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  1. Approach to attention deficit disorder in adults

    PubMed Central

    Matas, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the etiology, diagnosis, and management of attention deficit disorder (ADD) in adults. SOURCES OF INFORMATION PsycINFO, PubMed, and Psychiatry 24x7.com were searched. Several books on ADD in adults were reviewed. I also drew on my own clinical experience assessing and treating adults with ADD for more than 20 years. MAIN MESSAGE The classic triad of ADD symptoms are inattention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity or restlessness. Although ADD is a well established brain disorder, the diagnosis remains controversial. Attention deficit disorder has been called a fad, not a legitimate diagnosis, but it is a well established, well documented, medical condition that can cause much suffering if left untreated. At one time we thought children would outgrow ADD at puberty, but we now know that many will continue to have residual symptoms throughout adolescence and adulthood. If left untreated, ADD can interfere with relationships, employment, and self-esteem. Treatment with stimulants and adjunctive care is often effective. CONCLUSION Attention deficit disorder in adults represents a substantial burden of illness. It can be diagnosed and treated successfully. PMID:17273498

  2. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder outcome in adults].

    PubMed

    Bange, F

    2011-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood. Although some symptoms of ADHD may diminish this does not mean that functioning is unimpaired in adults. Follow-up studies of children with ADHD show that it persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. Due to genetic factors high rates of ADHD exist among the parents of children with ADHD. More females are identified and become diagnosed in adulthood. There is a greater persistence of inattentive than of hyperactive/impulsive childhood symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. Some experts conceptualise ADHD as primarily a deficit of executive functions impairing planification, time perception and emotional regulation. ADHD often presents as a lifelong condition in adults associated with a range of clinical and psychosocial impairments. Young adults with comorbid antisocial or substance use disorder in adolescence are at significantly increased risk for criminal behaviors. Some predictors of the outcome have been identified such as childhood symptom profile and severity, comorbidity and childhood family adversities.

  3. Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserstein, Jeanette; Wasserstein, Adella; Wolf, Lorraine E.

    This digest examines attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and symptoms of the disability. Pertinent adult problems include: (1) substance abuse, antisocial behaviors, and criminality, all of which can occur in adults with ADHD; (2) poor social skills or deficits in self-awareness are also frequent; (3) occurrence of ADHD with…

  4. Sustained and Focused Attention Deficits in Adult ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetta, Natalie D. J.; Hurks, Petra P. M.; De Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the specificity of deficits in focused attention and sustained attention in adults with ADHD and to evaluate the effect of comorbidity. Method: Twenty-eight adults with ADHD without comorbidity were compared with 28 ADHD outpatients with comorbidity. Two control groups were used: 68 adults referred for ADHD but with another…

  5. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention.

    PubMed

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms are marginal. We hypothesize that basic deficits in sustaining attention explain more complex attentional dysfunction in persons with ADHD and relate to ADHD symptoms. Attentional function was analyzed by computing ex-Gaussian parameters for 3 time Blocks in a 20 min test of sustained alertness. Changes in performance across these blocks were analyzed by comparing adult persons with ADHD (n = 24) with healthy matched controls (n = 24) and correlated with neuropsychological measures of selective and divided attention as well as self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. We found a significantly steeper increase in the number of slow responses (ex-Gaussian parameter τ) in persons with ADHD with time on task in basic sustained alertness. They also performed significantly worse in tasks of sustained selective and divided attention. However, after controlling for an increase in τ during the alertness task, significant differences between groups disappeared for divided and partly selective attention. Increases in τ in the sustained alertness task correlated significantly with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. Our results provide evidence that very basic deficits in sustaining attention in adults with ADHD are related to infrequent slow responses (=attentional lapses), with changes over time being relevant for more complex attentional function and experienced ADHD symptoms in everyday life. PMID:27193369

  6. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and adult mortality.

    PubMed

    London, Andrew S; Landes, Scott D

    2016-09-01

    This study examines the relationship between self-reported ADHD and adult mortality over a four-year period, and whether ADHD is associated with underlying cause of death (accidents versus all others). If ADHD increases mortality risk through accidents, then interventions may be designed and implemented to reduce risk and prevent premature death. We estimate descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models using data from the 2007 U.S. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) Sample Adult File linked to National Death Index (NDI) data through 2011 (N=23,352). Analyses are weighted and standard errors are adjusted for the complex sampling design. We find that the odds of dying are significantly higher among those with ADHD than among those without ADHD net of exogenous sociodemographic controls (adjusted odds ratio=1.78, 95% confidence interval=1.01, 3.12). Although marginally non-significant, accidental death is more common among those with ADHD than among those without ADHD (13.2% versus 4.3%, p=0.052). Few population-representative studies examine the relationship between ADHD and adult mortality due to data limitations. Using NHIS data linked to the NDI, we are only able to observe a few deaths among adults with ADHD. However, ADHD is associated with significantly higher odds of dying for adults and results suggest that accidents may be an underlying cause of death more often for decedents with ADHD. Future research should further examine the mechanisms linking ADHD to adult mortality and the extent to which mortality among persons with ADHD is preventable. Regular measurement of ADHD among adults in the NHIS is warranted.

  7. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and adult mortality.

    PubMed

    London, Andrew S; Landes, Scott D

    2016-09-01

    This study examines the relationship between self-reported ADHD and adult mortality over a four-year period, and whether ADHD is associated with underlying cause of death (accidents versus all others). If ADHD increases mortality risk through accidents, then interventions may be designed and implemented to reduce risk and prevent premature death. We estimate descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models using data from the 2007 U.S. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) Sample Adult File linked to National Death Index (NDI) data through 2011 (N=23,352). Analyses are weighted and standard errors are adjusted for the complex sampling design. We find that the odds of dying are significantly higher among those with ADHD than among those without ADHD net of exogenous sociodemographic controls (adjusted odds ratio=1.78, 95% confidence interval=1.01, 3.12). Although marginally non-significant, accidental death is more common among those with ADHD than among those without ADHD (13.2% versus 4.3%, p=0.052). Few population-representative studies examine the relationship between ADHD and adult mortality due to data limitations. Using NHIS data linked to the NDI, we are only able to observe a few deaths among adults with ADHD. However, ADHD is associated with significantly higher odds of dying for adults and results suggest that accidents may be an underlying cause of death more often for decedents with ADHD. Future research should further examine the mechanisms linking ADHD to adult mortality and the extent to which mortality among persons with ADHD is preventable. Regular measurement of ADHD among adults in the NHIS is warranted. PMID:27343403

  8. A clinican's guide to adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Meyer, Andrea; Soovajian, Victoria

    2012-10-01

    While attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been traditionally viewed as a childhood ailment, longitudinal data suggest that it persists into adulthood for most affected individuals. Adult ADHD is now recognized as a legitimate diagnosis with clinical and epidemiological implications. It is estimated that 4% of American adults are afflicted by this disorder. There have been advances in adultADHD screening tools, diagnostic guidelines, medication delivery systems and psychosocial treatments. Despite these gains, there is great variability among clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD. This article reviews controversies surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD and suggests strategies to overcome existing obstacles.

  9. [Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): current issues].

    PubMed

    Bader, M; Perroud, N

    2012-09-19

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has prevalence between 3 and 7% in childhood and adolescence. As high as 60% of childhood cases continue to have clinically significant symptoms of ADHD as adults. Psychiatric comorbidities are often found in ADHD subjects including, in childhood, emotional, behavior and learning disorders. Psychiatric comorbidities in adolescents and adults suffering from ADHD include mood and substance use disorders. Although may one fear giving psychostimulants to ADHD patients with comorbidities, recent studies have shown the benefits of such treatment not only in the clinical but also in the educational and socioprofessional point of views. Psychotherapeutic approaches should ideally accompany pharmacological treatments.

  10. Psychotherapy of Adults With Attention-Deficit Disorder

    PubMed Central

    BEMPORAD, JULES; ZAMBENEDETTI, MAURIZIO

    1996-01-01

    The multimodal treatment of adults with attention-deficit disorder (ADD) is described as consisting of a sequence of overlapping therapeutic measures. The initial objective is symptom amelioration through adequate pharmacotherapy. Once this has been accomplished, a period of psychoeducational therapy is recommended to teach the individual to live successfully with a chronic disorder. These two aspects of treatment may suffice for some ADD adults, but many others may require an additional course of psychotherapy to deal with dysfunctional personality characteristics resulting from having grown up with ADD. Among these are modes of defenses against painful affects, resistances to treatment, and inaccurate estimations and expectations of the self and others. PMID:22700291

  11. Emotion perception in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Bisch, Jeanne; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Bretscher, Johannes; Wildgruber, Dirk; Fallgatter, Andreas; Ethofer, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    This study examined identification of emotional information in facial expression, prosody, and their combination in 23 adult patients with combined attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus 31 healthy controls (HC) matched for gender, age, and education. We employed a stimulus set which was carefully balanced for valence as well as recognizability of the expressed emotions as determined in an independent sample of HC to avoid potential biases due to different levels of task difficulty. ADHD patients were characterized by impaired recognition of all employed categories (neutral, happiness, eroticism, disgust, anger). Basic cognitive functions as assessed by neuropsychological testing, such as sustained attention, constancy of alertness, and verbal intelligence partially explained lower recognition rates. Removal of the correlated variance by means of regression analyses did not abolish lower performance in ADHD indicating deficits in social cognition independent of these neuropsychological factors (p < 0.05). Lower performance correlated with self-rated emotional intelligence (r = 0.38, p < 0.05) indicating that adults with ADHD are aware of their problems in emotion perception. ADHD patients could partly compensate their deficit in unimodal emotion perception by audiovisual integration as revealed by larger gains in emotion recognition accuracy during bimodal presentation (p < 0.05) as compared to HC. These behavioral results can serve as foundation for future neuroimaging studies and point rather towards sensory-specific regions than audiovisual integration areas in perception of emotional information in adult ADHD. PMID:26850439

  12. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults: an overview.

    PubMed

    Faraone, S V; Biederman, J; Spencer, T; Wilens, T; Seidman, L J; Mick, E; Doyle, A E

    2000-07-01

    To assess the validity of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we reviewed clinical, family, psychopharmacologic, neurobiological, and outcome studies. We found multiple reports describing adults with clinical features highly reminiscent of the childhood ADHD. These adults, who are impulsive, inattentive, and restless, have the clinical "look and feel" of ADHD children. As with their childhood counterparts, many adults with ADHD suffer from antisocial, depressive, and anxiety disorders. They also show clinically significant impairments--histories of school failure, occupational problems, and traffic accidents. Studies of biological features show correspondences between child and adult cases of ADHD. Both show familial aggregation and a characteristic profile of neuropsychologic deficits; an emerging neuroimaging literature suggests that abnormalities in the same brain regions underlie both the child and adult forms of the disorder. Although these converging lines of evidence support the validity of ADHD in adults, follow-up studies of ADHD children have yielded ambiguous results. This ambiguity is in part due to differences in how researchers define the persistence of ADHD, a problem that suggests future research focus on how best to diagnose ADHD in adulthood.

  13. [Clinical Picture of Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder].

    PubMed

    Iida, Junzo

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is conventionally considered a children's disorder in which the symptoms naturally disappear with age. However, in reality, the functional remission rate is about 10% even in adulthood, and we have come to understand that 75% of people with ADHD in childhood experience a continuation of symptoms through adolescence. Epidemiological studies have reported a global prevalence of 3.4% for adult ADHD. The central distinctive feature of adult ADHD is attention deficit, while hyperactivity and impulsivity weaken or manifest differently over time. Additionally, since symptoms continue from childhood, the characteristics of ADHD become part of the personality of the individual, making it difficult to think of traits as symptoms. Therefore, with adult ADHD and its traits in mind, diagnosis should be made with due care and attention, especially as some of the symptoms of ADHD can also be seen in a number of other mental illnesses. Caution should be exercised in the differential diagnosis of ADHD in order to avoid over-diagnosis. PMID:26721069

  14. Is Adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Being Overdiagnosed?

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Joel; Bhat, Venkat; Thombs, Brett

    2015-01-01

    This review offers a perspective on the question as to whether attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is being overdiagnosed in adults. Considering underlying causes as well as consequences, we conclude that the diagnosis of adult ADHD should be made cautiously, making use of multiple sources of information, including self-report, clinical interviews, collateral information, childhood documentation, and neuropsychological testing. Routine screening with symptom checklists is insufficient, and stimulant response is diagnostically uninformative. The causes of overdiagnosis may include changes in diagnostic thresholds, poor diagnostic practices, and advertising by the pharmaceutical industry. Overdiagnosis leads to overtreatment, and dramatic increases in prescriptions for adult ADHD during the last decade should arouse concern. PMID:26175391

  15. Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Parenting Styles.

    PubMed

    Karbalaei Sabagh, Ali; Khademi, Mojgan; Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Razjooyan, Katayoon; Arabgol, Fariba

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the parenting styles in parents with and without adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who had children with ADHD. It was a case-control study with convenience sampling strategy. Participants were recruited from the parents of previously diagnosed children with ADHD referred to Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran/ Iran. Ninety parents with adult ADHD and 120 normal parents were chosen by Conner's Adult ADHD Screening Scale (CAARS) and psychiatrist interview. Using Baumrind Parenting Styles Questionnaire and Arnold Parenting Scale, parenting styles were assessed in both the groups. Results from independent samples t-test indicated that Authoritarian parenting style (F = 0.576, p 0.022) and Over reacting style (F = 7.976, p 0.045) were significantly higher in cases. On the other hand, controls were using Permissive style (F = 0.131, p 0.044) more than cases. The results are consistent with prior studies; these findings can improve the content of parent training for children with ADHD, who have adult ADHD themselves.

  16. Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Parenting Styles.

    PubMed

    Karbalaei Sabagh, Ali; Khademi, Mojgan; Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Razjooyan, Katayoon; Arabgol, Fariba

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the parenting styles in parents with and without adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who had children with ADHD. It was a case-control study with convenience sampling strategy. Participants were recruited from the parents of previously diagnosed children with ADHD referred to Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran/ Iran. Ninety parents with adult ADHD and 120 normal parents were chosen by Conner's Adult ADHD Screening Scale (CAARS) and psychiatrist interview. Using Baumrind Parenting Styles Questionnaire and Arnold Parenting Scale, parenting styles were assessed in both the groups. Results from independent samples t-test indicated that Authoritarian parenting style (F = 0.576, p 0.022) and Over reacting style (F = 7.976, p 0.045) were significantly higher in cases. On the other hand, controls were using Permissive style (F = 0.131, p 0.044) more than cases. The results are consistent with prior studies; these findings can improve the content of parent training for children with ADHD, who have adult ADHD themselves. PMID:26264632

  17. [Attention deficit syndrome in adults: clinical, psychophysiological features and treatment].

    PubMed

    Chutko, L S; Surushkina, S Iu; Iakovenko, E A; Nikishena, I S; Anisimova, T I

    2013-01-01

    The authors present the results of examination of 34 patients, aged from 18 to 30 years, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (ICD-10 item F90.0). The study has shown that inattentive type of ADHD is noted in 50%, combined type in 38.3% and hyperactivity/impulsivity type in 11.7% of patients. Adult patients with ADHD also have a high level of anxiety and asthenic disorders. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of adaptol in dosage 1500 mg daily during 8 weeks in the treatment of this group of patients. The high efficacy (improvement in 64,7% of cases) and safety of adaptol confirmed by the data of clinical, psychological and neurophysiological studies.

  18. Disentangling the adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder endophenotype: parametric measurement of attention.

    PubMed

    Finke, Kathrin; Schwarzkopf, Wolfgang; Müller, Ulrich; Frodl, Thomas; Müller, Hermann J; Schneider, Werner X; Engel, Rolf R; Riedel, Michael; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2011-11-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists frequently into adulthood. The decomposition of endophenotypes by means of experimental neuro-cognitive assessment has the potential to improve diagnostic assessment, evaluation of treatment response, and disentanglement of genetic and environmental influences. We assessed four parameters of attentional capacity and selectivity derived from simple psychophysical tasks (verbal report of briefly presented letter displays) and based on a "theory of visual attention." These parameters are mathematically independent, quantitative measures, and previous studies have shown that they are highly sensitive for subtle attention deficits. Potential reductions of attentional capacity, that is, of perceptual processing speed and working memory storage capacity, were assessed with a whole report paradigm. Furthermore, possible pathologies of attentional selectivity, that is, selection of task-relevant information and bias in the spatial distribution of attention, were measured with a partial report paradigm. A group of 30 unmedicated adult ADHD patients and a group of 30 demographically matched healthy controls were tested. ADHD patients showed significant reductions of working memory storage capacity of a moderate to large effect size. Perceptual processing speed, task-based, and spatial selection were unaffected. The results imply a working memory deficit as an important source of behavioral impairments. The theory of visual attention parameter working memory storage capacity might constitute a quantifiable and testable endophenotype of ADHD.

  19. Mindfulness Meditation Improves Mood, Quality of Life, and Attention in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Viviane Freire; Kozasa, Elisa H.; da Silva, Maria Aparecida; Alves, Tânia Maria; Louzã, Mario Rodrigues; Pompéia, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display affective problems and impaired attention. Mood in ADHD can be improved by mindful awareness practices (MAP), but results are mixed regarding the enhancement of attentional performance. Here we evaluated MAP-induced changes in quality of life (QoL), mood, and attention in adult ADHD patients and controls using more measures of attention than prior studies. Methods. Twenty-one ADHD patients and 8 healthy controls underwent 8 weekly MAP sessions; 22 similar patients and 9 controls did not undergo the intervention. Mood and QoL were assessed using validated questionnaires, and attention was evaluated using the Attentional Network Test (ANT) and the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CPT II), before and after intervention. Results. MAP enhanced sustained attention (ANT) and detectability (CPT II) and improved mood and QoL of patients and controls. Conclusion. MAP is a complementary intervention that improves affect and attention of adults with ADHD and controls. PMID:26137496

  20. Career Beliefs and Job Satisfaction in Adults with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Carol A.; Prevatt, Frances; Welles, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    The authors evaluated dysfunctional career beliefs and subsequent low job satisfaction in adults reporting significant symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants (N = 81) completed the Adult Attention Deficit Disorders Evaluation Scale (S. B. McCarney & P. D. Anderson, 1996), the Career Thoughts Inventory (J. P.…

  1. Attentional Control and Subjective Executive Function in Treatment-Naive Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36) and in healthy controls (n = 35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD. PMID:25545156

  2. Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36) and in healthy controls (n = 35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD.

  3. Cognitive complaints of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Weisbrod, Matthias; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Executive dysfunction of adults with ADHD is often associated with poor self-awareness of problems, such as in emotional competence, emotional recognition, and driving competence. However, with regard to cognitive functioning, little is known about how adults with ADHD evaluate their own cognitive performance. A total of 77 adults with ADHD and 116 healthy adults were assessed with self-report scales measuring several aspects of cognition. Significance and effect sizes as well as the proportion of patients perceiving impairments were calculated. Further analysis was carried out on the frequency of patients perceiving various types of impairments. Adults with ADHD perceived themselves to have significant and severe dysfunction in all areas of cognition assessed as a group. Furthermore, the majority of patients reported multiple impairments in attention, memory and executive functioning. The present study demonstrated that adults with ADHD are aware of problems in cognitive functioning as shown by considerable perceived neuropsychological impairment in the majority of patients. Patients with ADHD tended to report cognitive impairments in multiple domains rather than impairments in specific functions.

  4. Neurofeedback in adolescents and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Butnik, Steven M

    2005-05-01

    Neurofeedback is being utilized more commonly today in treating individuals who have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Neurofeedback, which is based on theories that recognize the organic basis of ADHD, utilizes biofeedback to guide individuals to regulate their brain activity. Neurofeedback relies on research that has demonstrated that most individuals who have ADHD, as compared to matched peers, have excess slow wave activity and reduced fast wave activity. It provides immediate feedback to the individual about his or her brain wave activity in the form of a video game, whose action is influenced by the individual's meeting predetermined thresholds of brain activity. Over several sessions of using the video and auditory feedback, individuals reduce their slow wave activity and/or increase their fast wave activity. Individuals who complete a course of training sessions often show reduced primary ADHD symptoms. Research has shown that neurofeedback outcomes compare favorably to those of stimulant medication.

  5. Neuropsychological assessment of adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Müller, Bernhard W; Gimbel, Karla; Keller-Pliessnig, Anett; Sartory, Gudrun; Gastpar, Markus; Davids, Eugen

    2007-03-01

    Adults with persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may show cognitive deficits as compared to healthy control subjects. The aim of this study was to compare a sample of adult outpatients with ADHD on medication to healthy controls on a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment battery. Thirty adults with ADHD under stable psychopharmacological treatment and 27 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and IQ were assessed with ten tests measuring performance with regard to attention, memory, executive function, and fine motor control. Lower performance in patients as compared to controls was found in tests of verbal and visual memory, speed of visuo-motor search, set shifting, and divided attention. Indicators of response inhibition and simple response speed were less affected. Adults with ADHD show indicators of lowered cognitive performance under medication. These are related more to memory and attention under high mental load than to response inhibition or simple attention or motor performance.

  6. The Readiness of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder for Self-Directed Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Melissa Sue

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the readiness for self-directed learning of adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), as well as their overall educational experiences. Using Guglielmino's Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale for Adults (SDLRS-A), the researcher investigated whether the following factors were significantly related to…

  7. Cortisol Response to Stress in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Palomar, Gloria; Ferrer, Roser; Real, Alberto; Nogueira, Mariana; Corrales, Montserrat; Casas, Miguel; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Background: Differences in the cortisol response have been reported between children exhibiting the inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, there is no such information about adults. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible differences between the combined and inattentive subtypes in the cortisol response to stress. Methods: Ninety-six adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38 inattentive and 58 combined, without any medical or psychiatric comorbidities and 25 healthy controls were included. The Trier Social Stress Test was used to assess physiological stress responses. Clinical data and subjective stress levels, including the Perceived Stress Scale, were also recorded. Results: No significant differences in the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test were found between patients and controls. However, albeit there were no basal differences, lower cortisol levels at 15 (P=.015), 30 (P=.015), and 45 minutes (P=.045) were observed in the combined compared with the inattentive subtype after the stress induction; these differences disappeared 60 minutes after the stress. In contrast, the subjective stress responses showed significant differences between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients and controls (P<.001), but no differences were seen between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes. In turn, subjective stress measures, such as the Perceived Stress Scale, positively correlated with the whole cortisol stress response (P<.027). Conclusions: Both the combined and inattentive attention deficit hyperactivity disorder adults exhibited a normal cortisol response to stress when challenged. Nevertheless, the inattentive patients displayed a higher level of cortisol after stress compared with the combined patients. Despite the differences in the cortisol response, adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder reported high levels of subjective

  8. Self-Reported Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Report the distribution of scores from the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and estimate the prevalence of self-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as compared to clinical diagnoses. Participants: Participants were 1,080 college students, divided into 3 groups: (1) no ADHD diagnosis (n = 972), (2)…

  9. Methylphenidate in treatment of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Biederman, J; Spencer, T

    2002-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can persist into adulthood with a continuation of the pattern of childhood psychopathology, cognition and functioning. Adult comorbidities include substance use disorders, antisocial personality disorder, anxiety, and depression. Studies have shown that as in children, methylphenidate treatment for adults can lead to a robust, dose-dependent improvement in ADHD symptoms. Future research is needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of long-term treatment with methylphenidate (MPH).

  10. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and executive functioning in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Matthew A

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety symptoms in relation to self-reported executive functioning deficits in emerging adults. College students (N = 421; ages 17-25; 73.1% female) completed self-reports of ADHD, anxiety, and executive functioning in a laboratory setting. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that self-reported executive functioning deficits were significantly related to all 3 symptom domains. Executive functioning deficits were most strongly related to inattention followed by hyperactivity/impulsivity and anxiety. Analyses based on clinical groups revealed that groups with ADHD and comorbid anxiety showed greater deficits on self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving than those with ADHD only or anxiety only. Groups with ADHD showed greater deficits with self-motivation and self-restraint than those with anxiety only. All clinical groups differed from a control group on executive functioning deficits. Overall, anxiety symptoms appear to be associated with college students' self-reported executive functioning deficits above and beyond relationships with ADHD symptomatology. Further, those with ADHD and anxiety appear to show increased difficulties with self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving, a domain which appears to overlap substantially with working memory. Future studies should seek to replicate our findings with a clinical population, utilize both report-based and laboratory task measures of executive functioning, and integrate both state and trait anxiety indices into study designs. Finally, future studies should seek to determine how executive functioning deficits can be best ameliorated in emerging adults with ADHD and anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Deficient cardiovascular stress reactivity predicts poor executive functions in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Hirvikoski, Tatja; Olsson, Erik M G; Nordenstrom, Anna; Lindholm, Torun; Nordstrom, Anna-Lena; Lajic, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Associations between cardiovascular stress markers, subjective stress reactivity, and executive functions were studied in 60 adults (30 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, and 30 controls) using the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT, a test of executive functions) as a cognitive stressor. Despite higher self-perceived stress, the adults with ADHD showed lower or atypical cardiovascular stress reactivity, which was associated with poorer performance on PASAT. Using cardiovascular stress markers, subjective stress, and results on PASAT as predictors in a logistic regression, 83.3% of the ADHD group and 86.9% of the controls could be classified correctly.

  12. Response inhibition in adults with autism spectrum disorder compared to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Kate; Madden, Anya K; Bramham, Jessica; Russell, Ailsa J

    2011-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are hypothesised to involve core deficits in executive function. Previous studies have found evidence of a double dissociation between the disorders on specific executive functions (planning and response inhibition). To date most research has been conducted with children. No studies have directly compared the stable cognitive profile of adults. It was hypothesised that adults with ASD would show generally intact response inhibition whereas those with ADHD would show more global impairment. Participants were 24 adults aged 18-55 with high functioning ASD, 24 with ADHD, and 14 age and IQ matched controls. Participants completed three standardised measures of response inhibition. Participants with ASD had generally intact response inhibition but slow response latencies, possibly due to deficits in response initiation. Adults with ADHD did not show the more global impairments hypothesised. There were some significant differences between the clinical groups across measures of inhibition. In terms of performance style, adults with ASD were slow and accurate whilst those with ADHD showed an impulsive style.

  13. Gender differences in a sample of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Biederman, J; Faraone, S V; Spencer, T; Wilens, T; Mick, E; Lapey, K A

    1994-07-01

    Although originally conceptualized as a childhood disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may also be an adult disorder. However, despite increasing media attention to adult ADHD, its validity has only recently been studied in a systematic fashion. The overrepresentation of females in adult samples in comparison to pediatric samples of ADHD raises additional questions about the validity of this disorder in adults. The goal of this article is to explore whether ADHD is a valid clinical entity in female subjects and whether it is expressed differently in male and female adults. To this end, we examined the clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics of 128 referred adult ADHD cases of both sexes. Each subject had a clinical diagnosis of childhood-onset ADHD confirmed by structured interview. The male and female ADHD adults were similar to one another but more disturbed and impaired than non-ADHD adult control subjects. Compared with normal control females, ADHD women had higher rates of major depression, anxiety disorders, and conduct disorder; and more evidence of school failure and cognitive impairment. The consistency of these findings in both genders further supports the validity of the diagnosis of ADHD in adults. Our results stress the viability and importance of identification of female subjects with ADHD. The underidentification and undertreatment of females with ADHD may have substantial mental health and educational implications, suggesting that research is needed to develop a better understanding of clinical indicators of ADHD in females.

  14. Psychometric properties of the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Barrie K; Reimherr, Fred W; Robison, Diane; Robison, Reid J; Wender, Paul H

    2013-09-01

    The Wender-Reimherr adult attention deficit disorder scale (WRAADDS; Wender, 1995) is a clinician-rated scale based on the Utah Criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. It assesses ADHD symptom severity across 7 domains: attention difficulties, hyperactivity/restlessness, temper, affective lability, emotional over-reactivity, disorganization, and impulsivity. The normative sample consisted of 120 males and females ages 20-49 with no personal or family history of ADHD. Patients with ADHD met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria, included males and females ages 20-60, and came from 5 clinical trials. Measures of reliability (test-retest r = .96; interrater r = .75) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.78) were acceptable. The WRAADDS correlated with the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS; Conners, Erhardt, & Sparrow, 1999) total scores (r = .501, p < .001). WRAADDS hyperactivity + impulsivity correlated with the CAARS hyperactivity/impulsivity (r = .601, p < .001), and WRAADDS attention + disorganization correlated with the CAARS inattention (r = .430, p < .001). Discriminate validity (adults with vs. without ADHD) was significant for all domains (p < .001). Factor analysis yielded a 2-factor solution accounting for 58% of the variance, one containing the emotional dimensions and the second containing attention and disorganization. Hyperactivity/restlessness and impulsivity were split between both factors. Changes in response to treatment for the WRAADDS and CAARS were highly correlated (p < .001). These psychometric data support continued use of the WRAADDS in adults with ADHD.

  15. The latent structure of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in an adult sample.

    PubMed

    Marcus, David K; Norris, Alyssa L; Coccaro, Emil F

    2012-06-01

    The vast majority of studies that have examined the latent structure of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents have concluded that ADHD has a dimensional latent structure. In other words, ADHD symptomatology exists along a continuum and there is no natural boundary or qualitative distinction (i.e., taxon) separating youth with ADHD from those with subclinical inattention or hyperactivity/impulsivity problems. Although adult ADHD appears to be less prevalent than ADHD in youth (which could suggest a more severe adult ADHD taxon), researchers have yet to examine the latent structure of ADHD in adults. The present study used a sample (N = 600) of adults who completed a self-report measure of ADHD symptoms. The taxometric analyses revealed a dimensional latent structure for inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and ADHD. These findings are consistent with previous taxometric studies that examined ADHD in children and adolescents, and with contemporary polygenic and multifactorial models of ADHD.

  16. Normalisation of frontal theta activity following methylphenidate treatment in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Skirrow, Caroline; McLoughlin, Grainne; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Kuntsi, Jonna; Asherson, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with cognitive performance and functional brain changes that are sensitive to task conditions, indicating a role for dynamic impairments rather than stable cognitive deficits. Prominent hypotheses consistent with this observation are a failure to optimise brain arousal or activation states. Here we investigate cortical activation during different conditions. Using a sample of 41 non-comorbid adults with ADHD and 48 controls, we examine quantitative EEG activity during a resting state, a cued continuous performance test with flankers (CPT-OX) and the sustained attention to response task (SART). We further investigate the effects of methylphenidate in a subsample of 21 ADHD cases. Control participants showed a task-related increase in theta activity when engaged in cognitive tasks, primarily in frontal and parietal regions, which was absent in participants with ADHD. Treatment with methylphenidate resulted in normalisation of the resting state to task activation pattern. These findings suggest that ADHD in adults is associated with insufficient allocation of neuronal resources required for normal cortical activation commensurate with task demands. Further work is required to clarify the causal role of the deficit in cortical activation and provide a clearer understanding of the mechanisms involved.

  17. Gender differences in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Williamson, David; Johnston, Charlotte

    2015-08-01

    Certain characteristics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children have long been known to differ by gender. What has not been as widely studied is whether gender is similarly associated with ADHD differences in adults. In this review, the relation between gender and adult ADHD prevalence, persistence, impairment, comorbidity, cognitive functioning, and treatment response was examined across 73 studies. Although gender was related to several characteristics and correlates of adult ADHD, it appeared that many of these gender differences may be at least be partially attributed to methodological artifacts or social and cultural influences, rather than fundamental differences in the expression of ADHD in men and women. We highlight how understanding the nature of the relation between gender and ADHD across the lifespan is complicated by a number of methodological difficulties, and offer recommendations for how emerging research and clinical practice can better incorporate gender into the conceptualization of ADHD in adulthood.

  18. Psychotherapy in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: implications for treatment and research.

    PubMed

    Philipsen, Alexandra

    2012-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a risk factor for co-occurring psychiatric disorders and negative psychosocial consequences in adulthood. Previous trials of psychotherapeutic programs for adult ADHD were based on cognitive behavioral psychotherapeutic approaches and showed significant effects. Targets of psychotherapeutic interventions include not only coping with the core symptoms and associated problems such as depression and anxiety, but also probable consequences such as low self-esteem. Improvements in ADHD symptomatology and associated symptoms have been reported after psychotherapeutic treatment. The support of other participants is strongly regarded as helpful by patients in group therapy. This manuscript provides an overview of psychotherapy approaches and results of studies evaluating programs developed to treat adults with ADHD. Finally, the specific requirements of psychotherapy for adult ADHD as well as further research questions will be discussed. PMID:23082738

  19. Temperament and character as endophenotype in adults with autism spectrum disorders or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Sizoo, Bram B; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder overlap in several ways, raising questions about the nature of this comorbidity. Rommelse et al. published an innovative review of candidate endophenotypes for autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in cognitive and brain domains. They found that all the endophenotypic impairments that were reviewed in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder were also present in autism spectrum disorder, suggesting a continuity model with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder as "a light form of autism spectrum disorder." Using existing data, 75 adults with autism spectrum disorder and 53 with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder were directly compared on autistic symptoms with the autism spectrum quotient, and on the endophenotypic measure of temperament and character, using the Abbreviated (Dutch: Verkorte) Temperament and Character Inventory. Based on the hypothesis that attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder are disorders on a continuous spectrum, autism spectrum quotient scores and abbreviated Temperament and Character Inventory scores were expected to be different from normal controls in both disorders in a similar direction. In addition, the autism spectrum quotient and abbreviated Temperament and Character Inventory scores were expected to be closely correlated. These conditions applied to only two of the seven Abbreviated Temperament and Character Inventory scales (harm avoidance and self-directedness), suggesting that temperament and character as an endophenotype of autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder provides only partial support for the continuity hypothesis of autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

  20. Cognitive heterogeneity in adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A systematic analysis of neuropsychological measurements.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Jeanette C; Onnink, A Marten H; Klein, Marieke; Dammers, Janneke; Harneit, Anais; Schulten, Theresa; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Kan, Cornelis C; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Buitelaar, Jan K; Franke, Barbara; Hoogman, Martine

    2015-11-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in childhood is associated with impaired functioning in multiple cognitive domains: executive functioning (EF), reward and timing. Similar impairments have been described for adults with persistent ADHD, but an extensive investigation of neuropsychological functioning in a large sample of adult patients is currently lacking. We systematically examined neuropsychological performance on tasks measuring EF, delay discounting, time estimation and response variability using univariate ANCOVA's comparing patients with persistent ADHD (N=133, 42% male, mean age 36) and healthy adults (N=132, 40% male, mean age 36). In addition, we tested which combination of variables provided the highest accuracy in predicting ADHD diagnosis. We also estimated for each individual the severity of neuropsychological dysfunctioning. Lastly, we investigated potential effects of stimulant medication and a history of comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) on performance. Compared to healthy adults, patients with ADHD showed impaired EF, were more impulsive, and more variable in responding. However, effect sizes were small to moderate (range: 0.05-0.70) and 11% of patients did not show neuropsychological dysfunctioning. The best fitting model predicting ADHD included measures from distinct cognitive domains (82.1% specificity, 64.9% sensitivity). Furthermore, patients receiving stimulant medication or with a history of MDD were not distinctively impaired. To conclude, while adults with ADHD as a group are impaired on several cognitive domains, the results confirm that adult ADHD is neuropsychologically heterogeneous. This provides a starting point to investigate individual differences in terms of impaired cognitive pathways.

  1. Understanding deficient emotional self-regulation in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Miller, Carolyn A.; McDermott, Katie M.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2014-01-01

    While symptoms of deficient emotional self-regulation (DESR) such as low frustration tolerance, temper outbursts, emotional impulsivity, and mood lability are commonly associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about their nature. The main aim of this post hoc study was to examine the correlates of DESR in a large sample of adults with and without ADHD. Subjects were 206 adults with ADHD and 123 adults without ADHD from a family study of ADHD. Emotional impulsivity was operationalized using items from the Barkley Current Behavior Scale. Subjects were comprehensively assessed for psychiatric comorbidity using structured diagnostic interview methodology. We used the Quality of Life, Enjoyment, and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (QLES-Q-SF) and Social Adjustment Scale-Self-report (SAS-SR) to assess quality of life and psychosocial functioning. DESR was more common among ADHD compared with non-ADHD adults, and 55 % of adults with ADHD reported extreme DESR of greater severity than 95 % of control subjects. The association of ADHD and DESR was not entirely accounted for by either current or lifetime comorbid disorders. DESR was also associated with significant functional impairment as evaluated by the QLES-Q-SF and SAS-SR, and with reduced marital status, as well as higher risk for traffic accidents and arrests. DESR adversely impacts quality of life in adults with ADHD. More work is needed to further evaluate DESR in clinical and investigational studies of subjects with ADHD. PMID:23413201

  2. Cognitive heterogeneity in adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A systematic analysis of neuropsychological measurements.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Jeanette C; Onnink, A Marten H; Klein, Marieke; Dammers, Janneke; Harneit, Anais; Schulten, Theresa; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Kan, Cornelis C; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Buitelaar, Jan K; Franke, Barbara; Hoogman, Martine

    2015-11-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in childhood is associated with impaired functioning in multiple cognitive domains: executive functioning (EF), reward and timing. Similar impairments have been described for adults with persistent ADHD, but an extensive investigation of neuropsychological functioning in a large sample of adult patients is currently lacking. We systematically examined neuropsychological performance on tasks measuring EF, delay discounting, time estimation and response variability using univariate ANCOVA's comparing patients with persistent ADHD (N=133, 42% male, mean age 36) and healthy adults (N=132, 40% male, mean age 36). In addition, we tested which combination of variables provided the highest accuracy in predicting ADHD diagnosis. We also estimated for each individual the severity of neuropsychological dysfunctioning. Lastly, we investigated potential effects of stimulant medication and a history of comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) on performance. Compared to healthy adults, patients with ADHD showed impaired EF, were more impulsive, and more variable in responding. However, effect sizes were small to moderate (range: 0.05-0.70) and 11% of patients did not show neuropsychological dysfunctioning. The best fitting model predicting ADHD included measures from distinct cognitive domains (82.1% specificity, 64.9% sensitivity). Furthermore, patients receiving stimulant medication or with a history of MDD were not distinctively impaired. To conclude, while adults with ADHD as a group are impaired on several cognitive domains, the results confirm that adult ADHD is neuropsychologically heterogeneous. This provides a starting point to investigate individual differences in terms of impaired cognitive pathways. PMID:26336867

  3. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and adverse health outcomes in adults.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Thomas J; Faraone, Stephen V; Tarko, Laura; McDermott, Katie; Biederman, Joseph

    2014-10-01

    Whereas the adverse impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on emotional and psychosocial well-being has been well investigated, its impact on physical health has not. The main aim of this study was to assess the impact of ADHD on lifestyle behaviors and measures of adverse health risk indicators. Subjects were 100 untreated adults with ADHD and 100 adults without ADHD of similar age and sex. Unhealthy lifestyle indicators included assessments of bad health habits, frequency of visits to healthcare providers, and follow through with recommended prophylactic tests. Assessments of adverse health risk indicators included measurements of cardiovascular and metabolic parameters, weight, body mass index, and waist circumference. No differences were identified in health habits between subjects with and without ADHD, but robust differences were found in a wide range of adverse health risk indicators. ADHD is associated with an adverse impact in health risk indicators well known to be associated with high morbidity and mortality. PMID:25211634

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam

    2016-03-19

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1·4-3·0%. It is more common in boys than girls. Comorbidity with childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders and psychiatric disorders is substantial. ADHD is highly heritable and multifactorial; multiple genes and non-inherited factors contribute to the disorder. Prenatal and perinatal factors have been implicated as risks, but definite causes remain unknown. Most guidelines recommend a stepwise approach to treatment, beginning with non-drug interventions and then moving to pharmacological treatment in those most severely affected. Randomised controlled trials show short-term benefits of stimulant medication and atomoxetine. Meta-analyses of blinded trials of non-drug treatments have not yet proven the efficacy of such interventions. Longitudinal studies of ADHD show heightened risk of multiple mental health and social difficulties as well as premature mortality in adult life.

  5. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam

    2016-03-19

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1·4-3·0%. It is more common in boys than girls. Comorbidity with childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders and psychiatric disorders is substantial. ADHD is highly heritable and multifactorial; multiple genes and non-inherited factors contribute to the disorder. Prenatal and perinatal factors have been implicated as risks, but definite causes remain unknown. Most guidelines recommend a stepwise approach to treatment, beginning with non-drug interventions and then moving to pharmacological treatment in those most severely affected. Randomised controlled trials show short-term benefits of stimulant medication and atomoxetine. Meta-analyses of blinded trials of non-drug treatments have not yet proven the efficacy of such interventions. Longitudinal studies of ADHD show heightened risk of multiple mental health and social difficulties as well as premature mortality in adult life. PMID:26386541

  6. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... finish things? If so, your child may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nearly everyone shows some of these behaviors at times, but ADHD lasts more than 6 months and causes problems ...

  7. Underdiagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adult Patients: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Javier; Anand, Ernie; Casillas, Marta; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To raise awareness of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as an underdiagnosed, undertreated, often comorbid, and debilitating condition in adults. Data Sources: PubMed was searched using combinations of keywords, including ADHD, adult, diagnosis, identify, prevalence, and comorbid, to find articles published between 1976 and 2013. Study Selection: In total, 99 articles were selected for inclusion on the basis of their relevance to the objective and importance to and representation of ADHD research, including international guidelines for adults with ADHD. Results: In a large proportion of children with ADHD, symptoms persist into adulthood. However, although adults with ADHD often experience chaotic lifestyles, with impaired educational and vocational achievement and higher risks of substance abuse and imprisonment, many remain undiagnosed and/or untreated. ADHD is usually accompanied by other psychiatric comorbidities (such as major depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and alcohol abuse). Indeed, adults with ADHD are more likely to present to a psychiatric clinic for treatment of their comorbid disorders than for ADHD, and their ADHD symptoms are often mistaken for those of their comorbidities. Untreated ADHD in adults with psychiatric comorbidities leads to poor clinical and functional outcomes for the patient even if comorbidities are treated. Effective treatment of adults’ ADHD improves symptoms, emotional lability, and patient functioning, often leading to favorable outcomes (eg, safer driving, reduced criminality). A few medications have now been approved for use in adults with ADHD, while a multimodal approach involving psychotherapy has also shown promising results. Conclusions General psychiatrists should familiarize themselves with the symptoms of ADHD in adults in order to diagnose and manage ADHD and comorbidities appropriately in these patients. PMID:25317367

  8. Narrative Writing Competence and Internal State Terms of Young Adults Clinically Diagnosed with Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Ana; Baixauli, Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The first objective of this study was to compare the written expression competence of young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with that of young adults without ADHD on three types of measures: indicators of the story's microstructure with regard to productivity and morphosyntax; indicators of the macrostructure…

  9. The impact of distractions on young adult drivers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; D'Ambrosio, Lisa A; Fried, Ronna

    2010-05-01

    Young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk for being involved in automobile crashes. Although driving simulators have been used to identify and understand underlying behaviors, prior research has focused largely on single-task, non-distracted driving. However, in-vehicle infotainment and communications systems often vie for a driver's attention, potentially increasing the risk of collision. This paper explores the impact of secondary tasks on individuals with and without ADHD, a medical condition known to affect the regulation of attention. Data are drawn from a validated driving simulation representing periods before, during, and after participation in a secondary cognitive task. A hands-free phone task was employed in a high stimulus, urban setting and a working memory task during low stimulus, highway driving. Drivers with ADHD had more difficulty on the telephone task, yet did not show an increased decrement in driving performance greater than control participants. In contrast, participants with ADHD showed a larger decline in driving performance than controls during a secondary task in a low demand setting. The results suggest that the interaction of the nature of the driving context and the secondary task has a significant influence on how drivers with ADHD allocate attention and, in-turn, on the relative impact on driving performance. Drivers with ADHD appear particularly susceptible to distraction during periods of low stimulus driving.

  10. A multidimensional approach of impulsivity in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Régis; Dauvilliers, Yves; Jaussent, Isabelle; Billieux, Joël; Bayard, Sophie

    2015-06-30

    We aimed to compare adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and matched controls on four dimensions of impulsivity (urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking) and to examine the association between impulsivity and ADHD symptoms. The study was conducted on 219 participants: 72 adult ADHD patients and 147 aged and gender matched controls. All participants completed questionnaires measuring the various facets of impulsivity (UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale), ADHD and depressive symptoms severity. Patients were also assessed for ADHD subtypes, mood disorders, and addictive behaviors. ADHD patients exhibited higher urgency, lower premeditation and lower perseverance in comparison to controls. Lack of perseverance showed the strongest association with ADHD (area under curve=0.95). Patients with combined inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive subtypes reported more frequently substance abuse problems and had higher scores on urgency and sensation seeking dimensions of impulsivity than those with predominantly inattentive subtype. We report for the first time a multidimensional evaluation of impulsivity in adult ADHD patients. The UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale may constitute a useful screening tool for ADHD in adults and may help to further understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the differences between the ADHD subgroups.

  11. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and psychosis: Epidemiological evidence from a population survey in England.

    PubMed

    Marwaha, Steven; Thompson, Andrew; Bebbington, Paul; Singh, Swaran P; Freeman, Daniel; Winsper, Catherine; Broome, Matthew R

    2015-09-30

    Despite both having some shared features, evidence linking psychosis and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is sparse and inconsistent. Hypotheses tested were (1) adult ADHD symptoms are associated with auditory hallucinations, paranoid ideation and psychosis (2) links between ADHD symptoms and psychosis are mediated by prescribed ADHD medications, use of illicit drugs, and dysphoric mood. The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N=7403) provided data for regression and multiple mediation analyses. ADHD symptoms were coded from the ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Higher ASRS total score was significantly associated with psychosis, paranoid ideation and auditory hallucinations despite controlling for socio-demographic variables, verbal IQ, autism spectrum disorder traits, childhood conduct problems, hypomanic and dysphoric mood. An ASRS score indicating probable ADHD diagnosis was also significantly associated with psychosis. The link between higher ADHD symptoms and psychosis, paranoia and auditory hallucinations was significantly mediated by dysphoric mood, but not by use of amphetamine, cocaine or cannabis. In conclusion, higher levels of adult ADHD symptoms and psychosis are linked and dysphoric mood may form part of the mechanism. Our analyses contradict the traditional clinical view that the main explanation for people with ADHD symptoms developing psychosis is illicit drugs. PMID:26235475

  12. Regulation of sadness via acceptance or suppression in adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra; Lackner, Helmut Karl; Sadohara, Chiharu; Svaldi, Jennifer

    2014-12-15

    Emotion dysregulation is a recognized symptom of adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study is to induce sadness in adults suffering from ADHD and to investigate the impact of emotion regulation strategies on sadness intensity, and psychophysiological measures. Thirty-six adults diagnosed with ADHD were randomly assigned to either expressive suppression (SUPP) or acceptance (ACC) of emotion. Sadness was induced using a film clip. Participants estimated the intensity of sadness and the perception of being overwhelmed with emotion before (T1), immediately after (T2) and 2 min after the film (T3). Physiological measures were obtained. Sadness induction was effective in both conditions. The perception of being overwhelmed with emotion increased between T1 and T2 in both conditions, but persisted until T3 only in the expressive suppression condition whereas a decrease was observed in the acceptance condition. In ADHD expressive suppression of sadness seems to be associated to a prolonged recovery from the perception of being overwhelmed with emotion. Emotion-regulation via acceptance in contrast appears to allow faster recovery from the perception of being overwhelmed with emotion. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify suppression as a critical mediator between an induced emotion and delayed recovery from emotional reactions in adult ADHD.

  13. Borderline typical symptoms in adult patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Philipsen, Alexandra; Feige, Bernd; Hesslinger, Bernd; Scheel, Corinna; Ebert, Dieter; Matthies, Swantje; Limberger, Matthias F; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Bohus, Martin; Lieb, Klaus

    2009-05-01

    Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) share several clinical features, e.g. emotional lability and impulsivity. This study aimed to delineate differences and similarities between ADHD and BPD with respect to borderline typical symptomatology and gender specifics. Borderline symptomatology was assessed in 60 adult patients with ADHD with the borderline symptom list (BSL) and compared to both 60 gender- and age-matched BPD patients and control subjects. The BSL is a standardized instrument including 95 items on 7 subscales (self-perception, affect regulation, self-destruction, dysphoria, loneliness, intrusions and hostility). Adult ADHD patients showed significantly higher BSL total scores and all of the seven subscales compared to healthy controls (p < 0.001) but lower scores than BPD patients (p < 0.001). With respect to the seven subscales, the largest differences between ADHD and BPD patients were found with respect to self-destruction (d = 1.12) and affect dysregulation (d = 0.90), whereas the smallest difference was found with respect to loneliness (d = 0.36). In females, the BSL subscales "loneliness" and "hostility" did not differentiate between BPD and ADHD. Borderline typical symptoms are common in adult patients with ADHD but seem to be less pronounced than in patients with BPD. Females with ADHD and BPD share more clinical features than males. However, symptoms of self-destruction and affect dysregulation appear to be more severe in BPD patients.

  14. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and psychosis: Epidemiological evidence from a population survey in England.

    PubMed

    Marwaha, Steven; Thompson, Andrew; Bebbington, Paul; Singh, Swaran P; Freeman, Daniel; Winsper, Catherine; Broome, Matthew R

    2015-09-30

    Despite both having some shared features, evidence linking psychosis and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is sparse and inconsistent. Hypotheses tested were (1) adult ADHD symptoms are associated with auditory hallucinations, paranoid ideation and psychosis (2) links between ADHD symptoms and psychosis are mediated by prescribed ADHD medications, use of illicit drugs, and dysphoric mood. The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N=7403) provided data for regression and multiple mediation analyses. ADHD symptoms were coded from the ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Higher ASRS total score was significantly associated with psychosis, paranoid ideation and auditory hallucinations despite controlling for socio-demographic variables, verbal IQ, autism spectrum disorder traits, childhood conduct problems, hypomanic and dysphoric mood. An ASRS score indicating probable ADHD diagnosis was also significantly associated with psychosis. The link between higher ADHD symptoms and psychosis, paranoia and auditory hallucinations was significantly mediated by dysphoric mood, but not by use of amphetamine, cocaine or cannabis. In conclusion, higher levels of adult ADHD symptoms and psychosis are linked and dysphoric mood may form part of the mechanism. Our analyses contradict the traditional clinical view that the main explanation for people with ADHD symptoms developing psychosis is illicit drugs.

  15. A multidimensional approach of impulsivity in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Régis; Dauvilliers, Yves; Jaussent, Isabelle; Billieux, Joël; Bayard, Sophie

    2015-06-30

    We aimed to compare adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and matched controls on four dimensions of impulsivity (urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking) and to examine the association between impulsivity and ADHD symptoms. The study was conducted on 219 participants: 72 adult ADHD patients and 147 aged and gender matched controls. All participants completed questionnaires measuring the various facets of impulsivity (UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale), ADHD and depressive symptoms severity. Patients were also assessed for ADHD subtypes, mood disorders, and addictive behaviors. ADHD patients exhibited higher urgency, lower premeditation and lower perseverance in comparison to controls. Lack of perseverance showed the strongest association with ADHD (area under curve=0.95). Patients with combined inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive subtypes reported more frequently substance abuse problems and had higher scores on urgency and sensation seeking dimensions of impulsivity than those with predominantly inattentive subtype. We report for the first time a multidimensional evaluation of impulsivity in adult ADHD patients. The UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale may constitute a useful screening tool for ADHD in adults and may help to further understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the differences between the ADHD subgroups. PMID:25895489

  16. Treating Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults: Focus on Once-Daily Medications

    PubMed Central

    Childress, Ann C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To review the efficacy, safety, and abuse liability of approved treatments in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with a focus on once-daily medications. Data Sources: PubMed was searched for relevant studies/reviews in English from 2002 to 2011 on adult ADHD treatments. Study Selection: Keywords used in the search were ADHD, adults, and treatment. Limits included only clinical trials, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, and reviews including adults (aged ≥ 19 years). Data Extraction: Selection criteria returned 471 publications. Retrieved studies were excluded if they primarily focused on children, treatments not indicated for ADHD, or ADHD and comorbid conditions. Data Synthesis: An epidemiologic survey revealed that 10.9% of adults identified with ADHD had received treatment during the prior 12 months. Treatments for ADHD in adults include pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic options. US Food and Drug Administration–approved long-acting stimulants and a nonstimulant with proven efficacy and safety profiles have been developed and include osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate hydrochloride (OROS-methylphenidate), extended-release dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride, mixed amphetamine salts extended release (MAS-XR), the nonstimulant atomoxetine hydrochloride, and the prodrug lisdexamfetamine dimesylate. Long-acting stimulants differ in formulation characteristics used to achieve extended release, with OROS-methylphenidate employing an osmotic-release technology, extended-release dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride and MAS-XR using pH-dependent beads, and lisdexamfetamine dimesylate using prodrug technology. These features variably affect pharmacokinetic characteristics, duration of action, and abuse liability. While all long-acting medications have varied pharmacokinetic features, mechanism of action, and duration of effect, all are generally efficacious and safety profiles are similar. Conclusion: Approved long

  17. Set shifting and working memory in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Rohlf, Helena; Jucksch, Viola; Gawrilow, Caterina; Huss, Michael; Hein, Jakob; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Salbach-Andrae, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the high number of studies that investigated executive functions (EF) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a little is known about the EF performance of adults with ADHD. This study compared 37 adults with ADHD (ADHD(total)) and 32 control participants who were equivalent in age, intelligence quotient (IQ), sex, and years of education, in two domains of EF--set shifting and working memory. Additionally, the ADHD(total) group was subdivided into two subgroups: ADHD patients without comorbidity (ADHD(-), n = 19) and patients with at least one comorbid disorder (ADHD(+), n = 18). Participants fulfilled two measures for set shifting (i.e., the trail making test, TMT and a computerized card sorting test, CKV) and one measure for working memory (i.e., digit span test, DS). Compared to the control group the ADHD(total) group displayed deficits in set shifting and working memory. The differences between the groups were of medium-to-large effect size (TMT: d = 0.48; DS: d = 0.51; CKV: d = 0.74). The subgroup comparison of the ADHD(+) group and the ADHD(-) group revealed a poorer performance in general information processing speed for the ADHD(+) group. With regard to set shifting and working memory, no significant differences could be found between the two subgroups. These results suggest that the deficits of the ADHD(total) group are attributable to ADHD rather than to comorbidity. An influence of comorbidity, however, could not be completely ruled out as there was a trend of a poorer performance in the ADHD(+) group on some of the outcome measures.

  18. Current Status of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Knouse, Laura E.; Safren, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a valid and impairing psychological disorder that persists into adulthood in a majority of cases and is associated with chronic functional impairment and increased rates of comorbidity. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) approaches for this disorder have emerged relatively recently, and available evidence from open and randomized controlled trials suggests that these approaches are promising in producing significant symptom reduction. A conceptual model of how CBT may work for ADHD is reviewed along with existing efficacy studies. A preliminary comparison of effect sizes across intervention packages suggests that targeted learning and practice of specific behavioral compensatory strategies may be a critical “active ingredient” in CBT for adult ADHD. The article concludes with a discussion of future directions and critical questions that must be addressed in this area of clinical research. PMID:20599129

  19. Unwanted intrusive and worrisome thoughts in adults with Attention Deficit\\Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Abramovitch, Amitai; Schweiger, Avraham

    2009-08-15

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with deficient motor and cognitive inhibitory mechanisms. The aim of this article is to examine two symptoms associated with cognitive disinhibition, namely: intrusive unwanted thoughts, worrisome thoughts and their suppression. Thirty-seven college students diagnosed with ADHD and 23 healthy college students were compared on the Distressing Thoughts Questionnaire and on the Anxious Thoughts Inventory. Results show that in comparison to the control group, participants with ADHD experienced significantly higher ratings on all intrusive thoughts scales, and three worrisome thoughts scales. Our results suggest that worrisome intrusive thoughts are an important phenotypical expression of adults with ADHD. A neurobiological explanation for this phenomenon is suggested, and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:19570581

  20. [Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: implications to forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Diogo Frasquilho; Vieira, Fernando; Costa-Santos, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults has been associated to a higher probability of problems with justice. Studies in prison populations disclosed higher prevalence of this disturbance. ADHD association with personality disorders and higher substance abuse could partially help in the explanation of this phenomenon. Based in a literature review, the authors present a reflection on the possible implications of the ADHD diagnosis to Forensic Medicine. After a brief review of the clinical aspects, epidemiology, etiology and nosology of ADHD, its repercussions in the sphere of justice are analysed, namely the prevalence of associated criminality, risk factors and the co-morbidity with personality disorders and substance abuse. These elements are used as a base to the discussion of the results and to a subsequent reflection on the question of (in)imputability related with this disorder.

  1. Rethinking Attention Deficit Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherkes-Julkowski, Miriam; And Others

    This book reviews issues concerning attention deficit disorders (ADDs) in the context of a systems perspective. ADDs are viewed as resulting from dynamic interactions of behavior, cognition, and affect, out of which emerge distinct and idiosyncratic ways of coping. Chapter 1 looks at the interaction of attention and behavior. In chapter 2, the…

  2. A controlled study of a simulated workplace laboratory for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Ronna; Surman, Craig; Hammerness, Paul; Petty, Carter; Faraone, Stephen; Hyder, Laran; Westerberg, Diana; Small, Jacqueline; Corkum, Lyndsey; Claudat, Kim; Biederman, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Despite an extant literature documenting that adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for significant difficulties in the workplace, there is little documentation of the underlying factors associated with these impairments. The main aim of this study was to examine specific deficiencies associated with ADHD on workplace performance in a simulated workplace laboratory relative to controls. Participants were 56 non-medicated young adults with DSM-IV ADHD and 63 age and sex matched controls without ADHD. Participants spent 10 hours in a workplace simulation laboratory. Areas assessed included: 1) simulated tasks documented in a government report (SCANS) often required in workplace settings (taxing vigilance; planning; cooperation; attention to detail), 2)observer ratings, and 3)self-reports. Robust findings were found in the statistically significant differences on self-report of ADHD symptoms found between participants with ADHD and controls during all workplace tasks and periods of the workday. Task performance was found to be deficient in a small number of areas and there were few statistically significant differences identified by observer ratings. Symptoms reported by participants with ADHD in the simulation including internal restlessness, intolerance of boredom and difficulty maintaining vigilance were significant and could adversely impact workplace performance over the long-term. PMID:22608823

  3. Response Inhibition in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder Compared to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Kate; Madden, Anya K.; Bramham, Jessica; Russell, Ailsa J.

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are hypothesised to involve core deficits in executive function. Previous studies have found evidence of a double dissociation between the disorders on specific executive functions (planning and response inhibition). To date most research has been conducted with…

  4. Verbal fluency in adults diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood.

    PubMed

    Andreou, Georgia; Trott, Kate

    2013-12-01

    It has been increasingly believed that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with lifelong course associated with cognitive difficulties including among others, language production, verbal learning, and verbal fluency. However, research is limited to children and adolescents, and very few researchers have examined the impact of ADHD in adulthood on the cognitive domain. The aim of the present study is to examine the performance of adults, diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, on semantic and phonemic verbal fluency tasks. It is hypothesized that adults with ADHD will perform worse on both tasks than matched controls. Sixty university students (30 diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and 30 matched controls) of mean age 20.5 participated in the study. They all completed two verbal fluency tasks. The ADHD group had statistically significant lower scores than the non-ADHD group on the phonemic, but not the semantic task. The study provides some evidence that ADHD in childhood has a negative impact on adults' phonemic verbal fluency. This finding could be probably explained by the fact that phonemic fluency is considered more cognitively demanding and impacting more on the frontal lobe functions, known to be impaired in ADHD, than semantic fluency.

  5. Visual function and color vision in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soyeon; Chen, Samantha; Tannock, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Color vision and self-reported visual function in everyday life in young adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) were investigated. Method Participants were 30 young adults with ADHD and 30 controls matched for age and gender. They were tested individually and completed the Visual Activities Questionnaire (VAQ), Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test (FMT) and A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed (AQT). Results The ADHD group reported significantly more problems in 4 of 8 areas on the VAQ: depth perception, peripheral vision, visual search and visual processing speed. Further analyses of VAQ items revealed that the ADHD group endorsed more visual problems associated with driving than controls. Color perception difficulties on the FMT were restricted to the blue spectrum in the ADHD group. FMT and AQT results revealed slower processing of visual stimuli in the ADHD group. Conclusion A comprehensive investigation of mechanisms underlying visual function and color vision in adults with ADHD is warranted, along with the potential impact of these visual problems on driving performance. PMID:24646898

  6. Prevalence of and Associated Factors for Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Swiss Men

    PubMed Central

    Estévez, Natalia; Eich-Höchli, Dominique; Dey, Michelle; Gmel, Gerhard; Studer, Joseph; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to measure the prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a large, representative sample of young Swiss men and to assess factors associated with this disorder. Methods Our sample consisted of 5656 Swiss men (mean age 20 years) who participated in the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). ADHD was assessed with the World Health Organization (WHO) adult ADHD Self Report Screener (ASRS). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between ADHD and several socio-demographic, clinical and familial factors. Results The prevalence of ADHD was 4.0%, being higher in older and French-speaking conscripts. A higher prevalence also was identified among men whose mothers had completed primary or high school/university and those with a family history of alcohol or psychiatric problems. Additionally, adults with ADHD demonstrated impairment in their professional life, as well as considerable mental health impairment. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that ADHD is common among young Swiss men. The impairments in function and mental health we observed highlight the need for further support and interventions to reduce burden in affected individuals. Interventions that incorporate the whole family also seem crucial. PMID:24586672

  7. Clinical assessment and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults.

    PubMed

    Asherson, Philip

    2005-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood disorder that frequently persists into adulthood, with significant levels of inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behavior. Impairments associated with adult ADHD include distress from the symptoms, impaired ability to function in work and academic settings, and problems sustaining stable relationships. The disorder is commonly associated with volatile moods, antisocial behavior, and drug and alcohol misuse. There is an increased risk of developing comorbid anxiety, depression, personality disorders, and drug and alcohol dependence. Despite the proven effectiveness of drugs such as methylphenidate, dexamphetamine and atomoxetine, few cases of ADHD are recognized and treated in the UK. The reasons for this are unclear, since most psychiatrists working with children and adolescents are aware that ADHD commonly persists into adult life and they also see the disorder affecting parents of children with ADHD. Issues of transition from the care of child to adult psychiatry and the need to refer adult relatives of children with ADHD to suitable psychiatric services are a major concern. Furthermore, many cases of adult ADHD go unrecognized or are seen by mental health teams that are not familiar with the subtleties of the adult presentation. As a result, misdiagnosis and treatment for conditions such as atypical depression, mixed affective disorder, cyclothymia, and borderline and unstable emotional personality disorders is not uncommon. There is therefore a requirement for further training in this area. This review will describe the common clinical presentation and provide guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in adults. Any psychiatrically trained physician using standard psychiatric assessment procedures can perform clinical evaluations for adult ADHD. As with other psychiatric disorders in adulthood, ADHD has its own characteristic onset, course and psychopathology. Symptoms of ADHD are

  8. Health state utilities associated with adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Matza, Louis S; Devine, Mary K; Haynes, Virginia Sutton; Davies, Evan W; Kostelec, Jacqueline M; Televantou, Foula; Jordan, Jessica B

    2014-01-01

    Objectives With growing awareness of the importance of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment, cost-effectiveness analyses, including utilities, are needed to compare the value of treatment options. Although utilities have been reported for childhood ADHD, little is known about utilities representing adult ADHD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to estimate utilities associated with adult ADHD. Methods Health-state descriptions of adult ADHD were drafted based on literature review, interviews with four clinicians, and clinical trial data. Health states were revised based on a pilot study with 26 participants. Final health states were rated in time trade-off interviews with general population respondents in London and Edinburgh, UK. Results A total of 158 participants completed interviews (mean age =47.0 years; 49.4% female; Edinburgh =80 participants). Mean (standard deviation [SD]) utilities were 0.82 (0.17), 0.68 (0.28), and 0.67 (0.28) for health states describing treatment responders (health state A), nonresponders (health state B), and untreated patients (health state C), respectively. Most participants rated health state A as preferable to B (n=92; 58.2%) and C (n=97; 61.4%). The majority rated B and C as equal (n=125; 79.1%). Paired Student’s t-tests found that A had a significantly greater mean utility than B (t=10.0; P<0.0001) and C (t=10.2; P<0.0001). Conclusion The current study provides utilities that may be used in cost–utility models of treatment for adult ADHD. Results reflected clear differences between health states representing treatment responders and nonresponders/untreated patients. Current utilities were comparable to those previously reported for childhood ADHD. PMID:25114511

  9. Psychometric evaluation of the Sheehan Disability Scale in adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Coles, Theresa; Coon, Cheryl; DeMuro, Carla; McLeod, Lori; Gnanasakthy, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Inattention and impulsivity symptoms are common among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which can lead to difficulty concentrating, restlessness, difficulty completing tasks, disorganization, impatience, and impulsiveness. Many adults with ADHD find it difficult to focus and prioritize. Resulting outcomes, such as missed deadlines and forgotten engagements, may ultimately impact the ability to function at work, school, home, or in a social environment. The European Medicines Agency guidelines for evaluating medicinal products for ADHD recommend inclusion of both functional outcomes, such as school, social, or work functioning, and outcomes related to symptoms of ADHD in clinical studies of novel medication primary efficacy endpoints. Due to its performance in other disease areas and the relevance of its items as evidenced by content validity analyses, the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) was chosen to assess functional impairment in ADHD. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the SDS, used as a brief measure of functional impairment in a number of psychiatric disorders, in adult patients with ADHD. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the reliability of the SDS (based on Cronbach's coefficient alpha and test-retest reliability), its validity (construct and known-groups validity), and its ability to detect change in this patient population. This study also established a preliminary responder definition for the SDS in this study population to determine when change can be considered clinically beneficial in a clinical trial setting. The psychometric results support the use of the SDS subscales (items 1-3) and total score (sum of items 1-3) in an ADHD population. In addition, the evaluation provides evidence for a three-point preliminary responder definition for the SDS and further evidence of its responsiveness in adults with ADHD. Altogether, the results indicate that the SDS is a

  10. Increase or Decrease of fMRI Activity in Adult Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: Does It Depend on Task Difficulty?

    PubMed Central

    Merz, Christian J.; Dresler, Thomas; Heupel, Julia; Reichert, Susanne; Jacob, Christian P.; Deckert, Jürgen; Herrmann, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder has been shown to affect working memory, and fMRI studies in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder report hypoactivation in task-related attentional networks. However, studies with adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients addressing this issue as well as the effects of clinically valid methylphenidate treatment are scarce. This study contributes to closing this gap. Methods: Thirty-five adult patients were randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind placebo or methylphenidate treatment. Patients completed an fMRI n-back working memory task both before and after the assigned treatment, and matched healthy controls were tested and compared to the untreated patients. Results: There were no whole-brain differences between any of the groups. However, when specified regions of interest were investigated, the patient group showed enhanced BOLD responses in dorsal and ventral areas before treatment. This increase was correlated with performance across all participants and with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in the patient group. Furthermore, we found an effect of treatment in the right superior frontal gyrus, with methylphenidate-treated patients exhibiting increased activation, which was absent in the placebo-treated patients. Conclusions: Our results indicate distinct activation differences between untreated adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients and matched healthy controls during a working memory task. These differences might reflect compensatory efforts by the patients, who are performing at the same level as the healthy controls. We furthermore found a positive effect of methylphenidate on the activation of a frontal region of interest. These observations contribute to a more thorough understanding of adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and provide impulses for the evaluation of therapy-related changes. PMID:27207920

  11. Comorbidity of Personality Disorders and Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)--Review of Recent Findings.

    PubMed

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may remit until adulthood. But, more than 60-80% have persisting ADHD symptoms. ADHD as an early manifesting neurodevelopmental disorder is considered a major risk factor for the development of comorbid psychiatric disorders in later life. Particularly, personality disorders are oftentimes observed in adult patients suffering from ADHD. If ADHD and personality disorders share common etiological mechanisms and/or if ADHD as a severely impairing condition influences psychological functioning and learning and leads to unfavorable learning histories is unclear. The development of inflexible and dysfunctional beliefs on the basis of real and perceived impairments or otherness due to the core symptoms of ADHD is intuitively plausible. Such beliefs are a known cause for the development of personality disorders. But, why some personality disorders are more frequently found in ADHD patients as for example antisocial and borderline personality disorder remains subject of debate. Because of the high prevalence of ADHD and the high impact of personality disorders on daily functioning, it is important to take them into account when treating patients with ADHD. Research on the developmental trajectories leading to personality disorders in adult ADHD patients might open the door for targeted interventions to prevent impairing comorbid clinical pictures.

  12. Comorbidity of Personality Disorders and Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)--Review of Recent Findings.

    PubMed

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may remit until adulthood. But, more than 60-80% have persisting ADHD symptoms. ADHD as an early manifesting neurodevelopmental disorder is considered a major risk factor for the development of comorbid psychiatric disorders in later life. Particularly, personality disorders are oftentimes observed in adult patients suffering from ADHD. If ADHD and personality disorders share common etiological mechanisms and/or if ADHD as a severely impairing condition influences psychological functioning and learning and leads to unfavorable learning histories is unclear. The development of inflexible and dysfunctional beliefs on the basis of real and perceived impairments or otherness due to the core symptoms of ADHD is intuitively plausible. Such beliefs are a known cause for the development of personality disorders. But, why some personality disorders are more frequently found in ADHD patients as for example antisocial and borderline personality disorder remains subject of debate. Because of the high prevalence of ADHD and the high impact of personality disorders on daily functioning, it is important to take them into account when treating patients with ADHD. Research on the developmental trajectories leading to personality disorders in adult ADHD patients might open the door for targeted interventions to prevent impairing comorbid clinical pictures. PMID:26893231

  13. Development and Validation of a Scale to Assess the Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caterino, Linda C.; Gomez-Benito, Juana; Balluerka, Nekane; Amador-Campos, Juan A.; Stock, William A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors describe the development and subsequent validation of an attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) scale for young adults. The authors constructed 2 parallel forms of the scale to assess items that relate directly to "DSM-IV" criteria. Each form comprised Inattention, Hyperactivity, and Impulsivity subscales.…

  14. Interference of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in an older adult with a severe personality disorder and dermatillomania.

    PubMed

    Weusten, L H; Heijnen-Kohl, S M J; Ellison, J; van Alphen, S P J

    2014-02-01

    This case of a 65-year-old male with dermatillomania, diffuse anxiety symptoms, and avoidant personality disorder (PD) illustrates the interference of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the diagnostic process and during schema-focused therapy. In conclusion, ADHD in older adults and interference with PD is a subject of clinical importance and worth further investigation.

  15. Living in Chaos and Striving for Control: How Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Deal with Their Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Michele; O'Donoghue, Thomas; Houghton, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This article reports a Grounded Theory of "Living in Chaos and Striving for Control" developed in response to the central research question of how adults diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) deal with their disorder. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 males diagnosed with ADHD in adulthood. "Chaos" emerged…

  16. [Awareness of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Greece].

    PubMed

    Pehlivanidis, A

    2012-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopment disorder of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. In adults, the clinical picture of ADHD is complex and comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders is the rule. The documentation that the disorder had a childhood onset and the various comorbid symptomatologies present both in childhood and adult life represent the most influential obstacles for the accurate clinical diagnosis of the disorder. In 75% of cases with adult ADHD there is at least one coexisting comorbid disorder, with anxiety and mood disorders as well as substance abuse and impulse control disorders being the most prevalent ones. Adult psychiatrists have limited experience in the diagnosis, treatment and overall management of the disorder. Greece is a member of the European Network Adult ADHD (ENAA), founded in 2003, aiming to increase awareness of the disorder and to improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. A clinic where diagnosis as well as treatment recommendations are given after a thorough assessment of adult ADHD patients, is hosted at the First Department of Psychiatry of the Athens National and Kapodistian University. The clinic is in close collaboration with ENAA. The diagnosis of ADHD is given after a detailed evaluation of the patient, based on history taken, self-administered questionnaires and a specific psychiatric interview. The reliable trace of the symptoms' onset back in early childhood, current symptomatology, as well as its impact on at least two major areas of functioning (school, home, work or personal relationships) are pivotal for the assessment procedure. Special attention should be paid in the distinction of symptoms often coexisting with the core symptoms of the ADHD, such as emotional liability, incessant mental activity, avoidance of situations like queuing, especially when there is also frustration, from those indicating a comorbid

  17. Methylphenidate in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Simon, Nicolas; Rolland, Benjamin; Karila, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopment disorder occurring during childhood. However, ADHD persists into adulthood in 45.7% of cases. The global prevalence of adult ADHD is estimated to 5.3%, with no difference between Europe and North America. ADHD is often comorbid with substance use disorder (SUD), with Odds Ratio ranges from 1.5 to 7.9, depending on the substance and the dependence level. Conversely, the prevalence of ADHD among patients with SUD is 10.8%, versus 3.8% for patients without SUD. Methylphenidate (MPH) alleviates ADHD symptoms and, as such, is currently considered as a first choice medication. MPH blocks the dopamine and norepinephrine transporters leading to an increase in extracellular dopamine. It should be noted that its subjective effects are highly dependent on the pharmacokinetic and especially on the rate of input, which highlights the importance of choosing a sustained-release formulation. Meanwhile, prescribing MPH to patients with comorbid SUD has always been challenging for clinicians. The aim of this review is to address the benefits and pitfalls of using MPH in adults with ADHD comorbid SUD, depending on each of the following types of SUD: amphetamine, cocaine, nicotine, alcohol, cannabis and opiates. Overall, due to the prevalence of ADHD in SUD and to the benefits of MPH observed in this population, and considering the mild or low side effects observed, the response to MPH treatment should be evaluated individually in adults with comorbid ADHD and SUD. The choice of the formulation should favor sustained- release MPH over immediate release MPH. Cardiovascular parameters also have to be monitored during long-term use.

  18. [Screening for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adult patients in primary care].

    PubMed

    Aragonès, Enric; Cañisá, Anna; Caballero, Antònia; Piñol-Moreso, Josep Lluís

    2013-05-01

    AIMS. To estimate the proportion of adult patients in primary care with a positive screening test for attention deficit hyper-activity disorder (ADHD) and to analyse their characteristics. PATIENTS AND METHODS. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed in nine primary care clinics in the province of Tarragona. The sample consisted of 432 consecutive patients in primary care who visited for any reason, with ages ranging from 18 to 55 years. Screening for ADHD was carried out by means of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Data about functional impact (Sheehan Disability Inventory) were obtained and a review of the patient records provided data concerning psychiatric comorbidity and the consumption of psychopharmaceuticals. RESULTS. The percentage of positive results in the screening tests was 19.9% (95% CI = 16.4-23.9%). Taking into account the sensitivity and specificity of the ASRS, the 'real' prevalence was estimated to be 12.5% (95% CI = 8.2-16.8%). None of these patients were diagnosed or treated for ADHD. Positive screening tests are associated with occupational, social and familial dysfunction, and greater perceived stress. There is also a higher level of comorbidity with affective disorders and substance abuse, as well as greater use of psychopharmaceuticals. CONCLUSIONS. Screening for ADHD in adult patients in primary care gives rise to a notably high proportion of positive screening test results, which suggests that there could be a significant prevalence of patients with ADHD. These data contrast with the absence of this diagnosis in the patient records. Further research is needed to determine the usefulness of the diagnosis of ADHD and the possible role that must be played by primary care.

  19. Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and nicotine use: a qualitative study of patient perceptions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with high rates of comorbid substance use disorders, and cigarette smoking has a particularly high prevalence in this population. However, there is an ongoing debate as to whether this tobacco use is an attempt at “self-medication” or due to behavioral disinhibition. There is a surprising lack of qualitative studies that investigate the subjective perceptions of adults with ADHD regarding cigarette smoking. The present study was designed to fill this gap in the literature. Methods We recruited twelve adult patients with ADHD and comorbid tobacco use from our ADHD consultation service, an outpatient facility of the Zurich University Psychiatric Hospital. Subjects were interviewed using qualitative methodology, and Mayring's qualitative content analysis was used to evaluate findings. Results We identified two explanatory models linking ADHD and tobacco use: smoking as an attempt at self-medication and “smoking as a social behavior”. On one hand, subjects considered tobacco a therapeutic aid, reporting positive effects on “inner tension” and cognitive function, and noted possible antidepressant properties as well. On the other hand, subjects considered smoking to enhance social functioning and to have a positive impact on interpersonal relationships. The majority believed that stimulant medications offered only a transient decrease in patterns of tobacco use because their ability to reduce nicotine cravings wore off quickly. Others believed that stimulants had no effect or even reinforced cigarette use. Conclusions Participants had different views about the link between cigarette smoking and ADHD. While the majority thought of nicotine as a sort of therapy, viewing smoking as a way to self-medicate symptoms of ADHD, motivations for nicotine use were also related to self-image, desire to belong to a peer-group, and a drive to undermine perceived social norms. Ultimately, these

  20. The genetics of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults, a review.

    PubMed

    Franke, B; Faraone, S V; Asherson, P; Buitelaar, J; Bau, C H D; Ramos-Quiroga, J A; Mick, E; Grevet, E H; Johansson, S; Haavik, J; Lesch, K-P; Cormand, B; Reif, A

    2012-10-01

    The adult form of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (aADHD) has a prevalence of up to 5% and is the most severe long-term outcome of this common neurodevelopmental disorder. Family studies in clinical samples suggest an increased familial liability for aADHD compared with childhood ADHD (cADHD), whereas twin studies based on self-rated symptoms in adult population samples show moderate heritability estimates of 30-40%. However, using multiple sources of information, the heritability of clinically diagnosed aADHD and cADHD is very similar. Results of candidate gene as well as genome-wide molecular genetic studies in aADHD samples implicate some of the same genes involved in ADHD in children, although in some cases different alleles and different genes may be responsible for adult versus childhood ADHD. Linkage studies have been successful in identifying loci for aADHD and led to the identification of LPHN3 and CDH13 as novel genes associated with ADHD across the lifespan. In addition, studies of rare genetic variants have identified probable causative mutations for aADHD. Use of endophenotypes based on neuropsychology and neuroimaging, as well as next-generation genome analysis and improved statistical and bioinformatic analysis methods hold the promise of identifying additional genetic variants involved in disease etiology. Large, international collaborations have paved the way for well-powered studies. Progress in identifying aADHD risk genes may provide us with tools for the prediction of disease progression in the clinic and better treatment, and ultimately may help to prevent persistence of ADHD into adulthood.

  1. Associations of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptom Dimensions with Smoking Deprivation Effects in Adult Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Ameringer, Katherine J.; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying relations of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptom dimensions to individual facets of the tobacco withdrawal syndrome could elucidate the mechanisms linking ADHD and regular smoking. This study examined the unique relations of inattention (IN) and hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) symptom dimensions of ADHD to a variety of tobacco withdrawal symptoms. 132 community-dwelling adult smokers recruited without regard to ADHD status completed a self-report measure of ADHD symptoms experienced over the past 6 months at a baseline visit. At two subsequent experimental sessions (one following overnight tobacco deprivation and one nondeprived; order counterbalanced), participants completed measures of tobacco withdrawal symptoms, mood, and desire to smoke. Preliminary analyses showed that higher levels of IN and HI symptoms were both associated with higher levels of negative affect and concentration difficulties during nondeprived (“baseline”) states (Ps < .01). Over and above nondeprived ratings, higher levels of HI symptoms were associated with larger deprivation-induced increases in negative affect, concentration problems, and desire to smoke, particularly for negative affect relief, during deprived states (Ps < .01). ADHD symptoms, particularly HI symptoms, are associated with more severe exacerbations in abstinence-induced withdrawal symptoms, which could be an important mechanism of ADHD-smoking comorbidity. These findings suggest the need for clinical studies examining the role of these unique and potentially more severe withdrawal profiles experienced by smokers with high-levels of ADHD symptoms in smoking reinstatement and cessation outcomes. PMID:24731115

  2. Clinical assessment and diagnosis of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Haavik, Jan; Halmøy, Anne; Lundervold, Astri J; Fasmer, Ole Bernt

    2010-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent disorder in adult psychiatry, particularly in out-patient settings. There are no objective, laboratory-based tests that can establish this diagnosis. Present diagnostic criteria for ADHD are formulated primarily according to behavior in childhood, based on age inappropriate and impairing levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. Other symptoms, such as mood instability and frustration intolerance, are not included in current criteria for ADHD, but are very prevalent in this patient group. ADHD is often comorbid with alcohol and substance abuse and other psychiatric disorders, in particular anxiety and personality disorders. Thus, the diagnostic assessment should both include a comprehensive clinical interview, rating scales for past and present symptoms and collateral information from multiple informants, as well as assessment of a broader spectrum of psychiatric and somatic conditions. As ADHD is associated with changes in brain function mediating different aspects of neuropsychological functions, assessment of those functions is important to understand the symptom patterns and to develop targeted treatment programs. Some topics for further research and for future developments of diagnostic criteria and tools are highlighted. PMID:20925472

  3. Association of VAMP-2 and Syntaxin 1A Genes with Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kenar, Aẙe Nur Inci; Ay, Özlem İzci; Erdal, Mehmet Emin

    2014-01-01

    Objective The etiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been entirely clarified yet. Structural and metabolic differences at the prefrontal striatal cerebellary system and the interaction of gene and environment are the main factors that thought to play roles in the etiology. Genetic investigations are performed especially about the dopamine pathways and receptors. In this study; it was aimed to investigate the association of the synaptobrevin-2 (VAMP-2) gene Ins/Del polymorphism and syntaxin 1A gene intron 7 polymorphism, which take place in encoding presynaptic protein, with adult ADHD. Methods One hundred thirty-nine patients, having ADHD aging between 18 and 60 years and 106 healthy people as controls were included into the study. DNA samples were extracted from whole blood and genetic analysis were performed. Results A significant difference was determined between ADHD and VAMP-2 Ins/Del polymorphism and syntaxin 1A intron 7 polymorphism according to the control group. These polymorphisms were found not to be associated with subtypes of ADHD. Conclusion It is supposed that synaptic protein genes together with dopaminergic genes might have roles in the etiology of ADHD. PMID:24605127

  4. Economic Impact of Childhood and Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doshi, Jalpa A.; Hodgkins, Paul; Kahle, Jennifer; Sikirica, Vanja; Cangelosi, Michael J.; Setyawan, Juliana; Erder, M. Haim; Neumann, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent mental disorders in children in the United States and often persists into adulthood with associated symptomatology and impairments. This article comprehensively reviews studies reporting ADHD-related incremental (excess) costs for children/adolescents and…

  5. Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Colin; Holland, Niamh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite a reported excess of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in individuals with intellectual disability, it has been argued that ADHD symptoms have been under diagnosed and inadequately treated in individuals with intellectual disability. Materials and methods: Published studies focussing on the level of ADHD…

  6. Priming Sentence Production in Adolescents and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyper-Activity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Ferreira, Fernanda; Nigg, Joel T.

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical accounts of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) posit a prominent role for problems in response inhibition (Nigg 2006). A key avenue for impulsivity in children with ADHD is inappropriate language expression. In this study, we sought to determine whether poor inhibitory control affects language production in adolescents and…

  7. Effect of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate on sleep in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Lenard A; Goodman, David; Weisler, Richard; Hamdani, Mohamed; Roth, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background Sleep problems are common in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This analysis aimed to evaluate the impact of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) on sleep quality in adults with ADHD. Methods This 4-week, phase 3, double-blind, forced-dose escalation study of adults aged 18 to 55 years with ADHD randomized participants to receive placebo (n = 62), or 30 (n = 119), 50 (n = 117), or 70 (n = 122) mg/d LDX, taken once a day in the morning. The self-rated Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was administered at baseline and at week 4 to assess sleep quality. The PSQI global score assesses 7 sleep components (subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medications, and daytime dysfunction) each scored from 0 (no difficulty) to 3 (severe difficulty). Results The mean baseline PSQI global score was 5.8 for LDX and 6.3 for placebo (P = .19) indicating poor overall sleep quality. At endpoint, least squares (LS) mean change from baseline was -0.8 for LDX vs -0.5 for placebo (P = .33). The daytime functioning component showed significant improvement in LS mean change at endpoint for LDX compared with placebo (LDX -0.4 vs placebo 0.0, P = .0001). LS mean changes for the other 6 PSQI components did not significantly differ from placebo. Sleep-related treatment-emergent adverse events with an incidence ≥2% in the active treatment and placebo groups, respectively, were insomnia (19.3% and 4.8%), initial insomnia (5.0% and 3.2%), middle insomnia (3.6% and 0%), sleep disorder (0.6% and 3.2%), somnolence (0.3% and 3.2%), and fatigue (4.7% and 4.8%), and were generally mild or moderate in severity. Conclusion For most subjects, LDX was not associated with an overall worsening of sleep quality and significantly improved daytime functioning in adults with ADHD. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00334880 PMID:19650932

  8. Personality Disorder in Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Attrition and Change During Long-term Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gift, Thomas E; Reimherr, Frederick W; Marchant, Barrie K; Steans, Tammy A; Wender, Paul H

    2016-05-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are commonly found in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are associated with increased ADHD symptoms and psychosocial impairment. To assess the impact of PDs or personality traits on retention rates in ADHD trials and whether treating ADHD affects the expression of PD, data were analyzed from 2 methylphenidate trials. Assessment of PDs and personality traits included using the Wisconsin Personality Disorders Inventory IV and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Personality Disorders. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms were evaluated using the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale. Major findings were that subjects with cluster A, cluster B, passive-aggressive, or more than 1 PD showed more attrition. Subjects dropping out also had more schizoid and narcissistic traits. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms (p < 0.001) and all personality traits (range, p = 0.03 to p = 0.001) improved, but there was almost no correlation between changes on these 2 measures. Conversely, of 11 Wisconsin Personality Disorders Inventory IV items that improved most, 8 resembled ADHD or oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

  9. Validating the measurement of executive functions in an occupational context for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Stern, Adi; Maeir, Adina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The objectives of this study were to better understand the cognitive profile of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), their occupational performance, and their quality of life (QoL) and to examine the validity of a cognitive-functional evaluation (CFE) battery for these adults. METHOD. Eighty-one adults with ADHD and 58 without ADHD completed ADHD symptom ratings, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version, and the Adult ADHD Quality-of-Life Scale. An occupational performance interview was administered to the ADHD group. RESULTS. A broad range of occupational concerns were reported. We found significant differences between groups on all measures. In the ADHD group, we found medium significant correlations among the measures. CONCLUSION. Adults with ADHD experience cognitive and functional difficulties in their daily lives associated with QoL. The results support the use of a CFE battery that has been shown to be sensitive and specific for these adults. PMID:25397767

  10. Validating the measurement of executive functions in an occupational context for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Stern, Adi; Maeir, Adina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The objectives of this study were to better understand the cognitive profile of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), their occupational performance, and their quality of life (QoL) and to examine the validity of a cognitive-functional evaluation (CFE) battery for these adults. METHOD. Eighty-one adults with ADHD and 58 without ADHD completed ADHD symptom ratings, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version, and the Adult ADHD Quality-of-Life Scale. An occupational performance interview was administered to the ADHD group. RESULTS. A broad range of occupational concerns were reported. We found significant differences between groups on all measures. In the ADHD group, we found medium significant correlations among the measures. CONCLUSION. Adults with ADHD experience cognitive and functional difficulties in their daily lives associated with QoL. The results support the use of a CFE battery that has been shown to be sensitive and specific for these adults.

  11. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... us to find out more about ADHD. Share Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Basics Download PDF Download ePub Order a free ... attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder , or ADHD . What is attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD? ADHD is a common mental disorder ...

  12. Parenting in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)☆

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Charlotte; Mash, Eric J.; Miller, Natalie; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.

    2013-01-01

    Although the validity of adult ADHD is well established and research has identified a variety of impairments associated with the condition in adults, study of how ADHD impacts an adult’s ability to parent has been relatively neglected. Parenting is a particularly important domain of functioning given the familial nature of the disorder and emerging evidence that parenting behaviors play a role in the development or maintenance of child ADHD symptoms, comorbid psychopathologies, and other associated difficulties. In this paper, we focus on three broad categories of cognitive dysfunction proposed across models of ADHD — cognitive processes (e.g., working memory, planning, and inhibitory control), self-regulation deficits (e.g., self-monitoring of performance to detect errors or the need for regulation of behavior and/or emotions), and motivational or arousal difficulties (e.g., response to incentives, delay aversion). We consider how these deficits may lead to impairments in the parenting behaviors of effective behavioral control and emotional responsiveness, and review the available evidence regarding parenting in adults with ADHD symptoms. We conclude by noting the limitations in existing studies, and argue for further research that is theoretically grounded in how core deficits of ADHD may be related to dimensions of parenting. The implications of an improved understanding of how ADHD impacts parenting for the development of early intervention or prevention programs are outlined. PMID:22459785

  13. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    PubMed Central

    Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on one side of the word are omitted or substituted, and surface dyslexia, in which words are read via the sublexical route. We tested 110 children and adults with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits, using extensive batteries of reading and attention. For each participant, the existence of dyslexia and the dyslexia type were tested using reading tests that included stimuli sensitive to the various dyslexia types. Attention deficit and its type was established through attention tasks assessing sustained, selective, orienting, and executive attention functioning. Using this procedure, we identified 55 participants who showed a double dissociation between reading and attention: 28 had dyslexia with normal attention and 27 had attention deficits with normal reading. Importantly, each dyslexia with suspected attentional basis dissociated from attention: we found 21 individuals with LPD, 13 AD, 2 neglect dyslexia, and 12 surface dyslexia without attention deficits. Other dyslexia types (vowel dyslexia, phonological dyslexia, visual dyslexia) also dissociated from attention deficits. Examination of 55 additional individuals with both a specific dyslexia and a certain attention deficit found no attention function that was consistently linked with any dyslexia type. Specifically, LPD and AD dissociated from selective attention, neglect dyslexia dissociated from orienting, and surface dyslexia dissociated from sustained and executive attention. These results indicate that

  14. Postural sway and regional cerebellar volume in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hove, Michael J.; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Biederman, Joseph; Li, Zhi; Schmahmann, Jeremy; Valera, Eve M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Motor abnormalities, including impaired balance and increased postural sway, are commonly reported in children with ADHD, but have yet to be investigated in adults with ADHD. Furthermore, although these abnormalities are thought to stem from cerebellar deficits, evidence for an association between the cerebellum and these motor deficits has yet to be provided for either adults or children with ADHD. Method In this study, we measured postural sway in adults with ADHD and controls, examining the relationship between sway and regional cerebellar gray matter volume. Thirty-two ADHD and 28 control participants completed various standing-posture tasks on a Wii balance board. Results Postural sway was significantly higher for the ADHD group compared to the healthy controls. Higher sway was positively associated with regional gray matter volume in the right posterior cerebellum (lobule VIII/IX). Conclusion These findings show that sway abnormalities commonly reported in children with ADHD are also present in adults, and for the first time show a relationship between postural control atypicalities and the cerebellum in this group. Our findings extend the literature on motor abnormalities in ADHD and contribute to our knowledge of their neural substrate. PMID:26106567

  15. The Validity of a Battery of Phonemic and Orthographic Awareness Tasks for Adults with and without Dyslexia and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Noel; Bandalos, Deborah L.; Coleman, Chris; Davis, J. Mark; Robinson, Kelly; Blake, Jamilia

    2008-01-01

    The vast majority of adults with learning disabilities are those with deficits affecting reading decoding, reading and writing fluency, and spelling. Many adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) also demonstrate problems with reading and writing. Documenting the underlying reasons for reading underachievement among these…

  16. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T; Fair, Damien A

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder's pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder.

  17. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Madhuri

    2015-03-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder in children. It is characterized by motor hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention inappropriate for the age. Approximately 5-10 % of school age children are diagnosed to have ADHD. The affected children show significant impairment in social behavior and academic performance. The DSM-5 criteria are useful in diagnosing three subtypes of ADHD based on presence of symptoms described in 3 domains viz ., inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Co-morbidities like specific learning disability, anxiety disorder, oppositional defiant disorder are commonly associated with ADHD.Education of parents and teachers, behavioral therapy and medication are main components of management. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine are effective in controlling symptoms of ADHD in most children. Research studies estimated that 30-60 % of children continue to show symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. The general practitioner can play an important role in early diagnosis, appropriate assessment and guiding parents for management of children with ADHD.

  18. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

  19. Pharmacogenetics of response to methylphenidate in adult patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Contini, Verônica; Rovaris, Diego L; Victor, Marcelo M; Grevet, Eugenio H; Rohde, Luis A; Bau, Claiton H D

    2013-06-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a first line option in the psychopharmacologic treatment of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, there is a considerable proportion of adult patients who do not respond to treatment with MPH or discontinue drug therapy. Since effects of genetic variants in the response to MPH treatment might explain these negative outcomes, we conducted an electronic systematic search of MEDLINE-indexed literature looking for articles containing information about pharmacogenetics of ADHD in adults published until January, 2012. The keywords used were 'ADHD', 'Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder' and 'gene' in combination with methylphenidate, amphetamine or atomoxetine. Only 5 pharmacogenetic studies on adult ADHD met inclusion criteria. The results evidenced that most findings obtained so far are negative, and all studies focused on MPH response. There is only one positive result, for a polymorphism at the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) gene. The current state of the art in adult ADHD implies that pharmacogenetic tests are far from routine clinical practice. However, the integration of these studies with neuroimaging and neuropsychological tests may help to understand mechanisms of drug action and the pathophysiology of ADHD.

  20. Inhibition in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: event-related potentials in the stop task.

    PubMed

    MacLaren, Vance V; Taukulis, Harald K; Best, Lisa A

    2007-12-01

    The core deficit in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may be a deficiency in executive functions, particularly the processes that are associated with the inhibition of predominant responses. To test this notion in the adult population, healthy undergraduate volunteers and students with ADHD symptoms performed a visual Stop Signal Task (Logan et al. J Exp Psychol: Hum Percept Perform 10:276-291, 1984) while Event-Related brain Potentials were recorded. The two groups did not differ on behavioral measures of performance, but there was a significant difference in the N2-P3 component. These results underline the robustness of an N2-P3 difference between healthy adults and people with ADHD symptoms that have persisted into young adulthood. PMID:17922184

  1. An online survey of Turkish psychiatrists’ attitudes about and experiences of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Altın, Murat; Altın, Gamze Ergil; Semerci, Bengi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often persists beyond childhood, daily clinical practices and transition of adult patients with ADHD into adult mental health services in Turkey are not well studied. The aim of this study was to provide data about the presentation of adult patients with ADHD and evaluate the treatment strategies of Turkish adult psychiatrists based on their personal clinical experience in different hospital settings. Methods A cross-sectional online survey to be filled out by Turkish adult psychiatrists was designed and administered in May 2014. The survey focused on the treatment environment, patterns of patient applications and transition, treatment strategies, and medication management for adults with ADHD. Results Significant differences were observed in the number of adult patients with ADHD in follow up, and a significant positive correlation was found between number of adult patients with ADHD in follow up and the clinician’s opinion about their level of self-competence to treat adult ADHD. A significant portion of adult psychiatrists have not received any information about their adult ADHD patients’ treatment during childhood. The most preferred medical treatment was stimulants and the majority of the participants always preferred psychoeducation in addition to medication treatment. A majority of participants did not define themselves competent enough to treat and follow up adult patients with ADHD. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate the need to increase the knowledge, skills, and awareness of adult psychiatrists about adult ADHD. In addition, a more collaborative working relationship between child and adolescent psychiatrists and adult psychiatrists with a definite transition policy is required in order to help patients with ADHD more effectively. PMID:27785027

  2. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Cunill, Ruth; Castells, Xavier

    2015-04-20

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and can persist into the adulthood. ADHD has important social, academic and occupational consequences. ADHD diagnosis is based on the fulfillment of several clinical criteria, which can vary depending on the diagnostic system used. The clinical presentation can show great between-patient variability and it has been related to a dysfunction in the fronto-striatal and meso-limbic circuits. Recent investigations support a model in which multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to create a neurobiological susceptibility to develop the disorder. However, no clear causal association has yet been identified. Although multimodal treatment including both pharmacological and psychosocial interventions is usually recommended, no convincing evidence exists to support this recommendation. Pharmacological treatment has fundamentally shown to improve ADHD symptoms in the short term, while efficacy data for psychosocial interventions are scarce and inconsistent. Yet, drug treatment is increasingly popular and the last 2 decades have witnessed a sharp increase in the prescription of anti-ADHD medications coinciding with the marketing of new drugs to treat ADHD.

  3. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Cunill, Ruth; Castells, Xavier

    2015-04-20

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and can persist into the adulthood. ADHD has important social, academic and occupational consequences. ADHD diagnosis is based on the fulfillment of several clinical criteria, which can vary depending on the diagnostic system used. The clinical presentation can show great between-patient variability and it has been related to a dysfunction in the fronto-striatal and meso-limbic circuits. Recent investigations support a model in which multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to create a neurobiological susceptibility to develop the disorder. However, no clear causal association has yet been identified. Although multimodal treatment including both pharmacological and psychosocial interventions is usually recommended, no convincing evidence exists to support this recommendation. Pharmacological treatment has fundamentally shown to improve ADHD symptoms in the short term, while efficacy data for psychosocial interventions are scarce and inconsistent. Yet, drug treatment is increasingly popular and the last 2 decades have witnessed a sharp increase in the prescription of anti-ADHD medications coinciding with the marketing of new drugs to treat ADHD. PMID:24787685

  4. Preparatory neural networks are impaired in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during the antisaccade task☆

    PubMed Central

    Hakvoort Schwerdtfeger, Rebecca M.; Alahyane, Nadia; Brien, Donald C.; Coe, Brian C.; Stroman, Patrick W.; Munoz, Douglas P.

    2012-01-01

    Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often display executive function impairments, particularly in inhibitory control. The antisaccade task, which measures inhibitory control, requires one to suppress an automatic prosaccade toward a salient visual stimulus and voluntarily make an antisaccade in the opposite direction. ADHD patients not only have longer saccadic reaction times, but also make more direction errors (i.e., a prosaccade was executed toward the stimulus) during antisaccade trials. These deficits may stem from pathology in several brain areas that are important for executive control. Using functional MRI with a rapid event-related design, adults with combined subtype of ADHD (coexistence of attention and hyperactivity problems), who abstained from taking stimulant medication 20 h prior to experiment onset, and age-match controls performed pro- and antisaccade trials that were interleaved with pro- and anti-catch trials (i.e., instruction was presented but no target appeared, requiring no response). This method allowed us to examine brain activation patterns when participants either prepared (during instruction) or executed (after target appearance) correct pro or antisaccades. Behaviorally, ADHD adults displayed several antisaccade deficits, including longer and more variable reaction times and more direction errors, but saccade metrics (i.e., duration, velocity, and amplitude) were normal. When preparing to execute an antisaccade, ADHD adults showed less activation in frontal, supplementary, and parietal eye fields, compared to controls. However, activation in these areas was normal in the ADHD group during the execution of a correct antisaccade. Interestingly, unlike controls, adults with ADHD produced greater activation than controls in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during antisaccade execution, perhaps as part of compensatory mechanisms to optimize antisaccade production. Overall, these data suggest that the saccade deficits

  5. Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Perceived Stress, and Well-Being: The Role of Early Maladaptive Schemata.

    PubMed

    Miklósi, Mónika; Máté, Orsolya; Somogyi, Klára; Szabó, Marianna

    2016-05-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent chronic neuropsychiatric disorders, severely affecting the emotional well-being of children as well as of adults. It has been suggested that individuals who experience symptoms of ADHD develop maladaptive schemata of failure, impaired self-discipline, social isolation, and shame. These schemata may then contribute to impaired emotional well-being by increasing unhelpful responses to stressful life events. However, to date, no empirical research has tested this theoretical proposition. In a sample of 204 nonclinical adults, we conducted a serial multiple mediator analysis, which supported the proposed model. More severe ADHD symptoms were associated with higher levels of perceived stress both directly and indirectly through stronger maladaptive schemata, which, in turn, were related to lower levels of emotional well-being. Results suggest that identifying and modifying maladaptive schemata may be an important addition to psychotherapy for adult ADHD patients. PMID:26825377

  6. Methylphenidate enhances cognitive performance in adults with poor baseline capacities regardless of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Agay, Nirit; Yechiam, Eldad; Carmel, Ziv; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2014-04-01

    We compare the view that the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) is selective to individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with an alternative approach suggesting that its effect is more prominent for individuals with weak baseline capacities in relevant cognitive tasks. To evaluate theses 2 approaches, we administered sustained attention, working memory, and decision-making tasks to 20 ADHD adults and 19 control subjects, using a within-subject placebo-controlled design. The results demonstrated no main effects of MPH in the decision-making tasks. In the sustained attention and working-memory tasks, MPH enhanced performance of both ADHD and non-ADHD adults to a similar extent compared with placebo. Hence, the effect of MPH was not selective to ADHD adults. In addition, those benefitting most from MPH in all 3 task domains tended to be individuals with poor task performance. However, in most tasks, individuals whose performance was impaired by MPH were not necessarily better (or worse) performers. The findings suggest that the administration of MPH to adults with ADHD should consider not only clinical diagnosis but also their functional (performance-based) profile.

  7. Methylphenidate enhances cognitive performance in adults with poor baseline capacities regardless of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Agay, Nirit; Yechiam, Eldad; Carmel, Ziv; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2014-04-01

    We compare the view that the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) is selective to individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with an alternative approach suggesting that its effect is more prominent for individuals with weak baseline capacities in relevant cognitive tasks. To evaluate theses 2 approaches, we administered sustained attention, working memory, and decision-making tasks to 20 ADHD adults and 19 control subjects, using a within-subject placebo-controlled design. The results demonstrated no main effects of MPH in the decision-making tasks. In the sustained attention and working-memory tasks, MPH enhanced performance of both ADHD and non-ADHD adults to a similar extent compared with placebo. Hence, the effect of MPH was not selective to ADHD adults. In addition, those benefitting most from MPH in all 3 task domains tended to be individuals with poor task performance. However, in most tasks, individuals whose performance was impaired by MPH were not necessarily better (or worse) performers. The findings suggest that the administration of MPH to adults with ADHD should consider not only clinical diagnosis but also their functional (performance-based) profile. PMID:24525641

  8. Methylphenidate does not influence smoking-reinforced responding or attentional performance in adult smokers with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Kollins, Scott H; Schoenfelder, Erin; English, Joseph S; McClernon, F Joseph; Dew, Rachel E; Lane, Scott D

    2013-10-01

    Individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) smoke cigarettes at rates higher than the general population and questions have been raised about how stimulant drugs-the frontline pharmacological treatment for ADHD-influence smoking risk and behavior in those with ADHD. In the present study adult regular smokers with (n = 16) and without (n = 17) ADHD participated in 3 experimental sessions in which they completed a Progressive Ratio (PR) task to measure the relative reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking and money after oral administration of placebo and 2 active doses of methylphenidate (10 mg and 40 mg). We also measured attention and inhibitory control via a Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Methylphenidate had no effect on smoking-reinforced responding, attention, or inhibitory control in either group. Attention and inhibitory control were associated with smoking-reinforced responding, but unsystematically and only in the non-ADHD group. Several design features, such as the value of the monetary response option, the PR schedule, and the potential effects of smoking on attention and inhibitory control, could have contributed to the negative findings and are discussed as such. Although inconsistent with some previous human laboratory studies of stimulant drugs and smoking, results are consistent with recent trials of stimulant drugs as adjuncts for smoking cessation in adult smokers with ADHD. In general, methylphenidate at mild and moderate doses did not influence the relative reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking in adults with and without ADHD.

  9. A Controlled Study of Autonomic Nervous System Function in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treated with Stimulant Medications: Results of a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubiner, Howard; Hassunizadeh, Bischan; Kaczynski, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Despite the fact that autonomic nervous system (ANS) abnormalities are commonly found in adults and predict increased cardiovascular mortality, no studies have assessed ANS function in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) taking stimulants. Method: This pilot study evaluated ANS function in adults with ADHD in…

  10. Driving impairments in teens and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Barkley, Russell A

    2004-06-01

    Available research provides compelling evidence that ADHD is associated with significantly increased risks for various adverse outcomes while driving, including increased traffic citations (particularly speeding), motor vehicle crashes for which the driver is at fault, repeated crash occurrences,and more severe crashes as determined from dollar damage and likelihood of bodily injuries from the crash. Not surprisingly, teens and adults with ADHD are more likely to have their licenses suspended and even fully revoked. Research further suggests that these driving risks cannot be accounted for by the comorbid disorders likely to be associated with ADHD, such as ODD, conduct disorder (CD), depression, or anxiety, or by lower than normal levels of intelligence. Recent attempts to study the processes or mechanisms involved in driving in adults with ADHD offer some explanation of how the disorder conveys such increased risks. Driving can be conceptualized usefully as involving at least three or more dimensions or levels, including basic cognitive abilities necessary for driving (operational), actual skills for maneuvering the vehicle in traffic (tactical), and the more executive, goal-directed aspects of driving(strategic). The findings of studies indicate that ADHD interferes with the basic operational components of driving by means of the impairments it produces in attention, resistance to distraction, response inhibition, slower and more variable reaction time, and the capacity to follow rules that may compete with ongoing sensory information. Accumulating evidence also points to a problem in the tactical level of driving, such that those with ADHDrate themselves and are rated by others as employing less safe driving habits during their normal operation of a vehicle than are adults in community control groups. Although this has been more elusive to demonstrate through the use of simple laboratory-based driving simulators. more modern virtual reality driving platforms

  11. Treatment outcomes after methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treated with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate or atomoxetine

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Alain; Cloutier, Martin; Guérin, Annie; Nitulescu, Roy; Sikirica, Vanja

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare treatment adherence, discontinuation, add-on, and daily average consumption (DACON) among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder receiving second-line lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) or atomoxetine (ATX), following methylphenidate. Patients and methods A retrospective cohort study using US commercial claims databases (Q2/2009–Q3/2013). Results At month 12, the LDX cohort (N=2,718) had a higher adherence level (proportion of days covered: 0.48 versus 0.30, P<0.001) and was less likely to discontinue (Kaplan–Meier estimate: 63% versus 85%, P<0.001) than the ATX cohort (N=674). There were no statistical differences in treatment add-on rates between cohorts (Kaplan–Meier estimate: 26% versus 25%, P=0.297). The LDX cohort had a lower DACON (1.10 versus 1.31, P<0.001) and was less likely to have a DACON >1 (adjusted odds ratio: 0.20, 95% confidence interval: 0.15–0.25, P<0.001) than the ATX cohort. Conclusion Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treated with LDX following methylphenidate had a higher treatment adherence and lower discontinuation and DACON relative to those treated with ATX following methylphenidate. PMID:27069357

  12. Supplementary guanfacine hydrochloride as a treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: A double blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Max E; Saal, Jaime; Young, Benjamin; Young, Joel L

    2016-02-28

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of an extended release guanfacine hydrochloride supplement relative to a placebo supplement in adults (19-62) with ADHD and a sub-optimal response to a stimulant-only treatment program. The study's primary outcome measures were the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale and the Clinical Global Impression - Severity. Twenty-six adults who met criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and sub-optimal functioning were randomly assigned to supplement their existing psychostimulant treatment regimen with either a titrated dose (1-6mg) of extended release guanfacine hydrochloride or a matching placebo for a 10-week trial. The data were analyzed with standard mixed model analysis of variance procedures, and participants in both the investigational agent group and the placebo group showed statistically significant improvement in their symptoms and functioning over the course of the trial. The treatments did not differ in terms of their efficacy, safety, or tolerability. Although these results do suggest that both treatments were associated with clinical improvement, the possible impacts of socially desirable responding and regression to the mean on these results are discussed.

  13. Elevated Background Noise in Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Is Associated with Inattention

    PubMed Central

    Bubl, Emanuel; Dörr, Michael; Riedel, Andreas; Ebert, Dieter; Philipsen, Alexandra; Bach, Michael; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger

    2015-01-01

    Background Inattention and distractibility are core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Still the neuronal organization is largely unknown. Previously we studied the electrophysiological activity of a distinct neuronal network—the retina—and found no change in stimulus-driven neural activity in patients with ADHD. However there is growing evidence for an elevated non stimulus-driven neural activity, or neuronal background noise, as underlying pathophysiological correlate. To further examine the biological bases that might underlie ADHD and problems with inattention, we performed a new analysis to test the hypothesis of an elevated background noise as underlying neuronal correlate for ADHD and problems with inattention in humans. A direct measure of background noise in patients with ADHD has not been described yet. Methods The retinal background noise was assessed based on pattern electroretinogram (PERG) data in 20 unmedicated ADHD patients and 20 healthy controls. The PERG is an electrophysiological measure for retinal ganglion cell function. ADHD severity was assessed by interview and questionnaire. Results Noise amplitude was significantly higher (138%) in patients with ADHD compared to the control group (p = 0.0047). Noise amplitude correlated significantly with psychometric measures for ADHD (CAARS) especially inattention (r = 0.44, p = 0.004). Conclusions The data provide evidence that an elevated background noise is associated with symptoms of inattention in ADHD and support the use of therapeutic interventions that reduce noise and distraction in patients with ADHD. PMID:25693192

  14. Deviant white matter structure in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder points to aberrant myelination and affects neuropsychological performance.

    PubMed

    Onnink, A Marten H; Zwiers, Marcel P; Hoogman, Martine; Mostert, Jeanette C; Dammers, Janneke; Kan, Cornelis C; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Schene, Aart H; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood is characterized by gray and white matter abnormalities in several brain areas. Considerably less is known about white matter microstructure in adults with ADHD and its relation with clinical symptoms and cognitive performance. In 107 adult ADHD patients and 109 gender-, age- and IQ-matched controls, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate whole-skeleton changes of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean, axial, and radial diffusivity (MD, AD, RD). Additionally, we studied the relation of FA and MD values with symptom severity and cognitive performance on tasks measuring working memory, attention, inhibition, and delay discounting. In comparison to controls, participants with ADHD showed reduced FA in corpus callosum, bilateral corona radiata, and thalamic radiation. Higher MD and RD were found in overlapping and even more widespread areas in both hemispheres, also encompassing internal and external capsule, sagittal stratum, fornix, and superior lateral fasciculus. Values of FA and MD were not associated with symptom severity. However, within some white matter clusters that distinguished patients from controls, worse inhibition performance was associated with reduced FA and more impulsive decision making was associated with increased MD. This study shows widespread differences in white matter integrity between adults with persistent ADHD and healthy individuals. Changes in RD suggest aberrant myelination as a pathophysiological factor in persistent ADHD. The microstructural differences in adult ADHD may contribute to poor inhibition and greater impulsivity but appear to be independent of disease severity. PMID:25956761

  15. Deviant white matter structure in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder points to aberrant myelination and affects neuropsychological performance.

    PubMed

    Onnink, A Marten H; Zwiers, Marcel P; Hoogman, Martine; Mostert, Jeanette C; Dammers, Janneke; Kan, Cornelis C; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Schene, Aart H; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood is characterized by gray and white matter abnormalities in several brain areas. Considerably less is known about white matter microstructure in adults with ADHD and its relation with clinical symptoms and cognitive performance. In 107 adult ADHD patients and 109 gender-, age- and IQ-matched controls, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate whole-skeleton changes of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean, axial, and radial diffusivity (MD, AD, RD). Additionally, we studied the relation of FA and MD values with symptom severity and cognitive performance on tasks measuring working memory, attention, inhibition, and delay discounting. In comparison to controls, participants with ADHD showed reduced FA in corpus callosum, bilateral corona radiata, and thalamic radiation. Higher MD and RD were found in overlapping and even more widespread areas in both hemispheres, also encompassing internal and external capsule, sagittal stratum, fornix, and superior lateral fasciculus. Values of FA and MD were not associated with symptom severity. However, within some white matter clusters that distinguished patients from controls, worse inhibition performance was associated with reduced FA and more impulsive decision making was associated with increased MD. This study shows widespread differences in white matter integrity between adults with persistent ADHD and healthy individuals. Changes in RD suggest aberrant myelination as a pathophysiological factor in persistent ADHD. The microstructural differences in adult ADHD may contribute to poor inhibition and greater impulsivity but appear to be independent of disease severity.

  16. Temperament and Character as Endophenotype in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sizoo, Bram B.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder overlap in several ways, raising questions about the nature of this comorbidity. Rommelse et al. published an innovative review of candidate endophenotypes for autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in cognitive and brain domains. They found that…

  17. A Population-Based Study of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Associated Impairment in Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Das, Debjani; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J.; Easteal, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent childhood psychiatric condition. It frequently persists into adulthood and can have serious health and other adverse consequences. The majority of previous adult ADHD studies have focused on young adults so that relatively little is known about ADHD symptoms and their effects in mid and late life. In addition, effects of subclinical levels of attention deficit and hyperactivity have not been studied in detail. In this study we investigated ADHD symptoms and related impairment in a large population-based sample of middle-aged Australian adults (n = 2091; 47% male). Applying the WHO adult ADHD Self Report Screener (ASRS) we observed that 6.2% of participants had scores that were previously associated with ADHD diagnosis. No significant gender difference in the distribution of ASRS scores was observed. Multiple regression analyses indicated strong positive correlations between symptoms of ADHD and depression/anxiety and significant negative associations (p<0.01) with employment, financial stress, relationship quality, health and well-being measures in this age group. Importantly, associations were highly significant even when few ADHD symptoms were reported. Compared to the hyperactivity component, the inattention trait was particularly strongly associated and remained significant after controlling for depression/anxiety symptoms. Our study confirms previous findings and significantly adds to existing literature especially for an age-group that has not been well-studied. Our results suggest that ADHD symptoms continue to be associated with ill-health and functional impairment in mid-life and are, therefore, likely to be a major, previously unrecognized source of late-life morbidity with associated social and economic costs. Thus, there is a compelling need for better understanding and development of age-appropriate approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in mid- to late-life. PMID

  18. The Adult Sequelae of a Childhood Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Review of the Literature for the Past Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokeld, Cheryl L.

    This paper reviews literature on the adult outcomes for children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD). It critiques methodological issues, including diagnostic definitions, research designs, sample characteristics, and assessment instruments. It examines the relationship of AD/HD to a variety of adult disorders and…

  19. Whole-brain structural topology in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Preserved global - disturbed local network organization.

    PubMed

    Sidlauskaite, Justina; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Roeyers, Herbert; Wiersema, Jan R

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies demonstrate altered organization of functional brain networks in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the structural underpinnings of these functional disturbances are poorly understood. In the current study, we applied a graph-theoretic approach to whole-brain diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate the organization of structural brain networks in adults with ADHD and unaffected controls using deterministic fiber tractography. Groups did not differ in terms of global network metrics - small-worldness, global efficiency and clustering coefficient. However, there were widespread ADHD-related effects at the nodal level in relation to local efficiency and clustering. The affected nodes included superior occipital, supramarginal, superior temporal, inferior parietal, angular and inferior frontal gyri, as well as putamen, thalamus and posterior cerebellum. Lower local efficiency of left superior temporal and supramarginal gyri was associated with higher ADHD symptom scores. Also greater local clustering of right putamen and lower local clustering of left supramarginal gyrus correlated with ADHD symptom severity. Overall, the findings indicate preserved global but altered local network organization in adult ADHD implicating regions underpinning putative ADHD-related neuropsychological deficits. PMID:26640763

  20. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... attention deficit disorder (ADD)" is used rather than "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)" in some data sources. More data Association ...

  1. The effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on intrinsic functional brain networks in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Cao, Qingjiu; Wang, Jinhui; Wu, Zhaomin; Wang, Peng; Sun, Li; Cai, Taisheng; Wang, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an efficacious psychological treatment for adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the neural processes underlying the benefits of CBT are not well understood. This study aims to unravel psychosocial mechanisms for treatment ADHD by exploring the effects of CBT on functional brain networks. Ten adults with ADHD were enrolled and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired before and after a 12-session CBT. Twelve age- and gender-matched healthy controls were also scanned. We constructed whole-brain functional connectivity networks using graph-theory approaches and further computed the changes of regional functional connectivity strength (rFCS) between pre- and post-CBT in ADHD for measuring the effects of CBT. The results showed that rFCS was increased in the fronto-parietal network and cerebellum, the brain regions that were most often affected by medication, in adults with ADHD following CBT. Furthermore, the enhanced functional coupling between bilateral superior parietal gyrus was positively correlated with the improvement of ADHD symptoms following CBT. Together, these findings provide evidence that CBT can selectively modulate the intrinsic network connectivity in the fronto-parietal network and cerebellum and suggest that the CBT may share common brain mechanism with the pharmacology in adults with ADHD.

  2. Pharmacological and clinical dilemmas of prescribing in co-morbid adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and addiction

    PubMed Central

    Pérez de los Cobos, José; Siñol, Núria; Pérez, Víctor; Trujols, Joan

    2014-01-01

    The present article reviews whether available efficacy and safety data support the pharmacological treatment of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in patients with concurrent substance use disorders (SUD). Arguments for and against treating adult ADHD with active SUD are discussed. Findings from 19 large open studies and controlled clinical trials show that the use of atomoxetine or extended-release methylphenidate formulations, together with psychological therapy, yield promising though inconclusive results about short term efficacy of these drugs in the treatment of adult ADHD in patients with SUD and no other severe mental disorders. However, the efficacy of these drugs is scant or lacking for treating concurrent SUD. No serious safety issues have been associated with these drugs in patients with co-morbid SUD-ADHD, given their low risk of abuse and favourable side effect and drug–drug interaction profile. The decision to treat adult ADHD in the context of active SUD depends on various factors, some directly related to SUD-ADHD co-morbidity (e.g. degree of diagnostic uncertainty for ADHD) and other factors related to the clinical expertise of the medical staff and availability of adequate resources (e.g. the means to monitor compliance with pharmacological treatment). Our recommendation is that clinical decisions be individualized and based on a careful analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of pharmacological treatment for ADHD on a case-by-case basis in the context of active SUD. PMID:23216449

  3. A nationwide study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drug use among adults in Iceland 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Geirs, Drifa Palin; Pottegård, Anton; Halldórsson, Matthías; Zoëga, Helga

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we leveraged on complete nationwide prescription data for the total adult population in Iceland (N = 227,000) to examine how attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) drugs have been used over the past decade. In particular, we aimed to describe the prevalence, incidence and duration of use of stimulants and atomoxetine, among adults (≥19 years) in Iceland, with regard to sex, age, type of drug and specialty of the prescribing physician. Our results indicate that the 1-year period prevalence of ADHD drug use rose, from 2.9 to 12.2 per 1000 adults between 2003 and 2012, with the most pronounced increases among young adults (19-24 years). The annual incidence increased 3 times, similarly among men and women. Extended-release methylphenidate formulations were the most commonly used ADHD drugs. Specialists in psychiatry initiated treatment in 79% of new adult ADHD drug users. The proportion of users still receiving treatment after 1 year varied from 43.0% (19-24 years), 57.2% (25-49 years) to 47.5% (50+ years). After 3 years, the corresponding proportions still on treatment were 12.4%, 24.5% and 24.3%, and after 5 years 7.9%, 15.9% and 16.8%. These results of increasing ADHD drug use and short treatment durations call for further investigation of the quality of treatment regimens for adults with ADHD and better follow-up of patients treated with ADHD drugs.

  4. Are language production problems apparent in adults who no longer meet diagnostic criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Veld, Sean N.; Nigg, Joel T.; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined sentence production in a sample of adults (N = 21) who had Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) as children, but as adults, no longer met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria (APA, 2000). This “remitted” group was assessed on a sentence production task. On each trial, participants saw two objects and a verb. Their task was to construct a sentence using the objects as arguments of the verb. Results showed more ungrammatical and disfluent utterances with one particular type of verb (i.e. participle). In a second set of analyses, we compared the remitted group to both control participants, and a “persistent” group, who had ADHD as children and as adults. Results showed that remitters were more likely to produce ungrammatical utterances and to make repair disfluencies compared to controls, and they patterned more similarly to ADHD participants. Conclusions focus on language output in remitted ADHD, and the role of executive functions in language production. PMID:23005917

  5. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of genetic, pharmacogenetic and biochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Bonvicini, C; Faraone, S V; Scassellati, C

    2016-07-01

    The adult form of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder has a prevalence of up to 5% and is the most severe long-term outcome of this common disorder. Family studies in clinical samples as well as twin studies suggest a familial liability and consequently different genes were investigated in association studies. Pharmacotherapy with methylphenidate (MPH) seems to be the first-line treatment of choice in adults with attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and some studies were conducted on the genes influencing the response to this drug. Finally some peripheral biomarkers were identified in ADHD adult patients. We believe this work is the first systematic review and meta-analysis of candidate gene association studies, pharmacogenetic and biochemical (metabolomics) studies performed in adults with ADHD to identify potential genetic, predictive and peripheral markers linked specifically to ADHD in adults. After screening 5129 records, we selected 87 studies of which 61 were available for candidate gene association studies, 5 for pharmacogenetics and 21 for biochemical studies. Of these, 15 genetic, 2 pharmacogenetic and 6 biochemical studies were included in the meta-analyses. We obtained an association between adult ADHD and the gene BAIAP2 (brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-associated protein 2), even after Bonferroni correction, with any heterogeneity in effect size and no publication bias. If we did not apply the Bonferroni correction, a trend was found for the carriers allele 9R of dopamine transporter SLC6A3 40 bp variable tandem repeat polymorphism (VNTR) and for 6/6 homozygotes of SLC6A3 30 bp VNTR. Negative results were obtained for the 9-6 haplotype, the dopamine receptor DRD4 48 bp VNTR, and the enzyme COMT SNP rs4680. Concerning pharmacogenetic studies, no association was found for the SLC6A3 40 bp and response to MPH with only two studies selected. For the metabolomics studies, no differences between ADHD adults and controls were

  6. Clinical correlations of grey matter reductions in the caudate nucleus of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Montes, Luis Guillermo Almeida; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina; De La Torre, Lázaro Barajas; Alcántara, Hugo Prado; García, Reyna Beatriz Martínez; Fernández-Bouzas, Antonio; Acosta, David Ávila

    2010-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have shown decreased caudate volumes in individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, most of these studies have been carried out in male children. Very little research has been done in adults, and the results obtained in children are difficult to extrapolate to adults. We sought to compare the volume of the caudate of adults with ADHD with that of healthy controls; we also compared these volumes between men and women. Methods We performed an MRI scan on 20 adults with ADHD (10 men and 10 women) aged 25–35 years and 20 healthy controls matched by age and sex. We used voxel-based morphometry with the DARTEL algorithm for image analyses. We used the specifically designed Friederichsen, Almeida, Serrano, Cortes Test (FASCT) to measure the severity of ADHD; both the self-reported (FASCT-SR) and the observer (FASCT-O) versions were used. Results The statistical parametric map showed a smaller region with low grey matter volume and a smaller concentration of grey matter in this region of the right caudate in ADHD patients than in health controls, both in the entire sample and within each sex. There was a significant correlation between the volume of this region of the caudate with the number of DSM IV-TR criteria, as well as with the total scores and most of the factors of the FASCT-SR and FASCT-O scales. A separate correlation analysis by sex gave similar results. Limitations The study design was cross-sectional. Conclusion The region of the right caudate with low grey matter volume was smaller in adults with ADHD in both sexes and was correlated with ADHD severity. PMID:20569650

  7. Attention Deficits, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Curtis K.; Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its earlier nosologic classifications have been extensively investigated since the 1960s, with PubMed listings alone exceeding 13,000 entries. Strides have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in individuals with intellectual function in the normal range, as described in companion…

  8. Working memory deficits in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an examination of central executive and storage/rehearsal processes.

    PubMed

    Alderson, R Matt; Hudec, Kristen L; Patros, Connor H G; Kasper, Lisa J

    2013-05-01

    The current study was the first to use a regression approach to examine the unique contributions of central executive (CE) and storage/rehearsal processes to working memory (WM) deficits in adults with ADHD. Thirty-seven adults (ADHD = 21, HC = 16) completed phonological (PH) and visuospatial (VS) working memory tasks. While both groups performed significantly better during the PH task relative to the VS task, adults with ADHD exhibited significant deficits across both working memory modalities. Further, the ADHD group recalled disproportionately fewer PH and VS stimuli as set-size demands increased. Overall, the CE and PH storage/rehearsal processes of adults with ADHD were both significantly impaired relative to those of the healthy control adults; however, the magnitude of the CE effect size was much smaller compared to previous studies of children with the disorder. Collectively, results provide support for a lifelong trajectory of WM deficits in ADHD.

  9. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder across the lifespan: the child, adolescent, and adult.

    PubMed

    Greydanus, Donald E; Pratt, Helen D; Patel, Dilip R

    2007-02-01

    Management of a child, adolescent, college student, or adult with ADD/ADHD (ADHD) is reviewed with emphasis on pharmacologic approaches in the adult. Psychological treatment includes psychotherapy, cognitive-behavior therapy, support groups, parent training, biofeedback, meditation, and social skills training. Medications are reviewed that research has revealed can improve the core symptomatology of a child or adolescent with ADHD. These medications include stimulants (psychostimulants), antidepressants, alpha-2 agonists, and a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. Psychopharmacology approved and/or used in pediatric patients are also used in adults with ADHD, though most are not officially FDA-approved. It is emphasized that ADHD management should include a multi-modal approach, involving appropriate educational interventions, appropriate psychological management of the patient of any age, and judicious use of medications. Such an approach is recommended to benefit those with ADHD achieve their maximum potential across the human life span.

  10. The circadian rhythm in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: current state of affairs.

    PubMed

    Kooij, J J Sandra; Bijlenga, Denise

    2013-10-01

    Adults with ADHD often have sleep problems that are caused by a delay of their internal circadian rhythm system. Such individuals are often typified as 'evening' or 'night' persons. This review focuses on the link between ADHD symptoms and the evening typology through multiple pathways. Etiology of the internal circadian rhythm system, the genetic basis for evening typology, overlap between ADHD symptoms and evening preference and risk factors for various chronic health conditions, including metabolic syndrome and cancer, are discussed. The treatment perspectives to reset the delayed rhythm in adults with ADHD involve psychoeducation on sleep hygiene, melatonin in the afternoon or evening and bright light therapy in the morning. PMID:24117273

  11. A candidate gene investigation of methylphenidate response in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients: results from a naturalistic study.

    PubMed

    Hegvik, Tor-Arne; Jacobsen, Kaya Kvarme; Fredriksen, Mats; Zayats, Tetyana; Haavik, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorder with a complex and heterogeneous symptomatology. Persistence of ADHD symptoms into adulthood is common. Methylphenidate (MPH) is a widely prescribed stimulant compound that may be effective against ADHD symptoms in children and adults. However, MPH does not exert satisfactory effect in all patients. Several genetic variants have been proposed to predict either treatment response or adverse effects of stimulants. We conducted a literature search to identify previously reported variants associated with MPH response and additional variants that were biologically plausible candidates for MPH response. The response to MPH was assessed by the treating clinicians in 564 adult ADHD patients and 20 genetic variants were successfully genotyped. Logistic regression was used to test for association between these polymorphisms and treatment response. Nominal associations (p < 0.05) were meta-analysed with published data from previous comparable studies. In our analyses, rs1800544 in the ADRA2A gene was associated with MPH response at a nominal significance level (OR 0.560, 95 % CI 0.329-0.953, p = 0.033). However, this finding was not affirmed in the meta-analysis. No genetic variants revealed significant associations after correction for multiple testing (p < 0.00125). Our results suggest that none of the studied variants are strong predictors of MPH response in adult ADHD as judged by clinician ratings, potentially except for rs1800544. Consequently, pharmacogenetic testing in routine clinical care is not supported by our analyses. Further studies on the pharmacogenetics of adult ADHD are warranted. PMID:27091191

  12. Long-acting methylphenidate reduces collision rates of young adult drivers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Cox, Daniel J; Davis, Margaret; Mikami, Amori Yee; Singh, Harsimran; Merkel, Richard L; Burket, Roger

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated whether methylphenidate delivered through a long-acting transdermal system (MTS) would reduce collision rates of young adult drivers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).Seventeen young adults completing the study (mean [SD] age, 20.82 [2.40] years; 14 men and 13 white) met the following inclusion criteria: ADHD diagnoses but not routinely taking ADHD medication, previously responsive to ADHD medication, active drivers with more than 1 collision or citation in the past 2 years, and no significant comorbidities. In this open-labeled, crossover design drivers were randomly assigned either to the no-medication condition for 3 months and then MTS for 3 months or to the reverse sequence. In-car video monitoring of routine driving occurred during these 6 months. At baseline and after each condition, participants completed the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale and the Cox Assessment of Risky Driving Scale, and their blood pressure, heart rate, and body weight were monitored.Compared with the no-medication condition, participants in the MTS condition self-reported fewer total ADHD (P < 0.04) and inattentive symptoms (P = 0.014) and a trend for risky driving behaviors (P = 0.059) and had fewer video-recorded collisions (P < 0.005) and other problematic driving events. There were no significant changes in blood pressure, heart rate, or body weight across conditions or any significant skin reactions to the MTS patch.This is the first study demonstrating that long-acting methylphenidate improves activities of daily living among young adults with ADHD. Specifically, methylphenidate improved safety in routine driving while reducing ADHD symptoms with minimal adverse effects. PMID:22367664

  13. Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Substance Use, and Adult Functioning among Incarcerated Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessey, Kathleen A.; Stein, Michael D.; Rosengard, Cynthia; Rose, Jennifer S.; Clarke, Jennifer G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To estimate prevalence of childhood ADHD among incarcerated women and determine its association with substance use and adult functioning. Method: 192 female participants are recruited from the Department of Corrections in Rhode Island. Childhood ADHD is defined as scoring >46 on the Wender Utah Rating Scale. Results: The findings…

  14. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Faraone, Stephen V; Asherson, Philip; Banaschewski, Tobias; Biederman, Joseph; Buitelaar, Jan K; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Tannock, Rosemary; Franke, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a persistent neurodevelopmental disorder that affects 5% of children and adolescents and 2.5% of adults worldwide. Throughout an individual's lifetime, ADHD can increase the risk of other psychiatric disorders, educational and occupational failure, accidents, criminality, social disability and addictions. No single risk factor is necessary or sufficient to cause ADHD. In most cases ADHD arises from several genetic and environmental risk factors that each have a small individual effect and act together to increase susceptibility. The multifactorial causation of ADHD is consistent with the heterogeneity of the disorder, which is shown by its extensive psychiatric co-morbidity, its multiple domains of neurocognitive impairment and the wide range of structural and functional brain anomalies associated with it. The diagnosis of ADHD is reliable and valid when evaluated with standard criteria for psychiatric disorders. Rating scales and clinical interviews facilitate diagnosis and aid screening. The expression of symptoms varies as a function of patient developmental stage and social and academic contexts. Although there are no curative treatments for ADHD, evidenced-based treatments can markedly reduce its symptoms and associated impairments. For example, medications are efficacious and normally well tolerated, and various non-pharmacological approaches are also valuable. Ongoing clinical and neurobiological research holds the promise of advancing diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to ADHD. For an illustrated summary of this Primer, visit: http://go.nature.com/J6jiwl. PMID:27189265

  15. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptom Profiles in Medication-Treated Adults Entering a Psychosocial Treatment Program

    PubMed Central

    Knouse, Laura E.; Sprich, Susan; Cooper-Vince, Christine; Safren, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although medications are the most widely studied effective treatments for adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), patients treated with medications often have significant residual symptoms that may be amenable to psychosocial intervention. Few studies, however, report on the structure and severity of specific residual ADHD symptoms in adult patients who have been treated with medications. This information may be important in identifying the most important psychosocial treatment targets for medicated adults with ADHD with residual symptoms. Objectives Identify which symptoms of ADHD are most frequent and severe for medication-treated adults. Identify meaningful factors underlying self-report and clinician ratings in this group. Methods Self-reported and clinician-rated ADHD symptom data from 105 adults in the community already receiving medication treatment who were entering cognitive behavioral therapy studies were examined. First, we examined the frequency and severity of each of the 18 ADHD symptoms that were present in the sample. Second, we conducted exploratory factor analyses of self-reported and clinician-rated ADHD symptoms to best describe the structure of residual symptoms in medication-treated adults, Lastly, we examined the association of the resulting factor scores with clinician-rated global ADHD severity (Clinical Global Impressions) and functional impairment (Global Assessment of Functioning) scales to determine which factors relate to overall severity. Results The 2 most frequent (self-reported and clinician-rated) residual symptoms were disorganization (85%–88%) and distractibility (74%–83%). Exploratory factor analyses for both self-reported and clinician-rated data yielded a 3-factor model: (1) Hyperactivity/Restlessness, (2) Impulsivity/Poor Prospective Memory, and (3) Inattention. Using multiple regression, the Inattention factor from self-reported and clinician-rated data was most strongly, consistently

  16. Detecting attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults with intellectual disability The use of Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS).

    PubMed

    La Malfa, G; Lassi, S; Bertelli, M; Pallanti, S; Albertini, G

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood. It is also thought that ADHD is more prevalent in the field of intellectual disability (ID) than in the general population, but there are not many experimental studies. Since ADHD diagnosis in adults is more difficult, specific rating scales correlated to the main diagnostic systems have been created but have not been applied to people with ID. This work presents an application of an ADHD screening rating scale, the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) screening version to 46 adults with ID. The resulting prevalence of "ADHD-positive" was 19.6%. These data are in accord with results reported in the general adult literature. Our data suggest that ID and attention disorders can co-occur. Therefore, not only can ADHD be a valid psychiatric diagnosis for a child with ID but for an adult with ID as well. The CAARS can be considered a useful clinical instrument to survey ADHD in ID. PMID:17416484

  17. Deaf Adults without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Display Reduced Perceptual Sensitivity and Elevated Impulsivity on the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parasnis, Ila; Samar, Vincent J.; Berent, Gerald P.

    2003-01-01

    The Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.; R. A. Leark, T. R. Dupuy, L. M. Greenberg, C. L. Corman, & C. L. Kindeschi, 1996) is a continuous performance test used widely to help diagnose attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in both hearing and deaf people. The T.O.V.A. previously has been normed only on the hearing population. The…

  18. Nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization in an adult rat model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Watterson, Elizabeth; Spitzer, Alexander; Watterson, Lucas R; Brackney, Ryan J; Zavala, Arturo R; Olive, M Foster; Sanabria, Federico

    2016-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with increased risk of tobacco dependence. Nicotine, the main psychoactive component of tobacco, appears to be implicated in ADHD-related tobacco dependence. However, the behavioral responsiveness to nicotine of the prevalent animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), is currently underinvestigated. The present study examined the activational effects of acute and chronic nicotine on the behavior of adult male SHRs, relative to Wistar Kyoto (WKY) controls. Experiment 1 verified baseline strain differences in open-field locomotor activity. Experiment 2 tested for baseline strain differences in rotational behavior using a Rotorat apparatus. Adult SHR and WKY rats were then exposed to a 7-day regimen of 0.6mg/kg/d s.c. nicotine, or saline, prior to each assessment. A separate group of SHRs underwent similar training, but was pre-treated with mecamylamine, a cholinergic antagonist. Nicotine sensitization, context conditioning, and mecamylamine effects were then tested. Baseline strain differences were observed in open-field performance and in the number of full rotations in the Rotorat apparatus, but not in the number of 90° rotations or direction changes. In these latter measures, SHRs displayed weaker nicotine-induced rotational suppression than WKYs. Both strains expressed nicotine-induced sensitization of rotational activity, but evidence for strain differences in sensitization was ambiguous; context conditioning was not observed. Mecamylamine reversed the effects of nicotine on SHR performance. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a reduced aversion to nicotine (expressed in rats as robust locomotion) may facilitate smoking among adults with ADHD.

  19. Nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization in an adult rat model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Watterson, Elizabeth; Spitzer, Alexander; Watterson, Lucas R; Brackney, Ryan J; Zavala, Arturo R; Olive, M Foster; Sanabria, Federico

    2016-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with increased risk of tobacco dependence. Nicotine, the main psychoactive component of tobacco, appears to be implicated in ADHD-related tobacco dependence. However, the behavioral responsiveness to nicotine of the prevalent animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), is currently underinvestigated. The present study examined the activational effects of acute and chronic nicotine on the behavior of adult male SHRs, relative to Wistar Kyoto (WKY) controls. Experiment 1 verified baseline strain differences in open-field locomotor activity. Experiment 2 tested for baseline strain differences in rotational behavior using a Rotorat apparatus. Adult SHR and WKY rats were then exposed to a 7-day regimen of 0.6mg/kg/d s.c. nicotine, or saline, prior to each assessment. A separate group of SHRs underwent similar training, but was pre-treated with mecamylamine, a cholinergic antagonist. Nicotine sensitization, context conditioning, and mecamylamine effects were then tested. Baseline strain differences were observed in open-field performance and in the number of full rotations in the Rotorat apparatus, but not in the number of 90° rotations or direction changes. In these latter measures, SHRs displayed weaker nicotine-induced rotational suppression than WKYs. Both strains expressed nicotine-induced sensitization of rotational activity, but evidence for strain differences in sensitization was ambiguous; context conditioning was not observed. Mecamylamine reversed the effects of nicotine on SHR performance. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a reduced aversion to nicotine (expressed in rats as robust locomotion) may facilitate smoking among adults with ADHD. PMID:27363925

  20. Neurophysiologic predictors of response to atomoxetine in young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a pilot project.

    PubMed

    Leuchter, Andrew F; McGough, James J; Korb, Alexander S; Hunter, Aimee M; Glaser, Paul E A; Deldar, Ahmed; Durell, Todd M; Cook, Ian A

    2014-07-01

    Atomoxetine is a non-stimulant medication with sustained benefit throughout the day, and is a useful pharmacologic treatment option for young adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It is difficult to determine, however, those patients for whom atomoxetine will be both effective and advantageous. Patients may need to take the medication for several weeks before therapeutic benefit is apparent, so a biomarker that could predict atomoxetine effectiveness early in the course of treatment could be clinically useful. There has been increased interest in the study of thalamocortical oscillatory activity using quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) as a biomarker in ADHD. In this study, we investigated qEEG absolute power, relative power, and cordance, which have been shown to predict response to reuptake inhibitor antidepressants in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), as potential predictors of response to atomoxetine. Forty-four young adults with ADHD (ages 18-30) enrolled in a multi-site, double-blind placebo-controlled study of the effectiveness of atomoxetine and underwent serial qEEG recordings at pretreatment baseline and one week after the start of medication. qEEG measures were calculated from a subset of the sample (N = 29) that provided useable qEEG recordings. Left temporoparietal cordance in the theta frequency band after one week of treatment was associated with ADHD symptom improvement and quality of life measured at 12 weeks in atomoxetine-treated subjects, but not in those treated with placebo. Neither absolute nor relative power measures selectively predicted improvement in medication-treated subjects. Measuring theta cordance after one week of treatment could be useful in predicting atomoxetine treatment response in adult ADHD. PMID:24726639

  1. Neurophysiologic predictors of response to atomoxetine in young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a pilot project.

    PubMed

    Leuchter, Andrew F; McGough, James J; Korb, Alexander S; Hunter, Aimee M; Glaser, Paul E A; Deldar, Ahmed; Durell, Todd M; Cook, Ian A

    2014-07-01

    Atomoxetine is a non-stimulant medication with sustained benefit throughout the day, and is a useful pharmacologic treatment option for young adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It is difficult to determine, however, those patients for whom atomoxetine will be both effective and advantageous. Patients may need to take the medication for several weeks before therapeutic benefit is apparent, so a biomarker that could predict atomoxetine effectiveness early in the course of treatment could be clinically useful. There has been increased interest in the study of thalamocortical oscillatory activity using quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) as a biomarker in ADHD. In this study, we investigated qEEG absolute power, relative power, and cordance, which have been shown to predict response to reuptake inhibitor antidepressants in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), as potential predictors of response to atomoxetine. Forty-four young adults with ADHD (ages 18-30) enrolled in a multi-site, double-blind placebo-controlled study of the effectiveness of atomoxetine and underwent serial qEEG recordings at pretreatment baseline and one week after the start of medication. qEEG measures were calculated from a subset of the sample (N = 29) that provided useable qEEG recordings. Left temporoparietal cordance in the theta frequency band after one week of treatment was associated with ADHD symptom improvement and quality of life measured at 12 weeks in atomoxetine-treated subjects, but not in those treated with placebo. Neither absolute nor relative power measures selectively predicted improvement in medication-treated subjects. Measuring theta cordance after one week of treatment could be useful in predicting atomoxetine treatment response in adult ADHD.

  2. Online Social Communication Patterns among Young Adult Women with Histories of Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E.; Ahmad, Shaikh I.; Samuels, Andrea Stier; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about adult women with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), however available evidence suggests that they experience social impairment. Online social networking websites such as Facebook have become endemic outlets through which emerging adults communicate with peers. No study has examined the peer interactions of emerging adults with childhood histories of ADHD in this developmentally relevant online domain. Participants in the current study were an ethnically diverse sample of 228 women, 140 of whom met diagnostic criteria for ADHD in childhood and 88 who composed a matched comparison sample. These women were assessed at three time points spanning 10 years (mean age = 9.6 at Wave 1, 14.1 at Wave 2, 19.6 at Wave 3). After statistical control of demographic covariates and comorbidites, childhood ADHD diagnosis predicted, by emerging adulthood, a greater stated preference for online social communication and a greater tendency to have used online methods to interact with strangers. A childhood diagnosis of ADHD also predicted observations of fewer Facebook friends and less closeness and support from Facebook friends in emerging adulthood. These associations were mediated by a composite of face-to-face peer relationship impairment during childhood and adolescence. Intriguingly, women with persistent diagnoses of ADHD from childhood to emerging adulthood differed from women with consistent comparison status in their online social communication; women with intermittent diagnoses of ADHD had scores intermediate between the other two groups. Results are discussed within the context of understanding the social relationships of women with childhood histories of ADHD. PMID:25894439

  3. Alternative treatments for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Arnold, L E

    2001-06-01

    A previous review of alternative treatments (Tx) of ADHD--those other than psychoactive medication and behavioral/psychosocial Tx--was supplemented with an additional literature search focused on adults with ADHD. Twenty-four alternative Tx were identified, ranging in scientific documentation from discrediting controlled studies through mere hypotheses to positive controlled double-blind clinical trials. Many of them are applicable only to a specific subgroup. Although oligoantigenic (few-foods) diets have convincing double-blind evidence of efficacy for a properly selected subgroup of children, they do not appear promising for adults. Enzyme-potentiated desensitization, relaxation/EMG biofeedback, and deleading also have controlled evidence of efficacy. Iron supplementation, magnesium supplementation, Chinese herbals, EEG biofeedback, massage, meditation, mirror feedback, channel-specific perceptual training, and vestibular stimulation all have promising prospective pilot data, many of these tests reasonably controlled. Single-vitamin megadosage has some intriguing pilot trial data. Zinc supplementation is hypothetically supported by systematic case-control data, but no systematic clinical trial. Laser acupuncture has promising unpublished pilot data and may be more applicable to adults than children. Essential fatty acid supplementation has promising systematic case-control data, but clinical trials are equivocal. RDA vitamin supplementation, non-Chinese herbals, homeopathic remedies, and antifungal therapy have no systematic data in ADHD. Megadose multivitamin combinations are probably ineffective for most patients and are possibly dangerous. Simple sugar restriction seems ineffective. Amino acid supplementation is mildly effective in the short term, but not beyond 2-3 months. Thyroid treatment is effective in the presence of documented thyroid abnormality. Some alternative Tx of ADHD are effective or probably effective, but mainly for certain patients. In some

  4. Association Between Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Helmet Use Among Motorcycle Riders

    PubMed Central

    Safiri, Saeid; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Hashemi, Fatemeh; Amiri, Shahrokh; Raza, Owais; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2016-01-01

    Background Use of helmets plays a major role in preventing injuries or decreasing injury severity among motorcycle riders. Use of helmets may depend on personal factors such as psychological factors. Objectives The aim of this study was to independently assess the association between helmet use among motorcycle riders and ADHD scores, with controlling the accident history and was taken more sensitive measures if helmet use was different between motorcycle riders, according to their ADHD scores. Patients and Methods A cross-sectional study was done on 205 motorcycle riders referred to Kerman Referral Injury Hospital after a motorcycle traffic accident. Friends and family members possessing motorcycles who visited the patient in this facility were included in our sample. The Persian version of the Conner’s Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) self-report (screening version) was used in order to screen for adult ADHD. CAARS scores were compared between those who usually used helmets and those who did not. Results Univariable analysis showed the mean of the age variable was significantly higher in the helmeted group, 26.94 ± 7.72 vs. 23.08 ± 7.7.32, (P < 0.001). The majority of the non-helmeted group was single (P < 0.001). Subjects with secondary educational level were more often in the helmeted group (P = 0.007). Daily and weekly driving hours were higher in the non-helmeted group (P = 0.002 and P = 0.004). Most of the subjects in the helmeted group had a driving license in comparison with the other group (P < 0.001). There was not a significant association between SES and having hyperactive children and helmet use (P = 0.159). In all ADHD subscales, a significant association was found and scores were higher in the non-helmeted group (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, multivariable analysis did not confirm the association of the ADHD screening score with helmet use. Conclusions The result of this study did not find an independent association between ADHD and helmet use. PMID

  5. Association Between Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Helmet Use Among Motorcycle Riders

    PubMed Central

    Safiri, Saeid; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Hashemi, Fatemeh; Amiri, Shahrokh; Raza, Owais; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2016-01-01

    Background Use of helmets plays a major role in preventing injuries or decreasing injury severity among motorcycle riders. Use of helmets may depend on personal factors such as psychological factors. Objectives The aim of this study was to independently assess the association between helmet use among motorcycle riders and ADHD scores, with controlling the accident history and was taken more sensitive measures if helmet use was different between motorcycle riders, according to their ADHD scores. Patients and Methods A cross-sectional study was done on 205 motorcycle riders referred to Kerman Referral Injury Hospital after a motorcycle traffic accident. Friends and family members possessing motorcycles who visited the patient in this facility were included in our sample. The Persian version of the Conner’s Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) self-report (screening version) was used in order to screen for adult ADHD. CAARS scores were compared between those who usually used helmets and those who did not. Results Univariable analysis showed the mean of the age variable was significantly higher in the helmeted group, 26.94 ± 7.72 vs. 23.08 ± 7.7.32, (P < 0.001). The majority of the non-helmeted group was single (P < 0.001). Subjects with secondary educational level were more often in the helmeted group (P = 0.007). Daily and weekly driving hours were higher in the non-helmeted group (P = 0.002 and P = 0.004). Most of the subjects in the helmeted group had a driving license in comparison with the other group (P < 0.001). There was not a significant association between SES and having hyperactive children and helmet use (P = 0.159). In all ADHD subscales, a significant association was found and scores were higher in the non-helmeted group (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, multivariable analysis did not confirm the association of the ADHD screening score with helmet use. Conclusions The result of this study did not find an independent association between ADHD and helmet use.

  6. Gambling behaviors and psychopathology related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in problem and non-problem adult gamblers.

    PubMed

    Fatseas, Melina; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Guilleux, Alice; Groupe Jeu; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-05-30

    Previous studies showed that Pathological Gambling and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is associated with specific severity patterns in terms of gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality traits. 599 problem and non-problem-gamblers were recruited in addiction clinics and gambling places in France. Subjects were assessed with the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and questionnaires assessing gambling related cognitive distortions and gambling habits. 20.7% (n=124) of gamblers were screened positive for lifetime or current ADHD. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with a higher severity of gambling-related problems and with more psychiatric comorbidity. Among problem gamblers, subjects with history of ADHD were also at higher risk for unemployment, psychiatric comorbidity and specific dysfunctional personality traits. This study supports the link between gambling related problems and ADHD in a large sample of problem and non-problem gamblers, including problem-gamblers not seeking treatment. This points out the necessity to consider this disorder in the prevention and in the treatment of pathological gambling. PMID:27031593

  7. Association of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes and response to methylphenidate HCL treatment: A magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Unal, Gonca Ayse; Kenar, Ayse Nur Inci; Herken, Hasan; Kiroglu, Yilmaz

    2015-09-14

    The effects of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment on N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline and creatine are being examined in individuals with different subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sixty ADHD subjects were included into the study aging between 18 and 60 years. Levels of NAA, creatine and choline in anterior cingulate cortex, cerebellum, striatum and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Then, 10mg oral MPH was given to the subjects and the same metabolite levels were measured after an interval of 30min. Distribution of the patients according to the ADHD subtypes was as follows: 21 of them (35.0%) were in the inattentive type, 11 of them (18.3%) were in the hyperactive type and 28 of them were (46.7%) in the combined type. Changes of brain metabolite levels after MPH were found not to be statistically significantly different between the subtypes. The increase of choline levels after MPH compared to the levels of choline before MPH in striatum in the combined type patients were statistically significant. No clear association was found between ADHD subtypes and changes of brain metabolites with use of MPH in adult ADHD.

  8. Ecological momentary assessment of antecedents and consequences of smoking in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, John T; Dennis, Michelle F; English, Joseph S; Dennis, Paul A; Brightwood, Amy; Beckham, Jean C; Kollins, Scott H

    2014-09-01

    The current study assessed antecedents and consequences of ad lib cigarette smoking in smokers diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Adult smokers with ADHD (n = 17) completed 870 smoking and 622 nonsmoking electronic diary entries over a 7-day observation period of their naturalistic smoking behavior. Data collection occurred from 2011 to 2012. Generalized estimating equations indicated that ADHD smokers were more likely to smoke when urge to smoke, negative affect, boredom, stress, worry, and restlessness were elevated. In addition, participants were more likely to smoke in situations that elicited higher levels of nervousness and frustration. ADHD symptoms, in general, did not differ between smoking and nonsmoking contexts, though hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms were elevated prior to smoking in frustrating situations. Additional situational antecedent variables were associated with smoking, including being in the presence of others smoking, being in a bar or restaurant, while outside, and while consuming caffeinated or alcoholic beverages. Participants also reported a significant improvement in urge to smoke, negative affect, stress, hunger, and ADHD symptoms after smoking a cigarette. Findings suggest certain contextual factors that may maintain ad lib cigarette smoking in smokers with ADHD and identify potential treatment targets in smoking cessation interventions for this at-risk group. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed. Funding for this study was provided by the National Institute on Drug Abuse.

  9. Micronutrients reduce stress and anxiety in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder following a 7.1 earthquake.

    PubMed

    Rucklidge, Julia; Johnstone, Jeanette; Harrison, Rachel; Boggis, Anna

    2011-09-30

    The role of good nutrition for resilience in the face of stress is a topic of interest, but difficult to study. A 7.1 earthquake took place in the midst of research on a micronutrient treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), providing a unique opportunity to examine whether individuals with ADHD taking micronutrients demonstrated more emotional resilience post-earthquake than individuals with ADHD not taking micronutrients. Thirty-three adults with ADHD were assessed twice following the earthquake using a measure of depression, anxiety and stress also completed at some point pre-earthquake (baseline). Seventeen were not taking micronutrients at the time of the earthquake (control group), 16 were (micronutrient group). While there were no between-group differences one week post-quake (Time 1), at two weeks post-quake (Time 2), the micronutrient group reported significantly less anxiety and stress than the controls (effect size 0.69). These between group differences could not be explained by other variables, such as pre-earthquake measures of emotions, demographics, psychiatric status, and personal loss or damage following the earthquake. The results suggest that micronutrients may increase resilience to ongoing stress and anxiety associated with a highly stressful event in individuals with ADHD and are consistent with controlled studies showing benefit of micronutrients for mental health. PMID:21802745

  10. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adult Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Is ADHD a Vulnerability Factor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, L. A.; Kunz, M.; Chua, H. C.; Rotrosen, J.; Resnick, S. G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: There is limited evidence suggesting a link between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This study examined the association between PTSD and ADHD using retrospective and current clinical evaluations. Method: Twenty-five male veterans with PTSD and 22 male veterans with panic …

  11. Dysfunctional Career Thoughts and Attitudes as Predictors of Vocational Identity among Young Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dipeolu, Abiola; Sniatecki, Jessica L.; Storlie, Cassandra A.; Hargrave, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined dysfunctional career thoughts and attitudes as predictors of vocational identity among high school students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Regression analysis results indicated that dysfunctional career thoughts and attitudes were significant predictors of vocational identity, accounting for 42% of the…

  12. Personality traits in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and their unaffected first-degree relatives

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Müller, Ulrich; Bullmore, Edward Thomas; Sahakian, Barbara Jacquelyn

    2016-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) shows clear, albeit heterogeneous, cognitive dysfunctions. However, personality traits are not well understood in adults with ADHD, and it is unclear whether they are predisposing factors or phenotypical facets of the condition. Aims To assess whether personality traits of impulsivity, sensation seeking and sensitivity to punishment and reward are predisposing factors for ADHD or aspects of the clinical phenotype. Method Twenty adults with ADHD, 20 unaffected first-degree relatives and 20 controls completed rating scales assessing traits of impulsivity, sensation seeking and sensitivity to punishment/reward. Results Compared with relatives and controls, individuals with ADHD showed increased impulsive personality traits, were more susceptible to boredom and presented hypersensitivity to reward but normal sensitivity to punishment. Conclusions High impulsivity traits, heightened sensitivity to reward and boredom are associated with the phenotype of ADHD, rather than being predisposing factors, as these traits were not shared between ADHD probands and their relatives. Declaration of interest E.T.B. is employed part-time by GSK and part-time by the University of Cambridge; he holds stock in GSK. B.J.S. consults for Cambridge Cognition, Servier and Lundbeck; she holds a grant from Janssen/J&J. U.M. has received honoraria for consultancy and speaking at conferences and travel expenses from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Janssen-Cilag, Lundbeck, Pharmacia-Upjohn and UCB Pharma. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:27703788

  13. Long-Term Pharmacotherapy of Adults With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Literature Review and Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Fredriksen, Mats; Peleikis, Dawn E

    2016-01-01

    This MiniReview reports and discusses the main findings of the author's thesis including a literature study of long-term pharmacological treatment of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and a clinical study of 1-year medication. Electronic databases were systematically reviewed for original studies on pharmacotherapy of the defined duration, 24 weeks or more. Although few trials were found with limitations such as excluding comorbidities, treatment with stimulants and atomoxetine was reported tolerated and effective compared to non-treatment. The clinical study of the thesis was conducted on 250 medication-naïve patients with ADHD referred to a specialized outpatient clinic. Comorbid psychiatric disorders were diagnosed among 75% of the patients. About 56% had not completed secondary school, and 51% had been unable to work the preceding year. Persisting inattentive symptoms and comorbid mental disorders in adulthood were related to long-term work disability. In the prospective observational study of the thesis, patients were treated with methylphenidate as first-line drug and atomoxetine or dexamphetamine as second-line drugs, according to current treatment guidelines. At 12-month follow-up, 232 patients completed evaluation and 70% persisted on medication. About 80% of these used methylphenidate. Sustained improvement of symptoms and functioning was related to continued medication. Comorbid mental disorders and side effects were related to lower effectiveness and adherence, and 12% stopped medication due to side effects. Summing up the MiniReview, treatment with stimulants and atomoxetine of adults with ADHD has long-term beneficial effects and is tolerated but more longitudinal studies should be performed. With stated limitations, the findings of the thesis should contribute to a relevant guidance for clinical practice.

  14. Does mindfulness meditation improve attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Farahmand, Pantea; Chaplin, Margaret; Sarro, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) manifests by high levels of inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. ADHD starts in childhood and results in impairments that continue into adulthood. While hyperactivity declines over time, inattention and executive function difficulties persist, leading to functional deficits. Adolescents and adults with ADHD have pervasive impairment in interpersonal and family relationships. They may develop addiction, delinquent behavior and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, persistent residual symptoms are common, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies. Mindfulness training, derived from Eastern meditation practices, may improve self-regulation of attention. It may also be a useful strategy to augment standard ADHD treatments and may be used as a potential tool to reduce impairments in patients with residual symptoms of ADHD. Clinically, this would manifest by an increased ability to suppress task-unrelated thoughts and distractions resulting in improved attention, completion of tasks and potential improvement in occupational and social function. PMID:26740931

  15. Understanding the covariation of tics, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: A population-based adult twin study.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rebecca; Monzani, Benedetta; Leckman, James F; Rück, Christian; Serlachius, Eva; Lichtenstein, Paul; Mataix-Cols, David

    2016-10-01

    Chronic tic disorders (TD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) frequently co-occur in clinical and epidemiological samples. Family studies have found evidence of shared familial transmission between TD and OCD, whereas the familial association between these disorders and ADHD is less clear. This study aimed to investigate to what extent liability of tics, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms is caused by shared or distinct genetic or environmental influences, in a large population-representative sample of Swedish adult twins (n = 21,911). Tics, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms showed modest, but significant covariation. Model fitting suggested a latent liability factor underlying the three phenotypes. This common factor was relatively heritable, and explained significantly less of the variance of attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptom liability. The majority of genetic variance was specific rather than shared. The greatest proportion of total variance in liability of tics, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms was attributed to specific non-shared environmental influences. Our findings suggest that the co-occurrence of tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and to a lesser extent attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms, can be partly explained by shared etiological influences. However, these phenotypes do not appear to be alternative expressions of the same underlying genetic liability. Further research examining sub-dimensions of these phenotypes may serve to further clarify the association between these disorders and identify more genetically homogenous symptom subtypes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS): utility in college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sarah; Woltering, Steven; Mawjee, Karizma; Tannock, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Background. The number of students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) enrolled in colleges and universities has increased markedly over the past few decades, giving rise to questions about how best to document symptoms and impairment in the post-secondary setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the utility and psychometric properties of a widely-used rating scale for adults with ADHD, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-V1.1), in a sample of post-secondary students with ADHD. Methods. A total of 135 college students (mean age = 24, 42% males) with ADHD were recruited from Student Disability Services in post-secondary institutions. We compared informant responses on the ASRS administered via different modalities. First, students' self-report was ascertained using the ASRS Screener administered via telephone interview, in which they were asked to provide real-life examples of behavior for each of the six items. Next, students self-reported symptoms on the 18-item paper version of the ASRS Symptom Checklist administered about 1-2 weeks later, and a collateral report using an online version of the 18-item ASRS Symptom Checklist. Students also completed self-report measures of everyday cognitive failure (CFQ) and executive functioning (BDEFS). Results. Results revealed moderate to good congruency between the 18-item ASRS-Self and ASRS-Collateral reports (correlation = .47), and between student self-report on the 6-item telephone-based and paper versions of the ASRS, with the paper version administered two weeks later (correlation = .66). The full ASRS self-report was related to impairment, such as in executive functioning (correlation = .63) and everyday cognitive failure (correlation = .74). Executive functioning was the only significant predictor of ASRS total scores. Discussion. Current findings suggest that the ASRS provides an easy-to-use, reliable, and cost-effective approach for gathering information about current symptoms of

  17. Treatment Approaches to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Antai-Otong, Deborah; Zimmerman, Michele L

    2016-06-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in children, adolescents, and adults, with a prevalence estimated from 5% to 7% across cultures and approximately 2% to 5% in adults. This lifelong disorder challenges nurses to understand the basis of ADHD, analyze symptoms, differentiate coexisting disorders, gather health information from varied sources, and implement person-centered multimodal treatment. Nurses are poised to plan, and work with patients, families, and teachers in the community and school systems to optimize academic and occupational performance and improve quality of life. Pharmacotherapy, psychoeducation, and behavioral therapies are strong components of multimodal treatment planning.

  18. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version in healthy adults and application to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Roth, Robert M; Lance, Charles E; Isquith, Peter K; Fischer, Adina S; Giancola, Peter R

    2013-08-01

    The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A) is a questionnaire measure designed to assess executive functioning in everyday life. Analysis of data from the BRIEF-A standardization sample yielded a two-factor solution (labeled Behavioral Regulation and Metacognition). The present investigation employed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to evaluate four alternative models of the factor structure of the BRIEF-A self-report form in a sample of 524 healthy young adults. Results indicated that a three-factor model best fits the data: a Metacognition factor, a Behavioral Regulation factor consisting of the Inhibit and Self-Monitor scales, and an Emotional Regulation factor composed of the Emotional Control and Shift scales. The three factors contributed 14%, 19%, and 24% of unique variance to the model, respectively, and a second-order general factor accounted for 41% of variance overall. This three-factor solution is consistent with recent CFAs of the Parent report form of the BRIEF. Furthermore, although the Behavioral Regulation factor score in the two-factor model did not differ between adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and a matched healthy comparison group, greater impairment on the Behavioral Regulation factor but not the Emotional Regulation factor was found using the three-factor model. Together, these findings support the multidimensional nature of executive function and the clinical relevance of a three-factor model of the BRIEF-A.

  19. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version in Healthy Adults and Application to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Robert M.; Lance, Charles E.; Isquith, Peter K.; Fischer, Adina S.; Giancola, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A) is a questionnaire measure designed to assess executive functioning in everyday life. Analysis of data from the BRIEF-A standardization sample yielded a two-factor solution (labeled Behavioral Regulation and Metacognition). The present investigation employed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to evaluate four alternative models of the factor structure of the BRIEF-A self-report form in a sample of 524 healthy young adults. Results indicated that a three-factor model best fits the data: a Metacognition factor, a Behavioral Regulation factor consisting of the Inhibit and Self-Monitor scales, and an Emotional Regulation factor composed of the Emotional Control and Shift scales. The three factors contributed 14%, 19%, and 24% of unique variance to the model, respectively, and a second-order general factor accounted for 41% of variance overall. This three-factor solution is consistent with recent CFAs of the Parent report form of the BRIEF. Furthermore, although the Behavioral Regulation factor score in the two-factor model did not differ between adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and a matched healthy comparison group, greater impairment on the Behavioral Regulation factor but not the Emotional Regulation factor was found using the three-factor model. Together, these findings support the multidimensional nature of executive function and the clinical relevance of a three-factor model of the BRIEF-A. PMID:23676185

  20. Early-adult correlates of maltreatment in girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Increased risk for internalizing symptoms and suicidality

    PubMed Central

    GUENDELMAN, MAYA D.; OWENS, ELIZABETH B.; GALÁN, CHARDEE; GARD, ARIANNA; HINSHAW, STEPHEN P.

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether maltreatment experienced in childhood and/or adolescence prospectively predicts young adult functioning in a diverse and well-characterized sample of females with childhood-diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (N = 140). Participants were part of a longitudinal study and carefully evaluated in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood (Mage = 9.6, 14.3, and 19.7 years, respectively), with high retention rates across time. A thorough review of multisource data reliably established maltreatment status for each participant (Mκ = 0.78). Thirty-two (22.9%) participants experienced at least one maltreatment type (physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect). Criterion variables included a broad array of young adult measures of functioning gleaned from multiple-source, multiple-informant instruments. With stringent statistical control of demographic, prenatal, and family status characteristics as well as baseline levels of the criterion variable in question, maltreated participants were significantly more impaired than nonmaltreated participants with respect to self-harm (suicide attempts), internalizing symptomatology (anxiety and depression), eating disorder symptomatology, and well-being (lower overall self-worth). Effect sizes were medium. Comprising the first longitudinal evidence linking maltreatment with key young adult life impairments among a carefully diagnosed and followed sample of females with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, these findings underscore the clinical importance of trauma experiences within this population. PMID:25723055

  1. Early-adult correlates of maltreatment in girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Increased risk for internalizing symptoms and suicidality.

    PubMed

    Guendelman, Maya D; Owens, Elizabeth B; Galán, Chardee; Gard, Arianna; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2016-02-01

    We examined whether maltreatment experienced in childhood and/or adolescence prospectively predicts young adult functioning in a diverse and well-characterized sample of females with childhood-diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (N = 140). Participants were part of a longitudinal study and carefully evaluated in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood (M age = 9.6, 14.3, and 19.7 years, respectively), with high retention rates across time. A thorough review of multisource data reliably established maltreatment status for each participant (M κ = 0.78). Thirty-two (22.9%) participants experienced at least one maltreatment type (physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect). Criterion variables included a broad array of young adult measures of functioning gleaned from multiple-source, multiple-informant instruments. With stringent statistical control of demographic, prenatal, and family status characteristics as well as baseline levels of the criterion variable in question, maltreated participants were significantly more impaired than nonmaltreated participants with respect to self-harm (suicide attempts), internalizing symptomatology (anxiety and depression), eating disorder symptomatology, and well-being (lower overall self-worth). Effect sizes were medium. Comprising the first longitudinal evidence linking maltreatment with key young adult life impairments among a carefully diagnosed and followed sample of females with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, these findings underscore the clinical importance of trauma experiences within this population. PMID:25723055

  2. Early-adult correlates of maltreatment in girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Increased risk for internalizing symptoms and suicidality.

    PubMed

    Guendelman, Maya D; Owens, Elizabeth B; Galán, Chardee; Gard, Arianna; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2016-02-01

    We examined whether maltreatment experienced in childhood and/or adolescence prospectively predicts young adult functioning in a diverse and well-characterized sample of females with childhood-diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (N = 140). Participants were part of a longitudinal study and carefully evaluated in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood (M age = 9.6, 14.3, and 19.7 years, respectively), with high retention rates across time. A thorough review of multisource data reliably established maltreatment status for each participant (M κ = 0.78). Thirty-two (22.9%) participants experienced at least one maltreatment type (physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect). Criterion variables included a broad array of young adult measures of functioning gleaned from multiple-source, multiple-informant instruments. With stringent statistical control of demographic, prenatal, and family status characteristics as well as baseline levels of the criterion variable in question, maltreated participants were significantly more impaired than nonmaltreated participants with respect to self-harm (suicide attempts), internalizing symptomatology (anxiety and depression), eating disorder symptomatology, and well-being (lower overall self-worth). Effect sizes were medium. Comprising the first longitudinal evidence linking maltreatment with key young adult life impairments among a carefully diagnosed and followed sample of females with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, these findings underscore the clinical importance of trauma experiences within this population.

  3. Services for young people with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder transitioning from child to adult mental health services: a national survey of mental health trusts in England.

    PubMed

    Hall, Charlotte L; Newell, Karen; Taylor, John; Sayal, Kapil; Hollis, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Transition from child to adult mental health services is considered to be a difficult process, particularly for individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article presents results from a national survey of 36 mental health National Health Service (NHS) trusts across England, the findings indicate a lack of accurate data on the number of young people with ADHD transitioning to, and being seen by, adult services. Less than half of the trusts had a specialist adult ADHD service and in only a third of the trusts were there specific commissioning arrangements for adult ADHD. Half of the trusts reported that young people with ADHD were prematurely discharged from child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) because there were no suitable adult services. There was also a lack of written transition protocols, care pathways, commissioned services for adults with ADHD and inadequate information sharing between services. The findings advocate the need to provide a better transition service underpinned by clear, structured guidelines and protocols, routine data collection and information sharing across child and adult services. An increase in the commission of specialist adult ADHD clinics is needed to ensure individuals have access to appropriate support and care.

  4. A New Approach to Attention Deficit Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Thomas E.

    2007-01-01

    A recent study conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control estimated that approximately 7.8 percent of U.S. children ages 4-17 are currently diagnosed with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). For decades, most educators, physicians, psychologists, and parents have thought of ADD/ADHD as…

  5. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition system among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Li, Wendi; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Lin; Nie, Jia

    2016-09-30

    The aims of this study were to test the associations of the Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition systems among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adults with non-ADHD. A total of 146 adults aged between 19 and 33 years involved in this study. Participants were assessed with the Chinese version of the adult ADHD Self-report scale (ASRS), the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11), the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), the UCLA loneliness scale, and the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System Scale (BIS/BAS Scale). The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that impulsiveness, loneliness, and behavioral inhibition system were significant predictors of Internet addition among adults with ADHD. Higher loneliness was significantly associated with more severe Internet addition symptoms among the non-ADHD group. Adults with high impulsiveness, loneliness, and BIS should be treated with caution for preventing Internet addiction. In addition, adults with and without ADHD should be provided with different preventative strategies. PMID:27449004

  6. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition system among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Li, Wendi; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Lin; Nie, Jia

    2016-09-30

    The aims of this study were to test the associations of the Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition systems among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adults with non-ADHD. A total of 146 adults aged between 19 and 33 years involved in this study. Participants were assessed with the Chinese version of the adult ADHD Self-report scale (ASRS), the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11), the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), the UCLA loneliness scale, and the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System Scale (BIS/BAS Scale). The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that impulsiveness, loneliness, and behavioral inhibition system were significant predictors of Internet addition among adults with ADHD. Higher loneliness was significantly associated with more severe Internet addition symptoms among the non-ADHD group. Adults with high impulsiveness, loneliness, and BIS should be treated with caution for preventing Internet addiction. In addition, adults with and without ADHD should be provided with different preventative strategies.

  7. Mindfulness and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Smalley, Susan L.; Loo, Sandra K.; Hale, T. Sigi; Shrestha, Anshu; McGough, James; Flook, Lisa; Reise, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder characterized by attentional difficulties. Mindfulness is a receptive attention to present experience. Both ADHD and mindfulness are associated with attention and personality. This study tests whether individuals with ADHD have lower mindfulness scores than controls and, if true, whether personality contributes to these differences. 105 adults (half with ADHD) were assessed for mindfulness, using the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills, and personality, using the Tridimensional Character Inventory. Individuals with ADHD report themselves as less mindful than non-ADHD controls and more novelty-seeking, less self-directed, and more self-transcendent. Mindfulness is negatively associated with ADHD and positively associated with self-directedness and self-transcendence. Analyses of subscales of mindfulness suggest that ADHD is associated most with the ‘Acting in Awareness’ dimension perhaps due to shared items reflecting attentional variability. The current findings support that a large portion of variability in trait mindfulness can be explained by ADHD status and personality traits of self-directedness and self-transcendence. It further suggests that interventions that increase mindfulness might improve symptoms of ADHD and increase self-directedness and/or self-transcendence. PMID:19681107

  8. Types of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): baseline characteristics, initial response, and long-term response to treatment with methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Reimherr, Fred W; Marchant, Barrie K; Gift, Thomas E; Steans, Tammy A; Wender, Paul H

    2015-06-01

    Much recent research describes the importance of emotional symptoms in ADHD. While there is no accepted system for including emotionality in diagnosing ADHD, the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (WRAADDS) provides a tool to facilitate this. It assesses a range of adult ADHD symptoms which load on two factors: inattentive and emotional dysregulation. The consistently high inattentive factor was used to define significant elevation on the more variable emotional dysregulation factor (which contains four WRAADDS domains: hyperactivity/restlessness, temper, affective lability, and emotional over-reactivity) allowing the definition of two ADHD diagnostic types. We compared these two types on a broad range of adult subject characteristics, including response to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment assessed during two clinical trials. Marked impairment in three of the four emotional domains reflected a symptom severity level equivalent to that of the inattentive factor. 59 % met this threshold, defining them as ADHD emotion dysregulation presentation, as opposed to 41 % with ADHD inattentive presentation. Cluster analysis validated these groups by generating similar clusters with 85 % agreement regarding membership. ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation subjects showed more childhood ADHD symptoms, adult symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder, and evidence of personality disorder. Both types showed similar improvement during the double-blind MPH arm of the trials and during a 6-month open-label phase. Based on the presence of symptoms of emotional dysregulation, ADHD in adults can be conceptualized as two types. Impairment and comorbidity in adults with ADHD are largely concentrated in ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation patients.

  9. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and five-factor model traits in a clinical sample: a structural equation modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Knouse, Laura E; Traeger, Lara; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Safren, Steven A

    2013-10-01

    Relationships among attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and adult personality traits have not been examined in larger clinically diagnosed samples. We collected multisource ADHD symptom and self-report NEO Five-Factor Inventory (Costa and McCrae [Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc, 1992) data from 117 adults with ADHD and tested symptom-trait associations using structural equation modeling. The final model fit the data. Inattention was positively associated with neuroticism and negatively associated with conscientiousness. On the basis of ADHD expression in adulthood, hyperactivity and impulsivity were estimated as separate constructs and showed differential relationships to extraversion and agreeableness. A significant positive relationship between hyperactivity and conscientiousness arose in the context of other pathways. ADHD symptoms are reliably associated with personality traits, suggesting a complex interplay across development that warrants prospective study into adulthood.

  10. Challenges in Identifying and Managing Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults in the Primary Care Setting: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mattingly, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine how to screen for and establish a correct diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and to identify the outcomes associated with untreated ADHD. Data Sources: PubMed was searched using the key words ADHD, adult, diagnosis, and primary care from the years 1999 to 2009. Study Selection: This search produced 50 publications. Data Extraction: Publications were screened for data specific to the diagnosis or management of adult patients with ADHD in the primary care setting. Data Synthesis: The estimated prevalence of ADHD in adults throughout the United States is 4.4% or approximately 10 million adults. Adults with ADHD by definition must experience impairment from the symptoms of ADHD in at least 2 areas of their life. Despite significant impairment, only 1 in 10 adults with ADHD have received ADHD treatment within the past year. Given the high rates of undertreatment, primary care physicians, who provide much of the general adult mental health care in the United States, are increasingly charged with making the diagnosis of ADHD in adults. ADHD symptoms are often masked by comorbid psychiatric conditions or patient adaptations such as choice of occupation. One of the ADHD assessment tools, a short 6-item screener, can simplify identification and management of ADHD in adults and help identify which patients may require further evaluation. Conclusions: Primary care physicians should consult with other members of the health care community such as psychiatrists and psychologists when necessary, but should also develop a level of comfort with diagnosing and treating ADHD. PMID:21494335

  11. Altered intrinsic organisation of brain networks implicated in attentional processes in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a resting-state study of attention, default mode and salience network connectivity.

    PubMed

    Sidlauskaite, Justina; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Roeyers, Herbert; Wiersema, Jan R

    2016-06-01

    Deficits in task-related attentional engagement in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been hypothesised to be due to altered interrelationships between attention, default mode and salience networks. We examined the intrinsic connectivity during rest within and between these networks. Six-minute resting-state scans were obtained. Using a network-based approach, connectivity within and between the dorsal and ventral attention, the default mode and the salience networks was compared between the ADHD and control group. The ADHD group displayed hyperconnectivity between the two attention networks and within the default mode and ventral attention network. The salience network was hypoconnected to the dorsal attention network. There were trends towards hyperconnectivity within the dorsal attention network and between the salience and ventral attention network in ADHD. Connectivity within and between other networks was unrelated to ADHD. Our findings highlight the altered connectivity within and between attention networks, and between them and the salience network in ADHD. One hypothesis to be tested in future studies is that individuals with ADHD are affected by an imbalance between ventral and dorsal attention systems with the former playing a dominant role during task engagement, making individuals with ADHD highly susceptible to distraction by salient task-irrelevant stimuli.

  12. Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Older Adults: A Review of the Evidence and its Implications for Clinical Care.

    PubMed

    Goodman, David W; Mitchell, Sara; Rhodewalt, Lauren; Surman, Craig B H

    2016-01-01

    Although previously considered a disorder of childhood, studies in the last decade have demonstrated that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) continues to impair function into adulthood and responds to pharmacotherapy. Due to age-specific changes in roles and challenges, it is possible that presentation and response to intervention may differ between older and younger adults. A literature search for papers that identified older adults with ADHD, including papers describing its epidemiology, manifestation, and treatment, was the basis for this paper. There is a paucity of data on ADHD in older adults; however, small observational studies have characterized the presence, impact, and treatment of ADHD in adults over the age of 50 years, and larger epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that ADHD symptoms exist in older adulthood. Optimal criteria for diagnosis of ADHD and methods of treating ADHD in older individuals have not been systematically explored. In light of the limited data, this review discusses considerations for differential diagnosis and safe pharmacotherapy of ADHD in older adults.

  13. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) | Treatment What medicines are used to treat ADHD? Some of the medicines for ADHD are called psychostimulants. Some of these ...

  14. Did goethe describe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    PubMed

    Bonazza, Sara; Scaglione, Cesa; Poppi, Massimo; Rizzo, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    As early as 1846, the typical symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were described by Heinrich Hoffmann (1809-1894). However, in Goethe's masterpiece Faust (1832), the character of Euphorion strongly suggests ADHD diagnosis.

  15. Helping Children and Youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Systems of Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health and Human Services. Children and Adults With Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder www.chadd.org Tel: 301.306.7070 Federation ... information, contact: 4 Helping Children and Youth With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Systems of Care Attention -Deficit /Hyperactivity Disorder Helping ...

  16. Severity but not comorbidities predicts response to methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: results from a naturalistic study.

    PubMed

    Victor, Marcelo M; Rovaris, Diego L; Salgado, Carlos A I; Silva, Katiane L; Karam, Rafael G; Vitola, Eduardo S; Picon, Felipe A; Contini, Verônica; Guimarães-da-Silva, Paula O; Blaya-Rocha, Paula; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo S; Rohde, Luis A; Grevet, Eugenio H; Bau, Claiton H D

    2014-04-01

    Although the identification of reliable predictors of methylphenidate response in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is necessary to guide treatment decisions, very few data exist on this issue. Here, we assessed the predictors of clinical response to immediate-release methylphenidate hydrochloride (IR-MPH) in a naturalistic setting by analyzing the influence of demographic factors, severity, and a wide range of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Two hundred fifty adult patients with ADHD were evaluated and completed a short-term treatment with IR-MPH. Mental health diagnoses were based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria through the use of standard structured interviews. The Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Rating Scale, version 4, adapted to adults was used to assess the severity of ADHD. In the linear regression model, only higher severity of ADHD was associated to a better IR-MPH response (b = 0.770; P < 0.001). Treatment of comorbidities in a subsample (n = 62) did not modify this pattern. Our findings suggest that in clinical settings, patients with more severe ADHD symptoms have a good response to treatment independently from the presence of mild or stabilized comorbidities and their treatments. For adults with ADHD, differently from other common psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety, higher severity is associated with better treatment response.

  17. Examining the association between stimulant treatment and cognitive outcomes across the life cycle of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a controlled cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Biederman, Joseph; Fried, Ronna; Petty, Carter R; Henin, Aude; Wozniak, Janet; Corkum, Lyndsey; Claudat, Kim; Faraone, Stephen V

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the effects of stimulants on cognition in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We evaluated the impact of stimulant treatment on neurocognition in a cross-sectional sample of adults with ADHD. Comparisons were made between adults with ADHD who received (n = 105) and who had never received pharmacotherapy (n = 116) and 146 controls. The subjects were assessed cross-sectionally using a structured diagnostic interview and a neurocognitive battery. We modeled cognitive measures as a function of age and group status using linear regression. Treated ADHD subjects had statistically significantly better scores on measures of IQ than did untreated ones. The treated group also had better (not statistically significant) scores on neuropsychological measures. The direction of the effects of stimulant on neurocognition suggests that either good cognitive functioning may be a determinant of seeking treatment or that stimulant treatment may improve cognition in adults with ADHD. However, this does not indicate a clear causal relationship. PMID:22210365

  18. A head-to-head randomized clinical trial of methylphenidate and atomoxetine treatment for executive function in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Ni, Hsing-Chang; Shang, Chi-Yung; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Lin, Yu-Ju; Huang, Hui-Chun; Yang, Li-Kuang

    2013-10-01

    Results regarding the effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine on executive functions were inconsistent and no study has directly compared the efficacy of these two medications in improving executive functions in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted an 8-10 wk, open-label, head-to-head, randomized clinical trial involving adults with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD confirmed by psychiatric interview. The two treatment arms were immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-methylphenidate) (n = 31) and atomoxetine once daily (n = 32). Executive functions were assessed by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), including spatial working memory, spatial span, intra-extra dimensional set shifts, rapid visual information processing and Stockings of Cambridge (SOC). In addition to the symptom assessments at baseline (week 0), visit 2 (week 4-5) and visit 3 (week 8–10), they received CANTAB assessments at baseline and visit 3 (60.4 ± 6.3 d). Compared to baseline, adults treated with atomoxetine showed significant improvement in spatial working memory, spatial short-term memory, sustained attention and spatial planning at visit 3; adults treated with IR-methylphenidate showed significant improvement in spatial working memory at visit 3. Comparing the magnitude of improvement in executive functions between these two medications, the effect was generally similar for the two groups, although atomoxetine might have significantly greater efficacy than IR-methylphenidate in terms of improving spatial planning (SOC). Our results provide evidence to support that both IR-methylphenidate and atomoxetine improved various executive functions in adults with ADHD with greater improvement in atomoxetine than IR-methylphenidate in spatial planning.

  19. Attention deficits in stroke patients with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Korda, R J; Douglas, J M

    1997-08-01

    Attentional capacity and sustained attention were investigated in 21 aphasic stroke patients and 21 non-brain-damaged patients. Attentional capacity was assessed using a series of reaction time (RT) tasks. The aphasic patients demonstrated impaired attentional capacity as shown by slower processing speed than the non-brain-damaged group (p < .01) and greater increases in RT with increased processing load (p < .05). Similar patterns were found for both verbal and spatial material. There was no significant relationship between severity of auditory comprehension deficits and attentional capacity. Sustained attention was assessed using a cognitive vigilance task requiring identification of a target letter presented infrequently over 32 minutes. Both the aphasic and the non-brain-damaged group demonstrated a decline in performance with time on task as shown by a steady increase in RTs (p < .0001), but the decline was equivalent across the groups. Thus, the aphasic group did not show a specific deficit in the ability to sustain attention. PMID:9342688

  20. Do Problems with Information Processing Affect the Process of Psychotherapy for Adults with Learning Disabilities or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosden, Merith; Patz, Sarah; Smith, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Problems in processing information can affect psychosocial functioning. Psychotherapy can be used to address psychosocial problems; however, the same information-processing problems that contribute to disabilities, such as learning disabilities (LD) or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), particularly deficits in auditory processing…

  1. Types of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): baseline characteristics, initial response, and long-term response to treatment with methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Reimherr, Fred W; Marchant, Barrie K; Gift, Thomas E; Steans, Tammy A; Wender, Paul H

    2015-06-01

    Much recent research describes the importance of emotional symptoms in ADHD. While there is no accepted system for including emotionality in diagnosing ADHD, the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (WRAADDS) provides a tool to facilitate this. It assesses a range of adult ADHD symptoms which load on two factors: inattentive and emotional dysregulation. The consistently high inattentive factor was used to define significant elevation on the more variable emotional dysregulation factor (which contains four WRAADDS domains: hyperactivity/restlessness, temper, affective lability, and emotional over-reactivity) allowing the definition of two ADHD diagnostic types. We compared these two types on a broad range of adult subject characteristics, including response to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment assessed during two clinical trials. Marked impairment in three of the four emotional domains reflected a symptom severity level equivalent to that of the inattentive factor. 59 % met this threshold, defining them as ADHD emotion dysregulation presentation, as opposed to 41 % with ADHD inattentive presentation. Cluster analysis validated these groups by generating similar clusters with 85 % agreement regarding membership. ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation subjects showed more childhood ADHD symptoms, adult symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder, and evidence of personality disorder. Both types showed similar improvement during the double-blind MPH arm of the trials and during a 6-month open-label phase. Based on the presence of symptoms of emotional dysregulation, ADHD in adults can be conceptualized as two types. Impairment and comorbidity in adults with ADHD are largely concentrated in ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation patients. PMID:25987323

  2. Sustained Attention and Response Inhibition in Young Children at Risk for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berwid, Olga G.; Curko Kera, Elizabeth A.; Marks, David J.; Santra, Amita; Bender, Heidi A.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Studies of school-aged children, adolescents, and adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have variably shown ADHD-related impairment in both inhibitory control and sustained attention. However, few studies have examined ADHD-associated patterns of performance on these tasks among younger children (below age 7…

  3. The Increased Risk of Road Crashes in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Adult Drivers: Driven by Distraction? Results from a Responsibility Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    El Farouki, Kamal; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Orriols, Ludivine; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Contrand, Benjamin; Galéra, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective Both distractions (external and internal) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are serious risk factors for traffic crashes and injuries. However, it is still unknown if ADHD (a chronic condition) modifies the effect of distractions (irregular hazards) on traffic crashes. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of distractions and ADHD on traffic crash responsibility. Methods A responsibility case-control study was conducted in the adult emergency department of Bordeaux University Hospital, France. Subjects were recruited among drivers injured in a motor vehicle crash between April 2010 and August 2011. Responsibility levels were estimated using a standardized method. Frequencies of exposures were compared between drivers responsible and drivers not responsible for the crash. Independent risk factors were identified using a multivariate logistic regression including test interactions between distractions and ADHD. Results A total of 777 subjects were included in the analysis. Factors associated with responsibility were distraction induced by an external event (adjusted OR (aOR)  = 1.47; 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.06–2.05]), distraction induced by an internal thought (aOR = 2.38; CI: [1.50–3.77]) and ADHD (aOR = 2.18 CI: [1.22–3.88]). The combined effect of ADHD and external distractions was strongly associated with responsibility for the crash (aOR = 5.79 CI: [2.06–16.32]). Interaction assessment showed that the attributable proportion due to the interaction among participants with both exposures was 68%. Discussion Adults with ADHD are a population at higher risk of being responsible for a road traffic crash when exposed to external distractions. This result reinforces the need to diagnose adult ADHD and to include road safety awareness messages delivered by the physician. Developing advanced driver assistance systems devoted to the management of attention lapses is also

  4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Accommodations for Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Harold Walker; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Brenes, Gretchen A.; Silvia, Loretta; Rosenquist, Peter B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: With the increase in diagnosis and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults, it is expected that more resident physicians will require accommodations so that their academic performance and clinical competency can be measured adequately. The authors provide an overview of the requirements and issues…

  5. Event related potentials study of aberrations in voice control mechanisms in adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Korzyukov, Oleg; Tapaskar, Natalie; Pflieger, Mark E.; Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Lodhavia, Anjli; Patel, Sona; Robin, Donald A.; Larson, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study was designed to test for neural signs of impulsivity related to voice motor control in young adults with ADHD and healthy control young adults using EEG recordings in a voice pitch perturbation paradigm. Methods Two age-matched groups of young adults were presented with brief pitch shifts of auditory feedback during vocalization. Compensatory behavioral and corresponding bioelectrical brain responses were elicited by the pitch-shifted voice feedback. Results The analysis of bioelectrical responses showed that the ADHD group had shorter peak and onset latency of motor-related bioelectrical brain responses as compared to the controls. Conclusions These results were interpreted to suggest differences in executive functions between ADHD and control participants. Significance We hypothesize that more rapid motor-related bioelectrical responses found in the present study may be a manifestation of impulsiveness in adults with ADHD at the involuntary level of voice control. PMID:25308310

  6. Could I Have Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)? Finding an Answer to ADHD as an Adult

    MedlinePlus

    ... education, social and family situations and relationships, employment, self-esteem, and emotional health. It is never too late ... tasks. It can also address feelings of low self-esteem and help adults with ADHD gain confidence, as ...

  7. The Source for ADD/ADHD: Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Gail J.; Russell, Joy L.

    This book is intended for professionals who are responsible for designing and implementing educational programs for children with attention deficit disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD). Chapters address: (1) myths and realities about ADD/ADHD; (2) definitions, disorders associated with ADD/ADHD, and federal educational…

  8. Differentiating Attention Deficits in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder or Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooistra, Libbe; Crawford, Susan; Gibbard, Ben; Ramage, Barbara; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The attention and inhibition problems found in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are also common in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Attempts to distinguish ADHD from FASDs in terms of these deficits are rare and were pursued in this study. Method: A total of 116 children (47 with ADHD, 31…

  9. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Mimics Attention Deficit Disorder.

    PubMed

    Blesch, Lauri; Breese McCoy, Sarah J

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit and hyperactivity are known possible symptoms or correlates of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, these associations may be missed in children, because children often fail to report excessive daytime sleepiness, and attention deficit disorder (ADD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are common primary diagnoses in themselves. We report on a 17-year-old, slender, non-snoring male who presented to his pediatrician with a prolonged history of four complaints: inattention, fidgeting, frequent sinusitis, and somnolence. He was diagnosed with ADHD, while the somnolence, which often abated somewhat upon use of antibiotics for sinusitis, was attributed to the sinus infections. A later sleep study revealed OSA, and thorough additional testing proved that the original ADHD diagnosis was in error. All four conditions were allayed with proper use of a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine.

  10. Comparative neuropsychology of adult obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: implications for a novel executive overload model of OCD.

    PubMed

    Abramovitch, Amitai; Dar, Reuven; Hermesh, Haggai; Schweiger, Avraham

    2012-09-01

    Research implicates frontostriatal pathophysiology in both attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Nevertheless, ADHD is characterized with frontostriatal hypoactivity and OCD with hyperactivity. Furthermore, both disorders seem to lie on opposite ends of a clinical impulsive-compulsive continuum. While never having directly been compared, and despite these differences, OCD and ADHD appear to share similar neuropsychological impairments especially in executive functions. This study aimed at comparing adults with OCD and adults with ADHD on neuropsychological measures and behavioural impulsivity and OC measures. Thirty OCD, 30 ADHD, and 30 matched healthy control (HC) participants were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and completed several questionnaires. The groups were compared on all neuropsychological and clinical measures and correlations between neuropsychological and clinical symptoms were computed. The ADHD and OCD groups performed more poorly than HC on all neuropsychological domains and most domain subtests. The ADHD group reported significantly higher impulsivity than the OCD group. OCD patients did not differ from HC on behavioural impulsivity. A unique dissociation was found between impulsivity and response inhibition where both clinical groups showed similar response inhibition deficit, but differed significantly on impulsivity. Moreover, a negative association between OC symptoms and response inhibition and a bias in self-perception of impulsivity was found only in the OCD group. We propose an executive overload model of OCD that views neuropsychological impairments in OCD as an epiphenomenon, according to which continuous attempts to control automatic processes are associated with obsessive thoughts overflow that causes an overload on the executive system.

  11. Self-reported symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: rate of endorsement and association with neuropsychological performance in an adult psychiatric sample.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Brooke C; Thoering, Teresa; Cludius, Barbara; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-05-01

    The lack of specificity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms represents a diagnostic challenge, especially when assessing psychiatric patients reporting a wide range of complaints. Rate of endorsement of ADHD symptoms, and their association with neuropsychological performance, was examined in a psychiatric sample of 71 adults, who had been referred for a neuropsychological evaluation. Patients completed two self-report measures of ADHD symptoms, the ADHD Self-Report Scale (ADHD-SR) and the Wender Utah Rating Scale-Short Form, as well as measures of attention, executive functioning, visuoconstructional ability, and verbal learning and memory. On the ADHD-SR, 74.6% of the sample met the cutoff for inattention or hyperactivity, while 81.7% met the cutoff for impulsivity. Neuropsychological performance was weakly associated with self-reported symptoms. Our results suggest that psychiatric patients commonly report symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Assessment utilizing multiple sources is necessary to confirm whether self-reported symptoms are indicative of ADHD or reflect other causes.

  12. Selective Attention Deficits Associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Stage Alzheimer's Disease in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Kittler, Phyllis; Silverman, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Adults with Down syndrome and early stage Alzheimer's disease showed decline in their ability to selectively attend to stimuli in a multitrial cancellation task. They also showed variability in their performance over the test trials, whereas healthy participants showed stability. These changes in performance were observed approximately 2 years…

  13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Athletes

    PubMed Central

    White, Russell D.; Harris, George D.; Gibson, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in the general population, and many individuals with this condition participate in sports activity at all competition levels. Evidence Acquisition: Related studies were selected through literature searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane databases for the years 1991 to 2011. Key search terms were ADD, ADHD, sports, athletes, athletics, guidelines, NCAA, WADA, IOC, college, concussion, diagnosis, management, treatment, evaluation, return-to-play, pharmacotherapy, adult, adolescent, student, screening, injury, risk, neuropsychiatry, TBI, traumatic brain injury, and epidemiology. Study Design: Literature review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: ADHD usually has an early onset, with delayed diagnosis in some patients due to heterogeneous presentations. Suspected cases can be evaluated with available diagnostic tools and confirmed clinically. Athletes with ADHD may participate at all competition levels. Conclusion: Athletes with ADHD are able to participate at all competition levels by following published guidelines and requirements. Exercise benefits many athletes with ADHD. The relationship between ADHD and concussion syndromes is currently under investigation. PMID:24587866

  14. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Barber, Anita D; Jacobson, Lisa A; Wexler, Joanna L; Nebel, Mary Beth; Caffo, Brian S; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Intra-subject variability (ISV) is the most consistent behavioral deficit in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ISV may be associated with networks involved in sustaining task control (cingulo-opercular network: CON) and self-reflective lapses of attention (default mode network: DMN). The current study examined whether connectivity supporting attentional control is atypical in children with ADHD. Group differences in full-brain connection strength and brain-behavior associations with attentional control measures were examined for the late-developing CON and DMN in 50 children with ADHD and 50 typically-developing (TD) controls (ages 8-12 years). Children with ADHD had hyper-connectivity both within the CON and within the DMN. Full-brain behavioral associations were found for a number of between-network connections. Across both groups, more anti-correlation between DMN and occipital cortex supported better attentional control. However, in the TD group, this brain-behavior association was stronger and occurred for a more extensive set of DMN-occipital connections. Differential support for attentional control between the two groups occurred with a number of CON-DMN connections. For all CON-DMN connections identified, increased between-network anti-correlation was associated with better attentional control for the ADHD group, but worse attentional control in the TD group. A number of between-network connections with the medial frontal cortex, in particular, showed this relationship. Follow-up analyses revealed that these associations were specific to attentional control and were not due to individual differences in working memory, IQ, motor control, age, or scan motion. While CON-DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON-DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other

  15. Attention Deficit Disorder: Identification and Assessment Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarski, John J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined validity of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Canter Background Interference Procedure for the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, Conners Parent Questionnaire, and three measures of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised for identifying attention deficit disorders. Compared test results among clinical, special education, and…

  16. Attention Deficit Disorder and Hyperactivity. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Ronald J.; Doyal, Guy T.

    This book is designed for parents and teachers of children with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and hyperactivity. Chapter 1 describes the symptoms, diagnosis, and causes of ADD, its effect on parents and families, inborn temperament characteristics of children with ADD, and tests and rating scales used to diagnose and treat the disorder. The…

  17. [Neurobiology of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Narbona-García, J; Sánchez-Carpintero, R

    1999-02-01

    This is a review of current relevant evidences concerning the nature and pathophysiological mechanisms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). From a neuropsychological point of view, clinical symptoms seem to arise from an early dysfunction of the executive system. Patients with ADHD have deficits in inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, working memory and self-motivation, and all of them account for the attentional deficit in non automatic information processing. Decrease in prefrontal, caudate and pallidal structures, which sustain the executive function, have been found in neuroimaging volumetry. Cognitive evoked potentials obtained during attentional tasks have augmented latencies and abnormal topography. A dopaminergic deficit in the structures sustaining executive function is postulated from the results in experimental animal models and from functional neuroimaging studies in patients, and this seem to be the foundation of the favorable outcome with psychostimulants in correctly diagnosed patients. Psychopedagogic interventions are necessary to help the patient in order to get an optimal internal locus of control, which is necessary for attention and impulsiveness inhibition, and also for compensation of associated disorders. PMID:10778507

  18. Fragments: Coping with Attention Deficit Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Amy E.

    Written by a woman who, at age 25, was diagnosed as "a textbook case for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder," (ADHD) this book, examines: the pitfalls of traditional psychotherapy and medications for those diagnosed with ADD/ADHD; how an interactive, hands-on learning environment can markedly improve the educational experience of children…

  19. Attention Deficit Disorder: Two Mothers' Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Roy C.; O'Connor, Carol

    This report discusses the outcomes of a study that investigated the decision-making process of two mothers' selection of treatment for their sons' attention deficit disorder (ADD). One mother opted for a medical treatment, and the other mother opted for a non-medical treatment. The boy who is medically treated is 14, and the non-medically treated…

  20. Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically…

  1. Prevalence of Attention Deficit Disorders in Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Harold; Daley, Christine E.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    This study examined the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among school children in Arkansas for the purpose of helping school districts plan appropriate educational interventions. The ADHD Survey was mailed to all 311 school superintendents; 128 surveys were returned. Findings revealed that, overall, 3 percent of…

  2. Nature, Nurture, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    Comments on Joseph's review of the genetics of attention deficit disorder, demonstrating errors of scientific logic and oversight of relevant research in Joseph's argument. Argues for the validity of twin studies in supporting a genetic link for ADHD and for the complementary role of nature and nurture in the etiology of the disorder. (JPB)

  3. Associations of pineal volume, chronotype and symptom severity in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Bumb, Jan Malte; Mier, Daniela; Noelte, Ingo; Schredl, Michael; Kirsch, Peter; Hennig, Oliver; Liebrich, Luisa; Fenske, Sabrina; Alm, Barbara; Sauer, Carina; Leweke, Franz Markus; Sobanski, Esther

    2016-07-01

    The pineal gland, as part of the human epithalamus, is the main production site of peripheral melatonin, which promotes the modulation of sleep patterns, circadian rhythms and circadian preferences (morningness vs. eveningness). The present study analyses the pineal gland volume (PGV) and its association with circadian preferences and symptom severity in adult ADHD patients compared to healthy controls. PGV was determined manually using high-resolution 3T MRI (T1-magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo) in medication free adult ADHD patients (N=74) compared to healthy controls (N=86). Moreover, the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), the ADHD Diagnostic Checklist and the Wender-Utah Rating Scale were conducted. PGV differed between both groups (patients: 59.9±33.8mm(3); healthy controls: 71.4±27.2mm(3), P=0.04). In ADHD patients, more eveningness types were revealed (patients: 29%; healthy controls: 17%; P=0.05) and sum scores of the MEQ were lower (patients: 45.8±11.5; healthy controls 67.2±10.1; P<0.001). Multiple regression analyses indicated a positive correlation of PGV and MEQ scores in ADHD (β=0.856, P=0.003) but not in healthy controls (β=0.054, P=0.688). Patients' MEQ scores (β=-0.473, P=0.003) were negatively correlated to ADHD symptoms. The present results suggest a linkage between the PGV and circadian preference in adults with ADHD and an association of the circadian preference to symptom severity. This may facilitate the development of new chronobiological treatment approaches for the add-on treatment in ADHD. PMID:27150337

  4. Long-Term Treatment Outcome in Adult Male Prisoners With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Three-Year Naturalistic Follow-Up of a 52-Week Methylphenidate Trial.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Ylva; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik; Lindefors, Nils

    2015-10-01

    Despite high rates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among adult lawbreakers, particularly the long-term effects of ADHD pharmacotherapy remain unclear, not the least because of ethical challenges with preventing control subjects in randomized controlled trials from receiving medication over prolonged time. We followed up adult male prisoners with ADHD who completed a 5-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial followed by a 47-week open-label extension of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate in a Swedish high-security prison from 2007 to 2010 (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00482313). Twenty-five trial completers were prospectively followed up clinically 1 year (24/25, 96% participated fully or in part) and 3 years (20/25, 80% participation) after trial regarding ADHD symptoms (observer and self-reports), psychosocial functioning, substance misuse, and criminal reoffending. Methylphenidate-related improvements in ADHD symptoms and psychosocial functioning obtained during the 52-week trial were maintained at 1- and 3-year follow-ups. Specifically, after 3 years, 75% (15/20) of the respondents had been released from prison, and 67% of these (10/15) had employment, usually full time. In contrast, nonmedicated respondents at the 3-year follow-up (5/20) reported more ADHD symptoms, functional impairment, and substance misuse compared with currently medicated respondents (15/20). Further, 40% of the respondents self-reported reoffending, indicating a substantially lower relapse rate than expected (70%-80%).In summary, although these observations need validation from new and larger samples, positive effects were maintained after 4 years of methylphenidate treatment. Most study completers were employed and had no relapse in substance misuse or criminality. These results suggest that motivational support and continued medication are important for improved outcome in adult criminal offenders with ADHD.

  5. Executive function in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during treatment with atomoxetine in a randomized, placebo-controlled, withdrawal study.

    PubMed

    Adler, Lenard; Tanaka, Yoko; Williams, David; Trzepacz, Paula T; Goto, Taro; Allen, Albert J; Escobar, Rodrigo; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2014-08-01

    We assessed the executive function in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during atomoxetine treatment in a randomized withdrawal trial. Responders (Conners' ADHD Rating Scale-Investigator Rated: Screening Version [adult prompts] ≥30% reduction from baseline and Clinical Global Impression Scale-ADHD Severity score ≤3) to open-label atomoxetine (40-100 mg/d, 12 weeks) entered a 37-week double-blind maintenance period. Patients who maintained response (double-blind atomoxetine for 12 weeks) were randomized 1:1 to atomoxetine (80-100 mg/d, n = 266) or placebo (n = 258) for 25 weeks (total duration, 1 year). Patients and investigators were blinded to response criteria and randomization timing. Change in executive function was assessed with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A) Self-Report and Informant T scores from the randomization to the last-observation-carried-forward postrandomization week 25 (after week 17). Of the enrolled patients (n = 2017; mean age, 33.2 years; male, 58.7%), 524 responders were randomized. During open-label atomoxetine, subscales and individual items on both BRIEF-A questionnaires showed significant improvement (P < 0.001). After randomization, the following T scores improved significantly (P ≤ 0.05) with patients in the atomoxetine group versus those in the placebo group: global executive composite, behavioral regulation, and metacognition indices; plan/organize, working memory, inhibit, task monitor and shift (both BRIEF-A questionnaires), emotional control and organization of materials (BRIEF-A Informant), and initiate (BRIEF-A Self-Report). Atomoxetine significantly improved the executive function compared with placebo, which was maintained for 25 weeks or more; the executive function of patients in the placebo group worsened but did not return to baseline levels after randomization.

  6. Attentional enhancements and deficits in deaf populations: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Dye, Matthew W G; Bavelier, Daphne

    2010-01-01

    The literature on visual attention in deaf individuals presents two competing views. On one hand, the deficit view proposes that auditory input is necessary for the development of visual attention; on the other hand, the compensation view holds that visual attention reorganizes to allow the individual to compensate for the lack of auditory input. While apparently contradictory, we suggest that these views shed complementary light on the cross-modal reorganization of visual attention after early deafness. First, these two fields of inquiry look at different aspects of attention. The deficit view is mostly supported by studies of allocation of attention in time, whereas the compensation view is backed by studies measuring the allocation of attention across space. Second, they focus on groups of different age and different background. Deficits have been documented mostly in children with mixed hearing loss aetiologies, whereas reorganization has been documented in a less representative, but more homogenous group of Deaf adults. We propose a more integrative view in which early auditory deprivation does not result in better or worse visual attention. Rather, selected aspects of visual attention are modified in various ways along the developmental trajectory as a result of early deafness. PMID:20404407

  7. Effectiveness of symptom validity measures in identifying cognitive and behavioral symptom exaggeration in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Paul; Schroeder, Ryan; O'Brien, Jeffrey; Fischer, Rebecca; Ries, Adam; Blesi, Brita; Barker, Jessica

    2010-10-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of symptom validity measures to detect suspect effort in cognitive testing and invalid completion of ADHD behavior rating scales in 268 adults referred for ADHD assessment. Patients were diagnosed with ADHD based on cognitive testing, behavior rating scales, and clinical interview. Suspect effort was diagnosed by at least two of the following: failure on embedded and free-standing SVT measures, a score > 2 SD below the ADD population average on tests, failure on an ADHD behavior rating scale validity scale, or a major discrepancy between reported and observed ADHD behaviors. A total of 22% of patients engaged in symptom exaggeration. The Word Memory test immediate recall and consistency score (both 64%), TOVA omission errors (63%) and reaction time variability (54%), CAT-A infrequency scale (58%), and b Test (47%) had good sensitivity as well as at least 90% specificity. Clearly, such measures should be used to help avoid making false positive diagnoses of ADHD.

  8. The history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Reichl, Susanne; Lange, Katharina M.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The contemporary concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as defined in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000) is relatively new. Excessive hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive children have been described in the literature since the nineteenth century. Some of the early depictions and etiological theories of hyperactivity were similar to current descriptions of ADHD. Detailed studies of the behavior of hyperactive children and increasing knowledge of brain function have changed the concepts of the fundamental behavioral and neuropathological deficits underlying the disorder. This article presents an overview of the conceptual history of modern-day ADHD. PMID:21258430

  9. Brain differences between persistent and remitted attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Mattfeld, Aaron T; Gabrieli, John D E; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Brown, Ariel; Kotte, Amelia; Kagan, Elana; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Previous resting state studies examining the brain basis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have not distinguished between patients who persist versus those who remit from the diagnosis as adults. To characterize the neurobiological differences and similarities of persistence and remittance, we performed resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in individuals who had been longitudinally and uniformly characterized as having or not having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in childhood and again in adulthood (16 years after baseline assessment). Intrinsic functional brain organization was measured in patients who had a persistent diagnosis in childhood and adulthood (n = 13), in patients who met diagnosis in childhood but not in adulthood (n = 22), and in control participants who never had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 17). A positive functional correlation between posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices, major components of the default-mode network, was reduced only in patients whose diagnosis persisted into adulthood. A negative functional correlation between medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices was reduced in both persistent and remitted patients. The neurobiological dissociation between the persistence and remittance of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may provide a framework for the relation between the clinical diagnosis, which indicates the need for treatment, and additional deficits that are common, such as executive dysfunctions. PMID:24916335

  10. Brain differences between persistent and remitted attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Mattfeld, Aaron T; Gabrieli, John D E; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Brown, Ariel; Kotte, Amelia; Kagan, Elana; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Previous resting state studies examining the brain basis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have not distinguished between patients who persist versus those who remit from the diagnosis as adults. To characterize the neurobiological differences and similarities of persistence and remittance, we performed resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in individuals who had been longitudinally and uniformly characterized as having or not having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in childhood and again in adulthood (16 years after baseline assessment). Intrinsic functional brain organization was measured in patients who had a persistent diagnosis in childhood and adulthood (n = 13), in patients who met diagnosis in childhood but not in adulthood (n = 22), and in control participants who never had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 17). A positive functional correlation between posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices, major components of the default-mode network, was reduced only in patients whose diagnosis persisted into adulthood. A negative functional correlation between medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices was reduced in both persistent and remitted patients. The neurobiological dissociation between the persistence and remittance of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may provide a framework for the relation between the clinical diagnosis, which indicates the need for treatment, and additional deficits that are common, such as executive dysfunctions.

  11. Experiences and Perceptions of Mental Health Professionals Considered Effective in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erb, Bonita H.

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder that has been documented in medical and mental health literature for over 100 years (Still, 1902). ADHD is a neurobiological based disorder characterized by three major symptoms identified at clinical levels and validated by diagnostic criteria established for the diagnosis of children…

  12. Methylphenidate-elicited dopamine increases in ventral striatum are associated with long-term symptom improvement in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Tomasi, Dardo; Kollins, Scott H; Wigal, Tim L; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Telang, Frank W; Fowler, Joanna S; Logan, Jean; Wong, Christopher T; Swanson, James M

    2012-01-18

    Stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate, which are effective treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), enhance brain dopamine signaling. However, the relationship between regional brain dopamine enhancement and treatment response has not been evaluated. Here, we assessed whether the dopamine increases elicited by methylphenidate are associated with long-term clinical response. We used a prospective design to study 20 treatment-naive adults with ADHD who were evaluated before treatment initiation and after 12 months of clinical treatment with a titrated regimen of oral methylphenidate. Methylphenidate-induced dopamine changes were evaluated with positron emission tomography and [(11)C]raclopride (D(2)/D(3) receptor radioligand sensitive to competition with endogenous dopamine). Clinical responses were assessed using the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale and revealed a significant reduction in symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity with long-term methylphenidate treatment. A challenge dose of 0.5 mg/kg intravenous methylphenidate significantly increased dopamine in striatum (assessed as decreases in D(2)/D(3) receptor availability). In the ventral striatum, these dopamine increases were associated with the reductions in ratings of symptoms of inattention with clinical treatment. Statistical parametric mapping additionally showed dopamine increases in prefrontal and temporal cortices with intravenous methylphenidate that were also associated with decreases in symptoms of inattention. Our findings indicate that dopamine enhancement in ventral striatum (the brain region involved with reward and motivation) was associated with therapeutic response to methylphenidate, further corroborating the relevance of the dopamine reward/motivation circuitry in ADHD. It also provides preliminary evidence that methylphenidate-elicited dopamine increases in prefrontal and temporal cortices may also contribute to the clinical response.

  13. Methylphenidate-Elicited Dopamine Increases in Ventral Striatum Are Associated with Long-Term Symptom Improvement in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow N. D.; Wang G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Tomasi, D.; Kollins, S.H.; Wigal, T.L.; Newcorn, J.H.; Telang, F.W.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Wong, C.T.; Swanson, J.M.

    2012-01-18

    Stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate, which are effective treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), enhance brain dopamine signaling. However, the relationship between regional brain dopamine enhancement and treatment response has not been evaluated. Here, we assessed whether the dopamine increases elicited by methylphenidate are associated with long-term clinical response. We used a prospective design to study 20 treatment-naive adults with ADHD who were evaluated before treatment initiation and after 12 months of clinical treatment with a titrated regimen of oral methylphenidate. Methylphenidate-induced dopamine changes were evaluated with positron emission tomography and [{sup 11}C]raclopride (D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor radioligand sensitive to competition with endogenous dopamine). Clinical responses were assessed using the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale and revealed a significant reduction in symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity with long-term methylphenidate treatment. A challenge dose of 0.5 mg/kg intravenous methylphenidate significantly increased dopamine in striatum (assessed as decreases in D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor availability). In the ventral striatum, these dopamine increases were associated with the reductions in ratings of symptoms of inattention with clinical treatment. Statistical parametric mapping additionally showed dopamine increases in prefrontal and temporal cortices with intravenous methylphenidate that were also associated with decreases in symptoms of inattention. Our findings indicate that dopamine enhancement in ventral striatum (the brain region involved with reward and motivation) was associated with therapeutic response to methylphenidate, further corroborating the relevance of the dopamine reward/motivation circuitry in ADHD. It also provides preliminary evidence that methylphenidate-elicited dopamine increases in prefrontal and temporal cortices may also contribute to the clinical response.

  14. Effects of smoking abstinence on smoking-reinforced responding, withdrawal, and cognition in adults with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    English, Joseph S.; Roley, Michelle E.; O’Brien, Benjamin; Blair, Justin; Lane, Scott D.; McClernon, F. Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a more difficult time quitting smoking compared to their non-ADHD peers. Little is known about the underlying behavioral mechanisms associated with this increased risk. Objectives This study aims to assess the effects of 24-h smoking abstinence in adult smokers with and without ADHD on the following outcomes: smoking-reinforced responding, withdrawal, and cognitive function. Methods Thirty-three (n=16 with ADHD, 17 without ADHD) adult smokers (more than or equal to ten cigarettes/day) were enrolled. Each participant completed two experimental sessions: one following smoking as usual and one following biochemically verified 24-h smoking abstinence. Smoking-reinforced responding measured via a progressive ratio task, smoking withdrawal measured via questionnaire, and cognition measured via a continuous performance test (CPT) were assessed at each session. Results Smoking abstinence robustly increased responding for cigarette puffs in both groups, and ADHD smokers responded more for puffs regardless of condition. Males in both groups worked more for cigarette puffs and made more commission errors on the CPT than females, regardless of condition. Smoking abstinence also increased ratings of withdrawal symptoms in both groups and smokers with ADHD, regardless of condition, reported greater symptoms of arousal, habit withdrawal, and somatic complaints. Across groups, smoking abstinence decreased inhibitory control and increased reaction time variability on the CPT. Abstinence-induced changes in inhibitory control and negative affect significantly predicted smoking-reinforced responding across groups. Conclusions Smokers with ADHD reported higher levels of withdrawal symptoms and worked more for cigarette puffs, regardless of condition, which could help explain higher levels of nicotine dependence and poorer cessation outcomes in this population. Abstinence-induced changes in smoking

  15. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Anita D.; Jacobson, Lisa A.; Wexler, Joanna L.; Nebel, Mary Beth; Caffo, Brian S.; Pekar, James J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2014-01-01

    Intra-subject variability (ISV) is the most consistent behavioral deficit in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ISV may be associated with networks involved in sustaining task control (cingulo-opercular network: CON) and self-reflective lapses of attention (default mode network: DMN). The current study examined whether connectivity supporting attentional control is atypical in children with ADHD. Group differences in full-brain connection strength and brain–behavior associations with attentional control measures were examined for the late-developing CON and DMN in 50 children with ADHD and 50 typically-developing (TD) controls (ages 8–12 years). Children with ADHD had hyper-connectivity both within the CON and within the DMN. Full-brain behavioral associations were found for a number of between-network connections. Across both groups, more anti-correlation between DMN and occipital cortex supported better attentional control. However, in the TD group, this brain–behavior association was stronger and occurred for a more extensive set of DMN–occipital connections. Differential support for attentional control between the two groups occurred with a number of CON–DMN connections. For all CON–DMN connections identified, increased between-network anti-correlation was associated with better attentional control for the ADHD group, but worse attentional control in the TD group. A number of between-network connections with the medial frontal cortex, in particular, showed this relationship. Follow-up analyses revealed that these associations were specific to attentional control and were not due to individual differences in working memory, IQ, motor control, age, or scan motion. While CON–DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON–DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD

  16. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder--a review.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C; Wright, B; Partridge, I

    1999-01-01

    The topic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is fascinating and controversial. A variety of stances have been taken by different clinicians, support groups, and the media. A nature/nurture argument has developed that may have a tendency to polarize views. This review aims to present research findings that inform the debate. It deals with symptomatology, aetiology, and prevalence, with assessment for diagnosis, management, and outcome. The importance of comprehensive management taking into consideration not just attention abilities but a range of other factors that have an impact upon them is stressed. Management should be pragmatic, multifaceted, and based around the establishment of good working relationships with family and school. PMID:10621994

  17. Executive and attentional contributions to Theory of Mind deficit in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties. PMID:25763856

  18. Executive and attentional contributions to Theory of Mind deficit in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties.

  19. The prevalence and effects of Adult Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on the performance of workers: Results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    PubMed Central

    de Graaf, Ron; Kessler, Ronald C.; Fayyad, John; ten Have, Margreet; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Borges, Guilherme; Demyttenaere, Koen; Gasquet, Isabelle; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Jin, Robert; Karam, Elie G; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, José

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and workplace consequences of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Ann ADHD screen was administered to 18–44 year-old respondents in ten national surveys in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative (n = 7075 in paid or self employment; response rate 45.9–87.7% across countries). Blinded clinical reappraisal interviews were administered in the US to calibrate the screen. Days out of role were measured in the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO-DAS). Questions were also asked about ADHD treatment. Results An average of 3.5% of workers in the ten countries was estimated to meet DSM-IV criteria for adult ADHD (inter-quartile range: 1.3–4.9%). ADHD was more common among males than females and less common among professionals than other workers. ADHD was associated with a statistically significant 22.1 annual days of excess lost role performance compared to otherwise similar respondents without ADHD. No difference in the magnitude of this effect was found by occupation, education, age, gender, or partner status. This effect was most pronounced in Colombia, Italy, Lebanon, and the US. Although only a small minority of workers with ADHD ever received treatment for this condition, higher proportions were treated for comorbid mental-substance disorders. Conclusions ADHD is a relatively common condition among working people in the countries studied and is associated with high work impairment in these countries. This impairment, in conjunction with the low treatment rate and the availability of cost-effective therapies, suggests that ADHD would be a good candidate for targeted workplace screening and treatment programs. Main messages A high proportion of childhood ADHD persists into adulthood. An average of 3.5% of workers in nationally representative surveys carried out in 10 countries met criteria for current DSM-IV adult ADHD. Workers with ADHD have an average 8.4 excess sickness absence

  20. A gene-environment investigation on personality traits in two independent clinical sets of adult patients with personality disorder and attention deficit/hyperactive disorder.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Christian P; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Dempfle, Astrid; Heine, Monika; Windemuth-Kieselbach, Christine; Baumann, Katarina; Jacob, Florian; Prechtl, Julian; Wittlich, Maike; Herrmann, Martin J; Gross-Lesch, Silke; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Reif, Andreas

    2010-06-01

    While an interactive effect of genes with adverse life events is increasingly appreciated in current concepts of depression etiology, no data are presently available on interactions between genetic and environmental (G x E) factors with respect to personality and related disorders. The present study therefore aimed to detect main effects as well as interactions of serotonergic candidate genes (coding for the serotonin transporter, 5-HTT; the serotonin autoreceptor, HTR1A; and the enzyme which synthesizes serotonin in the brain, TPH2) with the burden of life events (#LE) in two independent samples consisting of 183 patients suffering from personality disorders and 123 patients suffering from adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (aADHD). Simple analyses ignoring possible G x E interactions revealed no evidence for associations of either #LE or of the considered polymorphisms in 5-HTT and TPH2. Only the G allele of HTR1A rs6295 seemed to increase the risk of emotional-dramatic cluster B personality disorders (p = 0.019, in the personality disorder sample) and to decrease the risk of anxious-fearful cluster C personality disorders (p = 0.016, in the aADHD sample). We extended the initial simple model by taking a G x E interaction term into account, since this approach may better fit the data indicating that the effect of a gene is modified by stressful life events or, vice versa, that stressful life events only have an effect in the presence of a susceptibility genotype. By doing so, we observed nominal evidence for G x E effects as well as main effects of 5-HTT-LPR and the TPH2 SNP rs4570625 on the occurrence of personality disorders. Further replication studies, however, are necessary to validate the apparent complexity of G x E interactions in disorders of human personality.

  1. Emotion dysregulation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Philip; Stringaris, Argyris; Nigg, Joel; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2014-03-01

    Although it has long been recognized that many individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) also have difficulties with emotion regulation, no consensus has been reached on how to conceptualize this clinically challenging domain. The authors examine the current literature using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Three key findings emerge. First, emotion dysregulation is prevalent in ADHD throughout the lifespan and is a major contributor to impairment. Second, emotion dysregulation in ADHD may arise from deficits in orienting toward, recognizing, and/or allocating attention to emotional stimuli; these deficits implicate dysfunction within a striato-amygdalo-medial prefrontal cortical network. Third, while current treatments for ADHD often also ameliorate emotion dysregulation, a focus on this combination of symptoms reframes clinical questions and could stimulate novel therapeutic approaches. The authors then consider three models to explain the overlap between emotion dysregulation and ADHD: emotion dysregulation and ADHD are correlated but distinct dimensions; emotion dysregulation is a core diagnostic feature of ADHD; and the combination constitutes a nosological entity distinct from both ADHD and emotion dysregulation alone. The differing predictions from each model can guide research on the much-neglected population of patients with ADHD and emotion dysregulation.

  2. Information Processing Differences and Similarities in Adults with Dyslexia and Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder during a Continuous Performance Test: A Study of Cortical Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhar, Monica; Been, Pieter H.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Althaus, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Twenty male adults with ADHD, 16 dyslexic adults, 15 comorbid adults, and 16 normal controls were compared on performance and underlying brain responses, during a cued Continuous Performance Test (O-X CPT), with the aim of discovering features of information processing differentiating between the groups. The study evaluated both cue- and…

  3. Efficacy of atomoxetine in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in patients with common comorbidities in children, adolescents and adults: a review

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Shari L.; Ghuman, Jaswinder K.; Ghuman, Harinder S.; Karpov, Irina; Schuster, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed mental health disorders and is associated with higher incidence of comorbid oppositional or conduct, mood, anxiety, pervasive developmental, and substance-use disorders. Comorbid mental health conditions may alter the presence of symptoms and treatment of ADHD. Atomoxetine (ATX), a nonstimulant medication for the treatment of ADHD, may be prescribed for individuals with ADHD and comorbid conditions despite some risk for certain undesirable side effects and lower effectiveness for the treatment of ADHD than stimulants. In this paper, we review studies utilizing randomized, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) as well as within-subject designs to determine the effectiveness of ATX in the treatment of children and adults with ADHD and comorbid conditions. The current review uses an expanded methodology beyond systematic review of randomized controlled trials in order to improve generalizability of results to real-world practice. A total of 24 articles published from 2007 to 2015 were reviewed, including 14 RCTs: n = 1348 ATX, and n = 832 placebo. The majority of studies show that ATX is effective in the treatment of ADHD symptoms for individuals with ADHD and comorbid disorders. Cohen’s d effect sizes (ES) for improvement in ADHD symptoms and behaviors range from 0.47 to 2.21. The effectiveness of ATX to improve symptoms specific to comorbidity varied by type but appeared to be most effective for diminishing the presence of symptoms for those with comorbid anxiety, ES range of 0.40 to 1.51, and oppositional defiant disorder, ES range of 0.52 to 1.10. There are mixed or limited results for individuals with ADHD and comorbid substance-use disorders, autism spectrum disorders, dyslexia or reading disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and Tourette syndrome. Results from this review suggest that ATX is effective in the treatment of some youth and adults with ADHD and comorbid disorders

  4. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Attention Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bush, George

    2010-01-01

    Research attempting to elucidate the neuropathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not only shed light on the disorder itself, it has simultaneously provided new insights into the mechanisms of normal cognition and attention. This review will highlight and integrate this bidirectional flow of information. Following a brief overview of ADHD clinical phenomenology, ADHD studies will be placed into a wider historical perspective by providing illustrative examples of how major models of attention have influenced the development of neurocircuitry models of ADHD. The review will then identify major components of neural systems potentially relevant to ADHD, including attention networks, reward/feedback-based processing systems, as well as a ‘default mode' resting state network. Further, it will suggest ways in which these systems may interact and be influenced by neuromodulatory factors. Recent ADHD imaging data will be selectively provided to both illustrate the field's current level of knowledge and to show how such data can inform our understanding of normal brain functions. The review will conclude by suggesting possible avenues for future research. PMID:19759528

  5. Assessment and Characteristics of Children with Attention Deficit Disorder. Education of Children with Attention Deficit Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykman, Roscoe A.; And Others

    This report summarizes activities and findings of a federally funded center at the Arkansas Children's Hospital which reviewed and disseminated literature on the identification and assessment of children with attention deficit disorders (ADD). Meetings throughout Arkansas led to the identification of interest areas, and findings are summarized for…

  6. Evidence-based guidelines for management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescents in transition to adult services and in adults: recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Nutt, D J; Fone, K; Asherson, P; Bramble, D; Hill, P; Matthews, K; Morris, K A; Santosh, P; Sonuga-Barke, E; Taylor, E; Weiss, M; Young, S

    2007-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an established diagnosis in children, associated with a large body of evidence on the benefits of treatment. Adolescents with ADHD are now leaving children's services often with no readily identifiable adult service to support them, which presents problems as local pharmacy regulations often preclude the prescription of stimulant drugs by general practitioners (GPs). In addition, adults with ADHD symptoms are now starting to present to primary care and psychiatry services requesting assessment and treatment. For these reasons, the British Association for Psychopharmacology (BAP) thought it timely to hold a consensus conference to review the body of evidence on childhood ADHD and the growing literature on ADHD in older age groups. Much of this initial guidance on managing ADHD in adolescents in transition and in adults is based on expert opinion derived from childhood evidence. We hope that, by the time these guidelines are updated, much evidence will be available to address the many directions for future research that are detailed here. PMID:17092962

  7. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: management.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, M L; Zolotor, A

    2001-10-15

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common psychiatric disorder of childhood and often persists into adulthood. ADHD is a neurophysiologic disorder defined in behavioral terms and associated with significant morbidity in the realms of social and academic success, and self-esteem. ADHD is often associated with comorbid psychiatric disorders and learning disabilities, which further impede the successful development of these persons. It is essential that family physicians be knowledgeable about the presentation and diagnosis of ADHD. Stimulant medications continue to be the mainstay of treatment, although many other medications (such as antidepressants and alpha blockers) are helpful adjuvants to therapy. Current recommendations for treatment include an individualized, multimodal approach involving parents, teachers, counselors and the school system. Treatment follow-up includes monitoring response to medications in various settings, as well as side effects. With time and interest, the family physician can develop the skills needed to treat this disorder.

  8. [GEITDAH consensus on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Montañés-Rada, F; Gastaminza-Pérez, X; Catalá, M A; Ruiz-Sanz, F; Ruiz-Lázaro, P M; Herreros-Rodríguez, O; García-Giral, M; Ortiz-Guerra, J; Alda-Díez, J A; Mojarro-Práxedes, D; Cantó-Díez, T; Mardomingo-Sanz, M J; Sasot-Llevadot, J; Pàmias, M; Rey-Sánchez, F

    2010-11-16

    In this article, the GEITDAH -the Spanish abbreviation of the Special Interest Group on Attention Deficit Hyper-activity Disorder (ADHD)- presents a consensus reached by experts in the management of ADHD from all over Spain. The consensus concerns fundamental aspects that should be the starting point for future local or regional consensus guides. Another aim of this consensus is also to reduce the amount of variability that occurs in the health care offered to patients with ADHD in our country, as well as to act as a stimulus in educational matters. That fact that it is not very long will make it more popular among greater numbers of people and this will allow these goals to be reached more effectively. The conclusions in the consensus guide have been constructed around an introduction dealing with basic aspects and recommendations for diagnosis, treatment (both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic), patient flow and organisational aspects.

  9. [GEITDAH consensus on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Montañés-Rada, F; Gastaminza-Pérez, X; Catalá, M A; Ruiz-Sanz, F; Ruiz-Lázaro, P M; Herreros-Rodríguez, O; García-Giral, M; Ortiz-Guerra, J; Alda-Díez, J A; Mojarro-Práxedes, D; Cantó-Díez, T; Mardomingo-Sanz, M J; Sasot-Llevadot, J; Pàmias, M; Rey-Sánchez, F

    2010-11-16

    In this article, the GEITDAH -the Spanish abbreviation of the Special Interest Group on Attention Deficit Hyper-activity Disorder (ADHD)- presents a consensus reached by experts in the management of ADHD from all over Spain. The consensus concerns fundamental aspects that should be the starting point for future local or regional consensus guides. Another aim of this consensus is also to reduce the amount of variability that occurs in the health care offered to patients with ADHD in our country, as well as to act as a stimulus in educational matters. That fact that it is not very long will make it more popular among greater numbers of people and this will allow these goals to be reached more effectively. The conclusions in the consensus guide have been constructed around an introduction dealing with basic aspects and recommendations for diagnosis, treatment (both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic), patient flow and organisational aspects. PMID:21069642

  10. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children.

    PubMed

    Baxter, P S

    1995-08-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder has been redefined in the classifications in the International Classification of Disease, 10th revision and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. The definitions are more concordant than their predecessors and reemphasize the distinction between inattentiveness and hyperactivity. The causes and mechanisms are still uncertain, but dietary sugar or aspartame and thyroid dysfunction do not seem to be major factors. Specific subgroups, such as children with comorbid psychologic disorders, tic disorders, or mental handicap, seem to have different origins, natural history, prognoses, and responses to treatment, reflecting the heterogeneous nature of the disorder. Psychostimulant therapy has unquestioned short-term effects on behavior but less certain benefits on long-term psychosocial outcome or on academic performance.

  11. Collicular dysfunction in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Overton, Paul G

    2008-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by (inter alia) an increase in distractibility. The current front-line pharmacotherapies for the treatment of ADHD, namely the psychostimulants methylphenidate and amphetamines, have clear abuse potential, hence there is a strong need to develop new drug treatments for this disorder. Central to this process is the identification of the pathophysiological changes which underlie ADHD. Given the heterogeneity of the disorder, multiple loci are probably involved, providing multiple potential therapeutic targets. Here, we hypothesise (Hypothesis 1) that one such locus is the superior colliculus (SC), a sensory structure intimately linked with distractibility and the production of eye and head movements. It is proposed that in ADHD, the colliculus is hyper-responsive, leading to the core symptom of increased distractibility. Hypothesis 1 is supported by: 1. ADHD patients show increased distractibility in tasks which are sensitive to collicular function; 2. ADHD patients have a general problem inhibiting saccades, the generation of which involves the SC; 3. Saccadic deficits in ADHD include defects in the production of saccadic types (anti-saccades and express saccades) which are particularly associated with the colliculus; 4. Covert shifts in attention (which also have been argued to involve the SC) are also impaired in ADHD; 5. Reading disorders are frequently co-morbid with ADHD; dyslexia (which is associated with eye movement problems) is linked to a specific visual perceptual deficit in the M pathway, a major recipient of which is the colliculus. Whether or not the SC is indeed hyper-responsive in ADHD as Hypothesis 1 suggests, the SC may well represent an important therapeutic target for drugs. In fact current psychostimulant therapies, which reduce distractibility, may already work at that level (Hypothesis 2), a contention which is supported by: 1. The

  12. Collicular dysfunction in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Overton, Paul G

    2008-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by (inter alia) an increase in distractibility. The current front-line pharmacotherapies for the treatment of ADHD, namely the psychostimulants methylphenidate and amphetamines, have clear abuse potential, hence there is a strong need to develop new drug treatments for this disorder. Central to this process is the identification of the pathophysiological changes which underlie ADHD. Given the heterogeneity of the disorder, multiple loci are probably involved, providing multiple potential therapeutic targets. Here, we hypothesise (Hypothesis 1) that one such locus is the superior colliculus (SC), a sensory structure intimately linked with distractibility and the production of eye and head movements. It is proposed that in ADHD, the colliculus is hyper-responsive, leading to the core symptom of increased distractibility. Hypothesis 1 is supported by: 1. ADHD patients show increased distractibility in tasks which are sensitive to collicular function; 2. ADHD patients have a general problem inhibiting saccades, the generation of which involves the SC; 3. Saccadic deficits in ADHD include defects in the production of saccadic types (anti-saccades and express saccades) which are particularly associated with the colliculus; 4. Covert shifts in attention (which also have been argued to involve the SC) are also impaired in ADHD; 5. Reading disorders are frequently co-morbid with ADHD; dyslexia (which is associated with eye movement problems) is linked to a specific visual perceptual deficit in the M pathway, a major recipient of which is the colliculus. Whether or not the SC is indeed hyper-responsive in ADHD as Hypothesis 1 suggests, the SC may well represent an important therapeutic target for drugs. In fact current psychostimulant therapies, which reduce distractibility, may already work at that level (Hypothesis 2), a contention which is supported by: 1. The

  13. Raising attention to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pallanti, Stefano; Salerno, Luana

    2015-03-22

    Schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two psychiatric disorders with a negative impact on quality of life of individuals affected. Although they are classified into distinct disorders categories, attentional dysfunction is considered as a core feature in both conditions, either at the clinical then pathophysiological level. Beyond the obvious clinical overlap between these disorders, the Research Domain Criteria approach might offer an interesting perspective for disentangling common circuits underpinning both disorders. Hence, we review evidences regarding the overlap between schizophrenia and ADHD, at the clinical level, and at the level of underlying brain mechanisms. The evidence regarding the influence of environmental risk factors in the emergence of both disorders, and their developmental trajectories is also reviewed. Among these, we will try to elucidate the complex relationship between stimulants use and psychotic symptoms, discussing the potential role of ADHD medication in inducing psychosis or in exacerbating it. We aim that, taken together, these findings may promote further investigation with important implications both for clinicians and research. In fact, considering the amounting evidence on the overlap between schizophrenia and ADHD, the delineation of their boundaries might help in the decision for diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, it may help to promote interventions focused on the prevention of both schizophrenia and ADHD, by the reduction of recognized environmental risk factors.

  14. Raising attention to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Pallanti, Stefano; Salerno, Luana

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two psychiatric disorders with a negative impact on quality of life of individuals affected. Although they are classified into distinct disorders categories, attentional dysfunction is considered as a core feature in both conditions, either at the clinical then pathophysiological level. Beyond the obvious clinical overlap between these disorders, the Research Domain Criteria approach might offer an interesting perspective for disentangling common circuits underpinning both disorders. Hence, we review evidences regarding the overlap between schizophrenia and ADHD, at the clinical level, and at the level of underlying brain mechanisms. The evidence regarding the influence of environmental risk factors in the emergence of both disorders, and their developmental trajectories is also reviewed. Among these, we will try to elucidate the complex relationship between stimulants use and psychotic symptoms, discussing the potential role of ADHD medication in inducing psychosis or in exacerbating it. We aim that, taken together, these findings may promote further investigation with important implications both for clinicians and research. In fact, considering the amounting evidence on the overlap between schizophrenia and ADHD, the delineation of their boundaries might help in the decision for diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, it may help to promote interventions focused on the prevention of both schizophrenia and ADHD, by the reduction of recognized environmental risk factors. PMID:25815254

  15. [Controversial aspects of the attention deficit disorder].

    PubMed

    Etchepareborda, Máximo C; Díaz Lucero, Andrés

    2009-01-01

    In the last decades there have been those in favor of recognizing the attention deficit disorder (ADD) as a neurodevelopment entity with a strong neurobiological basis responding to a specific interdisciplinary treatment versus those who think, sustain and defend that the accumulated scientific evidence is not sufficient to justify the disorder as a development anomaly in need of a specific therapeutic outline. The attention model versus the autoregulation model are described. The neurological basis of the disorder is discussed analyzing the use of functional neuroimages such as PET (positron emission tomography), SPECT (single photon emission tomography) and FMR (functional magnetic resonance) neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neurochemistry of neurotransmitters up to genetics. The importance of an adequate diagnosis is emphasized, analyzing the cognitive areas involved and trying to differentiate the ADD types, and to determine in some cases the phenotype or phenocopy of the disorder. The different treatments advocated are discussed taking into account the interdisciplinary approaches. Finally, a complete analysis of the information available is presented and conclusions are drawn to facilitate the understanding of this disorder. PMID:19240002

  16. Story Comprehension and Academic Deficits in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: What Is the Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthiaume, Kristen S.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the reliable findings that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have both attentional and academic difficulties, it is assumed that the attentional deficit contributes to the academic problems. In this article, existing support for a link between the attentional and academic difficulties experienced by children…

  17. [Prevention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Quintero, J; Martin, M; Alcindor, P; Perez-Templado, J

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that begins at an early age and can be present until adulthood. Subjects with ADHD not only have symptoms such as inattention, impulsivity or hyperactivity but also have their social and emotional areas affected. In addition, they have an associated increased risk for presenting comorbilities with other psychiatric disorders, overshadowing the development. Considering ADHD as a evolutionary risk factor, prevention should be considered as a primary goal. Most preventive actions on ADHD have been focused on tertiary prevention. The present review aims to study the factors involved in the development of ADHD in order to form a prevention model beyond tertiary prevention. This research focuses on models of primary prevention (early detection of disease) and secondary prevention (to prevent or delay the disease), trying to incorporate them into daily practice. This study reviews risk factors that affect ADHD. Through actions aimed to pursue an early detection, development of the disorder could be improved, and by identifying population at risk, efforts could be concentrated on developing a true primary prevention (perinatal period and early childhood) that eventually could contribute to reduce the incidence of ADHD.

  18. Anchoring the Deficit of the Anchor Deficit: Dyslexia or Attention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willburger, Edith; Landerl, Karin

    2010-01-01

    In the anchoring deficit hypothesis of dyslexia ("Trends Cogn. Sci.", 2007; 11: 458-465), it is proposed that perceptual problems arise from the lack of forming a perceptual anchor for repeatedly presented stimuli. A study designed to explicitly test the specificity of the anchoring deficit for dyslexia is presented. Four groups, representing all…

  19. Cognitive Deficits in Adults with ADHD Go beyond Comorbidity Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Katiane L.; Guimaraes-da-Silva, Paula O.; Grevet, Eugenio H.; Victor, Marcelo M.; Salgado, Carlos A. I.; Vitola, Eduardo S.; Mota, Nina R.; Fischer, Aline G.; Contini, Veronica; Picon, Felipe A.; Karam, Rafael G.; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo; Rohde, Luis A.; Bau, Claiton H. D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study addresses if deficits in cognitive, attention, and inhibitory control performance in adults with ADHD are better explained by the disorder itself or by comorbid conditions. Method Adult patients with ADHD ("n" = 352) and controls ("n" = 94) were evaluated in the ADHD program of a tertiary hospital. The…

  20. Insomnia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in pediatrics: a checklist for parents.

    PubMed

    Yarlagadda, Atmaram; Connell, Megan A; Kasaraneni, Jayaprada; Clayton, Anita H

    2013-11-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a commonly diagnosed condition in the pediatric as well as adult psychiatric population. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder has undoubtedly been over diagnosed and treated with both stimulants and non-stimulants over the past few decades. Behavior problems in children are commonly noticed both by parents and teachers, leading to the formulation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. Insomnia, on the other hand, is not as readily detected by parents and may result in behavioral problems at school. Several medical conditions responsible for causing insomnia may need to be ruled out before the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is confirmed. In this article, we highlight symptoms common both to insomnia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by development of a checklist to help delineate the two conditions. The purpose of this checklist is to provide informational and educational tools both for parents and teachers to distinguish insomnia from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The ultimate goal of this paper is to improve diagnostic screening for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by excluding conditions such as insomnia that may masquerade as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  1. Catecholamine dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: an update.

    PubMed

    Prince, Jefferson

    2008-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disease that affects children, adolescents, and adults. Genetic research has confirmed that there is a large hereditary component to this condition and has helped identify some of the genes associated with it. Among these are several genes associated with the catecholaminergic system including the dopamine receptor genes (DRD4 and DRD5), the dopamine transporter gene, and the gene for dopamine beta-hydroxylase, which catalyzes conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is believed to be a result of abnormalities in the frontal regions of the brain, particularly the prefrontal cortex and associated subcortical structures and circuits. Underpinning these abnormalities are disturbances of catecholamine neurotransmission. Studies have demonstrated that patients with ADHD have depleted levels of dopamine and norepinephrine thought to be largely the result of dysfunction of their respective transporter systems. The efficacy of stimulant agents confirms that the neurotransmitter abnormalities seen in ADHD are primarily catecholaminergic in origin. This article focuses on the catecholaminergic networks of higher cognitive functions such as attention and focus and of motor functions that may be associated with such networks, reviewing both the physiology of such functions and the pathophysiology of ADHD. Researchers are currently investigating whether other neurotransmitter systems may be partially involved and are investigating whether agents that affect these other systems will prove complementary to currently used treatments. PMID:18480676

  2. Is Attention Deficit Disorder Becoming a Desired Diagnosis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smelter, Richard W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The rush to label schoolchildren as suffering from attention deficit disorder (ADD) or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has reached nearly epidemic proportions. The diagnosis often meets parents' needs to assign behavior control to Ritalin; it should be an explanation leading to genuine help, not a license for unacceptable student…

  3. [Drugs for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Montañés-Rada, F; Gangoso-Fermoso, A B; Martíínez-Granero, M A

    Quantitative studies have highlighted differences in several drugs approved for use in Spain in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. No clear differences are observed, however, in the case of qualitative studies. The number of patients needed to be treated in order for one to reach complete remission (NNT) of methylphenidate (MTF) is from 2.2 to 5, and the effect size (ES) is 0.9. Atomoxetine has an NNT of 4 and an ES of 0.7. The advantages of immediate-release MTF (IR-MTF) over the extended-release version (ER-MTF) lie in its low cost, its flexibility and the better results obtained in quantitative studies. In contrast, ER-MTF offers a lower risk of abuse, needs to be taken fewer times with less need for third parties to control administration, and there is a lower risk of stigmatisation. Combination or changes of IR-MTF and ER-MTF and the combination of MTF with atomoxetine are sometimes necessary to adjust the weekday or weekend doses. Starting treatment with IR-MTF and then maintaining or changing to ER-MTF offers certain advantages as regards safety, dose adjustments and dosage. Atomoxetine is the best alternative if there is a background of adverse events with low or moderate doses of stimulants, or lack of response to high doses of stimulants. In cases of notable comorbid anxiety, both MTF and atomoxetine have the same level of indication. If there is a risk of substance abuse, both atomoxetine and ER-MTF are the preferred treatment. For the other indications, MTF is the preferred treatment.

  4. [Drugs for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Montañés-Rada, F; Gangoso-Fermoso, A B; Martíínez-Granero, M A

    Quantitative studies have highlighted differences in several drugs approved for use in Spain in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. No clear differences are observed, however, in the case of qualitative studies. The number of patients needed to be treated in order for one to reach complete remission (NNT) of methylphenidate (MTF) is from 2.2 to 5, and the effect size (ES) is 0.9. Atomoxetine has an NNT of 4 and an ES of 0.7. The advantages of immediate-release MTF (IR-MTF) over the extended-release version (ER-MTF) lie in its low cost, its flexibility and the better results obtained in quantitative studies. In contrast, ER-MTF offers a lower risk of abuse, needs to be taken fewer times with less need for third parties to control administration, and there is a lower risk of stigmatisation. Combination or changes of IR-MTF and ER-MTF and the combination of MTF with atomoxetine are sometimes necessary to adjust the weekday or weekend doses. Starting treatment with IR-MTF and then maintaining or changing to ER-MTF offers certain advantages as regards safety, dose adjustments and dosage. Atomoxetine is the best alternative if there is a background of adverse events with low or moderate doses of stimulants, or lack of response to high doses of stimulants. In cases of notable comorbid anxiety, both MTF and atomoxetine have the same level of indication. If there is a risk of substance abuse, both atomoxetine and ER-MTF are the preferred treatment. For the other indications, MTF is the preferred treatment. PMID:19396764

  5. Pharmacotherapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Spencer, T; Biederman, J; Wilens, T

    2000-01-01

    Despite a large body of literature documenting the effectiveness of medication in the treatment of ADHD, there has been public and professional concern regarding the possible inappropriate diagnosis and prescription of ADHD medications. Recently the Council of Scientific Affairs of the American Medical Association addressed these concerns in a scholarly review. Several factors were identified that contributed to existing controversies: (1) Like most psychiatric disorders, diagnostic criteria for ADHD are based on history and behavioral assessment. There are no pathognomonic laboratory or radiologic tests to confirm the diagnosis. (2) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a chronic disorder and requires extended treatment. (3) Treatment includes potentially abusable medications. After a review of the voluminous literature, this distinguished panel concluded that ADHD is one of the best researched disorders in medicine; in fact, the overall data on its validity are far more compelling than for many other medical conditions. They also concluded that there was little evidence of widespread overdiagnosis or misdiagnosis of ADHD or of widespread overprescription of stimulants by physicians. Consistent with the current emphasis on cognitive dysregulation in ADHD, treatment concerns have expanded from a primarily behavioral focus to include enhancement of executive functions in scholastic as well as other settings. Although stimulants have been the most studied compounds, there is a considerable body of literature indicating an important role for other psychopharmacologic agents. Noradrenergic and dopaminergic modulation appears to be necessary for effective anti-ADHD treatment. In addition, promising evidence of newer cholinergic agents may provide other useful alternatives. As with all psychiatric disorders, comorbid conditions are prominent and may lead to high morbidity and disability if not addressed. As with other areas of medicine, it is sometimes necessary to

  6. Career Development Needs among College and University Students with Learning Disabilities and Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessey, Mary L.; Rumrill, Phillip D., Jr.; Roessler, Richard T.; Cook, Bryan G.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) examine the employment and career development concerns of postsecondary students with learning disabilities and Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) and (b) develop strategies for improving their post-graduation employment outcomes. Employing an established…

  7. [ASRS v.1.1., a tool for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder screening in adults treated for addictive behaviors: psychometric properties and estimated prevalence].

    PubMed

    Pedrero Pérez, Eduardo J; Puerta García, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    ASRS v.1.1. is a self-applied brief instrument for the screening of individuals presenting symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and proposed by the WHO. The purpose of the present work was to test the instrument and examine the results of its application to a sample of 280 individuals in treatment for substance-related disorders (cross-sectional descriptive study). We administered simultaneously in the initial phases of treatment the ASRS v.1.1. (short form) and the MCMI-II to the full sample and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), ADHD-Rating Scale-IV and ASRS v.1.1. (complete form) to various sub-samples. Diagnostic interviews were also carried out and the psychometric properties and factorial structure of ASRS v.1.1. were explored. Good convergent validity, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic capability were obtained for the six-item version of ASRS v.1.1., even though 4 out of 6 items did not discriminate between Axis I and II disorders assessed through the MCMI-II and diagnostic interviews. According to DSM-IV-TR criteria the estimated prevalence of ADHD in the sample of addicts was 8.2%. ASRS v.1.1. is criticized as a specific instrument for ADHD detection, since most of its items appear to measure a non-specific dimension of compulsiveness/impulsiveness, common to Axis-I and Axis-II disorders. Other criticisms made in the discussion concern the lack of specificity of DSM criteria and the confusion they generate among the concepts of symptom, sign and trait (including the impact on study results), the general use of the A criterion but the omission of the B, C, D and E criteria of the DSM category, differences in samples (with regard to both severity and selection criteria), and the artifactual increases in prevalence found in many studies. PMID:18173102

  8. [ASRS v.1.1., a tool for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder screening in adults treated for addictive behaviors: psychometric properties and estimated prevalence].

    PubMed

    Pedrero Pérez, Eduardo J; Puerta García, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    ASRS v.1.1. is a self-applied brief instrument for the screening of individuals presenting symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and proposed by the WHO. The purpose of the present work was to test the instrument and examine the results of its application to a sample of 280 individuals in treatment for substance-related disorders (cross-sectional descriptive study). We administered simultaneously in the initial phases of treatment the ASRS v.1.1. (short form) and the MCMI-II to the full sample and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), ADHD-Rating Scale-IV and ASRS v.1.1. (complete form) to various sub-samples. Diagnostic interviews were also carried out and the psychometric properties and factorial structure of ASRS v.1.1. were explored. Good convergent validity, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic capability were obtained for the six-item version of ASRS v.1.1., even though 4 out of 6 items did not discriminate between Axis I and II disorders assessed through the MCMI-II and diagnostic interviews. According to DSM-IV-TR criteria the estimated prevalence of ADHD in the sample of addicts was 8.2%. ASRS v.1.1. is criticized as a specific instrument for ADHD detection, since most of its items appear to measure a non-specific dimension of compulsiveness/impulsiveness, common to Axis-I and Axis-II disorders. Other criticisms made in the discussion concern the lack of specificity of DSM criteria and the confusion they generate among the concepts of symptom, sign and trait (including the impact on study results), the general use of the A criterion but the omission of the B, C, D and E criteria of the DSM category, differences in samples (with regard to both severity and selection criteria), and the artifactual increases in prevalence found in many studies.

  9. Motor Extinction: A Deficit of Attention or Intention?

    PubMed Central

    Punt, T. David; Riddoch, M. Jane; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2013-01-01

    Motor extinction refers to a deficit of motor production on the side opposite a brain lesion that either only becomes apparent or disproportionately worsens during bilateral motor activity. It may arise due either to a contralesional deficit in setting the motor activation level (an intentional deficit) or a deficit in contralesional awareness of the sensory consequences of movement (an attentional deficit). In this study, we investigate the nature of motor extinction in a patient (LR) with a right fronto-temporal lesion through the kinematic analysis of unimanual and bimanual circle-drawing movements. While the ipsi- and contralesional limbs performed comparably for unimanual movements, the contralesional limb demonstrated marked bradykinesia and hypometria during bimanual movements. Furthermore, these deficits were not overcome when visual feedback of the contralesional limb was provided (Experiment 1). However, when performing bimanual movements in the presence of a visual template (Experiment 2), LR was able to overcome the contralesional hypometria but not the bradykinesia which proved intractable across both experiments. Both the bradykinesia and hypometria could result from an intentional deficit of motor production. However, in Experiment 2, LR also demonstrated an abnormal level of positional drift in the contralesional limb for bimanual movements indicative of an additional attentional deficit. We conclude that LR’s presentation of motor extinction is the result of a primary intentional deficit and a secondary attentional deficit. PMID:24137119

  10. Deficient Attention Is Hard to Find: Applying the Perceptual Load Model of Selective Attention to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Nigg, Joel T.; Carr, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Whether selective attention is a primary deficit in childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) remains in active debate. Methods: We used the "perceptual load" paradigm to examine both early and late selective attention in children with the Primarily Inattentive (ADHD-I) and Combined subtypes (ADHD-C) of ADHD. Results:…

  11. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Zaman, Rashid

    2015-09-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder, which affects children as well as adults and leads to significant impairment in educational, social and occupational functioning and has associated personal and societal costs. Whilst there are effective medications (mostly stimulants) as well as some psychobehavioural treatments that help alleviate symptoms of ADHD, there is still need to improve our understanding of its neurobiology as well as explore other treatment options. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are safe and non-invasive investigative and therapeutic tools respectively. In this short article, I will explore their potential for improving our understanding of the neurobiology of ADHD as well consider its as a possible treatment option.

  12. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: associations with overeating and obesity.

    PubMed

    Davis, Caroline

    2010-10-01

    In the past decade, we have become increasingly aware of strong associations between overweight/obesity and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults. This review addresses the prevalence of the comorbidity and discusses some of the mechanisms that could account for their relationship. It is suggested that the inattentive and impulsive behaviors that characterize ADHD could contribute to overeating in our current food environment, with its emphasis on fast food consumption and its many food temptations. It is also proposed-based on the compelling evidence that foods high in fat, sugar, and salt are as addictive as some drugs of abuse-that excessive food consumption could be a form of self-medication. This view conforms with the well-established evidence that drug use and abuse are substantially higher among those with ADHD than among the general population.

  13. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the behavior of "Che" Guevara.

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio A G; Zavala, Jorge A; Munhoz, Renato P; Lara, Diogo R; Lima, Pedro; Palmini, André

    2009-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. ADHD is related to several co-morbidities, such as opposition defiant disorder, conduct disorder, mood and anxiety disturbances, as well as tics and Tourette's syndrome. The objective of this report is to shed an alternative light on the personality of Ernesto "Che" Guevara, discussing whether he might have had ADHD. Several published biographies of Che Guevara were reviewed. Established ADHD criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition), were used as a framework to evaluate Che's behaviour. In addition, we compared the main features of Che's reported behaviour to the set of abnormalities leading to the diagnosis of ADHD in adults proposed by Wender and colleagues and known as the UTAH ADHD criteria. Analysis of the most renowned biographies of Ernesto "Che" Guevara suggests that he may have had ADHD. PMID:19497749

  14. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Zaman, Rashid

    2015-09-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder, which affects children as well as adults and leads to significant impairment in educational, social and occupational functioning and has associated personal and societal costs. Whilst there are effective medications (mostly stimulants) as well as some psychobehavioural treatments that help alleviate symptoms of ADHD, there is still need to improve our understanding of its neurobiology as well as explore other treatment options. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are safe and non-invasive investigative and therapeutic tools respectively. In this short article, I will explore their potential for improving our understanding of the neurobiology of ADHD as well consider its as a possible treatment option. PMID:26417832

  15. The Neurological Basis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Shirley; Bolan, Morna; Burton, Michael; Snyder, Sherry; Pasterczyk-Seabolt, Claire; Martin, Don

    1997-01-01

    Reviews research on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and examines the role of neurochemical stimulation and signs of neurological deficits. Describes the chemical action of drugs used to treat ADHD, along with cognitive, affective, and behavioral effects, and side effects. Elaborates on drug treatment and basic behavior modification…

  16. Written expression in boys with attention deficit disorder.

    PubMed

    Resta, S P; Eliot, J

    1994-12-01

    32 boys, between the ages of 8 and 13 years, were identified on four teachers' and parents' rating scales (including the diagnostic criteria of the DSM-III for ADD) as showing attention deficits and hyperactivity (ADD + H; n = 10), attention deficits without hyperactivity (ADD-H; n = 11), or without ADD (attention deficits controls; n = 11). All subjects were administered Bender's Visual-motor Gestalt test and the Written Language Assessment. The ADD + H children produced significantly more errors on the Bender-Gestalt test, and both groups with attention deficits had lower (poorer) scores on most of the written language subtests. Results were interpreted as providing evidence that these children possessed significant limitations in their writing, copying, and composition.

  17. Attentional Engagement Deficits in Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffino, Milena; Trussardi, Anna Noemi; Gori, Simone; Finzi, Alessandra; Giovagnoli, Sara; Menghini, Deny; Benassi, Mariagrazia; Molteni, Massimo; Bolzani, Roberto; Vicari, Stefano; Facoetti, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Reading acquisition requires, in addition to appropriate phonological abilities, accurate and rapid selection of sublexical orthographic units by attentional letter string parsing. Spatio-temporal distribution of attentional engagement onto 3-pseudoletter strings was studied in 28 dyslexic and 55 normally reading children by measuring attentional…

  18. Is It Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayer, Harvey L.; And Others

    This brief paper addresses the referral of students for psychoeducational evaluation of problems with attention control and overactivity, and provides a checklist to assist teachers in the determination of possible hypotheses to consider prior to formal referral. The paper and checklist emphasize the variety of possible causes of attentional and…

  19. Overview of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajay; Yeh, Chia Jung; Verma, Nidhi; Das, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex disorder, which can be seen as a disorder of life time, developing in preschool years and manifesting symptoms (full and/or partial) throughout the adulthood; therefore, it is not surprising that there are no simple solutions. The aim of this paper is to provide a short and concise review which can be used to inform affected children and adults; family members of affected children and adults, and other medical, paramedical, non-medical, and educational professionals about the disorder. This paper has also tried to look into the process of how ADHD develops; what are the associated problems; and how many other children and adults are affected by such problems all over the world basically to understand ADHD more precisely in order to develop a better medical and or non-medical multimodal intervention plan. If preschool teachers and clinicians are aware of what the research tells us about ADHD, the varying theories of its cause, and which areas need further research, the knowledge will assist them in supporting the families of children with ADHD. By including information in this review about the connection between biological behavior, it is hoped that preschool teachers and clinicians at all levels will feel more confident about explaining to parents of ADHD children, and older ADHD children themselves about the probable causes of ADHD. PMID:26973960

  20. [Hyperkinetic syndrome (attention deficit-/hyperactivity disorder) in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Krause, K H; Krause, J; Trott, G E

    1998-07-01

    The clinical picture of adult hyperkinetic syndrome (HKS) or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is nearly unknown in Germany. It can be estimated, that approximately one third of affected children also show symptoms as adults. In the combined type of the syndrome symptoms of inattention as well as of hyperactivity and impulsivity are present, a predominantly inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive type is possible. Retrospective diagnosis of HKS in childhood can be difficult. Disorganization, emotional disturbances and stress intolerance are common in adults with HKS as well as residual symptoms of learning disorders like dyslexia, dyscalculia and dysgraphia. In differential diagnosis especially affective, anxiety and antisocial personality disorders have to be considered, for which on the other side a frequent comorbidity with HKS is known. There is strong evidence for genetic transmission. Neurobiological findings revealed dysregulation of neurotransmitters. For treatment stimulants as pemoline and methamphetamin are effective, in addition tricyclic antidepressants or beta blockers; positive effects are probable for moclobemide, bupropion, fluoxetine and venlafaxine. PMID:9715472

  1. Overview of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Children.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay; Yeh, Chia Jung; Verma, Nidhi; Das, Ajay Kumar

    2015-09-30

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex disorder, which can be seen as a disorder of life time, developing in preschool years and manifesting symptoms (full and/or partial) throughout the adulthood; therefore, it is not surprising that there are no simple solutions. The aim of this paper is to provide a short and concise review which can be used to inform affected children and adults; family members of affected children and adults, and other medical, paramedical, non-medical, and educational professionals about the disorder. This paper has also tried to look into the process of how ADHD develops; what are the associated problems; and how many other children and adults are affected by such problems all over the world basically to understand ADHD more precisely in order to develop a better medical and or non-medical multimodal intervention plan. If preschool teachers and clinicians are aware of what the research tells us about ADHD, the varying theories of its cause, and which areas need further research, the knowledge will assist them in supporting the families of children with ADHD. By including information in this review about the connection between biological behavior, it is hoped that preschool teachers and clinicians at all levels will feel more confident about explaining to parents of ADHD children, and older ADHD children themselves about the probable causes of ADHD. PMID:26973960

  2. Cognitive Deficits in Nonretarded Adults with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Kimberley A.; Don, Audrey; Mateer, Catherine A.; Streissguth, Ann P.

    1997-01-01

    Sixteen nonretarded young adults with fetal alcohol syndrome were divided into two groups, one with average to above average IQ and one with borderline to low average IQ. Subjects in both groups manifested clear deficits on neuropsychological measures sensitive to complex attention, verbal learning, and executive function at a frequency and…

  3. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: manifestation in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Riccio, Cynthia A; Wolfe, Monica; Davis, Brandon; Romine, Cassandra; George, Carrie; Lee, Donghyung

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the manifestation of ADHD in adults using a combination of structured clinical interview, behavioral self-report, and a range of neuropsychological measures. Symptom criteria that are endorsed by adults with ADHD as compared to non-diagnosed adults and an adult sample with other clinical disorders tend to reflect problems with follow-through, forgetting, organization, and losing things. Notably, adults in the No Diagnosis group endorsed a higher frequency of symptoms than base rates reported elsewhere. Related to sense of time, adults with ADHD endorsed problems with meeting deadlines, not completing tasks, not planning ahead, and having a poorer sense of time significantly more frequently than adults in either the No-Diagnosis or Other Clinical Disorder group. Results highlighted the need for further research specific to the manifestation of ADHD in adulthood and the development of diagnostic criteria that take into account the differences in development as well as age-related differences in contextual demands. PMID:15708734

  4. A randomized, 3-phase, 34-week, double-blind, long-term efficacy study of osmotic-release oral system-methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Biederman, Joseph; Mick, Eric; Surman, Craig; Doyle, Robert; Hammerness, Paul; Kotarski, Meghan; Spencer, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    We conducted a 3-phase, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study design of osmotic-release oral system (OROS)-methylphenidate (MPH) in adults (19-60 years of age) with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder as classified by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Phase 1 of the study was a 6-week, acute efficacy trial (n = 223), phase 2 was a 24-week, double-blind continuation study of responders (n = 96), and phase 3 was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 4-week discontinuation study (n = 23). The mean daily dosage at phase 1 endpoint was 78.4 ± 31.7 mg (0.97 ± 0.32 mg/kg) OROS-MPH and 96.6 ± 26.5 mg (1.16 ± 0.19 mg/kg) placebo (P < 0.0001). Clinical response at phase 1 endpoint was significantly greater in the OROS-MPH group (62%, n = 67 vs 37%, n = 41; P < 0.001) and was maintained throughout 24 weeks of double-blind treatment. With double-blind, placebo-controlled discontinuation, however, there was no statistically significant difference in the rate of relapse between OROS-MPH responders randomized to placebo and those randomized to continue active treatment (18%, n = 2 vs 0%, n = 0; P = 0.1). As expected, decreased appetite, insomnia, being tense/jittery, mucosal dryness, and neurological symptoms were statistically significantly associated with OROS-MPH treatment. More work is needed to be conducted with larger samples being followed to study completion to better understand the long-lasting impact of pharmacotherapy for adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

  5. Focusing on ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... on ADHD Health Capsules Genetic Sites Tied to Schizophrenia Helping Older Adults Talk With Their Doctors Featured ... and child mental health expert at NIH. “The diagnosis is made because the level of hyperactivity or ...

  6. Experimental Training of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piscalkiene, Viktorija

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) negatively affects the cognitive and psychomotoric spheres of the pupil's social behavior and social adaptation. The review of many studies states that pupils with AD/HD achieve worse learning results because of insufficiently functioning cognitive processes, such as attention, (work) memory,…

  7. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in postsecondary students

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Kevin; Smart, Wallace

    2014-01-01

    A PubMed review was conducted for papers reporting on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in postsecondary students. The review was performed in order to determine the prevalence and symptomatology of ADHD in postsecondary students, to examine its effects on academic achievement, and discuss appropriate management. The prevalence of ADHD symptoms among postsecondary students ranges from 2% to 12%. Students with ADHD have lower grade point averages and are more likely to withdraw from courses, to indulge in risky behaviors, and to have other psychiatric comorbidities than their non-ADHD peers. Ensuring that students with ADHD receive appropriate support requires documented evidence of impairment to academic and day-to-day functioning. In adults with ADHD, stimulants improve concentration and attention, although improved academic productivity remains to be demonstrated. ADHD negatively impacts academic performance in students and increases the likelihood of drug and alcohol problems. Affected students may therefore benefit from disability support services, academic accommodations, and pharmacological treatment. PMID:25298735

  8. [Neurotrophic factors and their importance in attention deficit hyperactivity disorde].

    PubMed

    Ramos-Quiroga, Josep A; Sánchez-Mora, Cristina; Corominas, Margarida; Martínez, Iris; Barrau, Víctor; Prats, Laura; Casas, Miguel; Ribasés, Marta

    2014-02-24

    The existing literature that reports findings linked with the involvement of neurotrophic factors in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reviewed. Neurotrophins, a family of neurotrophic factors, are a kind of proteins that are specific to the nervous system and play an essential role in neuron survival, differentiation and proliferation during the development of the central and peripheral nervous system. These molecules stimulate axonal growth and exert an influence on the connections with the target tissue in order to establish the synaptic connections. The study of neurotrophins in ADHD, a neurodevelopmental disorder, is of interest mainly due to the functions that these proteins perform in the central nervous system. Studies on animal, pharmacological and molecular genetic models yield evidence that relates neurotrophins with the disorder. This work reviews the results from the studies conducted to date on ADHD and neurotrophic factors, especially brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Thus, although pharmacological studies suggest that the response to atomoxetine in adults with ADHD is not directly mediated by the effect on the BDNF, reductions in BDNF levels in the plasma of adult patients with ADHD have been reported. Further studies with broader samples and greater control of environmental factors that can regulate neurotrophin expression, such as diet, physical exercise and situations of social risk, are needed to be able to determine the role they play in the aetiology of ADHD. PMID:25252662

  9. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in a Canadian prison population.

    PubMed

    Usher, Amelia M; Stewart, Lynn A; Wilton, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that a significant percentage of offenders are affected by adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its related symptoms, however it is unknown the extent to which this disorder affects federal inmates in Canada and the impact ADHD has on key correctional outcomes. Four hundred and ninety-seven male federal offenders were assessed at intake over a fourteen month period using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Approximately 16.5% scored in the highest range, which is consistent with the clinical threshold for diagnosis for the disorder; a further 25.2% reported sub-threshold symptoms in the moderate range. ADHD symptoms were found to be associated with unstable job history, presence of a learning disability, lower educational attainment, substance abuse, higher criminal risk and need levels, and other mental health problems. ADHD symptoms were also found to predict institutional misconduct. Additionally, offenders with high levels of ADHD symptomatology fared more poorly on release to the community. Implications for institutional behavior management and the need for additional resources and adapted interventions are discussed. PMID:23639768

  10. [Neurotrophic factors and their importance in attention deficit hyperactivity disorde].

    PubMed

    Ramos-Quiroga, Josep A; Sánchez-Mora, Cristina; Corominas, Margarida; Martínez, Iris; Barrau, Víctor; Prats, Laura; Casas, Miguel; Ribasés, Marta

    2014-02-24

    The existing literature that reports findings linked with the involvement of neurotrophic factors in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reviewed. Neurotrophins, a family of neurotrophic factors, are a kind of proteins that are specific to the nervous system and play an essential role in neuron survival, differentiation and proliferation during the development of the central and peripheral nervous system. These molecules stimulate axonal growth and exert an influence on the connections with the target tissue in order to establish the synaptic connections. The study of neurotrophins in ADHD, a neurodevelopmental disorder, is of interest mainly due to the functions that these proteins perform in the central nervous system. Studies on animal, pharmacological and molecular genetic models yield evidence that relates neurotrophins with the disorder. This work reviews the results from the studies conducted to date on ADHD and neurotrophic factors, especially brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Thus, although pharmacological studies suggest that the response to atomoxetine in adults with ADHD is not directly mediated by the effect on the BDNF, reductions in BDNF levels in the plasma of adult patients with ADHD have been reported. Further studies with broader samples and greater control of environmental factors that can regulate neurotrophin expression, such as diet, physical exercise and situations of social risk, are needed to be able to determine the role they play in the aetiology of ADHD.

  11. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and adoption].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel Martín; Fernández-Perrone, Ana L; López-Arribas, Sonia; Pelaz-Antolín, Antonio; Fernández-Jaén, Alberto

    2015-02-25

    Introduccion. Se entiende por adopcion o filiacion adoptiva el acto juridico mediante el cual se crea un vinculo de parentesco entre dos personas, de tal forma que se establece entre ellas una relacion de paternidad o maternidad. Objetivos. Tratar de exponer los problemas derivados de la exposicion prenatal al alcohol y otros factores de riesgo, de la hipoestimulacion durante el 'periodo critico' en pacientes institucionalizados (especialmente aquellos adoptados de paises del este de Europa) y su relacion con el trastorno de deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH). Realizar una aproximacion al diagnostico, prevencion y tratamiento de estos problemas. Desarrollo. Estos niños presentan problemas de relacion psicosocial, problemas conductuales, retraso del desarrollo del lenguaje o de la lectura y, sobre todo, TDAH. Existe una enorme dificultad practica a la hora de separar ambos factores durante la evaluacion de niños adoptados de paises del este de Europa en las consultas de neuropediatria. La interrelacion de todos estos factores no es bien conocida. Conclusiones. Existe una intima relacion entre la exposicion prenatal al alcohol y las consecuencias de la adopcion. Se necesitan estudios aleatorizados controlados con placebo, con mayores muestras poblacionales, que comprueben el beneficio y perfil de efectos secundarios, tanto con psicoestimulantes como con la atomoxetina en este grupo de pacientes.

  12. Oculomotor Performance Identifies Underlying Cognitive Deficits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loe, Irene M.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Yasui, Enami; Luna, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of the cognitive control in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder through the use of oculomotor tests reveal that this group showed susceptibility to peripheral distractors and deficits in response inhibition. All subjects were found to have intact sensorimotor function and working memory.

  13. Larger Deficits in Brain Networks for Response Inhibition than for Visual Selective Attention in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, James R.; Burman, Douglas D.; Meyer, Joel R.; Lei, Zhang; Trommer, Barbara L.; Davenport, Nicholas D.; Li, Wei; Parrish, Todd B.; Gitelman, Darren R.; Mesulam, M. Marsel

    2005-01-01

    Background: Brain activation differences between 12 control and 12 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children (9- to 12-year-olds) were examined on two cognitive tasks during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Method: Visual selective attention was measured with the visual search of a conjunction target (red triangle) in a…

  14. Oculomotor Anomalies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence for Deficits in Response Preparation and Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Lasker, Adrian G.; Zee, David; Denckla, Martha B.

    2009-01-01

    Girls, but not boys, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have significantly longer visually guided saccades latencies. It is found that sex differences in children with ADHD extend beyond symptom presentation to the development of oculomotor control.

  15. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or bipolar disorder?].

    PubMed

    Da Fonseca, D; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The attention deficit disorder and the bipolar disorder maintain a complex relation. Indeed, these two syndromes share numerous symptoms that engender numerous diagnostic difficulties. According to several studies, it seems that these two disorders are really different with significant differences at the functional and anatomical level. However, there are common cognitive deficits as well as relatively frequent co-morbidity which is necessary to know in order to adjust the treatment.

  16. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or bipolar disorder?].

    PubMed

    Da Fonseca, D; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The attention deficit disorder and the bipolar disorder maintain a complex relation. Indeed, these two syndromes share numerous symptoms that engender numerous diagnostic difficulties. According to several studies, it seems that these two disorders are really different with significant differences at the functional and anatomical level. However, there are common cognitive deficits as well as relatively frequent co-morbidity which is necessary to know in order to adjust the treatment. PMID:25550235

  17. [Psychopedagogical intervention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Abad-Mas, Luis; Ruiz-Andrés, Rosalía; Moreno-Madrid, Francisca; Herrero, Raquel; Suay, Enrique

    2013-09-01

    Introduccion. Los niños con trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH) presentan alteraciones en los mecanismos atencionales y en los procesos de control inhibitorio (impulsividad e hiperactividad), que afectan de distinta manera a su rendimiento academico, socioemocional y conductual, por lo que es fundamental la consideracion de estrategias de intervencion en el ambito psicopedagogico que puedan incidir de forma favorable en el curso evolutivo de los afectados. Objetivo. Revisar las bases psicopedagogicas en la intervencion sobre el TDAH, considerando la relacion de la anatomia funcional con la sintomatologia clinica y los correspondientes programas de intervencion. Desarrollo. Se destacan los tres sindromes preferentes: orbitofrontal, dorsolateral y en el cingulo a nivel medial. Las fases de la intervencion psicopedagogica deben abarcar tanto al niño como a la familia y el colegio. El entrenamiento neurocognitivo se centra en el niño, basado en programas de entrenamiento de las funciones ejecutivas y en las actuaciones sobre el ambito academico, conductual y socioafectivo. Los programas de modificacion de conducta son complementarios y en muchas ocasiones mejoran el comportamiento comprometido en los niños con TDAH. Las orientaciones psicopedagogicas en la escuela deben considerarse necesarias para una intervencion eficaz en el entorno academico. Conclusiones. La intervencion psicopedagogica de los niños con TDAH debe contemplar la individualizacion del tratamiento dentro de una metodologia multidisciplinar, teniendo en cuenta todos los contextos en los que se desarrolla el niño, su rendimiento cognitivo y las intervenciones farmacologicas apropiadas en cada caso.

  18. Visual Field Asymmetries in Attention Vary with Self-Reported Attention Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poynter, William; Ingram, Paul; Minor, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an index of self-reported attention deficits predicts the pattern of visual field asymmetries observed in behavioral measures of attention. Studies of "normal" subjects do not present a consistent pattern of asymmetry in attention functions, with some studies showing better left visual field (LVF)…

  19. Extended Attention Span Training System: Video Game Neurotherapy for Attention Deficit Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system for modifying attention deficits, which takes the concept of biofeedback one step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brain waves indicate that attention is waning. Notes contributions of this technology to neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on…

  20. Attention deficit and attention training in early twentieth-century Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Toshinobu; Ando, Mizuho; Kumagai, Keiko

    2015-06-01

    Yuzero Motora (1856-1912), regarded as the first professional Japanese psychologist, tried to address students' attention difficulties through attention training methods of his own design. His reports contain the first description of ADHD-like symptoms in the history of Japan. Motora viewed "distractibility" as the irregular transition of attention. Students with low scores and attention difficulties who participated in Motora's exercises showed improvement in arithmetic, psychological testing, and certain aspects of daily life. This article describes Motora's theoretical conception of attention and attention training methodology, the history of attention deficit and attention training, and the significance of Motora's experiments.

  1. Effects of Sugar Ingestion on the Classroom and Playgroup Behavior of Attention Deficit Disordered Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milich, Richards; Pelham, William E.

    1986-01-01

    Attention deficit disordered (ADD) boys fasted overnight and then received a drink containing sucrose or a placebo of comparable sweetness for four days. Examination of classroom behavior, academic productivity and accuracy, noncompliance with adult requests and peer interactions offered no support for the contention that sugar ingestion adversely…

  2. Efficiency of the Prefrontal Cortex during Working Memory in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Margaret A.; Hinshaw, Stephen; D'Esposito, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Previous research has demonstrated that during task conditions requiring an increase in inhibitory function or working memory, children and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit greater and more varied prefrontal cortical(PFC) activation compared to age-matched control participants. This pattern may reflect…

  3. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). NetNews. Volume 7, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LDA of Minnesota, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological disorder that is characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Between 3% and 7% of school-aged children are affected by ADHD. ADHD is a lifespan condition that affects children, adolescents and adults of all ages. It…

  4. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A., Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Widely regarded as the standard clinical reference, this volume provides the best current knowledge about attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults. The field's leading authorities address all aspects of assessment, diagnosis, and treatment, including psychological therapies and pharmacotherapy. Core…

  5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Erroneously Diagnosed and Treated as Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atmaca, Murad; Ozler, Sinan; Topuz, Mehtap; Goldstein, Sam

    2009-01-01

    Objective: There is a dearth of literature on patients erroneously diagnosed and treated for bipolar disorder. Method: The authors report a case of an adult with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder erroneously diagnosed and treated for bipolar disorder for 6 years. At that point, methylphenidate was initiated. The patient was judged to be a…

  6. Attention-Deficit, Fear and Aggression in Iranian Preschool Students with Regard to Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheikhzade, Mostafa; Assemi, Arezoo

    2013-01-01

    The cause of most adult psychopathologies or behavioural disorders can be traced back to childhood. In this study, we examine the attention-deficit, fear and aggression in Iran's preschool students in Oshnaviye city. In this analytical-descriptive study, 50 students were selected through stratified sampling method from 249 students. Data were…

  7. Temperament and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: The Development of a Multiple Pathway Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Sachek, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article outlines the parallels between major theories of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and relevant temperament domains, summarizing recent research from our laboratories on (a) child temperament and (b) adult personality traits related to ADHD symptoms. These data are convergent in suggesting a role of effortful control and…

  8. A Multiple Deficit Model of Reading Disability and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Searching for Shared Cognitive Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Lauren M.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Shanahan, Michelle A.; Santerre-Lemmon, Laura E.; Barnard, Holly D.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study tests a multiple cognitive deficit model of reading disability (RD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and their comorbidity. Methods: A structural equation model (SEM) of multiple cognitive risk factors and symptom outcome variables was constructed. The model included phonological awareness as a unique…

  9. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder: a therapeutic option

    PubMed Central

    Topczewski, Abram

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the use of a therapeutic regimen to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients. Methods A total of 140 patients initially underwent physical, neurological and laboratory evaluation. Thereafter, treatment was initiated with a compounding product consisting of a tricyclic antidepressant and an anxiolytic. Results The response was positive in 71.43% of patients in controlling hyperactivity and improving dispersion and attention deficit. Conclusion The therapeutic regimen utilized proved to be an effective therapeutic alternative, especially for patients who do not adapt to psychostimulant drugs. PMID:25295451

  10. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: dietary and nutritional treatments.

    PubMed

    Arnold, L Eugene; Hurt, Elizabeth; Lofthouse, Nicholas

    2013-07-01

    Dozens of complementary and alternative treatments have been advocated for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Some verge into standard treatment of specific cases. Most do not have conclusive evidence of effectiveness or safety for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, but some have enough evidence and are safe, easy, cheap, and sensible enough that individual patient trials can be justified. There is a need to flesh out the evidence base, which could be done cost effectively for supplements or off-label agents that are amenable to placebo control. PMID:23806311

  11. Validation of DSM-5 age-of-onset criterion of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults: Comparison of life quality, functional impairment, and family function.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Lo, Kuan-Wu; Yang, Li-Kuang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-12-01

    The newly published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) elevates the threshold of the ADHD age-of-onset criterion from 7 to 12 years. This study evaluated the quality of life and functional impairment of adults with ADHD who had symptoms onset by or after 7 years and examined the mediation effect of family function and anxiety/depression symptoms between ADHD diagnosis and quality of life and functional impairment. We assessed 189 adults with ADHD and 153 non-ADHD controls by psychiatric interview and self-administered reports on the Adult ADHD Quality of Life Scale, Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale, Family APGAR, and Adult Self Report Inventory-4. The ADHD group was divided into early-onset ADHD (onset <7 years, n=147) and late-onset ADHD (onset between 7 and 12 years, n=42). The mediation analysis was conducted to verify the mediating factors from ADHD to functional impairment and quality of life. The late-onset ADHD had more severe functional impairment at work and poorer family support than early-onset ADHD while they had comparable impairment at other domains. Less perceived family support and current anxiety/depressive symptoms partially mediated the link between ADHD diagnosis and quality of life/functional impairment both in early- and late-onset ADHD. Our data support decreased quality of life and increased functional impairment in adult ADHD, regardless of age of onset, and these adverse outcomes may be mediated by family support and anxiety/depression at adulthood. Our findings also imply that the new DSM-5 ADHD criteria do not over-include individuals without impairment.

  12. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in imprisoned individuals--a review.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Sanaei-Zadeh, Hossein

    2011-06-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders with lifelong impact of the affected individuals. It is usually co-morbid with other psychiatric disorders. This paper aims to review current knowledge about ADHD in imprisoned individuals. The rate of ADHD in prisoners ranges from 10% to 70% and it has been suggested that ADHD, even without co-morbidity with conduct disorder, is a risk factor for imprisonment. Based on these findings, it may be wise to include the assessment of ADHD symptoms in all adult and adolescent prisoners. This is while available psychiatric resources for the adequate management of ADHD in prisoners are limited. Most of current knowledge on the topic comes from western countries. There is an urgent need for studies that will explore the effect of other cultures on the interactions between ADHD and imprisonment, especially in developing countries worldwide. At this point, ADHD seems to be an ignored research area in developing countries. PMID:21685851

  13. Addressing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Sarkis, Elias

    2014-09-01

    Although generally considered a childhood disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can persist into adulthood and impede achievement in the workplace. Core ADHD symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity can be associated with poor organization, time management, and interpersonal relationships. Employment levels, earning power, and productivity are reduced among individuals with ADHD compared with those without ADHD. Furthermore, the costs of employing individuals with ADHD are higher because of work absences and lost productivity. The primary care provider plays an integral role in managing ADHD symptoms and providing the necessary resources that will help individuals with ADHD succeed in the workplace. Pharmacotherapy can reduce ADHD symptoms and improve functioning; however, it is also important to consider how positive traits associated with ADHD, such as creative thinking, can be used in the workplace. Workplace accommodations and behavioral therapies, such as coaching, can also enhance time management and organizational skills. This review describes how ADHD symptoms affect workplace behaviors, the effect of ADHD on employment and workplace performance, and the management of ADHD in working adults.

  14. Addressing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Sarkis, Elias

    2014-09-01

    Although generally considered a childhood disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can persist into adulthood and impede achievement in the workplace. Core ADHD symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity can be associated with poor organization, time management, and interpersonal relationships. Employment levels, earning power, and productivity are reduced among individuals with ADHD compared with those without ADHD. Furthermore, the costs of employing individuals with ADHD are higher because of work absences and lost productivity. The primary care provider plays an integral role in managing ADHD symptoms and providing the necessary resources that will help individuals with ADHD succeed in the workplace. Pharmacotherapy can reduce ADHD symptoms and improve functioning; however, it is also important to consider how positive traits associated with ADHD, such as creative thinking, can be used in the workplace. Workplace accommodations and behavioral therapies, such as coaching, can also enhance time management and organizational skills. This review describes how ADHD symptoms affect workplace behaviors, the effect of ADHD on employment and workplace performance, and the management of ADHD in working adults. PMID:25295647

  15. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the frontal lobe syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shue, K L; Douglas, V I

    1992-09-01

    The usefulness of frontal lobe (FL) dysfunction as a conceptual model for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was investigated. Twenty-four ADHD and 24 normal control (NC) children were tested using two batteries of tasks. The first was sensitive to FL deficits in motor control and problem solving skills. The second consisted of memory tasks sensitive to temporal lobe dysfunction. ADHD children differed significantly from NCs on measures of FL function, but not on tests of temporal lobe functions. Where norms were available for normal children on the same FL tests, ADHDs performed like 6- to 7-year-olds, despite their mean age of 10 years and minimum age of 8 years. The differential performance of ADHDs on tasks sensitive to FL and temporal lobe dysfunction supports the hypothesis that ADHD deficits are analogous to FL dysfunction and demonstrates that the children's deficits do not reflect generalized cognitive impairment.

  16. Professor Perceptions of College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Teresa Ann; Weyandt, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: From April to June 2005, the authors investigated professor perceptions of college students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants: 253 participants completed the ADHD Beliefs Survey-Revised, a 40-question survey measuring professor perceptions of ADHD. Methods: Analysis of variance measured false and…

  17. Discovering Focus: Helping Students with ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valkenburg, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a neurological disorder which effects learning and that has a confusing set of diagnostic symptoms and an even more confusing set of remedies ranging from medication to meditation to nothing at all. Current neurological research suggests, however, that there are strategies that the individual with ADD can use to…

  18. [Management of learning disorders and attention deficit in children

    PubMed

    Araújo, Alexandra Prufer de Queiroz C

    2002-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: This review aims at providing pediatricians with an update on the main causes involved in low school achievement. A more detailed approach is given for the management and treatment of attention deficit hyperactive disorder. SOURCES: Data was obtained by a systematic review of published literature in Medline, through a search on Pubmed in the last five years. The key words used were learning disability, attention deficit, dyslexia (reading disorder) and dyscalculia (mathematical disorder). Studies focusing evaluation and management were retrieved. Governmental population educational data on literacy was also included. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Statistical medical Brazilian data on the subject is scarce. Hearing, visual and mental deficiency, together with attention deficit hyperactive disorder and specific learning disorders should be part of the differential diagnosis of children with poor school achievement. Development should be carefully followed until school entrance, particularly in children at risk. CONCLUSIONS: Therapy with stimulants, anti-depressive drugs or cloninidine with multimodal treatment improves school achievement in children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder. PMID:14676873

  19. Peer Victimization in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Judith; Mak, Meghan

    2009-01-01

    This study explored peer victimization in 9- to 14-year-old children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The sample comprised 104 children, 52 of whom had a previous ADHD diagnosis. Children with ADHD had higher overall rates of self-reported victimization by peers and parent- and teacher-reported bullying behavior…

  20. Relationship between Learning Problems and Attention Deficit in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponde, Milena Pereira; Cruz-Freire, Antonio Carlos; Silveira, Andre Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of attention deficit on learning problems in a sample of schoolchildren in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Method: All students enrolled in selected elementary schools were included in this study, making a total of 774 children. Each child was assessed by his or her teacher using a standardized scale. "The…

  1. Attention Deficit Syndrome: Educational Bugaboo of the 90s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Svea J.

    The increase in the diagnosis of attention deficit disorder (ADD) and the characteristics and treatment of ADD using sensory motor exercises are discussed. Reasons for the disability are explored, including neurological differences and difficulties in interpreting sensory input. Problems with focusing and hearing as well as hypersensitivity to…

  2. The Psychoeducational Link between Attention Deficit Disorder and Learning Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherkes-Julkowski, Miriam; And Others

    This paper examines cognitive processing problems associated with attention deficit disorders (ADD) and their relationship to learning disabilities in elementary and secondary students. Children with ADD, medicated (N=20) and unmedicated (N=21), were compared on the Raven test of Progressive Matrices and other tests with children who had been…

  3. The Use of Medication for Children with Attention Deficit Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    The efficacy of medications used to treat children with attention deficit disorders is reviewed, along with the importance of monitoring the medications' side effects. Medications reviewed include psychostimulants, tricyclic antidepressants, clonidine, and thyroid hormone. Factors to consider before recommendation of medication are listed.…

  4. Interference Control in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Mourik, Rosa; Papanikolau, Alky; van Gellicum-Bijlhout, Joyce; van Oostenbruggen, Janneke; Veugelers, Diane; Post-Uiterweer, Annebeth; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    The view that Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with a diminished ability to control interference is controversial and based exclusively on results of (verbal)-visual interference tasks, primarily the Stroop Color Word task. The present study compares medication-naive children with ADHD (n = 35 and n = 51 in Experiments…

  5. Language Impairment in the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a ubiquitous designation that affects the identification, assessment, treatment, and study of pediatric language impairments (LIs). Method: Current literature is reviewed in 4 areas: (a) the capacity of psycholinguistic, neuropsychological, and socioemotional behavioral indices to…

  6. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  7. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Decade of the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuwirth, Sharyn

    This guide to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is organized in three parts which address understanding the problem, getting help, and sustaining hope. A question-and-answer format addresses the following topics: symptoms of ADHD; other conditions which may produce similar symptoms; other disorders which may accompany ADHD; causes of…

  8. Test Anxiety and College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Test anxiety was examined in college students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results indicated that, relative to college students without ADHD, college students with ADHD reported higher total test anxiety as well as specific aspects of test anxiety, including worry (i.e., cognitive aspects of test anxiety) and…

  9. EEG Markers for Attention Deficit Disorder: Pharmacological and Neurofeedback Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterman, M. Barry

    2000-01-01

    Examined contribution of EEG findings in the classification and treatment of attention deficit and related behavioral problems in children. Found that quantitative EEG methods disclosed patterns of abnormality in children with ADD, suggested improved guidelines for pharmacological treatment, and introduced neurofeedback, a behavioral treatment for…

  10. The Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Marie; McClowry, Sandra Graham; Castellanos, Francisco X.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined empirical and theoretical differences and similarities between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and child temperament in 32 ADHD children aged 6-11 years, and a comparison group of 23 children with similar sociodemographic characteristics. Children were assessed for ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity, impulsivity, and…

  11. School-Based Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Brandon K.; Storer, Jennifer; Watabe, Yuko; Sadler, Joanna; Evans, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the research literature regarding school-based treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Students with ADHD often do not receive access to special services, even though the impairments associated with the disorder often compromise learning and cause concerns for classroom teachers, school administrators, and…

  12. School Experiences of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Judith; Daniels, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study of the school experiences of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the context of quantitative research on teacher attitudes and practices, adolescent self-appraisals, and social and family relationships. Twelve adolescents with ADHD participated in in-depth, semistructured…

  13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Early Identification Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fewell, Rebecca R.

    A major aim of this study was to determine if Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) type behaviors observed at the age of 30 months in low birth weight children are predictive of ADHD and school difficulties at 5 and 8 years of age. Three major questions were addressed: (1) Do children who exhibit ADHD characteristics at 30 months differ…

  14. DSM-5 further inflates attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Batstra, Laura; Frances, Allen

    2012-06-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prevalence and medication use unexpectedly increased significantly. In this article, we explore the DSM-5 proposals for ADHD that are likely to further increase its prevalence. We also address the possible harmful consequences of further expansion of this already broad, defined, and inflated DSM category.

  15. Emotional Intelligence in Learners with Attention Deficit Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wootton, Carol Anne; Roets, H. E.

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to analyse and evaluate the nature and quality of emotional intelligence in learners with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), and to investigate whether their emotional intelligence was enhanced, and whether the symptoms and behaviour of these learners improved, after exposure to a programme on emotional intelligence.…

  16. Issues in the Definition and Classification of Attention Deficit Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaywitz, Sally E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This discussion of issues of definition and classification of attention deficit disorder (ADD) emphasizes the heterogeneity of the diagnosis, the overlap of ADD with reading disability, and lack of consistency across studies. A systematic classification study is proposed to develop a unitary, empirically derived classification for ADD. (Author/DB)

  17. Executive Function in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Preeti; Sagar, Rajesh; Mehta, Manju

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess executive functions in medication naive children with attention deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD). Method: Group matched (age and gender) children with ADHD (N=30) and healthy children (N=30) in the age range of 6-14 years were compared on measures of executive functions (response inhibition, working memory, cognitive flexibility,…

  18. Emotion Regulation and Heterogeneity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musser, Erica D.; Galloway-Long, Hilary S.; Frick, Paul J.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: How best to capture heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using biomarkers has been elusive. This study evaluated whether emotion reactivity and regulation provide a means to achieve this. Method: Participants were classified into three groups: children with ADHD plus low prosocial behavior (hypothesized to be…

  19. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effective Methods for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Robert

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on two facets of treatment for students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: educational accommodations and interventions for promoting appropriate behavior. It provides information on environmental adaptations, guidelines for effective class rules, implementing response cost, levels of time out, implementing a token…

  20. Teens' Perceptions about Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipp, Diana K.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study describes teens' perceptions about attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) and medications. The four modes of adaptation of the Roy Adaptation Model were the framework for this study. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with 15 high school teens aged 14-17 with parent-reported AD/HD. An inductive…

  1. Pay Attention!: Sluggish Multisensory Attentional Shifting as a Core Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Krause, Margaret B

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a background on the neurocognitive aspects of the reading process and review neuroscientific studies of individuals with developmental dyslexia, which provide evidence for amodal processing deficits. Hari, Renvall, and Tanskanen (2001) propose amodal sluggish attentional shifting (SAS) as a causal factor for temporal processing deficits in dyslexia. Undergirding this theory is the notion that when dyslexics are faced with rapid sequences of stimuli, their automatic attentional systems fail to disengage efficiently, which leads to difficulty when moving from one item to the next (Lallier et al., ). This results in atypical perception of rapid stimulus sequences. Until recently, the SAS theory, particularly the examination of amodal attentional deficits, was studied solely through the use of behavioural measures (Facoetti et al., ; Facoetti, Lorusso, Cattaneo, Galli, & Molteni, ). This paper examines evidence within the literature that provides a basis for further exploration of amodal SAS as an underlying deficit in developmental dyslexia.

  2. A chaotic model of sustaining attention problem in attention deficit disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghdadi, G.; Jafari, S.; Sprott, J. C.; Towhidkhah, F.; Hashemi Golpayegani, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of keeping an attention level is one of the common symptoms of attention deficit disorder. Dopamine deficiency is introduced as one of the causes of this disorder. Based on some physiological facts about the attention control mechanism and chaos intermittency, a behavioral model is presented in this paper. This model represents the problem of undesired alternation of attention level, and can also suggest different valuable predictions about a possible cause of attention deficit disorder. The proposed model reveals that there is a possible interaction between different neurotransmitters which help the individual to adaptively inhibit the attention switching over time. The result of this study can be used to examine and develop a new practical and more appropriate treatment for the problem of sustaining attention.

  3. Cardiovascular considerations of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications: a report of the European Network on Hyperactivity Disorders work group, European Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Guidelines Group on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder drug safety meeting.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Robert M; Rosenthal, Eric; Hulpke-Wette, Martin; Graham, John G I; Sergeant, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    Regulatory decisions regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder drug licensing and labelling, along with recent statements from professional associations, raise questions of practice regarding the evaluation and treatment of patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. To address these issues for the European community, the European Network for Hyperkinetic Disorders, through its European Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Guidelines Group, organised a meeting between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder specialists, paediatric cardiovascular specialists, and representatives of the major market authorisation holders for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications. This manuscript represents their consensus on cardiovascular aspects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications. Although sudden death has been identified in multiple young individuals on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medication causing regulatory concern, when analysed for exposure using currently available data, sudden death does not appear to exceed that of the general population. There is no current evidence to suggest an incremental benefit to electrocardiography assessment of the general attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patient. Congenital heart disease patients have an increased prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and can benefit from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder therapies, including medication. The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder specialist is the appropriate individual to evaluate benefit and risk and recommend therapy in all patients, although discussion with a heart specialist is reasonable for congenital heart disease patients. For attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients with suspected heart disease or risk factor/s for sudden death, assessment by a heart specialist is recommended, as would also be the case for a non-attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patient. The

  4. Co-occurrence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms with other psychopathology in young adults: parenting style as a moderator.

    PubMed

    Ni, Hsing-Chang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-02-01

    The extent to which parenting styles can influence secondary psychiatric symptoms among young adults with ADHD symptoms is unknown. This issue was investigated in a sample of 2284 incoming college students (male, 50.6%), who completed standardized questionnaires about adult ADHD symptoms, other DSM-IV symptoms, and their parents' parenting styles before their ages of 16. Among them, 2.8% and 22.8% were classified as having ADHD symptoms and sub-threshold ADHD symptoms, respectively. Logistic regression was used to compare the comorbid rates of psychiatric symptoms among the ADHD, sub-threshold ADHD and non-ADHD groups while multiple linear regressions were used to examine the moderating role of gender and parenting styles over the associations between ADHD and other psychiatric symptoms. Both ADHD groups were significantly more likely than other incoming students to have other DSM-IV symptoms. Parental care was negatively associated and parental overprotection/control positively associated with these psychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, significant interactions were found of parenting style with both threshold and sub-threshold ADHD in predicting wide-ranging comorbid symptoms. Specifically, the associations of ADHD with some externalizing symptoms were inversely related to level of paternal care, while associations of ADHD and sub-threshold ADHD with wide-ranging comorbid symptoms were positively related to level of maternal and paternal overprotection/control. These results suggest that parenting styles may modify the effects of ADHD on the risk of a wide range of temporally secondary DSM-IV symptoms among incoming college students, although other causal dynamics might be at work that need to be investigated in longitudinal studies. PMID:25465651

  5. Co-occurrence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms with other psychopathology in young adults: parenting style as a moderator.

    PubMed

    Ni, Hsing-Chang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-02-01

    The extent to which parenting styles can influence secondary psychiatric symptoms among young adults with ADHD symptoms is unknown. This issue was investigated in a sample of 2284 incoming college students (male, 50.6%), who completed standardized questionnaires about adult ADHD symptoms, other DSM-IV symptoms, and their parents' parenting styles before their ages of 16. Among them, 2.8% and 22.8% were classified as having ADHD symptoms and sub-threshold ADHD symptoms, respectively. Logistic regression was used to compare the comorbid rates of psychiatric symptoms among the ADHD, sub-threshold ADHD and non-ADHD groups while multiple linear regressions were used to examine the moderating role of gender and parenting styles over the associations between ADHD and other psychiatric symptoms. Both ADHD groups were significantly more likely than other incoming students to have other DSM-IV symptoms. Parental care was negatively associated and parental overprotection/control positively associated with these psychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, significant interactions were found of parenting style with both threshold and sub-threshold ADHD in predicting wide-ranging comorbid symptoms. Specifically, the associations of ADHD with some externalizing symptoms were inversely related to level of paternal care, while associations of ADHD and sub-threshold ADHD with wide-ranging comorbid symptoms were positively related to level of maternal and paternal overprotection/control. These results suggest that parenting styles may modify the effects of ADHD on the risk of a wide range of temporally secondary DSM-IV symptoms among incoming college students, although other causal dynamics might be at work that need to be investigated in longitudinal studies.

  6. Differential Effects of Methylphenidate on Attentional Functions in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrad, Kerstin; Gunther, Thomas; Hanisch, Charlotte; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of methylphenidate on different attentional functions and behavior in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: A total of 60 ADHD children aged between 8 and 12 years completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover trial with two doses of…

  7. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention Seeking? Ways of Distinguishing Two Common Childhood Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellor, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    Nigel Mellor recently retired from his work with the educational psychology service in North Tyneside. In this article, he proposes that attention-seeking behaviour may lead to major difficulties at home and school and indicates the ways in which recent research is beginning to clarify the area. Attention deficit disorders also cause great…

  8. Prefrontal and Executive Attention Network Lesions and the Development of Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Symptomatology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max, Jeffrey E.; Manes, Facundo F.; Robertson, Brigitte A.M.; Mathews, Katherine; Fox, Peter T.; Lancaster, Jack

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between focal stroke lesions of Posner's executive attention network and a specific region of interest in the frontal lobes (orbital frontal and mesial frontal) and either attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or traits of the disorder (ADHD symptomatology). Method: Twenty-nine children with…

  9. A review of executive function deficits in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Francesco; Margari, Francesco; Legrottaglie, Anna R; Palumbi, Roberto; de Giambattista, Concetta; Margari, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Executive dysfunction has been shown to be a promising endophenotype in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article reviewed 26 studies that examined executive function comparing ASD and/or ADHD children. In light of findings from this review, the ASD + ADHD group appears to share impairment in both flexibility and planning with the ASD group, while it shares the response inhibition deficit with the ADHD group. Conversely, deficit in attention, working memory, preparatory processes, fluency, and concept formation does not appear to be distinctive in discriminating from ASD, ADHD, or ASD + ADHD group. On the basis of neurocognitive endophenotype, the common co-occurrence of executive function deficits seems to reflect an additive comorbidity, rather than a separate condition with distinct impairments. PMID:27274255

  10. Disentangling the attentional deficit in schizophrenia: pointers from schizotypy.

    PubMed

    Le Pelley, M E; Schmidt-Hansen, Mia; Harris, Naomi Jane; Lunter, Catherine Maria; Morris, Charlotte Sonia

    2010-04-30

    It has been argued that schizophrenia is associated with abnormalities in the allocation of attention, and that such abnormalities extend to members of the healthy population who are high in schizotypy; however, alternative interpretations of previous experimental evidence relating to this issue are possible. We present a learned irrelevance paradigm that provides a less equivocal measure of attentional processing during learning, and demonstrate a reliable reduction in learned irrelevance among healthy participants with high scores on a dimension of schizotypy corresponding to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. These results support the suggestion that high schizotypy (and, by extension, schizophrenia) is associated with deficits in the appropriate allocation of attention.

  11. Developmental pesticide exposure reproduces features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Jason R.; Taylor, Michele M.; Shalat, Stuart L.; Guillot, Thomas S.; Caudle, W. Michael; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Mathews, Tiffany A.; Jones, Sara R.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Miller, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated to affect 8–12% of school-age children worldwide. ADHD is a complex disorder with significant genetic contributions. However, no single gene has been linked to a significant percentage of cases, suggesting that environmental factors may contribute to ADHD. Here, we used behavioral, molecular, and neurochemical techniques to characterize the effects of developmental exposure to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin. We also used epidemiologic methods to determine whether there is an association between pyrethroid exposure and diagnosis of ADHD. Mice exposed to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin during development exhibit several features reminiscent of ADHD, including elevated dopamine transporter (DAT) levels, hyperactivity, working memory and attention deficits, and impulsive-like behavior. Increased DAT and D1 dopamine receptor levels appear to be responsible for the behavioral deficits. Epidemiologic data reveal that children aged 6–15 with detectable levels of pyrethroid metabolites in their urine were more than twice as likely to be diagnosed with ADHD. Our epidemiologic finding, combined with the recapitulation of ADHD behavior in pesticide-treated mice, provides a mechanistic basis to suggest that developmental pyrethroid exposure is a risk factor for ADHD.—Richardson, J. R., Taylor, M. M., Shalat, S. L., Guillot III, T. S., Caudle, W. M., Hossain, M. M., Mathews, T. A., Jones, S. R., Cory-Slechta, D. A., Miller, G. W. Developmental pesticide exposure reproduces features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:25630971

  12. Timing deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): evidence from neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M; Rubia, Katya

    2013-01-01

    Relatively recently, neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies have indicated that individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have deficits in a range of timing functions and their underlying neural networks. Despite this evidence, timing deficits in ADHD are still somewhat neglected in the literature and mostly omitted from reviews on ADHD. There is therefore a lack of integrative reviews on the up-to-date evidence on neurocognitive and neurofunctional deficits of timing in ADHD and their significance with respect to other behavioural and cognitive deficits. The present review provides a synthetic overview of the evidence for neurocognitive and neurofunctional deficits in ADHD in timing functions, and integrates this evidence with the cognitive neuroscience literature of the neural substrates of timing. The review demonstrates that ADHD patients are consistently impaired in three major timing domains, in motor timing, perceptual timing and temporal foresight, comprising several timeframes spanning milliseconds, seconds, minutes and longer intervals up to years. The most consistent impairments in ADHD are found in sensorimotor synchronisation, duration discrimination, reproduction and delay discounting. These neurocognitive findings of timing deficits in ADHD are furthermore supported by functional neuroimaging studies that show dysfunctions in the key inferior fronto-striato-cerebellar and fronto-parietal networks that mediate the timing functions. Although there is evidence that these timing functions are inter-correlated with other executive functions that are well established to be impaired in the disorder, in particular working memory, attention, and to a lesser degree inhibitory control, the key timing deficits appear to survive when these functions are controlled for, suggesting independent cognitive deficits in the temporal domain. There is furthermore strong evidence for an association between timing deficits and behavioural

  13. Relationship between acne vulgaris and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a clinical sample of women*

    PubMed Central

    Bilgic, Ayhan; Bilgic, Özlem; Çolak, Rukiye Sivri; Altınyazar, Hilmi Cevdet

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris has recently been reported to be associated with elevated rates of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in epidemiological studies. This report examines childhood and current attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a clinical sample of female adults. Ninety-one women with acne vulgaris and 53 controls were included in this study. The aforementioned symptoms were measured in participants. No significant differences were found between patients and controls in any of the measurements. Contrary to the findings of epidemiological studies, this study did not uncover a link between acne vulgaris and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder PMID:27192533

  14. Deficits in reflexive covert attention following cerebellar injury.

    PubMed

    Striemer, Christopher L; Cantelmi, David; Cusimano, Michael D; Danckert, James A; Schweizer, Tom A

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally the cerebellum has been known for its important role in coordinating motor output. Over the past 15 years numerous studies have indicated that the cerebellum plays a role in a variety of cognitive functions including working memory, language, perceptual functions, and emotion. In addition, recent work suggests that regions of the cerebellum involved in eye movements also play a role in controlling covert visual attention. Here we investigated whether regions of the cerebellum that are not strictly tied to the control of eye movements might also contribute to covert attention. To address this question we examined the effects of circumscribed cerebellar lesions on reflexive covert attention in a group of patients (n = 11) without any gross motor or oculomotor deficits, and compared their performance to a group of age-matched controls (n = 11). Results indicated that the traditional RT advantage for validly cued targets was significantly smaller at the shortest (50 ms) SOA for cerebellar patients compared to controls. Critically, a lesion overlap analysis indicated that this deficit in the rapid deployment of attention was linked to damage in Crus I and Crus II of the lateral cerebellum. Importantly, both cerebellar regions have connections to non-motor regions of the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices-regions important for controlling visuospatial attention. Together, these data provide converging evidence that both lateral and midline regions of the cerebellum play an important role in the control of reflexive covert visual attention.

  15. Deficits in reflexive covert attention following cerebellar injury.

    PubMed

    Striemer, Christopher L; Cantelmi, David; Cusimano, Michael D; Danckert, James A; Schweizer, Tom A

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally the cerebellum has been known for its important role in coordinating motor output. Over the past 15 years numerous studies have indicated that the cerebellum plays a role in a variety of cognitive functions including working memory, language, perceptual functions, and emotion. In addition, recent work suggests that regions of the cerebellum involved in eye movements also play a role in controlling covert visual attention. Here we investigated whether regions of the cerebellum that are not strictly tied to the control of eye movements might also contribute to covert attention. To address this question we examined the effects of circumscribed cerebellar lesions on reflexive covert attention in a group of patients (n = 11) without any gross motor or oculomotor deficits, and compared their performance to a group of age-matched controls (n = 11). Results indicated that the traditional RT advantage for validly cued targets was significantly smaller at the shortest (50 ms) SOA for cerebellar patients compared to controls. Critically, a lesion overlap analysis indicated that this deficit in the rapid deployment of attention was linked to damage in Crus I and Crus II of the lateral cerebellum. Importantly, both cerebellar regions have connections to non-motor regions of the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices-regions important for controlling visuospatial attention. Together, these data provide converging evidence that both lateral and midline regions of the cerebellum play an important role in the control of reflexive covert visual attention. PMID:26300756

  16. Deficits in reflexive covert attention following cerebellar injury

    PubMed Central

    Striemer, Christopher L.; Cantelmi, David; Cusimano, Michael D.; Danckert, James A.; Schweizer, Tom A.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally the cerebellum has been known for its important role in coordinating motor output. Over the past 15 years numerous studies have indicated that the cerebellum plays a role in a variety of cognitive functions including working memory, language, perceptual functions, and emotion. In addition, recent work suggests that regions of the cerebellum involved in eye movements also play a role in controlling covert visual attention. Here we investigated whether regions of the cerebellum that are not strictly tied to the control of eye movements might also contribute to covert attention. To address this question we examined the effects of circumscribed cerebellar lesions on reflexive covert attention in a group of patients (n = 11) without any gross motor or oculomotor deficits, and compared their performance to a group of age-matched controls (n = 11). Results indicated that the traditional RT advantage for validly cued targets was significantly smaller at the shortest (50 ms) SOA for cerebellar patients compared to controls. Critically, a lesion overlap analysis indicated that this deficit in the rapid deployment of attention was linked to damage in Crus I and Crus II of the lateral cerebellum. Importantly, both cerebellar regions have connections to non-motor regions of the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices—regions important for controlling visuospatial attention. Together, these data provide converging evidence that both lateral and midline regions of the cerebellum play an important role in the control of reflexive covert visual attention. PMID:26300756

  17. Project DyAdd: Visual Attention in Adult Dyslexia and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Marja; Salomaa, Jonna; Cousineau, Denis; Leppamaki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Hokkanen, Laura; Dye, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    In this study of the project DyAdd, three aspects of visual attention were investigated in adults (18-55 years) with dyslexia (n = 35) or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n = 22), and in healthy controls (n = 35). Temporal characteristics of visual attention were assessed with Attentional Blink (AB), capacity of visual attention…

  18. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Measures in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    WU, STEVE W; GILBERT, DONALD L; SHAHANA, NASRIN; HUDDLESTON, DAVID A; MOSTOFSKY, STEWART H

    2012-01-01

    Children affected by Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder have diminished intra-hemispheric inhibition (Short Interval Cortical Inhibition) as measured by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. This study’s objective is to determine whether inter-hemispheric inhibition (Ipsilateral Silent Period Latency) correlates with clinical behavioral rating and motor control deficits of affected children. In 114 8–12 year old, right-handed children (age/sex-matched, 50 affected, 64 controls), we performed comprehensive assessments of behavior, motor skills and cognition. Using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, we reliably elicited Ipsilateral Silent Period in 54 children (23 affected) - all were on average older than those who had unobtainable measures. Mean Ipsilateral Silent Period latency was 5 milliseconds longer in the affected group (p=0.007). Longer latencies correlated with more severe behavioral symptom scores (r=0.38, p=0.007), particularly hyperactivity (r=0.39, p=0.006), as well as with worse motor ratings on the Physical and Neurological Examination for Soft Signs (r=0.27, p=0.05). Longer latency also correlated with Short Interval Cortical Inhibition (r=0.36, p=0.008). In conclusion, longer Ipsilateral Silent Period latencies suggest interhemispheric inhibitory signaling is slower in affected children. The deficit in this inhibitory measure may underlie developmental, behavioral and motor impairments in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. PMID:22883282

  19. A peripheral reading deficit under conditions of diffuse visual attention.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, G W; Mayall, K

    2001-09-01

    We report a single case study of a patient, FL, who has a peripheral dyslexia with symptoms resembling attentional dyslexia. FL demonstrated impaired identification of letters within strings, and better identification of words than their constituent letters. We found that FL was impaired at both letter counting and same-case letter matching with letter strings, and his matching and naming performance were strongly affected by letter spacing. The effects of these visual variables on performance suggest an early locus to FL's deficit. We propose that letter identification was disrupted by abnormal lateral masking and poor location coding within words. These peripheral processing deficits were reduced when the task required focused attention on the central letter location. Nevertheless, even with impaired letter coding, word representations could be accessed to some degree, via supra-letter units. We discuss the implications of the data for understanding normal reading.

  20. Sleep in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kanwaljit; Zimmerman, Andrew W

    2015-06-01

    Sleep problems are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sleep problems in these disorders may not only worsen daytime behaviors and core symptoms of ASD and ADHD but also contribute to parental stress levels. Therefore, the presence of sleep problems in ASD and ADHD requires prompt attention and management. This article is presented in 2 sections, one each for ASD and ADHD. First, a detailed literature review about the burden and prevalence of different types of sleep disorders is presented, followed by the pathophysiology and etiology of the sleep problems and evaluation and management of sleep disorders in ASD and ADHD. PMID:26072341

  1. Sleep Restores Daytime Deficits in Procedural Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Molzow, Ina; Munz, Manuel; Wilhelm, Ines; Muller, Kathrin; Freytag, Damaris; Wiesner, Christian D.; Baving, Lioba

    2011-01-01

    Sleep supports the consolidation of declarative and procedural memory. While prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity supports the consolidation of declarative memory during sleep, opposite effects of PFC activity are reported with respect to the consolidation of procedural memory during sleep. Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…

  2. The effect of methylphenidate on sustained attention among adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Lufi, Dubi; Bassin-Savion, Shiry; Rubel, Lilach

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-seven adolescents diagnosed as having attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were tested twice with a computerized MATH-CPT (mathematics continuous performance test). In one administration, the participants took medication (methylphenidate, MPH) 1.5 hr before being tested. In another administration, the MATH-CPT was administered without the medication. Treatment with MPH improved the "overall attention level" and in measures of "reaction time" and "impulsivity." MPH did not improve the performance in the four measures of sustained attention. Knowing that treatment with MPH does not improve sustained attention can be helpful in reaching a decision of whether or not a child should be treated with MPH.

  3. Helping adolescents with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder transition toward adulthood.

    PubMed

    Gotlieb, Edward M; Gotlieb, Jaquelin S

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians can help adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder prepare to enter post-high school training and the workforce. In this article peer-reviewed studies and other resources for informing patients of the issues ahead are identified. We discuss preventive counseling, including long-term monitoring, adherence to treatment, driving, tobacco, alcohol, and other drug usage, career planning, and intimacy. The current status of insurance coverage for young adults and federal programs to assist students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are reviewed also. Consideration is given for applying for precollege testing and college accommodations and traveling abroad with medications. Pediatricians and young adults are directed to Web-based and other self-management information and tools. PMID:19492699

  4. Parenting Behavior and Cognitions in a Community Sample of Mothers with and without Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Tracy; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.; Mash, Eric J.; Semple, Deborah L.

    2008-01-01

    Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults has recently emerged as an important area of research, little attention has been given to the family functioning of women with ADHD, particularly in their role as mothers. We examined parenting self-esteem, locus of control, and disciplinary styles in a community sample of mothers…

  5. Developmental pesticide exposure reproduces features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jason R; Taylor, Michele M; Shalat, Stuart L; Guillot, Thomas S; Caudle, W Michael; Hossain, Muhammad M; Mathews, Tiffany A; Jones, Sara R; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Miller, Gary W

    2015-05-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated to affect 8-12% of school-age children worldwide. ADHD is a complex disorder with significant genetic contributions. However, no single gene has been linked to a significant percentage of cases, suggesting that environmental factors may contribute to ADHD. Here, we used behavioral, molecular, and neurochemical techniques to characterize the effects of developmental exposure to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin. We also used epidemiologic methods to determine whether there is an association between pyrethroid exposure and diagnosis of ADHD. Mice exposed to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin during development exhibit several features reminiscent of ADHD, including elevated dopamine transporter (DAT) levels, hyperactivity, working memory and attention deficits, and impulsive-like behavior. Increased DAT and D1 dopamine receptor levels appear to be responsible for the behavioral deficits. Epidemiologic data reveal that children aged 6-15 with detectable levels of pyrethroid metabolites in their urine were more than twice as likely to be diagnosed with ADHD. Our epidemiologic finding, combined with the recapitulation of ADHD behavior in pesticide-treated mice, provides a mechanistic basis to suggest that developmental pyrethroid exposure is a risk factor for ADHD.

  6. The dopamine theory of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Levy, F

    1991-06-01

    Clinical, animal and neuroanatomical studies of differential isomer and dosage effects of CNS stimulant medications on behaviour are reviewed. Wender's hypothesis that an underlying biochemical abnormality and a disorder of reinforcement was the primary deficit in "MBD" children is restated in terms of a disorder of polysynaptic dopaminergic circuits, between prefrontal and striate centres. Wender's notion of a disorder of reinforcement is broadened to include a disorder of planning and correction of behaviour, including capacity for cortical control of automatic instinctual motor programmes. The dopamine hypothesis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is examined from the point of view of differential dose effects of CNS stimulant medications, and theories of neural control. Clinical, animal and neuropharmacological studies are reviewed. Implications of the findings for understanding clinical and side effects in ADHD children of stimulants are discussed.

  7. Psychosocial treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children.

    PubMed

    Barkley, Russell A

    2002-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of the major psychosocial treatments that have some efficacy for the management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Parent training in effective child behavior management methods, classroom behavior modification methods and academic interventions, and special educational placement appear to have the greatest promise of efficacy. Augmenting these, additional family therapy in problem-solving and communication skills and the coordination of multiple school resources across the day may be necessary. To be effective in improving prognosis, treatments must be maintained over extended periods of time. PMID:12562060

  8. Psychosocial interventions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: update.

    PubMed

    Antshel, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common reason for referral to child and adolescent psychiatry clinics. Although stimulant medications represent an evidence-based approach to managing ADHD, psychosocial interventions for child/adolescent ADHD target functional impairments as the intervention goal, and rely heavily on behavioral therapy techniques and operant conditioning principles. Evidence-based psychosocial interventions for managing pediatric ADHD include behavioral parent training, school-based interventions relying on behavioral modification, teaching skills, and operant conditioning principles, and intensive summer treatment programs. The use of conjoint psychosocial treatments with ADHD medications may enable lower doses of each form of treatment. PMID:25455577

  9. Psychosocial treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children.

    PubMed

    Barkley, Russell A

    2002-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of the major psychosocial treatments that have some efficacy for the management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Parent training in effective child behavior management methods, classroom behavior modification methods and academic interventions, and special educational placement appear to have the greatest promise of efficacy. Augmenting these, additional family therapy in problem-solving and communication skills and the coordination of multiple school resources across the day may be necessary. To be effective in improving prognosis, treatments must be maintained over extended periods of time.

  10. The Experience of Mothers and Teachers of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Children, and Their Management Practices for the Behaviors of the Child a Descriptive Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harazni, Lubna; Alkaissi, Aidah

    2016-01-01

    ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) is a childhood disorder affecting children worldwide and has a major burden on the child, family and other caregivers. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate and describe the experience of the adults that interact on a daily basis with school-aged children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity…

  11. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Eileen

    2008-10-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent, chronic, and pervasive childhood disorder characterized by developmentally inappropriate activity level, impulsivity, and inability to sustain attention and concentration. Core symptoms of the disorder are associated with impairment in multiple domains of functioning and often coexist with other psychiatric disorders, the most prevalent being oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, depression, and anxiety disorders. Concerns have been expressed about the overdiagnosis of ADHD, an upsurge in prescription of stimulant medication, and wide variations in practice patterns related to diagnosis and treatment of children with ADHD among primary care providers. Clinical research and expert consensus guidelines over the past decade have increasingly clarified the most effective approaches to diagnosis and treatment of the disorder. Hence, the purpose of this article was to provide primary care providers with the most current, evidence-based information on the assessment and treatment of children with ADHD.

  12. [Autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: pharmacological intervention].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Jaén, Alberto; Martín Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel; Fernández-Perrone, Ana Laura; Calleja-Pérez, Beatriz; Muñoz-Jareño, Nuria; López-Arribas, Sonia

    2013-09-01

    The cardinal symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)--inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness--are not specific and may be found in the general population and in other disorders. These symptoms are present in over 50% of patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It thus seems quite clear that both problems can coexist in these patients. The usual pharmacological treatments for ADHD, methylphenidate and atomoxetine, appear to be useful in reducing the above-mentioned symptoms in patients with ADHD and ASD. Effectiveness seems to be lower in patients with ASD and tolerance is slightly poorer. This may be conditioned by a number of variables, including: the complexity of ASD, association with mental retardation, polypharmacotherapy, and so on. Given the long-term tolerance profile of methylphenidate and atomoxetine, these treatments appear to be a good alternative with which to improve the problems of attention and self-control these patients have. Nevertheless, further controlled studies are needed to confirm this proposition.

  13. Intervention for executive functions in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Amanda; Dias, Natália Martins; Trevisan, Bruna Tonietti; Carreiro, Luiz Renato R; Seabra, Alessandra Gotuzo

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate if an executive functions (EF) intervention could promote these skills in individuals with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Eighteen children and adolescents, 7-13 years old, divided into experimental (EG, N = 8) and control (CG, N = 10) groups, were assessed in the Block Design and Vocabulary subtests of the WISC III and seven tests of EF. Parents answered two scales, measuring EF and inattention and hyperactivity signs. EG children participated in a program to promote EF in twice-weekly group sessions of one hour each. After 8 months of intervention, groups were assessed again. ANCOVA, controlling for age, intelligence quotient and pretest performance, revealed gains in attention/inhibition and auditory working memory measures for the EG. No effect was found for scales or measures of more complex EF. Results are not conclusive, but they illustrate some promising data about EF interventions in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  14. Common Cognitive Deficits in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism: Working Memory and Visual-Motor Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englund, Julia A.; Decker, Scott L.; Allen, Ryan A.; Roberts, Alycia M.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in working memory (WM) are characteristic features of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism. However, few studies have investigated cognitive deficits using a wide range of cognitive measures. We compared children with ADHD ("n" = 49) and autism ("n" = 33) with a demographically matched…

  15. [Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or bipolar disorder in childhood?].

    PubMed

    Lazaratou, H

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood, characterized by inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. Even though a strict definition of this entity is constantly sought, ADHD is an often redefined and reconceptualized syndrome. Epidemiological studies show large differences in the incidence, pointing out that the effort of actual taxonomic systems to offer objective diagnostic criteria have not yielded substantial results. Bipolar Disorder (BD) with onset in childhood is distinguished from the adult form by the scarcity of affective symptoms. Very often, neither depressive mood, nor hypomanic euphoria are in the front line being covered by irritability with crises of violence. Children or adolescents have consecutive cycles, which include brief episodes of depressive, hypomanic, manic or mixed periods without free intervals. There was a delay in the recognition of this clinical picture. Τhe diagnostic criteria in the actual taxonomic systems are not separated from those of adults and according to some studies the disorder is under diagnosed mainly in European countries. The contemporary literature deals largely with the relationship ADHD - BD in young people because the two disorders share the same clinical picture with slight variations. Τhe differential diagnosis in favor of BD is mainly based on the presence of affective disorders in the family. The main questions raised are whether there is comorbidity, whether ADHD is overdiagnosed against BD or whether ADHD represents a prodromal manifestation of early onset BD. Children with comorbid ADHD and BD tend to express mostly a stimulant phenotype with a chronic course and have higher rates of antisocial conduct disorder. This particular phenotype suggests a symptomatic continuum between ADHD and early onset BD which is possibly responsible for the difficulties met in differential diagnosis and differences in the rates of

  16. Crossing the midline: reducing attentional deficits via interhemispheric interactions.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Joseph L; Wong, Yuting; Robertson, Lynn C

    2005-01-01

    Patients with unilateral neglect and extinction show a profound lack of awareness of stimuli presented contralateral to their lesion. However, many processes of perception are intact and contralesional stimuli seem to reach a high level of representation, perceptual and semantic. Some of these processes can work to decrease the magnitude of the attentional deficit. Here, we examine two of these intact processes, feature detection and perceptual grouping. First, we demonstrate that feature detection occurs in parallel in the contralesional visual fields of neglect and extinction patients. Second, we attempt to dissociate the influence of perceptual contours across the vertical meridian from the presence of an object or higher-level perceptual unit (or group) that may be created by these contours. We find that connections across the midline affect attentional deficits independently of the objects they may create. This suggests that several effects of grouping on neglect and extinction may be mediated by long-range cortical interactions that arise from connections across the vertical meridian.

  17. Effects of megavitamin therapy on children with attention deficit disorders.

    PubMed

    Haslam, R H; Dalby, J T; Rademaker, A W

    1984-07-01

    The effectiveness of a megavitamin regimen utilizing a two-stage trial in 41 subjects with attention deficit disorders was studied. Stage 1 was a 3-month clinical trial of vitamins (daily maximum: 3 g of niacinamide and ascorbic acid, 1.2 g of calcium pantothenate, and 0.6 g of pyridoxine). State 2 consisted of four, 6-week, double-blind repeated crossover periods. Twenty-nine per cent of the subjects showed significant behavior improvement during stage 1, and these subjects were used in the double-blind crossover phase of the study to evaluate megavitamin therapy. Using analysis of variance methods for crossover studies, there was no significant difference (P greater than .05) in most behavior scores between children receiving vitamin and those receiving placebo during stage 2. Children exhibited 25% more disruptive classroom behavior when treated with vitamins v placebo (P less than .01). There was no significant difference in serum pyridoxine and ascorbic acid levels between subjects and control subjects. Forty-two per cent of subjects exceeded the upper limits of serum transaminase levels while receiving vitamins. It is concluded that megavitamins are ineffective in the management of attention deficit disorders and should not be utilized because of their potential hepatotoxicity. PMID:6234505

  18. Attentional Profiles and White Matter Correlates in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Type

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Adriana Suzart Ungaretti; de Moura, Luciana Monteiro; de Mello, Claudia Berlim; de Souza, Altay Alves Lino; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I) and 29 matched controls, aged 7–15 years, had their attentional abilities assessed through the Conners’ continuous performance test. Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected for all of the participants using a 3.0-T MRI system. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained for 20 fiber tracts, and brain-behavior correlations were calculated for 42 of the children. The ADHD-I children differed significantly from the typically developing (TD) children with respect to attentional measures, such as the ability to maintain response-time consistency throughout the task (Hit RT SE and Variability), vigilance (Hit RT ISI and Hit RT ISI SE), processing speed (Hit RT), selective attention (Omissions), sustained attention (Hit RT Block Change), error profile (Response Style), and inhibitory control (Perseverations). Evidence of significant differences between the ADHD-I and the TD participants was not found with respect to the mean FA values in the fiber tracts analyzed. Moderate and strong correlations between performance on the attention indicators and the tract-average FA values were found for the ADHD-I group. Our results contribute to a better characterization of the attentional profile of ADHD-I individuals and suggest that in children and adolescents with ADHD-I, attentional performance is mainly associated with the white matter structure of the long associative fibers that connect anterior–posterior brain areas. PMID:26441684

  19. Attention-deficit disorder (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder without hyperactivity): A neurobiologically and behaviorally distinct disorder from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (with hyperactivity)

    PubMed Central

    DIAMOND, ADELE

    2006-01-01

    Most studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have focused on the combined type and emphasized a core problem in response inhibition. It is proposed here that the core problem in the truly inattentive type of ADHD (not simply the subthreshold combined type) is in working memory. It is further proposed that laboratory measures, such as complex-span and dual-task dichotic listening tasks, can detect this. Children with the truly inattentive type of ADHD, rather than being distractible, may instead be easily bored, their problem being more in motivation (under-arousal) than in inhibitory control. Much converging evidence points to a primary disturbance in the striatum (a frontal–striatal loop) in the combined type of ADHD. It is proposed here that the primary disturbance in truly inattentive-type ADHD (ADD) is in the cortex (a frontal–parietal loop). Finally, it is posited that these are not two different types of ADHD, but two different disorders with different cognitive and behavioral profiles, different patterns of comorbidities, different responses to medication, and different underlying neurobiologies. PMID:16262993

  20. Motor preparation, motor execution, attention, and executive functions in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Klimkeit, Ester I; Mattingley, Jason B; Sheppard, Dianne M; Lee, Paul; Bradshaw, John L

    2005-04-01

    Attention and executive functions were investigated in medicated and unmedicated children with ADHD combined type using a novel selective reaching task. This task involved responding as rapidly as possible to a target while at times having to ignore a distractor. Results indicated that unmedicated children with ADHD showed slow and inaccurate responding. Slow responding reflected problems at the stage of movement preparation but not movement execution. An attentional impairment, rather than a motor planning problem per se, appeared to underlie the slow movement preparation. Inaccurate responding reflected problems with response inhibition and selective attention, impulsivity, set-shifting, and difficulties in maintaining vigilance. Although medicated children with ADHD did not show slow movement preparation, they did show some response inaccuracy, resulting especially from impulsive responding. These findings suggest that ADHD is characterized by slow motor preparation (but not motor execution), and deficits in selective attention, vigilance, and executive functions. Preliminary results suggest that stimulant medication may resolve some of these motor, attentional and executive function deficits.

  1. Working Memory Deficits Affect Risky Decision-Making in Methamphetamine Users with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Nichole A.; Woods, Steven Paul; Rooney, Alexandra; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Grant, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) use and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) commonly co-occur and are independently associated with dysregulation of frontostriatal loops and risky decision-making; however, whether their comorbidity exacerbates risky decision-making is not known. This study evaluated 23 participants with histories of MA dependence and ADHD (MA+ADHD+), 25 subjects with MA dependence alone (MA+ADHD−), and 22 healthy adults (MA−ADHD−), who completed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) as part of a larger neuropsychiatric research evaluation. Results showed a significant interaction between ADHD, MA, and working memory, such that individuals with working memory deficits in the ADHD+MA+ cohort demonstrated the strongest propensity to select cards from “disadvantageous” versus “advantageous” decks on the IGT. This effect was unique to working memory and was not better explained by other psychiatric, substance use, or neuromedical factors. Findings suggest that working memory deficits may moderate the expression of risky decision-making in MA users with ADHD. PMID:22305489

  2. Emotional dysregulation and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Stringaris, Argyris; Nigg, Joel; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    It has long been recognized that many individuals with ADHD also have difficulties with emotion regulation but lack of consensus on how to conceptualize this clinically challenging domain renders a review timely. The authors examine the current literature using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Three key findings emerge. First, emotion dysregulation is prevalent in ADHD throughout the lifespan and is a major contributor to impairment. Second, emotion dysregulation in ADHD may arise from deficits in orienting towards, recognizing and/or allocating attention to emotional stimuli; these deficits that implicate dysfunction within a striato-amygdalo-medial prefrontal cortical network. Third, while current treatments for ADHD often also ameliorate emotion dysregulation, a focus on this combination of symptoms reframes clinical questions and could stimulate novel therapeutic approaches. Three models to explain the overlap between emotion dysregulation and ADHD are considered: emotion dysregulation and ADHD are correlated but distinct dimensions; emotion dysregulation is a core, diagnostic feature of ADHD; and the combination constitutes a nosological entity, distinct from both ADHD and emotion dysreguation alone. The differing predictions from each model can guide future research into this much-neglected population. PMID:24480998

  3. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and adverse health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Nigg, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined by extreme levels of inattention–disorganization and/or hyperactivity–impulsivity. In DSM-IV, the diagnostic criteria required impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. With DSM-5 publication imminent in 2013, further evaluation of impairment in ADHD is timely. This article reviews the current state of knowledge on health-related impairments of ADHD, including smoking, drug abuse, accidental injury, sleep, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and suicidal behavior. It concludes by suggesting the need for new avenues of research on mechanisms of association and the potential for ADHD to be an early warning sign for secondary prevention of some poor health outcomes. PMID:23298633

  4. Methylphenidate use in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Felipe Salles Neves; Caetano, Sheila Cavalcante; Hounie, Ana Gabriela; Scivoletto, Sandra; Muszkat, Mauro; Gattás, Ivete Gianfaldoni; Casella, Erasmo Barbante; de Andrade, Ênio Roberto; Polanczyk, Guilherme Vanoni; do Rosário, Maria Conceição

    2015-01-01

    A Brazilian Health Technology Assessment Bulletin (BRATS) article regarding scientific evidence of the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has caused much controversy about its methods. Considering the relevance of BRATS for public health in Brazil, we critically reviewed this article by remaking the BRATS search and discussing its methods and results. Two questions were answered: did BRATS include all references available in the literature? Do the conclusions reflect the reviewed articles? The results indicate that BRATS did not include all the references from the literature on this subject and also that the proposed conclusions are different from the results of the articles chosen by the BRATS authors themselves. The articles selected by the BRATS authors showed that using methylphenidate is safe and effective. However, the BRATS final conclusion does not reflect the aforementioned and should not be used to support decisions on the use of methylphenidate. PMID:26061456

  5. Controversial approaches to treating learning disabilities and attention deficit disorder.

    PubMed

    Silver, L B

    1986-10-01

    It is estimated that between 3% and 7% of children and adolescents in this country--up to 4 million--are learning disabled. Of this group, about 20% also have attention deficit disorder. Many professionals in multiple disciplines have proposed treatment approaches. When research has been done to support the approach, the reports and data may be published in journals not normally read by the practicing physician. When research data are not available, the information may be in a popular book, newspapers, or lay magazines or on television. Thus, parents may know of ideas and suggestions before the professional in clinical practice. These acceptable and controversial approaches to treatment are reviewed. It is understandable that a parent would seek out improved ways of helping his or her child. I reviewed the significant literature in an effort to assist the practicing physician in providing appropriate parental guidance and clinical interventions.

  6. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and telemental health.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Nancy B; Myers, Kathleen M; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCarty, Carolyn A; Geyer, John R; Desalvo, Amy

    2010-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders diagnosed in children and adolescents (youth). ADHD is equally distributed geographically, but services are not. Access to expert evaluation and treatment remains limited for youth with ADHD living in rural areas, as well as for ethnic and racial minority youth. Telepsychiatry is a service delivery model with the potential to reach these youth and to develop collaborative models of care among local primary care physicians, remote telepsychiatrists, and local families. Care delivered through telepsychiatry can readily adhere to the practice parameters of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Work to date indicates that ADHD is the most common disorder treated through telepsychiatry. This article reviews the status of child and adolescent telepsychiatry, with particular focus on its potential to improve the care and outcomes of underserved populations of youth diagnosed with ADHD.

  7. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder genomics: update for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Elia, Josephine; Sackett, Jillan; Turner, Terri; Schardt, Martin; Tang, Shih-Ching; Kurtz, Nicole; Dunfey, Maura; McFarlane, Nadia A; Susi, Aita; Danish, David; Li, Alice; Nissley-Tsiopinis, Jenelle; Borgmann-Winter, Karin

    2012-10-01

    Attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is familial and highly heritable. Several candidate genes involved in neurotransmission have been identified, however these confer minimal risk, suggesting that for the most part, ADHD is not caused by single common genetic variants. Advances in genotyping enabling investigation at the level of the genome have led to the discovery of rare structural variants suggesting that ADHD is a genomic disorder, with potentially thousands of variants, and common neuronal pathways disrupted by numerous rare variants resulting in similar ADHD phenotypes. Heritability studies in humans also indicate the importance of epigenetic factors, and animal studies are deciphering some of the processes that confer risk during gestation and throughout the post-natal period. These and future discoveries will lead to improved diagnosis, individualized treatment, cures, and prevention. These advances also highlight ethical and legal issues requiring management and interpretation of genetic data and ensuring privacy and protection from misuse.

  8. Controversial approaches to treating learning disabilities and attention deficit disorder.

    PubMed

    Silver, L B

    1986-10-01

    It is estimated that between 3% and 7% of children and adolescents in this country--up to 4 million--are learning disabled. Of this group, about 20% also have attention deficit disorder. Many professionals in multiple disciplines have proposed treatment approaches. When research has been done to support the approach, the reports and data may be published in journals not normally read by the practicing physician. When research data are not available, the information may be in a popular book, newspapers, or lay magazines or on television. Thus, parents may know of ideas and suggestions before the professional in clinical practice. These acceptable and controversial approaches to treatment are reviewed. It is understandable that a parent would seek out improved ways of helping his or her child. I reviewed the significant literature in an effort to assist the practicing physician in providing appropriate parental guidance and clinical interventions. PMID:2875647

  9. Understanding Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder From Childhood to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Spencer, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common neurobehavioral disorders presenting for treatment in children and adolescents. ADHD is often chronic with prominent symptoms and impairment spanning into adulthood. ADHD is often associated with co-occurring disorders including disruptive, mood, anxiety, and substance abuse. The diagnosis of ADHD is clinically established by review of symptoms and impairment. The biological underpinning of the disorder is supported by genetic, neuroimaging, neurochemistry and neuropsychological data. Consideration of all aspects of an individual’s life needs to be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD. Multimodal treatment includes educational, family, and individual support. Psychotherapy alone and in combination with medication is helpful for ADHD and comorbid problems. Pharmacotherapy including stimulants, noradrenergic agents, alpha agonists, and antidepressants plays a fundamental role in the long-term management of ADHD across the lifespan. PMID:20861593

  10. Striatal dysfunction in attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, H.C.; Henriksen, L.; Bruhn, P.; Borner, H.; Nielsen, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    We have previously reported that periventricular structures are hypoperfused in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study has expanded the number of patients, who were divided into two groups: six patients with pure ADHD, and 13 patients with ADHD in combination with other neurologic symptoms. By using xenon 133 inhalation and emission tomography, the regional cerebral blood flow distribution was determined and compared with a control group. Striatal regions were found to be hypoperfused and, by inference, hypofunctional in both groups. This hypoperfusion was statistically significant in the right striatum in ADHD, and in both striatal regions in ADHD with other neuropsychologic and neurologic symptoms. The primary sensory and sensorimotor cortical regions were highly perfused. Methylphenidate increased flow to striatal and posterior periventricular regions, and tended to decrease flow to primary sensory regions. Low striatal activity, partially reversible with methylphenidate, appears to be a cardinal feature in ADHD.

  11. Parents psychopathology of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-03-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children affected by ADHD and of 45 healthy children, matched to age and gender. Parents of ADHD children reported higher levels of ADHD symptoms, depressive disorders and Depressive Personality Disorders than parents of healthy children. Mothers displayed greater presence of depression, while fathers showed problems concerning alcohol use. The occurrence of ADHD symptoms, psychopathology and personality disorders in parents highlights the importance to integrate the treatment programs in the ADHD children with the screening and treatment for psychopathological symptoms of the parents. PMID:23291521

  12. [Attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder in autism spectrum disorders].

    PubMed

    Montiel-Nava, Cecilia; Peña, Joaquín A

    2011-06-01

    According to the DSM-IV-TR, symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity are frequent in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This statement is supported by clinical observation and formal assessment. However, ASD diagnosis is still among the exclusion criteria for the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Such exclusion generates controversy and questions regarding the need and benefits of maintaining or not these separations; so much so, that the proposed criteria for the DSM-V eliminate that exclusion condition. It is necessary a better understanding of the comorbidity between both entities in order to be able to have an appropriate sequence of the intervention goals. For that reason, if inattention and hyperactivity in individuals with ASD are considered as a representation of a comorbid diagnosis of ADHD, treatment plans for this group would be better adjusted and more likely to offer a real benefit in the outcome of their adaptive functioning.

  13. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): review for primary care clinicians

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention. Up to 5% of primary school age children have ADHD. Both genes and environment play a role in the aetiology of ADHD. If left untreated, children with ADHD demonstrate a range of poor long-term psychosocial outcomes. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) may be used to screen children for a range of psychiatric disorders, including ADHD.1 Principal management options include medication (methylphenidate and atomoxetine are the first line), parent training programmes and school based interventions. It is important to provide a dedicated child mental health specialist service for children with ADHD. In addition to following the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines,2 the authors recommend the use of wider systemic approaches and early intervention to optimise the effectiveness of recommended treatment options. PMID:25949618

  14. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder blame game: a study on the positioning of professionals, teachers and parents.

    PubMed

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Montali, Lorenzo; Fine, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is currently the most debated childhood psychiatric diagnosis. Given the circulation of competing perspectives about the 'real' causes of children's behaviour and the 'best' way to treat them, we aim to analyse the interactions of the central social actors' discourses about attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children within the Italian context. Adopting a multi-method approach, we focus on the polyphonic chorus of voices surrounding the child, studying the discourses of mental health professionals, teachers and parents. These actors are representative of three contexts that are deeply engaged with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: medical institutions, schools and families. Our theoretical and methodological approach integrates positioning theory, the Bakhtinian notion of dialogical thinking and discourse analysis to study stakeholders' reflexive and interactive positioning in terms of the attribution of rights, duties, responsibilities and power issues. The results show that mutual blame is a constitutive element of relational dynamics among the key adults surrounding attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children. We argue that these conflicting relationships are not merely related to the debate regarding the validity of the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. Rather, the mutual blame centres on questions of compliance, recognition of authority and morality. Through the blame game, adults negotiate their own and others' subjectivity in ways that simultaneously (re)produce power relationships and resistance efforts.

  15. Communicative abilities in autism: evidence for attentional deficits.

    PubMed

    Bara, B G; Bucciarelli, M; Colle, L

    2001-05-01

    Although there are many theories about autism, something all of them agree upon is that autistics are impaired in the ability to communicate. The explanation is either their incapacity to attribute mental states to others or the interference of irrelevant stimuli with the access and processing of the communication (low). Our study on mute autistic children aims to investigate their communicative ability in order to bring some new evidence on the debate. We used an experimental technique that allows autistic children to access and process the communicative acts in a familiar context for as long as needed. The experimental results show that our sample of autistic children performs as well as the control group of normal children in dealing with directs, indirects, ironies, deceits, and recoveries of failure. Independent of their respective difficulty, the felicitous outcome of any of these acts requires the capacity to attribute an adequate communicative intention to the actor. Moreover, our results show that, contrary to the established findings in the literature, autistics' performance in the standard false belief task, a task that requires one to understand the mental states of other people, is equivalent to the performance of normal subjects. We argue that an attentional deficit affects the communicative performance of autistics in experiments where classic methodologies are used; with the proper methodology, we can access the unexplored world where mute autistic children also communicate. As far as we know, this is the first systematic experiment on pragmatic abilities in mute autistic children. Indeed, our work shows that tests and methodologies which help to focus on the communicative task improve the autistics' performance with respect to those used in the literature. We conclude that the autistic communicative deficit is at the performance level and that it has an attentional nature.

  16. Effects of reward and nonreward on frustration and attention in attention deficit disorder.

    PubMed

    Douglas, V I; Parry, P A

    1994-06-01

    The effects of reward schedule (100%, 50%, and 30%) and termination of rewards (extinction) on 30 attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADD-H) and 30 normal children were studied using measures of frustration (speed/strength of lever pulling) and attention (reaction time to a light signal). ADD-Hs pulled harder on the lever than controls during extinction and on the lowest (30%) partial schedule, providing empirical evidence that they respond with greater frustration than normals when expected rewards fail to appear. The groups did not differ on the attentional measure on 100% reward. However, the partial schedules appeared to have an alerting or motivating effect on the controls, so that they responded more quickly and consistently than ADD-Hs on the partial schedules. Findings are discussed with reference to opposing theories regarding the nature of the abnormal response of ADD-Hs to reward.

  17. Neural correlates of executive attention in adults born very preterm.

    PubMed

    Daamen, Marcel; Bäuml, Josef G; Scheef, Lukas; Meng, Chun; Jurcoane, Alina; Jaekel, Julia; Sorg, Christian; Busch, Barbara; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter; Wohlschläger, Afra; Boecker, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Very preterm birth is associated with an increased prevalence of attention problems and may especially impair executive attention, i.e., top-down control of attentional selection in situations where distracting information interferes with the processing of task-relevant stimuli. While there are initial findings linking structural brain alterations in preterm-born individuals with attention problems, the functional basis of these problems are not well understood. The present study used an fMRI adaptation of the Attentional Network Test to examine the neural correlates of executive attention in a large sample of N = 86 adults born very preterm and/or with very low birth weight (VP/VLBW), and N = 100 term-born controls. Executive attention was measured by comparing task behavior and brain activations associated with the processing of incongruent vs. congruent arrow flanker stimuli. Consistent with subtle impairments of executive attention, the VP/VLBW group showed lower accuracy and a tendency for increased response times during the processing of incongruent stimuli. Both groups showed similar activation patters, especially within expected fronto-cingulo-parietal areas, but no significant between-group differences. Our results argue for a maintained attention-relevant network organization in high-functioning preterm born adults in spite of subtle deficits in executive attention. Gestational age and neonatal treatment variables showed associations with task behavior, and brain activation in the dorsal ACC and lateral occipital areas, suggesting that the degree of prematurity (and related neonatal complications) has subtle modulatory influences on executive attention processing. PMID:26640769

  18. Deconstructing Spatial Working Memory and Attention Deficits in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Gmeindl, Leon; Courtney, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether spatial working memory (WM) is impaired in multiple sclerosis (MS), and, if it is, to localize impairment to specific cognitive subprocess(es). Method In Experiment 1, MS and control participants performed computerized memory-span and visuomotor tasks. WM subprocesses were taxed by manipulating (1) the requirement to remember serial order, (2) delay duration, and (3) the presence of irrelevant stimuli during target presentation. In Experiment 2, recall and recognition tests varied the difficulty of WM retrieval. In Experiment 3, an attention-cueing task tested the ability to voluntarily and rapidly reorient attention. Results Performance was worse for MS than for control participants in both spatial recall (Exp. 1 span: 95% CIMS = [5.11, 5.57], 95% CIControls = [5.58, 6.03], p = 0.003, 1-tailed; Exp. 2 span: 95% CIMS = [4.44, 5.54], 95% CIControls = [5.47, 6.57], p = 0.006, 1-tailed) and recognition (accuracy: 95% CIMS = [0.71, 0.81], 95% CIControls = [0.79, 0.88], p = 0.01, 1-tailed) tests. However, there was no evidence for deficits in spatiotemporal binding, maintenance, retrieval, distractor suppression, or visuomotor processing. In contrast, MS participants were abnormally slow to reorient attention (cueing effect (ms): 95% CIMS: [90, 169], 95% CIControls: [29, 107], p = 0.015, 1-tailed). Conclusions Results suggest that, whereas spatial WM is impaired in MS, once spatial information has been adequately encoded into WM, individuals with MS are, on average, able to maintain and retrieve this information. Impoverished encoding of spatial information, however, may be due to inefficient voluntary orienting of attention. PMID:22059650

  19. Cross-National Invariance of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Factors in Japanese and U.S. University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, J. Mark; Cheung, Shu Fai; Takahashi, Tomone; Shinoda, Haruo; Lindstrom, William A.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research with children generally supports the two-dimensional structure of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive factors) of the DSM-IV-TR as well as invariance of the two-factor structure across nations and cultures. Research with adults supports either a two-factor or three-factor structure…

  20. Non-Drug Interventions for Improving Classroom Behavior and Social Functioning of Young Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radcliff, David

    This paper explores research on use of medication and non-drug interventions to modify the behavior of preschool children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It begins by discussing the symptoms of ADHD, neurological differences between children with ADHD and those without ADHD, and expected adolescent and adult outcomes for…

  1. Different Neural Patterns Are Associated with Trials Preceding Inhibitory Errors in Children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinelli, Simona; Joel, Suresh; Nelson, Tess E.; Vasa, Roma A.; Pekar, James J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with difficulty inhibiting impulsive, hyperactive, and off-task behavior. However, no studies have examined whether a distinct pattern of brain activity precedes inhibitory errors in typically developing (TD) children and children with ADHD. In healthy adults, increased…

  2. Support for Learning Goes beyond Academic Support: Voices of Students with Asperger's Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolic Baric, Vedrana; Hellberg, Kristina; Kjellberg, Anette; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and explore the experiences of support at school among young adults with Asperger's disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and also to examine what support they, in retrospect, described as influencing learning. Purposive sampling was used to enroll participants. Data were collected through…

  3. The cognitive genetics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): sustained attention as a candidate phenotype.

    PubMed

    Bellgrove, Mark A; Hawi, Ziarih; Gill, Michael; Robertson, Ian H

    2006-08-01

    Here we describe the application of cognitive genetics to the study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cognitive genetics owes much to the pioneering work of cognitive neuropsychologists such as John Marshall, whose careful observations of cognitive dissociations between brain-lesioned patients greatly advanced the theoretical understanding of normal cognitive function. These theories have in turn helped to constrain linkages between candidate genes and cognitive processes and thus help to drive the relatively new field of cognitive genetics in a hypothesis-driven fashion. We examined the relationship between sustained attention deficits in ADHD and genetic variation in a catecholamine-related gene, dopamine beta hydroxylase (DbetaH). DBH encodes the enzyme that converts dopamine to noradrenaline and is crucial to catecholamine regulation. A polymorphism with the DBH gene has been associated with ADHD. In fifty-two children with ADHD, we examined whether variation in the Taq I DBH gene polymorphism was related to sustained attention performance. Participants performed the Sustained Attention to Response Test (SART). Performance on the SART discriminates ADHD from control children, and in imaging work, is associated with right frontoparietal activation. A significant effect of DBH genotype was found on SART performance measures. Children possessing two copies of the ADHD-associated risk allele (A2) had significantly poorer sustained attention than those ADHD children who did not possess this allele or a non-genotyped control group. The DBH gene may contribute to the susceptibility for ADHD, in part because of its varying effects on the development of brain mechanisms mediating sustained attention.

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, CNS stimulants and sport.

    PubMed

    Hickey, G; Fricker, P

    1999-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 1 to 10% of children and is characterised by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Over one-half of children with ADHD have associated conditions, including learning disabilities, conduct disorders, poor coordination, depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorders and bipolar disorders. CNS stimulant medication used in the management of ADHD is not permitted for use in competition by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and this poses a problem for the physicians of patients with ADHD. On the one hand, attention and concentration are improved by stimulant medication and fine motor coordination and balance are improved after methylphenidate administration, but these therapeutic and sport-related benefits are not available to the athlete with ADHD who wishes to compete under IOC rules. It has been suggested that treatment with methylphenidate may be suitable for athletes with ADHD, as cessation of therapy 24 hours before competition is usually adequate to allow drug clearance which should avoid a positive result being returned on drug testing. More research is needed to establish whether stimulant medication for athletes with ADHD provides an unfair advantage in competition.

  5. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, CNS stimulants and sport.

    PubMed

    Hickey, G; Fricker, P

    1999-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 1 to 10% of children and is characterised by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Over one-half of children with ADHD have associated conditions, including learning disabilities, conduct disorders, poor coordination, depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorders and bipolar disorders. CNS stimulant medication used in the management of ADHD is not permitted for use in competition by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and this poses a problem for the physicians of patients with ADHD. On the one hand, attention and concentration are improved by stimulant medication and fine motor coordination and balance are improved after methylphenidate administration, but these therapeutic and sport-related benefits are not available to the athlete with ADHD who wishes to compete under IOC rules. It has been suggested that treatment with methylphenidate may be suitable for athletes with ADHD, as cessation of therapy 24 hours before competition is usually adequate to allow drug clearance which should avoid a positive result being returned on drug testing. More research is needed to establish whether stimulant medication for athletes with ADHD provides an unfair advantage in competition. PMID:10028130

  6. Sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Spruyt, Karen; Gozal, David

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we advocate the need for better understanding and treatment of children exhibiting inattentive, hyperactive, impulsive behaviors, by in-depth questioning on sleepiness, sleep-disordered breathing or problematic behaviors at bedtime, during the night and upon awakening, as well as night-to-night sleep duration variability. The relationships between sleep and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are complex and are routinely overlooked by practitioners. Motricity and somnolence, the most consistent complaints and objectively measured sleep problems in children with ADHD, may develop as a consequence of multidirectional and multifactorial pathways. Therefore, subjectively perceived or reported restless sleep should be evaluated with specific attention to restless legs syndrome or periodic limb movement disorder, and awakenings should be queried with regard to parasomnias, dyssomnias and sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep hygiene logs detailing sleep onset and offset quantitatively, as well as qualitatively, are required. More studies in children with ADHD are needed to reveal the 24-h phenotype, or its sleep comorbidities. PMID:21469929

  7. An Examination of Shared Variance in Self-Report and Objective Measures of Attention in the Incarcerated Adult Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asbjornsen, Arve E.; Jones, Lise O.; Munkvold, Linda H.; Obrzut, John E.; Manger, Terje

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to test some assumptions about screening procedures for ADHD in adults. Method: Twenty-eight incarcerated male adults completed a self report scale of attention deficits as a part of an examination of attention and reading skills. Further assessment of attention included a battery of tests that assessed…

  8. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and psychopharmacologic treatments in the athlete.

    PubMed

    Conant-Norville, David O; Tofler, Ian R

    2005-10-01

    It is conjectured that attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms adversely impacting academics, family functioning, social relationships, and vocational performance might also negatively affect athletic and sport performance and enjoyment; this warrants further scientific inquiry. Children, adolescents, and adults participate in organized and impromptu sport activities, both team and individual. With the concern about an epidemic of obesity in the United States, barriers to participation in sport and exercise such as ADHD need to be better understood. This article approaches ADHD in sports by providing a brief introduction to ADHD, first reviewing general clinical findings, then discussing recreational youth sports and psychopharmacological treatment risks and benefits for the elite athlete.

  9. [Methylphenidate in the treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: monitoring in biological matrices].

    PubMed

    Papaseit, E; García-Algar, O; Simó, S; Pichini, S; Farré, M

    2013-02-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has emerged in the last few years as the most commonly diagnosed and treated psychiatric disorder in the paediatric population. In 1980's, methylphenidate (MFD) a psychomotor stimulant drug, was approved in Spain for the symptomatic therapy of ADHD. Since then, MFD has become one of the most extensively prescribed and studied treatment for ADHD both in children and adults. In this paper, the main pharmacological issues of MFD are reviewed, focusing on its pharmacokinetics in conventional (blood and urine) and non-conventional (hair, oral fluid and sweat) biological matrices, its pharmaceutical preparations, therapeutic levels and side effects.

  10. Attention and Other Cognitive Deficits in Aphasia: Presence and Relation to Language and Communication Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to further elucidate the relationship between cognition and aphasia, with a focus on attention. It was hypothesized that individuals with aphasia would display variable deficit patterns on tests of attention and other cognitive functions and that their attention deficits, particularly those of complex attention…

  11. Measuring Attentional Ability in Older Adults: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of DriverScan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Lesa; Yang, Xiangdong; Bovaird, James A.; Embretson, Susan E.

    2006-01-01

    Although deficits in visual attention are often postulated as an important component of many declines in cognitive processing and functional outcomes in older adults, surprisingly little emphasis has been placed on evaluating psychometric instruments with which individual differences in visual attention ability can be assessed. This article…

  12. Sleep, attention, and executive functioning in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Vincent; Rouleau, Nancie; Morin, Charles M

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate potential relationships between two measures of sleep impairments (i.e., sleep duration and sleep efficiency [SE]) and attention and executive functioning in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parents of 43 children (mean age = 10 ± 1.8 years) with ADHD completed sleep and behavioral questionnaires. Children also wore a wrist actigraph for seven nights and were subsequently assessed with the Conners' continuous performance test (CPT)-2. A significant relationship was found between lower SE and increased variability in reaction time on the CPT. Shorter sleep duration was associated with a range of executive functioning problems as reported by the parents. The relationships between sleep duration and the executive functioning measures held even after controlling for age, gender, and use of medication, but not the relationships with SE. These results suggest that sleep quantity is an important correlate of executive functioning in children with ADHD.

  13. Attention-related EEG markers in adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Hasler, Roland; Perroud, Nader; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Herrmann, François; Prada, Paco; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Deiber, Marie-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    ADHD status affects both bottom-up sensory processing and top-down attentional selection, impairing professional and social functioning. The objective of the study was to investigate the functional mechanisms of attention deficits in adult ADHD by examining the electrophysiological activities associated with bottom-up attentional cueing (temporal and spatial orienting of attention) and top-down control (conflict resolution). Continuous EEG was recorded in 21 adult ADHD patients (40.05±9.5 years) and 20 healthy adults (25.5±4 years) during performance of the Attention Network Test (ANT). We examined the cue and target-related P1, N1 and P3 components as well as the contingent negative variation (CNV) developing between cue and target. Oscillatory responses were analyzed in the alpha (8-13Hz) and beta (14-19Hz) frequency bands. ADHD patients performed similarly to controls but showed reduced P3 amplitude, larger early CNV decrementing over time, reduced preparatory activation in both alpha and beta bands, as well as flattened target-related posterior alpha and beta responses. As compared to controls, the inverted CNV pattern suggested peculiar preparatory processing in ADHD patients. The singular pattern of target-related beta response indicated increased inhibitory processes in the case of easier task resolution and more generally, the lack of association between conflict resolution speed and beta activity supported alternative executive processing in ADHD patients. Overall, the reduced activation of the functional networks devoted to bottom-up and top-down attention suggests that adult ADHD patients engage reduced cortical resources in this composite task, compatible with the cortical hypoarousal model. PMID:27178310

  14. Impact of Executive Function Deficits and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Academic Outcomes in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Seidman, Larry J.; Wilens, Timothy E.; Ferrero, Frances; Morgan, Christie L.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2004-01-01

    The association between executive function deficits (EFDs) and functional outcomes were examined among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were children and adolescents with (n = 259) and without (n = 222) ADHD, as ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric clinics. The authors defined EFD as…

  15. Executive Function Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Examining Profiles across Domains and Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happe, Francesca; Booth, Rhonda; Charlton, Rebecca; Hughes, Claire

    2006-01-01

    Deficits in "executive function" (EF) are characteristic of several clinical disorders, most notably Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In this study, age-and IQ-matched groups with ASD, ADHD, or typical development (TD) were compared on a battery of EF tasks tapping three core domains: response…

  16. Assessing Treatment Outcomes in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Margaret D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To review measures used to assess treatment response in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the life span. Data Sources: Keyword searches of English-language articles in the PubMed database up to and including the May 4, 2011, index date were performed with the search strings (1) (attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity [MeSH] OR ADHD) AND (outcome assessment [MeSH] OR adaptation of life skills OR executive function [MeSH]) and (2) (attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity [MeSH] OR ADHD) AND (function OR functioning OR quality of life [MeSH]). Study Selection: Articles found through this search were then selected based on relevance to the topic area; no specific quality criteria were applied. Data Extraction: Narrative review. Results: The vast majority of studies assessing ADHD treatments have measured treatment response using ADHD symptom measures. Additional domains relevant for assessing treatment response among children and adults with ADHD include functional impairment, quality of life, adaptive life skills, and executive function. Validated rating scales exist for assessing these additional domains, but there has been minimal research evaluating the sensitivity of these instruments for detecting treatment response in pediatric and adult samples. Conclusions: Assessment of treatment outcomes in ADHD should move beyond symptom assessment to incorporate measures of functioning, quality of life, adaptive skills, and executive function, especially when assessing long-term treatment response. The authors recommend a potential battery and schedule of measures that could be used to more comprehensively assess treatment response in patients with ADHD. PMID:23585986

  17. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in sport: a review.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, B

    2003-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a controversial problem in sport since participants with this disorder often require banned stimulant medication while competing. Little information is available in the literature concerning this problem or whether sports people should be allowed to participate while on stimulant therapy. The intention of this review is to undertake a brief review of recent findings in ADHD, especially as they apply to sport, and suggest some guidelines that could then be applied by sporting bodies to allow ADHD sufferers to compete. Recent scientific evidence, clinical, genetic, and imaging techniques, confirm that ADHD is characterised by dysfunction in dopamine transmission in the frontal lobes and basal ganglia structures, regions associated with attention and behaviour. The dopamine transporter (DAT) regulates dopamine by removing excess. In ADHD people, the number and density of DATs and DAT binding sites are increased by up to 70 %. The dopamine agonist methylphenidate blockades DAT, significantly increasing extra cellular dopamine, so correcting the dopamine deficiency. Methods. A search of the English literature was made using Medline from the years 1980 to 2002. [nl]The aim of this review is not to debate the use of stimulants or how often they are necessary or successful in this condition but to point out that a number of young sport people with ADHD require such medication on a regular basis. Although there are problems with their use as far as the International Olympics Committee (IOC) is concerned, it would seem most unfair to penalise sports people by having to give up their medication, even for a few days or at some arbitrary age, in order to compete. PMID:12968213

  18. Pathway analysis in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: An ensemble approach.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Michael A; McWeeney, Shannon K; Faraone, Stephen V; Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand, Johannes; Nigg, Joel T; Wilmot, Beth

    2016-09-01

    Despite a wealth of evidence for the role of genetics in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), specific and definitive genetic mechanisms have not been identified. Pathway analyses, a subset of gene-set analyses, extend the knowledge gained from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) by providing functional context for genetic associations. However, there are numerous methods for association testing of gene sets and no real consensus regarding the best approach. The present study applied six pathway analysis methods to identify pathways associated with ADHD in two GWAS datasets from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Methods that utilize genotypes to model pathway-level effects identified more replicable pathway associations than methods using summary statistics. In addition, pathways implicated by more than one method were significantly more likely to replicate. A number of brain-relevant pathways, such as RhoA signaling, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis, fibroblast growth factor receptor activity, and pathways containing potassium channel genes, were nominally significant by multiple methods in both datasets. These results support previous hypotheses about the role of regulation of neurotransmitter release, neurite outgrowth and axon guidance in contributing to the ADHD phenotype and suggest the value of cross-method convergence in evaluating pathway analysis results. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27004716

  19. Pediatric Integrative Medicine Approaches to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Esparham, Anna; Evans, Randall G.; Wagner, Leigh E.; Drisko, Jeanne A.

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neuropsychiatric disorder in children and is increasing in prevalence. There has also been a related increase in prescribing stimulant medication despite some controversy whether ADHD medication makes a lasting difference in school performance or achievement. Families who are apprehensive about side effects and with concerns for efficacy of medication pursue integrative medicine as an alternative or adjunct to pharmacologic and cognitive behavioral treatment approaches. Integrative medicine incorporates evidence-based medicine, both conventional and complementary and alternative therapies, to deliver personalized care to the patient, emphasizing diet, nutrients, gut health, and environmental influences as a means to decrease symptoms associated with chronic disorders. Pediatric integrative medicine practitioners are increasing in number throughout the United States because of improvement in patient health outcomes. However, limited funding and poor research design interfere with generalizable treatment approaches utilizing integrative medicine. The use of research designs originally intended for drugs and procedures are not suitable for many integrative medicine approaches. This article serves to highlight integrative medicine approaches in use today for children with ADHD, including dietary therapies, nutritional supplements, environmental hygiene, and neurofeedback. PMID:27417475

  20. Electroencephalography signatures of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: clinical utility

    PubMed Central

    Alba, Guzmán; Pereda, Ernesto; Mañas, Soledad; Méndez, Leopoldo D; González, Almudena; González, Julián J

    2015-01-01

    The techniques and the most important results on the use of electroencephalography (EEG) to extract different measures are reviewed in this work, which can be clinically useful to study subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). First, we discuss briefly and in simple terms the EEG analysis and processing techniques most used in the context of ADHD. We review techniques that both analyze individual EEG channels (univariate measures) and study the statistical interdependence between different EEG channels (multivariate measures), the so-called functional brain connectivity. Among the former ones, we review the classical indices of absolute and relative spectral power and estimations of the complexity of the channels, such as the approximate entropy and the Lempel-Ziv complexity. Among the latter ones, we focus on the magnitude square coherence and on different measures based on the concept of generalized synchronization and its estimation in the state space. Second, from a historical point of view, we present the most important results achieved with these techniques and their clinical utility (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy) to diagnose ADHD. Finally, we propose future research lines based on these results. PMID:26543369

  1. When Is EEG Indicated in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    PubMed

    Zaimoğlu, Sennur; Türkdoğan, Dilşad; Mazlum, Betül; Bekiroğlu, Nural; Tetik-Kabil, Aylin; Eyilikeder, Seda

    2015-11-01

    The authors investigated the parameters for predicting epileptiform abnormalities in a group of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The sample consisted of 148 subjects aged between 6 and 13 (8.76 ± 1.26; 25.7% female) years. Subtypes of ADHD and comorbid psychiatric disorders were defined according to DSM-IV criteria. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised was applied to all patients. Most of the subjects (89.2%) had wakefulness and sleep electroencephalography examinations lasting about one hour. The authors found out that the coexistence of speech sound disorder (odds ratio [OR] 3.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.61-9.48) and higher Digit Span test performance (OR 1.24, 95% CI: 1.06-1.44) predicted the presence of accompanying epileptiform abnormalities. The prevalence of epileptiform abnormalities was 26.4%, and they were frequently localized in the frontal (41%) and centrotemporal (28.2%) regions. Higher percentage of speech sound disorder co-occurrence (64%) in subjects with rolandic spikes suggests that epileptiform abnormalities associated with ADHD can be determined genetically at least in some cases. Pathophysiology of epileptiform abnormalities in ADHD might have complex genetic and maturational background. PMID:25895916

  2. Sleep Structure in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Akinci, Gulcin; Oztura, Ibrahim; Hiz, Semra; Akdogan, Ozlem; Karaarslan, Dilay; Ozek, Handan; Akay, Aynur

    2015-10-01

    The authors evaluated basic sleep architecture and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep alterations in drug-naïve attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children without psychiatric or other comorbidities. This cross-sectional case-control study included 28 drug-naïve children with ADHD and 15 healthy controls. This subjective studies revealed that children with ADHD had a worse sleep quality and increased daytime sleepiness. Polysomnography data showed that the sleep macrostructure was not significantly different in children with ADHD. Sleep microstructure was altered in ADHD children by means of reduced total cyclic alternating pattern rate and duration of cyclic alternating pattern sequences. This reduction was associated with a selective decrease of A1 index during stage 2 NREM. SpO2 in total sleep was slightly decreased; however, the incidence of sleep disordered breathing showed no significant difference. The authors suggest that cyclic alternating pattern scoring would provide a further insight to obtain a better understanding of the sleep structure in children with ADHD. PMID:25713005

  3. Artificial food dyes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kanarek, Robin B

    2011-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common behavioral disorders in children. Symptoms of ADHD include hyperactivity, low frustration tolerance, impulsivity, and inattention. While the biological pathways leading to ADHD are not clearly delineated, a number of genetic and environmental risk factors for the disorder are recognized. In the early 1970s, research conducted by Dr. Benjamin Feingold found that when hyperactive children were given a diet free of artificial food additives and dyes, symptoms of hyperactivity were reduced. While some clinical studies supported these findings, more rigorous empirical studies conducted over the next 20 years were less positive. As a result, research on the role of food additives in contributing to ADHD waned. In recent years, however, interest in this area has revived. In response to more recent research and public petitions, in December 2009 the British government requested that food manufacturers remove most artificial food dyes from their products. While these strictures could have positive effects on behavior, the removal of food dyes is not a panacea for ADHD, which is a multifaceted disorder with both biological and environmental underpinnings. PMID:21729092

  4. [Attention deficit - hyperactivity disorder and enuresis in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Zavadenko, N N; Kolobova, N M; Suvorinova, N Iu

    2010-01-01

    Frequency of comorbid disorders and neuropsychological state, executive functions (EF), were studied in two groups of patients aged from 5 to 14 years: 53 patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the association with enuresis and 71 patients with ADHD without enuresis. The most cases of enuresis (50 out of 53 patients) were represented by primary nocturnal enuresis. The significant increase of total number of ADHD cases with comorbidity for oppositional-defiant disorder, anxiety disorder, tics or encopresis (77.7%) was found in the first group compared to the second one (60.6%). The presence of enuresis in ADHD was associated with the significant increase of frequency of anxiety disorders (54.7% versus 39.4%). Moreover, in the group of patients with ADHD and enuresis, the frequency of oppositional-defiant disorder and encopresis was higher in the age of 5-9 years while the frequency of obsessive-compulsive disorder and tics increased in the period of 10-14 years as compared to patients without enuresis. The assessment of executive functions with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test did not reveal any differences between patients of two groups.

  5. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder--a review for family physicians.

    PubMed

    Karande, S

    2005-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic behavioral disorder characterized by persistent hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention that impairs educational achievement and/or social functioning. Its diagnosis is made by ascertaining whether the child's specific behaviors meet the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV-revised criteria. Its etiology is still unclear but recent studies suggest that genetics plays a major role in conferring susceptibility. Comorbidity with psychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorder, depression, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder; and with specific learning disability is not uncommon. Although medication works well in most cases of ADHD, optimal treatment requires integrated medical and behavioral treatment. Methylphenidate (MPH) and atomoxetine are the two drugs being currently prescribed and their efficacy in decreasing the symptoms of ADHD is well documented. Pyschoeducational interventions in school can help increase the successful functioning of affected children and improve their academic performance. Almost half of affected children continue to show significant symptoms of the disorder into adolescence and young adulthood. The family physician can play an important role in detecting this condition early, coordinating its assessment and treatment, counseling the parents and classroom teacher, and monitoring the child's academic and psychosocial progress on a long-term basis.

  6. Artificial food dyes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kanarek, Robin B

    2011-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common behavioral disorders in children. Symptoms of ADHD include hyperactivity, low frustration tolerance, impulsivity, and inattention. While the biological pathways leading to ADHD are not clearly delineated, a number of genetic and environmental risk factors for the disorder are recognized. In the early 1970s, research conducted by Dr. Benjamin Feingold found that when hyperactive children were given a diet free of artificial food additives and dyes, symptoms of hyperactivity were reduced. While some clinical studies supported these findings, more rigorous empirical studies conducted over the next 20 years were less positive. As a result, research on the role of food additives in contributing to ADHD waned. In recent years, however, interest in this area has revived. In response to more recent research and public petitions, in December 2009 the British government requested that food manufacturers remove most artificial food dyes from their products. While these strictures could have positive effects on behavior, the removal of food dyes is not a panacea for ADHD, which is a multifaceted disorder with both biological and environmental underpinnings.

  7. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in African American youth.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Rahn K; Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta; Akpudo, Hilary; Avenido, Jaymie U; Bailey, Theresa; Lyons, Jessica; Whitehead, Amelia A

    2010-10-01

    This article examines attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in African American youth. Tackling the myths and misinformation surrounding ADHD in the African American community can be one of the most difficult issues in mental illness circles. There is a lot of conflicting information about how African Americans are diagnosed, examined, and treated. This article clarifies some of the misconceptions and offers some comprehensibility to the issue of ADHD in African American youth. The incidence of ADHD is probably similar in African Americans and Caucasians. However, fewer African Americans are diagnosed with and treated for ADHD. That reality flies in the face of some perceptions in many African American communities. Reasons for this disparity have not been fully clarified and are most likely complex and numerous. Some barriers to treatment are driven by the beliefs of patients and their families, while others are the result of limitations in the health care system. Patient-driven obstacles to care include inadequate knowledge of symptoms, treatment, and consequences of untreated ADHD and fear of overdiagnosis and misdiagnosis. System-driven limitations include a lack of culturally competent health care providers, stereotyping or biases, and failure of clinicians to evaluate the child in multiple settings before diagnosis. PMID:20697849

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and neurocognitive correlates after childhood stroke.

    PubMed

    Max, Jeffrey E; Mathews, Katherine; Manes, Facundo F; Robertson, Brigitte A M; Fox, Peter T; Lancaster, Jack L; Lansing, Amy E; Schatz, Amy; Collings, Nicole

    2003-09-01

    We investigated the frequency and neurocognitive correlates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and traits of this disorder (ADHD/Traits) after childhood stroke and orthopedic diagnosis in medical controls. Twenty-nine children with focal stroke lesions and individually matched children with clubfoot or scoliosis were studied with standardized psychiatric, intellectual, academic, adaptive, executive, and motivation function assessments. Lifetime ADHD/Traits were significantly more common in stroke participants with no prestroke ADHD than in orthopedic controls (16/28 vs. 7/29; Fisher's Exact p < .02). Lifetime ADHD/Traits in the orthopedic controls occurred exclusively in males with clubfoot (7/13; 54%). Participants with current ADHD/Traits functioned significantly worse (p < .005) than participants without current ADHD/Traits on all outcome measures. Within the stroke group, current ADHD/Traits was associated with significantly lower verbal IQ and arithmetic achievement (p < .04), more nonperseverative errors (p < .005), and lower motivation (p < .004). A principal components analysis of selected outcome variables significantly associated with current ADHD/Traits revealed "impaired neurocognition" and "inattention-apathy" factors. The latter factor was a more consistent predictor of current ADHD/Traits in regression analyses. These findings suggest that inattention and apathy are core features of ADHD/Traits after childhood stroke. This association may provide clues towards the understanding of mechanisms underlying the syndrome.

  9. Language Impairment in the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Context

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a ubiquitous designation that affects the identification, assessment, treatment, and study of pediatric language impairments (LIs). Method Current literature is reviewed in 4 areas: (a) the capacity of psycholinguistic, neuropsychological, and socioemotional behavioral indices to differentiate cases of LI from ADHD; (b) the impact of co-occurring ADHD on children's LI; (c) cross-etiology comparisons of the nonlinguistic abilities of children with ADHD and specific LI (SLI); and (d) the extent to which ADHD contributes to educational and health disparities among individuals with LI. Results Evidence is presented demonstrating the value of using adjusted parent ratings of ADHD symptoms and targeted assessments of children's tense marking, nonword repetition, and sentence recall for differential diagnosis and the identification of comorbidity. Reports suggest that the presence of ADHD does not aggravate children's LI. The potential value of cross-etiology comparisons testing the necessity and sufficiency of proposed nonlinguistic contributors to the etiology of SLI is demonstrated through key studies. Reports suggest that children with comorbid ADHD+LI receive speech-language services at a higher rate than children with SLI. Conclusion The ADHD context is multifaceted and provides the management and study of LI with both opportunities and obstacles. PMID:26502026

  10. When Is EEG Indicated in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    PubMed

    Zaimoğlu, Sennur; Türkdoğan, Dilşad; Mazlum, Betül; Bekiroğlu, Nural; Tetik-Kabil, Aylin; Eyilikeder, Seda

    2015-11-01

    The authors investigated the parameters for predicting epileptiform abnormalities in a group of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The sample consisted of 148 subjects aged between 6 and 13 (8.76 ± 1.26; 25.7% female) years. Subtypes of ADHD and comorbid psychiatric disorders were defined according to DSM-IV criteria. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised was applied to all patients. Most of the subjects (89.2%) had wakefulness and sleep electroencephalography examinations lasting about one hour. The authors found out that the coexistence of speech sound disorder (odds ratio [OR] 3.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.61-9.48) and higher Digit Span test performance (OR 1.24, 95% CI: 1.06-1.44) predicted the presence of accompanying epileptiform abnormalities. The prevalence of epileptiform abnormalities was 26.4%, and they were frequently localized in the frontal (41%) and centrotemporal (28.2%) regions. Higher percentage of speech sound disorder co-occurrence (64%) in subjects with rolandic spikes suggests that epileptiform abnormalities associated with ADHD can be determined genetically at least in some cases. Pathophysiology of epileptiform abnormalities in ADHD might have complex genetic and maturational background.

  11. [Autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: convergences and divergences. Genetics].

    PubMed

    Artigas-Pallarés, Josep

    2013-09-01

    According to the DSM-5, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are different conditions that earlier versions of the DSM stated could not be diagnosed together in the same individual. Yet, over the last few decades the debate on the limits between the two disorders has continued, even though ADHD and ASD are undoubtedly clinically and cognitively different phenotypes, as demonstrated by the simple fact that they have been defined in clearly different ways. Thus, from a perspective anchored in a purely phenomenological view, there would be no grounds whatsoever on which to question the independence between the two disorders. Since, at the present time, the discussion on the convergence between ADHD and ASD cannot be considered to have been solved, this study aims to take the data available from genetics as the basis on which to review the nosological position of the two disorders. The main studies that have addressed this issue are reviewed. The data collected agree on a genetic overlap between ADHD and ASD, which is influenced by common molecular mechanisms that affect the two disorders at the same time. The conclusions that can be drawn from the data collected suggest a new conceptual model not only for ADHD and ASD, but also for complex mental disorders in general. This line of research will transform the way of understanding the treatment of mental disorders and will almost certainly open up new perspectives in this area.

  12. Pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Childress, Ann C; Berry, Sally A

    2012-02-12

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioural disorder in children and adolescents, consisting of developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity. The majority of children with ADHD will continue to experience significant ADHD symptoms as teens. ADHD in adolescents can result in significant functional impairment and poorer quality of life. Children and adolescents with ADHD are at higher risk of developing other psychiatric illnesses such as mood, conduct and substance abuse disorders. Stimulants (amphetamines and methylphenidates) and nonstimulants (atomoxetine, guanfacine extended-release (XR) and clonidine XR) have been found to be effective and are approved by the US FDA for the treatment of ADHD in adolescents in the US. Of the agents approved in the US, only guanfacine XR and clonidine XR are not approved in any other countries. There is growing evidence that treatment of ADHD with stimulants reduces the risk of development of other psychiatric co-morbidities, including substance abuse disorders. To date, all FDA-approved stimulants and nonstimulants that have been adequately studied have been demonstrated to be safe and effective in treating ADHD in both children and adolescents. Therefore, clinical decisions used in selecting pharmacotherapy to treat ADHD in children aged 6-12 years can be applied in the adolescent population. PMID:22316347

  13. Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and reward deficiency syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Kenneth; Chen, Amanda Lih-Chuan; Braverman, Eric R; Comings, David E; Chen, Thomas JH; Arcuri, Vanessa; Blum, Seth H; Downs, Bernard W; Waite, Roger L; Notaro, Alison; Lubar, Joel; Williams, Lonna; Prihoda, Thomas J; Palomo, Tomas; Oscar-Berman, Marlene

    2008-01-01

    Molecular genetic studies have identified several genes that may mediate susceptibility to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A consensus of the literature suggests that when there is a dysfunction in the “brain reward cascade,” especially in the dopamine system, causing a low or hypo-dopaminergic trait, the brain may require dopamine for individuals to avoid unpleasant feelings. This high-risk genetic trait leads to multiple drug-seeking behaviors, because the drugs activate release of dopamine, which can diminish abnormal cravings. Moreover, this genetic trait is due in part to a form of a gene (DRD2 A1 allele) that prevents the expression of the normal laying down of dopamine receptors in brain reward sites. This gene, and others involved in neurophysiological processing of specific neurotransmitters, have been associated with deficient functions and predispose individuals to have a high risk for addictive, impulsive, and compulsive behavioral propensities. It has been proposed that genetic variants of dopaminergic genes and other “reward genes” are important common determinants of reward deficiency syndrome (RDS), which we hypothesize includes ADHD as a behavioral subtype. We further hypothesize that early diagnosis through genetic polymorphic identification in combination with DNA-based customized nutraceutical administration to young children may attenuate behavioral symptoms associated with ADHD. Moreover, it is concluded that dopamine and serotonin releasers might be useful therapeutic adjuncts for the treatment of other RDS behavioral subtypes, including addictions. PMID:19183781

  14. Electroencephalography signatures of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: clinical utility.

    PubMed

    Alba, Guzmán; Pereda, Ernesto; Mañas, Soledad; Méndez, Leopoldo D; González, Almudena; González, Julián J

    2015-01-01

    The techniques and the most important results on the use of electroencephalography (EEG) to extract different measures are reviewed in this work, which can be clinically useful to study subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). First, we discuss briefly and in simple terms the EEG analysis and processing techniques most used in the context of ADHD. We review techniques that both analyze individual EEG channels (univariate measures) and study the statistical interdependence between different EEG channels (multivariate measures), the so-called functional brain connectivity. Among the former ones, we review the classical indices of absolute and relative spectral power and estimations of the complexity of the channels, such as the approximate entropy and the Lempel-Ziv complexity. Among the latter ones, we focus on the magnitude square coherence and on different measures based on the concept of generalized synchronization and its estimation in the state space. Second, from a historical point of view, we present the most important results achieved with these techniques and their clinical utility (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy) to diagnose ADHD. Finally, we propose future research lines based on these results. PMID:26543369

  15. Self-concept in children with attention deficits.

    PubMed

    Ljusberg, Anna-Lena; Brodin, Jane

    2007-09-01

    This study focuses on the BASTA project (basic skills, social interaction and training of the working memory), which studied children with attention deficits and hyperactive behaviour attending remedial classes in regular schools. The project is interdisciplinary, with research teams from both social science and medicine. Our study is both qualitative and quantitative with a socio-cultural approach, and focuses on the pupil's social interaction, self-concept and the classroom climate. This article reports on the results of the study on self-concept. Our supposition was that the pupil's self-concept should change when they improved their skills in reading, writing and mathematics, but this was not the case. The results showed the dominating pattern to be that the differences between data from the BASTA project and comparison data from a similar study on academic self-concept, social self-concept, personal self-concept and global self-concept are small to nonexistent. Our results indicate that the children studied report higher degrees of self-concept than were warranted and that entering remedial classes was often linked to previous academic failures, social failures or both.

  16. Cognitive Profiling in Chinese Developmental Dyslexia with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Won Shing Raymond; Hung, Se Fong; Liu, Suet Nga; Lee, Cheuk Kiu Kathy

    2008-01-01

    The cognitive profiles of children with Developmental Reading Disorder (RD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) have been extensively studied in alphabetic language communities. Deficits in phonological processing and rapid naming have been implicated as core features of RD although whether the latter is a deficit specific to RD…

  17. Neuropsychological Functioning in Children with Tourette Syndrome with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Scahill, Lawrence; Leckman, James F.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Neuropsychological functioning in children with Tourette syndrome (TS) has been characterized by subtle deficits in response inhibition, visual-motor integration, and fine-motor coordination. The association of these deficits with the tics of the TS versus co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been well…

  18. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type, dysthymic disorder and anxiety disorders: differential patterns of neurodevelopmental deficits.

    PubMed

    Vance, Alasdair; Arduca, Yolanda; Sanders, Michelle; Karamitsios, Mary; Hall, Nicole; Hetrick, Sarah

    2006-08-30

    The associations between neurodevelopmental deficits (NDD) and (1) attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type (ADHD-CT) and (2) internalising disorders have been replicated. To date, the specific association between standardized NDD and carefully defined ADHD-CT alone, dysthymic disorder alone and anxiety disorders alone has not been systematically investigated in children of primary school age. A cross-sectional study of NDD in 99 six- to 12-year-old children with categorically and dimensionally defined ADHD-CT alone, dysthymic disorder alone and anxiety disorders alone and 20 age-matched healthy children was undertaken. The ADHD-CT and dysthymic disorder groups had increased total neurological subtle signs, compared to the anxiety disorders group, which, in turn, had increased total neurological subtle signs compared with the healthy children. Interestingly, the dysthymic disorder children had increased conjugate eye gaze difficulties compared with the other three groups. The differences remained after controlling for full scale IQ. These findings suggest a neurobiological underpinning of dysthymic disorder, while confirming that of ADHD-CT in primary school age children. Future studies will explore whether the above more specific neurological subtle signs are developmental phase specific or independent associations.

  19. The diet factor in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Millichap, J Gordon; Yee, Michelle M

    2012-02-01

    This article is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the role of dietary methods for treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) when pharmacotherapy has proven unsatisfactory or unacceptable. Results of recent research and controlled studies, based on a PubMed search, are emphasized and compared with earlier reports. The recent increase of interest in this form of therapy for ADHD, and especially in the use of omega supplements, significance of iron deficiency, and the avoidance of the "Western pattern" diet, make the discussion timely. Diets to reduce symptoms associated with ADHD include sugar-restricted, additive/preservative-free, oligoantigenic/elimination, and fatty acid supplements. Omega-3 supplement is the latest dietary treatment with positive reports of efficacy, and interest in the additive-free diet of the 1970s is occasionally revived. A provocative report draws attention to the ADHD-associated "Western-style" diet, high in fat and refined sugars, and the ADHD-free "healthy" diet, containing fiber, folate, and omega-3 fatty acids. The literature on diets and ADHD, listed by PubMed, is reviewed with emphasis on recent controlled studies. Recommendations for the use of diets are based on current opinion of published reports and our practice experience. Indications for dietary therapy include medication failure, parental or patient preference, iron deficiency, and, when appropriate, change from an ADHD-linked Western diet to an ADHD-free healthy diet. Foods associated with ADHD to be avoided and those not linked with ADHD and preferred are listed. In practice, additive-free and oligoantigenic/elimination diets are time-consuming and disruptive to the household; they are indicated only in selected patients. Iron and zinc are supplemented in patients with known deficiencies; they may also enhance the effectiveness of stimulant therapy. In patients failing to respond or with parents opposed to medication, omega-3

  20. The diet factor in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Millichap, J Gordon; Yee, Michelle M

    2012-02-01

    This article is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the role of dietary methods for treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) when pharmacotherapy has proven unsatisfactory or unacceptable. Results of recent research and controlled studies, based on a PubMed search, are emphasized and compared with earlier reports. The recent increase of interest in this form of therapy for ADHD, and especially in the use of omega supplements, significance of iron deficiency, and the avoidance of the "Western pattern" diet, make the discussion timely. Diets to reduce symptoms associated with ADHD include sugar-restricted, additive/preservative-free, oligoantigenic/elimination, and fatty acid supplements. Omega-3 supplement is the latest dietary treatment with positive reports of efficacy, and interest in the additive-free diet of the 1970s is occasionally revived. A provocative report draws attention to the ADHD-associated "Western-style" diet, high in fat and refined sugars, and the ADHD-free "healthy" diet, containing fiber, folate, and omega-3 fatty acids. The literature on diets and ADHD, listed by PubMed, is reviewed with emphasis on recent controlled studies. Recommendations for the use of diets are based on current opinion of published reports and our practice experience. Indications for dietary therapy include medication failure, parental or patient preference, iron deficiency, and, when appropriate, change from an ADHD-linked Western diet to an ADHD-free healthy diet. Foods associated with ADHD to be avoided and those not linked with ADHD and preferred are listed. In practice, additive-free and oligoantigenic/elimination diets are time-consuming and disruptive to the household; they are indicated only in selected patients. Iron and zinc are supplemented in patients with known deficiencies; they may also enhance the effectiveness of stimulant therapy. In patients failing to respond or with parents opposed to medication, omega-3

  1. Neuropsychological attention skills and related behaviours in adults with tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Kevin M; McCartney, Deborah L; Serfontein, Jaco R; de Vries, Petrus J

    2011-05-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder associated with mTOR over-activation and disruption of MAPK, PI3K and AMPK signalling. Children with TSC have significant deficits on neuropsychological attention tasks, particularly dual tasking. Here we investigated attentional skills and related behaviours in daily life in normally intelligent adults with TSC and matched controls using the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch) and the Attention-Deficit Scales for Adults (ADSA). No group differences were demonstrated on selective or sustained attention tasks carried out alone. However, adults with TSC performed significantly worse when these tasks were combined in a cross-modal dual task condition. On the ADSA the TSC group had significantly worse scores on several subscales (attention/concentration, behaviour/disorganization, academic and emotional behaviours) compared to controls and these correlated with dual task performance, indicating a clear impact of dual task deficits on attention-related behaviours in daily life. The presence or absence of epilepsy did not influence dual task performance or attention-deficits in daily life. Taken together with similar findings in children, results suggest that dual task difficulties are a core feature of the neuropsychological phenotype of TSC.

  2. Neurofibromatosis type 1 and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a case study and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Carmen Sílvia; Chaim-Avancini, Tiffany M; Silva, Maria Aparecida; Louzã, Mario Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Background The cognitive profile of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been well characterized, but few studies have evaluated the cognitive abilities of adults with NF1 and ADHD. Objectives We investigated 1) the cognitive profile of an adult patient with NF1 and inattention problems, 2) changes in his cognition after 14 months of follow-up, and 3) whether the patient exhibited comorbid NF1 and ADHD or secondary ADHD-like symptoms. Methods We administered neuropsychological tests of executive function, attention, verbal and visual memory, visuospatial function, and language during two evaluations separated by 14 months. Results We found no changes in sustained attention, language, or verbal memory. Visual memory, verbal learning, selective attention inhibitory control, and problem solving declined over time, whereas visual search, psychomotor speed, visuospatial function, and mental flexibility improved. Conclusion Our patient exhibited a cognitive profile characteristic of both NF1 and ADHD, leading to the hypothesis that the patient had comorbid ADHD instead of secondary ADHD-like symptoms. More studies are necessary to characterize the cognition of patients with NF1 and ADHD. PMID:25848279

  3. Social competence and friendship formation in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Coleman, William Lord

    2008-08-01

    Friendship formation (making friends, keeping friends, and having successful interactions with peers and adults) constitutes a critical developmental-social milestone for adolescents. This process can be especially challenging for adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, whose attentional problems may negatively affect their social skills (verbal and nonverbal language) and who fail to appreciate the complexity and nuances of adolescent communication. They often do not respond to feedback cues. They may be perceived as "immature," lacking empathy, and loners and losers, they may endure a "reputational bias," and they often experience coexisting challenges (eg, language problems, learning disabilities, or obesity). Successful and gratifying interactions, or the lack thereof, deeply and broadly affect adolescents: their self-esteem, self-image, confidence, school-learning, lifestyle, behavior, sexual activity, intimacy formation, mental-emotional well-being, and physical health. Successful achievement of this ever-evolving milestone has lifelong implications. This article describes various social-interactional skills, other components of social competence, and the dysfunctions that may cause social failure and suffering and describes how to evaluate and help manage problems in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. PMID:18822833

  4. School-Based Interventions for Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.

    2007-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a relatively common childhood behavior disorder that typically is treated with psychotropic medication (e.g., methylphenidate), behavioral strategies, or their combination. This article provides an overview of the school-related difficulties associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.…

  5. Subtypes versus Severity Differences in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Northern Finnish Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubke, Gitta H.; Muthen, Bengt; Moilanen, Irma K.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; Swanson, James M.; Yang, May H.; Taanila, Anja; Hurtig, Tuula; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Smalley, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to analyze whether behaviors of attention-deficit, hyperactivity among adolescents in Northern Finland reflect distinct subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results conclude that the majority of the Cohort falls into low-scoring groups of unaffecteds while a high-scoring minority group reflects an ADHD…

  6. Assessment of Working Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messina, Lucinete de Freitas; Tiedemann, Klaus Bruno; de Andrade, Enio Roberto; Primi, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This research investigated the cognitive abilities and the working memory in children and youngsters with three different types of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): (a) mainly with attention-deficit, (b) hyperactive and impulsive, and (c) combined. Method: A computerized test called Infant Cognitive Abilities Test, which…

  7. Predicting the Early Developmental Course of Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Stauffenberg, Camilla; Campbell, Susan B.

    2007-01-01

    Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care were examined to test whether: attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms remain stable from 54 months through early elementary school; behavioral inhibition and attention deficits assessed at 54 months predict ADHD symptoms in elementary…

  8. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Youth Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Blake

    2014-01-01

    A 1997 study by Lomas and Garside suggests a 62% prevalence rate of ADHD [Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder] amongst homeless, which prompts a need for further elucidation of this relationship. This study sought to examine the relationship between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the homeless youth population aged 18-24. The…

  9. A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pei-chin; Niew, Wern-ing; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Lin, Keh-chung

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention…

  10. Deficits in attentional processing of fearful facial expressions in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunzhe; Zhang, Dandan; Zhao, Yanli; Tan, Shuping; Luo, Yuejia

    2016-01-01

    Impaired attentional processing of negative facial expressions is prominent in schizophrenia and has been shown to be associated with patients' social dysfunctions. However, little is known about when and which specific attention deficits influence social functions. Given the dynamic feature of attention, it is necessary to investigate the attention deficits in negative emotional processing unfolding in time. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the temporal dynamics of attention deficits in emotion perception and their potential relationship with emotional/social impairments in neuroleptic naive schizophrenic patients. Two specific attention deficits were identified and were found to be associated with emotional/social impairments. More specifically, the deficit in orienting attention (evidenced with the reduced P1 amplitude) was correlated with expressive deficits, while the deficit in executive control of attention (evidenced with the reduced P3 amplitude) was correlated with avolition/asociality. Together, these findings may provide novel insights into the core pathophysiological processes and offer objective biomarkers for specific emotional/social impairments in schizophrenia. It is also hoped that this study helps to bridge the gap between basic cognitive deficits and relative high-level social dysfunctions in schizophrenic patients. PMID:27586404

  11. Deficits in attentional processing of fearful facial expressions in schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yunzhe; Zhang, Dandan; Zhao, Yanli; Tan, Shuping; Luo, Yuejia

    2016-01-01

    Impaired attentional processing of negative facial expressions is prominent in schizophrenia and has been shown to be associated with patients’ social dysfunctions. However, little is known about when and which specific attention deficits influence social functions. Given the dynamic feature of attention, it is necessary to investigate the attention deficits in negative emotional processing unfolding in time. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the temporal dynamics of attention deficits in emotion perception and their potential relationship with emotional/social impairments in neuroleptic naive schizophrenic patients. Two specific attention deficits were identified and were found to be associated with emotional/social impairments. More specifically, the deficit in orienting attention (evidenced with the reduced P1 amplitude) was correlated with expressive deficits, while the deficit in executive control of attention (evidenced with the reduced P3 amplitude) was correlated with avolition/asociality. Together, these findings may provide novel insights into the core pathophysiological processes and offer objective biomarkers for specific emotional/social impairments in schizophrenia. It is also hoped that this study helps to bridge the gap between basic cognitive deficits and relative high-level social dysfunctions in schizophrenic patients. PMID:27586404

  12. NEURONAL NICOTINIC RECEPTOR AGONISTS FOR THE TREATMENT OF ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER: FOCUS ON COGNITION

    PubMed Central

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Decker, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed neurobehavioral disorder in children and adolescents, and in about half of these patients, significant symptomology continues into adulthood. Although impulsivity and hyperactivity are the most salient features of ADHD, cognitive deficits, particularly impairments in attention and executive function, are an important component, particularly in adolescents and adults, with over 90% of adults seeking treatment for ADHD manifesting cognitive dysfunction. Currently available medications treat the core ADHD symptoms but typically do not adequately address cognitive aspects of ADHD, underscoring the need for new therapeutics. Dopamine and norepinephrine are hypothesized to be particularly important in ADHD, but there is emerging evidence that cholinergic neurotransmission, particularly involving neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), may play a role in the pathophysiology of ADHD. Nicotine has demonstrated procognitive effects in both humans and experimental animals and has produced signals of efficacy in small proof-of-concept adult ADHD trials. Although adverse effects associated with nicotine preclude its development as a therapeutic, a number of novel nAChR agonists with improved safety/tolerability profiles have been discovered. Of these, ABT-418 and ABT-089 have both demonstrated signals of efficacy in adults with ADHD. Notably, tolerability issues that might be expected of a nAChR agonist, such as nausea and emesis, were not observed at efficacious doses of ABT-089. Further understanding of the effects of novel neuronal nAChR agonists on specific aspects of cognitive functioning in ADHD is required to assess the full potential of this approach. PMID:17689498

  13. Predict Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder? Evidence -Based Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bener, Abdulbari; Kamal, Madeeha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavioral disorders in children and recent studies reported a relationship between low levels of Vitamin D and incidence of ADHD. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between vitamin D deficiency and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Also, to study the impact and role of vitamin D on the development of ADH in children. Design: This is a case-control study which was conducted in children below 18 years of age from June 2011 to May 2013 at the School Health and Primary Health care Clinics, Qatar. Methods and subjects: The study was based on 1,331 cases and 1,331 controls. The data collection instrument included socio-demographic & clinical data, physician diagnosis family history, BMI, and serum 25(OH) vitamin D, calcium, albumin, billirubin, magnesium, calcium, cholesterol, urea, triglyceride and phosphorus. Descriptive and univariate statistical analysis were performed. Results: Of the total number of 3470 children surveyed, 1331 of ADHD and 1,331 of healthy children gave their consent to participate in this study. The mean age (± SD, in years) for ADHD versus control children was 10.63±3.4 vs. 10.77±3.4. Overweight (7.7% vs 9.4%) and obesity (4.6% vs 7.7%) were significantly lower in ADHD children compared to their counterparts (P=0.001). Vitamin D deficiency was considerably higher in ADHD children compared to healthy children. The mean value of vitamin D in ADHD children was much lower than the normal value and there was a significant difference found in the mean values of vitamin D between ADHD (16.6±7.8 with median 16) and control children (23.5±9.9) (p<0.0001) and with median 23 (p = 0.006). Mean values of Calcium and phosphorous were significantly higher in control compared to ADHD children (p<0.001). 1331 of all ADHD children had 19.1% had severe vitamin D deficiency (< 10 ng/ml), 44.9% has moderate insufficient levels (between 10

  14. What is attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Furman, Lydia

    2005-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is described as the most common neurobehavioral condition of childhood. We raise the concern that ADHD is not a disease per se but rather a group of symptoms representing a final common behavioral pathway for a gamut of emotional, psychological, and/or learning problems. Increasing numbers of children, especially boys, are diagnosed with ADHD and treated with stimulant medications according to a simplified approach. Methodical review of the literature, however, raised concerning issues. "Core" ADHD symptoms of inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity are not unique to ADHD. Rates of "comorbid" psychiatric and learning problems, including depression and anxiety, range from 12 to 60%, with significant symptom overlap with ADHD, difficulties in diagnosis, and evidence-based treatment methods that do not include stimulant medications. No neuropsychologic test result is pathognomic for ADHD, and structural and functional neuroimaging studies have not identified a unique etiology for ADHD. No genetic marker has been consistently identified, and heritability studies are confounded by familial environmental factors. The validity of the Conners' Rating Scale-Revised has been seriously questioned, and parent and teacher "ratings" of school children are frequently discrepant, suggesting that use of subjective informant data via scale or interview does not form an objective basis for diagnosis of ADHD. Empiric diagnostic trials of stimulant medication that produce a behavioral response have been shown not to distinguish between children with and without "ADHD." In summary, the working dogma that ADHD is a disease or neurobehavioral condition does not at this time hold up to scrutiny of evidence. Thorough evaluation of symptomatic children should be individualized, and include assessment of educational, psychologic, psychiatric, and family needs. PMID:16417850

  15. Individual differences in attentional deficits and dopaminergic protein levels following exposure to proton radiation.

    PubMed

    Davis, Catherine M; DeCicco-Skinner, Kathleen L; Roma, Peter G; Hienz, Robert D

    2014-03-01

    To assess the possible neurobehavioral performance risks to astronauts from living in a space radiation environment during long-duration exploration missions, the effects of head-only proton irradiation (150 MeV/n) at low levels (25-50 cGy, approximating an astronaut's exposure during a 2-year planetary mission) were examined in adult male Long-Evans rats performing an analog of the human psychomotor vigilance test (PVT). The rodent version of PVT or rPVT tracks performance variables analogous to the human PVT, including selective attention/inattention, inhibitory control ("impulsivity") and psychomotor speed. Exposure to head-only proton radiation (25, 50, 100 or 200 cGy) disrupted rPVT performance (i.e., decreased accuracy, increased premature responding, elevated lapses in attention and slowed reaction times) over the 250 day testing period. However, the performance decrements only occurred in a subgroup of animals at each exposure level, that is, the severity of the rPVT performance deficit was unrelated to proton exposure level. Analysis of brain tissue from irradiated and control rats indicated that only rats with rPVT performance deficits displayed changes in the levels of the dopamine transporter and, to a lesser extent, the D₂ receptor. Additional animals trained to perform a line discrimination task measuring basic and reversal learning showed no behavioral effects over the same exposure levels, suggesting a specificity of the proton exposure effects to attentional deficits and supporting the rPVT as a sensitive neurobehavioral assay. PMID:24611657

  16. Association of Attention Deficit Disorder With Bedside Anti-saccades in Survivors of Childhood Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Khan, Raja B; Hudson, Melissa M; Ness, Kirsten K; Liang, Zhu; Srivastava, Deokumar; Krull, Kevin R

    2016-02-01

    Impaired attention is well recognized in childhood cancer survivors. We prospectively evaluated 162 long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia to study an association between presence of neurologic soft signs as measured by Zurich Neuromotor Scale, bedside evaluation of anti-saccades, and attention deficit disorder. Attention deficit disorder was recognized in 10.5% of the study cohort. We did not find an association of attention deficit with presence of any soft sign. However, there was an association between presence of abnormal anti-saccades and attention deficit (P = .04). These results will require further validation and if confirmed may introduce a quick bedside method of assessing impaired attention in cancer survivors.

  17. Attention Problems and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Discordant and Concordant Monozygotic Twins: Evidence of Environmental Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehn, Hanne; Derks, Eske M.; Hudziak, James J.; Heutink, Peter; van Beijsterveldt, Toos; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study familial and nonfamilial environmental influences on attention problems and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in monozygotic twins discordant and concordant-high and low for these traits. Method: Ninety-five twin pairs from The Netherlands Twin Register were selected. Longitudinal survey data were collected at 1,…

  18. Attention Mechanisms in Children with Anxiety Disorders and in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Implications for Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Adam S.; Chu, Brian C.; Reddy, Linda A.; Mohlman, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Inattention is among the most commonly referred problems for school-aged youth. Research suggests distinct mechanisms may contribute to attention problems in youth with anxiety disorders versus youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study compared children (8-17 years) with anxiety disorders (n = 24) and children (8-16…

  19. Shared and Disorder-Specific Prefrontal Abnormalities in Boys with Pure Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Compared to Boys with Pure CD during Interference Inhibition and Attention Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubia, Katya; Halari, Rozmin; Smith, Anna B.; Mohammad, Majeed; Scott, Stephen; Brammer, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Inhibitory and attention deficits have been suggested to be shared problems of disruptive behaviour disorders. Patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and patients with conduct disorder (CD) show deficits in tasks of attention allocation and interference inhibition. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging…

  20. Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia induces attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Patrícia Maidana; Schuch, Clarissa Pedrini; Rojas, Joseane Jiménez; Carletti, Jaqueline Vieira; Deckmann, Iohanna; Martinato, Luísa Helena Machado; Pires, Augusto Viana; Bizarro, Lisiane; Pereira, Lenir Orlandi

    2015-06-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be caused by genetic or environmental factors. Among environmental factors, perinatal complications are related, such as neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether HI contributes to the development of characteristics related to ADHD in adult rats, and to correlate the behavioral results with brain damage volume. Male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: HI and control. The HI procedure consisted of a permanent occlusion of the right common carotid artery followed by a period of hypoxia (90 min; 8% O₂ and 92% N₂) on the 7th postnatal day. Two months later, animals were evaluated in the open field test during a single 5-min session, and in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), over 25 weeks. Our results demonstrated that animals submitted to HI manifest cognitive impairments in task acquisition, deficits in sustained attention, and increases in impulsivity and compulsivity in response to task manipulation in the 5-CSRTT. Locomotor activity observed in open field did not differ between groups. Moreover, brain volume loss in the total hemisphere, cerebral cortex, white matter, hippocampus, and striatum were observed in HI animals, especially on the side ipsilateral to the lesion. From these results, we can infer that neonatal HI is an environmental factor that could contribute to the development of behavioral characteristics observed in ADHD that are associated with general brain atrophy. PMID:26030430

  1. Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia induces attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Patrícia Maidana; Schuch, Clarissa Pedrini; Rojas, Joseane Jiménez; Carletti, Jaqueline Vieira; Deckmann, Iohanna; Martinato, Luísa Helena Machado; Pires, Augusto Viana; Bizarro, Lisiane; Pereira, Lenir Orlandi

    2015-06-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be caused by genetic or environmental factors. Among environmental factors, perinatal complications are related, such as neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether HI contributes to the development of characteristics related to ADHD in adult rats, and to correlate the behavioral results with brain damage volume. Male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: HI and control. The HI procedure consisted of a permanent occlusion of the right common carotid artery followed by a period of hypoxia (90 min; 8% O₂ and 92% N₂) on the 7th postnatal day. Two months later, animals were evaluated in the open field test during a single 5-min session, and in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), over 25 weeks. Our results demonstrated that animals submitted to HI manifest cognitive impairments in task acquisition, deficits in sustained attention, and increases in impulsivity and compulsivity in response to task manipulation in the 5-CSRTT. Locomotor activity observed in open field did not differ between groups. Moreover, brain volume loss in the total hemisphere, cerebral cortex, white matter, hippocampus, and striatum were observed in HI animals, especially on the side ipsilateral to the lesion. From these results, we can infer that neonatal HI is an environmental factor that could contribute to the development of behavioral characteristics observed in ADHD that are associated with general brain atrophy.

  2. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist AZD1446 (TC-6683) in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Öhd, John; Potter, Alexandra S.; Jaeger, Judith; Karlsson, Pär; Hannesdottir, Kristin; Boström, Emma; Newhouse, Paul A.; Paulsson, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Stimulation of nicotinic cholinergic systems has been shown to alleviate ADHD symptoms and to improve cognitive performance. AZD1446 is a selective α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist with potential effect on the symptoms of ADHD. Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of AZD1446 in adults with ADHD treated for 2 weeks. Method This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Participants were 79 adults with ADHD, grouped according to their use of nicotine-containing products. Nicotine non-users received placebo and two of three AZD1446 treatment regimens (80 mg tid, 80 mg qd, 10 mg tid). Nicotine users received placebo, AZD1446 80 mg tid and 80 mg qd. Efficacy measures included the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale and cognitive measures of immediate and delayed verbal episodic memory, learning, attention, working memory, executive functioning, and spatial problem solving (CogState computerized test battery). Results There was no significant effect of AZD1446 on any of the clinical scores irrespective of dose, schedule, or concomitant use of nicotine products. A statistically significant improvement was seen on the Groton Maze Learning Task, a measure of executive functioning, in nicotine non-users after treatment with AZD1446 80 mg qd. Conclusions AZD1446 was well tolerated, but did not significantly improve ADHD symptoms after 2 weeks of treatment compared to placebo. While the present study does not support the therapeutic utility of AZD1446 in ADHD, its potential pro-cognitive effects remain to be explored in other neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:23640072

  3. A Comparative Study on the Visual Perceptions of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmetoglu, Emine; Aral, Neriman; Butun Ayhan, Aynur

    This study was conducted in order to (a) compare the visual perceptions of seven-year-old children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with those of normally developing children of the same age and development level and (b) determine whether the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder vary with respect to gender, having received preschool education and parents` educational level. A total of 60 children, 30 with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and 30 with normal development, were assigned to the study. Data about children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their families was collected by using a General Information Form and the visual perception of children was examined through the Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception. The Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis variance analysis was used to determine whether there was a difference of between the visual perceptions of children with normal development and those diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and to discover whether the variables of gender, preschool education and parents` educational status affected the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The results showed that there was a statistically meaningful difference between the visual perceptions of the two groups and that the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were affected meaningfully by gender, preschool education and parents` educational status.

  4. Evaluating reading and metacognitive deficits in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Jesús Ma; Puente, Aníbal; Jiménez, Virginia; Arrebillaga, Lorena

    2011-05-01

    The reading achievement of children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has scarcely been explored in research conducted in the Spanish language and when it has, the results have been contradictory. The focus of the present research is to analyze participants' reading competency and metacognitive strategies as they carry out reading comprehension tasks. The sample was comprised of 187 Argentine schoolchildren aged 9 to 13 years old. 94 constituted the control group and the clinical group consisted of 93 schoolchildren diagnosed with ADHD. The metacognitive assessment was made up of two metacognitive tests, the Reading Awareness Scale (ESCOLA; acronym in Spanish) and a Spanish adaptation of Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI), and one test of reading comprehension, the Evaluation of Reading Processes for Secondary Education Students (PROLEC-SE; acronym in Spanish). Students with ADHD had lower achievement on tests o reading comprehension compared to the control group. Nevertheless, our results suggest their difficulties did not stem from readin comprehension problems, but rather from alterations in their Executive Functions, because when subjects' reading comprehensio was equalized, students with ADHD still exhibited a lower level of Metacognition, particularly when it came to planning.

  5. Brief experimental analysis of reading deficits for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Fienup, Daniel M; Reyes-Giordano, Kimberly; Wolosik, Katarzyna; Aghjayan, Anto; Chacko, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Reading difficulties are especially high among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although there are a number of empirically supported reading interventions for children with ADHD, there is little data to guide the selection of the most efficacious reading intervention for a specific child. Brief experimental analysis (BEA) is a procedure that directly compares the efficacy of various academic interventions with the goal of guiding the selection of the intervention that results in optimal efficacy. The current proof of concept study examined the efficacy of the BEA methodology for determining the relative effectiveness of seven reading interventions for children with ADHD. The seven interventions included empirically supported ADHD interventions as well as traditional interventions found in the BEA literature. Six children diagnosed with ADHD completed the proof of concept study. Results indicated that the BEA successfully determined an efficacious intervention for each participant. The efficacy of the interventions and the optimal intervention based on BEA procedures varied for each child, suggesting the importance of a BEA approach when comparing various interventions for reading in children with ADHD. Implications and future directions for selecting effective reading interventions for children with ADHD are discussed.

  6. Effects of Diurnal Variation and Caffeine Consumption on Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) Performance in Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Melissa G.; Momjian, Ani J.; Wong, Keri K.

    2011-01-01

    The Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) is a continuous performance test (CPT) that assesses attention, impulsivity, and processing speed. CPTs are used in the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, but more young adults are being assessed for ADHD as well. The TOVA norms are based on a standardization sample…

  7. Impulsive Aggression as a Comorbidity of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Amann, Birgit H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This article examines the characteristics of impulsive aggression (IA) as a comorbidity in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), focusing on its incidence, impact on ADHD outcomes, need for timely intervention, and limitations of current treatment practices. Methods: Relevant literature was retrieved with electronic searches in PubMed and PsycINFO using the search strategy of “ADHD OR attention deficit hyperactivity disorder” AND “impulsive aggression OR reactive aggression OR hostile aggression OR overt aggression” AND “pediatric OR childhood OR children OR pre-adolescent OR adolescent” with separate searches using review OR clinical trial as search limits. Key articles published before the 2007 Expert Consensus Report on IA were identified using citation analysis. Results: More than 50% of preadolescents with ADHD combined subtype reportedly display clinically significant aggression, with impulsive aggression being the predominant subtype. Impulsive aggression is strongly predictive of a highly unfavorable developmental trajectory characterized by the potential for persistent ADHD, increasing psychosocial burden, accumulating comorbidities, serious lifelong functional deficits across a broad range of domains, delinquency/criminality, and adult antisocial behavior. Impulsive aggression, which triggers peer rejection and a vicious cycle of escalating dysfunction, may be a key factor in unfavorable psychosocial outcomes attributed to ADHD. Because severe aggressive behavior does not remit in many children when treated with primary ADHD therapy (i.e., stimulants and behavioral therapy), a common practice is to add medication of a different class to specifically target aggressive behavior. Conclusions: Impulsive aggression in children and adolescents with ADHD is a serious clinical and public health problem. Although adjunctive therapy with an aggression-targeted agent is widely recommended when

  8. Quantitative Evaluation System of Soft Neurological Signs for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Miki; Yamashita, Yushiro; Iramina, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Soft neurological signs (SNS) are minor neurological abnormalities in motor performance, and are used as one evaluation method for neurodevelopmental delays in children with ADHD. Our aim is to establish a quantitative evaluation system for children with ADHD. We focused on the arm movement called pronation and supination, which is one such soft neurological sign. Thirty three children with ADHD aged 7–11 years (27 males, six females) and twenty five adults participants aged 21–29 years old (19 males, six females) participated in our experiments. Our results suggested that the pronation and supination function in children with ADHD has a tendency to lag behind that of typically developing children by several years. From these results, our system has a possibility to objectively evaluate the neurodevelopmental delay of children with ADHD. PMID:26797613

  9. Quantitative Evaluation System of Soft Neurological Signs for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Miki; Yamashita, Yushiro; Iramina, Keiji

    2016-01-18

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Soft neurological signs (SNS) are minor neurological abnormalities in motor performance, and are used as one evaluation method for neurodevelopmental delays in children with ADHD. Our aim is to establish a quantitative evaluation system for children with ADHD. We focused on the arm movement called pronation and supination, which is one such soft neurological sign. Thirty three children with ADHD aged 7-11 years (27 males, six females) and twenty five adults participants aged 21-29 years old (19 males, six females) participated in our experiments. Our results suggested that the pronation and supination function in children with ADHD has a tendency to lag behind that of typically developing children by several years. From these results, our system has a possibility to objectively evaluate the neurodevelopmental delay of children with ADHD.

  10. Quantitative Evaluation System of Soft Neurological Signs for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Miki; Yamashita, Yushiro; Iramina, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Soft neurological signs (SNS) are minor neurological abnormalities in motor performance, and are used as one evaluation method for neurodevelopmental delays in children with ADHD. Our aim is to establish a quantitative evaluation system for children with ADHD. We focused on the arm movement called pronation and supination, which is one such soft neurological sign. Thirty three children with ADHD aged 7-11 years (27 males, six females) and twenty five adults participants aged 21-29 years old (19 males, six females) participated in our experiments. Our results suggested that the pronation and supination function in children with ADHD has a tendency to lag behind that of typically developing children by several years. From these results, our system has a possibility to objectively evaluate the neurodevelopmental delay of children with ADHD. PMID:26797613

  11. Gambling and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) in a Population of French Students.

    PubMed

    Romo, L; Rémond, J J; Coeffec, A; Kotbagi, G; Plantey, S; Boz, F; Kern, L

    2015-12-01

    Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can be exacerbated by psychosocial factors. Various studies confirm that the severity of a psychiatric disorder, particularly when it comes to ADHD, is strongly correlated with the amount of use. This study (1) evaluated the association between ADHD and gambling among young students; (2) determined which symptom among ADHD's three symptoms (attention deficit, hyperactivity, or impulsivity) had the strongest association with video game addiction and gambling; and (3) determined the impact of the association between ADHD and video game addiction and gambling on self-esteem and academic performance of students. A total of 720 students (445 males and 274 females) were recruited from eight higher educational institutions of Ile de France. They all completed a battery of questionnaire consisting of Canadian Problem Gambling Index, UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Rosenberg scales, and socio-demographic data. 13.33% of the participants had symptoms of ADHD during childhood (WURS scale score) and 40.41% of them have symptoms of ADHD in adulthood (ASRS score). Finally, among the participants, 37.5% had excessive gambling addiction, have positive results on WURS and ASRS scales, thus having a probable ADHD, whereas 14.55% had no gambling addiction. The results demonstrated that adult ADHD was associated with gambling addiction. Significant associations were observed between ADHD and impulsivity, academic difficulties and gambling addiction. The association between ADHD and gambling seems to be common among vulnerable populations such as adolescents and could be related to variables such as self-esteem, which appears to potentially worsen the prognosis. Further research on this relationship is needed to optimize prevention strategies and effective treatment.

  12. Gambling and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) in a Population of French Students.

    PubMed

    Romo, L; Rémond, J J; Coeffec, A; Kotbagi, G; Plantey, S; Boz, F; Kern, L

    2015-12-01

    Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can be exacerbated by psychosocial factors. Various studies confirm that the severity of a psychiatric disorder, particularly when it comes to ADHD, is strongly correlated with the amount of use. This study (1) evaluated the association between ADHD and gambling among young students; (2) determined which symptom among ADHD's three symptoms (attention deficit, hyperactivity, or impulsivity) had the strongest association with video game addiction and gambling; and (3) determined the impact of the association between ADHD and video game addiction and gambling on self-esteem and academic performance of students. A total of 720 students (445 males and 274 females) were recruited from eight higher educational institutions of Ile de France. They all completed a battery of questionnaire consisting of Canadian Problem Gambling Index, UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Rosenberg scales, and socio-demographic data. 13.33% of the participants had symptoms of ADHD during childhood (WURS scale score) and 40.41% of them have symptoms of ADHD in adulthood (ASRS score). Finally, among the participants, 37.5% had excessive gambling addiction, have positive results on WURS and ASRS scales, thus having a probable ADHD, whereas 14.55% had no gambling addiction. The results demonstrated that adult ADHD was associated with gambling addiction. Significant associations were observed between ADHD and impulsivity, academic difficulties and gambling addiction. The association between ADHD and gambling seems to be common among vulnerable populations such as adolescents and could be related to variables such as self-esteem, which appears to potentially worsen the prognosis. Further research on this relationship is needed to optimize prevention strategies and effective treatment. PMID:25466366

  13. Attention Demand and Postural Control in Children with Hearing Deficit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derlich, Malgorzata; Krecisz, Krzysztof; Kuczynski, Michal

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for deteriorated postural control in children with hearing deficit (CwHD), we measured center-of-pressure (COP) variability, mean velocity and entropy in bipedal quiet stance (feet together) with or without the concurrent cognitive task (reaction to visual stimulus) on hard or foam surface in 29 CwHD and a…

  14. Sensation-to-Cognition Cortical Streams in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Susana; Hoekzema, Elseline; Castellanos, Francisco X.; García-García, David; Lage-Castellanos, Agustín; Dijk, Koene R.A.Van; Navas-Sánchez, Francisco J.; Martínez, Kenia; Desco, Manuel; Sepulcre, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We sought to determine whether functional connectivity streams that link sensory, attentional, and higher-order cognitive circuits are atypical in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We applied a graph-theory method to the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 120 children with ADHD and 120 age-matched typically developing children (TDC). Starting in unimodal primary cortex—visual, auditory, and somatosensory—we used stepwise functional connectivity to calculate functional connectivity paths at discrete numbers of relay stations (or link-step distances). First, we characterized the functional connectivity streams that link sensory, attentional, and higher-order cognitive circuits in TDC and found that systems do not reach the level of integration achieved by adults. Second, we searched for stepwise functional connectivity differences between children with ADHD and TDC. We found that, at the initial steps of sensory functional connectivity streams, patients display significant enhancements of connectivity degree within neighboring areas of primary cortex, while connectivity to attention-regulatory areas is reduced. Third, at subsequent link-step distances from primary sensory cortex, children with ADHD show decreased connectivity to executive processing areas and increased degree of connections to default mode regions. Fourth, in examining medication histories in children with ADHD, we found that children medicated with psychostimulants present functional connectivity streams with higher degree of connectivity to regions subserving attentional and executive processes compared to medication-naïve children. We conclude that predominance of local sensory processing and lesser influx of information to attentional and executive regions may reduce the ability to organize and control the balance between external and internal sources of information in ADHD. PMID:25821110

  15. Sensation-to-cognition cortical streams in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Susana; Hoekzema, Elseline; Castellanos, Francisco X; García-García, David; Lage-Castellanos, Agustín; Van Dijk, Koene R A; Navas-Sánchez, Francisco J; Martínez, Kenia; Desco, Manuel; Sepulcre, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    We sought to determine whether functional connectivity streams that link sensory, attentional, and higher-order cognitive circuits are atypical in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We applied a graph-theory method to the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 120 children with ADHD and 120 age-matched typically developing children (TDC). Starting in unimodal primary cortex-visual, auditory, and somatosensory-we used stepwise functional connectivity to calculate functional connectivity paths at discrete numbers of relay stations (or link-step distances). First, we characterized the functional connectivity streams that link sensory, attentional, and higher-order cognitive circuits in TDC and found that systems do not reach the level of integration achieved by adults. Second, we searched for stepwise functional connectivity differences between children with ADHD and TDC. We found that, at the initial steps of sensory functional connectivity streams, patients display significant enhancements of connectivity degree within neighboring areas of primary cortex, while connectivity to attention-regulatory areas is reduced. Third, at subsequent link-step distances from primary sensory cortex, children with ADHD show decreased connectivity to executive processing areas and increased degree of connections to default mode regions. Fourth, in examining medication histories in children with ADHD, we found that children medicated with psychostimulants present functional connectivity streams with higher degree of connectivity to regions subserving attentional and executive processes compared to medication-naïve children. We conclude that predominance of local sensory processing and lesser influx of information to attentional and executive regions may reduce the ability to organize and control the balance between external and internal sources of information in ADHD.

  16. Deficits in Working Memory in Young Adults with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Mimran, Ravit; Sapir, Shimon

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the extent to which reading disabilities (RD) in young adults are related to deficits in specific aspects of temporary storage of verbal information, namely, memory span and the central executive (CE) component of working memory. Thirty-two native Hebrew-speaking young adults with and without RD were…

  17. Deficits in Interval Timing Measured by the Dual-Task Paradigm among Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Shoou-Lian; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Hsu, Wen-Yau; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Background: The underlying mechanism of time perception deficit in long time intervals in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is still unclear. This study used the time reproduction dual task to explore the role of the attentional resource in time perception deficits among children and adolescents with ADHD. Methods: Participants…

  18. Overview of Central Auditory Processing Deficits in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Atcherson, Samuel R.; Nagaraj, Naveen K.; Kennett, Sarah E.W.; Levisee, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    Although there are many reported age-related declines in the human body, the notion that a central auditory processing deficit exists in older adults has not always been clear. Hearing loss and both structural and functional central nervous system changes with advancing age are contributors to how we listen, hear, and process auditory information. Even older adults with normal or near normal hearing sensitivity may exhibit age-related central auditory processing deficits as measured behaviorally and/or electrophysiologically. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of assessment and rehabilitative approaches for central auditory processing deficits in older adults. It is hoped that the outcome of the information presented here will help clinicians with older adult patients who do not exhibit the typical auditory processing behaviors exhibited by others at the same age and with comparable hearing sensitivity all in the absence of other health-related conditions. PMID:27516715

  19. Overview of Central Auditory Processing Deficits in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Atcherson, Samuel R; Nagaraj, Naveen K; Kennett, Sarah E W; Levisee, Meredith

    2015-08-01

    Although there are many reported age-related declines in the human body, the notion that a central auditory processing deficit exists in older adults has not always been clear. Hearing loss and both structural and functional central nervous system changes with advancing age are contributors to how we listen, hear, and process auditory information. Even older adults with normal or near normal hearing sensitivity may exhibit age-related central auditory processing deficits as measured behaviorally and/or electrophysiologically. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of assessment and rehabilitative approaches for central auditory processing deficits in older adults. It is hoped that the outcome of the information presented here will help clinicians with older adult patients who do not exhibit the typical auditory processing behaviors exhibited by others at the same age and with comparable hearing sensitivity all in the absence of other health-related conditions. PMID:27516715

  20. Speed of Inhibition Predicts Teacher--Rated Medication Response in Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheres, Anouk; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating whether one of the key deficits in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), slow response inhibition, predicted the response to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment. In order to address this issue, we used Stop Signal Reaction Times (SSRTs) measured at baseline in 20 medication-naive boys with ADHD as…

  1. Motivational Effects on Motor Timing in Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Meel, Catharina S.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to clarify whether poor performance of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on motor timing tasks reflects a true deficit in the temporal organization of motor output or is due to a lack of intrinsic motivation. Method: Eighteen children with ADHD (age 8-12) were compared with 18 age- and…

  2. Beyond ADHD: A Consideration of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Pedagogy in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosser, Brenton J.

    2008-01-01

    A psycho-medical discourse that explains behavioural dysfunction through neurological deficit has dominated debate about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, if only medical questions are asked, only medical answers will be found, resulting in more or less drug treatment. When behavioural dysfunction results in impairment…

  3. Cognitive Neuroscience of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Current Status and Working Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidya, Chandan J.; Stollstorff, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience studies of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) suggest multiple loci of pathology with respect to both cognitive domains and neural circuitry. Cognitive deficits extend beyond executive functioning to include spatial, temporal, and lower-level "nonexecutive" functions. Atypical functional anatomy extends beyond…

  4. Rapid Processing of Letters, Digits and Symbols: What Purely Visual-Attentional Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; Dufau, Stephane; Grainger, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Visual-attentional theories of dyslexia predict deficits for dyslexic children not only for the perception of letter strings but also for non-alphanumeric symbol strings. This prediction was tested in a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm with letters, digits, and symbols. Children with dyslexia showed significant deficits for letter and digit…

  5. Striatal Sensitivity during Reward Processing in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paloyelis, Yannis; Mehta, Mitul A.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been linked to deficits in the dopaminergic reward-processing circuitry; yet, existing evidence is limited, and the influence of genetic variation affecting dopamine signaling remains unknown. We investigated striatal responsivity to rewards in ADHD combined type (ADHD-CT) using…

  6. Executive Functioning among Finnish Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Sandra K.; Humphrey, Lorie A.; Tapio, Terttu; Moilanen, Irma K.; McGough, James J.; McCracken, James T.; Yang, May H.; Dang, Jeff; Taanila, Anja; Ebeling, Hanna; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Smalley, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine cognitive functioning in a sample of adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) from the North Finnish Birth Cohort 1986. The results conclude that executive function deficit (EFD) was more frequent in ADHD groups than in those without ADHD.

  7. Neural Mechanisms of Interference Control and Time Discrimination in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vloet, Timo D.; Gilsbach, Susanne; Neufang, Susanne; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Both executive functions and time perception are typically impaired in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the exact neural mechanisms underlying these deficits remain to be investigated. Method: Fourteen subjects with ADHD and 14 age- and IQ-matched controls (aged 9 through 15 years) were assessed…

  8. Narrative Intervention: A School-Based Counseling Strategy for Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamali, Khosrow; Yoosefi Looyeh, Majid

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a group narrative intervention for improving the behavior of 8- to 11-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder at home and school. (Contains 2 tables and 1 note.)

  9. Dopamine Transporter Genotype Conveys Familial Risk of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder through Striatal Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durston, Sarah; Fossella, John A.; Mulder, Martijn J.; Casey B. J.; Ziermans, Tim B.; Vessaz, M. Nathalie; Van Engeland, Herman

    2008-01-01

    The study examines the effect of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) genotype in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results confirm that DAT1 translates the genetic risk of ADHD through striatal activation.

  10. Gendering attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a discursive analysis of UK newspaper stories.

    PubMed

    Horton-Salway, Mary

    2013-08-01

    Discursive psychology is used to study the gendering of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in UK national newspapers in the period of 2009-2011. The analysis examines how gendering is embedded in causal attributions and identity constructions. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is portrayed as a predominantly male phenomenon with representations of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder being gendered through extreme stories about victims, villains or heroes that depict boys and men as marginalised, exceptional or dangerous. There is also a focus on mothers as the spokespersons and caretakers for parenting and family health while fathers are rendered more invisible. This contributes to our understanding of how attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is constructed in the media using a range of gendered representations that draw on cultural stereotypes familiar in Western societies.

  11. Developmental course of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and its predictors.

    PubMed

    Cherkasova, Mariya; Sulla, Erin M; Dalena, Kara L; Pondé, Milena P; Hechtman, Lily

    2013-02-01

    Résumé OBJECTIF: Cette revue entend présenter les principales caractéristiques de la progression développementale du trouble de déficit de l’attention avec hyperactivité (TDAH) et examiner les influences les plus dominantes du cours développemental et des résultats du TDAH. MÉTHODES: Cette revue sélective porte principalement sur les études prospectives de suivi. Les publications pertinentes ont été choisies par une recherche dans les bases de données MEDLINE et PubMed, à l’aide des mots clés: TDAH, développement, préscolaire, adolescent, adulte, suivi, résultat, long terme, prédicteurs, et traitement. Des publications additionnelles ont ensuite été repérées dans les bibliographies des articles sélectionnés. RÉSULTATS: La présentation du TDAH et les déficiences qui y sont associées évoluent durant le développement, tout comme les prédicteurs de résultat. En début de développement, outre la génétique, certaines formes d’adversité prénatale accroissent le risque du TDAH. Dans les années préscolaires, la gravité des symptômes, la fonction cognitive, et les facteurs familiaux deviennent des prédicteurs significatifs des résultats à l’âge scolaire. Ces facteurs continuent de prédire les résultats à long terme des enfants d’âge scolaire; la comorbidité apparaît comme étant un autre prédicteur significatif des résultats à long terme à ce stade. CONCLUSIONS: La présentation du TDAH et les facteurs de risque d’adversité ultérieure évoluent au cours du développement, ce qui requiert des pratiques cliniques éclairées en matière de développement.

  12. Hyperactivity in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Ubiquitous Core Symptom or Manifestation of Working Memory Deficits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Mark D.; Bolden, Jennifer; Kofler, Michael J.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Alderson, R. Matt

    2009-01-01

    Hyperactivity is currently considered a core and ubiquitous feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, an alternative model challenges this premise and hypothesizes a functional relationship between working memory (WM) and activity level. The current study investigated whether children's activity level is functionally…

  13. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method: Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases…

  14. Executive Summaries of Research Syntheses and Promising Practices on the Education of Children with Attention Deficit Disorder. Education of Children with Attention Deficit Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesapeake Inst., Washington, DC.

    This monograph presents the executive summaries of research syntheses developed at five special centers addressing assessment and interventions for children with attention deficit disorders (ADD). The Center at the Arkansas Children's Hospital (Roscoe A. Dykman et al.) reviewed the literature and conducted meetings on the assessment and…

  15. Low Dopamine Function in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Should Genotyping Signify Early Diagnosis in Children?

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Mark S.; Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Braverman, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is present in 8% to 12% of children, and 4% of adults worldwide. Children with ADHD can have learning impairments, poor self-esteem, social dysfunction, and an increased risk of substance abuse, including cigarette smoking. Overall, the rate of treatment with medication for patients with ADHD has been increasing since 2008, with > 2 million children now being treated with stimulants. The rise of adolescent prescription ADHD medication abuse has occurred along with a concomitant increase of stimulant medication availability. Of adults presenting with a substance use disorder (SUD), 20% to 30% have concurrent ADHD, and 20% to 40% of adults with ADHD have a history of SUD. Following a brief review of the etiology of ADHD, its diagnosis and treatment, we focus on the benefits of early and appropriate testing for a predisposition to ADHD. We suggest that by genotyping patients for a number of known, associated dopaminergic polymorphisms, especially at an early age, misdiagnoses and/or over-diagnosis can be reduced. Ethical and legal issues of early genotyping are considered. As many as 30% of individuals with ADHD are estimated to either have secondary side-effects or are not responsive to stimulant medication. We also consider the benefits of non-stimulant medication and alternative treatment modalities, which include diet, herbal medications, iron supplementation, and neurofeedback. With the goals of improving treatment of patients with ADHD and SUD prevention, we encourage further work in both genetic diagnosis and novel treatment approaches. PMID:24393762

  16. The Complicated Relationship Between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zulauf, Courtney A.; Sprich, Susan E.; Safren, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults with substance use disorders (SUD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are increasingly presenting in clinical practice. The overlap and role of treatment for these co-occurring disorders remains unclear. A review of the literature was conducted to highlight and update recent evidence on the overlap of ADHD and SUD, the role of ADHD medication on later SUD, and the treatment of ADHD and SUD in adolescents and young adults. Recent work continues to highlight the high risk for comorbid ADHD in patients with SUD; and conversely, the high risk for SUD developing in ADHD across the lifespan, particularly in the context of comorbid conduct disorder. Although the data remains discordant, it appears that ADHD pharmacotherapy does not increase the risk for SUD. Medication treatment alone does not appear to be particularly effective in treating SUD in currently active substance abusing individuals with ADHD. Structured therapies may be effective in treating adolescents and young adults with ADHD and SUD. Further controlled trials evaluating the sequence and effect of structured psychotherapies and/or ADHD pharmacotherapy on SUD relapse in these groups are warranted. PMID:24526271

  17. The complicated relationship between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Zulauf, Courtney A; Sprich, Susan E; Safren, Steven A; Wilens, Timothy E

    2014-03-01

    Adolescents and young adults with substance use disorders (SUD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are increasingly presenting in clinical practice. The overlap and role of treatment for these co-occurring disorders remains unclear. A review of the literature was conducted to highlight and update recent evidence on the overlap of ADHD and SUD, the role of ADHD medication on later SUD, and the treatment of ADHD and SUD in adolescents and young adults. Recent work continues to highlight the high risk for comorbid ADHD in patients with SUD; and conversely, the high risk for SUD developing in ADHD across the lifespan, particularly in the context of comorbid conduct disorder. Although the data remains discordant, it appears that ADHD pharmacotherapy does not increase the risk for SUD. Medication treatment alone does not appear to be particularly effective in treating SUD in currently active substance abusing individuals with ADHD. Structured therapies may be effective in treating adolescents and young adults with ADHD and SUD. Further controlled trials evaluating the sequence and effect of structured psychotherapies and/or ADHD pharmacotherapy on SUD relapse in these groups are warranted. PMID:24526271

  18. Vitamin D Status at Birth and Future Risk of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Rylander, Lars; Lindh, Christian H.; Jönsson, Bo A. G.; Ode, Amanda; Olofsson, Per; Ivarsson, Sten A.; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Haglund, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder have lower levels of Vitamin D3 at birth than matched controls. Material Umbilical cord blood samples collected at birth from 202 children later diagnosed with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder were analysed for vitamin D content and compared with 202 matched controls. 25-OH vitamin D3 was analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results No differences in cord blood vitamin D concentration were found between children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (median 13.0 ng/ml) and controls (median 13.5 ng/ml) (p = 0.43). In a logistic regression analysis, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder showed a significant association with maternal age (odds ratio: 0.96, 95% confidence interval: 0.92–0.99) but not with vitamin D levels (odds ratio: 0.99, 95% confidence interval: 0.97–1.02). Conclusion We found no difference in intrauterine vitamin D levels between children later developing Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and matched control children. However, the statistical power of the study was too weak to detect an eventual small to medium size association between vitamin D levels and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. PMID:26509435

  19. Impaired processing speed and attention in first-episode drug naive schizophrenia with deficit syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ce; Jiang, Wenhui; Zhong, Na; Wu, Jin; Jiang, Haifeng; Du, Jiang; Li, Ye; Ma, Xiancang; Zhao, Min; Hashimoto, Kenji; Gao, Chengge

    2014-11-01

    Although first-episode drug naive patients with schizophrenia are known to show cognitive impairment, the cognitive performances of these patients, who suffer deficit syndrome, compared with those who suffer non-deficit syndrome is undetermined. The aim of this study was to compare cognitive performances in first-episode drug-naive schizophrenia with deficit syndrome or non-deficit syndrome. First-episode drug naive patients (n=49) and medicated patients (n=108) with schizophrenia, and age, sex, and education matched healthy controls (n=57 for the first-episode group, and n=128 for the medicated group) were enrolled. Patients were divided into deficit or non-deficit syndrome groups, using the Schedule for Deficit Syndrome. Cognitive performance was assessed using the CogState computerized cognitive battery. All cognitive domains in first-episode drug naive and medicated patients showed significant impairment compared with their respective control groups. Furthermore, cognitive performance in first-episode drug naive patients was significantly worse than in medicated patients. Interestingly, the cognitive performance markers of processing speed and attention, in first-episode drug naive patients with deficit syndrome, were both significantly worse than in equivalent patients without deficit syndrome. In contrast, no differences in cognitive performance were found between the two groups of medicated patients. In conclusion, this study found that first-episode drug naive schizophrenia with deficit syndrome showed significantly impaired processing speed and attention, compared with patients with non-deficit syndrome. These findings highlight processing speed and attention as potential targets for pharmacological and psychosocial interventions in first-episode schizophrenia with deficit syndrome, since these domains are associated with social outcomes.

  20. Contrasting emotion processing and executive functioning in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Soncin, Stephen; Brien, Donald C; Coe, Brian C; Marin, Alina; Munoz, Douglas P

    2016-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are highly comorbid and share executive function and emotion processing deficits, complicating diagnoses despite distinct clinical features. We compared performance on an oculomotor task that assessed these processes to capture subtle differences between ADHD and BD. The interaction between emotion processing and executive functioning may be informative because, although these processes overlap anatomically, certain regions that are compromised in each network are different in ADHD and BD. Adults, aged 18-62, with ADHD (n = 22), BD (n = 20), and healthy controls (n = 21) performed an interleaved pro- and antisaccade task (looking toward vs. looking away from a visual target, respectively). Task irrelevant emotional faces (fear, happy, sad, neutral) were presented on a subset of trials either before or with the target. The ADHD group made more direction errors (looked in the wrong direction) than controls. Presentation of negatively valenced (fear, sad) and ambiguous (neutral) emotional faces increased saccadic reaction time in BD only compared to controls, whereas longer presentation of sad faces modestly increased group differences. The antisaccade task differentiated ADHD from controls. Emotional processing further impaired processing speed in BD. We propose that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is critical in both processing systems, but the inhibitory signal this region generates is impacted by dysfunction in the emotion processing network, possibly at the orbitofrontal cortex, in BD. These results suggest there are differences in how emotion processing and executive functioning interact, which could be utilized to improve diagnostic specificity. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Dissociation of working memory impairments and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Mattfeld, Aaron T.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Brown, Ariel; Fried, Ronna; Gabrieli, John D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Prevailing neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) propose that ADHD arises from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, but accumulating clinical evidence suggests a dissociation between ADHD and executive dysfunctions. This study examined whether ADHD and working memory capacity are behaviorally and neurobiologically separable using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants diagnosed with ADHD in childhood who subsequently remitted or persisted in their diagnosis as adults were characterized at follow-up in adulthood as either impaired or unimpaired in spatial working memory relative to controls who never had ADHD. ADHD participants with impaired spatial working memory performed worse than controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory during an n-back working memory task while being scanned. Both controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory exhibited significant linearly increasing activation in the inferior frontal junction, precuneus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum as a function of working-memory load, and these activations did not differ significantly between these groups. ADHD participants with impaired working memory exhibited significant hypoactivation in the same regions, which was significantly different than both control participants and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory. These findings support both a behavioral and neurobiological dissociation between ADHD and working memory capacity. PMID:26900567

  2. Dissociation of working memory impairments and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the brain.

    PubMed

    Mattfeld, Aaron T; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Brown, Ariel; Fried, Ronna; Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-01-01

    Prevailing neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) propose that ADHD arises from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, but accumulating clinical evidence suggests a dissociation between ADHD and executive dysfunctions. This study examined whether ADHD and working memory capacity are behaviorally and neurobiologically separable using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants diagnosed with ADHD in childhood who subsequently remitted or persisted in their diagnosis as adults were characterized at follow-up in adulthood as either impaired or unimpaired in spatial working memory relative to controls who never had ADHD. ADHD participants with impaired spatial working memory performed worse than controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory during an n-back working memory task while being scanned. Both controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory exhibited significant linearly increasing activation in the inferior frontal junction, precuneus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum as a function of working-memory load, and these activations did not differ significantly between these groups. ADHD participants with impaired working memory exhibited significant hypoactivation in the same regions, which was significantly different than both control participants and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory. These findings support both a behavioral and neurobiological dissociation between ADHD and working memory capacity. PMID:26900567

  3. Dissociation of working memory impairments and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the brain.

    PubMed

    Mattfeld, Aaron T; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Brown, Ariel; Fried, Ronna; Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-01-01

    Prevailing neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) propose that ADHD arises from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, but accumulating clinical evidence suggests a dissociation between ADHD and executive dysfunctions. This study examined whether ADHD and working memory capacity are behaviorally and neurobiologically separable using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants diagnosed with ADHD in childhood who subsequently remitted or persisted in their diagnosis as adults were characterized at follow-up in adulthood as either impaired or unimpaired in spatial working memory relative to controls who never had ADHD. ADHD participants with impaired spatial working memory performed worse than controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory during an n-back working memory task while being scanned. Both controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory exhibited significant linearly increasing activation in the inferior frontal junction, precuneus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum as a function of working-memory load, and these activations did not differ significantly between these groups. ADHD participants with impaired working memory exhibited significant hypoactivation in the same regions, which was significantly different than both control participants and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory. These findings support both a behavioral and neurobiological dissociation between ADHD and working memory capacity.

  4. Disrupted functional connectivity of cerebellar default network areas in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kucyi, Aaron; Hove, Michael J; Biederman, Joseph; Van Dijk, Koene R A; Valera, Eve M

    2015-09-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasingly understood as a disorder of spontaneous brain-network interactions. The default mode network (DMN), implicated in ADHD-linked behaviors including mind-wandering and attentional fluctuations, has been shown to exhibit abnormal spontaneous functional connectivity (FC) within-network and with other networks (salience, dorsal attention and frontoparietal) in ADHD. Although the cerebellum has been implicated in the pathophysiology of ADHD, it remains unknown whether cerebellar areas of the DMN (CerDMN) exhibit altered FC with cortical networks in ADHD. Here, 23 adults with ADHD and 23 age-, IQ-, and sex-matched controls underwent resting state fMRI. The mean time series of CerDMN areas was extracted, and FC with the whole brain was calculated. Whole-brain between-group differences in FC were assessed. Additionally, relationships between inattention and individual differences in FC were assessed for between-group interactions. In ADHD, CerDMN areas showed positive FC (in contrast to average FC in the negative direction in controls) with widespread regions of salience, dorsal attention and sensorimotor networks. ADHD individuals also exhibited higher FC (more positive correlation) of CerDMN areas with frontoparietal and visual network regions. Within the control group, but not in ADHD, participants with higher inattention had higher FC between CerDMN and regions in the visual and dorsal attention networks. This work provides novel evidence of impaired CerDMN coupling with cortical networks in ADHD and highlights a role of cerebro-cerebellar interactions in cognitive function. These data provide support for the potential targeting of CerDMN areas for therapeutic interventions in ADHD. PMID:26109476

  5. Disrupted functional connectivity of cerebellar default network areas in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kucyi, Aaron; Hove, Michael J.; Biederman, Joseph; Van Dijk, Koene R.A.; Valera, Eve M.

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasingly understood as a disorder of spontaneous brain-network interactions. The default mode network (DMN), implicated in ADHD-linked behaviors including mind-wandering and attentional fluctuations, has been shown to exhibit abnormal spontaneous functional connectivity (FC) within-network and with other networks (salience, dorsal attention and frontoparietal) in ADHD. Although the cerebellum has been implicated in the pathophysiology of ADHD, it remains unknown whether cerebellar areas of the DMN (CerDMN) exhibit altered FC with cortical networks in ADHD. Here, 23 adults with ADHD and 23 age-, IQ-, and sex-matched controls underwent resting state fMRI. The mean time series of CerDMN areas was extracted, and FC with the whole brain was calculated. Whole-brain between-group differences in FC were assessed. Additionally, relationships between inattention and individual differences in FC were assessed for between-group interactions. In ADHD, CerDMN areas showed positive FC (in contrast to average FC in the negative direction in controls) with widespread regions of salience, dorsal attention and sensorimotor networks. ADHD individuals also exhibited higher FC (more positive correlation) of CerDMN areas with frontoparietal and visual network regions. Within the control group, but not in ADHD, participants with higher inattention had higher FC between CerDMN and regions in the visual and dorsal attention networks. This work provides novel evidence of impaired CerDMN coupling with cortical networks in ADHD and highlights a role of the cerebro-cerebellar interactions in cognitive function. These data provide support for the potential targeting of CerDMN areas for therapeutic interventions in ADHD. PMID:26109476

  6. Disrupted functional connectivity of cerebellar default network areas in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kucyi, Aaron; Hove, Michael J; Biederman, Joseph; Van Dijk, Koene R A; Valera, Eve M

    2015-09-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasingly understood as a disorder of spontaneous brain-network interactions. The default mode network (DMN), implicated in ADHD-linked behaviors including mind-wandering and attentional fluctuations, has been shown to exhibit abnormal spontaneous functional connectivity (FC) within-network and with other networks (salience, dorsal attention and frontoparietal) in ADHD. Although the cerebellum has been implicated in the pathophysiology of ADHD, it remains unknown whether cerebellar areas of the DMN (CerDMN) exhibit altered FC with cortical networks in ADHD. Here, 23 adults with ADHD and 23 age-, IQ-, and sex-matched controls underwent resting state fMRI. The mean time series of CerDMN areas was extracted, and FC with the whole brain was calculated. Whole-brain between-group differences in FC were assessed. Additionally, relationships between inattention and individual differences in FC were assessed for between-group interactions. In ADHD, CerDMN areas showed positive FC (in contrast to average FC in the negative direction in controls) with widespread regions of salience, dorsal attention and sensorimotor networks. ADHD individuals also exhibited higher FC (more positive correlation) of CerDMN areas with frontoparietal and visual network regions. Within the control group, but not in ADHD, participants with higher inattention had higher FC between CerDMN and regions in the visual and dorsal attention networks. This work provides novel evidence of impaired CerDMN coupling with cortical networks in ADHD and highlights a role of cerebro-cerebellar interactions in cognitive function. These data provide support for the potential targeting of CerDMN areas for therapeutic interventions in ADHD.

  7. Functional impairments in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: the mediating role of neuropsychological functioning.

    PubMed

    Sjöwall, Douglas; Thorell, Lisa B

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with multiple neuropsychological deficits and the present study aimed to investigate to what extent these deficits are related to the functional impairments associated with the disorder. The results showed that all executive functioning deficits and reaction time variability acted as mediators in the relation between ADHD and academic achievement. However, only the effect of working memory for language skills, and the effects of reaction time variability and working memory for mathematics, remained significant when studying independent effects. Regulation of anger was a significant mediator for peer problems. Gender or symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) did not moderate these findings. PMID:24742310

  8. Functional Impairments in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: The Mediating Role of Neuropsychological Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Sjöwall, Douglas; Thorell, Lisa B.

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with multiple neuropsychological deficits and the present study aimed to investigate to what extent these deficits are related to the functional impairments associated with the disorder. The results showed that all executive functioning deficits and reaction time variability acted as mediators in the relation between ADHD and academic achievement. However, only the effect of working memory for language skills, and the effects of reaction time variability and working memory for mathematics, remained significant when studying independent effects. Regulation of anger was a significant mediator for peer problems. Gender or symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) did not moderate these findings. PMID:24742310

  9. Atypical Pulvinar-Cortical Pathways During Sustained Attention Performance in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiaobo; Sroubek, Ariane; Kelly, Mary S.; Lesser, Iris; Sussman, Elyse; He, Yong; Branch, Craig; Foxe, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The neurobiological basis of inattentiveness, a core feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is not yet well understood. Structural abnormalities in thalamus, especially the pulvinar nuclei, have recently been reported in ADHD. Pulvinar nuclei maintain reciprocal connections with cortical/subcortical areas, and play…

  10. Influence of Methylphenidate on Motor Performance and Attention in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, Orit; Daniel, Liron; Dan, Orrie; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) often have coexisting developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The positive therapeutic effect of methylphenidate on ADHD symptoms is well documented, but its effects on motor coordination are less studied. We assessed the influence of methylphenidate on motor performance in children…

  11. Neuropsychological Functioning of Girls with Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Followed Prospectively into Adolescence: Evidence for Continuing Deficits?

    PubMed Central

    Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Carte, Estol T.; Fan, Catherine; Jassy, Jonathan S.; Owens, Elizabeth B.

    2010-01-01

    Prospectively followed girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), along with a matched comparison sample, five years after childhood neuropsychological assessments. Follow-up neuropsychological measures emphasized attentional skills, executive functions, and language abilities. Paralleling childhood findings, the childhood-diagnosed ADHD group displayed moderate to large deficits in executive/attentional performance as well as rapid naming, relative to the comparison group, at follow-up (M age = 14.2 years). ADHD-Inattentive vs. ADHD-Combined contrasts were nonsignificant and of negligible effect size, even when a refined, “sluggish cognitive tempo” subgroup of the Inattentive type was examined. Although ADHD vs. comparison differences largely withstood statistical control of baseline demographics and comorbidities, control of childhood IQ reduced EF differences to nonsignificance. Yet when the subset of girls meeting diagnostic criteria for ADHD in adolescence were compared to the remainder of the participants, neuropsychological deficits emerged even with full statistical control. Overall, childhood ADHD in girls portends neuropsychological and executive deficits that persist for at least 5 years. PMID:17402826

  12. [The course of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over the life span].

    PubMed

    Koumoula, A

    2012-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder, associated with the maturation of the nervous system and appearing on a standard proceeding with special cognitive impairments. For many years ADHD was concerned as a typical childhood disorder. Long-term studies though, showed that an important percentage of children with ADHD grew as adults with ADHD. The clinical picture varies with the developmental stage. In pre-school years (3-5 years) the clinical picture is characterized by excessive physical activity, difficulty in cooperation with peers and non-compliance to the recommendations of adults. In school age (6-12 years), apart from the nuclear symptoms of the disorder, as described in the classification systems, i.e. inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, oppositional behavior often occurs, conflicts with peers and academic problems. In adolescence hyperactivity lessens, conflicts with parents continue and high risk behaviors often appear. In adults physical activity usually decreases significantly, while inattention and impulsivity still remain. With the passing of time the number of symptoms are usually reduced, however the impact and impairment caused by the disorder remain. The diagnosis of ADHD in adults requires a retrospective diagnosis of ADHD in childhood. Since childhood, comorbid disorders are common, most times continuing until adult life. The Oppositional Defiant Disorder during childhood is related to the presenting of Antisocial Personality Disorder in adults. On the other hand, emotional disorders, which are also rather common in children, adolescents and adults with ADHD, can be due to either common biological mechanisms or the long-standing effect of psychosocial and environmental factors which follow people with ADHD. The relationship between ADHD and substance abuse has been a subject of research, with the view of the existence of Conduct Disorder being necessary for a person to present a Substance Use Disorder

  13. [The course of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over the life span].

    PubMed

    Koumoula, A

    2012-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder, associated with the maturation of the nervous system and appearing on a standard proceeding with special cognitive impairments. For many years ADHD was concerned as a typical childhood disorder. Long-term studies though, showed that an important percentage of children with ADHD grew as adults with ADHD. The clinical picture varies with the developmental stage. In pre-school years (3-5 years) the clinical picture is characterized by excessive physical activity, difficulty in cooperation with peers and non-compliance to the recommendations of adults. In school age (6-12 years), apart from the nuclear symptoms of the disorder, as described in the classification systems, i.e. inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, oppositional behavior often occurs, conflicts with peers and academic problems. In adolescence hyperactivity lessens, conflicts with parents continue and high risk behaviors often appear. In adults physical activity usually decreases significantly, while inattention and impulsivity still remain. With the passing of time the number of symptoms are usually reduced, however the impact and impairment caused by the disorder remain. The diagnosis of ADHD in adults requires a retrospective diagnosis of ADHD in childhood. Since childhood, comorbid disorders are common, most times continuing until adult life. The Oppositional Defiant Disorder during childhood is related to the presenting of Antisocial Personality Disorder in adults. On the other hand, emotional disorders, which are also rather common in children, adolescents and adults with ADHD, can be due to either common biological mechanisms or the long-standing effect of psychosocial and environmental factors which follow people with ADHD. The relationship between ADHD and substance abuse has been a subject of research, with the view of the existence of Conduct Disorder being necessary for a person to present a Substance Use Disorder

  14. Reduced insular volume in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Larson, Melissa Patricia; King, Jace Bradford; Terry, Janine; McGlade, Erin Catherine; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether structural differences in the insula and anterior cingulate (ACC), two critical areas of the “salience network,” co-exist in adolescents with ADHD compared to healthy controls (HC). In addition we aimed to determine if structural changes within these regions correlate with attention and inhibitory function. Nineteen adolescents with ADHD and 25 HC received MRI scans on a 3T magnet. Morphometric analysis was performed with FreeSurfer. Youths with ADHD were found to have a bilateral reduction in anterior insular (AIC) gray matter volumes compared to HC. Furthermore, the left AIC was found to positively correlate with oppositional symptoms, while the right AIC was found to associate with both attention problems and inhibition. To our knowledge this is the first report of a bilateral reduction in AIC volumes in ADHD. Our findings suggest a role for the insula in modulating attention and inhibitory capacity in ADHD. PMID:23142193

  15. The impact of sensation seeking on the relationship between attention deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and severity of Internet addiction risk.

    PubMed

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt; Aldemir, Secil; Taymur, Ibrahim; Evren, Bilge; Topcu, Merve

    2015-07-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of attention deficit/hyperactivity symptoms (ADHS) with severity of Internet addiction risk (SIAR), while controlling the effects of variables such as depression, anxiety, anger, sensation seeking and lack of assertiveness among university students. Cross-sectional online self-report survey was conducted in two universities among a representative sample of 582 Turkish university students. The students were assessed through the Addiction Profile Index Internet Addiction Form Screening Version (BAPINT-SV), the Psychological Screening Test for Adolescents (PSTA) and the Adult Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder Self-Report Scale (ASRS). The participants were classified into the two groups as those with high risk of Internet addiction (HRIA) (11%) and those with low risk of Internet addiction (IA) (89%). The mean age was lower in the group with HRIA, whereas depression, anxiety, sensation seeking, anger, lack of assertiveness and ADHS scores were higher in this group. Lastly, a hierarchical regression analysis suggested that severity of sensation seeking and ADHS, particularly attention deficiency, predicted SIAR. The severity of sensation seeking and ADHS, particularly attention deficit symptoms, are important for SIAR. Awareness of sensation seeking among those with high ADHS may be important in prevention and management of IA among university students.

  16. The impact of sensation seeking on the relationship between attention deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and severity of Internet addiction risk.

    PubMed

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt; Aldemir, Secil; Taymur, Ibrahim; Evren, Bilge; Topcu, Merve

    2015-07-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of attention deficit/hyperactivity symptoms (ADHS) with severity of Internet addiction risk (SIAR), while controlling the effects of variables such as depression, anxiety, anger, sensation seeking and lack of assertiveness among university students. Cross-sectional online self-report survey was conducted in two universities among a representative sample of 582 Turkish university students. The students were assessed through the Addiction Profile Index Internet Addiction Form Screening Version (BAPINT-SV), the Psychological Screening Test for Adolescents (PSTA) and the Adult Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder Self-Report Scale (ASRS). The participants were classified into the two groups as those with high risk of Internet addiction (HRIA) (11%) and those with low risk of Internet addiction (IA) (89%). The mean age was lower in the group with HRIA, whereas depression, anxiety, sensation seeking, anger, lack of assertiveness and ADHS scores were higher in this group. Lastly, a hierarchical regression analysis suggested that severity of sensation seeking and ADHS, particularly attention deficiency, predicted SIAR. The severity of sensation seeking and ADHS, particularly attention deficit symptoms, are important for SIAR. Awareness of sensation seeking among those with high ADHS may be important in prevention and management of IA among university students. PMID:25962354

  17. Do Quantitative EEG Measures Differentiate Hyperactivity in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Garth A.; Steffler, Dorothy J.; Lemoine, Daniel E.; Leps, Jolene D.

    2001-01-01

    Used quantitative electroencephalogram analysis to examine difference in brain wave activity of attention deficit disorders (ADD) with and without hyperactivity while completing a computerized task measuring a variety of constructs associated with attention and impulsivity. Found that although behavioral ratings confirmed differential…

  18. Self-Regulation Interventions for Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Robert; Trout, Alexandra L.; Schartz, Michalla

    2005-01-01

    Current recommendations for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) call for a multimodal approach including a combination of medication, behavior modification, school accommodations, and ancillary services. One method that has been proposed as an effective and efficient means for increasing students' attention and…

  19. Girls with Social and/or Attention Deficits: A Descriptive Study of 100 Clinic Attenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Svenny; Kelly, Kristina Berg; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Examine clinical correlates and distinguishing features of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), ADHD, and tic disorders in girls referred for social impairment, attention/academic deficits, and/or tics. Method: One hundred 3- to 18-year-old girls referred for social impairment and attention symptoms were assessed in detail. Sixty of these…

  20. The Relevance of the Still Lectures to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.

    2006-01-01

    In his lectures published in 1902, George Still described 43 children in his clinical practice who had serious problems with sustained attention and self-regulation. George Still certainly did not use the current terminology for this disorder, but many historians of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have inferred that the children he…