gambling disorder is characterised by emotional and relational dysregulation, and that pathological gambling behaviours may serve as external regulators of internal undifferentiated emotional states.
Cenkseven-Onder, Fulya; Kirdok, Oguzhan; Isik, Erkan
Introduction: The purpose of this research was to investigate career decision among high school students regarding to their parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful) and parental attachment levels. Method: With this purpose, 382 (200 females; 182 males) Turkish high school students aged 14-18 completed Career…
Walker, Tavi R.; Ehrenberg, Marion F.
Explored relationship between undergraduate students' perceptions of the reasons for their parents' divorces and their own feelings of security in romantic relationships. Found that 73% described insecure attachment styles. Perceived reasons for divorce involving expressions of overt anger, involvement of children, and extramarital affairs were…
Milan, Stephanie; Wortel, Sanne; Ramirez, Jennifer; Oshin, Linda
Parents and adolescents show only modest agreement when reporting on depressive symptoms. Drawing from attachment theory and previous research on informant discrepancies, we tested hypotheses about how adolescent attachment style may impact reporting agreement in a sample of 184 low-income mother-adolescent daughter dyads (adolescent mean age = 15.4 (SD = 1.05), maternal mean age = 41.4 (SD = 7.60); 58 % Latina, 26 % African-American/Black, 16 % as non-Hispanic, White). Mothers and adolescents reported on their own and each others' depressive symptoms and adolescents reported on attachment style. Using a moderated Actor Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) to calculate reporter bias and accuracy estimates, we tested whether attachment style moderated maternal and adolescent accuracy in theoretically consistent ways. Mothers and adolescents showed similar levels of accuracy and bias when reporting on each other. Consistent with hypotheses, we found that adolescents who reported high levels of preoccupation were less accurate when reporting on their mothers because they tended to observe symptoms that their mothers did not endorse. Conversely, mothers were the most accurate in these dyads, potentially because preoccupied adolescents tend to elevate displays of emotional distress. Reporting accuracy was not affected by a dismissive style. These results add to literature indicating that parent-child reporting discrepancies often reflect meaningful information about relationships, and highlight the need to consider different sources of reporting bias and accuracy in assessment and treatment.
Lau, Su Re; Beilby, Janet M.; Byrnes, Michelle L.; Hennessey, Neville W.
Parental input has been described as influential in early childhood stuttering yet the exact nature of this influence remains equivocal. The present study aimed to examine whether quantitative measures of parenting styles, parent and peer attachment patterns, and parent- and self-reported child behaviour could differentiate between school-aged…
Akbag, Muge; Imamoglu, Seval Erden
The purpose of this study is to examine the predictive power of attachment styles and gender on negative social emotions such as shame, guilt, and loneliness. The sample consists of 360 (183 female, 177 male) students attending to different departments of Marmara University. The Relationships Questionnaire, Guilt-Shame Scale, and UCLA Loneliness…
This study examined the predictive power of sex roles and attachment styles on loneliness. A total of 188 undergraduate students (114 female, and 74 male) from Gazi University completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory, UCLA Loneliness Scale, and Relationship Scales Questionnaire. Hierarchic Multiple Regression analysis and t-test were used to test…
Kokkinos, Constantinos M.
The current study examined the relationship between self-reported bullying, victimization, attachment styles and parenting in a nonclinical sample of 601 Greek preadolescents. Results showed that both bullying and victimization were related to perceived parenting (positively with rejection and negatively with emotional warmth). Insecurely attached…
Vignoli, Emmanuelle; Croity-Belz, Sandrine; Chapeland, Valerie; de Fillipis, Anne; Garcia, Martine
The aim of the study was to examine the role of parent-adolescent attachment, adolescent anxiety and parenting style in the career exploration process and in career satisfaction. Three kinds of anxiety were considered: general trait anxiety, fear of failing in one's career and fear of disappointing one's parents. The participants were 283 French…
Burleson, Yi-An Lo
Relationship quality has been determined to be a positive factor in the treatment of depression (Brown, 2000; Fagan, 2009). Although the importance of marriage has been broadly studied, little research has investigated correlations among relationship quality, depressive moods, and attachment styles. Although the prevalence of depressive moods has…
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not the avoidant attachment style indicates job adaptation of people with High Functional Autistic Spectrum Disorders (HFASD). HFASD are groups of developmental disorders characterized by impairment of social interaction and normal level of intelligence. Twenty-two people with HFASD…
Wei, Meifen; Mallinckrodt, Brent; Larson, Lisa M.; Zakalik, Robyn A.
Attachment working models of self and others may govern adults' preferences for internal vs. external sources of reassurance, which, if unavailable, lead to depressive symptoms. This study examined a model in which the link between depressive symptoms and attachment anxiety is mediated by (a) capacity for self-reinforcement and (b) need for…
Körük, Serdar; Öztürk, Abdülkadir; Kara, Ahmet
This study aims to investigate the relationships between perceived parenting, parental attachment styles and psychological symptoms among Turkish university students and it also aims to find out which perceived parenting and parental attachment styles predict psychological symptoms which were measured. This study is a quantitative research and…
Potik, David; Peles, Einat; Abramsohn, Yahli; Adelson, Miriam; Schreiber, Shaul
The relationship between vulnerable attachment style, psychopathology, drug abuse, and retention in treatment among patients in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) was examined by the Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ), the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), and drug abuse urine tests. After six years, retention in treatment and repeated urine test results were studied. Patients with vulnerable attachment style (a high VASQ score) had higher rates of drug abuse and higher psychopathology levels compared to patients with secure attachment style, especially on the interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, and paranoid ideation scales. Drug abstinence at baseline was related to retention in treatment and to higher rates of drug abstinence after six years in MMT, whereas a vulnerable attachment style could not predict drug abstinence and retention in treatment. Clinical Implications concerning treatment of drug abusing populations and methodological issues concerning the VASQ's subscales are also discussed.
Segal, Daniel L.; Needham, Tracy N.; Coolidge, Frederick L.
The attachment patterns of younger and older adults were studied using two-dimensional self-report measures of adult attachment. Community-dwelling younger (n = 144, M = 22.5 years, SD = 3.6) and older (n = 106, M = 68.6 years, SD = 8.3) adults completed the Measure of Attachment Qualities (MAQ; Carver, 1997) and the Relationship Style…
Daly, Katherine D.; Mallinckrodt, Brent
Interviews were conducted with therapists (N = 12) nominated by peers as especially effective in working with clients with adult interpersonal problems. Open-ended questions asked how these therapists would approach 2 adult clients described in brief vignettes as having high attachment avoidance or anxiety. A coding team used a grounded theory…
Domingo, M; Keppley, S; Chambliss, C
The present study examined attachment scores of adult children whose mothers were employed and how maternal employment varied as a function of children's personality styles. Children's extraversion was expected to moderate the effects of maternal employment on their attachment as adults. Responses of 106 undergraduates were obtained on 3 measures, the Eysenck Personality Inventory, the Adult Attachment Scale of Collins and Read, and the Adolescent Relationship Scales Questionnaire of Scharfe and Bartholomew. A median split was performed to divide subjects into those scoring High and Low on Extraversion. Subjects were then grouped on the basis of their mothers' employment status during the subjects' infancy (Full-time, Part-time, Non-employed). Subjects high on Extraversion seemed to show more adverse attachment consequences in adulthood following full-time maternal employment during infancy. Adults who scored high on extraversion may have been more comfortable with continual maternal presence during infancy, while those more introverted as adults may have adapted better to the periods of separation associated with infant day care.
Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Pittman, Joe F.; Cadely, Hans Saint-Eloi; Tuggle, Felicia J.; Harrell-Levy, Marinda K.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca M.
Integration of adult attachment and psychosocial development theories suggests that adolescence is a time when capacities for romantic intimacy and identity formation are co-evolving. The current study addressed direct, indirect and moderated associations among identity and romantic attachment constructs with a diverse sample of 2178 middle…
Martins, Teresa C; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Moreira, Helena
Although it is widely recognized that adult attachment is associated with romantic relationship quality, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the mediating role of external and internal shame on the association between attachment and dyadic adjustment. A battery of self-report measures was completed by 228 Portuguese participants and a serial multiple mediation model was tested. Data showed that, in the population under study, attachment dimensions were associated with worse dyadic adjustment through high external and internal shame. Internal shame alone also mediated the association between attachment avoidance and dyadic adjustment. This study identifies a new putative mechanism linking adult attachment and intimate relationship functioning that may be targeted in couples therapy to promote a better dyadic adjustment and relationship functioning.
Behrens, Kazuko Y; Haltigan, John D; Bahm, Naomi I Gribneau
This study investigated the intergenerational transmission of attachment, utilizing the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP), and the Maternal Behavioral Q-Set (MBQS). We revisited fundamental questions in attachment theory and research by examining: (1) the level of intergenerational agreement between maternal attachment representations and infant attachment security, and (2) whether maternal sensitivity serves as an intergenerational mediator between adult and infant attachment security. Significant categorical matches between the AAI and the SSP as well as mean differences for MBQS scores between adult attachment secure-insecure groups were found. Consistent with earlier intergenerational research, maternal sensitivity only partially mediated the AAI-SSP link, indicating the transmission gap remains. Consistent with recent mediation studies, using more contemporary analytical techniques, it was confirmed that maternal sensitivity did mediate the direct pathway between AAI security and SSP security. Thus, the transmission gap appears somewhat different depending on the statistical method used to measure mediation. Post hoc analyses considered mothers' childhood experiences of separation/divorce and this helped make sense of intergenerational mismatches.
Alexander, Pamela C.; Anderson, Catherine L.; Brand, Bethany; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Grelling, Barbara Z.; Kretz, Lisa
Ninety-two adult female incest survivors were interviewed and completed measures of current functioning. Hierarchical regression analyses suggested that adult attachment behavior was significantly associated with personality structure, depression, and distress; and abuse severity was associated with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and…
Wiegand-Grefe, Silke; Bomba, Franziska; Tönnies, Sven; Bullinger, Monika; Plass, Angela
Do Attachment Styles of Mentally Ill Parents Impact on the Health-related Quality of Life of their Children? Parents with a mental disorder often display a problematic attachment style which may impact on their children's health related quality of life (HrQoL). The current study cross-sectionally examines attachment styles (BEPE) in mentally ill parents with underage children (n = 62) and the effect of attachment on their children's HrQoL (KINDL-R). Results show that secure attachment is less represented in parents with a mental health condition than in a healthy reference group. Within the clinical sample, children of mentally ill parents with a secure attachment style exhibit a higher HrQoL than children of mentally ill parents with ambivalent or avoidant attachment styles. These findings indicate not only that problematic attachment styles frequently occur in families with a mentally ill parent, but also suggest that this negatively affects the children's HrQoL. Appropriate interventions should include attachment oriented concepts.
Appel, Johanna Elisabeth; Ift, Franziska; Kißler, Hermann; Kloos, Christof; Lehmann, Thomas; Strauß, Bernhard; Wick, Katharina
Background: Bariatric surgery can lower body weight and comorbidities. Different factors might influence the outcome of this treatment. This pilot study examines whether patients' attachment style can influence surgical outcome. Methods: The sample consisted of 32 patients (f=24; m=8; BMI preoperative=47,8 kg/m(2)±5,2; age=53±9,84) who underwent a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. The following variables were assessed pre- and postoperatively via questionnaires: quality of life (BAROS), self esteem (SES), depression, anxiety, psychological distress (SCL-90R), feelings of hunger, cognitive control, irritated eating behaviour (FEV) and weight related variables (BMI, EWL%, EBL%, TBL). Attachment style was determined postoperatively using the BPQE. Results: None of the participating patients suffered from a binge eating disorder. There was no significant difference of the BMI at any time between the 12 securely attached (SA) patients and the 19 insecurely attachted (IA) patients. Compared to the SA patients IA patients preoperatively showed lower outcomes in variables concerning eating behaviour and mental health. Comparing the 2 groups postoperatively the IA patients achieved lower levels in variables concerning mental health than SA patients and did not reach the preoperative values of the SA patients. Both groups benefited from surgery related to weight loss, mental health and eating behaviour. There was no difference found in the development from pre- to postoperative between SA and IA patients. Discussion & Conclusion: Patients profit by a bariatric intervention independent of their attachment style. By evaluating the attachment style, it could be possible to individually optimize pre- and postoperative patients support in order to gain more effective surgery results. Follow up studies extended to multi-site assessment are required.
Gander, Manuela; George, Carol; Pokorny, Dan; Buchheim, Anna
The contribution of attachment to human development and clinical risk is well established for children and adults, yet there is relatively limited knowledge about attachment in adolescence due to the poor availability of construct valid measures. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) is a reliable and valid instrument to assess adult attachment status. This study examines for the first time the discriminant validity of the AAP in adolescents. In our sample of 79 teenagers between 15 and 18 years, 42 % were classified as secure, 34 % as insecure-dismissing, 13 % as insecure-preoccupied and 11 % as unresolved. The results demonstrated discriminant validity for using the AAP in that age group, with no associations between attachment classifications and verbal intelligence, social desirability, story length or sociodemographic variables. These results poise the AAP to be used in clinical intervention and large-scale research investigating normative and atypical developmental correlates and sequelae of attachment, including psychopathology in adolescence.
Drabek, Marianne M.; Paloyelis, Yannis; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini
Affective touch and cutaneous pain are two sub-modalities of interoception with contrasting affective qualities (pleasantness/unpleasantness) and social meanings (care/harm), yet their direct relationship has not been investigated. In 50 women, taking into account individual attachment styles, we assessed the role of affective touch and particularly the contribution of the C tactile (CT) system in subjective and electrophysiological responses to noxious skin stimulation, namely N1 and N2-P2 laser-evoked potentials. When pleasant, slow (versus fast) velocity touch was administered to the (non-CT-containing) palm of the hand, higher attachment anxiety predicted increased subjective pain ratings, in the same direction as changes in N2 amplitude. By contrast, when pleasant touch was administered to CT-containing skin of the arm, higher attachment anxiety predicted attenuated N1 and N2 amplitudes. Higher attachment avoidance predicted opposite results. Thus, CT-based affective touch can modulate pain in early and late processing stages (N1 and N2 components), with the direction of effects depending on attachment style. Affective touch not involving the CT system seems to affect predominately the conscious perception of pain, possibly reflecting socio-cognitive factors further up the neurocognitive hierarchy. Affective touch may thus convey information about available social resources and gate pain responses depending on individual expectations of social support. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Interoception beyond homeostasis: affect, cognition and mental health’. PMID:28080967
Mucowski, Richard; Hayden, Robert R.
When children are raised in an environment where alcoholism is prominent, certain dysfunctional responses are learned as a way to cope with the challenge of that environment. This study was conducted to examine the learning styles of adult children of alcoholics. Subjects were college freshmen and self-identified adult children of alcoholics…
Karbalaei Sabagh, Ali; Khademi, Mojgan; Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Razjooyan, Katayoon; Arabgol, Fariba
The aim of the present study was to compare the parenting styles in parents with and without adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who had children with ADHD. It was a case-control study with convenience sampling strategy. Participants were recruited from the parents of previously diagnosed children with ADHD referred to Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran/ Iran. Ninety parents with adult ADHD and 120 normal parents were chosen by Conner's Adult ADHD Screening Scale (CAARS) and psychiatrist interview. Using Baumrind Parenting Styles Questionnaire and Arnold Parenting Scale, parenting styles were assessed in both the groups. Results from independent samples t-test indicated that Authoritarian parenting style (F = 0.576, p 0.022) and Over reacting style (F = 7.976, p 0.045) were significantly higher in cases. On the other hand, controls were using Permissive style (F = 0.131, p 0.044) more than cases. The results are consistent with prior studies; these findings can improve the content of parent training for children with ADHD, who have adult ADHD themselves.
Compares stereotypes with realities of the effect of Chinese culture on learning styles. Reviews literature on effective adult learning. Discusses learning style preferences of Hong Kong Chinese adults, teacher expectations, and new approaches to adult learning. (Contains 68 references.) (SK)
Holman, Thomas B.; Galbraith, Richard C.; Timmons, Nicole Mead; Steed, April; Tobler, Samuel B.
This study tested hypotheses based on the theoretical idea that threats to parental availability would have a direct effect on later adult attachment insecurity and that this relationship would be partially, but not fully, mediated by threats to the availability of a romantic partner. Participants were 1,063 individuals in a married or unmarried…
Jones, Jason D; Cassidy, Jude
The secure base construct represents one of attachment theory's most important contributions to our understanding of parent-child relationships and child development. The present study represents the first examination of how parents' self-reported attachment styles relate to parental secure base provision and adolescent (mean age = 16.6 years, SE = .59) secure base use during an observed parent-adolescent interaction. Further, the present study is the first to examine how fathers', as well as mothers', attachment styles relate to observed behavior in a parent-child interaction. At the bivariate level, maternal avoidance, but not anxiety, was negatively associated with observed adolescent secure base use. In addition, path analysis revealed that maternal avoidance was indirectly related to less adolescent secure base use through mothers' self-reported hostile behavior toward their adolescents and through adolescents' less positive perceptions of their mothers. Further, paternal anxiety, but not avoidance, was indirectly related to less adolescent secure base use through fathers' self-reported hostile behavior toward their adolescents. No significant findings emerged in relation to parental secure base provision. We discuss these results in the context of attachment theory and suggest directions for future research.
Dodd, Zane; Warren, Ann Marie; Riggs, Shelley; Clark, Mike
Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) can cause psychological consequences that negatively affect quality of life. It is increasingly recognized that factors such as resilience and social support may produce a buffering effect and are associated with improved health outcomes. However the influence of adult attachment style on an individual’s ability to utilize social support after SCI has not been examined. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between adult romantic attachment perceived social support depression and resilience in individuals with SCI. In addition we evaluated potential mediating effects of social support and adult attachment on resilience and depression. Methods: Participants included 106 adults with SCI undergoing inpatient rehabilitation. Individuals completed measures of adult attachment (avoidance and anxiety) social support resilience and depression. Path analysis was performed to assess for presence of mediation effects. Results: When accounting for the smaller sample size support was found for the model (comparative fit index = .927 chi square = 7.86 P = .01 β = -0.25 standard error [SE] = -2.93 P < .05). The mediating effect of social support on the association between attachment avoidance and resilience was the only hypothesized mediating effect found to be significant (β = -0.25 SE = -2.93 P < .05). Conclusion: Results suggest that individuals with SCI with higher levels of attachment avoidance have lower perceived social support which relates to lower perceived resilience. Assessing attachment patterns during inpatient rehabilitation may allow therapists to intervene to provide greater support. PMID:26364285
Ináncsi, Tamás; Láng, András; Bereczkei, Tamás
Up to the present, the relationship between Machiavellianism and adult attachment has remained a question to be answered in the psychological literature. That is why this study focused on the relationship between Machiavellianism and attachment towards significant others in general interpersonal relationships and in intimate-close relationships. Two attachment tests (Relationship Questionnaire and long-form of Experiences in Close Relationship) and the Mach-IV test were conducted on a sample consisting of 185 subjects. Results have revealed that Machiavellian subjects show a dismissing-avoidant attachment style in their general interpersonal relationships, while avoidance is further accompanied by some characteristics of attachment anxiety in their intimate-close relationships. Our findings further refine the relationship between Machiavellianism and dismissing-avoidant attachment. Machiavellian individuals not only have a negative representation of significant others, but they also tend to seek symbiotic closeness in order to exploit their partners. This ambitendency in distance regulation might be particularly important in understanding the vulnerability of Machiavellian individuals. PMID:27247647
Wichmann, Theresia; Buchheim, Anna; Menning, Hans; Schenk, Ingmar; George, Carol; Pokorny, Dan
In the last few decades, there has been an increase of experimental research on automatic unconscious processes concerning the evaluation of the self and others. Previous research investigated implicit aspects of romantic attachment using self-report measures as explicit instruments for assessing attachment style. There is a lack of experimental procedures feasible for neurobiological settings. We developed a reaction time (RT) experiment using a narrative attachment measure with an implicit nature and were interested to capture automatic processes, when the individuals' attachment system is activated. We aimed to combine attachment methodology with knowledge from implicit measures by using a decision RT paradigm. This should serve as a means to capture implicit aspects of attachment. This experiment evaluated participants' response to prototypic attachment sentences in association with their own attachment classification, measured with the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP). First the AAP was administered as the standardized interview procedure to 30 healthy participants, which were classified into a secure or insecure group. In the following experimental session, both experimenter and participants were blind with respect to classifications. One hundred twenty eight prototypically secure or insecure sentences related to the eight pictures of the AAP were presented to the participants. Their response and RTs were recorded. Based on the response (accept, reject) a continuous security scale was defined. Both the AAP classification and security scale were related to the RTs. Differentiated study hypotheses were confirmed for insecure sentences, which were accepted faster by participants from the insecure attachment group (or with lower security scale), and rejected faster by participants from secure attachment group (or with higher security scale). The elaborating unconscious processes were more activated by insecure sentences with potential attachment
Wichmann, Theresia; Buchheim, Anna; Menning, Hans; Schenk, Ingmar; George, Carol; Pokorny, Dan
In the last few decades, there has been an increase of experimental research on automatic unconscious processes concerning the evaluation of the self and others. Previous research investigated implicit aspects of romantic attachment using self-report measures as explicit instruments for assessing attachment style. There is a lack of experimental procedures feasible for neurobiological settings. We developed a reaction time (RT) experiment using a narrative attachment measure with an implicit nature and were interested to capture automatic processes, when the individuals’ attachment system is activated. We aimed to combine attachment methodology with knowledge from implicit measures by using a decision RT paradigm. This should serve as a means to capture implicit aspects of attachment. This experiment evaluated participants’ response to prototypic attachment sentences in association with their own attachment classification, measured with the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP). First the AAP was administered as the standardized interview procedure to 30 healthy participants, which were classified into a secure or insecure group. In the following experimental session, both experimenter and participants were blind with respect to classifications. One hundred twenty eight prototypically secure or insecure sentences related to the eight pictures of the AAP were presented to the participants. Their response and RTs were recorded. Based on the response (accept, reject) a continuous security scale was defined. Both the AAP classification and security scale were related to the RTs. Differentiated study hypotheses were confirmed for insecure sentences, which were accepted faster by participants from the insecure attachment group (or with lower security scale), and rejected faster by participants from secure attachment group (or with higher security scale). The elaborating unconscious processes were more activated by insecure sentences with potential
Leith, Karen Pezza
Malcolm Knowles, in his theory of adult learning (1972, revised 1980), presents adults as motivated, self-directed learners. Basically, once a person starts seeing himself or herself as an adult, he or she has an expectation of being independent in decision-making, valuing personal experience, and desiring respect. Courses, curriculum, and…
Barone, Lavinia; Guiducci, Valentina
Mental representations of attachment in a sample of adults with Eating Disorders (ED) were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Sixty subjects participated in the study: 30 non-clinical and 30 clinical. The results obtained showed a specific distribution of attachment patterns in the clinical sample: 10% Free/Autonomous (F), 47% Insecure-Dismissing (Ds), 17% Insecure-Entangled/Preoccupied (E) and about 26% disorganized (CC/U). The two samples differed in their attachment pattern distribution and were significantly different on some coding system scales. Further information was obtained by analyzing differences between the three ED subtypes considered (i.e. Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder) and by investigating the differential role of the two parental figures in the definition of attachment representations. Results showed potential benefits in using the AAI coding system scales in addition to the main classifications in order to understand better the developmental issues involved in these disorders. Implications for developmental research and clinical nosology are discussed.
Minnis, Helen; Fleming, Gail; Cooper, Sally-Ann
Background: Studies with children suggest that reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is associated with pathogenic early care. Little is known about RAD in adults with intellectual disabilities, many of whom experience adversity and abuse in early life. We investigated whether RAD symptoms occur in this population, and explored whether hypothesized…
Scott, Lori N; Levy, Kenneth N; Pincus, Aaron L
Previous studies have demonstrated that insecure attachment patterns and a trait disposition toward negative affect and impulsivity are both associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD) features. According to attachment theory, insecure attachment patterns impart greater risk for the maladaptive personality traits underlying BPD. Hence, insecure attachment might be indirectly related to BPD through its association with these traits. The current cross-sectional study used structural equation modeling to compare two competing models of the relationship between adult attachment patterns, trait negative affect and impulsivity, and BPD features in a large nonclinical sample of young adults: (M1) attachment anxiety and avoidance are positively related to trait negative affect and impulsivity, which in turn, are directly associated with BPD features; and (M2) trait negative affect and impulsivity are positively related to attachment anxiety and avoidance, which in turn, are directly associated with BPD features. Consistent with attachment theory, M1 provided a better fit to the data than M2. However, only attachment anxiety, and not attachment avoidance, was significantly associated with negative affect and impulsivity. The results favored a model in which the relationship between adult attachment anxiety and BPD features is fully mediated by trait negative affect and impulsivity.
Shapiro, Deborah L.; Levendosky, Alytia A.
A study of 80 adolescent females found that attachment style mediates the effects of child sexual abuse (CSA) and child abuse and neglect on coping and psychological distress. The indirect effects of CSA and other abuse through attachment accounted for most of the effects on coping and psychological distress. (Author/CR)
Cassibba, Rosalinda; Granqvist, Pehr; Costantini, Alessandro; Gatto, Sergio
Based on the idea that believers' perceived relationships with God develop from their attachment-related experiences with primary caregivers, the authors explored the quality of such experiences and their representations among individuals who differed in likelihood of experiencing a principal attachment to God. Using the Adult Attachment Interview…
Social networking sites (SNSs) can be beneficial tools for users to gain social capital. Although social capital consists of emotional and informational resources accumulated through interactions with strong or weak social network ties, the existing literature largely ignores attachment style in this context. This study employed attachment theory to explore individuals' attachment orientations toward Facebook usage and toward online and offline social capital. A university student sample (study 1) and a representative national sample (study 2) showed consistent results. Secure attachment was positively associated with online bonding and bridging capital and offline bridging capital. Additionally, secure attachment had an indirect effect on all capital through Facebook time. Avoidant attachment was negatively associated with online bonding capital. Anxious-ambivalent attachment had a direct association with online bonding capital and an indirect effect on all capital through Facebook. Interaction frequency with good friends on Facebook positively predicted all online and offline capital, whereas interaction frequency with average friends on Facebook positively predicted online bridging capital. Interaction frequency with acquaintances on Facebook was negatively associated with offline bonding capital. The study concludes that attachment style is a significant factor in guiding social orientation toward Facebook connections with different ties and influences online social capital. The study extends attachment theory among university students to a national sample to provide more generalizable evidence for the current literature. Additionally, this study extends attachment theory to the SNS setting with a nuanced examination of types of Facebook friends after controlling extraversion. Implications for future research are discussed.
Hadden, Benjamin W; Smith, C Veronica; Webster, Gregory D
Although research has examined associations between attachment dimensions and relationship outcomes, theory has ignored how these associations change over time in adult romantic relationships. We proposed the Temporal Adult Romantic Attachment (TARA) model, which predicts that the negative associations between anxious and avoidant attachment on one hand and relationship satisfaction and commitment on the other will be more negative as relationship durations increase. Meta-analyses largely confirmed that negative associations between both insecure attachment dimensions and both relationship outcomes were more negative among longer relationship durations in cross-sectional samples. We also explored gender differences in these associations. The present review not only integrates the literature on adult attachment and romantic relationship satisfaction/commitment but also highlights the importance of relationship duration as a key moderator of the associations among these variables. We discuss the broad implications of these effects and our meta-analytic findings for the TARA model, attachment theory, and romantic relationships.
Kenny, Maureen E.; Sirin, Selcuk R.
The characteristics of parental attachment were assessed for a sample of 81 emerging adults (ages 22-28 years) and their mothers. Emerging adults' reports of self-worth were found to mediate the relationship between their reports of parental attachment and depressive symptoms. The emerging adults' unique perspectives of the attachment relationship…
García-Ruiz, Marta; Rodrigo, María José; Hernández-Cabrera, Juan A; Máiquez, María Luisa
This study examined the contribution to parent-adolescent conflict resolution of parental adult attachment styles and attitudes toward adolescent separation. Questionnaires were completed by 295 couples with early to late adolescent children. Structural equation models were used to test self and partner influences on conflict resolution for three attachment orientations: confidence (model A), anxiety (model B) and avoidance (model C). Model A showed self influences between parents' confidence orientation and negotiation and also via positive attitudes towards separation. Also, the fathers' use of negotiation was facilitated by the mothers' confidence orientation and vice versa, indicating partner influences as well. Model B showed self influences between parents' anxiety orientation and the use of dominance and withdrawal and also via negative attitudes towards separation. Model C showed self influences between parents' avoidance orientation and dominance and withdrawal, and a partner influence between fathers' avoidance and mothers' use of dominance. The results indicated that the parents' adult attachment system and the parenting system were related in the area of conflict resolution, and that self influences were stronger than partner influences.
Picken, Alicia L; Berry, Katherine; Tarrier, Nicholas; Barrowclough, Christine
There is a high incidence of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in people with a diagnosis of psychosis. Sequelae of trauma may affect the ability to engage in both attachment and therapeutic relationships. This study investigated associations between trauma histories, PTSD, attachment styles, and working alliance in a sample of 110 individuals with psychosis and substance misuse. Anxious attachment was associated with number of interpersonal traumas and PTSD reported, but there were no associations between trauma and alliance. There were discrepancies in number of traumatic events reported by care coordinators and patients. The findings of this study highlight the potential use of attachment theory in working with trauma and PTSD in psychosis.
Fossati, Andrea; Krueger, Robert F; Markon, Kristian E; Borroni, Serena; Maffei, Cesare; Somma, Antonella
To assess how the maladaptive personality domains and facets that were included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Alternative Model of Personality Disorders relate to adult attachment styles, 480 Italian nonclinical adults were administered the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) and the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ). To evaluate the uniqueness of the associations between the PID-5 scales and the ASQ scales, the participants were also administered the Big Five Inventory (BFI). Multiple regression analyses showed that the ASQ scales significantly predicted both PID-5 domain scales and BFI scales; however, the relationships were different both qualitatively and quantitatively. With the exception of the PID-5 risk taking scale (adjusted R(2) = 0.02), all other PID-5 trait scales were significantly predicted by the ASQ scales, median adjusted R(2) value = 0.25, all ps < 0.001. Our findings suggest that the maladaptive personality domains and traits listed in the DSM-5 Alternative Model of Personality Disorders show meaningful associations with adult attachment styles.
Fagundes, Christopher P.; Jaremka, Lisa M.; Malarkey, William B.; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.
Objective Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor among women in the industrialized world. The vast majority of these tumors can now be successfully treated. A subset of breast cancer survivors report quality of life (QOL) difficulties well after treatment is completed. The current study examined how individual differences in attachment style and self-regulatory capacity (as indexed by RSA) were associated quality of life among post-treatment breast cancer survivors. Methods Women who had completed treatment for stage 0-IIIA breast cancer within the past two years participated in the study (N = 96). RSA was assessed using Electrocardiography (ECG) data that was continuously measured non-invasively for 10 minutes. Attachment orientation was measured using a modified version of the Experiences in Close relationships Scale, and Overall QOL by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast scale. Results Breast cancer survivors with more attachment anxiety reported poorer QOL than those with less attachment anxiety. Women who were more avoidantly attached also reported poorer QOL compared with those who were less avoidantly attached. Furthermore, attachment avoidance interacted with RSA to predict QOL such that those with higher attachment avoidance were only vulnerable to poorer QOL if they also had lower self-regulatory capacity, as indexed by lower RSA. Conclusion A better understanding of how attachment style and RSA contribute to breast cancer survivor QOL will help identify people at risk for QOL problems after treatment completion. PMID:24532423
Dang, Silvain S; Gorzalka, Boris B
Introduction Past studies have shown an association between low sexual functioning and engaging in sexually coercive behaviors among men. The mechanism of this relationship is not well understood. Moreover, most studies in this area have been done in incarcerated sex offenders. Aims The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of potential distal predictors of sexual coercion, including insecure attachment style and dysfunctional sexual beliefs, in mediating the relationship between sexual functioning and sexual coercion. The study also seeks to extend past findings to a novel non-forensic population. Methods Male university students (N = 367) anonymously completed online questionnaires. Main Outcome Measures Participants completed the Sexual Experiences Survey, Improved Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale, Hostility Towards Women Scale, Likelihood of Rape Item, Experiences in Close Relationships Scale, Dysfunctional Sexual Beliefs Scale, and Brief Sexual Functioning Questionnaire. Results Sexual functioning was not significantly associated with sexually coercive behaviors in our sample (r = 0.08, P = 0.247), though a significant correlation between sexual functioning and rape myth acceptance was found (r = 0.18, P = 0.007). Path analysis of all variables showed that the likelihood of rape item was the strongest correlate of sexually coercive behaviors (β = 0.34, P < 0.001), while dysfunctional sexual beliefs appeared to mediate the association between anxious attachment and likelihood of rape item score. Anxious (r = −0.27, P = 0.001) and avoidant (r = −0.19, P = 0.004) attachment also correlated significantly with lower sexual functioning. Conclusions These findings suggest the relationship between sexual functioning and sexual coercion may be less robust than previously reported, and may be due to a shared association with other factors. The results elaborate on the interrelation between attachment
Falgares, Giorgio; Marchetti, Daniela; De Santis, Sandro; Carrozzino, Danilo; Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Fulcheri, Mario; Verrocchio, Maria Cristina
Insecure attachment and the personality dimensions of self-criticism and dependency have been proposed as risk factors for suicide in adolescents. The present study examines whether self-criticism and dependency mediate the relationship between insecure attachment styles and suicidality. A sample of 340 high-school students (73.2% females), ranging in age from 13 to 20 years (M = 16.47, SD = 1.52), completed the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire for Adolescents, the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire for Adolescents, the Attachment Style Questionnaire, and the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised. The results partially support the expected mediation effects. Self-criticism, but not dependency, mediates the link between insecure attachment (anxiety and avoidance) and suicide-related behaviors. Implications for suicide risk assessment and management are discussed. PMID:28344562
Smith Staley, Charlesetta
This quantitative study explored the leadership styles of mentors for retained first-year adult students to analyze whether the prevalent style had a higher impact on first-year adult student retention. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) 5x was used to collect data on the mentors' leadership styles from the perspective of retained…
McFarland-Piazza, Laura; Hazen, Nancy; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Boyd-Soisson, Erin
The association between fathers' adult attachment representations and their recollections of childhood experiences with their caregiving quality with their eight-month-old infants and with father-infant attachment classification was examined in a longitudinal study of 117 fathers and their infants. Sensitive caregiving was related to…
Kerr, R B
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how meanings adult daughters attached to their parent's death influenced the duration of their grief. The sample consisted of 67 adult daughters, ages 35 to 69 years, who had lost a parent 1 to 3 years earlier. Respondents were asked to explore their perceptions about their parent's death, their lifelong parent-daughter relationship, and any lifestyle changes that occurred after a parent's death. Categories were identified from the interview questions, and themes within each category were developed from the interview data. Results indicated that how respondents experienced a parent's death--including their guilt, regrets, or anticipatory grief, shifts in other family relationships, and changes in lifestyle--influenced the duration of their grief. The findings suggest that the subjective experience of grief may be an important area for further research as well as for assessment and intervention.
Barone, Lavinia; Fossati, Andrea; Guiducci, Valentina
We report the outcome of an investigation on how specific attachment states of mind and corresponding risk factors related to different DSM Axis I comorbidities in subjects with BPD. Mental representations of attachment in four BPD sub-groups (BPD and Anxiety/Mood Disorders, BPD and Substance Use and Abuse Disorders, BPD and Alcohol Use and Abuse Disorders, and BPD and Eating Disorders) were assessed in 140 BPD subjects using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). In addition to the global attachment picture in which Insecure organized (Dismissing 51% and Enmeshed 35%) and Insecure disorganized categories (40%) were overrepresented, significant differences in attachment category were found between the four BPD sub-groups. Axis I comorbidities corresponded with attachment features on the internalizing/externalizing functioning dimension of the disorder. Furthermore, specific constellations of inferred developmental antecedents and attachment states of mind corresponded differentially with the BPD sub-groups. Implications for developmental research and clinical nosology are discussed.
Haydon, Katherine C.; Collins, W. A.; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Simpson, Jeffry A.; Roisman, Glenn I.
To test proposals regarding the hierarchical organization of adult attachment, this study examined developmental origins of generalized and romantic attachment representations and their concurrent associations with romantic functioning. Participants (N = 112) in a 35-year prospective study completed the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Current…
Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Katz-Ben-Ami, Liat
Two studies explored the interplay between death awareness, attachment style, and maternal separation anxiety among first-time mothers of infants aged 3-12 months. In Study 1 (N = 60), a higher accessibility of death-related thoughts was found following induction of thoughts about separation from the infant. In Study 2 (N = 100), a mortality…
Jang, Su Ahn; Smith, Sandi W.; Levine, Timothy R.
Investigates communication patterns and subsequent relational outcomes following romantic partners' deception for people with different attachment styles. Reveals that respondents (undergraduate students) with a secure attachment style were more likely to report talking about the issue, whereas anxious/ambivalents were more likely to report…
Lee, Mary; Reese-Weber, Marla; Kahn, Jeffrey H
This study examined a multiple mediator model explaining how sibling perpetration and one's attachment style mediate the relation between parent-to-child victimization and dating violence perpetration. A sample of undergraduate students (n = 392 women, n = 89 men) completed measures of the aforementioned variables on an Internet survey. For men, path analyses found no mediation; parent-to-child victimization had a direct association with dating violence perpetration, no association was found between sibling perpetration and dating violence perpetration, and attachment anxiety, but not attachment avoidance, was positively associated with dating violence perpetration for men. For women, the hypothesized mediation model was supported; parent-to-child victimization had a direct association with dating violence perpetration, and sibling perpetration and attachment anxiety served as mediating variables. Attachment avoidance was not associated with dating violence perpetration for women. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.
Tereno, Susana; Soares, Isabel; Martins, Carla; Celani, Mariana; Sampaio, Daniel
Patients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (n = 30) and bulimia nervosa (n = 27), their parents and therapists were recruited for this study aimed at examining differences between clinical groups and a control group (n = 35) in terms of attachment styles and perceptions of memories of parental rearing. Within the clinical groups, relations among these variables and therapeutic bond were explored. In addition, parents' and their daughters' attachment styles were compared. The results showed differences between clinical and control groups: the daughters in the control group reported lower levels of attachment anxiety compared to those of the clinical groups; their mothers exhibited higher security than mothers of anorectic patients and lower avoidance than mothers of bulimic patients. For the anorectic group, therapeutic bond was associated to higher father's emotional support and lower rejection; in the bulimic group, therapeutic bond was related to higher maternal emotional support and lower rejection as well as to lower paternal overprotection.
Dinero, Rachel E; Conger, Rand D; Shaver, Phillip R; Widaman, Keith F; Larsen-Rife, Dannelle
According to attachment theory, attachment style derives from social experiences throughout the life span. The authors tested this expectation by examining associations between the quality of observed interaction patterns in the family of origin during adolescence and self-reported romantic attachment style and observed romantic relationship behaviors in adulthood (ages 25 and 27). Family and romantic relationship interactions were rated by trained observers from video recordings of structured conversation tasks. Attachment style was assessed with items from D. W. Griffin and K. Bartholomew's (1994a) Relationship Scales Questionnaire. Observational ratings of warmth and sensitivity in family interactions were positively related to similar behaviors by romantic partners and to attachment security. In addition, romantic interactions characterized by high warmth and low hostility at age 25 predicted greater attachment security at 27, after controlling for attachment security at age 25. However, attachment security at age 25 did not predict later romantic relationship interactions after controlling for earlier interactions. These findings underscore the importance of close relationships in the development of romantic attachment security but do not indicate that attachment security predicts the quality of interactions in romantic relationships.
O Fathaigh, Mairtin
An action research project was conducted to understand the learning style profile of Irish adult learners better and to integrate the findings into development seminars for adult education teachers and tutors. The Grasha-Riechmann Student Learning Styles Scale (GRSLSS) was chosen as the research instrument to explore Irish adults' learning styles…
Minzenberg, Michael J; Poole, John H; Vinogradov, Sophia
We characterized borderline personality disorder (BPD) along two fundamental dimensions of adult social attachment and evaluated attachment associations with childhood maltreatment and current symptoms using self-report measures in 40 outpatients with DSM-IV BPD. The BPD group had significantly greater dimensional attachment impairment and rate of fearful attachment type compared with a healthy control group. Among BPD subjects, dimensional attachment-anxiety was specifically associated with sexual abuse, whereas attachment-avoidance was associated with all five maltreatment types. The two attachment dimensions showed divergent associations with current interpersonal problems, impulsivity subtypes and mood symptoms. We conclude that (1) BPD is characterized by adult attachment disturbance; (2) these attachment problems are strongly related to childhood maltreatment, and to current interpersonal problems and clinical symptoms that are considered core features of BPD; and (3) the diverse problems of BPD patients may arise from two basic mechanisms, each tied to a different type of attachment disturbance, developmental history, and clinical outcome.
The Mediating Role of Emotion Dysregulation in the Relations Between Childhood Trauma History and Adult Attachment and Borderline Personality Disorder Features: A Study of Italian Nonclinical Participants.
Fossati, Andrea; Gratz, Kim L; Somma, Antonella; Maffei, Cesare; Borroni, Serena
In order to evaluate if emotion dysregulation significantly mediates the relationships between childhood abuse and adult attachment and borderline personality disorder features, 354 community Italian adults were administered the Borderline Personality Inventory (Leichsenring, 1999a), the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (Gratz & Roemer, 2004), the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (Sanders & Becker-Lausen, 1995), and the Attachment Style Questionnaire (Feeney, Noller, & Hanrahan, 1994). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that both childhood abuse and adult attachment were positively associated with emotion dysregulation and borderline personality features; however, only emotional abuse and the attachment dimension of need for approval were common predictors of both dependent variables. No significant interaction effects were detected in regression analyses. Mediation analyses provided support for partial mediation, revealing a significant mediating role of emotion dysregulation in the relationships between both emotional abuse and need for approval and borderline personality features in this community sample.
Quijada, Yanet; Kwapil, Thomas R; Tizón, Jorge; Sheinbaum, Tamara; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus
Attachment theory provides key elements for understanding the psychosocial vulnerability for and response to the emergence of psychosis. This study examined (1) whether pre-treatment attachment styles are differentially associated with clinical and functional outcome in at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis patients across one year of psychosocial treatment, and (2) whether clinical change is associated with changes in attachment ratings beyond the effect of baseline symptom severity. Thirty-eight ARMS patients (mean age=16.7, S.D.=5.9) identified from a psychosocial needs-adapted treatment were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Global Assessment of Functioning, and the Relationships Questionnaire. Lower levels of insecure-avoidant attachment predicted better clinical outcomes, whereas higher levels of secure attachment predicted improvement in functioning. A decrease in preoccupied-anxious attachment was associated with symptom amelioration. The findings suggest that the intensity of insecure attachment plays a significant role in the clinical outcome of ARMS patients involved in psychosocial treatment. Reducing the levels of insecure attachment in the therapeutic setting probably favors a better course in the early phases of psychosis. Furthermore, the finding that negative models of the self and others were associated with symptom outcome is consistent with current psychosocial models of psychosis.
Cassibba, Rosalinda; Granqvist, Pehr; Costantini, Alessandro; Gatto, Sergio
Based on the idea that believers' perceived relationships with God develop from their attachment-related experiences with primary caregivers, the authors explored the quality of such experiences and their representations among individuals who differed in likelihood of experiencing a principal attachment to God. Using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), they compared attachment-related experiences and representations in a group of 30 Catholic priests and religious with a matched group of lay Catholics and with the worldwide normal distribution of AAI classifications. They found an overrepresentation of secure-autonomous states regarding attachment among those more likely to experience a principal attachment to God (i.e., the priests and religious) compared with the other groups and an underrepresentation of unresolved-disorganized states in the two groups of Catholics compared with the worldwide normal distribution. Key findings also included links between secure-autonomous states regarding attachment and estimated experiences with loving or nonrejecting parents on the one hand and loving God imagery on the other. These results extend the literature on religion from an attachment perspective and support the idea that generalized working models derived from attachment experiences with parents are reflected in believers' perceptions of God.
Weisskirch, Robert S; Delevi, Raquel
Relationship dissolution now occurs through technologies like text messaging, e-mail, and social networking sites (SNS). Individuals who experience relationship dissolution via technology may differ in their attachment pattern and gender role attitudes from those who have not had that experience. One hundred five college students (males=21 and females=84) completed an online questionnaire about technology-mediated breakups, attachment style, and gender role attitudes. More than a quarter of the sample had experienced relationship dissolution via technology. Attachment anxiety predicted those subject to technology-mediated breakups. Attachment avoidance and less traditional gender roles were associated with increased likelihood of technology use in relationship dissolution. Implications are discussed in regards to future research and practice.
Rule, David L.; Grippin, Pauline C.
Theoretical framework, instrument development, and psychometric qualities are reviewed for some measures of learning style currently in use with adults. Instruments reviewed include: (1) Kolb's Learning Style Inventory I; (2) Kolb's Learning Style Inventory II; (3) the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator; (4) the Productivity Environmental Preferences…
Waldinger, Robert J.; Seidman, Ethan L.; Gerber, Andrew J.; Liem, Joan H.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hauser, Stuart T.
This study examines links between attachment states of mind and relationship schemas in a sample of 40 young adults, half of whom were hospitalized as adolescents for psychiatric treatment. Participants were interviewed about their closest relationships, and, using the Core Conflictual Relationship Theme method, their narratives about these relationships were analyzed for the relative frequency with which they expressed wishes for closeness and for autonomy in relation to others. Participants were also administered the Adult Attachment Interview and were classified with respect to security of attachment. Security of attachment was associated with the relative frequency with which participants expressed wishes for autonomy in their narratives about close relationships, even after accounting for current levels of psychological functioning and history of serious psychopathology in adolescence. Security of attachment was not associated with the relative frequency with which participants expressed wishes for closeness. The study suggests that core relational wishes for autonomy are linked specifically with subtypes of insecure attachment. These findings extend what is known about connections between the representation of early attachment relationships and the wishes and needs expressed in current relationships with significant others. PMID:16946799
Sotgiu, Igor; Galati, Dario; Manzano, Mayra; Gandione, Marina; Gómez, Kyuttzza; Romero, Yuniel; Rigardetto, Roberto
In this study the authors used a cross-cultural approach to examine parental attitudes, attachment styles, social networks, and some of the psychological processes involved in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Fifty-two children (aged 4-11 years) took part in the study: 30 Italians (15 with ASD and 15 controls) and 22 Cubans (11 with ASD and 11 controls). Findings indicated significant differences between the two cultural groups in terms of the structure of the children's social network and parental attitudes toward their children. However, the mother-child attachment relationship and cognitive and emotional functioning of the study participants were independent of culture.
Campa, Mary I.; Hazan, Cindy; Wolfe, Jared E.
Central to attachment theory is the postulation of an inborn system to regulate attachment behavior. This system has been well studied in infancy and childhood, but much less is known about its functioning at later ages. The goal of this study was to explore the form and function of attachment behavior in the daily lives of young adults. Twenty…
Westen, Drew; Nakash, Ora; Thomas, Cannon; Bradley, Rebekah
The relevance of attachment theory and research for practice has become increasingly clear. The authors describe a series of studies with 3 aims: (a) to validate measures of attachment for use by clinicians with adolescents and adults (b) to examine the relation between attachment and personality pathology, and (c) to ascertain whether factor…
Caspers, Kristin M.; Paradiso, Sergio; Yucuis, Rebecca; Troutman, Beth; Arndt, Stephan; Philibert, Robert
Research on antecedents of organized attachment has focused on the quality of caregiving received during childhood. In recent years, research has begun to examine the influence of genetic factors on quality of infant attachment. However, no published studies report on the association between specific genetic factors and adult attachment. This…
George, Carol; Buchheim, Anna
The following case study is presented to facilitate an understanding of how the attachment information evident from Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) assessment can be integrated into a psychodynamic perspective in making therapeutic recommendations that integrate an attachment perspective. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) is a valid representational measure of internal representations of attachment based on the analysis of a set of free response picture stimuli designed to systematically activate the attachment system (George and West, 2012). The AAP provides a fruitful diagnostic tool for psychodynamic-oriented clinicians to identify attachment-based deficits and resources for an individual patient in therapy. This paper considers the use of the AAP with a traumatized patient in an inpatient setting and uses a case study to illustrate the components of the AAP that are particularly relevant to a psychodynamic conceptualization. The paper discusses also attachment-based recommendations for intervention. PMID:25140164
Wang, Chia-Chih D. C.; Schale, Codi L.; Broz, Kristina K.
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students from 12 university campuses (N = 177) participated in this study that examined the relationships between adult attachment, LGB identity, and sexual attitudes. Findings indicated that adult attachment was significantly related to LGB identity and sexual attitudes and that an LGB identity variable…
Haltigan, John D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Wong, Maria S.; Fortuna, Keren; Roisman, Glenn I.; Supple, Andrew J.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Plamondon, André
This study examined the developmental significance of mothers' adult attachment representations assessed prenatally with the Adult Attachment Interview in relation to observed maternal sensitivity at 6 months postpartum in an ethnically diverse sample (N = 131 African American; N = 128 European American). Multiple-group confirmatory factor…
Afshar, Pouya Farokhnezhad; Foroughan, Mahshid; Vedadhir, AbouAli; Tabatabaei, Mahmoud Ghazi
Social well-being and place attachment are two important concepts in health and quality of life of older adults. There are few studies on the relationship between these concepts at the individual level. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of place attachment dimensions on social well-being dimensions in older adults. This study was…
Fortuna, Keren; Roisman, Glenn I.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Groh, Ashley M.; Holland, Ashley S.
This report examines young adults' states of mind regarding their early attachment experiences in relation to the observed and perceived quality of their sibling relationships. Sixty sibling pairs (18-25 years of age) were (a) administered the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1985), (b) videotaped during a conflict…
Reiner, Iris C; Fremmer-Bombik, Elisabeth; Beutel, Manfred E; Steele, Miriam; Steele, Howard
The present paper looks at the potential of the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and its underlying basis in attachment theory for use in psychotherapeutic work. We summarize the basic tenets of attachment theory, detail the content and structure of the AAI, provide instructions for conducting the AAI, and introduce the Main et al. (2002) coding system. We then report on associations between AAI-Attachment groups and psychosomatic diseases and, finally, demonstrate applications of the AAI in clinical work and research.
Berlin, Lisa J.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Roggman, Lori A.; Green, Beth L.; Robinson, JoAnn; Spieker, Susan
This study examined maternal depression, attachment avoidance, and attachment anxiety as moderators of Early Head Start's effects on four parenting outcomes assessed at age 3. Participants (N = 947) were drawn from six sites of the Early Head Start National Research and Evaluation Project, a multi-site randomized trial. Findings suggest more positive program effects for mothers with less initial attachment avoidance or attachment anxiety. First, baseline attachment avoidance moderated EHS program effects on observed maternal supportiveness, such that program mothers with lower baseline attachment avoidance were rated as more supportive of their 3-year-olds than program mothers with higher baseline attachment avoidance. Second, program effects on spanking varied depending on mothers’ baseline attachment anxiety. PMID:21240694
Verbeke, Willem J M I; Pozharliev, Rumen; Van Strien, Jan W; Belschak, Frank; Bagozzi, Richard P
We took EEG recordings to measure task-free resting-state cortical brain activity in 35 participants under two conditions, alone (A) or together (T). We also investigated whether psychological attachment styles shape human cortical activity differently in these two settings. The results indicate that social context matters and that participants' cortical activity is moderated by the anxious, but not avoidant attachment style. We found enhanced alpha, beta and theta band activity in the T rather than the A resting-state condition, which was more pronounced in posterior brain regions. We further found a positive correlation between anxious attachment style and enhanced alpha power in the T vs. A condition over frontal and parietal scalp regions. There was no significant correlation between the absolute powers registered in the other two frequency bands and the participants' anxious attachment style.
De Dreu, Carsten K W
An experiment examined whether and how the relationship between individual differences in social attachment and cooperation is modulated by brain oxytocin, a neuropeptide implicated both in parent-child bonding, and in social approach. Healthy males completed a validated attachment style measure, received intranasal oxytocin or placebo, and privately chose between cooperation and non-cooperation in an incentivized social dilemma with an anonymous stranger. Attachment anxiety--the tendency to fear rejection by others--had few effects and was not modulated by oxytocin. However, oxytocin interacted with attachment avoidance--the tendency to fear dependency and closeness in interpersonal relations. Especially among participants high rather than low in attachment avoidance, oxytocin reduced betrayal aversion, and increased trust and cooperation compared to placebo. Effects of attachment avoidance and oxytocin on cooperation were mediated by betrayal aversion, and not by affiliation tendencies.
Declercq, Frédéric; Palmans, Vicky
This paper presents the result of a research which investigated the influence of the subjective factors 'adult attachment style' and 'perception of social support' in the occurrence of post traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) in a population of 544 subjects working for a security company and the Belgian Red Cross. The analysis of the results suggests that 'adult attachment style' and 'perception of social support' moderate between a critical incident and the occurrence of a PTSD. In other words, these independent variables differentiate between individuals who are more, and who are less prone, to suffer from a PTSD after having experienced a critical incident. The results of this research shed light on subjective risk factors related to PTSD. The findings can also suggest guidelines for the treatment of individuals suffering from a PTSD.
McCarthy, Gerard; Maughan, Barbara
This study investigated links between internal working models of attachment and the quality of adult love relationships in a high risk sample of women (n = 34), all of whom reported negative parenting in childhood. Half of the sample was identified as having a history of satisfying adult love relationships, while the remainder had experienced ongoing adult relationship problems. Measures of internal working models of attachment were made using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). A strong association was found between attachment classifications and the quality of adult love relationships. In addition, women with satisfying love relationships demonstrated significantly higher coherence of mind ratings than those with poor relationship histories. Insecure working models of attachment were associated with problems in adult love relationships. Although secure/autonomous attachment status was linked to optimal adult relationship outcomes, some women with a history of satisfying love relationships had insecure working models of attachment. These results suggest that the ways that adults process early experiences may influence later psychosocial functioning.
Jones, Jason D; Fraley, R Chris; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Stern, Jessica A; Lejuez, C W; Shaver, Phillip R; Cassidy, Jude
Few studies have examined stability and change in attachment during adolescence. This 5-year longitudinal study (a) examined whether prototype or revisionist developmental dynamics better characterized patterns of stability and change in adolescent attachment (at T1, N = 176; Mage = 14.0 years, SD = 0.9), (b) tested potential moderators of prototype-like attachment stability, and (c) compared attachment stability in adolescence to stability in adulthood. The results supported the prototype model, which assumes that there is a stable, enduring factor underlying stability and change in attachment. Exploratory moderation analyses revealed that family conflict, parental separation or divorce, minority status, and male sex might undermine the prototype-like stability of adolescent attachment. Stability of attachment was lower in adolescence relative to adulthood.
Henson, Alisha M.; Scharfe, Elaine
Students' course evaluations often play an important role in career advancement for faculty. The authors examined the association between attachment representations of parents and course evaluations in a sample of 230 undergraduate students. They found a significant negative association between attachment anxiety with parents and course…
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a common psychiatric disorder associated with severe functional impairment, high rates of suicide and comorbid psychiatric illness, intensive use of treatment, and high costs to society. The etiology and pathogenesis of BPD are still uncertain, although an interaction between biological and psychosocial factors has been proposed to explain how the condition develops. Attachment disturbances represent one of the developmental risk factors that have been most consistently found to be associated with BPD, with a number of studies reporting a significant strong association between insecure attachment and BPD, notwithstanding the variety of measures and attachment types employed in these studies. In this article, the author first reviews clinical descriptions and research findings concerning the association between attachment disturbances and BPD and then discusses how attachment theory may help clinicians who work with patients with BPD better understand the psychopathology of the illness and plan treatment.
Marmarosh, Cheri L; Nikityn, Mary; Moehringer, Jason; Ferraioli, Lauren; Kahn, Sonia; Cerkevich, Angela; Choi, Jaehwa; Reisch, Emily
The supervisory relationship is one of the most important components in training therapists' professional development, and it is a frequent area of training-focused research. The current study explored how 57 training therapists' adult romantic attachments relate to the attachment to the supervisor and the supervisory working alliance. Additionally, we explored how both adult attachment and supervisory attachment relate to trainees' perceptions of their counseling self-efficacy (CSE). Results revealed that therapists with higher levels of fearful attachment to the supervisors and avoidant attachment in adult romantic relationships had less perceived CSE. Hierarchical regression revealed that it was the avoidant adult romantic attachment and the supervisory working alliance that accounted for the most significant variance in CSE, not the attachment to the supervisor. Path analysis using structural equation modeling was used to explore both the direct and indirect paths to CSE. When all variables were explored together, only the path from romantic attachment avoidance to fearful attachment to the supervisor was significant. Adult romantic attachment no longer directly related to CSE when including all the variables in the model. Implications of the findings will be discussed with regard to future research that is needed, the use of attachment-based supervisory interventions, and the application of the findings in clinical training.
Bernier, Annie; Matte-Gagne, Celia
The aim of this report was to investigate the associations between attachment state of mind, romantic attachment style, and indices of maternal functioning in two relational spheres: the mother-child relationship (i.e., maternal sensitivity and child attachment security) and the marital relationship (i.e., mothers' and their partners' marital…
Troll, Lillian E.; Smith, Jean
Dyadic bonds and adult linkages are examined as examples of adult attachments which are frequently manifested through the relationships among adult children and their aging parents. A pilot study supported the hypothesis that family bonds, both in dyadic affect and in family integration, override separation and distance. (MS)
Adam, Emma K; Gunnar, Megan R; Tanaka, Akiko
In a middle-class sample of mothers of 2-year-olds, adult attachment classifications measured in the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) were related to maternal self-reported emotional well-being and observed parenting behavior, and the potential mediating and moderating roles of maternal emotion were tested. Mothers classified as dismissing on the AAI reported significantly lower levels of positive affectivity. Mothers classified as preoccupied reported significantly higher levels of negative affectivity and anxiety. Preoccupied mothers were observed to be significantly higher on angry/intrusive parenting, but this association was not mediated by attachment-related differences in maternal emotion. Maternal emotional well-being did, however, moderate the associations between adult attachment and parenting behavior: Dismissing attachment was significantly associated with lower warmth/responsiveness only among mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms.
From an evolutionary perspective, a central mechanism promoting infant survival is the maintenance of proximity to attachment figures. Consequently attachment figure(s) represent the infant's primary solution to experiences of fear. Aspects of the development of the field of attachment are outlined within this context, beginning with Bowlby's ethological/evolutionary theory, and proceeding to Ainsworth's early descriptions of infant-mother interaction in Uganda and Baltimore. Using a laboratory procedure called the strange situation, Ainsworth identified three organized patterns of infant response to separation from and reunion with the parent. Narratives derived from videotaped strange situation behavior of infants in each category (secure, avoidant, and resistant/ambivalent) are provided, together with a discussion of the prototypical sequelae of each category (e.g., school behavior, and separation-related narratives and drawings at age six). The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and the move to the level of representation are also described. AAI transcripts are presently analyzed according to the speaker's capacity to adhere to Grice's maxims of rational cooperative discourse, and three organized AAI categories, or states of mind with respect to attachment, have been identified (secure-autonomous, dismissing, and preoccupied). When the interview is administered to parents who have been seen with their infants in the strange situation, each AAI category has repeatedly been found to predict that infant's strange situation response to that parent. Illustrations of the discourse characteristic of each category are provided, and it is noted that individuals with apparently unfavorable life histories are found to have secure offspring, providing that their history is recounted coherently. Like infant strange situation behavior, differences in adult security as identified through discourse patterning are interpreted in terms of attentional flexibility or inflexibility
Sutin, Angelina R.; Gillath, Omri
In 2 studies, the present research tested the phenomenology and content of autobiographical memory as distinct mediators between attachment avoidance and anxiety and depressive symptoms. In Study 1, participants (N = 454) completed measures of attachment and depressive symptoms in 1 session and retrieved and rated 2 self-defining memories of…
Kocayörük, Ercan; Uzman, Ersin; Mert, Abdullah
The present study examined emotional well-being as a mediator between parental attachment (mother and father) and student alienation. A total of 227 high school students from the city of Ankara completed the self-report measures of parental attachment, positive and negative affect, and alienation. Using structural equation modeling, a model was…
Marmarosh, Cheri L; Tasca, Giorgio A
Group therapy can facilitate changes for members with greater attachment anxiety who tend to struggle with negative self-perceptions, difficulties regulating emotions, poor reflective functioning, and compromised interpersonal relationships. A clinical example of a therapy group with members who had elevated attachment anxiety and who were diagnosed with binge eating disorder demonstrates how attachment theory can be applied to group treatment. The clinical material from the beginning, middle, and end of group is presented to highlight how attachment anxiety influences members' emotional reactions and behaviors in the group, how group factors facilitate change, and how the leader fosters the development of a secure base within the group. Pre- to posttreatment outcomes indicate positive changes in binge eating, depressive symptoms, and attachment avoidance and anxiety. To facilitate change in individuals with greater attachment anxiety, group therapists may foster a secure base in the group through group cohesion, which will facilitate down regulation of emotions, better reflective functioning, and relationships that are less preoccupied with loss and more secure.
Roisman, Glenn I
Research using the Adult Attachment Interview has largely examined its predictive significance for interpersonal behavior within the context of observations of parent-child and romantic relationships. A limitation of this state of affairs is that the literature does not make clear whether or when attachment-related variation becomes reflected in other kinds of interpersonal encounters. This study demonstrates that links between adults' states of mind regarding childhood attachment experiences and the quality of their interpersonal interactions are evident in first meetings between same-sex strangers in a non-attachment-related context. More specifically, in a study of 50 stranger dyads (50% female), secure adults demonstrated positive emotional engagement during a challenging puzzle-building task. In contrast, preoccupied adults dominated the task, whereas dismissing adults evidenced negative emotion during the interaction. Results held controlling for the Big Five personality dimensions and suggest a middle ground position regarding the narrow versus broad correlates of adult attachment security.
Verneuil, Ann Marie
This doctoral research paper reviews the empirical literature examining intergenerational transmission of attachment styles. The relationship between adult caregivers' internal representations of attachment as measured by the Adult Attachment Interview and their infants' attachment status as measured by the Strange Situation procedure has been…
Bush, Stephanie I.; And Others
Undergraduate adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) (n=57) were compared with children of nonalcoholic parents (n=100) on depression, self-esteem, and attributional style. ACOAs were found to have higher depression scores and lower self-esteem and were more likely to have a depressive attributional style. (SLD)
Zhang, Li-fang; Higgins, Paul
The present study examines the predictive power of socialization variables for thinking styles among adults in the workplace. One hundred and seventeen managerial personnel (aged between 18 and 55 years) in England responded to the Thinking Styles Inventory-Revised based on Sternberg's theory of mental self-government and to questions concerning…
Miller, Angie L.; Lambert, Amber D.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.
The current study explores the potential relationships among perceived parenting style, perfectionism, and creativity in a high-ability and high-achieving young adult population. Using data from 323 honors college students at a Midwestern university, bivariate correlations suggested positive relationships between (a) permissive parenting style and…
Aslam, Manika Arbab; Sultan, Sarwat
The study was conducted to explore the impact of parenting styles of adolescents on their self-determination and personal growth. The data was collected from 300 adults evenly divided by gender, aged 23-38 years. To measure the parenting styles, level of self-determination and personal growth, the Caregivers Practices Report, Self Determination…
Domingo, Meera; Chambliss, Catherine
The Adult Attachment Scale (AAS) (N. Collins and S. Read, 1996) and the Adolescent Relationship Questionnaire (ARQ) (E. Scharfe and K. Bartholomew, 1995) widely used self-assessment measures of attachment behavior. This study investigated the validity of these two measures by administering them concurrently to 117 introductory psychology college…
Freeman, Harry; Almond, Tasha M.
A mixed methods approach was used to examine how young adults (n = 1012) perceive fathers as targets for attachment support. Participants ranked the level of attachment support received and sought from fathers, mothers, best friends, and romantic partners, and provided relationship-specific information on additional indices of social support…
Gillespie, Alayna A.; Gottlieb, Benjamin H.; Maitland, Scott B.
We examined the volunteer service contribution of older adults (N = 100) to volunteer role development and agency attachment. Informed by a developmental regulation framework and socio-emotional selectivity theory, we tested a twofold hypothesis for the premise that greater role development and agency attachment would be experienced by (1) older…
Trusty, Jerry; Ng, Kok-Mun; Watts, Richard E.
The effects of adult attachment on emotional empathy were investigated using a sample of master's-degree level counseling students. Through structural equation modeling, the authors found that the latent attachment dimensions of avoidance and anxiety work in tandem in their effects on empathy. Lower avoidance and higher anxiety were associated…
Berry, Katherine; Kingswell, Sarah
Students differ in how they cope with and manage stress associated with university life. This study investigates associations between adult attachment and coping strategies for exam-related stress. Fifty-seven students at a university in the north of England completed online questionnaires to assess attachment anxiety and avoidance, helpful and…
Wang, Chia-Chih D. C.; King, Makini L.; Debernardi, Nicholas R.
This study examined the relationships between adult attachment, cognitive appraisal, and university students' behavioral and emotional reactions to infidelity situations in romantic relationships. Results based on 173 university students suggested that both attachment and cognitive appraisals significantly predicted distinct types of infidelity…
Caspers, Kristin M; Paradiso, Sergio; Yucuis, Rebecca; Troutman, Beth; Arndt, Stephan; Philibert, Robert
Research on antecedents of organized attachment has focused on the quality of caregiving received during childhood. In recent years, research has begun to examine the influence of genetic factors on quality of infant attachment. However, no published studies report on the association between specific genetic factors and adult attachment. This study examined the link between the 5-HTTLPR promoter polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene and adult unresolved attachment assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview. Genetic material and information on attachment-related loss or trauma were available for 86 participants. Multivariate regression analyses showed an association between the short 5-HTTLPR allele and increased risk for unresolved attachment. Temperament traits and psychological symptoms did not affect the association between 5-HTTLPR and unresolved attachment. The authors hypothesize that the increased susceptibility to unresolved attachment among carriers of the short allele of 5-HTTLPR is consistent with the role of serotonin in modulation of frontal–amygdala circuitry. The findings challenge current thinking by demonstrating significant genetic influences on a phenomenon previously thought to be largely environmentally driven. PMID:19209991
Caspers, Kristin M; Paradiso, Sergio; Yucuis, Rebecca; Troutman, Beth; Arndt, Stephan; Philibert, Robert
Research on antecedents of organized attachment has focused on the quality of caregiving received during childhood. In recent years, research has begun to examine the influence of genetic factors on quality of infant attachment. However, no published studies report on the association between specific genetic factors and adult attachment. This study examined the link between the 5-HTTLPR promoter polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene and adult unresolved attachment assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview. Genetic material and information on attachment-related loss or trauma were available for 86 participants. Multivariate regression analyses showed an association between the short 5-HTTLPR allele and increased risk for unresolved attachment. Temperament traits and psychological symptoms did not affect the association between 5-HTTLPR and unresolved attachment. The authors hypothesize that the increased susceptibility to unresolved attachment among carriers of the short allele of 5-HTTLPR is consistent with the role of serotonin in modulation of frontal-amygdala circuitry. The findings challenge current thinking by demonstrating significant genetic influences on a phenomenon previously thought to be largely environmentally driven.
Hutto, Sarah Tullos
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of learning style characteristics to self-directed learning propensity among adult learners. The learning style characteristics investigated were learning style balance as measured by a scoring method developed by Mainemelis, Boyatzis, and Kolb (2002) and learning style dimensions as…
Schierholz, Anna; Krüger, Antje; Barenbrügge, Jens; Ehring, Thomas
Background Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been shown to be related to a severe and/or chronic course of depression. This study investigated which psychological processes mediate this relationship. Method A large sample of acute or recovered depressed individuals (N=340) participated in an online survey assessing characteristics of depression, trauma exposure, and potential mediators (emotion regulation difficulties, attributional style, and attachment). Results The experience of CM was related to more severe depression and more depressive episodes. In multiple mediation models, emotion dysregulation, a depressogenic attributional style, and avoidance in close relationships conjointly mediated the relationship between CM and depression severity as well as number of depressive episodes. However, a significant direct path between CM and depression characteristics remained. Exploratory analyses suggested that posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity was an important additional mediator in our sample. Conclusions Our findings provide preliminary evidence for psychological mediators between CM and depression that may be promising targets for interventions tailored for the treatment of depression in this subgroup. Highlights of the article Childhood maltreatment (CM) is related to more severe depression. The study investigates how this relationship can be explained.CM was related to difficulties in emotion regulation, relationships and thinking style, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder.Statistical analyses showed that these four variables were also able to (partly) explain how CM is related to more severe depression.Treatment for depression in individuals who have experienced CM may need to directly target these variables. PMID:27790969
Prichard, Heather L; Reichert, William M; Klitzman, Bruce
Attachment of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) to biomaterials prior to implantation is a possible strategy for mediating inflammation and wound healing. In this study, the ASC percent coverage was measured on common medical grade biosensor materials subjected to different surface treatments. Cell coverage on silicone elastomer (poly dimethylsiloxane) was below 20% for all surface treatments. Polyimide (Kapton), polyurethane (Pellethane) and tissue culture polystyrene all exhibited >50% coverage for surfaces treated with fibronectin (Fn), fibronectin plus avidin/biotin (dual ligand), and oxygen plasma plus fibronectin treatments (Fn O2). The fibronectin treatment performed as well or better on polyimide, polyurethane, and tissue culture polystyrene compared to the dual ligand and fibronectin oxygen plasma treated surfaces. Cell detachment with increasing shear stresses was <25% for each attachment method on both polyimide and polyurethane. The effects of attachment methods on the basic cell functions of proliferation, metabolism, ATP concentration, and caspase-3 activity were analyzed yielding proliferation profiles that were very similar among all of the materials. No significant differences in metabolism, intracellular ATP, or intracellular caspase-3 activity were observed for any of the attachment methods on either polyimide or polyurethane. PMID:17074385
Ghiasi, Hamed; Mohammadi, Abolalfazl; Zarrinfar, Pouria
Objective: Borderline personality disorder is one of the most complex and prevalent personality disorders. Many variables have so far been studied in relation to this disorder. This study aimed to investigate the role of emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind in predicting the traits of borderline personality disorder. Method: In this study, 85 patients with borderline personality disorder were selected using convenience sampling method. To measure the desired variables, the questionnaires of Gross emotion regulation, Collins and Read attachment styles, and Baron Cohen's Reading Mind from Eyes Test were applied. The data were analyzed using multivariate stepwise regression technique. Results: Emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind predicted 41.2% of the variance criterion altogether; among which, the shares of emotion regulation, attachment styles and theory of mind to the distribution of the traits of borderline personality disorder were 27.5%, 9.8%, and 3.9%, respectively. Conclusion: The results of the study revealed that emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind are important variables in predicting the traits of borderline personality disorder and that these variables can be well applied for both the treatment and identification of this disorder.
Ghiasi, Hamed; Mohammadi, Abolalfazl; Zarrinfar, Pouria
Objective: Borderline personality disorder is one of the most complex and prevalent personality disorders. Many variables have so far been studied in relation to this disorder. This study aimed to investigate the role of emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind in predicting the traits of borderline personality disorder. Method: In this study, 85 patients with borderline personality disorder were selected using convenience sampling method. To measure the desired variables, the questionnaires of Gross emotion regulation, Collins and Read attachment styles, and Baron Cohen's Reading Mind from Eyes Test were applied. The data were analyzed using multivariate stepwise regression technique. Results: Emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind predicted 41.2% of the variance criterion altogether; among which, the shares of emotion regulation, attachment styles and theory of mind to the distribution of the traits of borderline personality disorder were 27.5%, 9.8%, and 3.9%, respectively. Conclusion: The results of the study revealed that emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind are important variables in predicting the traits of borderline personality disorder and that these variables can be well applied for both the treatment and identification of this disorder. PMID:28050180
Wei, Meifen; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Ku, Tsun-Yao; Shaffer, Phillip A
Research on subjective well-being suggests that it is only partly a function of environmental circumstances. There may be a personality characteristic or a resilient disposition toward experiencing high levels of well-being even in unfavorable circumstances. Adult attachment may contribute to this resilient disposition. This study examined whether the association between attachment anxiety and subjective well-being was mediated by Neff's (2003a, 2003b) concept of self-compassion. It also examined empathy toward others as a mediator in the association between attachment avoidance and subjective well-being. In Study 1, 195 college students completed self-report surveys. In Study 2, 136 community adults provided a cross-validation of the results. As expected, across these 2 samples, findings suggested that self-compassion mediated the association between attachment anxiety and subjective well-being, and emotional empathy toward others mediated the association between attachment avoidance and subjective well-being.
Kirchmann, Helmut; Nolte, Tobias; Runkewitz, Kristin; Bayerle, Lisa; Becker, Simone; Blasczyk, Verena; Lindloh, Julia; Strauss, Bernhard
We investigated whether attachment security, measured by the Adult Attachment Prototype Rating (AAPR), was correlated with life satisfaction, independent of sociodemographic characteristics, medical burden, and age-related coping strategies in a sample of 81 patients (69-73 years) recruited from the register of a general primary care practice. Furthermore, we examined whether patients classified as AAPR-secure reported better adjustment to medical burden in terms of higher life satisfaction than did insecure patients. Attachment security was independently related to life satisfaction. Moreover, the association between medical burden and lower life satisfaction was significantly stronger for insecure than for secure participants. Our findings indicate that interventions to improve attachment security or coping processes related to attachment could help older adults retain life satisfaction.
Goldwyn, Ruth; Hugh-Jones, Siobhan
A feasibility study was conducted to examine the usability of the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and its coding system with 10 adolescents presenting with Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD). Given that the measure was deemed usable with all 10 participants, the study then sought to identify the attachment status of the sample. Three transcripts were subjected to inter-rater reliability checks. All transcripts indicated a high level of insecurity, with five participants classified as organized-insecure and five assigned to the cannot classify category. However, a number of issues were raised in the administration and coding of the transcripts concerning participant distress, coding of inferred carer behaviour and experiences of unresolved loss or trauma. We also identified two new phenomena, namely extreme derogation and extreme detachment, and discuss possible development of the existing classification system. Our data indicates that cannot classify attachment status in this population may represent a transitional stage to becoming organized, and that organized insecurity may offer a route to future security. Further minimal adaptations to the AAI may promote the validity of its use with this population.
Schoenmaker, Christie; Juffer, Femmie; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Linting, Mariëlle; van der Voort, Anja; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J
We examined whether differences in adult attachment representations could be predicted from early and later maternal sensitivity, controlling for early and later assessments of attachment. In this longitudinal study on 190 adoptees, attachment at 23 years was measured with the Attachment Script Assessment. Maternal sensitivity was observed in infancy and at seven and 14 years. Attachment was also measured in infancy and at 14 years. Higher maternal sensitivity in infancy predicted more secure attachment in infancy and more secure attachment representations in young adulthood. Higher maternal sensitivity in middle childhood also predicted more secure attachment representations in young adulthood. There was no continuity of attachment from infancy to young adulthood, but attachment in adolescence and young adulthood were significantly related. Even in genetically unrelated families, maternal sensitivity in early and middle childhood predicts attachment representations in young adults, confirming the importance of sensitive parenting for human development.
Faber, Aida; Dubé, Laurette
Eating habits are established early and are difficult to change once formed. This study investigated the role of caregiver-child attachment quality and its associations with high-caloric food consumption in a sample of middle socio-economic status children and adults, respectively. Survey data were collected from an online questionnaire administered separately to 213 (143 girls) children and 216 parents (adult sample; 180 women). Two studies showed that an insecure parental attachment, whether actual (Study 1; children) or recalled (Study 2; adults), significantly and positively predicted high-caloric food consumption in both samples. The present findings highlight the importance of parental attachment and its association with unhealthy eating patterns in children and adults.
Garcia Quiroga, Manuela; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine
Background: A large number of children are currently living in Alternative Care. The relationship they establish with their temporary caregivers can play a significant role in their development. However, little has been published regarding attachment with temporary Caregivers. Objective: The aim of this review is to analyse the existing published…
Richaud de Minzi, Maria Cristina
In this study, the author analyzed the relationship between (a) parenting and attachment and (b) self-competence, loneliness, and depression in children aged 8-12 years. The author administered (a) the Argentine Scale of Perception of the Relationships with Parents (M. C. Richaud de Minzi, 2004), (b) the Kerns' Security Scale (K. A. Kerns, L.…
Hesse, E; Main, M
This presentation focuses on the disorganized/disoriented (Group D) categories of infant, child, and adult attachment. The infant D category is assigned on the basis of interruptions and anomalies in organization and orientation observed during Ainsworth's strange situation procedure. In neurologically normal low-risk samples, D attachment is not substantially related to descriptions of infant temperament, and usually appears with respect to only one parent. At six, former D infants are often found to be role-inverting (D-Controlling) towards the parent, while drawings and separation-related narratives (D-Fearful) suggest continuing states of fear and disorganization. In adults, marked lapses in reasoning and discourse surrounding the discussion of loss or abuse during the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) causes a transcript to be assigned to Unresolved/disorganized (U/d) adult attachment status, which predicts infant D attachment. Bowlby's theory is extended, with the proposal that certain forms of frightening parental behavior will arouse contradictory biologically channeled propensities to approach and to take flight from the parent. Maltreated infants are therefore highly likely to be disorganized. Also identified are subtler forms of frightening parental behavior (including dissociative behavior and anomalous forms of frightened behavior) that appear to lead to infant disorganization. This suggests that infant D attachment may at times represent a second-generation effect of the parent's own continuing unresolved responses to trauma. Infant D attachment predicts disruptive/aggressive and dissociative disorders in childhood and adolescence, while U/d adult attachment appears frequently in psychiatric and criminal populations. Clinical implications are discussed.
Abdul Kadir, Nor Ba'yah; Bifulco, Antonia
The role of marital breakdown in women's mental health is of key concern in Malaysia and internationally. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of married and separated/divorced and widowed women examined insecure attachment style as an associated risk factor for depression among 1002 mothers in an urban community in Malaysia. A previous report replicated a UK-based vulnerability-provoking agent model of depression involving negative evaluation of self (NES) and negative elements in close relationships (NECRs) interacting with severe life events to model depression. This article reports on the additional contribution of insecure attachment style to the model using the Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ). The results showed that VASQ scores were highly correlated with NES, NECR and depression. A multiple regression analysis of depression with backward elimination found that VASQ scores had a significant additional effect. Group comparisons showed different risk patterns for single and married mothers. NES was the strongest risk factor for both groups, with the 'anxious style' subset of the VASQ being the best additional predictor for married mothers and the total VASQ score (general attachment insecurity) for single mothers. The findings indicate that attachment insecurity adds to a psychosocial vulnerability model of depression among mothers cross-culturally and is important in understanding and identifying risk.
Howard, Kimberly S.
Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…
Khaleque, Abdul; Shirin, Anjuman; Uddin, Muhammad Kamal
The present study explored relations among remembered parental (paternal and maternal) acceptance in childhood, spouse acceptance and psychological adjustment of adults. It also explored whether remembered childhood experiences of parental acceptance mediate the relation between perceived spouse acceptance and psychological adjustment. The sample…
Dirette, Diane Powers; Anderson, Michele A
Deficits in working memory are pervasive, resistant to remediation and significantly impact a persons ability to perform activities of daily living. Internal strategies are effective for improving working memory. Learning style preferences may influence the use of various internal working memory strategies. This study compares the use of internal working memory strategies among four different learning style preferences; converger, diverger, assimilator and accommodator. A non-experimental group design was used to compare the use of internal working memory strategies and learning style preferences among 110 adults. There were some significant differences in the types of strategies used according to learning style preferences. Knowing the learning style preference of clients may help occupational therapists better tailor cognitive rehabilitation treatments to meet the client's needs.
McDermott, Ryon C; Lopez, Frederick G
Primary prevention of men's intimate partner violence (IPV) toward women in dating relationships is an important area of psychological inquiry and a significant concern for counselors working with college student populations. Previous research has identified that certain beliefs condoning or accepting physical, sexual, and psychological violence in relationships are key risk factors for IPV perpetration; however, comparatively few studies have examined the social and relational variables related to IPV acceptance attitudes. In the present study, we proposed and tested a structural model examining the combined contributions of adult attachment dimensions (i.e., attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance) and masculine gender role stress in the prediction of IPV acceptance attitudes in a large sample of college men (N = 419). We hypothesized that the relationship between attachment insecurity and IPV acceptance attitudes would be partially mediated by men's gender role stress. A partially mediated model produced the best indices of model fit, accounting for 31% of the variance in an IPV acceptance attitudes latent variable. A bootstrapping procedure confirmed the significance of mediation effects. These results suggest that aspects of adult attachment insecurity are associated with tendencies to experience stress from violations of rigidly internalized traditional male role norms, which, in turn, are associated with acceptance of IPV. Findings are further discussed in relation to adult attachment theory (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007), gender role strain theory (Pleck, 1995), and their implications for IPV prevention in college student populations.
Meredith, Pamela; Ownsworth, Tamara; Strong, Jenny
It is now well established that pain is a multidimensional phenomenon, affected by a gamut of psychosocial and biological variables. According to diathesis-stress models of chronic pain, some individuals are more vulnerable to developing disability following acute pain because they possess particular psychosocial vulnerabilities which interact with physical pathology to impact negatively upon outcome. Attachment theory, a theory of social and personality development, has been proposed as a comprehensive developmental model of pain, implicating individual adult attachment pattern in the ontogenesis and maintenance of chronic pain. The present paper reviews and critically appraises studies which link adult attachment theory with chronic pain. Together, these papers offer support for the role of insecure attachment as a diathesis (or vulnerability) for problematic adjustment to pain. The Attachment-Diathesis Model of Chronic Pain developed from this body of literature, combines adult attachment theory with the diathesis-stress approach to chronic pain. The evidence presented in this review, and the associated model, advances our understanding of the developmental origins of chronic pain conditions, with potential application in guiding early pain intervention and prevention efforts, as well as tailoring interventions to suit specific patient needs.
Marshall, Tara C.; Bejanyan, Kathrine; Ferenczi, Nelli
The purpose of this research was to examine the associations of attachment anxiety and avoidance with personal growth following relationship dissolution, and to test breakup distress, rumination, and tendency to rebound with new partners as mediators of these associations. Study 1 (N = 411) and Study 2 (N = 465) measured attachment style, breakup distress, and personal growth; Study 2 additionally measured ruminative reflection, brooding, and proclivity to rebound with new partners. Structural equation modelling revealed in both studies that anxiety was indirectly associated with greater personal growth through heightened breakup distress, whereas avoidance was indirectly associated with lower personal growth through inhibited breakup distress. Study 2 further showed that the positive association of breakup distress with personal growth was accounted for by enhanced reflection and brooding, and that anxious individuals’ greater personal growth was also explained by their proclivity to rebound. These findings suggest that anxious individuals’ hyperactivated breakup distress may act as a catalyst for personal growth by promoting the cognitive processing of breakup-related thoughts and emotions, whereas avoidant individuals’ deactivated distress may inhibit personal growth by suppressing this cognitive work. PMID:24066169
Smallbone, Stephen W; McCabe, Billee-Anne
Written autobiographies of 48 incarcerated adult male sexual offenders (22 rapists, 13 intrafamilial child molesters, and 13 extrafamilial child molesters) were used to generate retrospective self-report measures of their childhood maternal and paternal attachment, childhood sexual abuse experiences, and onset of masturbation. Contrary to expectation, the offenders as a combined group more often reported secure than they did insecure childhood maternal and paternal attachment. There were no differences between the three offender subgroups with respect to maternal attachment; however the rapists and the intrafamilial child molesters were more likely to report insecure paternal attachment than were the extrafamilial child molesters. There were no differences between these offender subgroups in the frequency with which childhood sexual abuse was reported. However, offenders with insecure paternal attachment were more likely to report having been sexually abused than were those with secure paternal attachment. Sexually abused offenders in turn reported earlier onset of masturbation than did those who were not sexually abused. These results are consistent with contemporary attachment models linking insecure childhood attachment to childhood sexual abuse, and with traditional conditioning models linking childhood sexual abuse, early masturbation, and sexual offending.
Talbot, Jean A.; Baker, Jason K.; McHale, James P.
SYNOPSIS Objective The purpose of this study to consider whether attachment security in mothers and fathers promotes more successful early coparenting adjustment, to assess the role of marital quality in amplifying or diminishing any such effects, and to examine interactive effects of maternal and paternal attachment status on coparenting. Design Eighty-five couples transitioning to new parenthood completed Main and Goldwyn’s Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and a multimethod marital evaluation during the pregnancy’s third trimester and participated in comprehensive assessments of coparenting conflict and cohesion at 3 months postpartum. Results Maternal Insecure attachment status predicted higher levels of coparental conflict, as did father Secure status. Families with Insecure fathers exhibited lower coparental cohesion on the whole. Maternal attachment status moderated the relation between paternal attachment status and cohesion, with Insecure father/Secure mother dyads exhibiting the lowest levels of cohesion, and Secure/Secure dyads showing the highest levels. Prenatal marital quality predicted 3-month coparenting cohesion, but not conflict. Prenatal marital quality did not interact with parental attachment status in the prediction of coparenting, but relations between parents’ attachment status and coparenting maintained after controlling for marital quality. Conclusion Prenatally assessed attachment status in both mothers and fathers predicts dimensions of coparenting early in the family life cycle. The impact of attachment status differs in important ways as a function of parent gender, and security in some cases exacerbated rather than buffered the negative impact of partner insecurity on coparental functioning. Effects of parental attachment security on coparenting cannot be properly estimated without reference to contextual factors. PMID:19662107
Kufskie, Kathy L.
Research has demonstrated that parental divorce and family functioning are associated with children's socieomotional and psychological adjustment well into their adult years. Research has also demonstrated that sexual attitudes are becoming more liberal (cf., Harding & Jencks, 2003; Leiblum, Wiegel, & Brickle, 2003). The purpose of this research…
Erzen, Evren; Odaci, Hatice
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of attachment styles and self-efficacy of adolescents preparing for university entrance exams in Turkey on predicting test anxieties. The study group consisted of 884 final-year high school students (423 female and 461 male) attending different types of high school, preparing for university…
Briere, John; Runtz, Marsha; Eadie, Erin; Bigras, Noémie; Godbout, Natacha
Based on attachment theory, we hypothesized that self-reported childhood experiences of disengaged parenting (DP) would predict adults' psychological symptoms even more than, on average, childhood sexual, physical, or psychological abuse. In a large (N=640) university sample, bootstrapped multiple regression analyses indicated that although various forms of child maltreatment were correlated with symptomatology at the univariate level, DP was the primary multivariate predictor. Structural equation modeling indicated significant direct paths from (a) DP to both nonsexual child maltreatment and sexual abuse, (b) DP and nonsexual child maltreatment to insecure attachment, and (c) sexual abuse and insecure attachment to symptomatology. There were significant indirect effects of DP on psychological symptoms through sexual and nonsexual abuse, as well as through attachment. These results suggest that although child abuse has direct and indirect impacts on psychological symptoms, exposure to DP may be especially detrimental, both by increasing the risk of child abuse and by virtue of its impacts on attachment insecurity. They also support the potential use of attachment-oriented intervention in the treatment of adults maltreated as children.
Rapport, L J; Meleen, M
The associations between celebrity, parental attachment, and adult adjustment were examined among 74 famous, former young performers in television and film. As adults, former young performers whose parents served as their professional managers viewed their mothers as less caring and more overcontrolling than did performers whose parents were not their managers. Other factors affecting the quality of the parent-child relationship included dissatisfaction with money management, poor peer support, the perception that involvement in acting was determined by others, and the specific nature of professional experience. Together, these variables accounted for 59% of the variance in perceived caring and 40% of the variance in perceived autonomy support. The relation could not be attributed to a generalized response bias, as attachment was unrelated to degree of positive thinking. A Celebrity x Parental Attachment interaction indicated that the quality of the parent-child relationship moderated the effects of celebrity on adult adjustment: Among participants with good parental attachment, there was no relation between professional experience and adjustment; however, among participants with poor attachment, this relation was strong. Possible implications for parenting child actors and analogous populations of talented children in high-stress arenas are discussed.
Smith, Phillip N; Gamble, Stephanie A; Cort, Natalie A; Ward, Erin A; Conwell, Yeates; Talbot, Nancy L
The current study examined the interaction of attachment orientation and acute social maladjustment as risk factors for death ideation in a sample of women with Major Depression and histories of childhood sexual abuse. Social maladjustment was associated with greater endorsement of death ideation. Avoidant and anxious attachment orientations moderated the social maladjustment and death ideation associations in some domains. Work-related maladjustment was associated with greater odds of death ideation for those with higher attachment avoidance. Parent-role maladjustment was associated with greater odds of death ideation for those with lower attachment anxiety. Findings demonstrate strong associations between death ideation and social maladjustment, and suggest that death ideation may be specific to certain domains of adjustment for anxious and avoidant attachment styles.
Wu, Chia-huei; Yang, Cheng-Ta
Research examining the relationship between adult attachment styles and exploratory behavior has shown that anxious and avoidant attachment styles are negatively related to exploration. However, little research has been conducted on the mediation process between adult attachment styles and exploration. Given that perceived social support has been shown to be the basis for secure attachment and may be related to exploration behavior, the current study examines whether perceived social support mediates the relationship between adult attachment and exploration. University students in Taiwan (N = 168) completed questionnaires that assessed attachment styles; perceived social support from their father, mother, and best friend; and their intellectual, social, and environmental exploration. Our results revealed that perceived social support mediates the relationship between avoidant attachment and exploration behavior.
Kelley, Michelle L.; Schroeder, Valarie M.; Cooke, Cathy G.; Gumienny, Leslie; Platter, Amanda Jeffrey; Fals-Stewart, William
Gender of the alcohol-abusing parent was examined in relation to general and romantic attachment (as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised and the Relationship Scales Questionnaire) in female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs; as indicated by the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test) as compared to non-ACOAs. As compared to…
Levitt, Ash; Leonard, Kenneth E
Research and theory suggest that romantic couple members are motivated to drink to cope with interpersonal distress. Additionally, this behavior and its consequences appear to be differentially associated with insecure attachment styles. However, no research has directly examined drinking to cope that is specific to relationship problems, or with relationship-specific drinking outcomes. Based on alcohol motivation and attachment theories, the current study examines relationship-specific drinking-to-cope processes over the early years of marriage. Specifically, it was hypothesized that drinking to cope with a relationship problem would mediate the associations between insecure attachment styles (i.e., anxious and avoidant) and frequencies of drinking with and apart from one's partner and marital alcohol problems in married couples. Multilevel models were tested via the actor-partner interdependence model using reports of both members of 470 couples over the first nine years of marriage. As expected, relationship-specific drinking-to-cope motives mediated the effects of actor anxious attachment on drinking apart from one's partner and on marital alcohol problems, but, unexpectedly, not on drinking with the partner. No mediated effects were found for attachment avoidance. Results suggest that anxious (but not avoidant) individuals are motivated to use alcohol to cope specifically with relationship problems in certain contexts, which may exacerbate relationship difficulties associated with attachment anxiety. Implications for theory and future research on relationship-motivated drinking are discussed.
Hock, Rebecca S; Hindin, Michelle J; Bass, Judith K; Surkan, Pamela J; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Mendelson, Tamar
Parenting style is a potent and malleable influence on emerging adult substance use. Most of the parenting-substance use literature has been conducted in Western populations and it is unknown whether findings are generalizable to other cultures and contexts. We extended the parenting-substance use literature to a cohort of emerging adults in the Philippines using the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. We assessed associations between mothers' and fathers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, and neglectful) reported by offspring at age 18 and odds of offspring-reported drug use three years later, adjusted for a range of offspring- and parent/household-level characteristics. Females were dropped from analyses due to low prevalence of drug users. We found that many emerging adults in Cebu reported having used drugs, particularly methamphetamine-a dangerous drug with high abuse potential. Authoritative (warm, firm) mothering was significantly associated with sons' reduced odds of drug use and neglectful fathering was related at a trend level with sons' increased odds of having tried drugs. Findings underscore the relation of parenting styles to emerging adults' drug use and add to the literature on cross-cultural variability in parenting styles.
Harriman, Susan G.
Noting that children growing up with an alcoholic parent often suffer from underdeveloped perceptual skills, unhealthy self-concepts, and low self-esteem, a study examined the impact of an alcoholic family environment on the ability of adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) to communicate interpersonally. The Communicator Style Measure (CSM) was…
Passmore, Nola L.; Fogarty, Gerard J.; Bourke, Carolyn J.; Baker-Evans, Sandra F.
Adult adoptees (n=100) and nonadoptees (n=100) were compared with regard to self-esteem, identity processing style, and parental bonding. Although some differences were found with regard to self-esteem, maternal care, and maternal overprotection, these differences were qualified by reunion status such that only reunited adoptees differed…
Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Lyon, Judith E.; Lin, Eta K.; McGrath, Emily P.; Bimbela, Alfred
Two studies assessed changes in attentional engagement as a function of exposure to "teachers" differing in perceived power and the communication style associated with perceived power. Results suggested that adult ambiguity (more characteristic of those with perception of low power) leads to reductions in children's attentional…
Rucklidge, Julia; Brown, Deborah; Crawford, Susan; Kaplan, Bonnie
Objective: This study investigates attributional styles and psychosocial functioning of men and women with ADHD identified in adulthood to inform practice issues. Method: One hundred and eighty adults participate: 52 females with ADHD, 37 males with ADHD, 51 female controls, and 40 male controls are administered questionnaires broadly assessing…
Manzo, Anthony V.; And Others
The study described in the report identifies personality characteristics and learning styles of adult basic education (ABE) students on the basis of three instruments: the Luscher Color Test, the Manzo Bestiary Inventory, and the Learning Preference Inventory. The volunteer sample consisted of 83 ABE students. Subsample comparison groups consisted…
Sharkey, Robert W.; Morris, Edward K.
This paper describes two experiments designed to determine whether traditional effects of adult nurturance on children's incidental imitation could be obtained using a within-subject design and a functional (rather than operational) definition of nurturance. Four preschool children served as subjects, with four others serving as cross-sex…
Mulligan, Alison; Lavender, Tony
The current study sought to investigate how men and women who experience psychosis represent early bonding experiences, current attachment style and the recovery style adopted. Seventy-three participants (18 women and 55 men) with a diagnosis of psychosis completed the Parental Bonding Instrument, the Attachment Style Questionnaire and the Recovery Style Questionnaire. Differences were observed between men and women in relation to the nature of insecure attachment styles demonstrated. Significant associations were found between perceptions of parents as uncaring and insecurity in adult attachment style. A greater number of significant associations were found between recollections of early bonding and attachment styles amongst women than men. Men and women did not differ significantly in terms of the recovery style adopted, nor were significant differences found in relation to perceptions of early bonding experiences. Methodological and theoretical issues were considered and directions for future research were suggested.
Hock, Rebecca S.; Hindin, Michelle J.; Bass, Judith K.; Surkan, Pamela J.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Mendelson, Tamar
Parenting style is a potent and malleable influence on emerging adult substance use. Most of the parenting-substance use literature has been conducted in Western populations and it is unknown whether findings are generalizable to other cultures and contexts. We extended the parenting-substance use literature to a cohort of emerging adults in the Philippines using the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. We assessed associations between mothers’ and fathers’ parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, and neglectful) reported by offspring at age 18 and odds of offspring-reported drug use three years later, adjusted for a range of offspring- and parent/household-level characteristics. Females were dropped from analyses due to low prevalence of drug users. We found that many emerging adults in Cebu reported having used drugs, particularly methamphetamine—a dangerous drug with high abuse potential. Authoritative (warm, firm) mothering was significantly associated with sons’ reduced odds of drug use and neglectful fathering was related at a trend level with sons’ increased odds of having tried drugs. Findings underscore the relation of parenting styles to emerging adults’ drug use and add to the literature on cross-cultural variability in parenting styles. PMID:27330559
Haggerty, Greg; Bornstein, Robert F.; Khalid, Mohammad; Sharma, Vishal; Riaz, Usman; Blanchard, Mark; Siefert, Caleb J; Sinclair, Samuel J.
This study assessed the construct validity of the Relationship Profile Test (RPT; Bornstein & Languirand, 2003) with a substance abuse sample. One hundred-eight substance abuse patients completed the RPT, Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR-SF; Wei, Russell, Mallinckrodt, & Vogel, 2007), Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991), and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R: Derogatis 1983). Results suggest that the RPT has good construct validity when compared against theoretically related broadband measures of personality, psychopathology and adult attachment. Overall, health hependency was negatively related to measures of psychopathology and insecure attachment, and overdependence was positively related to measures of psychopathology and attachment anxiety. Many of the predictions regarding RPT detachment and the criterion measures were not supported. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26620463
Kim, MiJung; Choi, Yu Suk; Yang, Seung Hye; Hong, Hea-Nam; Cho, Sung-Woo; Cha, Sang Myun; Pak, Jhang Ho; Kim, Chan Wha; Kwon, Seog Woon; Park, Chan Jeoung
The [corrected] use of adult stem cells for cell-based tissue engineering and regeneration strategies represents a promising approach for skeletal muscle repair. We have evaluated the combination of adipose tissue-derived adult stem cells (ADSCs) obtained from autologous liposuction and injectable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) spheres for muscle regeneration. ADSCs attached to PLGA spheres and PLGA spheres alone were cultured in myogenic medium for 21 days and injected subcutaneously into the necks of nude mice. After 30 and 60 days, the mice were sacrificed, and newly formed tissues were analyzed by immunostaining, H and E staining, and RT-PCR. We found that ADSCs attached to PLGA spheres, but not PLGA spheres alone, were able to generate muscle tissue. These findings suggest that ADSCs and PLGA spheres are useful materials for muscle tissue engineering and that their combination can be used in clinical settings for muscle regeneration.
Mental representations and attachment in a sample of adults with Borderline Personality Disorder were assessed using the George, Kaplan and Main (1985) Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Eighty subjects participated in the study: 40 nonclinical and 40 with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The results obtained showed a specific distribution of attachment patterns in the clinical sample: free/autonomous subjects (F) represented only 7%, dismissing classifications (Ds) reached about 20%, entangled/preoccupied (E) 23% and unresolved with traumatic experiences (U) 50%. The two samples differed in their attachment patterns distribution by two (secure vs. insecure status), three (F, Ds and E) and four-way (F, Ds, E and U) categories comparisons. In order to identify more specific protective or risk factors of BPD, 25 one-way ANOVAs with clinical status as variable (clinical vs. nonclinical) were conducted on each scale of the coding system of the interview. Results support the hypothesis that some developmental relational experiences seem to constitute pivotal risk factors underlying this disorder. Results demonstrated potential benefits in using AAI scales in addition to the traditional categories. Implications for research and treatment are discussed.
Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R; Avihou-Kanza, Neta
Self-reported individual differences in attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) are sometimes assumed to tap only conscious mental processes, although many studies have found correlations between such measures and responses to the Thematic Apperception Test, the Rorschach Inkblot Test, and diverse laboratory measures of unconscious mental processes. Dreams offer another route into the unconscious, as Freud famously claimed: a route found useful in psychotherapy. In this study, approximately 1000 dreams reported by 68 young adults who kept dream diaries for a month were analyzed using the Core Conflictual Relationships Theme method, and the themes were examined in relation to (a) scores on the Experiences in Close Relationships measure of attachment anxiety and avoidance and (b) stress experienced the day before each dream. In line with attachment theory and previous research, attachment-related avoidance predicted avoidant wishes and negative representations of other people in dreams. Attachment anxiety predicted wishes for interpersonal closeness, especially in dreams following stressful days, and negative representations of self and both positive and negative representations of others, with negative representations being more common in dreams following stressful days.
Strathearn, Lane; Fonagy, Peter; Amico, Janet; Montague, P. Read
Infant cues, such as smiling or crying facial expressions, are powerful motivators of human maternal behavior, activating dopamine-associated brain reward circuits. Oxytocin, a neurohormone of attachment, promotes maternal care in animals, although its role in human maternal behavior is unclear. We examined 30 first-time new mothers to test whether differences in attachment, based on the Adult Attachment Interview, were related to brain reward and peripheral oxytocin response to infant cues. On viewing their own infant’s smiling and crying faces during functional MRI scanning, mothers with secure attachment showed greater activation of brain reward regions, including the ventral striatum, and the oxytocin-associated hypothalamus/pituitary region. Peripheral oxytocin response to infant contact at 7 months was also significantly higher in secure mothers, and was positively correlated with brain activation in both regions. Insecure/dismissing mothers showed greater insular activation in response to their own infant’s sad faces. These results suggest that individual differences in maternal attachment may be linked with development of the dopaminergic and oxytocinergic neuroendocrine systems. PMID:19710635
Minzenberg, Michael J; Poole, John H; Vinogradov, Sophia
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a paradigmatic disorder of adult attachment, with high rates of antecedent childhood maltreatment. The neurocognitive correlates of both attachment disturbance and maltreatment are both presently unknown in BPD. This study evaluated whether dimensional adult attachment disturbance in BPD is related to specific neurocognitive deficits, and whether childhood maltreatment is related to these dysfunctions. An outpatient BPD group (n=43) performed nearly 1 SD below a control group (n=26) on short-term recall, executive, and intelligence functions. These deficits were not affected by emotionally charged stimuli. In the BPD group, impaired recall was related to attachment-anxiety, whereas executive dysfunction was related to attachment-avoidance. Abuse history was correlated significantly with executive dysfunction and at a trend level with impaired recall. Neurocognitive deficits and abuse history exhibited both independent and interactive effects on adult attachment disturbance. These results suggest that (a) BPD patients' reactivity in attachment relationships is related to temporal-limbic dysfunction, irrespective of the emotional content of stimuli, (b) BPD patients' avoidance within attachment relationships may be a relational strategy to compensate for the emotional consequences of frontal-executive dysregulation, and (c) childhood abuse may contribute to these neurocognitive deficits but may also exert effects on adult attachment disturbance that is both independent and interacting with neurocognitive dysfunction.
Roig, Matilde E.
Minority college students have varied learning styles and process information from distinct background and cultural perspectives, which influences their learning. Accordingly, the way faculty approach teaching affects student achievement. Few minorities are in scientific fields, with a shortage of scientists predicted. A problem exists in understanding the relationship between learning style preferences and achievement of minority college students. The purpose of the study was to investigate this relationship in adult minority students in a South Florida college's biology courses. Research questions pertained to relationships between learning style preferences, race, ethnicity and grades. This quantitative study used the online Felder-Soloman Inventory of Learning Styles with a 73% response comprised of 162 White, Black-African American, Hispanic, and Asian students. Variables included grades, race, ethnicity, and learning styles. Relative frequency analysis revealed students preferred sensing, visual and sequential learning. ANOVA analysis showed no significant differences between learning style preference and achievement, nor between race-ethnicity and grades. Chi-square analysis revealed a significant relationship between Black-African Americans and Hispanics for sensing, visual and sequential learning, but not for visual. Black-African American students had the lowest passing rate in biology courses, with Asians having the highest. Increased educator and advisor knowledge of learning styles could result in social change and educational reform from this study, through the adoption of best methods for teaching minority groups enrolled in science courses. Knowing the potential shortage of minorities in the sciences, increased achievement in science courses might encourage these students to enter into scientific careers.
Krause, Sabrina; Pokorny, Dan; Schury, Katharina; Doyen-Waldecker, Cornelia; Hulbert, Anna-Lena; Karabatsiakis, Alexander; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Gündel, Harald; Waller, Christiane; Buchheim, Anna
Oxytocin, a small neuropeptide of nine amino acids, has been characterized as the "hormone of affiliation" and is stimulated, for instance, in mothers when interacting with their offspring. Variations in maternal oxytocin levels were reported to predict differences in the quality of care provided by mothers. In this study, the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) as a valid measure to assess attachment representations was used as an activating attachment-related stimulus. We investigated whether the AAP induces a release of oxytocin in mothers with a secure attachment representation and a stress-related cortisol response in mothers with an insecure attachment representation. Therefore, pre-post effects of AAP administration on plasma oxytocin and serum cortisol levels were investigated in n = 44 mothers 3 months after parturition. Oxytocin levels increased from pre to post in the significant majority of 73% participants (p = 0.004) and cortisol decreased in the significant majority of 73% participants (p = 0.004). Interestingly, no association between alterations in oxytocin and cortisol were found; this suggests taking a model of two independent processes into considerations. These results show that the AAP test procedure induces an oxytocin response. Concerning the results within the four AAP representation subgroups, our hypothesis of a particularly strong increase in oxytocin in secure mothers was not confirmed; however, in secure mothers we observed a particularly strong decrease in cortisol. Effect sizes are reported, allowing the replication of results in a larger study with sufficient sample size to draw final conclusions with respect to differences in OT and cortisol alterations depending on attachment representation. When interpreting the results, one should keep in mind that this study investigated lactating mothers. Thus, the generalizability of results is limited and future studies should investigate non-lactating healthy females as well as
Krause, Sabrina; Pokorny, Dan; Schury, Katharina; Doyen-Waldecker, Cornelia; Hulbert, Anna-Lena; Karabatsiakis, Alexander; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Gündel, Harald; Waller, Christiane; Buchheim, Anna
Oxytocin, a small neuropeptide of nine amino acids, has been characterized as the “hormone of affiliation” and is stimulated, for instance, in mothers when interacting with their offspring. Variations in maternal oxytocin levels were reported to predict differences in the quality of care provided by mothers. In this study, the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) as a valid measure to assess attachment representations was used as an activating attachment-related stimulus. We investigated whether the AAP induces a release of oxytocin in mothers with a secure attachment representation and a stress-related cortisol response in mothers with an insecure attachment representation. Therefore, pre-post effects of AAP administration on plasma oxytocin and serum cortisol levels were investigated in n = 44 mothers 3 months after parturition. Oxytocin levels increased from pre to post in the significant majority of 73% participants (p = 0.004) and cortisol decreased in the significant majority of 73% participants (p = 0.004). Interestingly, no association between alterations in oxytocin and cortisol were found; this suggests taking a model of two independent processes into considerations. These results show that the AAP test procedure induces an oxytocin response. Concerning the results within the four AAP representation subgroups, our hypothesis of a particularly strong increase in oxytocin in secure mothers was not confirmed; however, in secure mothers we observed a particularly strong decrease in cortisol. Effect sizes are reported, allowing the replication of results in a larger study with sufficient sample size to draw final conclusions with respect to differences in OT and cortisol alterations depending on attachment representation. When interpreting the results, one should keep in mind that this study investigated lactating mothers. Thus, the generalizability of results is limited and future studies should investigate non-lactating healthy females as
De Haene, Lucia; Grietens, Hans; Verschueren, Karine
Starting from an outline of the refugee experience as a process of cumulative traumatisation, we review research literature on mental health outcomes in refugees. Next, an integration of findings on relational processes in refugee families documents the role of the family unit as a key interactive context patterning the impact of sequential traumatisation. Relating these trauma- and migration-specific family processes to their central dimension of provision or disruption of emotional availability in a context of chronic adversity, we aim to explore the development of unresolved and insecure parental states of mind regarding attachment during forced migration. Starting the research report, a method discussion on the administration of 11 Adult Attachment Interviews with adult refugees as part of an explorative multiple case study integrates deontological and technical reflections on the use of the Adult Attachment Interview in a context of ongoing traumatisation. The paper then presents findings on adult attachment in refugees and highlights representational processes involved in the potential disruption of caregiver availability during refugee traumatisation.
Murphy, Anne; Steele, Miriam; Dube, Shanta Rishi; Bate, Jordan; Bonuck, Karen; Meissner, Paul; Goldman, Hannah; Steele, Howard
Although Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are linked to increased health problems and risk behaviors in adulthood, there are no studies on the association between ACEs and adults' states of mind regarding their early childhood attachments, loss, and trauma experiences. To validate the ACEs questions, we analyzed the association between ACEs and emotional support indicators and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) classifications in terms of unresolved mourning regarding past loss or trauma and discordant states of mind in cannot classify (U/CC) interviews. Seventy-five urban women (41 clinical and 34 community) completed a questionnaire on ACEs, which included 10 categories of abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction, in addition to emotional support. Internal psychological processes or states of mind concerning attachment were assessed using the AAI. ACE responses were internally consistent (Cronbach's α=.88). In the clinical sample, 84% reported≥4 ACEs compared to 27% among the community sample. AAIs judged U/CC occurred in 76% of the clinical sample compared to 9% in the community sample. When ACEs were≥4, 65% of AAIs were classified U/CC. Absence of emotional support in the ACEs questionnaire was associated with 72% of AAIs being classified U/CC. As the number of ACEs and the lack of emotional support increases so too does the probability of AAIs being classified as U/CC. Findings provide rationale for including ACEs questions in pediatric screening protocols to identify and offer treatment reducing the intergenerational transmission of risk associated with problematic parenting.
Calvo, Vincenzo; Bianco, Francesca
Background: Parenting self-esteem includes two global components, parents’ self-efficacy and satisfaction with their parental role, and has a crucial role in parent–child interactions. The purpose of this study was to develop an integrative model linking adult attachment insecurities, dyadic adjustment, and parenting self-esteem. Methods: The study involved 118 pairs (236 subjects) of heterosexual parents of a firstborn child aged 0–6 years. They were administered the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) questionnaire, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale. Results: Path analysis was used to design and test a theoretical integrative model, achieving a good fit with the data. Findings showed that dyadic adjustment mediates the negative influence on parenting self-efficacy of both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. Parenting satisfaction is positively influenced by parenting self-efficacy and negatively affected by child’s age. Attachment anxiety negatively influences parenting satisfaction. Conclusion: Our findings are in line with the theoretical expectations and have promising implications for future research and intervention programs designed to improve parenting self-esteem. PMID:26441811
Daniel, Sarah I F
Different types of client attachment insecurity may affect the psychotherapeutic process in distinct ways. This exploratory study compared the in-session discourse of clients with dismissing and preoccupied attachment states of mind on Adult Attachment Interviews conducted prior to therapy in the context of a randomized clinical trial of psychoanalytic and cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa. In a subsample of six sessions from each of eight therapy dyads, preoccupied clients were found to talk more and have longer speaking turns than dismissing clients, who in turn generated more pauses. Using the Narrative Processes Coding System, preoccupied clients were found to show more narrative initiative; whereas, differences in terms of narrative process modes were not as clearly interpretable. Contrary to expectations, the two insecure states of mind were equally different in the relationship-focused psychoanalytic therapy and in the symptom-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy. Suggestions for further investigations of the in-session discourse of clients with different attachment states of mind are given.
Mohr, Jonathan J.; Fassinger, Ruth E.
A model linking attachment variables with self-acceptance and self-disclosure of sexual orientation was tested using data from 489 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults. The model included the following 4 domains of variables: (a) representations of childhood attachment experiences with parents, (b) perceptions of parental support for sexual…
Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R; Sapir-Lavid, Yael; Avihou-Kanza, Neta
In 8 studies the authors explored the procedural knowledge (secure-base script; H. S. Waters & E. Waters, 2006) associated with secure attachment (i.e., low scores on attachment anxiety and avoidance). The studies assessed the accessibility, richness, and automaticity of the secure-base script and the extent to which it guided the processing of attachment-relevant information. Secure attachment (lower scores on anxiety and avoidance) was associated with greater secure-base "scriptedness" of attachment narratives, greater accessibility of the secure-base script in narratives and dreams about distressing experiences, deeper processing of script-relevant information, and faster and more confident script-relevant judgments. In addition, secure participants' tendency to process secure-base information more deeply was evident even 5 days after being exposed to it and was impervious to the depletion of cognitive resources, indicating automatic processing. The discussion focuses on implications of the findings for understanding the cognitive bases of secure people's affect-regulation strategies and behavior in social relationships.
Farina, Benedetto; Speranza, Anna Maria; Imperatori, Claudio; Quintiliani, Maria Isabella; Della Marca, Giacomo
The aim of this study was to assess heart rate variability (HRV) in individuals with dissociative disorders (DD) before and after the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Electrocardiograms were recorded before, during, and after the AAI in 13 individuals with DD and 13 healthy participants matched for age and gender. Significant change in HRV was observed only in the DD group. After the AAI, those with DD showed significant increases in the low frequency/high frequency ratio (pre-AAI = 1.91 ± 1.19; post-AAI = 4.03 ± 2.40; Wilcoxon test = -2.76, p = .005). Our results suggest that the retrieval of childhood attachment experiences in individuals with DD is associated with a change in HRV patterns that could reflect the emotion dysregulation of dissociative psychopathological processes.
Moss, Ellen; Smolla, Nicole; Cyr, Chantal; Dubois-Comtois, Karine; Mazzarello, Tania; Berthiaume, Claude
The predictive relation between attachment and mother, teacher, and self-reported psychopathology was examined for a diverse socioeconomic status French Canadian sample of 96 children. Attachment classifications were assigned on the basis of reunion behavior with mother when the children were approximately 6 years old, and child problem behavior was assessed 2 years later using the Child Behavior Checklist (mother report), the Social Behavior Questionaire (teacher report), and the Dominic Questionnaire (child self-report). Results indicated that both insecure/ambivalent and insecure/controlling children children were rated higher than secure children on a composite measure of externalizing problems. Concerning internalizing problems, only the controlling group was significantly higher on both a composite adult (teacher and mother) and self-report measure of internalizing problems. Analyses of clinical cutoff scores showed that only the controlling group had a significantly greater likelihood of overall problem behavior than other children.
Freitas, Mélanie; Rahioui, Hassan
Old age is likely to cause a crisis in one's life because of the vulnerabilities it brings up, acting as stressful elements disrupting the elder's feeling of security. It leads to the activation of what is called his attachment system, consisting in attachment styles and interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. To recover a higher sense of safety, the elder would refer to his attachment figures, that is to say closed people paying attention to him, showing towards him availability and consideration. However older adults particularly see their tolerance threshold lowered, regarding an accumulation of losses (true or symbolic) and stressful events within their lifetime. In a psychological and organic exhaustion phenomenon, the risk is to wear out the interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. These are as much vulnerabilities that may increase psychiatric decompensation, including depression. To resolve the tension of this period and to found a necessary secure feeling, the elder will have to redesign the attachment links previously settled and proceed to adjustments to this new context. The need of relational closeness comes back in the elders' attachment behaviour, counting on attachment figures not only to help their loneliness or dependency, but essentially to support them in a narcissist and affective way. That is why attachment theory enlightens the late life period, such as the new challenges older adults have to face. Many studies recognize its value in understanding the transition to old age, but without proposing conceptualization. We aim first to focus on attachment conception to say how much it is relevant with elderly, and then to describe specific terms of attachment within this population in order to better understand those patients. To finish, we must think about new therapeutic proposals taking into consideration the attachment perspective for a better understanding of old age transition.
Grbic, J T; Lamster, I B; Celenti, R S; Fine, J B
We studied patient-derived variables to identify individuals at risk for future clinical attachment loss (CAL). Seventy-five patients with chronic adult periodontitis were followed for 6 months and clinical and epidemiological parameters collected at baseline were related to CAL. Clinical parameters were obtained from 6 sites per tooth and whole-mouth averages were calculated. Epidemiologic parameters were obtained by questionnaire and interview. After the baseline examination, patients were treated with root planing and scaling. Thirty-one patients (41.3%) demonstrated greater than or equal to 1 site with CAL of greater than or equal to 2.5 mm, while 16 patients (21.3%) demonstrated CAL at greater than or equal to 2 sites. Epidemiological factors such as gender, health status, marital status, education, and occupation were not associated with CAL. In contrast, baseline mean attachment level, age, baseline mean probing depth, baseline mean recession, percentage of sites exhibiting bleeding on probing, and the number of missing teeth were related to CAL. Using logistic modelling, we found that baseline attachment level was the primary risk indicator for post-treatment CAL. Nineteen percent of the patients with baseline attachment levels less than 4.0 mm, 50% of the patients with 4.0 to 4.9 mm, and 85% (P less than .005) of the patients with greater than or equal to 5.0 mm exhibited CAL. The age of the patient was also a major risk indicator for CAL, and was independent of baseline attachment levels. Eighty-nine percent of the 60 to 69 year old patients demonstrated CAL, compared to only 35% of patients between the ages of 30 and 59 (P less than or equal to .005).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
van den Brink, Femke; Smeets, Monique A M; Hessen, David J; Woertman, Liesbeth
This study focused on links between romantic attachment, positive body image, and sexual functioning. Dutch female university students (N = 399) completed an online survey that included self-report items about body appreciation, sexual functioning, and romantic attachment. A proposed conceptual model was tested using structural equation modeling and a good fit to the data was found. Results revealed that attachment avoidance in a romantic context was negatively related to sexual arousal, vaginal lubrication, the ability to reach orgasm, and sexual satisfaction. Attachment anxiety was negatively related to body appreciation which, in turn, was positively related to sexual desire and arousal. Findings indicated that romantic attachment is meaningfully linked to body appreciation and sexual functioning. Therefore, the concept of adult attachment may be a useful tool for the treatment of sexual problems of young women.
Meyer, Björn; Ajchenbrenner, Muriel; Bowles, David P
Both avoidant and borderline personality disorder (APD and BPD) are theoretically associated with temperamental vulnerabilities, adverse attachment experiences, and negative (pessimistic or catastrophic) reactions to the threat of perceived rejection; however, more work is needed to differentiate how these processes account for the etiology and maintenance of both disorders. In this study, 156 adults completed questionnaires measuring APD and BPD features, temperament (sensory-processing sensitivity), mood, and attachment experiences. A vignette task was devised to examine pessimistic cognitive-affective reactions in situations signaling potential rejection. Both APD and BPD were associated with temperamental sensitivity, but BPD was uniquely linked with a subscale measuring sensitivity to mental and emotive stimuli, whereas APD was uniquely linked with a subscale measuring the control and avoidance of aversive stimulation. Compared to APD, BPD was more strongly linked with negative moods (anxiety, anger, sadness) and insecure attachment to parents, whereas APD was more strongly linked (than BPD) to pessimistic cognitive-affective responses to rejection-related situations.
Waters, Theodore E. A.; Steele, Ryan D.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn
An emerging literature suggests that variation in Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; George, Kaplan, & Main, 1985) states of mind about childhood experiences with primary caregivers is reflected in specific linguistic features captured by the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count automated text analysis program (LIWC; Pennebaker, Booth, & Francis, 2007). The current report addressed limitations of prior studies in this literature by using two large AAI corpora (Ns = 826 and 857) and a broader range of linguistic variables, as well as examining associations of LIWC-derived AAI dimensions with key developmental antecedents. First, regression analyses revealed that dismissing states of mind were associated with transcripts that were more truncated and deemphasized discussion of the attachment relationship whereas preoccupied states of mind were associated with longer, more conflicted, and angry narratives. Second, in aggregate, LIWC variables accounted for over a third of the variation in AAI dismissing and preoccupied states of mind, with regression weights cross-validating across samples. Third, LIWC-derived dismissing and preoccupied state of mind dimensions were associated with direct observations of maternal and paternal sensitivity as well as infant attachment security in childhood, replicating the pattern of results reported in Haydon, Roisman, Owen, Booth-LaForce, and Cox (2014) using coder-derived dismissing and preoccupation scores in the same sample. PMID:27065477
Busch, Amy L; Lieberman, Alicia F
This study examined links between mothers' Adult Attachment Interview ratings (AAI; Main, Goldwyn, & Hesse, 2003) and their preschool children's IQ among 70 families who had experienced domestic violence. As predicted, children displayed significantly stronger verbal and perceptual-organizational abilities when their mothers exhibited more secure, i.e. coherent, states of mind regarding attachment. Mothers' coherence of mind on the AAI explained 18% of the variance in children's Verbal IQ and 12% of the variance in children's Performance IQ, after controlling for maternal education. Mothers' attachment security also was related to children's total IQ score, but this association was accounted for by effects on children's Verbal IQ. Children whose mothers were rated as unclassifiable on the AAI and those whose mothers were unresolved/insecure had lower IQ scores. Although mothers who appeared more secure on the AAI were more sensitively responsive toward their children, mediational analyses suggested that there was a direct link between mothers' security and children's IQ that was not explained by sensitive parenting. This suggests that clinical interventions for children exposed to domestic violence should include helping their mothers achieve coherent ways of thinking about their own childhood experiences, including past trauma.
Weiss, Jonathan A.; MacMullin, Jennifer; Waechter, Randall; Wekerle, Christine
One of the most salient developmental tasks of adolescence is the entry into romantic relationship, which often involves developing attachments to partners. Adolescents with a history of maltreatment have been found to be at greater risk of insecure attachments to romantic partners than non-maltreated adolescents, and the interaction of…
Hart, Joshua; Hung, Jacqueline A; Glick, Peter; Dinero, Rachel E
The authors present an integrative account of how attachment insecurities relate to sexism. Two studies showed that attachment avoidance predisposes men to endorse hostile but to reject benevolent sexism (BS), whereas attachment anxiety predisposes men toward ambivalent (both hostile and benevolent) sexism. The authors also tested predicted mediators, finding that men's social dominance orientation (a competitive intergroup ideology) mediated the avoidance to hostile sexism link. In addition, romanticism (an idealized interpersonal ideology) mediated attachment insecurity to BS links: (a) Avoidant men tended to reject romanticism (i.e., were cynical about romance) and, in turn, were likely to reject BS, whereas (b) anxious men tended to endorse romanticism (i.e., were idealistic about romance) and, in turn, likely to endorse BS. The authors conclude that men's sexism stems in part from dispositional attachment working models, both directly and through the interpersonal and intergroup ideologies they generate.
Huang, Yu-Lien; Chen, Sue-Huei; Su, Yi-Jen; Kung, Yi-Wen
Greater risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is seen in individuals exposed to interpersonal traumatic events. Based on an attachment perspective, interpersonal trauma exposure may activate one's attachment insecurity system and disrupt affect, behaviour and interpersonal function, which may in turn create more difficulties to cope with interpersonal traumas and exacerbate PTSD symptomatology. The present study examined whether attachment anxiety relative to attachment avoidance would be a stronger predictor of greater PTSD symptoms following interpersonal traumas versus impersonal traumas in a Taiwanese sample. One hundred and sixty-two trauma-exposed Taiwanese young adults completed the measures of symptoms of depression, anxiety and PTSD, and attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. In this Taiwanese study, higher attachment anxiety was observed in individuals who were exposed to interpersonal traumas. The interpersonal trauma group reported greater PTSD symptoms than did the impersonal trauma group. Specifically, after controlling for age, occurrence of trauma and distress of trauma, attachment anxiety, but not attachment avoidance, predicted more PTSD total severity and avoidance symptoms in the interpersonal trauma group. The findings may be pertinent to attachment anxiety-related hyperactivating strategies, as well as specific cultural values and a forbearance strategy applied to regulate traumatic distress in a collectivist society. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Berant, Ety; Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R
The long-term contribution of mothers' attachment insecurities to their own and their children's psychological functioning was examined in a 7-year prospective longitudinal study of children with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD). Sixty-three mothers of newborns with CHD participated in a three-wave study, beginning with the CHD diagnosis (T1), then 1 year later (T2), and again 7 years later (T3). At T1, the mothers reported on their attachment style and mental health. At T2, the mental health measure was administered again, along with a marital satisfaction scale. At T3, participants completed these two measures again, and their children reported on their self-concept and completed the Children's Apperception Test. Maternal avoidant attachment at T1 was the best predictor of deterioration in the mothers' mental health and marital satisfaction over the 7-year period, especially in a subgroup whose children had severe CHD. In addition, mothers' attachment insecurities (both anxiety and avoidance) at the beginning of the study were associated with their children's emotional problems and poor self-image 7 years later.
Heimlich, Joe E.; Norland, Emmalou
Designed for adult educators in various settings who are seeking to improve as teachers, this book describes a process adult educators can use to examine their beliefs about teaching and current teaching behavior in depth. It is intended to guide them through an exploration of who they really are as teachers, and then, through experiential…
Sweeney, R. Carol
This paper focuses on how the entrance of greater numbers of adults into university classes has changed and should continue to change the methods of teaching. The first part of the paper traces the history of the philosophy of adult education, recounting liberal education theories, progressive theories, behaviorist theories, humanistic approaches,…
Craig, Holly K.; Grogger, Jeffrey T.
Purpose In this study, the authors examined the influences of selected social (gender, employment status, educational achievement level) and style variables (race of examiner, interview topic) on the production of African American English (AAE) by adults. Method Participants were 50 African American men and women, ages 20–30 years. The authors used Rapid and Anonymous Survey (RAS) methods to collect responses to questions on informal situational and formal message-oriented topics in a short interview with an unacquainted interlocutor. Results Results revealed strong systematic effects for academic achievement, but not gender or employment status. Most features were used less frequently by participants with higher educational levels, but sharp declines in the usage of 5 specific features distinguished the participants differing in educational achievement. Strong systematic style effects were found for the 2 types of questions, but not race of addressee. The features that were most commonly used across participants—copula absence, variable subject–verb agreement, and appositive pronouns—were also the features that showed the greatest style shifting. Conclusions The findings lay a foundation with mature speakers for rate-based and feature inventory methods recently shown to be informative for the study of child AAE and demonstrate the benefits of the RAS. PMID:22361105
Hertz, Pnina; Addaad, Moshe; Ronel, Natti
In Overeaters Anonymous (OA), the 12-step self-help program for compulsive overeaters, binge eating is regarded as a physical, spiritual, and emotional disorder. Consequently, the program proposes recovery through the adoption of a lifestyle that leads to physical, spiritual, and emotional well-being. A qualitative phenomenological study that focused on the emotional recovery of OA members was conducted. Personal narratives were obtained through semistructured in-depth interviews. It was found that the tools used for spiritual and emotional work at OA are essential to recovery. Furthermore, the experience of secure attachment is likely to occur within OA when safe ground is provided and positive attachment figures are accessible. These safe ground and positive attachment figures facilitate a corrective emotional experience that compensates for a childhood recollected in terms of rejection and time spent with a caregiver who lacked the emotional availability required for the creation of a secure attachment. Theoretical, clinical, and future research implications are discussed.
Ferrari, Joseph R; Ozer, Bilge Uzun; Demir, Ayhan
The authors examined the prevalence of chronic procrastination (decisional, avoidant, and arousal styles) as functions of demographic variables among 354 Turkish adults (148 men, 206 women; M age = 38.7 years, SD = 8.26 years). Prevalence analyses showed that among Turkish participants, 17.5% were indecisive procrastinators, 13.8% were avoidant procrastinators, and 14.7% were arousal procrastinators. Results did not yield significant differences for gender or age on any forms of procrastination, which is consistent with other international samples. However, significant differences emerged depending on the number of children such that Turkish adults who had more than 3 children claimed to be more indecisive than they claimed to be arousal or avoidant procrastinators. Respondents with less than a graduate degree reported higher rates of indecision than did respondents with at least a graduate degree.
Kim, Youngmee; Carver, Charles S
How caregivers relate to care recipients can affect how well care is provided and how much burden is experienced in providing it. We conceptualized the relationship of spousal caregivers via adult attachment theory and examined how attachment qualities of caregivers related to level of caregiving involvement and difficulties in caregiving. Gender differences in the associations were also explored. From participants in the ACS Quality of Life Survey for Caregivers, 400 spousal caregivers provided valid data for the study variables. Findings indicated that frequency of various types of care was a joint function of attachment orientation and gender. In contrast, the difficulty that caregivers experienced in providing care related directly to attachment, without moderation by gender. Our findings suggest that ineffective caregivers of cancer patients, who can be identified by their attachment orientation and/or gender, may benefit from educational programs to improve their caregiving skills and to encourage them to utilize resources from other family members or community.
Lawson, M R
1. The malarial parasite is extracellular throughout its entire life cycle; that is, when it is not free in the blood serum, it is attached to the external surface of the red corpuscle. 2. Adult parasites follow the same procedure in attaching themselves to the outer surface of the red corpuscles as do the young parasites. 3. Adult parasites are most frequently seen attached to surface corpuscular mounds. 4. Corpuscular mounds projecting at the periphery of the red corpuscles and encircled by the pseudopodia of adult parasites, are proof positive of the extracellular relation of the adult parasite to the red corpuscle. 5. Adult parasites attached to peripheral corpuscular mounds are only found in appreciable numbers when the red corpuscles are not badly damaged, so that the mounds show more or less hemoglobin content. 6. The nuclei or protoplasm of adult parasites extending beyond the periphery of the red corpuscles is additional evidence of the extracellular relation of the parasites to the red corpuscle.
Hansen, Anita Lill; Waage, Leif; Eid, Jarle; Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Hart, Stephen
This study examined the role of adult attachment and personality in relation to antisocial tendencies (i.e. convictions for violence and interpersonal problems in romantic relationships) in Norwegian prison inmates (N=92). Attachment styles and personality were measured using self-report questionnaires (RSQ; Griffin & Bartholomew, 1994; and NEO-FFI, Costa & McCrae, 1992a). The prison inmates scored higher on avoidant than on anxious attachment style. While age and agreeableness (negatively associated) emerged as significant predictors of violence, anxious attachment explained most of the variances in aggression in intimate relationships. The study suggests that different types of antisocial tendencies could have different attachment and general personality correlates.
Gentzler, Amy L; Ramsey, Meagan A; Black, Katelyn R
This study investigated how mothers' attachment was related to their responses to their own and their children's positive events and positive affect (PA). Ninety-seven mothers reported on their attachment and their responses to their own and their 7-12-year-old children's positive events and emotions. Children reported on their mothers' responses to the children's positive events and their attachment security with their mothers. The results indicated that more avoidant mothers reported less intense PA in response to their own and their children's positive events. More avoidant mothers also were less likely to encourage their children to savor positive events (through expressing PA, reflecting on PA or themselves, giving rewards, and affectionate responses). Mothers higher on anxiety reported greater likelihood of dampening (e.g., minimizing the event's importance) their own positive events and reported being more likely to feel discomfort and to reprimand their children for expressing PA. Children's security was predicted by mothers' lower likelihood of encouraging children's dampening and of reprimanding children for PA displays. This study advances the literature on how mothers' attachment is related to the ways in which they regulate their own and their children's PA, which may have implications for children's attachment and developing PA regulation.
Wilson, Lisa; Catalano, Denise; Sung, Connie; Phillips, Brian; Chou, Chih-Chin; Chan, Jacob Yui Chung; Chan, Fong
Objective: To examine the roles of attachment, social support, and coping as psychosocial correlates in predicting happiness in people with spinal cord injuries. Design: Quantitative descriptive research design using multiple regression and correlation techniques. Participants: 274 individuals with spinal cord injuries. Outcome Measures: Happiness…
McKee, Michael; Roring, Steven; Winterowd, Carrie; Porras, Claudia
The purpose of the study was to explore how negative self-schemas and partner attachments were related to the experience and expression of anger (i.e., trait anger, inward and outward expression of anger) in a sample of male batterers (n = 40) who participated in court-mandated group services. They completed the Experience in Close Relationships…
Roelofs, Jeffrey; Meesters, Cor; ter Huurne, Mijke; Bamelis, Lotte; Muris, Peter
We sought to investigate the relationships between negative family factors such as insecure attachment and adverse parental rearing, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in a large sample of non-clinical children (N = 237) aged 9 to 12 years. All children completed a set of self-report questionnaires including a single-item measure of…
Porreca, Alessio; De Palo, Francesca; Simonelli, Alessandra; Capra, Nicoletta
Drug addiction is considered a major risk factor that can influence maternal functioning at multiple levels, leading to less optimal parental qualities and less positive interactive exchanges in mother-child dyads. Moreover, drug abusers often report negative or traumatic attachment representations regarding their own childhood. These representations might affect, to some extent, later relational and developmental outcomes of their children. This study explored whether the development of dyadic interactions in addicted women differed based on attachment status. The longitudinal ongoing of mother-child emotional exchanges was assessed among four mothers with four different attachment statuses (F-autonomous, E-preoccupied, Ds-dismissing, and U-unresolved/with losses). Attachment representations were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (George et al., 1985), while mother-child interactions were evaluated longitudinally during videotaped play sessions, through the Emotional Availability Scales (Biringen, 2008). As expected, the dyad with the autonomous mother showed better interactive functioning during play despite the condition of drug-abuse; the mother proved to be more affectively positive, sensitive, and responsive, while her baby showed a better organization of affects and behaviors. On the other side, insecure mothers seemed to experience more difficulties when interacting with their children showing inconsistency in the ability to perceive and respond to their babies' signals. Finally, children of insecure mothers showed less clear affects and signals. While differences between secure and insecure dyads appeared clear, differences between insecure patterns where less linear, suggesting a possible mediating role played by other factors. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Porreca, Alessio; De Palo, Francesca; Simonelli, Alessandra; Capra, Nicoletta
Drug addiction is considered a major risk factor that can influence maternal functioning at multiple levels, leading to less optimal parental qualities and less positive interactive exchanges in mother-child dyads. Moreover, drug abusers often report negative or traumatic attachment representations regarding their own childhood. These representations might affect, to some extent, later relational and developmental outcomes of their children. This study explored whether the development of dyadic interactions in addicted women differed based on attachment status. The longitudinal ongoing of mother-child emotional exchanges was assessed among four mothers with four different attachment statuses (F-autonomous, E-preoccupied, Ds-dismissing, and U-unresolved/with losses). Attachment representations were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (George et al., 1985), while mother-child interactions were evaluated longitudinally during videotaped play sessions, through the Emotional Availability Scales (Biringen, 2008). As expected, the dyad with the autonomous mother showed better interactive functioning during play despite the condition of drug-abuse; the mother proved to be more affectively positive, sensitive, and responsive, while her baby showed a better organization of affects and behaviors. On the other side, insecure mothers seemed to experience more difficulties when interacting with their children showing inconsistency in the ability to perceive and respond to their babies' signals. Finally, children of insecure mothers showed less clear affects and signals. While differences between secure and insecure dyads appeared clear, differences between insecure patterns where less linear, suggesting a possible mediating role played by other factors. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:27014153
Millings, Abigail; Hepper, Erica G; Hart, Claire M; Swift, Louise; Rowe, Angela C
Despite being a universal human attachment behavior, little is known about individual differences in crying. To facilitate such examination we first recommend shortened versions of the attitudes and proneness sections of the Adult Crying Inventory using two independent samples. Importantly, we examine attachment orientation differences in crying proneness and test the mediating role of attitudes toward crying in this relationship. Participants (Sample 1 N = 623, Sample 2 N = 781), completed online measures of adult attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety), attitudes toward crying, and crying proneness. Exploratory factor analyses in Sample 1 revealed four factors for crying attitudes: crying helps one feel better; crying is healthy; hatred of crying; and crying is controllable; and three factors for crying proneness: threat to self; sadness; and joy. Confirmatory factor analyses in Sample 2 replicated these structures. Theoretically and statistically justified short forms of each scale were created. Multiple mediation analyses revealed similar patterns of results across the two samples, with the attitudes "crying is healthy" and "crying is controllable" consistently mediating the positive links between attachment anxiety and crying proneness, and the negative links between attachment avoidance and crying proneness. Results are discussed in relation to attachment and emotion regulation literature.
Millings, Abigail; Hepper, Erica G.; Hart, Claire M.; Swift, Louise; Rowe, Angela C.
Despite being a universal human attachment behavior, little is known about individual differences in crying. To facilitate such examination we first recommend shortened versions of the attitudes and proneness sections of the Adult Crying Inventory using two independent samples. Importantly, we examine attachment orientation differences in crying proneness and test the mediating role of attitudes toward crying in this relationship. Participants (Sample 1 N = 623, Sample 2 N = 781), completed online measures of adult attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety), attitudes toward crying, and crying proneness. Exploratory factor analyses in Sample 1 revealed four factors for crying attitudes: crying helps one feel better; crying is healthy; hatred of crying; and crying is controllable; and three factors for crying proneness: threat to self; sadness; and joy. Confirmatory factor analyses in Sample 2 replicated these structures. Theoretically and statistically justified short forms of each scale were created. Multiple mediation analyses revealed similar patterns of results across the two samples, with the attitudes “crying is healthy” and “crying is controllable” consistently mediating the positive links between attachment anxiety and crying proneness, and the negative links between attachment avoidance and crying proneness. Results are discussed in relation to attachment and emotion regulation literature. PMID:27458402
Webster, Linda; Joubert, David
Child maltreatment has been associated with a host of negative outcomes including impaired social relationships (Rogosch, Cicchetti, & Aber, 1995), depression (Toth, Manly, & Cicchetti, 1992), poor self-concept and motivation (Vondra, Barnett, & Cicchetti, 1990), and delinquency and conduct problems (Cook et al., 2005; Grotevant et al., 2006; McCabe, Lucchini, Hough, Yeh, & Hazen, 2005; Ryan & Testa, 2005). An assessment of the mental representation of attachment relationships could offer additional relevant and useful information to the evaluation of youth in foster care, and could inform treatment and placement considerations. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) is a relatively new measure of internal representations of attachment based on the analysis of a set of stimuli designed to systematically activate the attachment system (George, West, & Pettem, 1997). This article considers the use of the AAP with a maltreated adolescent in a clinical setting and uses a case study to illustrate the components of the AAP that are particularly relevant to case conceptualization and interventions.
Zakalik, Robyn A.; Wei, Meifen
This study examined perceived discrimination as both a mediator and moderator between adult attachment (anxiety and avoidance) and levels of depression in a gay male sample. Survey data were collected from 234 self-identified gay males through the Internet and in person through community resources across several states. Results from structural…
Twaite, James A.; Rodriguez-Srednicki, Ofelia
Two hundred and eighty-four adults from the metropolitan New York area reported on their history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), childhood physical abuse (CPA), and on the nature of their exposure to the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. The respondents also completed the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), the Attachment Style…
Dhariwal, Amrit; Connolly, Jennifer; Paciello, Marinella; Caprara, Gian Vittorio
This study extends understanding of romantic development in the emerging adult years by using an 8-year longitudinal design in Italy. Peer groups at age 13, interpersonal functioning and emotion regulation at age 17, and romantic styles at age 21 were measured in 388 youth. Early peer groups were shown to be indirectly associated with two romantic…
Umemura, Tomo; Lacinová, Lenka; Macek, Petr; Kunnen, E. Saskia
Only a few studies have longitudinally explored to whom emerging adults prefer to turn to seek closeness, comfort, and security (called "attachment preferences"), and previous studies on attachment preferences in emerging adults have focused only on the beginning of romantic relationships but not on the end of relationships. Czech…
Rigon, Arianna; Duff, Melissa C; Voss, Michelle W
The concept of attachment in long-term interpersonal relationships has been linked to relationship outcome and social-emotional health. To date, no relationship between the structural properties of the human amygdala and attachment in romantic relationships (measured through self-reported attachment related anxiety and avoidance) has been described. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between amygdala structure as well as amygdala structural and functional connectivity and attachment anxiety and avoidance. To this end, we collected self-report attachment data on a sample of female young adults. We then examined associations between attachment and mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy and resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-FC) of the amygdala and its white matter connections with the prefrontal cortex. We found that lower integrity of the left amygdala was linked with attachment avoidance (e.g., being less comfortable in seeking proximity with others and depending on others) and that greater structural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus was positively associated with avoidance. Lastly, we found that stronger rs-FC between the bilateral amygdala and medial prefrontal regions was linked with greater avoidance. Our findings are compatible with and expand previous results reported by studies that have taken a task-related fMRI approach, furthering our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of attachment, and in particular implicating the system formed by amygdala and prefrontal areas in the patterns of behavior that regulate emotional proximity in romantic relationships. These findings have the potential to further our understanding of the affective mechanisms underlying attachment behavior.
Reid, Joan A; Sullivan, Christopher J
Extending previous research, this study utilized structural equation modeling to examine the effects of poor mother/child attachment, child neglect, juvenile sexual victimization (JSV), and Finkelhor and Browne's (1985) proposed construct of traumatic sexualization on vulnerability to adult sexual victimization. The proposed model was assessed using data drawn from a sample of African American females involved in a prospective study of child sexual abuse survivors. This group was matched to similar others without such history. Findings suggest that child neglect worsens with poor mother/child attachment, resulting in a greater likelihood of JSV. Both neglect and JSV impact shaming sexual beliefs and behaviors, contributing to the risk for adult sexual victimization. This set of variables accounted for 27% of variance in adult sexual victimization.
Salcuni, Silvia; Miconi, Diana; Altoè, Gianmarco; Moscardino, Ughetta
Previous research has shown that a positive marital functioning represents a resource in adoptive families, leading to a decrease in parenting stress, but little is known about the factors mediating such a relationship. This study aimed to explore whether adult attachment avoidance and anxiety mediate the effect of dyadic functioning on parenting stress in 90 internationally adoptive couples (mothers and fathers) who had adopted a child (aged 3-10 years) in the last 36 months. Participants completed self-report measures of dyadic adjustment, adult attachment, and parenting stress. A series of path analyses supported the mediation hypothesis, but differentially for mothers and fathers. Among mothers, there was a direct and negative relationship between dyadic adjustment and parenting stress. In addition, a better dyadic adjustment was related to lower levels of attachment anxiety, which in turn were associated with less parenting stress. Among fathers, increased dyadic adjustment was related to lower levels of attachment avoidance, which in turn were associated with reduced parenting stress. These findings suggest the importance of including both mothers and fathers in adoption research. Adoptive parents could benefit from specific interventions aimed at reducing attachment avoidance and anxiety by supporting parental sense of competence and involvement for mothers and fathers, respectively.
Salcuni, Silvia; Miconi, Diana; Altoè, Gianmarco; Moscardino, Ughetta
Previous research has shown that a positive marital functioning represents a resource in adoptive families, leading to a decrease in parenting stress, but little is known about the factors mediating such a relationship. This study aimed to explore whether adult attachment avoidance and anxiety mediate the effect of dyadic functioning on parenting stress in 90 internationally adoptive couples (mothers and fathers) who had adopted a child (aged 3–10 years) in the last 36 months. Participants completed self-report measures of dyadic adjustment, adult attachment, and parenting stress. A series of path analyses supported the mediation hypothesis, but differentially for mothers and fathers. Among mothers, there was a direct and negative relationship between dyadic adjustment and parenting stress. In addition, a better dyadic adjustment was related to lower levels of attachment anxiety, which in turn were associated with less parenting stress. Among fathers, increased dyadic adjustment was related to lower levels of attachment avoidance, which in turn were associated with reduced parenting stress. These findings suggest the importance of including both mothers and fathers in adoption research. Adoptive parents could benefit from specific interventions aimed at reducing attachment avoidance and anxiety by supporting parental sense of competence and involvement for mothers and fathers, respectively. PMID:26388799
Vallotton, Claire D.; Torquati, Julia; Ispa, Jean; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel; Henk, Jennifer; Fusaro, Maria; Peterson, Carla A.; Roggman, Lori A.; Stacks, Ann M.; Cook, Gina; Brophy-Herb, Holly
Research Findings: Adults' attitudes about attachment relationships are central to how they perceive and respond to children. However, little is known about how attachment styles are related to teachers' attitudes toward and interactions with infants and toddlers. From a survey of 207 students taking early childhood (EC) courses at 4 U.S.…
Safdar, Nilofer F; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth; Cordeiro, Lorraine; Jafar, Tazeen H; Cohen, Nancy L
Dietary pattern analysis is an epidemiological method designed to consider the complexity of food preferences and diet patterns of populations. Few studies from South Asia have used this methodology to describe population food intake. Our objective was to identify dietary patterns and understand their associations with sociodemographic, anthropometric and life-style factors among low-income Pakistani urban adults. Dietary information was collected by a thirty-three-item FFQ and dietary patterns were derived by principal component analyses in 5491 subjects enrolled in the Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation (COBRA) study. Three dietary patterns were identified: a fat and sweet pattern characterised by fried snacks/foods, desserts, organ meats, bakery products, Pakistani bread and food purchased from outside the home; a fruit and vegetable pattern including fruits, juices, raw and cooked vegetables, lean meat and low-fat milk; and a seafood and yogurt pattern identified by prawns, fish, potatoes and yogurt. The fat and sweet pattern scores were low among older subjects, those with high BMI and waist circumference but high among females and physically active participants. The fruit and vegetable pattern was associated with younger age, high BMI, education and non-tobacco use. The seafood and yogurt pattern was associated with high BMI, increased physical activity and non-tobacco use. In conclusion, distinct dietary patterns exist for the Pakistani population that may be related to some of the population characteristics and thus may have importance in suggesting dietary and life-style interventions in the prevention of chronic diseases.
Britton, Peter C; Fuendeling, James M
The authors examined the proposition that recollections of childhood attachments, parental bonds, or romantic attachments are related to M. H. Davis's (1983) cognitive and emotional components of empathy. Participants were 178 undergraduates who completed self-report questionnaires. Recollections of parental bonds and romantic attachments made both independent and conjoint contributions to Davis's components. Parental overprotection and romantic anxiety predicted personal distress; parental care and romantic anxiety predicted empathic concern; and romantic avoidance predicted fantasy. The findings suggested that attachment may be more likely to influence empathy negatively than positively, that the relation between attachment and empathy may be more emotional than cognitive, and that romantic attachments may be more related to empathy than recollections of parental bonds.
Zachrisson, H D; Sommerfeldt, B; Skårderud, F
Studies of attachment and eating disorders use different types of measures, including different coding procedures for the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Generalizability of findings across studies is therefore uncertain. We compare the Main & Goldwyn procedure with the Dynamic Maturational Method, the two most common procedures for classifying AAI in eating disorder research. The sample consists of 20 female patients with a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (mean age 22.9 (3.5) years). Attachment insecurity is by far most common, regardless of procedure. Within the insecure categories, there is little overlap between procedures in comparable categories. Both procedures discriminate between Anorexia subgroups (restricting vs bingeing), but do so differently. Findings suggest that comparing findings across methods, beyond the secure/insecure dichotomy, should be avoided.
Keller, Chad J.; Brown, Chris
Due to prior research suggesting that relational variables are related to the career development process, we sought to understand how maternal conflictual independence, paternal conflictual independence, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance influence the career decision status of Asian American undergraduate students (N = 113). The…
Garrison, Angela M.; Kahn, Jeffrey H.; Sauer, Eric M.; Florczak, Michael A.
Individuals with high levels of depression symptoms and individuals with insecure attachment orientations have been shown to limit their use of emotional disclosure as a means of emotion regulation. However, little is known about how depression symptoms and insecure attachment orientations might jointly predict whether individuals engage in…
Cantazaro, Amy; Wei, Meifen
Attachment anxiety is expected to be positively associated with dependence and self-criticism. However, attachment avoidance is expected to be negatively associated with dependence but positively associated with self-criticism. Both dependence and self-criticism are expected to be related to depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed from 424 undergraduate participants at a large Midwestern university, using structural equation modeling. Results indicated that the relation between attachment anxiety and depressive symptoms was fully mediated by dependence and self-criticism, whereas the relation between attachment avoidance and depressive symptoms was partially mediated by dependence and self-criticism. Moreover, through a multiple-group comparison analysis, the results indicated that men with high levels of attachment avoidance are more likely than women to be self-critical.
Appelhans, Bradley M; Whited, Matthew C; Schneider, Kristin L; Oleski, Jessica; Pagoto, Sherry L
Emotional eating appears to contribute to weight gain, but the characteristics that make one vulnerable to emotional eating remain unclear. The present study examined whether two negative affect response styles, rumination and distraction, influenced palatable food intake following an anger mood induction in normal weight and obese adults. We hypothesized that higher rumination and lower distraction would be associated with greater vulnerability to anger-induced eating, particularly among obese individuals. Sixty-one participants (74% female, mean age=34.6) underwent neutral and anger mood inductions in counterbalanced order. Directly following each mood induction, participants were provided with 2400 kcal of highly palatable snack foods in the context of a laboratory taste test. Results revealed that distraction influenced energy intake following the mood induction for obese but not normal weight individuals. Obese participants who reported greater use of distraction strategies consumed fewer calories than those reporting less use of distraction strategies. These findings were independent of subjective hunger levels, individual differences in mood responses and trait anger, and other factors. Rumination did not account for changes in energy intake among obese or normal weight participants. Among obese individuals, the tendency to utilize fewer negative affect distraction strategies appears to be associated with vulnerability to eating in response to anger. Future research should determine whether coping skills training can reduce emotional eating tendencies.
López Seco, F; Mundo-Cid, P; Aguado-Gracia, J; Gaviria-Gómez, A M; Acosta-García, S; Martí-Serrano, S; Vilella, E; Masana-Marín, A
The objective of this study was to analyze the possible association between maternal attachment style and comorbidity associated with childhood ADHD. We evaluated a total of 103 children with ADHD treated at a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Centre and their mothers. Comorbidity was evaluated using the MINI-KID interview. Maternal attachment was evaluated using the Adult Attachment Questionnaire. We considered child variables that could be associated with the clinical course of ADHD, such as symptom severity, age, gender, evolution time, academic level, and current pharmacological treatment; parental variables, such as the mother's psychiatric history, current psychopathology, marital status, academic level, income, and employment, were also considered. We found an association between maternal insecure attachment and comorbid depressive disorder in childhood ADHD. An insecure maternal attachment style must be considered in the assessment and treatment of childhood ADHD with comorbid depression.
Landolt, Monica A; Bartholomew, Kim; Saffrey, Colleen; Oram, Doug; Perlman, Daniel
Several childhood factors are reported to be associated with a homosexual orientation in men, including gender nonconformity and rejection by parents and peers. The purpose of this study was to explore the associations between these childhood factors and attachment anxiety (the tendency to experience anxiety regarding potential loss and rejection in close relationships) and attachment avoidance (the tendency to avoid versus seek out closeness in relationships) in gay and bisexual men. A community sample of 191 gay and bisexual men completed questionnaires and an attachment interview. Gender nonconformity was significantly associated with paternal, maternal, and peer rejection in childhood. In addition, paternal and peer rejection, but not maternal rejection, independently predicted attachment anxiety. Peer rejection and, to a lesser extent, paternal rejection mediated the association between gender nonconformity and attachment anxiety. Finally, peer rejection mediated the association between paternal rejection and attachment avoidance. Findings highlight the role of gender nonconformity in contributing to childhood rejection and the importance of peer relationships in the socialization of gay men.
Hoeve, Machteld; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R. M.; van der Laan, Peter H.; Smeenk, Wilma
The present study examines the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between fathers' and mothers' parenting styles and male and female delinquency using a sample of 330 Dutch families with a mid or late adolescent son or daughter (ages 14-22), followed across two measurement waves with a 5-year interval. Parenting styles of fathers and…
We evaluated the effectiveness of three cyanoacrylate glues (trade names: Krazy, Loctite, and FSA) to securely attach harmonic radar tags on adult Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and quantified the effect of the radar tag attachment on insect survivorship and mobility. In the l...
Hoeve, Machteld; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R M; van der Laan, Peter H; Smeenk, Wilma
The present study examines the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between fathers' and mothers' parenting styles and male and female delinquency using a sample of 330 Dutch families with a mid or late adolescent son or daughter (ages 14-22), followed across two measurement waves with a 5-year interval. Parenting styles of fathers and mothers were linked to delinquency. A significant parenting style by sex interaction was found: neglectful parenting was related to higher levels of delinquency in males and permissive parenting was linked to delinquency in females. A long term relationship was found between fathers' neglectful parenting style and delinquency in males. Furthermore, results revealed that levels of delinquency were the lowest in families with at least one authoritative parent and highest in families with two neglectful parents, indicating that the level of delinquency was dependent on the combination of mother's and father's parenting styles.
Behrens, Kazuko Y.; Hesse, Erik; Main, Mary
Following a 1986 study reporting a predominance of ambivalent attachment among insecure Sapporo infants, the generalizability of attachment theory and methodologies to Japanese samples has been questioned. In this 2nd study of Sapporo mother-child dyads (N = 43), the authors examined attachment distributions for both (a) child, based on M. Main…
Morgan, Ali Zaremba; Keiley, Margaret K; Ryan, Aubrey E; Radomski, Juliana Groves; Gropper, Sareen S; Connell, Lenda Jo; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V
Obesity and high body fat percentages are a major public health issue. The percentage of obese and overweight Americans has increased over the past 30 years. On average, overweight individuals with higher percent body fat than normal weight individuals are at increased risk for numerous negative outcomes both physically and mentally. A prime time to investigate changes in body composition and associated psychological influences on decision making is during the emerging adulthood period. The first few years of college are a time when adolescents begin to regulate for themselves their own eating behaviors. Previous research shows that freshmen gain weight and increase in percent body fat during their first year of college. The current study addresses the limitations of previous research by investigating (1) individual growth in percent body fat over a longer period of time in college than previous available research and (2) important psychological and sex differences in this growth. This study measures percent body fat across the first 3 years of college at 8 time points for 542 undergraduates (351 females, 65 %; 191 males, 35 %). Longitudinal data analysis was conducted to identify changes in percent body fat, psychological predictors of those changes, and how changes differ for males and females. Our study found that significant increases exist in percent body fat during undergraduates' college years and that change differs for males and females. In addition, through the use of nested hierarchical models, eating regulation style (autonomous or controlled regulation), appearance schema (self-evaluative salience or motivational salience), and body satisfaction were identified as influential predictors of change in percent body fat. For example, young females, who do not feel in control of their physical appearance yet spend a great deal of time maintaining their appearance, have the highest initial body fat percentage and the steepest increase in percent body fat
Weisel, Amatzia; Kamara, Ahiya
This study examined differences between deaf/hard-of-hearing (D/HH) and hearing persons with regard to two interrelated and continuous developmental processes: attachment (Bowlby, 1969) and individuation (Mahler, 1963). The study also examined intergroup differences in two personal variables assumed to be influenced by these processes: self-esteem…
To maintain a professional identity, teachers are to some degree dependent on their student's mental representations of, and interactions with, them. This affords students' relational power over teachers possibly invoking a unique form of attachment dependence and responding in some teachers. Data reported in this paper were drawn from a larger…
Steele, Ryan D.; Waters, Theodore E. A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Truitt, Warren; Waters, Harriet S.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Roisman, Glenn I.
Based on a subsample (N = 673) of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) cohort, this article reports data from a follow-up assessment at age 18 years on the antecedents of "secure base script knowledge", as reflected in the ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related difficulties are…
Pruneau, Genevieve Mary Catherine
Although many people are exposed to trauma, substantially fewer develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Given this, studies have examined risk and protective factors for developing PTSD. This literature has established that there is a robust negative correlation between social support and PTSD. Attachment insecurity may be an informative…
Ballard, Mary E.
Children of alcoholics are at risk for socioemotional and behavioral problems. Adult children of alcoholic parents (ACAs) are at risk for problems in interpersonal relationships. ACAs have been found to have decreased self-esteem and self-acceptance in comparison to adults whose parents are not alcoholic (NACAs). College students who were young…
Macfie, Jenny; Swan, Scott A; Fitzpatrick, Katie L; Watkins, Christopher D; Rivas, Elaine M
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) involves disruptions in attachment, self, and self-regulation, domains conceptually similar to developmental tasks of early childhood. Because offspring of mothers with BPD are at elevated risk of developing BPD themselves (White, Gunderson, Zanarini, & Hudson, 2003), studying them may inform precursors to BPD. We sampled 31 children age 4-7 whose mothers have BPD and 31 normative comparisons. We examined relationships between mothers' Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) representations (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1984), mothers' observed parenting, and children's narrative representations. Replicating previous studies, mothers with BPD were more likely to be classified as preoccupied and unresolved on the AAI. In a larger sample, which included the current one, we also replicated two underlying AAI dimensions found in normative samples (Roisman, Fraley, & Belsky, 2007; Whipple, Bernier, & Mageau, 2011). Controlling for current mood, anxiety, and other personality disorders, mothers with BPD were significantly higher than were comparisons on the preoccupied/unresolved, but not the dismissive, dimension. Children's narrative representations relevant to disruptions in attachment (fear of abandonment and role reversal), self (incongruent child and self/fantasy confusion), and self-regulation (destruction of objects) were significantly correlated with the preoccupied/unresolved, but not the dismissive, dimension. Furthermore, mothers' parenting significantly mediated the relationship between the preoccupied/unresolved dimension and their children's narrative representations of fear of abandonment.
Barrett, C E; Arambula, S E; Young, L J
Genes and social experiences interact to create variation in social behavior and vulnerability to develop disorders of the social domain. Socially monogamous prairie voles display remarkable diversity in neuropeptide receptor systems and social behavior. Here, we examine the interaction of early-life adversity and brain oxytocin receptor (OTR) density on adult social attachment in female prairie voles. First, pups were isolated for 3 h per day, or unmanipulated, from postnatal day 1–14. Adult subjects were tested on the partner preference (PP) test to assess social attachment and OTR density in the brain was quantified. Neonatal social isolation impaired female PP formation, without affecting OTR density. Accumbal OTR density was, however, positively correlated with the percent of time spent huddling with the partner in neonatally isolated females. Females with high accumbal OTR binding were resilient to neonatal isolation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that parental nurturing shapes neural systems underlying social relationships by enhancing striatal OTR signaling. Thus, we next determined whether early touch, mimicking parental licking and grooming, stimulates hypothalamic OT neuron activity. Tactile stimulation induced immediate-early gene activity in OT neurons in neonates. Finally, we investigated whether pharmacologically potentiating OT release using a melanocortin 3/4 agonist, melanotan-II (10 mg kg−1 subcutaneously), would mitigate the social isolation-induced impairments in attachment behavior. Neonatal melanotan-II administration buffered against the effects of early isolation on partner preference formation. Thus, variation in accumbal OTR density and early OT release induced by parental nurturing may moderate susceptibility to early adverse experiences, including neglect. PMID:26196439
Barrett, C E; Arambula, S E; Young, L J
Genes and social experiences interact to create variation in social behavior and vulnerability to develop disorders of the social domain. Socially monogamous prairie voles display remarkable diversity in neuropeptide receptor systems and social behavior. Here, we examine the interaction of early-life adversity and brain oxytocin receptor (OTR) density on adult social attachment in female prairie voles. First, pups were isolated for 3 h per day, or unmanipulated, from postnatal day 1-14. Adult subjects were tested on the partner preference (PP) test to assess social attachment and OTR density in the brain was quantified. Neonatal social isolation impaired female PP formation, without affecting OTR density. Accumbal OTR density was, however, positively correlated with the percent of time spent huddling with the partner in neonatally isolated females. Females with high accumbal OTR binding were resilient to neonatal isolation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that parental nurturing shapes neural systems underlying social relationships by enhancing striatal OTR signaling. Thus, we next determined whether early touch, mimicking parental licking and grooming, stimulates hypothalamic OT neuron activity. Tactile stimulation induced immediate-early gene activity in OT neurons in neonates. Finally, we investigated whether pharmacologically potentiating OT release using a melanocortin 3/4 agonist, melanotan-II (10 mg kg(-1) subcutaneously), would mitigate the social isolation-induced impairments in attachment behavior. Neonatal melanotan-II administration buffered against the effects of early isolation on partner preference formation. Thus, variation in accumbal OTR density and early OT release induced by parental nurturing may moderate susceptibility to early adverse experiences, including neglect.
Crimlisk, Janet T; O'Donnell, Charles; Grillone, Gregory A
Tracheostomy tubes are made of a variety of materials, components, and styles. In a recent merger of our hospitals, we noted a large assortment of tubes available for clinicians. The different tubes resulted in complaints from staff, which included confusion, delays in obtaining preferred tubes, and inconsistent shelf stock. A multidisciplinary task force was formed to recommend standardizing the styles of tracheostomy tubes. A comparison of tracheotomy procedures, tracheostomy tube usage, and tube costs were done 6 months before and 6 months after the standardization. The number of tube styles decreased from 9 to 4; specialty extra-long tubes decreased from 3 to 2. There were no cost savings in standardizing the tracheostomy tubes.
Davis, Rachel E.; Resnicow, Ken; Couper, Mick P.
A number of studies have investigated use of extreme (ERS) and acquiescent (ARS) response styles across cultural groups. However, due to within-group heterogeneity, it is important to also examine use of response styles, acculturation, and endorsement of cultural variables at the individual level. This study explores relationships between acculturation, six Mexican cultural factors, ERS, and ARS among a sample of 288 Mexican American telephone survey respondents. Three aspects of acculturation were assessed: Spanish use, the importance of preserving Mexican culture, and interaction with Mexican Americans versus Anglos. These variables were hypothesized to positively associate with ERS and ARS. Participants with higher Spanish use did utilize more ERS and ARS; however, value for preserving Mexican culture and interaction with Mexican Americans were not associated with response style use. In analyses of cultural factors, endorsement of familismo and simpatia were related to more frequent ERS and ARS, machismo was associated with lower ERS among men, and la mujer was related to higher ERS among women. Caballerismo was marginally associated with utilization of ERS among men. No association was found between la mujer abnegada and ERS among women. Relationships between male gender roles and ARS were nonsignificant. Relationships between female gender roles and ARS were mixed but trended in the positive direction. Overall, these findings suggest that Mexican American respondents vary in their use of response styles by acculturation and cultural factors. This usage may be specifically influenced by participants' valuing of and engagement with constructs directly associated with social behavior. PMID:21927503
Davis, Rachel E; Resnicow, Ken; Couper, Mick P
A number of studies have investigated use of extreme (ERS) and acquiescent (ARS) response styles across cultural groups. However, due to within-group heterogeneity, it is important to also examine use of response styles, acculturation, and endorsement of cultural variables at the individual level. This study explores relationships between acculturation, six Mexican cultural factors, ERS, and ARS among a sample of 288 Mexican American telephone survey respondents. Three aspects of acculturation were assessed: Spanish use, the importance of preserving Mexican culture, and interaction with Mexican Americans versus Anglos. These variables were hypothesized to positively associate with ERS and ARS. Participants with higher Spanish use did utilize more ERS and ARS; however, value for preserving Mexican culture and interaction with Mexican Americans were not associated with response style use. In analyses of cultural factors, endorsement of familismo and simpatia were related to more frequent ERS and ARS, machismo was associated with lower ERS among men, and la mujer was related to higher ERS among women. Caballerismo was marginally associated with utilization of ERS among men. No association was found between la mujer abnegada and ERS among women. Relationships between male gender roles and ARS were nonsignificant. Relationships between female gender roles and ARS were mixed but trended in the positive direction. Overall, these findings suggest that Mexican American respondents vary in their use of response styles by acculturation and cultural factors. This usage may be specifically influenced by participants' valuing of and engagement with constructs directly associated with social behavior.
Jarmas, Audre L.; Kazak, Anne E.
Surveyed college students with (n=84) and without (n=123) alcoholic fathers regarding their perceptions of their families, depressive experiences, and coping styles within developmental model of depression that focuses on object representations. Subjects with alcoholic fathers exhibited greater introjective depression but no increase in anaclitic…
Parish, Thomas S.; McCluskey, James J.
Research shows that parenting style may strongly influence children's and adolescents' development. The present study reexamined this association, using a sample of 123 midwestern college students enrolled in a human development class. Participants' self-concepts varied directly with the perceived level of warmth displayed by both their fathers…
Lee, Kyoung Othelia; Brennan, Mark
Narrative data from two earlier studies of adaptation to age-related visual impairment were examined for constellations of stressors and coping styles. In the course of previous qualitative analyses, the researchers identified stress and coping codes according to behavioral, psychological, and social domains using a grounded theory approach. In…
Moreira, Helena; Martins, Teresa; Gouveia, Maria João; Canavarro, Maria Cristina
The Experiences in Close Relationships-Relationship Structures questionnaire (ECR-RS) is one of the most recent measures of adult attachment. This instrument provides a contextual assessment of attachment-related anxiety and avoidance by measuring these dimensions in various close relationships (mother, father, partner, friend). To further explore its psychometric properties and cross-cultural adequacy, this study presents the validation of the ECR-RS in a sample of Portuguese community individuals (N = 236). The Portuguese version showed adequate reliability and construct validity. The original 2-factor structure was confirmed through confirmatory factor analysis. The ECR-RS is a psychometrically robust measure of attachment, representing an important advance in the measurement of adult attachment.
Ayala, Carma; Tong, Xin; Valderrama, Amy; Ivy, Andrae; Keenan, Nora
Consuming high amounts of dietary sodium is associated with hypertension. The authors analyzed the HealthStyles 2005 and 2008 survey for behaviors to lower blood pressure related to dietary sodium, including the reduction of sodium intake and reading food labels for sodium content among hypertensives. All estimates were based on self-reported data. The relative percent change (RPC) in the prevalence of these behaviors between 2005 and 2008 was assessed. During the 3-year period, there were increases in the prevalence of reducing dietary sodium (RPC=17.2%, 56.6% in 2008 vs 48.3% in 2005; P<.05) and reading food labels for sodium content (RPC=7.9%, 53.0% vs 49.1%; P<.05). In 2005, the proportion of hypertensive adults who reported reducing dietary sodium was higher for persons 65 years and older, for blacks, for those with income <$25,000, and for those with more than a high school education compared with those in their comparison groups. In 2008, those aged 65 years and older had the highest percentage, while Hispanics and blacks had essentially the same percentage for reducing sodium. Based on 2005 and 2008 HealthStyles surveys, about half of hypertensive patients reported reducing their intake of sodium and reading food labels for salt. Health care providers should emphasize the importance of knowing the daily recommended limit for dietary sodium to help adults lower this intake.
In this article I question whether or not African American young adult literature serves as a primer for, and a version of, African American adult literature. Using the Black Aesthetic as my literary theory and the Coretta Scott King Award as the young adult canon, I note that while the content of adolescent literature is consistent with the…
Hasson, J.E.; Wiebe, D.H.; Sharefkin, J.B.; D'Amore, P.A.; Abbott, W.M.
We have developed a technique to measure attachment of adult human vascular endothelial cells to test surfaces with tritiated thymidine used as a marker. With this technique, we measured attachment of adult human vascular endothelial cells to a series of extracellular matrix proteins, including fibronectin-coated (10 micrograms/cm/sup 2/), laminin-coated (10 micrograms/cm/sup 2/), and collagen-coated (1% gelatin) surfaces because of the role of these proteins in promoting cell attachment and growth. For a typical experiment, in the presence of serum, initial attachment (at 1 hour) was greatest on fibronectin-coated (63%) and gelatin-coated (60%) tissue culture plastic (polystyrene) and was least on laminin-coated (28%) or untreated polystyrene (18%). The data suggest that fibronectin, either alone, or with a more complex combination of extracellular components may need to be present on prosthetic surfaces to produce maximal cell attachment and subsequent growth to confluence in vivo. The described method of measuring attachment is independent of surface properties, ensures complete recovery of cells, and will allow systematic exploration of those properties that best support human endothelial cell attachment to vascular prosthetic surfaces.
Levesque, Christine; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Bureau, Jean-François; Cloutier, Paula; Dandurand, Cathy
Several theoretical models for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) have been proposed. Despite an abundance of theoretical speculation, few empirical studies have examined the impact of intimate relationship functioning on NSSI. The present study examines the influence of romantic attachment and received intimate partner violence (physical, psychological and sexual) on recent reports of NSSI behaviors and thoughts. The sample was composed of 537 (79.9% female) primarily Caucasian university students between the ages of 18 and 25 years and currently involved in a romantic relationship. The results reveal that anxiety over abandonment was a significant predictor of NSSI thoughts and behaviors in women and a significant predictor of NSSI thoughts in men. Moreover, the experience of intimate partner violence emerged as a significant predictor of NSSI behaviors in both men and women. Continued empirical investigations into the influence of intimate relationship functioning on NSSI will facilitate the development of psychological interventions for young adults dealing with self-harm.
Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra; Kivenson-Baron, Inbal
The study examined: (1) the intergenerational concordance between parents and their adolescent sons using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) categories and state-of-mind scales; and (2) the contribution of parents' state of mind with respect to attachment to their sons' adjustment during a stressful separation, as well as the possibility that sons' AAI mediates the associations between parents' AAI and sons' adjustment. Eighty-eight adolescents and their parents were interviewed using the AAI during the son's senior year in high school. Approximately a year later, during the first phase of compulsory military service, the adolescents and their peers reported on the sons' adjustment. Results demonstrated AAI correspondence between mothers' (but not fathers) and sons' categories (autonomous versus non-autonomous) and associations between mothers', fathers' and sons' AAI state-of-mind scales. The adjustment of sons of non-autonomous mothers (in particular, preoccupied mothers) was inferior to the adjustment of others. Mothers' and fathers' state of mind scales were associated with sons' adjustment, but sons' AAI did not mediate this association. The uniqueness of adolescence, the importance of parents' state of mind and the differences between mothers and fathers are discussed.
Dos Santos Mesquita, Cristina; da Costa Maia, Ângela
A history of victimization has been linked to the latter development of emotional distress. However, not all victims develop emotional distress in response to victimization, emphasizing the need to identify mediators that can guide intervention, as well as moderators to more targeted preventive actions. Within a developmental psychology framework, we aimed to test two models: (a) the role of adult attachment as a mediator in the relationship between victimization and emotional distress, and (b) the role of household dysfunctions as moderators in the relationship between victimization and emotional distress, in psychiatric patients. Participants were 120 adult psychiatric patients, between ages 20 and 79 years (M = -47.22, SD = 13.102) that responded to questions assessing household dysfunction in the family of origin, victimization, and adult attachment. Results revealed that adult attachment was a significant mediator in the association between victimization and emotional distress. Parental mental disorder and total household adversity were significant moderators for that same association. These results provide important clues for intervention. The focus on promoting secure adult relationships may contribute not only to the psychosocial adjustment of psychiatric patients but also to a healthier family functioning. Reducing the household dysfunction may provide a protective environment for the development of children, promoting a positive psychosocial adjustment, also preventing the intergenerational transmission of violence, insecure attachment, and emotional distress.
Evans, Stephanie; Crockett, Stanley
Passive coping behavior and traditional role-gender definitions affect learning needs of segments of the Mexican American adult community and may affect the behavioral development of younger family members. Networking within the community is useful in defining and meeting learning needs of adult Mexican Americans by creating cooperative,…
Kossyvaki, Lila; Jones, Glenys; Guldberg, Karen
Previous research has demonstrated that the way adults interact with children with autism can have a great impact on their spontaneous communication. However, to date, few studies have focused on modifying adults' behaviour and even fewer have been conducted in school settings which actively involve teaching staff in designing the intervention.…
Langton, Calvin M; Murad, Zuwaina; Humbert, Bianca
Associations between self-reported coercive sexual behavior against adult females, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and child-parent attachment styles, as well as attachment with adult romantic partners, were examined among 176 adult community males. Attachment style with each parent and with romantic partners was also investigated as a potential moderator. Using hierarchical multiple regression analysis, avoidant attachment with mothers in childhood (and also with fathers, in a second model) accounted for a significant amount of the variance in coercive sexual behavior controlling for scores on anxious ambivalent and disorganized/disoriented attachment scales, as predicted. Similarly, in a third model, avoidance attachment in adulthood was a significant predictor of coercive sexual behavior controlling for scores on the anxiety attachment in adulthood scale. These main effects for avoidant and avoidance attachment were not statistically significant when CSA and control variables (other types of childhood adversity, aggression, antisociality, and response bias) were added in each of the models. But the interaction between scales for CSA and avoidance attachment in adulthood was significant, demonstrating incremental validity in a final step, consistent with a hypothesized moderating function for attachment in adulthood. The correlation between CSA and coercive sexual behavior was .60 for those with the highest third of avoidance attachment scores (i.e., the most insecurely attached on this scale), .24 for those with scores in the middle range on the scale, and .01 for those with the lowest third of avoidance attachment scores (i.e., the most securely attached). Implications for study design and theory were discussed.
Singh, Tushar; Kennedy, Sara M.; Sharapova, Saida S.; Schauer, Gillian L.; Rolle, Italia V.
Background Tobacco and marijuana use are related behaviors; therefore, it is important to identify how users consume marijuana, and how it varies with tobacco use status. We estimated the modes of ever marijuana use among current, former, and never adult tobacco users. Methods Weighted data were analyzed for 4181 adults from 2014 Styles, an online consumer panel survey of US adults, to estimate proportions for modes of ever marijuana use. Differences in modes of ever marijuana use between categories of tobacco use status were assessed (p-value <0.05). Results More than half of current (56.6%) and former tobacco users (50.9%) had ever used marijuana, whereas only 13.0% of never tobacco users had ever used marijuana. Among ever marijuana users, joint use was the most common mode of use among current (86.4%), former (92.5%), and never (79.8%) tobacco users. Similarly, other modes of marijuana use were significantly higher in current and former tobacco users compared to never tobacco users. Conclusions Prevalence of all modes of ever marijuana use was higher in current and former tobacco users. These findings underscore the importance of considering the relationship between marijuana and tobacco use when developing programs and policies aimed at preventing and reducing marijuana use. PMID:27840591
Tacon, Anna M.; Caldera, Yvonne M.
Attachment dimensions and styles, parental caregiving styles, and acculturation were investigated among 155 Mexican American and White college women. Results showed no differences between groups on attachment dimensions or styles. For both groups, only paternal variables were associated with attachment security. Implications of measurement and…
Peluso, Paul R.; Peluso, Jennifer P.; Buckner, Janine P.; Kern, Roy M.; Curlette, William
P. R. Peluso, J. P. Peluso, J. F. White, and R. M. Kern (2004) reviewed the theoretical constructs underlying the similarities between lifestyle and attachment style. Specifically, they suggested that the individual psychology construct of lifestyle (or style of life) and attachment style should be empirically investigated. The present research…
Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Levov, Kathy; Schultz, Yakov; Radomislensky, Ira
This study examined the adult attachment styles, interpersonal distance from potential attachment figures and strangers, coping strategies, perceived social support, and stress-related self-variables among patients diagnosed with adjustment disorders (AJD). Seventy patients at an outpatient clinic and 61 matched controls completed a battery of standardized questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to evaluate the parameters of interest. Using attachment theory (J. Bowlby, 1988) and the dynamic stress-vulnerability model of depressive disorder (G. W. Brown & T. O. Harris, 1989) as the analytical frameworks, the authors hypothesized that participants with AJD would: (a) display more insecure attachment styles, (b) be less tolerant of close interpersonal proximity, (c) use more emotion-oriented coping strategies, (d) display lower self-efficacy and self-esteem, and (e) perceive less social support from family, friends, and significant others. We further hypothesized that these variables would be predictive of depressive symptoms. All of the hypotheses were confirmed. The results suggest that the insecure fearful-avoidant attachment style is associated with severe depressive symptoms in patients with AJD. However, other psychosocial factors, such as low self-esteem and poor social support from friends, were more predictive of AJD symptoms. The findings warrant further studies on the risk and protective effects of these factors in the development of AJD and other stress-induced disorders.
Emer, Denise; McLarney, Amber; Goodwin, Melinda; Keller, Peggy
Group psychoeducation formats were evaluated to determine which promoted the greatest learning and retention of therapeutically relevant information in adult clients with mental disorders. Study 1 compared lecture and interactive formats; Study 2 compared two types of interactive formats. Both studies also measured client satisfaction with the…
Hosch, Mary L.
Many adults are obstructed from specialized professions based on their anxiety of math. Math anxiety has been extensively researched for over 3 decades. Scholars have attempted to define its origins as well as the means to eliminate its often-debilitating effect on learners. Research indicates that learners with math anxiety often give up career…
Roberts, Larry N.
With more adults seeking unique and meaningful learning experiences in both recreational and professional arenas, informal learning institutions, such as museums, zoos, and botanical gardens are a natural source. Informal learning opportunities are the business of these institutions; moreover, a goal in education mission statements of many of…
Kandel, Denise B.
Examined childrearing practices and child adjustment in longitudinal cohort of young adults for whom detailed drug histories were available. Maternal drug use retained statistically significant unique effect on child control problems when other parental variables were entered simultaneously in multiple regression equation and was one of two…
Koch, Kourtland R.
This study is a replication of an original study conducted by James and Blank (1991) which examined the relationship between educational attainment and adult performance using the Multi-Modal Paired Associates Learning Test-Revised (MMPALT-II) (Cherry, 1981). The MMPALT-II was designed to measure an individual's demonstrated perceptual modality…
Shurts, W. Matthew; Myers, Jane E.
Liking, love styles, and wellness were examined in an undergraduate sample (N = 168). Liking and the Mania love style were found to predict 15.8% of the variance in Total Wellness. In addition, within-group differences in love styles and wellness were found on the basis of gender and ethnicity. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)
da Silva, Rose Mary Ferreira Lisboa; Silva, Bruna Adriene Gomes de Lima e; Silva, Fábio Junior Modesto e; Amaral, Carlos Faria Santos
Objective The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical profile of patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest using the Utstein style. Methods This study is an observational, prospective, longitudinal study of patients with cardiac arrest treated in intensive care units over a period of 1 year. Results The study included 89 patients who underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers. The cohort was 51.6% male with a mean age 59.0 years. The episodes occurred during the daytime in 64.6% of cases. Asystole/bradyarrhythmia was the most frequent initial rhythm (42.7%). Most patients who exhibited a spontaneous return of circulation experienced recurrent cardiac arrest, especially within the first 24 hours (61.4%). The mean time elapsed between hospital admission and the occurrence of cardiac arrest was 10.3 days, the mean time between cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was 0.68 min, the mean time between cardiac arrest and defibrillation was 7.1 min, and the mean duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was 16.3 min. Associations between gender and the duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (19.2 min in women versus 13.5 min in men, p = 0.02), the duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the return of spontaneous circulation (10.8 min versus 30.7 min, p < 0.001) and heart disease and age (60.6 years versus 53.6, p < 0.001) were identified. The immediate survival rates after cardiac arrest, until hospital discharge and 6 months after discharge were 71%, 9% and 6%, respectively. Conclusions The main initial rhythm detected was asystole/bradyarrhythmia; the interval between cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was short, but defibrillation was delayed. Women received cardiopulmonary resuscitation for longer periods than men. The in-hospital survival rate was low. PMID:28099640
The clinical case described in this article illustrates the value of taking into account the dynamics of disorganized attachment in the assessment of attachment-related phobias (phobia of attachment and phobia of attachment loss) during the psychotherapy of chronically traumatized patients. These seemingly opposite phobias typically coexist in the same patient, appear as phobias of both inner states (affect phobias) and relational experiences, and are linked to dissociated representations of self-with-other. Theory and research on attachment disorganization provide a clinician-friendly conceptual framework for capturing both the intrapsychic (e.g., intrusive and nonintegrated mental states) and the relational (e.g., dramatic unsolvable dilemmas in interpersonal exchanges) aspects of the attachment-related phobias. The therapeutic strategy and the key interventions that logically follow from a case formulation based on this conceptual framework are examined.
Dehning, Sandra; Burger, Max B; Krause, Daniela; Jobst, Andrea; Yundina, Elena; Müller, Norbert; Meyer, Sebastian; Zill, Peter; Buchheim, Anna
This study explored the degree to which adult patients with Tourette syndrome (TS) exhibit particular attachment styles and the possible association between the underlying attachment dimensions and forms of aggression. Fifty-three TS patients (ages 17-72 years) and 54 matched healthy controls completed the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised Scale (ECR-R) and the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ). The data were analysed with ANOVA F-tests, t-tests, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. TS patients showed significantly higher scores in relationship anxiety ( p < 0.001) and relationship avoidance ( p = 0.001) in the ECR-R and significantly higher aggression scores in the AQ ( p < 0.001). The total AQ score correlated significantly with the ECR-R dimension anxiety ( p < 0.001). These are the first findings on TS patients' attachment styles and anger symptoms. It remains unclear whether attachment anxiety and avoidance are risk factors for TS or whether the disorder itself induces attachment disorders. Prospective studies with detailed attachment interviews would help to explore this issue.
O'Connell, Michael J; Garmoe, William; Goldstein, Naomi E Sevin
Interrogations present several major challenges to persons with mental retardation (MR). Sixty adults with mild MR completed measures of Miranda comprehension and tendency to yield to leading questions. In addition, suggestibility was assessed based on whether participants revised answers to questions in response to unfriendly, friendly, or neutral feedback to original responses. Furthermore, we examined how expressed confidence in answers to repeated questions varied with the type of feedback received. Results revealed that participants demonstrated marked difficulties understanding their Miranda rights and greater likelihood of changing answers to questions for which they received friendly feedback than for questions for which they received unfriendly or neutral feedback. Most participants who received positive reinforcement for their answers on a second trial expressed confidence about improvement from trial 1 to trial 2, although accuracy did not improve. Implications of these results are reviewed.
Frauman, A C; Nettles-Carlson, B
The self-reported health-promoting life-style (HPL) of 130 well adults in a primary care clinical population was examined in relation to the cognitive/perceptual and sociodemographic factors hypothesized in Pender's Health Promotion Model (1987) to predict this behavior. Subjects were randomly drawn from the clients of a group nurse practitioner practice emphasizing health maintenance. Data were collected by mailed survey (response rate, 59%) with one telephone prompt. The mean age of the subjects was 39.7 years; 72.3% were female; 51.2% were married; 47.7% had college degrees; and 67.4% were white. Blacks were underrepresented in the sample compared to the practice population (chi = 7.56, p = .006). Using multiple regression, the definition of health, importance of health, health locus of control, age, gender, marital status, race, education, income, and rural/urban residence were studied to determine their effects on health-promoting behavior. Results generally supported the Pender Model. Defining health eudiamonistically, that is, as exuberant well-being (rather than adaptive, functional, or absence of disease), predicted HPL. Ranking health above other values such as achievement and harmony had no effect; chance health locus of control had a negative relationship. In the final regression model, predictors of HPL were eudiamonistic conception of health and college education (p = .0001, R2 = 17). Based on this data, considerations of a clients' health conception when framing health-promotion messages is warranted in this population.
Crawford, Thomas N; Shaver, Phillip R; Cohen, Patricia; Pilkonis, Paul A; Gillath, Omri; Kasen, Stephanie
Anxious and avoidant attachment were assessed in the Children in the Community (CIC) Study during adolescence and adulthood using self-report scales developed for this prospective study. The convergent and discriminant validity of the new CIC attachment scales were evaluated and their stability was assessed across a 17-year interval. Attachment scales predicted DSM-IV personality disorders in theoretically coherent and clinically meaningful ways, especially when supplemented with a separate measure of interpersonal aggression. Cluster B and C personality disorder symptoms were associated with elevated anxious attachment. Avoidant attachment was positively associated with Cluster A symptoms and inversely associated with Cluster B and C symptoms. Interpersonal aggression was higher in Cluster B symptoms and lower in Cluster C symptoms, thus differentiating between these symptom clusters.
Milrod, Barbara; Altemus, Margaret; Gross, Charles; Busch, Fredric; Silver, Gabrielle; Christos, Paul; Stieber, Joshua; Schneier, Franklin
Clinically significant separation anxiety [SA] has been identified as being common among patients who do not respond to psychiatric interventions, regardless of intervention type (pharmacological or psychotherapeutic), across anxiety and mood disorders. An attachment formation and maintenance domain has been proposed as contributing to anxiety disorders. We therefore directly determined prevalence of SA in a population of adult treatment non-responders suffering from primary anxiety. In these separation anxious nonresponders, we pilot-tested an SA-focused, attachment-based psychotherapy for anxiety, Panic-Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy-eXtended Range [PFPP-XR], and assessed whether hypothesized biomarkers of attachment were engaged. We studied separation anxiety [SA] in 46 adults (ages 23-70 [mean 43.9 (14.9)]) with clinically significant anxiety symptoms (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [HARS]≥15), and reporting a history of past non-response to psychotherapy and/or medication treatments. Thirty-seven (80%) had clinically significant symptoms of separation anxiety (Structured Clinical Interview for Separation Anxiety Symptoms [SCI-SAS] score≥8). Five of these subjects completed an open clinical trial of Panic Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy eXtended Range [PFPP-XR], a 21-24 session, 12-week manualized attachment-focused anxiolytic psychodynamic psychotherapy for anxiety. Patients improved on "adult threshold" SCI-SAS (current separation anxiety) (p=.016), HARS (p=0.002), and global severity, assessed by the Clinical Global Impression Scale (p=.0006), at treatment termination. Salivary oxytocin levels decreased 67% after treatment (p=.12). There was no significant change in high or low frequency HRV after treatment, but change in high frequency HRV inversely correlated with treatment change in oxytocin (p<.02), and change in low frequency HRV was positively associated with change in oxytocin (p<.02). SA is surprisingly prevalent among non-responders to
Li, Yan; Costanzo, Philip R; Putallaz, Martha
The authors compared the associations among perceived maternal socialization goals (self-development, filial piety, and collectivism), perceived maternal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and training), and the social-emotional adjustment (self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and depression) between Chinese and European American young adults. The mediation processes in which socialization goals relate to young adults' adjustment outcomes through parenting styles were examined. Results showed that European American participants perceived higher maternal self-development socialization goals, whereas Chinese participants perceived higher maternal collectivism socialization goals as well as more authoritarian parenting. Cross-cultural similarities were found in the associations between perceived maternal authoritative parenting and socioemotional adjustment (e.g., higher self-esteem and higher academic self-efficacy) across the two cultural groups. However, perceived maternal authoritarian and training parenting styles were found only to be related to Chinese participants' adjustment (e.g., higher academic self-efficacy and lower depression). The mediation analyses showed that authoritative parenting significantly mediated the positive associations between the self-development and collectivism goal and socioemotional adjustment for both cultural groups. Additionally, training parenting significantly mediated the positive association between the filial piety goal and young adults' academic self-efficacy for the Chinese group only. Findings of this study highlight the importance of examining parental socialization goals in cross-cultural parenting research.
Honig, Alice Sterling
Developing secure attachments with babies gives them a very special gift--the foundation for good infant mental health! In this article, the author discusses how to develop secure attachments with babies. Babies who are in the care of others during the day often suffer from separations from their special adults. Thirteen "tips" to ensure that…
Ni, Hsing-Chang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
The extent to which parenting styles can influence secondary psychiatric symptoms among young adults with ADHD symptoms is unknown. This issue was investigated in a sample of 2284 incoming college students (male, 50.6%), who completed standardized questionnaires about adult ADHD symptoms, other DSM-IV symptoms, and their parents' parenting styles before their ages of 16. Among them, 2.8% and 22.8% were classified as having ADHD symptoms and sub-threshold ADHD symptoms, respectively. Logistic regression was used to compare the comorbid rates of psychiatric symptoms among the ADHD, sub-threshold ADHD and non-ADHD groups while multiple linear regressions were used to examine the moderating role of gender and parenting styles over the associations between ADHD and other psychiatric symptoms. Both ADHD groups were significantly more likely than other incoming students to have other DSM-IV symptoms. Parental care was negatively associated and parental overprotection/control positively associated with these psychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, significant interactions were found of parenting style with both threshold and sub-threshold ADHD in predicting wide-ranging comorbid symptoms. Specifically, the associations of ADHD with some externalizing symptoms were inversely related to level of paternal care, while associations of ADHD and sub-threshold ADHD with wide-ranging comorbid symptoms were positively related to level of maternal and paternal overprotection/control. These results suggest that parenting styles may modify the effects of ADHD on the risk of a wide range of temporally secondary DSM-IV symptoms among incoming college students, although other causal dynamics might be at work that need to be investigated in longitudinal studies.
Marcusson-Clavertz, David; Gušić, Sabina; Bengtsson, Hans; Jacobsen, Heidi; Cardeña, Etzel
Individuals with unresolved/disorganized representations of childhood trauma (U/d attachment) report more psychological distress than others, but little is known about their everyday mentation. In the present study adults with childhood trauma (N = 45) completed the Berkeley-Leiden Adult Attachment Questionnaire-Unresolved (BLAAQ-U) and the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), and reported everyday mentation during 5 days of experience sampling. The BLAAQ-U and the AAI showed a medium association with each other, but only the former significantly predicted negative affect, dissociation, and low control/awareness of mentation. Contrary to our predictions, U/d attachment did not significantly predict mind wandering, but the BLAAQ-U predicted endorsements of a negative mind wandering style. U/d attachment, as assessed by both instruments, was associated with the Poor attentional control style and beliefs in anomalous mental phenomena. Experience sampling is a valuable way to investigate everyday experiences in individuals with U/d attachment.
Polen, Kara N D; Sandhu, Paramjit K; Honein, Margaret A; Green, Katie K; Berkowitz, Judy M; Pace, Jill; Rasmussen, Sonja A
Smoking during pregnancy is causally associated with many adverse health outcomes. Quitting smoking, even late in pregnancy, improves some outcomes. Among adults in general and reproductive-aged women, we sought to understand knowledge and attitudes towards prenatal smoking and its effects on pregnancy outcomes. Using data from the 2008 HealthStyles© survey, we assessed knowledge and attitudes about prenatal smoking and smoking cessation. We classified respondents as having high knowledge if they gave ≥ 5 correct responses to six knowledge questions regarding the health effects of prenatal smoking. We calculated frequencies of correct responses to assess knowledge about prenatal smoking and estimated relative risk to examine knowledge by demographic and lifestyle factors. Only 15 % of all respondents and 23 % of reproductive-aged women had high knowledge of the adverse effects of prenatal smoking on pregnancy outcomes. Preterm birth and low birth weight were most often recognized as adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Nearly 70 % of reproductive-aged women smokers reported they would quit smoking if they became pregnant without any specific reasons from their doctor. Few respondents recognized the benefits of quitting smoking after the first trimester of pregnancy. Our results suggest that many women lack knowledge regarding the increased risks for adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Healthcare providers should follow the recommendations provided by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, which include educating women about the health risks of prenatal smoking and the benefits of quitting. Healthcare providers should emphasize quitting smoking even after the first trimester of pregnancy.
Polen, Kara ND; Sandhu, Paramjit K.; Honein, Margaret A.; Green, Katie K.; Berkowitz, Judy M.; Pace, Jill; Rasmussen, Sonja A.
Objectives Smoking during pregnancy is causally associated with many adverse health outcomes. Quitting smoking, even late in pregnancy, improves some outcomes. Among adults in general and reproductive-aged women, we sought to understand knowledge and attitudes towards prenatal smoking and its effects on pregnancy outcomes. Methods Using data from the 2008 HealthStyles© survey, we assessed knowledge and attitudes about prenatal smoking and smoking cessation. We classified respondents as having high knowledge if they gave ≥5 correct responses to 6 knowledge questions regarding the health effects of prenatal smoking. We calculated frequencies of correct responses to assess knowledge about prenatal smoking and estimated relative risk (RR) to examine knowledge by demographic and lifestyle factors. Results Only 15% of all respondents and 23% of reproductive-aged women had high knowledge of the adverse effects of prenatal smoking on pregnancy outcomes. Preterm birth and low birth weight were most often recognized as adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Nearly 70% of reproductive-aged women smokers reported they would quit smoking if they became pregnant without any specific reasons from their doctor. Few respondents recognized the benefits of quitting smoking after the first trimester of pregnancy. Conclusions Our results suggest that many women lack knowledge regarding the increased risks for adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Healthcare providers should follow the recommendations provided by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, which include educating women about the health risks of prenatal smoking and the benefits of quitting. Healthcare providers should emphasize quitting smoking even after the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:24825031
Bogaerts, Stefan; Kunst, Maarten J J; Winkel, Frans W
This study examined Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in relation to secure and insecure attachment styles based on data collected in a sample of 81 Belgian security workers. All had experienced one traumatic event in the previous year. The sample was divided into a securely attached and an insecurely attached group. The three PTSD symptom scales, Re-experiencing, Avoidance, and Hyperarousal, differentiated significantly between the two attachment groups; the dismissive attachment style was negatively related to PTSD. Individuals with a positive view of themselves and a negative view of others have less risk of developing PTSD than those with a fearful or preoccupied attachment style. A relationship between the dismissive attachment style with grandiose narcissism seems possible. Interest has been expressed in medical approaches; therefore, the importance of medical research on PTSD is emphasized.
Bradley, Bekh; Westen, Drew; Mercer, Kristina B; Binder, Elisabeth B; Jovanovic, Tanja; Crain, Daniel; Wingo, Aliza; Heim, Christine
The ability to effectively regulate emotions and a secure attachment style are critical for maintaining mental health across the life span. The experience of childhood maltreatment interferes with normal development of emotional regulation and dramatically increases risk for a wide range of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. The central nervous system oxytocin systems are critically involved in mediating social attachment and buffering psychophysiological responses to stress. We therefore investigated the impact of childhood maltreatment and an oxytocin receptor (OXTR) single nucleotide polymorphism (rs53576) and their interaction on emotional dysregulation and attachment style in adulthood in a sample of low-income, African American men and women recruited from primary care clinics of an urban, public hospital. Consistent with prior research, we found that the severity of childhood maltreatment was associated with increased levels of emotional dysregulation in adulthood. Childhood maltreatment was also positively associated with ratings of disorganized/unresolved adult attachment style and negatively associated with ratings of secure adult attachment style. There was no direct association between rs53576 and emotional dysregulation or ratings of adult attachment style. However, there were significant interactions between rs53576 and childhood maltreatment in predicting level of adult emotional dysregulation and attachment style. Specifically, G/G genotype carriers were at risk for increased emotional dysregulation when exposed to three or more categories of childhood abuse. In addition, G/G genotype carriers exhibited enhanced disorganized adult attachment style when exposed to severe childhood abuse compared to A/A and A/G carriers. Our findings suggest that A allele carriers of OXTR rs53576 are resilient against the effects of severe childhood adversity, by protection against emotional dysregulation and disorganized attachment.
Rosario, Margaret; Reisner, Sari L.; Corliss, Heather L.; Wypij, David; Frazier, A. Lindsay; Austin, S. Bryn
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth have elevated rates of depression compared to heterosexuals. We proposed and examined a theoretical model to understand whether attachment and stress paradigms explain disparities in depressive distress by sexual orientation, using the longitudinal Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) and Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII). GUTS participants eligible for this analysis reported sexual orientation, childhood gender nonconforming behaviors (GNBs), attachment to mother (all in 2005), and depressive symptoms (in 2007). Mothers of the GUTS participants who are the NHSII participants reported attitudes toward homosexuality (in 2004) and maternal affection (in 2006). The sample had 6,122 participants. Of GUTS youth (M = 20.6 years old in 2005; 64.4% female), 1.7% were lesbian/gay (LG), 1.7% bisexual (BI), 10.0% mostly heterosexual (MH), and 86.7% completely heterosexual (CH). After adjusting for demographic characteristics and sibling clustering, LGs, BIs, and MHs reported more depressive distress than CHs. This relation was partially mediated (i.e., explained) for LGs, BIs, and MHs relative to CHs by less secure attachment. A conditional relation (i.e., interaction) indicated that BIs reported more distress than CHs as GNBs increased for BIs; no comparable relation was found for LGs vs. CHs. Sibling comparisons found that sexual minorities (LGs, BIs, and MHs) reported more depressive distress, less secure attachment, and more childhood GNBs than CH siblings; the mothers reported less affection for their sexual-minority than CH offspring. The findings suggest that attachment and childhood gender nonconformity differentially pattern depressive distress by sexual orientation. Attachment and related experiences are more problematic for sexual minorities than for their CH siblings. PMID:23780518
Rosario, Margaret; Reisner, Sari L; Corliss, Heather L; Wypij, David; Frazier, A Lindsay; Austin, S Bryn
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (BI) youth have elevated rates of depression compared to heterosexuals. We proposed and examined a theoretical model to understand whether attachment and stress paradigms explain disparities in depressive distress by sexual orientation, using the longitudinal Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). GUTS participants eligible for this analysis reported sexual orientation, childhood gender nonconforming behaviors (GNBs), attachment to mother (all in 2005), and depressive symptoms (in 2007). Mothers of the GUTS participants who are the NHSII participants reported attitudes toward homosexuality (in 2004) and maternal affection (in 2006). The sample had 6,122 participants. Of GUTS youth (M = 20.6 years old in 2005; 64.4 % female), 1.7 % were lesbian/gay (LG), 1.7 % bisexual (BI), 10.0 % mostly heterosexual (MH), and 86.7 % completely heterosexual (CH). After adjusting for demographic characteristics and sibling clustering, LGs, BIs, and MHs reported more depressive distress than CHs. This relation was partially mediated (i.e., explained) for LGs, BIs, and MHs relative to CHs by less secure attachment. A conditional relation (i.e., interaction) indicated that BIs reported more distress than CHs as GNBs increased for BIs; no comparable relation was found for LGs versus CHs. Sibling comparisons found that sexual minorities (LGs, BIs, and MHs) reported more depressive distress, less secure attachment, and more childhood GNBs than CH siblings; the mothers reported less affection for their sexual-minority than CH offspring. The findings suggest that attachment and childhood gender nonconformity differentially pattern depressive distress by sexual orientation. Attachment and related experiences are more problematic for sexual minorities than for their CH siblings.
Currier, Joseph M; Irish, Jennifer E F; Neimeyer, Robert A; Foster, Joshua D
There is increasing consensus that mourners' general attachment security and ongoing sense of connectedness to the deceased figure prominently in adjustment to bereavement. However, the interplay between these variables has not been investigated thoroughly. We therefore studied 195 young adults who were bereaved by violent causes (homicide, suicide, and fatal accidents) in the previous 2 years, measuring their attachment-related insecurities (anxiety and avoidance), their specific ongoing attachment or "continuing bond" (CB) to the deceased, and their complicated grief (CG) symptomatology over the loss of this relationship. Analyses indicated that CBs were concurrently linked with greater CG symptomatology. However, other results also suggested that attachment could moderate the adaptiveness of maintaining a sense of connection to the deceased loved one. Specifically, CBs were less predictive of CG symptomatology for individuals with high anxiety and low avoidance, and most predictive of intense grieving for bereaved people whose attachment styles were more highly avoidant and minimally anxious. These findings suggest the relevance of evaluating the appropriateness of clinical techniques that emphasize or deemphasize the CB for mourners who differ in their styles of attachment. Such studies could potentially promote a better match of interventions to clients whose styles of coping are congruent with these procedures.
Pisula, Ewa; Lukowska, Ewa; Fudalej, Piotr S
Objectives : To evaluate self-esteem, coping styles, and health-related quality of life and their relationships in Polish adolescents and young adults with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate and related sex differences. Design and Participants : Self-report questionnaires measuring self-esteem (Multidimensional Self-Esteem Inventory), coping styles (Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations), and health-related quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) were completed by 48 participants with cleft lip and palate (age, 16 to 23 years; 31 males, 17 females) and 48 controls without cleft lip and palate (age, 16 to 23 years; 28 males, 20 females) matched for age, place of residence, and socioeconomic status. Results : Regarding self-esteem, individuals with cleft lip and palate scored higher on body functioning (P < .01) and defensive self-enhancement (P < .05). Self-control showed an interaction effect: Females with cleft lip and palate scored higher than controls, but males did not differ between groups (P < .05). Males with cleft lip and palate scored lower than controls in personal power but higher in body functioning (P < .05); females showed no differences between groups. The groups did not differ with regard to coping styles or quality of life, but several correlations were found between self-esteem and coping styles, and quality of life (P < .01). Conclusions : Late adolescents and young adults with and without cleft lip and palate differed little in terms of psychological adjustment measures. The higher scores in defensive self-enhancement of individuals with cleft lip and palate suggest the need for instruments measuring social approval in psychosocial adjustment research involving this group.
Missouri Univ., Columbia. Coll. of Education.
Information is provided regarding major learning styles and other factors important to student learning. Several typically asked questions are presented regarding different learning styles (visual, auditory, tactile and kinesthetic, and multisensory learning), associated considerations, determining individuals' learning styles, and appropriate…
Levesque, Christine; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Cloutier, Paula; Dandurand, Cathy
Several theoretical models for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) have been proposed. Despite an abundance of theoretical speculation, few empirical studies have examined the impact of intimate relationship functioning on NSSI. The present study examines the influence of romantic attachment and received intimate partner violence (physical,…
Fournier, Benoit; Brassard, Audrey; Shaver, Phillip R.
This study examines men's domestic aggression as a function of attachment insecurities, considering the mediating roles of the demand-withdraw communication pattern and relationship satisfaction. The sample included 55 Canadian men undergoing counseling for relationship difficulties including aggression. The men completed questionnaires assessing…
Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra
Children’s emotional and relational development can be negatively influenced by maternal substance abuse, particularly through a dysfunctional caregiving environment. Attachment Theory offers a privileged framework to analyze how drug addiction can affect the quality of adult attachment style, parenting attitudes and behaviors toward the child, and how it can have a detrimental effect on the co-construction of the attachment bond by the mother and the infant. Several studies, as a matter of fact, have identified a prevalence of insecure patterns among drug-abusing mothers and their children. Many interventions for mothers with Substance Use Disorders have focused on enhancing parental skills, but they have often overlooked the emotional and relational features of the mother–infant bond. Instead, in recent years, a number of protocols have been developed in order to strengthen the relationship between drug-abusing mothers and their children, drawing lessons from Attachment Theory. The present study reviews the literature on the adult and infant attachment style in the context of drug addiction, describing currently available treatment programs that address parenting and specifically focus on the mother–infant bond, relying on Attachment Theory. PMID:27625612
Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra
Children's emotional and relational development can be negatively influenced by maternal substance abuse, particularly through a dysfunctional caregiving environment. Attachment Theory offers a privileged framework to analyze how drug addiction can affect the quality of adult attachment style, parenting attitudes and behaviors toward the child, and how it can have a detrimental effect on the co-construction of the attachment bond by the mother and the infant. Several studies, as a matter of fact, have identified a prevalence of insecure patterns among drug-abusing mothers and their children. Many interventions for mothers with Substance Use Disorders have focused on enhancing parental skills, but they have often overlooked the emotional and relational features of the mother-infant bond. Instead, in recent years, a number of protocols have been developed in order to strengthen the relationship between drug-abusing mothers and their children, drawing lessons from Attachment Theory. The present study reviews the literature on the adult and infant attachment style in the context of drug addiction, describing currently available treatment programs that address parenting and specifically focus on the mother-infant bond, relying on Attachment Theory.
Rosario, Margaret; Reisner, Sari L; Corliss, Heather L; Wypij, David; Calzo, Jerel; Austin, S Bryn
More lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths than heterosexuals report substance use. We examined a theoretical model to understand these disparities in lifetime and past-year substance use by means of stress and attachment paradigms, using the longitudinal Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). GUTS participants are the children of participants in NHSII; thus, child and maternal data are available. In addition, GUTS contains siblings, allowing for comparisons of LGB and heterosexual siblings. Of 5,647 GUTS youths (M = 20.6 years old in 2005), 1.6% were lesbian/gay (LG), 1.6% bisexual (BI), 9.9% mostly heterosexual (MH), and 86.9% completely heterosexual (CH). After adjusting for sibling clustering in GUTS and covariates, significantly more sexual minorities (LGs, BIs, and MHs) than CHs reported lifetime and past-year smoking, nonmarijuana illicit drug use, and prescription drug misuse. More sexual minorities also reported marijuana use in the past year. The relations between sexual orientation and substance use were moderated by the stress markers: As mother's discomfort with homosexuality increased, more BIs and MHs than CHs used substances. As childhood gender nonconforming behaviors increased, more LGs than CHs used substances. The relations between sexual orientation and substance use were mediated by attachment and maternal affection (percent of effect mediated ranged from 5.6% to 16.8%% for lifetime substance use and 4.9% to 24.5% for past-year use). In addition, sibling comparisons found that sexual minorities reported more substance use, more childhood gender nonconforming behaviors, and less secure attachment than CH siblings; mothers reported less affection for their sexual minority than CH offspring. The findings indicate the importance of stress and attachment paradigms for understanding sexual-orientation disparities in substance use.
Rosario, Margaret; Reisner, Sari L.; Corliss, Heather L.; Wypij, David; Calzo, Jerel; Austin, S. Bryn
More lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths than heterosexuals report substance use. We examined a theoretical model to understand these disparities in lifetime and past-year substance use by means of stress and attachment paradigms, using the longitudinal Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) and Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII). GUTS participants are the children of participants in NHSII; thus, child and maternal data are available. In addition, GUTS contains siblings, allowing for comparisons of LGB and heterosexual siblings. Of 5,647 GUTS youths (M = 20.6 years old in 2005), 1.6% were lesbian/gay (LG), 1.6% bisexual (BI), 9.9% mostly heterosexual (MH), and 86.9% completely heterosexual (CH). After adjusting for sibling clustering in GUTS and covariates, significantly more sexual minorities (LGs, BIs, and MHs) than CHs reported lifetime and past-year smoking, non-marijuana illicit drug use, and prescription drug misuse. More sexual minorities also reported marijuana use in the past year. The relations between sexual orientation and substance use were moderated by the stress markers: As mother's discomfort with homosexuality increased, more BIs and MHs than CHs used substances. As childhood gender nonconforming behaviors increased, more LGs than CHs used substances. The relations between sexual orientation and substance use were mediated by attachment and maternal affection (percent of effect mediated ranged from 5.6%–16.8%% for lifetime substance use and 4.9%–24.5% for past-year use). In addition, sibling comparisons found that sexual minorities reported more substance use, more childhood gender nonconforming behaviors, and less secure attachment than CH siblings; mothers reported less affection for their sexual-minority than CH offspring. The findings indicate the importance of stress and attachment paradigms for understanding sexual-orientation disparities in substance use. PMID:25134050
Lee, Doo-Hyung; Wright, Starker E; Boiteau, Gilles; Vincent, Charles; Leskey, Tracy C
We evaluated the effectiveness of three cyanoacrylate glues (trade names: Krazy [Elmer's Products Inc., Westerville, OH], Loctite [Henkel Corporation, Rocky Hill, CT], and FSA [Barnes Distribution, Cleveland, OH]) to attach harmonic radar tags securely on adult Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and quantified the effect of the radar tag attachment on insect survivorship and mobility. In the laboratory, the strength of the glue bond between the radar tag and H. halys pronotum was significantly increased when the pronotum was sanded to remove cuticular waxes. The adhesive bond of the radar tag to the sanded pronotum of H. halys had strength of 160-190-g force and there was no significant difference among the three types of glue tested. The three glues had no measurable effect on the survivorship of radar-tagged H. halys over 7 d, compared with untagged insects. Over a 7-d period in the laboratory, horizontal distance traveled, horizontal walking velocity, and vertical climbing distance were all unaffected by the presence of the tags regardless of glue. A field experiment was conducted to compare the free flight behavior of untagged and radar-tagged H. halys. Adults were released on a vertical dowel and their flights were tracked visually up to ≍200 m from the release point. There was no significant difference in take-off time or in flight distance, time, or speed between untagged and radar-tagged individuals. In addition, prevailing flight direction was not significantly different between untagged and radar-tagged individuals. The absence of measurable impact of the radar tag attachment on H. halys survivorship or mobility validates the use of harmonic radar tags to study the dispersal ecology of this insect in field conditions.
Steele, Debra Arlene
In order to meet student needs, it is necessary to understand their characteristics and how these characteristics might relate to their perceptions about their online learning experiences. The theoretical and conceptual framework for this study is anchored by three constructs in human cognition: (a) decision making styles, (b) ways of knowing, and…
Putman, Paul G.
Adult learners can develop leadership skills and competencies such as conflict management and negotiation skills. Virtual simulations are among the emerging new technologies available to adult educators and trainers to help adults develop various leadership competencies. This study explored the impact of conflict management tactics as well as…
Musetti, Alessandro; Terrone, Grazia; Corsano, Paola; Magnani, Barbara; Salvatore, Sergio
Background: In the present study, we have explored the link among styles of attachment and psychopathology in drug users. We know that insecure attachment predisposes the individuals the development of drug-addiction and psychopathological symptoms. However, we do not know which attachment is more frequent in drug users and which is related to particular psychopathological symptoms. The aim of the present work is to explore the relationship between childhood attachment state of mind, attachment in close relationships, parental bonding and psychopathology in sample of Italian substance users. Methods: We explored, in a sample of 70 drug users and drug-addicted patients, the childhood attachment state of mind measured by the Adult Attachment Interview, the attachment in close relationships by the Relationship Questionnaire and parental bonding measured by the Parental Bonding Instrument. The Symptom Check-List-90-R (SCL-90-R) measured psychopathological symptoms. Results: We found that parental bonding, rather than state of mind concerning childhood attachment or attachment in close relationships, is related to the psychopathological manifestation of anxiety, hostility, depression, and paranoid ideation in the sample. The latter occurs frequently in our sample, independent of state of mind concerning child attachment, attachment in close relationships, and parental bonding, suggesting its role either as a factor that favors a bad image of the participants’ own relationships or as a direct effect of consuming drugs. Conclusion: These results have clinical implications on suggesting ways of interventions that prevent drug-addiction, which should include the evaluation of attachment in the prodromic phases of substance use onset or rehabilitation programs to prevent and manage psychotic-like symptoms. PMID:27555832
Keren, Einat; Mayseless, Ofra
This study was based on the attachment-security hypothesis (H. Latty-Mann & K. E. Davis, 1996) that predicts that all individuals, regardless of attachment style, should demonstrate a preference for secure partners who are most likely to offer attachment security. It was therefore expected that with the transfer of attachment functions from…
Social networking sites have started to become one of the most frequently used online communication types in the world. It is reported that one of the commonly used social networking sites is Facebook. Since Facebook use is new yet, it can be stated that researches on the Facebook addiction are at the beginning level. For this reason, determining…
Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an obligate blood feeder which is host specific to cattle. Existing knowledge pertaining to the host or host breed effects on tick transcript expression profiles during the tick - host interaction is poor. Results Global analysis of gene expression changes in whole R. microplus ticks during larval, pre-attachment and early adult stages feeding on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle were compared using gene expression microarray analysis. Among the 13,601 R. microplus transcripts from BmiGI Version 2 we identified 297 high and 17 low expressed transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed between R. microplus feeding on tick resistant cattle [Bos indicus (Brahman)] compared to R. microplus feeding on tick susceptible cattle [Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian)] (p ≤ 0.001). These include genes encoding enzymes involved in primary metabolism, and genes related to stress, defence, cell wall modification, cellular signaling, receptor, and cuticle formation. Microarrays were validated by qRT-PCR analysis of selected transcripts using three housekeeping genes as normalization controls. Conclusion The analysis of all tick stages under survey suggested a coordinated regulation of defence proteins, proteases and protease inhibitors to achieve successful attachment and survival of R. microplus on different host breeds, particularly Bos indicus cattle. R. microplus ticks demonstrate different transcript expression patterns when they encounter tick resistant and susceptible breeds of cattle. In this study we provide the first transcriptome evidence demonstrating the influence of tick resistant and susceptible cattle breeds on transcript expression patterns and the molecular physiology of ticks during host attachment and feeding. The microarray data used in this analysis have been submitted to NCBI GEO database under accession number GSE20605 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE20605. PMID:20637126
Cole-Detke, Holland; Kobak, Roger
Examines the relationship between attachment strategies and symptom reporting among college women (N=61). The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was administered and interview transcripts were rated with the Attachment Interview Q-Sort. Findings support the hypothesis that secondary or defensive attachment strategies predispose individuals toward…
Deever, Walter Thomas
More than half of adults in the USA have quantitative literacy ratings at or below a basic level. This lack of literacy often becomes a barrier to employability. To overcome this barrier, adults are returning to college to improve their quantitative skills and complete an undergraduate education, often through an accelerated degree program. A…
Böhmann, Johann; Fritsch, Sophia; Lück, Monika; Stumpe, Anna; Taubner, Svenja; Vesterling, Christina
The present study was investigating the predictive role of maternal mentalizing and general as well as depressive symptom burden for attachment security at the end of the first year on a sample of 44 mother-child-dyads from a low-risk community study. Maternal mentalizing was assessed in a multidimensional way as Reflective Functioning (off-line) and Mind-Mindedness (on-line). The design was longitudinal measuring maternal Mind-Mindedness from a videotaped mother-child-play-interaction at the age of three months. General and depressive symptom burden was assessed using the SCL-90-R when the children were nine months old. Maternal attachment and Reflective-Functioning, using the Adult-Attachment-Interview, as well as children's attachment behavior, using the Strange-Situation-Test, were investigated at the age of twelve months. Secure maternal attachment was associated with higher Reflective Functioning, higher frequency of Mind-Mindedness and lower general and depressive symptom burden. A moderation-analysis showed a statistical trend (p = .08) that the interaction of the frequency of mind-related comments, general symptom severity and maternal attachment has a predictive value for infantile attachment security. Results can be tentatively interpreted that mothers with insecure attachment who had a lower general symptom burden and who related to their three-months old babies with a high frequency of mind-related-comments were more likely to have securely attached children. Thus, results may serve as a groundwork for projects aiming to prevent the transmission of insecure attachment by strengthening maternal Mind-Mindedness and working on the reduction of maternal general symptom burden.
Solomon, Judith, Ed.; George, Carol, Ed.
Disorganized attachment relationships were first formally identified on the basis of the anomalous behavior of some infants during laboratory separations and reunions with the parent. This book presents new research and theory on the topic of attachment disorganization, an area of investigation that is of increasing importance in the study of…
Kozan, Hatice Irem Ozteke; Kesici, Sahin; Buyukbayraktar, Cagla Girgin; Yalcin, S. Barbaros
Aim of this research is to examine the predictive power of attachment style on problematic internet use among university students. Participants of study consist of 481 university students (230 girls). Results indicate that there is a negative correlation between secure attachment style and social benefit/social comfort and there is a positive…
Dhal, Anubha; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sharma, Vidhi; Gupta, Priyanka
Objectives: To assess self-esteem, loneliness and attachment styles among adolescents and examine their association with each other and with age and gender. Method: Adolescents (55 males and 55 females) from a public school in Delhi, aged 10-13 years were administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (School Form), Attachment Scale and UCLA…
Wilson, Steffen; Gore, Jonathan
Students with high levels of connectedness to the university have been found to be more likely to complete their college degree than are students with low levels of university connectedness. This study examined the role of parental and peer attachment as distal predictors of school connectedness. As predicted, it was found that attachment style to…
Sutton, Tara E; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Wickrama, K A S; Futris, Ted
Intimate partner violence has been recognized as a major problem on college campuses and is a source of concern for researchers, clinicians, policymakers, and the general population. Most research has focused on the intergenerational transmission of violence and identifying the intrapersonal mechanisms that enable violence in the family of origin to carry over to adult intimate relationships. This study expands the current literature by examining insecure attachment styles and destructive disagreement beliefs as mediators in the relationship between exposure to hostility or aggression in the family of origin and later experiences of dating aggression. Research questions were addressed with a sample of 1,136 college undergraduates (59% women). In all models, results of structural equation modeling indicated that an insecure attachment style and destructive disagreement beliefs mediated the intergenerational transmission of violence among both men and women. These findings have important implications for future research as well as relationship education programs and preventative interventions.
Solomon, Daniel; And Others
Using 24 college and university teachers, this study investigated the effect of teaching styles on adult student learning and analyzed the results of a factor breakdown, interactions between teacher behavior and class and student characteristics, and profiles of teacher effectiveness. Gains in factual information were positively related to teacher…
Santo, Susan A.
This paper examines research on learning styles as related to online learning for adult learners. There is much disagreement regarding the definition of learning style. This paper defines it as an individual's preferred way of learning. The focus is on the extent to which learning styles are able to predict student success (e.g., grades,…
Bryant, Richard A.
The extent to which we engage with our social world has been central to our survival as a species and, accordingly, is relevant to how we cope with trauma and adversity. This review summarises current knowledge about the importance of social connections from an evolutionary perspective, as well as integrating this with a discussion of prevailing attachment theories. Experimental research supporting the potential benefit of attachments for managing adversity are presented, along with a review of how these benefits are moderated by individual differences in attachment style. The potential impact of trauma on attachment systems, and the manner in which this can compound trauma stress is discussed. Finally, a broader overview of social network analysis is introduced and it is proposed that a more sociocentric framework of trauma response would promote a fuller understanding of how social processes moderate trauma response. PMID:26996531
Frigerio, Alessandra; Costantino, Elisabetta; Ceppi, Elisa; Barone, Lavinia
The main aim of this study was to investigate the correlates of a Hostile-Helpless (HH) state of mind among 67 women belonging to a community sample and two different at-risk samples matched on socio-economic indicators, including 20 women from low-SES population (poverty sample) and 15 women at risk for maltreatment being monitored by the social services for the protection of juveniles (maltreatment risk sample). The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) protocols were reliably coded blind to the samples' group status. The rates of HH classification increased in relation to the risk status of the three samples, ranging from 9% for the low-risk sample to 60% for the maltreatment risk sample to 75% for mothers in the maltreatment risk sample who actually maltreated their infants. In terms of the traditional AAI classification system, 88% of the interviews from the maltreating mothers were classified Unresolved/Cannot Classify (38%) or Preoccupied (50%). Partial overlapping between the 2 AAI coding systems was found, and discussion concerns the relevant contributions of each AAI coding system to understanding of the intergenerational transmission of maltreatment.
Val, Carlin; Kemp, Jess
This study examines how a group's dynamic changes under the influence of different leadership styles, and determines what leadership style works best in a large group expedition. The main question identified was "What roles can a leader play in affecting the dynamic of a large group while partaking in a field expedition?" The following…
Zeece, Pauline Davey
Adult read aloud book activities, including literature selections, have significant impact on children's language learning opportunities. The style in which books are orally shared with children is also important. Detailed examination of adult-child book reading conversations has demonstrated a variety of teaching and learning approaches in the…
Leigh, Irene W.; Brice, Patrick J.; Meadow-Orlans, Kathryn
In attachment research, there has been a growing interest in how adults conceptualize their relationships with their own parents as well as in the transmission of attachment status from parent to child and the variables that influence that transmission. The primary goal of the present study was to examine the transmission of attachment from deaf…
Bosmans, Guy; Kerns, Kathryn A.
Contrary to the substantial amount of research on infant, preschool, adolescent, and adult attachment, middle childhood has long been neglected by the international attachment research community. In the past two decades, however, there has been a steep increase in research focusing on middle childhood attachment. This article provides an overview…
Yoshida, Fumiko; Conti, Gary J.; Yamauchi, Toyoaki; Iwasaki, Takaaki
Teaching style has been a popular concept for many years. Teaching style refers to the distinct qualities displayed by a teacher that are persistent from situation to situation regardless of the content. The Principles of Adult Learning Scale (PALS) has been used extensively in the West for measuring teaching style in relationship to the adult…
Starks, Tyrel J; Newcomb, Michael E; Mustanski, Brian
The current study examined the potential for mental health to mediate associations between earlier attachment to parents and peers and later relationship adjustment during adolescence and young adulthood in a sample of sexual minority youth. Secondarily, the study examined associations between peer and parental attachment and relationship/dating milestones. Participants included 219 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth who participated in six waves of data collection over 3.5 years. Parental attachment was associated with an older age of dating initiation, while peer attachment was associated with longer relationship length. Both peer and parental attachment were significantly associated with mental health in later adolescence and young adulthood. Mental health mediated the association between peer attachment and main partner relationship quality. While the total indirect effect of parental attachment on main partner relationship quality was statistically significant, specific indirect effects were not. Implications for the application of attachment theory and integration of interpersonal factors into mental health intervention with sexual minority youth are discussed.
Starks, Tyrel J.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Mustanski, Brian
The current study examined the potential for mental health to mediate associations between earlier attachment to parents and peers and later relationship adjustment during adolescence and young adulthood in a sample of sexual minority youth. Secondarily, the study examined associations between peer and parental attachment and relationship/dating milestones. Participants included 219 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth who participated in six waves of data collection over 3.5 years. Parental attachment was associated with an older age of dating initiation, while peer attachment was associated with longer relationship length. Both peer and parental attachment were significantly associated with mental health in later adolescence and young adulthood. Mental health mediated the association between peer attachment and main partner relationship quality. While the total indirect effect of parental attachment on main partner relationship quality was statistically significant, specific indirect effects were not. Implications for the application of attachment theory and integration of interpersonal factors into mental health intervention with sexual minority youth are discussed. PMID:26108898
Bishop, Cecily V.; Xu, Fuhua; Xu, Jing; Ting, Alison Y.; Galbreath, Etienne; McGee, Whitney K.; Zelinski, Mary B.; Hennebold, Jon D.; Cameron, Judy L.; Stouffer, Richard L.
Objective To examine the small antral follicle (SAF) cohort in ovaries of adult rhesus monkeys following consumption of a western-style diet (WSD), with or without chronically elevated androgen levels since before puberty. Design Cholesterol or testosterone (T; n=6/group) implants were placed subcutaneously in female rhesus macaques beginning at 1 yr of age (pre-pubertal), with addition of a WSD (high fat/fructose) at 5.5 yrs (menarche ~2.6 yrs). Ovaries were collected at 7 yrs of age. One ovary/female was embedded in paraffin for morphological and immunohistochemical analyses. The SAFs (<2.5mm) were dissected from the other ovary obtained at/near menses in a subgroup of females (n=3/group), and processed for microarray analyses of the SAF transcriptome. Ovaries of adult monkeys consuming a standard macaque diet (low in fats and sugars) were obtained at similar stages of the menstrual cycle and used as controls for all analyses. Setting National primate research center Animals Adult, female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Interventions None Main outcome measures Histological analyses, SAF counts and morphology, protein localization and abundance in SAFs, transcriptome in SAFs (mRNAs) Results Compared to controls, consumption of a WSD, with and without T treatment, increased the numbers of SAFs per ovary, due to the presence of more atretic follicles. Numbers of granulosa cells expressing cellular proliferation markers (pRb and pH3) was greater in healthy SAFs, while numbers of cells expressing the cell cycle inhibitor (p21) was higher in atretic SAFs. Intense CYP17A1 staining was observed in the theca cells of SAFs from WSD+/− T groups, compared to controls. Microarray analyses of the transcriptome in SAFs isolated from WSD and WSD+T treated females and controls consuming a standard diet, identified 1944 genes whose mRNA levels changed ≥2-fold among the three groups. Further analyses identified several gene pathways altered by WSD and/or WSD+T associated with
Shakory, Sharry; Van Exan, Jessica; Mills, Jennifer S; Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Keating, Leah; Taube-Schiff, Marlene
Binge eating has a high prevalence among bariatric patients and is associated with post-surgical weight gain. This study examined the potential mediating role of emotion regulation difficulties in the relation between attachment insecurity and binge eating among this population. Participants were 1388 adult pre-bariatric surgery candidates from an accredited bariatric surgery assessment centre in Toronto, Ontario. Participants completed measures of psychological functioning, including attachment style and emotion regulation. Mediation analyses revealed that difficulties with emotion regulation mediated a positive association between insecure-anxious attachment and binge eating. An insecure-avoidant attachment was found to have a non-significant association with binge eating when examining the total effect. However, when difficulties with emotion regulation were controlled for in the model to examine its role as a mediator, this association became significant, and emotion regulation difficulties also mediated the relationship between attachment avoidance and binge eating. These findings suggest that difficulties in emotion regulation may be an important clinical issue to address in order to reduce binge eating in adult bariatric surgery candidates.
Seskin, Lynn; Feliciano, Eileen; Tippy, Gil; Yedloutschnig, Ruby; Sossin, K. Mark; Yasik, Anastasia
While attachment research has demonstrated that parents' internal working models of attachment relationships tend to be transmitted to their children, affecting children's developmental trajectories, this study specifically examines associations between adult attachment status and observable parent, child, and dyadic behaviors among children with…
Pashler, Harold; McDaniel, Mark; Rohrer, Doug; Bjork, Robert
that students receive instruction tailored to their putative learning style, the experiment must reveal a specific type of interaction between learning style and instructional method: Students with one learning style achieve the best educational outcome when given an instructional method that differs from the instructional method producing the best outcome for students with a different learning style. In other words, the instructional method that proves most effective for students with one learning style is not the most effective method for students with a different learning style. Our review of the literature disclosed ample evidence that children and adults will, if asked, express preferences about how they prefer information to be presented to them. There is also plentiful evidence arguing that people differ in the degree to which they have some fairly specific aptitudes for different kinds of thinking and for processing different types of information. However, we found virtually no evidence for the interaction pattern mentioned above, which was judged to be a precondition for validating the educational applications of learning styles. Although the literature on learning styles is enormous, very few studies have even used an experimental methodology capable of testing the validity of learning styles applied to education. Moreover, of those that did use an appropriate method, several found results that flatly contradict the popular meshing hypothesis. We conclude therefore, that at present, there is no adequate evidence base to justify incorporating learning-styles assessments into general educational practice. Thus, limited education resources would better be devoted to adopting other educational practices that have a strong evidence base, of which there are an increasing number. However, given the lack of methodologically sound studies of learning styles, it would be an error to conclude that all possible versions of learning styles have been tested and found
Kietaibl, Carin M.
Attachment theorists propose that attachment styles affect the development of relationships inside and outside of therapy. By integrating attachment theory into their work with clients, therapists may strengthen the working alliance and lower the risk of clients prematurely ending therapy. Attachment theory is reviewed, and methods of integrating…
Kelley, Melissa M.; Chan, Keith T.
Research has examined the relationship of styles of attachment to others and meaning with grief and the stress-related growth process. Less has been written on styles of attachment to God and patterns of religious coping and how these constructs may impact adjustment in persons dealing with loss. This study examines the roles of attachment to God,…
Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Gramaglia, Carla; Amianto, Federico; Marzola, Enrica; Fassino, Secondo
The aim of this study is assessing interactions between attachment style and personality in predicting body dissatisfaction (BD). A total of 586 outpatients with eating disorders (EDs) were recruited: 101 with anorexia nervosa, restricting type; 52 with anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type; 184 with bulimia nervosa, purging type; and 249 with an eating disorder not otherwise specified. Participants completed Temperament and Character Inventory, Body Shape Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and Attachment Style Questionnaire. An insecure attachment was found in all EDs, as well as in eating disorder not otherwise specified. In all diagnostic groups, need for approval, as measured by the Attachment Style Questionnaire and depressive symptomatology, was found to be the best predictor of BD. Personality traits are weaker predictors of BD. This study supports the hypothesis that attachment insecurity is directly correlated with BD, core element in predicting and perpetuating EDs, independently of personality. Implications for treatment are discussed.
Zmudy, Mark H.; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.; Steffen, Jeff
Sport pedagogy researchers have contributed much to the literature on physical education teaching by describing the participation styles of children, youth and young adults in various settings. The purpose of this study was to describe the participation styles of children enrolled in two consecutive week-long summer adventure camps. Primary…
Lickenbrock, Diane M.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.; Ekas, Naomi V.; Zentall, Shannon R.; Oshio, Toko; Planalp, Elizabeth M.
This longitudinal study (n?=?106) examined associations between temperament, attachment, and styles of compliance and noncompliance. Infant negative temperamental reactivity was reported by mothers at 3, 5 and 7?months. Infant attachment was assessed (Strange Situation) at 12 (mothers) and 14?months (fathers). Toddlers' styles of…
Kivlighan, Dennis M.; Lo Coco, Gianluca; Gullo, Salvatore
There is a lack of research examining group members' attachment styles and group climate perceptions in the context of the attachment styles and group climate perceptions of the other group members. In the current study, the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) was used to examine the relationships among (a) a group member's attachment…
Chen, Bin-Bin; Chang, Lei
By integrating the life history theory of attachment with resource control theory, the current study examines the hypothesis that insecure attachment styles reorganized in middle childhood are alternative adaptive strategies used to prepare for upcoming competition with the peer group. A sample of 654 children in the second through seventh grades…
Brooks, Jeanne; Lewis, Michael
Seventeen sets of opposite sex twins, 13 to 14 months old, were observed in a playroom situation with their mothers. Attachment behaviors, toy preference, style of play, and activity level were recorded. Analysis of four attachment behaviors indicated that girls looked at, vocalized to, and maintained proximity with their mothers significantly…
Olsson, Craig A; Moyzis, Robert K; Williamson, Elizabeth; Ellis, Justine A; Parkinson-Bates, Mandy; Patton, George C; Dwyer, Terry; Romaniuk, Helena; Moore, Elya E
To investigate the combined effect of an exon III variable number tandem repeat in the dopamine receptor gene (DRD4) and insecure attachment style on risk for tobacco, cannabis and alcohol use problems in young adulthood. It was hypothesized that (1) individuals with 5, 6, 7 or 8 repeats (labelled 7R+) would be at increased risk for problematic drug use, and (2) risk for drug use would be further increased in individuals with 7R+ repeats who also have a history of insecure parent-child attachment relations. Data were drawn from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study, an eight-wave longitudinal study of adolescent and young adult development. DRD4 genotypes were available for 839 participants. Risk attributable to the combined effects of 7R+ genotype and insecure attachments was evaluated within a sufficient causes framework under the assumptions of additive interaction using a two-by-four table format with a common reference group. 7R+ alleles were associated with higher tobacco, cannabis and alcohol use (binging). Insecure attachments were associated with higher tobacco and cannabis use but lower alcohol use. For tobacco, there was evidence of interaction for anxious but not avoidant attachments. For cannabis, there was evidence of interaction for both anxious and avoidant attachments, although the interaction for anxious attachments was more substantial. There is no evidence of interaction for binge drinking. Results are consistent with a generic reward deficit hypothesis of drug addiction for which the 7R+ disposition may play a role. Interaction between 7R+ alleles and attachment insecurity may intensify risk for problematic tobacco and cannabis use.
In this article, it is hypothesized that disorganizing, disorienting, and unresolved states of mind about loss experiences, as classified by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) coding system, may offer insight into the bereaved mind and may guide clinical treatment approaches. This article discusses pre-loss attachment organizations and the…
Neumann, Eva; Sattel, Heribert; Gündel, Harald; Henningsen, Peter; Kruse, Johannes
Adult attachment representations have been considered to play a role in the development and treatment of somatizing behavior. In this study, the associations between the two attachment dimensions avoidance and anxiety and dimensions of psychopathology (somatization, depression, and general anxiety) were explored. The sample consists of 202 outpatients diagnosed with a somatoform disorder. Data were collected via self-report measures. A path analysis shows that the two attachment dimensions are not directly associated with somatization. There are, however, significant indirect associations between attachment and somatization mediated by depression and general anxiety, which are more pronounced for attachment anxiety than for attachment avoidance. The findings reveal that a low level of attachment security in romantic relationships, especially an anxious stance toward the partner, comes along with poor mental health, which in turn is related to a preoccupation with somatic complaints. Implications for the treatment of somatizing patients are discussed.
This article analyses the styles of English produced by an adult migrant who started to speak the language later in life, and it approaches them from the perspective of quantitative style-shifting and discursive stylization. After defining style and the procedures needed to justify the term "L2," the study describes the focal informant's…
Mikulincer, Mario; Gillath, Omri; Shaver, Phillip R
Three studies explored the effects of subliminal threat on the activation of representations of attachment figures. This accessibility was measured in a lexical decision task and a Stroop task following threat- or neutral-word primes, and was compared with the accessibility of representations of other close persons, known but not close persons, and unknown persons. Participants also reported on their attachment style. Threat primes led to increased accessibility of representations of attachment figures. This effect was specific to attachment figures and was replicated across tasks and experiments. Attachment anxiety heightened accessibility of representations of attachment figures even in neutral contexts, whereas attachment avoidance inhibited this activation when the threat prime was the word separation. These effects were not, explained by trait anxiety. The discussion focuses on the dynamics of attachment-system activation in adulthood.
Cole-Detke, H; Kobak, R
This study examines the relationship between attachment strategies and symptom reporting among college women. Sixty-one college women were selected who reported high or low levels of depressive and eating disorder symptoms. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was administered, and interview transcripts were rated with the Attachment Interview Q-Sort. The results indicated that women with hyperactivating AAI strategies were prone to reporting elevated levels of depressive symptoms, whereas women with deactivating strategies were prone to reporting elevated levels of eating-disorder symptoms, when depression was statistically controlled. These findings support the hypothesis that secondary or defensive attachment strategies predispose individuals toward different forms of symptom expression.
A modern evolutionary perspective emphasizing life history theory and behavioral ecology is brought to bear on the three core patterns of attachment that are identified in studies of infants and young children in the Strange Situation and adults using the Adult Attachment Interview. Mating and parenting correlates of secure/autonomous, avoidant/dismissing, and resistant/preoccupied attachment patterns are reviewed, and the argument is advanced that security evolved to promote mutually beneficial interpersonal relations and high investment parenting; that avoidant/dismissing attachment evolved to promote opportunistic interpersonal relations and low-investment parenting; and that resistant/preoccupied attachment evolved to foster "helper-at-the-nest" behavior and indirect reproduction.
The International Space Station Expedition 11 crew, set for liftoff Apr. 15 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, is to perform two extravehicular activities-one in Russian and the other in U.S. spacesuits, a unique combination that points up different national space-operating styles. The outgoing Expedition 10 commander, astronaut Leroy Chiao, addressed the differences in an e-mail exchange from the ISS. Chiao is well qualified to discuss these topics, having logged four shuttle-based EVAs in the American suit and two in the Russian Orlan, the most recent one Mar. 28. Chiao and Expedition 10 cosmonaut Salizhan Sharipov are to return to Earth in their own Soyuz Apr. 25.
NASA Johnson Style is a volunteer outreach video project created by the students of NASA's Johnson Space Center. It was created as an educational parody of Psy's Gangnam Style. The lyrics and scene...
Edens, John F.; Cavell, Timothy A.
Reviews the existing theoretical and empirical evidence on the formation and maintenance of adoptive relationships, with a focus on an attachment perspective. Emphasizes Bartholomew's categorical model of attachment styles. Presents inferences about the influence of attachment status on interpersonal and family functioning. (DLH)
Szielasko, Alicia L.; Symons, Douglas K.; Price, E. Lisa
There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new…
Keenan, Belinda M.; Newman, Louise K.; Gray, Kylie M.; Rinehart, Nicole J.
There has been limited study of the relationship between child attachment and caregiver wellbeing amongst children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined self-reported child attachment quality alongside caregivers' report of their own psychological distress, parenting stress and attachment style, amongst 24 children with…