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Sample records for adult australian twins

  1. Nature, nurture, and conservatism in the Australian Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Loehlin, J C

    1993-05-01

    Church attendance, educational level, and six conservatism scales were the subject of a multivariate behavior-genetic analysis by Truett et al. (Behav. Genet. 22, 43-62, 1992), based on responses from a large sample of adult Australian twins. These data are here analyzed in a different way to elicit general conservatism factors in the genetic, shared environmental, and unshared environmental covariation. The general genetic factor appears mainly to reflect intellectual sophistication; the general environmental factors, religious affiliation. These factors are similar, although not identical, for men and women.

  2. The contribution of twins to the study of cognitive ageing and dementia: the Older Australian Twins Study.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, Perminder S; Lee, Teresa; Wen, Wei; Ames, David; Batouli, Amir H; Bowden, Jocelyn; Brodaty, Henry; Chong, Elizabeth; Crawford, John; Kang, Kristan; Mather, Karen; Lammel, Andrea; Slavin, Melissa J; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Trollor, Julian; Wright, Margie J

    2013-12-01

    The Older Australian Twins Study (OATS) is a major longitudinal study of twins, aged ≥ 65 years, to investigate genetic and environmental factors and their interactions in healthy brain ageing and neurocognitive disorders. The study collects psychiatric, neuropsychological, cardiovascular, metabolic, biochemical, neuroimaging, genomic and proteomic data, with two-yearly assessments, and is currently in its third wave. The initial cohort comprises 623 individuals (161 monozygotic and 124 dizygotic twin pairs; 1 MZ triplets; 27 single twins and 23 non-twin siblings), of whom 426 have had wave 2 assessment. A number of salient findings have emerged thus far which assist in the understanding of genetic contributions to cognitive functions such as processing speed, executive ability and episodic memory, and which support the brain reserve hypothesis. The heritability of brain structures, both cortical and subcortical, brain spectroscopic metabolites and markers of small vessel disease, such as lacunar infarction and white matter hyperintensities, have been examined and can inform future genetic investigations. Work on amyloid imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging is proceeding and epigenetic studies are progressing. This internationally important study has the potential to inform research into cognitive ageing in the future, and offers an excellent resource for collaborative work.

  3. The USC Adult Twin Cohorts: International Twin Study and California Twin Program.

    PubMed

    Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Cockburn, Myles G; Hamilton, Ann S; Zadnick, John; Mack, Thomas M

    2013-02-01

    The study of twin subjects permits the documentation of crude heritability and may promote the identification of specific causal alleles. We believe that at the current time, the chief research advantage of twins as subjects, especially monozygotic twins, is that the commonality of their genetic and cultural identity simplifies the interpretation of biological associations. In order to study genetic and environmental determinants of cancer and chronic diseases, we developed two twin registries, maintained at the University of Southern California: The International Twin Study (ITS) and the California Twin Program (CTP). The ITS is a volunteer registry of twins with cancer and chronic disease consisting of 17,245 twin pairs affected by cancer and chronic disease, respectively, ascertained by advertising in periodicals from 1980-1991. The CTP is a population-based registry of California-born twin pairs ascertained by linking the California birth records to the State Department of Motor Vehicles. Over 51,000 individual California twins representing 36,965 pairs completed and returned 16-page questionnaires. Cancer diagnoses in the California twins are updated by regular linkage to the California Cancer Registry. Over 5,000 cancer patients are represented in the CTP. Twins from both registries have participated extensively in studies of breast cancer, melanoma, lymphoma, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes mellitus type 1, mammographic density, smoking, and other traits and conditions.

  4. Genetic and environmental influences on sexual orientation and its correlates in an Australian twin sample.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J M; Dunne, M P; Martin, N G

    2000-03-01

    We recruited twins systematically from the Australian Twin Registry and assessed their sexual orientation and 2 related traits: childhood gender nonconformity and continuous gender identity. Men and women differed in their distributions of sexual orientation, with women more likely to have slight-to-moderate degrees of homosexual attraction, and men more likely to have high degrees of homosexual attraction. Twin concordances for nonheterosexual orientation were lower than in prior studies. Univariate analyses showed that familial factors were important for all traits, but were less successful in distinguishing genetic from shared environmental influences. Only childhood gender nonconformity was significantly heritable for both men and women. Multivariate analyses suggested that the causal architecture differed between men and women, and, for women, provided significant evidence for the importance of genetic factors to the traits' covariation.

  5. Protective and Harmful Effects of Physical Activity for Low Back Pain: A Protocol for the AUstralian Twin BACK Pain (AUTBACK) Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Marina B; Ferreira, Manuela L; Refshauge, Kathryn; Hopper, John; Maher, Christopher G; Hartvigsen, Jan; Koes, Bart; Hübscher, Markus; Ferreira, Paulo H

    2016-10-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a major health problem globally, but approaches to prevention are not yet clearly identified because modifiable risk factors are not well established. Although physical activity is one promising modifiable risk factor, it is still not known what types and doses of physical activity are protective or harmful for LBP. The aim of this study is to establish the feasibility of a definitive cohort study that will investigate the effects of different types and doses of physical activity on the risk of developing recurrent LBP while accounting for genetic factors. This will be a pilot longitudinal twin study and twins will be recruited from the Australian Twin Registry, and will be followed over 1 year. Thirty adult complete twin pairs with a history of LBP, but symptom free at recruitment, will be included. Data on physical activity (predictor) will be collected using four questionnaires and an objective measure (accelerometer) at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. Twins will also complete an additional physical activity questionnaire monthly. Data on LBP (outcome) will be collected at baseline and weekly. Data will be collected using short message service (SMS) and email. We will keep records of the recruitment rate, follow-up rate, and completeness of data. Barriers to completing the study will be investigated. The results of this study will inform the design and implementation of a future definitive study, which will help to clarify the effects of different types and doses of physical activity on the risk of developing recurrent LBP.

  6. Dietary flavonoid sources in Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Somerset, Shawn M; Johannot, Lidwine

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from laboratory-based in vitro studies provides compelling evidence supporting the involvement of dietary flavonoid intake in human cancer risk. Associations between intakes of individual flavonoids and disease outcomes at the population level are emerging from recent epidemiological studies. As an important step in the development of methods to assess flavonoid intakes across populations, the major sources of dietary flavonoids in the adult Australian population were identified. Data from a 24-h diet recall questionnaire used in a national nutrition survey (NNS95-comprising a sample of 10,851 subjects aged 19 yr and over) were combined with U.S. Department of Agriculture data on flavonoid content of foods to identify key sources. Black and green teas clearly were the dominant sources of the flavonols kaempferol, myricetin, and quercetin. Other significant flavonol sources included onion (isorhamnetin and quercetin), broccoli (kaempferol and quercetin), apple (quercetin), grape (quercetin), coffee (myrcetin), and beans (quercetin). Black and green teas also were dominant sources of flavon-3-ols, with wine, apples, and pears contributing somewhat. In terms of flavanone consumption, oranges (hesperetin and naringenin), lemon (eriodictyol), mandarin (hesperetin), and grapefruit (naringenin) were the major sources. Parsley (apigenin), celery (apigenin and luteolin), and English spinach (luteolin) were the major flavone sources. Wine was the major anthocyanadin source (delphinidin, malvidin, peonidin and petunidin), with smaller amounts from cherry (peonidin) and blueberry (delphinidin, malvidin, peonidin and petunidin). It is suggested that the relatively small number of aforementioned key foods form the basis of food frequency questionnaires to assess flavonoid intake.

  7. Genetic and environmental variation in Eysenck Personality Questionnaire scales measured on Australian adolescent twins.

    PubMed

    Macaskill, G T; Hopper, J L; White, V; Hill, D J

    1994-11-01

    The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was administered to 1400 Australian twin pairs aged 11 to 18, and the data were analyzed by a multivariate normal model using the software FISHER. For each scale, attempts were made to transform to normality, about a mean modeled separately for each sex as a quadratic function of age. Variances and covariances were estimated for each sex-zygosity group as a monotone function of age. Evidence for genetic sources of variation were assessed in part by fitting models which allowed for age-dependent, sex-specific, and correlated additive genetic factors, and age-dependent and sex-specific environmental factors, under the assumption that effects of environmental factors common to twin pairs are independent of zygosity. Evidence for genetic factors independent of age and sex was most compelling for Psychoticism and Neuroticism. For Extraversion, if genetic factors exist they would be mostly sex-specific and age-dependent. For the Lie scale there was evidence for, at most, a small component of genetic variation.

  8. Australian Adults' Production of /n/: An EPG Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Sharynne

    2006-01-01

    Images of tongue/palate contact for the nasal phoneme /n/ were created using the electropalatograph (EPG). Seven typical Australian adults with no history of hearing or communication difficulty produced syllables containing /n/ paired with five vowels. The majority of productions were symmetrical had contact with the alveolar ridge, and lateral…

  9. Adult Education, Postmodernity and a Future? An Australian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Shirley

    In Australia, the two principal streams of emancipatory adult education have been focused on the liberal tradition of freedom from traditional social and religious constraints through learning and on having suppressed groups understand and overthrow the conditions of their oppression. Australians appear to be having difficulty coping with the…

  10. Case Studies in Australian Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ralph J., Ed.; Rooth, S. John, Ed.

    This publication contains the following 24 case studies of adult education in Australia: "NSW Department of Agriculture Home Study Programme" (O'Neill); "Self-Help Adult Education: The University of the Third Age at the Brisbane CAE" (Swindell); "Marriage Enrichment Programme" (D. Kerr, C. Kerr); "Carringbush…

  11. Size at birth and adult fat mass in twin sheep are determined in early gestation

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, S N; Oliver, M H; McLean, C; Jaquiery, A L; Bloomfield, F H

    2012-01-01

    Size at birth is related to adult health outcomes. Twins are born smaller than singletons; this has been assumed to be secondary to limited nutrient supply in late gestation. We hypothesised that growth trajectory in twins, and the adult consequences of being conceived a twin, are determined in early gestation. Twin pregnancies in sheep were randomised to reduction of one twin on day 42 of a 148 day pregnancy by intra-thoracic KCl (Reductions, n = 46) or a sham procedure (Twins, n = 22). Singleton-bearing ewes also underwent a sham procedure (n = 27). Ewes lambed spontaneously. Linear measures of size at birth were similar in Twins and Reductions, and significantly less than in Singletons. Birthweight was lower in Twins and Reductions than in Singletons, and less in Twins than in Reductions (means (SEM): Singletons, liveborn n = 23: 6.59 (0.17) kg; Twins, liveborn n = 36: 5.23 (0.16) kg; Reductions, liveborn n = 27: 5.76 (0.15) kg; all comparisons P < 0.05). Reductions grew most rapidly between birth and weaning (Singletons, 20.0 (0.4) g kg−1 day−1; Twins, 20.0 (0.3) g kg−1 day−1; Reductions, 21.0 (0.3) g kg−1 day−1, P < 0.05) and were of similar weight as Singletons by weaning; Twins remained smaller by weaning but grew most rapidly thereafter (Singletons, 1.6 (0.1) g kg−1 day−1; Twins, 2.1 (0.1) g kg−1 day−1; Reductions, 1.6 (0.1) g kg−1 day−1, P < 0.01), so that all groups had similar weight at 2 years. However, Twins and Reductions had greater percentage fat mass than Singletons at 2 years (Singletons, 11.1 (1.1)%; Twins, 14.8 (1.2)%; Reductions, 15.5 (1.1)%, P < 0.05). Thus, in twins, fetal growth trajectory, linear size at birth and adult fat mass are largely determined in early gestation. If this is also true in humans, there are important implications for interventions aimed at optimising fetal growth and pregnancy outcome. PMID:22183720

  12. Prevalence and heritability of obsessive-compulsive spectrum and anxiety disorder symptoms: A survey of the Australian Twin Registry.

    PubMed

    López-Solà, Clara; Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Alonso, Pino; Cuadras, Daniel; Foley, Debra L; Pantelis, Christos; Pujol, Jesus; Yücel, Murat; Cardoner, Narcís; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Menchón, José M; Harrison, Ben J

    2014-06-01

    While past twin studies indicate moderate levels of heritability of "obsessive-compulsive related" and anxiety disorder symptoms, no single study has reported such estimates in the same twin population nor examined potential genetic sex differences. We assessed symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, hoarding disorder, hypochondriasis, panic disorder, social phobia and generalized anxiety disorder in 2,495 adult twins (1,468 female). Prevalence estimates for the corresponding symptom measures were determined using empirically derived cut-off scores. Twin resemblance was assessed by Pearson correlations and biometrical model-fitting analyses, incorporating sex-specific effects, using OpenMx. Prevalence estimates ranged from 1.6% in the symptoms of generalized anxiety to 16.9% for social phobia. Female twins demonstrated significantly higher prevalence rates across all domains with the exception of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Additive genetic factors accounted for a moderate proportion of the total liability to each symptom domain. Evidence suggesting qualitative genetic sex differences (i.e., distinct genetic influences between genders) was observed for body dysmorphic concern and panic symptoms, while quantitative differences were observed for hoarding and social phobia symptoms, indicating stronger heritability in females. Novel findings in this study include the observation of probable genetic sex differences in liability towards hoarding symptoms and dysmorphic concern, as well as the lack of such differences in hypochondriasis. The trend towards qualitative sex differences in panic symptoms has some intuitive appeal with regard to biological-experimental models of panic.

  13. Parental alcoholism and offspring behavior problems: findings in Australian children of twins.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Mary; Martin, Nicholas G; Heath, Andrew C

    2009-10-01

    We examine the impact of rearing by an alcoholic parent on risk for child behavior problems using data on 2492 offspring drawn from two ongoing studies of children of female and male same- and opposite-sex twin pairs. Results of regression models predicting child behavior problems from parent and co-twin lifetime history of alcohol use disorder (AUD) provide support for genetic but not environmental transmission of externalizing and a measure of total problem behaviors. Results for internalizing behavior were inconclusive with respect to transmission of risk.

  14. Genetic and Environmental Regulation on Longitudinal Change of Metabolic Phenotypes in Danish and Chinese Adult Twins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuxia; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Pang, Zengchang; Zhang, Dongfeng; Duan, Haiping; Tan, Qihua; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Kruse, Torben; Dalgård, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Objective The rate of change in metabolic phenotypes can be highly indicative of metabolic disorders and disorder-related modifications. We analyzed data from longitudinal twin studies on multiple metabolic phenotypes in Danish and Chinese twins representing two populations of distinct ethnic, cultural, social-economic backgrounds and geographical environments. Materials and Methods The study covered a relatively large sample of 502 pairs of Danish adult twins followed up for a long period of 12 years with a mean age at intake of 38 years (range: 18–65) and a total of 181 Chinese adult twin pairs traced for about 7 years with a mean baseline age of 39.5 years (range: 23–64). The classical twin models were fitted to the longitudinal change in each phenotype (Δphenotype) to estimate the genetic and environmental contributions to the variation in Δphenotype. Results Moderate to high contributions by the unique environment were estimated for all phenotypes in both Danish (from 0.51 for low density lipoprotein cholesterol up to 0.72 for triglycerides) and Chinese (from 0.41 for triglycerides up to 0.73 for diastolic blood pressure) twins; low to moderate genetic components were estimated for long-term change in most of the phenotypes in Danish twins except for triglycerides and hip circumference. Compared with Danish twins, the Chinese twins tended to have higher genetic control over the longitudinal changes in lipids (except high density lipoprotein cholesterol) and glucose, higher unique environmental contribution to blood pressure but no genetic contribution to longitudinal change in body mass traits. Conclusion Our results emphasize the major contribution of unique environment to the observed intra-individual variation in all metabolic phenotypes in both samples, and meanwhile reveal differential patterns of genetic and common environmental regulation on changes over time in metabolic phenotypes across the two samples. PMID:26862898

  15. Socio-Demographic Determinants of Diet Quality in Australian Adults Using the Validated Healthy Eating Index for Australian Adults (HEIFA-2013)

    PubMed Central

    Grech, Amanda; Sui, Zhixian; Siu, Hong Ying; Zheng, Miaobing; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Rangan, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Diet quality indices have been shown to predict cardiovascular disease, cancer, Type 2 Diabetes, obesity and all-cause mortality. This study aimed to determine the socio-demographics of Australian adults with poor diet quality. Diet quality was assessed for participants of the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey aged 18 years or above (n = 9435), with the validated 11-component Healthy Eating Index for Australians (HEIFA-2013), based on the 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines. Differences in scores by demographics (ANOVA) and regression models for associations between the HEIFA-2013 score and demographic characteristics were conducted. The mean (SD) HEIFA-2013 score was 45.5 (14.7) out of 100 due to poor intakes of vegetables, fruit, grains, dairy and fat and high intakes of added sugar, sodium and discretionary foods. Lower mean HEIFA-2013 scores (SD) were found for males 43.3 (14.7), young-adults 41.6 (14.2) obese 44.1 (14.3), smokers 40.0 (14.2), low socio-economic status 43.7 (14.9) and Australian country-of-birth 44.2 (14.6) (p < 0.05). The overall diet quality of the Australian population is poor and targeted interventions for young-adults, males, obese and those with lower socio-economic status are recommended. PMID:28165394

  16. Genetic overlap between personality and risk for disordered gambling: evidence from a national community-based Australian twin study.

    PubMed

    Slutske, Wendy S; Cho, Seung Bin; Piasecki, Thomas M; Martin, Nicholas G

    2013-02-01

    Using data from a large Australian twin sample we examined the extent to which genetic variation in the Big Three personality dimensions (positive emotionality, negative emotionality, and constraint) and their lower-order components explained genetic variation in the risk for disordered gambling (DG) among men and women. Genetic influences contributing to individual differences in normal-range personality traits explained over 40% of the genetic risk for DG, with a larger contribution among women than among men. The largest and most robust contributions came from the higher-order personality dimension of negative emotionality and its two lower-order dimensions of alienation and aggression. Surprisingly, low self-control was associated with the genetic risk for DG only among women, and risk-taking/sensation-seeking did not explain genetic risk for DG in either sex. The results of this study have implications for the causes of comorbidity between DG and other psychiatric disorders, the search for genes associated with DG risk, and the possibility of sex differences in the etiology of DG. Using a broad-band inventory of personality supports the conclusion that there probably is a substantial proportion of genetic variation in DG that cannot be explained by individual differences in personality.

  17. Gender Differences in Beliefs about Condom Use among Young, Heterosexual Australian Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Fiona J.; Newton, Joshua D.; Windisch, Lydia; Ewing, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate gender differences in beliefs about condom use among young, sexually active, heterosexual Australian adults. Design: Cross-sectional survey of 1,113 adults aged 18-26 years. Setting: Higher education institutions across New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Method: Participants were recruited during higher-education…

  18. Sex-limited genome-wide linkage scan for body mass index in an unselected sample of 933 Australian twin families.

    PubMed

    Cornes, Belinda K; Medland, Sarah E; Ferreira, Manuel A R; Morley, Katherine I; Duffy, David L; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G

    2005-12-01

    Genes involved in pathways regulating body weight may operate differently in men and women. To determine whether sex-limited genes influence the obesity-related phenotype body mass index (BMI), we have conducted a general nonscalar sex-limited genome-wide linkage scan using variance components analysis in Mx (Neale, 2002). BMI measurements and genotypic data were available for 2053 Australian female and male adult twins and their siblings from 933 families. Clinical measures of BMI were available for 64.4% of these individuals, while only self-reported measures were available for the remaining participants. The mean age of participants was 39.0 years of age (SD 12.1 years). The use of a sex-limited linkage model identified areas on the genome where quantitative trait loci (QTL) effects differ between the sexes, particularly on chromosome 8 and 20, providing us with evidence that some of the genes responsible for BMI may have different effects in men and women. Our highest linkage peak was observed at 12q24 (-log10p = 3.02), which was near the recommended threshold for suggestive linkage (-log10p = 3.13). Previous studies have found evidence for a quantitative trait locus on 12q24 affecting BMI in a wide range of populations, and candidate genes for noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, a consequence of obesity, have also been mapped to this region. We also identified many peaks near a -log10p of 2 (threshold for replicating an existing finding) in many areas across the genome that are within regions previously identified by other studies, as well as in locations that harbor genes known to influence weight regulation.

  19. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Individual Differences in Attitudes Toward Homosexuality: An Australian Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Shekar, Sri N.; Zietsch, Brendan P.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Bailey, J. Michael; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has shown that many heterosexuals hold negative attitudes toward homosexuals and homosexuality (homophobia). Although a great deal of research has focused on the profile of homophobic individuals, this research provides little theoretical insight into the aetiology of homophobia. To examine genetic and environmental influences on variation in attitudes toward homophobia, we analysed data from 4,688 twins who completed a questionnaire concerning sexual behaviour and attitudes, including attitudes toward homosexuality. Results show that, in accordance with literature, males have significantly more negative attitudes toward homosexuality than females and non-heterosexuals are less homophobic than heterosexuals. In contrast with some earlier findings, age had no significant effect on the homophobia scores in this study. Genetic modelling showed that variation in homophobia scores could be explained by additive genetic (36%), shared environmental (18%) and unique environmental factors (46%). However, corrections based on previous findings show that the shared environmental estimate may be almost entirely accounted for as extra additive genetic variance arising from assortative mating for homophobic attitudes. The results suggest that variation in attitudes toward homosexuality is substantially inherited, and that social environmental influences are relatively minor. PMID:18347968

  20. Genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in attitudes toward homosexuality: an Australian twin study.

    PubMed

    Verweij, Karin J H; Shekar, Sri N; Zietsch, Brendan P; Eaves, Lindon J; Bailey, J Michael; Boomsma, Dorret I; Martin, Nicholas G

    2008-05-01

    Previous research has shown that many heterosexuals hold negative attitudes toward homosexuals and homosexuality (homophobia). Although a great deal of research has focused on the profile of homophobic individuals, this research provides little theoretical insight into the aetiology of homophobia. To examine genetic and environmental influences on variation in attitudes toward homophobia, we analysed data from 4,688 twins who completed a questionnaire concerning sexual behaviour and attitudes, including attitudes toward homosexuality. Results show that, in accordance with literature, males have significantly more negative attitudes toward homosexuality than females and non-heterosexuals are less homophobic than heterosexuals. In contrast with some earlier findings, age had no significant effect on the homophobia scores in this study. Genetic modelling showed that variation in homophobia scores could be explained by additive genetic (36%), shared environmental (18%) and unique environmental factors (46%). However, corrections based on previous findings show that the shared environmental estimate may be almost entirely accounted for as extra additive genetic variance arising from assortative mating for homophobic attitudes. The results suggest that variation in attitudes toward homosexuality is substantially inherited, and that social environmental influences are relatively minor.

  1. DNA Methylation Changes in the IGF1R Gene in Birth Weight Discordant Adult Monozygotic Twins.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-Chien; Van Dongen, Jenny; Tan, Qihua; Willemsen, Gonneke; Christiansen, Lene; Boomsma, Dorret I; Spector, Tim D; Valdes, Ana M; Bell, Jordana T

    2015-12-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) can have an impact on health outcomes in later life, especially in relation to pre-disposition to metabolic disease. Several studies suggest that LBW resulting from restricted intrauterine growth leaves a footprint on DNA methylation in utero, and this influence likely persists into adulthood. To investigate this further, we performed epigenome-wide association analyses of blood DNA methylation using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip profiles in 71 adult monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs who were extremely discordant for birth weight. A signal mapping to the IGF1R gene (cg12562232, p = 2.62 × 10(-8)), was significantly associated with birth weight discordance at a genome-wide false-discovery rate (FDR) of 0.05. We pursued replication in three additional independent datasets of birth weight discordant MZ pairs and observed the same direction of association, but the results were not significant. However, a meta-analysis across the four independent samples, in total 216 birth-weight discordant MZ twin pairs, showed a significant positive association between birth weight and DNA methylation differences at IGF1R (random-effects meta-analysis p = .04), and the effect was particularly pronounced in older twins (random-effects meta-analysis p = .008, 98 older birth-weight discordant MZ twin pairs). The results suggest that severe intra-uterine growth differences (birth weight discordance >20%) are associated with methylation changes in the IGF1R gene in adulthood, independent of genetic effects.

  2. Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load among Australian adults – results from the 2011–2012 Australian Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Jones, Molly; Barclay, Alan W.; Brand-Miller, Jennie C.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the major food groups contributing to dietary glycaemic load (GL). Plausible food intake data collected using a multiple-pass 24 hour recall from a weighted sample of 6326 adult respondents (52% male) of the 2011–2012 Australian Health Survey dataset (AHS) were analysed. The GI of foods was estimated based on a previously published step-wise method. Descriptive statistics were calculated for dietary glycaemic index (GI), GL and contribution to GL by major food groups, stratified by age and sex. Trends across age groups were assessed using linear regression. Pearson’s χ2 was used to test for differences between age groups for categorical demographics variables. The mean (SD) dietary GI and GL was 54 (7) and 135 (59) respectively and the top 3 contributors to dietary GL were breads (14.4%), cereal-based dishes (10.3%) and breakfast cereals (ready to eat) (6.6%). There were small but significant differences in the GL contribution pattern between the sexes. The findings indicate that the average dietary GI of Australian adults is similar to that of other population groups, with a large proportion of starchy and energy-dense nutrient-poor foods that contribute to a high GL. PMID:28262812

  3. Communicating about Loss: Experiences of Older Australian Adults with Cerebral Palsy and Complex Communication Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dark, Leigha; Balandin, Susan; Clemson, Lindy

    2011-01-01

    Loss and grief is a universal human experience, yet little is known about how older adults with a lifelong disability, such as cerebral palsy, and complex communication needs (CCN) experience loss and manage the grieving process. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 Australian participants with cerebral palsy and CCN to determine the types…

  4. Learning about Sex in Later Life: Sources of Education and Older Australian Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fileborn, Bianca; Lyons, Anthony; Hinchliff, Sharron; Brown, Graham; Heywood, Wendy; Minichiello, Victor

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the preferred sexuality education sources of older Australian adults in later life. Drawing on findings from qualitative interviews with 30 men and 23 women aged 60 years and older, we consider the sources that participants currently use, or would like to use, in seeking information about sex. Where relevant, we examine…

  5. The Relationship between Dietary Patterns and Metabolic Health in a Representative Sample of Adult Australians

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Lucinda K.; Edwards, Suzanne; Grieger, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies assessing dietary intake and its relationship to metabolic phenotype are emerging, but limited. The aims of the study are to identify dietary patterns in Australian adults, and to determine whether these dietary patterns are associated with metabolic phenotype and obesity. Cross-sectional data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011 Australian Health Survey was analysed. Subjects included adults aged 45 years and over (n = 2415). Metabolic phenotype was determined according to criteria used to define metabolic syndrome (0–2 abnormalities vs. 3–7 abnormalities), and additionally categorized for obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 vs. BMI <30 kg/m2). Dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis. Multivariable models were used to assess the relationship between dietary patterns and metabolic phenotype, with adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, socio-economic indexes for areas, physical activity and daily energy intake. Twenty percent of the population was metabolically unhealthy and obese. In the fully adjusted model, for every one standard deviation increase in the Healthy dietary pattern, the odds of having a more metabolically healthy profile increased by 16% (odds ratio (OR) 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.29). Poor metabolic profile and obesity are prevalent in Australian adults and a healthier dietary pattern plays a role in a metabolic and BMI phenotypes. Nutritional strategies addressing metabolic syndrome criteria and targeting obesity are recommended in order to improve metabolic phenotype and potential disease burden. PMID:26251918

  6. Further evidence of DEPDC7 DNA hypomethylation in depression: A study in adult twins.

    PubMed

    Córdova-Palomera, A; Fatjó-Vilas, M; Palma-Gudiel, H; Blasco-Fontecilla, H; Kebir, O; Fañanás, L

    2015-09-01

    Late and early stressful factors have widely been recognized to play a role in the aetiology of depression. Recent research indicates that such adverse environmental stimuli may alter gene expression in humans via epigenetic modifications. While epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation are likely involved in these processes, it is still unknown what specific genomic loci may be hyper- or hypo-methylated in depression. The association between depressive symptoms during the last 30 days (Brief Symptom Inventory [BSI]) and peripheral-blood DNA methylation levels at genomic loci previously reported as epigenetically altered in saliva and brain of depressive patients was evaluated in a community sample of 34 adult Caucasian MZ twins (17 pairs). Intrapair DNA methylation differences in an intron of DEPDC7 (chr11:33040743) were associated with intrapair differences in current depressive symptoms. Accordingly, a site-specific 10% DNA hypomethylation in a co-twin would correlate with a current depressive symptom score around 3.1 BSI points above the score of his/her less-depressed co-twin. These findings indicate that DEPDC7 hypomethylation in peripheral blood DNA may be associated with recent depressive symptomatology, in line with previous results.

  7. Genetic associations between the ADHD symptom dimensions and Cloninger's temperament dimensions in adult twins.

    PubMed

    Merwood, Andrew; Asherson, Philip; Larsson, Henrik

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have identified phenotypic associations between Cloninger's temperament dimensions and the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. However the underlying aetiology of these associations remains unclear. We investigate the extent to which genetic and environmental influences contribute to the relationship between temperament and ADHD, examining the ADHD symptoms of inattention (IA) and hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) separately. Participants were 886 adult twin pairs aged 19-20 years. ADHD symptoms of IA and HI were measured using a DSM-IV based rating scale. Temperament was measured using Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), across four dimensions: novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD) and persistence (PS). The twin method was used to decompose phenotypic variance/covariance among these variables into genetic and environmental components. We found that NS was genetically associated with both ADHD symptom dimensions (IA and HI), but that HA was genetically associated with IA only. There was also some evidence of genetic association between PS, IA and HI. These findings suggest that unique profiles of temperament are genetically related to the two ADHD symptom dimensions in adults. Further work is now needed to elucidate the mechanisms that underlie both the combined and separate symptom factor domains of ADHD.

  8. Intra-Monozygotic Twin Pair Discordance and Longitudinal Variation of Whole-Genome Scale DNA Methylation in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Su-Hua; Chen, Jinzhong; Lu, Daru; Shen, Min; Li, Chengtao

    2015-01-01

    Monozygotic twins share identical genomic DNA and are indistinguishable using conventional genetic markers. Increasing evidence indicates that monozygotic twins are epigenetically distinct, suggesting that a comparison between DNA methylation patterns might be useful to approach this forensic problem. However, the extent of epigenetic discordance between healthy adult monozygotic twins and the stability of CpG loci within the same individual over a short time span at the whole-genome scale are not well understood. Here, we used Infinium HumanMethylation450 Beadchips to compare DNA methylation profiles using blood collected from 10 pairs of monozygotic twins and 8 individuals sampled at 0, 3, 6, and 9 months. Using an effective and unbiased method for calling differentially methylated (DM) CpG sites, we showed that 0.087%–1.530% of the CpG sites exhibit differential methylation in monozygotic twin pairs. We further demonstrated that, on whole-genome level, there has been no significant epigenetic drift within the same individuals for up to 9 months, including one monozygotic twin pair. However, we did identify a subset of CpG sites that vary in DNA methylation over the 9-month period. The magnitude of the intra-pair or longitudinal methylation discordance of the CpG sites inside the CpG islands is greater than those outside the CpG islands. The CpG sites located on shores appear to be more suitable for distinguishing between MZ twins. PMID:26248206

  9. Suicidal ideation, depression, and conduct disorder in a sample of adolescent and young adult twins.

    PubMed

    Linker, Julie; Gillespie, Nathan A; Maes, Hermine; Eaves, Lindon; Silberg, Judy L

    2012-08-01

    The co-occurrence of suicidal ideation, depression, and conduct disturbance is likely explained in part by correlated genetic and environmental risk factors. Little is known about the specific nature of these associations. Structured interviews on 2,814 twins from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development (VTSABD) and Young Adult Follow-Up (YAFU) yielded data on symptoms of depression, conduct disorder, and adolescent and young adult suicidal ideation. Univariate analyses revealed that the familial aggregation for each trait was explained by a combination of additive genetic and shared environmental effects. Suicidal ideation in adolescence was explained in part by genetic influences, but predominantly accounted for by environmental factors. A mixture of genetic and shared environmental influences explained ideation occurring in young adulthood. Multivariate analyses revealed that there are genetic and shared environmental effects common to suicidal ideation, depression, and conduct disorder. The association between adolescent suicidal ideation and CD was attributable to the same genetic and environmental risk factors for depression. These findings underscore that prevention and intervention strategies should reflect the different underlying mechanisms involving depression and conduct disorder to assist in identifying adolescents at suicidal risk.

  10. Associations Between Fast-Food Consumption and Body Mass Index: A Cross-Sectional Study in Adult Twins.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Cline, Hannah; Lau, Richard; Moudon, Anne V; Turkheimer, Eric; Duncan, Glen E

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a substantial health problem in the United States, and is associated with many chronic diseases. Previous studies have linked poor dietary habits to obesity. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the association between body mass index (BMI) and fast-food consumption among 669 same-sex adult twin pairs residing in the Puget Sound region around Seattle, Washington. We calculated twin-pair correlations for BMI and fast-food consumption. We next regressed BMI on fast-food consumption using generalized estimating equations (GEE), and finally estimated the within-pair difference in BMI associated with a difference in fast-food consumption, which controls for all potential genetic and environment characteristics shared between twins within a pair. Twin-pair correlations for fast-food consumption were similar for identical (monozygotic; MZ) and fraternal (dizygotic; DZ) twins, but were substantially higher in MZ than DZ twins for BMI. In the unadjusted GEE model, greater fast-food consumption was associated with larger BMI. For twin pairs overall, and for MZ twins, there was no association between within-pair differences in fast-food consumption and BMI in any model. In contrast, there was a significant association between within-pair differences in fast-food consumption and BMI among DZ twins, suggesting that genetic factors play a role in the observed association. Thus, although variance in fast-food consumption itself is largely driven by environmental factors, the overall association between this specific eating behavior and BMI is largely due to genetic factors.

  11. Why Accurate Knowledge of Zygosity is Important to Twins.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Tessa L; Murphy, Kate; Hopper, John L; Keogh, Louise A; Dai, Yun; Craig, Jeffrey M

    2015-06-01

    All same-sex dizygotic (DZ) twins and approximately one-third of monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs have separate placentas, making it impossible to use the number of placentas to determine zygosity. Zygosity determination is further complicated because incorrect assumptions are often made, such as that only DZ pairs have two placentas and that all MZ pairs are phenotypically identical. These assumptions, by twins, their families and health professionals, along with the lack of universal zygosity testing for same-sex twins, has led to confusion within the twin community, yet little research has been conducted with twins about their understanding and assumptions about zygosity. We aimed to explore and quantify understanding and assumptions about zygosity using twins attending an Australian twin festival. We recruited 91 twin pairs younger than 18 years of age and their parents, and 30 adult twin pairs who were all uncertain of their zygosity, to complete one pen and paper questionnaire and one online questionnaire about their assumed zygosity, reasons for their assumptions and the importance of accurate zygosity knowledge. Responses were compared with their true zygosity measured using a genetic test. We found a substantial proportion of parents and twins had been misinformed by their own parents or medical professionals, and that knowledge of their true zygosity status provided peace of mind and positive emotional responses. For these reasons we propose universal zygosity testing of same-sex twins as early in life as possible and an increase in education of medical professionals, twins and families of twins about zygosity issues.

  12. Cognitive deficits and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in adult monozygotic twins with lead poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Weisskopf, Marc G; Hu, Howard; Mulkern, Robert V; White, Roberta; Aro, Antonio; Oliveira, Steve; Wright, Robert O

    2004-01-01

    Seventy-one-year-old identical twin brothers with chronic lead poisoning were identified from an occupational medicine clinic roster. Both were retired painters, but one brother (J.G.) primarily removed paint and had a history of higher chronic lead exposure. Patella and tibia bone lead concentrations measured by K-X-ray fluorescence in each brother were 5-10 times those of the general population and about 2.5 times higher in J.G. than in his brother (E.G.). Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies examined N-acetylaspartate:creatine ratios, a marker of neuronal density. Ratios were lower in J.G. than in his brother. Scores on neurocognitive tests that assess working memory/executive function were below expectation in both twins. Short-term memory function was dramatically worse in J.G. than in his brother. These results demonstrate some of the more subtle long-term neurologic effects of chronic lead poisoning in adults. In particular, they suggest the presence of frontal lobe dysfunction in both twins, but more dramatic hippocampal dysfunction in the brother with higher lead exposure. The MRS findings are consistent with the hypothesis that chronic lead exposure caused neuronal loss, which may contribute to the impairment in cognitive function. Although a causal relation cannot be inferred, the brothers were genetically identical, with similar life experiences. Although these results are promising, further study is necessary to determine whether MRS findings correlate both with markers of lead exposure and tests of cognitive function. Nevertheless, the results point to the potential utility of MRS in determining mechanisms of neurotoxicity not only for lead but also for other neurotoxicants as well. PMID:15064171

  13. Caffeine Consumption and Sleep Quality in Australian Adults.

    PubMed

    Watson, Emily J; Coates, Alison M; Kohler, Mark; Banks, Siobhan

    2016-08-04

    Caffeine is commonly consumed to help offset fatigue, however, it can have several negative effects on sleep quality and quantity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between caffeine consumption and sleep quality in adults using a newly validated caffeine food frequency questionnaire (C-FFQ). In this cross sectional study, 80 adults (M ± SD: 38.9 ± 19.3 years) attended the University of South Australia to complete a C-FFQ and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Caffeine consumption remained stable across age groups while the source of caffeine varied. Higher total caffeine consumption was associated with decreased time in bed, as an estimate of sleep time (r = -0.229, p = 0.041), but other PSQI variables were not. Participants who reported poor sleep (PSQI global score ≥ 5) consumed 192.1 ± 122.5 mg (M ± SD) of caffeine which was significantly more than those who reported good sleep quality (PSQI global score < 5; 125.2 ± 62.6 mg; p = 0.008). The C-FFQ was found to be a quick but detailed way to collect population based caffeine consumption data. The data suggests that shorter sleep is associated with greater caffeine consumption, and that consumption is greater in adults with reduced sleep quality.

  14. Caffeine Consumption and Sleep Quality in Australian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Emily J.; Coates, Alison M.; Kohler, Mark; Banks, Siobhan

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is commonly consumed to help offset fatigue, however, it can have several negative effects on sleep quality and quantity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between caffeine consumption and sleep quality in adults using a newly validated caffeine food frequency questionnaire (C-FFQ). In this cross sectional study, 80 adults (M ± SD: 38.9 ± 19.3 years) attended the University of South Australia to complete a C-FFQ and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Caffeine consumption remained stable across age groups while the source of caffeine varied. Higher total caffeine consumption was associated with decreased time in bed, as an estimate of sleep time (r = −0.229, p = 0.041), but other PSQI variables were not. Participants who reported poor sleep (PSQI global score ≥ 5) consumed 192.1 ± 122.5 mg (M ± SD) of caffeine which was significantly more than those who reported good sleep quality (PSQI global score < 5; 125.2 ± 62.6 mg; p = 0.008). The C-FFQ was found to be a quick but detailed way to collect population based caffeine consumption data. The data suggests that shorter sleep is associated with greater caffeine consumption, and that consumption is greater in adults with reduced sleep quality. PMID:27527212

  15. Effects of fluoridated drinking water on dental caries in Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Slade, G D; Sanders, A E; Do, L; Roberts-Thomson, K; Spencer, A J

    2013-04-01

    Systematic reviews produce conflicting conclusions regarding dental caries-preventive effects of water fluoridation in adults. The authors investigated the relationship using data from the nationally representative 2004-2006 Australian National Survey of Adult Oral Health. Effects were compared between the pre-fluoridation cohort born before 1960 (n = 2,270) and the cohort born between 1960 and 1990 (n = 1,509), when widespread implementation of fluoridation increased population coverage from < 1% to 67%. Residential history questionnaires determined the percentage of each person's lifetime exposed to fluoridated water. Examiners recorded decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMF-Teeth) and decayed and filled tooth surfaces (DF-Surfaces). Socio-demographic and preventive dental behaviors were included in multivariable least-squares regression models adjusted for potential confounding. In fully adjusted models, > 75% of lifetime exposure to fluoridation relative to < 25% of lifetime exposure was associated with 11% and 10% fewer DMF-Teeth in the pre-1960 (p < .0001) and 1960-1990 cohorts (p = .018), respectively. Corresponding reductions in DF-Surfaces were 30% (p < .001) and 21% (p < .001). Findings for intermediate fluoridation exposure suggested a dose-response relationship. Results were consistent in sensitivity analyses accounting for missing data. In this nationally representative sample of Australian adults, caries-preventive effects of water fluoridation were at least as great in adults born before widespread implementation of fluoridation as after widespread implementation of fluoridation.

  16. Genetic factors in evolution of sleep length--a longitudinal twin study in Finnish adults.

    PubMed

    Hublin, Christer; Partinen, Markku; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2013-10-01

    Genetic factors affect many aspects of sleep, such as sleep length. We investigated the contribution of genetic factors to stability and change of sleep length among adults over a 15-year period. In this representative follow-up study we used the Finnish Twin Cohort as the study population. Questionnaire surveys were performed in 1975 (response rate 89%, 11,041 twin pairs; age ≥18 years), 1981 (84%, 9323; ≥24 years) and 1990 (77%, 4507; 33-60 years). Sleep was categorized as short (<7 h), average or long (>8 h). Pairwise similarity in monozygotic and dizygotic pairs was examined at each survey by age group and sex. Quantitative genetic modelling was used to estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal genetic effects. The proportion of variance in sleep length at one point in time that was accounted for by genetic effects was very stable over the study period, being 0.31 in 1975, 0.32 in 1981 and 0.30 in 1990. Longitudinal genetic modelling indicated that the correlations of genetic effects between the three measurement points were high: 0.85 between 1975 and 1981; 0.93 between 1981 and 1990; and 0.76 between 1975 and 1990. Despite a high contribution of environmental effects, their correlations over time were modest: 0.31 between 1975 and 1981; 0.33 between 1981 and 1990; and 0.18 between 1975 and 1990. In conclusion, genetic factors have a modest but stable effect on the evolution of sleep length over a long time span in adults. Multiple measures are a more robust basis for genetic analyses than a single cross-sectional measure.

  17. Literacy on the Line. Australian Council for Adult Literacy Conference Proceedings (21st, Adelaide, Australia, September 24-26, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Sue, Ed.

    This conference proceedings of the Australian Council for Adult Literacy contains the following papers: "'But I'm Not a Therapist'--The Challenge of Creating Effective Literacy Learning for Survivors of Trauma" (Horsman); "Future Studies, Postmodernism, and Adult Literacy" (Cross); "Collaboration and Compliance in the…

  18. Validation of Autism Spectrum Quotient Adult Version in an Australian Sample

    PubMed Central

    Broadbent, J.; Galic, I.; Stokes, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The Autism Spectrum Quotient is used to assess autistic spectrum traits in intellectually competent adults in both the general population and the autism spectrum community. While the autism spectrum Quotient has been validated in several different cultures, to date no study has assessed the psychometrics of the Autism Spectrum Quotient on an Australian population. The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometrics of the autism spectrum Quotient in an Australian sample of both typically developing individuals (n = 128) and individuals with autism spectrum disorder (n = 104). The results revealed that the internal consistency and the test-retest reliability were satisfactory; individuals with autism spectrum disorder scored higher on total Autism Spectrum Quotient score and its subscales than typically developing individuals; however, gender differences were not apparent on total score. Possible cultural differences may explain some of the psychometric variations found. The results of this analysis revealed that the Autism Spectrum Quotient was a reliable instrument for investigating variation in autistic symptomology in both typically developing and Autism Spectrum Disorders populations within an Australian population. PMID:23762552

  19. Acculturation, Skin Tone Preferences, and Tanning Behaviours Among Young Adult Asian Australians.

    PubMed

    Day, Ashley K; Wilson, Carlene J; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Roberts, Rachel M

    2016-10-01

    Australia has a significant proportion of residents of Asian heritage. Although the incidence of skin cancer is lower in those of Asian heritage than Caucasians, their prognosis is often worse. Sociocultural variables are central to the tanning behaviours of individuals from Western cultures. We examined the role of sociocultural variables in the tanning behaviours (outdoor tanning, indoor/solarium and fake tan use) among Asian Australians. A sample of 399 young adults identifying either as a person of Asian heritage or as Asian Australian participated in an online survey. Our results suggest that Asian Australians are at risk of skin cancer; over 35 % of the sample reported engaging in outdoor tanning and over 10 % in solarium tanning. After controlling for demographic factors and skin cancer knowledge, preferring a darker skin tone and being acculturated to Australia were significantly associated with tanning behaviour. Participants' low levels of skin cancer knowledge are of concern, and possibilities for improving knowledge levels in this group are considered. Further, we recommended that future research studies investigate sociocultural and appearance-related beliefs associated with tanning behaviours in this population, in order to determine best avenues for intervention.

  20. P300 amplitude in nonalcoholic adolescent twin pairs who become discordant for alcoholism as adults.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Scott R; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2004-11-01

    Past reports suggest that reduced P300 amplitude is associated with risk for alcoholism. We examined whether visual P300 amplitude could identify familial risk for alcohol disorders in individuals not known to be at risk at the time P300 was recorded. These individuals were twins from pairs where neither twin had an alcohol disorder at age 17 but familial risk was established at age 20 when one twin developed an alcohol disorder whereas the other did not. Of special interest was the P300 of the unaffected twin recorded at age 17 when both twins were alcoholism free. We found reduced P300 in the unaffected twin compared to pairs where both members were continuously disorder free. Hence, P300 was reduced in alcohol disorder-free individuals whose twin siblings subsequently developed alcoholism, further supporting reduced P300 amplitude as an endophenotype indexing familial risk for alcoholism.

  1. Physical features observation: is it repeatable in zygosity determination of Chinese adult twins?

    PubMed

    Gao, Wenjing; Li, Liming; Cao, Weihua; Zhan, Siyan; Zhao, Yunlong; Wang, Hui; Hu, Yonghua

    2010-02-01

    This study reports on the inter- and intrarater reliability of physical features observation. Study subjects were 176 Chinese adult persons, consisting of 89 males and 87 females. Three trained research assistants responded simultaneously and respectively to 12 items regarding the subject's physical features including 'hair', 'Mongoloid folds', left and right 'ear lobes', 'earwax', 'nostril shape', 'tongue rolling', left and right 'hitchhiker's thumb', 'mid-digital hair' and left and right 'simian crease' at the moment of interview. And 14 days later, these subjects received the same observation once again. The results showed that the inter- and intra-observer agreements of 'hair', 'earwax', 'tongue rolling', 'mid-digital hair' and 'simian crease' were almost perfect with most kappa (kappa) coefficients >or= .80, while 'Mongoloid fold' and 'nostril shape' showed poor inter-observer agreement and 'nostril shape' showed poor intra-observer agreement (kappa < .40). Two other physical features, 'hitchhiker's thumb' and 'ear lobes' showed moderate inter-observer agreement and three features, 'hitchhiker's thumb', 'ear lobes' and 'Mongoloid fold', showed moderate intra-observer agreement (.40adult twins, while the two features, 'Mongoloid fold' and 'nostril shape', should be abandoned.

  2. The Literacy Equation: Competence = Capability? National Conference of the Australian Council for Adult Literacy Conference Papers (Queensland, Australia, November 7-9, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queensland Council for Adult Literacy, Red Hill (Australia).

    Papers from the 19th Adult Literacy Conference convened by the Australian Council for Adult Literacy include: "A Little to the Right on Writing" (Brendan Bartlett, Margaret Fletcher); "Deconstructing the 'Australian Language and Literacy Policy'" (Helen Beazley); "Comparing Content-Centered and Learner-Centered Approaches…

  3. Suicidal Ideation, Depression, and Conduct Disorder in a Sample of Adolescent and Young Adult Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linker, Julie; Gillespie, Nathan A.; Maes, Hermine; Eaves, Lindon; Silberg, Judy L.

    2012-01-01

    The co-occurrence of suicidal ideation, depression, and conduct disturbance is likely explained in part by correlated genetic and environmental risk factors. Little is known about the specific nature of these associations. Structured interviews on 2,814 twins from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development (VTSABD) and Young…

  4. Testing putative causal associations of risk factors for early intercourse in the study of twin adults: genes and environment (STAGE).

    PubMed

    Donahue, Kelly L; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Långström, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences and substance use have been identified as potential causal risk factors for early-onset sexual intercourse. While it is possible that exposure to these risk factors directly increases the likelihood of engaging in early intercourse, an alternative explanation is that observed associations between these variables are due to shared familial confounds. These unmeasured confounds may increase the likelihood of being exposed to these risk factors and of engaging in early intercourse. Participants drawn from a population-based study of Swedish adult twins (ages 19-47 years; N = 12,126) reported on their history of exposure to early physical and sexual trauma, cigarette use, and cannabis use. We investigated the nature of the association between these risk factors and young age at first intercourse, using a comparison of twins differentially exposed to each risk factor. When compared to non-exposed, unrelated individuals, participants who reported adverse childhood experiences or who engaged in early cigarette use or cannabis use were more likely to engage in early intercourse. However, co-twin comparisons indicated that observed associations between these risk factors and early intercourse may be due to familial factors shared within twin pairs, and risk factor exposure may not lead directly to early intercourse. Our results suggest that preventing trauma exposure or preventing or delaying adolescents' cigarette smoking or cannabis use may not effectively delay intercourse onset; instead, other aspects of the adolescent's environment should be addressed.

  5. Marital Status and Problem Gambling Among Australian Older Adults: The Mediating Role of Loneliness.

    PubMed

    Botterill, Emma; Gill, Peter Richard; McLaren, Suzanne; Gomez, Rapson

    2016-09-01

    Problem gambling rates in older adults have risen dramatically in recent years and require further investigation. Limited available research has suggested that social needs may motivate gambling and hence problem gambling in older adults. Un-partnered older adults may be at greater risk of problem gambling than those with a partner. The current study explored whether loneliness mediated the marital status-problem gambling relationship, and whether gender moderated the mediation model. It was hypothesised that the relationship between being un-partnered and higher levels of loneliness would be stronger for older men than older women. A community sample of Australian men (n = 92) and women (n = 91) gamblers aged from 60 to 90 years (M = 69.75, SD = 7.28) completed the UCLA Loneliness Scale and the Problem Gambling Severity Index. The results supported the moderated mediation model, with loneliness mediating the relationship between marital status and problem gambling for older men but not for older women. It appears that felt loneliness is an important predictor of problem gambling in older adults, and that meeting the social and emotional needs of un-partnered men is important.

  6. Super's Stages and the Four-Factor Structure of the Adult Career Concerns Inventory in an Australian Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Roslyn M.; Peterson, Candida C.

    1994-01-01

    Examined four-factor structure of Adult Career Concerns Inventory (ACCI) in sample of 457 employed Australians. Findings support factorial validity of ACCI by showing its congruence with Super et al.'s (1957) hypothesized 4 stages and 12 substages of career development. Results also demonstrated substantial cross-cultural support for ACCI factor…

  7. An Investigation into the Incidence of Obesity and Underweight among Adults with an Intellectual Disability in an Australian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kathleen; McGillivray, Jane; Illingworth, Kaye; Brookhouse, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Reports suggest that 7% to 18% of Australian adults are obese and a further 16% to 55% are overweight. Studies from other countries have indicated that obesity among people with an intellectual disability may be at least, or even more, prevalent. Prevalence rates range from 28% to 59%. The aim of the current study was to investigate the weight…

  8. The Longitudinal Association of Childhood School Engagement with Adult Educational and Occupational Achievement: Findings from an Australian National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott-Chapman, Joan; Martin, Kara; Ollington, Nadia; Venn, Alison; Dwyer, Terry; Gall, Seana

    2014-01-01

    The research investigated the association between school engagement and adult education and occupation outcomes, within the context of a 1985 Australian longitudinal national cohort study of the factors affecting children's long-term health and well-being. School engagement may be more modifiable than other factors related to academic success,…

  9. Health Status and Coping Strategies among Older Parent-Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in an Australian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; McConnell, David; Gething, Lindsay; Cant, Rosemary; Kendig, Hal

    2010-01-01

    Background: Older parent-carers in Australia are the subject of increasing policy and practice attention due to concerns about their ongoing ability to care in the light of their own ageing and the ageing of their adult son or daughter. This paper examines health status and the coping strategies of a group of older Australian parents caring for an…

  10. Steady as He Goes: At-Sea Movement of Adult Male Australian Sea Lions in a Dynamic Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lowther, Andrew D.; Harcourt, Robert G.; Page, Bradley; Goldsworthy, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    The southern coastline of Australia forms part of the worlds' only northern boundary current system. The Bonney Upwelling occurs every austral summer along the south-eastern South Australian coastline, a region that hosts over 80% of the worlds population of an endangered endemic otariid, the Australian sea lion. We present the first data on the movement characteristics and foraging behaviour of adult male Australian sea lions across their South Australian range. Synthesizing telemetric, oceanographic and isotopic datasets collected from seven individuals enabled us to characterise individual foraging behaviour over an approximate two year time period. Data suggested seasonal variability in stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes that could not be otherwise explained by changes in animal movement patterns. Similarly, animals did not change their foraging patterns despite fine-scale spatial and temporal variability of the upwelling event. Individual males tended to return to the same colony at which they were tagged and utilized the same at-sea regions for foraging irrespective of oceanographic conditions or time of year. Our study contrasts current general assumptions that male otariid life history strategies should result in greater dispersal, with adult male Australian sea lions displaying central place foraging behaviour similar to males of other otariid species in the region. PMID:24086338

  11. Steady as he goes: at-sea movement of adult male Australian sea lions in a dynamic marine environment.

    PubMed

    Lowther, Andrew D; Harcourt, Robert G; Page, Bradley; Goldsworthy, Simon D

    2013-01-01

    The southern coastline of Australia forms part of the worlds' only northern boundary current system. The Bonney Upwelling occurs every austral summer along the south-eastern South Australian coastline, a region that hosts over 80% of the worlds population of an endangered endemic otariid, the Australian sea lion. We present the first data on the movement characteristics and foraging behaviour of adult male Australian sea lions across their South Australian range. Synthesizing telemetric, oceanographic and isotopic datasets collected from seven individuals enabled us to characterise individual foraging behaviour over an approximate two year time period. Data suggested seasonal variability in stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes that could not be otherwise explained by changes in animal movement patterns. Similarly, animals did not change their foraging patterns despite fine-scale spatial and temporal variability of the upwelling event. Individual males tended to return to the same colony at which they were tagged and utilized the same at-sea regions for foraging irrespective of oceanographic conditions or time of year. Our study contrasts current general assumptions that male otariid life history strategies should result in greater dispersal, with adult male Australian sea lions displaying central place foraging behaviour similar to males of other otariid species in the region.

  12. When hatchlings outperform adults: locomotor development in Australian brush turkeys (Alectura lathami, Galliformes)

    PubMed Central

    Dial, Kenneth P.; Jackson, Brandon E.

    2011-01-01

    Within Galliformes, megapods (brush turkey, malleefowl, scrubfowl) exhibit unique forms of parental care and growth. Hatchlings receive no post-hatching parental care and exhibit the most exaggerated precocial development of all extant birds, hatching with fully developed, flight-capable forelimbs. Rather than flying up to safety, young birds preferentially employ wing-assisted incline running. Newly hatched Australian brush turkeys (Alectura lathami) are extraordinarily proficient at negotiating all textured inclined surfaces and can flap-walk up inclines exceeding the vertical. Yet, as brush turkeys grow, their forelimb-dependent locomotor performance declines. In an attempt to elucidate how hatchlings perform so well, we analysed hindlimb forces and forelimb kinematics. We measured ground reaction forces (GRFs) for animals spanning the entire growth range (110–2000 g) as they ascended a variably positioned inclined ramp that housed a forceplate. These data are compared with a similar dataset for a chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) that exhibit a growth strategy typical of most other Galliformes and that demonstrate improved incline performance with increasing age. The brush turkeys' ontogenetic decline in incline running performance is accompanied by loss of traction at steep angles, reduced GRFs and increased wing-loading. We hypothesize that Australian brush turkeys, in contrast to other Galliformes, develop from forelimb-dominated young that exploit a variable terrain (e.g. mound nests, boulders, embankments, cliffs, bushes and trees) into hindlimb-dominated adults dependent on size and running speed to avoid predation. PMID:21047855

  13. Interactive Games for Home Delivery of Exercise and Rehabilitation Interventions for Older Adults: An Australian Perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stuart Trevor; Bird, Marie-Louise

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades there has been a wealth of published scientific evidence for the physical, cognitive and social health-related benefits of increased physical activity, especially in older adults and people living with chronic disease. Despite the clear evidence base demonstrating the health-related benefits of physical activity, uptake and adherence is often disappointing. Therefore, methods for remote delivery of guided exercise programs are required, both to maximise the reach of physical activity promotion initiatives and programs across the older community and to minimise attrition once people begin to be physically active. One method by which we can increase understanding of the importance of, and compliance with, exercise programs involves the use of fun and engaging videogames. In the following we outline two ways in which we are using games technology in an Australian context.

  14. Adult monozygotic twins discordant for intra-uterine growth have indistinguishable genome-wide DNA methylation profiles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low birth weight is associated with an increased adult metabolic disease risk. It is widely discussed that poor intra-uterine conditions could induce long-lasting epigenetic modifications, leading to systemic changes in regulation of metabolic genes. To address this, we acquire genome-wide DNA methylation profiles from saliva DNA in a unique cohort of 17 monozygotic monochorionic female twins very discordant for birth weight. We examine if adverse prenatal growth conditions experienced by the smaller co-twins lead to long-lasting DNA methylation changes. Results Overall, co-twins show very similar genome-wide DNA methylation profiles. Since observed differences are almost exclusively caused by variable cellular composition, an original marker-based adjustment strategy was developed to eliminate such variation at affected CpGs. Among adjusted and unchanged CpGs 3,153 are differentially methylated between the heavy and light co-twins at nominal significance, of which 45 show sensible absolute mean β-value differences. Deep bisulfite sequencing of eight such loci reveals that differences remain in the range of technical variation, arguing against a reproducible biological effect. Analysis of methylation in repetitive elements using methylation-dependent primer extension assays also indicates no significant intra-pair differences. Conclusions Severe intra-uterine growth differences observed within these monozygotic twins are not associated with long-lasting DNA methylation differences in cells composing saliva, detectable with up-to-date technologies. Additionally, our results indicate that uneven cell type composition can lead to spurious results and should be addressed in epigenomic studies. PMID:23706164

  15. Differences in Dietary Preferences, Personality and Mental Health in Australian Adults with and without Food Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Tracy; Hides, Leanne; Brown, Robyn; Dayas, Christopher V; Kay-Lambkin, Frances

    2017-01-01

    Increased obesity rates, an evolving food supply and the overconsumption of energy dense foods has led to an increase in research exploring addictive eating behaviours. This study aimed to investigate food addiction in a sample of Australian adults using the revised Yale Food Addiction Survey (YFAS) 2.0 tool and how it is associated with dietary intake, personality traits and mental health issues. Australian adults were invited to complete an online survey that collected information including: demographics, dietary intake, depression, anxiety, stress and personality dimensions including impulsivity, sensation seeking, hopelessness and anxiety sensitivity. A total of 1344 individuals were recruited with the samples comprising 75.7% female, mean age 39.8 ± 13.1 years (range 18–91 years) and body mass index BMI 27.7 ± 9.5. Food addiction was identified in 22.2% of participants using the YFAS 2.0 tool, which classified the severity of food addiction as “mild” in 0.7% of cases, “moderate” in 2.6% and “severe” in 18.9% of cases. Predictors of severe food addiction were female gender (odds ratio (OR) 3.65 95% CI 1.86–7.11) and higher levels of soft drink OR 1.36 (1.07–1.72), confectionary consumption and anxiety sensitivity 1.16 (1.07–1.26). Overall people with “severe” (OR 13.2, 5.8–29.8) or extremely severe depressive symptoms (OR 15.6, range 7.1–34.3) had the highest odds of having severe food addiction. The only variable that reduced the odds of having severe food addiction was vegetable intake. The current study highlights that addictive food behaviours are associated with a complex pattern of poor dietary choices and a clustering with mental health issues, particularly depression. PMID:28294965

  16. Social capital, socio-economic status and psychological distress among Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Phongsavan, Philayrath; Chey, Tien; Bauman, Adrian; Brooks, Robert; Silove, Derrick

    2006-11-01

    High levels of social capital may be associated with positive mental health in adults. However, quantifying the various dimensions of social capital has presented a challenge due in part to the diverse definitions and measures used. Data from a representative, population-wide survey of Australian adults aged 16 years and older were used to investigate the links between dimensions of social capital and mental health morbidity. Social capital comprised three constructs and was measured at the individual level: feelings of trust and safety, community participation and neighbourhood connections and reciprocity. Mental health was measured by the 10-item Kessler (K10) instrument and assessed symptoms of psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) over the previous month. Community participation showed a weak, and neighbourhood connections and reciprocity a moderate association with distress. Having higher levels of trust and feeling safe were consistently associated with low levels of psychological distress, after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and health conditions. The results clearly demonstrate that having trust in people, feeling safe in the community and having social reciprocity are associated with lower risk of mental health distress. The implications for conceptualising and measuring the individual and collective (contextual) dimensions of social capital are discussed. The findings also suggest the importance of examining the interrelationships between socio-economic status, social capital and mental health for community-dwelling adults.

  17. Tobacco use and reported bruxism in young adults: A nationwide Finnish Twin Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahlberg, J.; Hublin, C.; Lobbezoo, F.; Rose, R. J.; Murtomaa, H.; Kaprio, J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Higher levels of smoking, leading to increased levels of nicotine and dopamine release, may be more strongly related to bruxism, although this relationship has remained unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible effect of cumulative tobacco use on bruxism in a large sample of young adults. Methods: The material of the present study derives from the FinnTwin16, which consists of five birth cohorts born in 1975–1979. A total of 3,124 subjects (mean age 24 years, range 23–27 years) provided data in 2000–2002 on frequency of bruxism and tobacco use. Multinomial logistic regression was used to explore the relationships of frequency of bruxism with smoking and smokeless tobacco use while controlling covariates (alcohol intoxication, alcohol problems [Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index, RAPI], illicit drug use, psychological distress [General Health Questionnaire], and coffee use). Results: Based on subjective response and multivariate analyses, weekly bruxers were more than two times more likely to report heavy smoking than never bruxers (odds ratio [OR] 2.5, 95 % CI 1.8–3.4). The significant association between heavy smoking and bruxism held when the effects of other tobacco use and multiple covariates were controlled. In addition, the use of smokeless tobacco emerged as an independent risk factor for bruxism. Discussion: Given the observed associations with both heavy smoking and smokeless tobacco and a dose–response relationship, the present results support our hypothesis of a link between nicotine intake and bruxism. PMID:20427458

  18. Life, lifestyle and location: examining the complexities of psychological distress in young adult Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Davison, B; Nagel, T; Singh, G R

    2017-03-27

    Mental health is fundamental to an individual's health and well-being. Mental health disorders affect a substantial portion of the Australian population, with the most vulnerable time in adolescence and young adulthood. Indigenous Australians fare worse than other Australians on almost every measure of physical and mental health. Cross-sectional data from young adults (21-27 years) participating in the Life Course Program, Northern Territory, Australia, is presented. Rates of psychological distress were high in remote and urban residing Indigenous and urban non-Indigenous young adults. This rate was more pronounced in young women, particularly in Indigenous remote and urban residing women. Young adults with high psychological distress also had lower levels of positive well-being, higher perceived stress levels, experienced a higher number of major life events and were at an increased risk of suicidal ideation and/or self-harm. This study supports the need for a continued focus on early screening and treatment at this vulnerable age. The significant association seen between psychological distress and other markers of emotional well-being, particularly risk of suicidal ideation and/or self-harm, highlights the need for a holistic approach to mental health assessment and treatment. A concerted focus on improving the environs of young adults by lowering levels of stress, improving access to adequate housing, educational and employment opportunity, will assist in improving the emotional health of young adults.

  19. Intended Sensitive and Harsh Caregiving Responses to Infant Crying: The Role of Cry Pitch and Perceived Urgency in an Adult Twin Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Out, Dorothee; Pieper, Suzanne; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Zeskind, Philip Sanford; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the underlying mechanisms of adults' intended caregiving responses to cry sounds in a behavioral genetic design and to investigate the role of cry pitch and perceived urgency in sensitive and harsh caregiving responses. Methods: The sample consisted of 184 adult twin pairs (18-69 years), including males and females, parents…

  20. Coexisting Psychiatric Problems and Stressful Life Events in Adults with Symptoms of ADHD--A Large Swedish Population-Based Study of Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrichs, Bettina; Igl, Wilmar; Larsson, Henrik; Larsson, Jan-Olov

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the associations of subtypes of adult ADHD with other psychiatric problems, stressful life events, and sex differences. Method: Odds ratios were calculated using information from 17,899 participants from a population-based survey of adult twins born in Sweden between 1959 and 1985. Results: Symptoms of attention deficit…

  1. The Brazilian Twin Registry.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Paulo H; Oliveira, Vinicius C; Junqueira, Daniela R; Cisneros, Lígia C; Ferreira, Lucas C; Murphy, Kate; Ordoñana, Juan R; Hopper, John L; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2016-12-01

    The Brazilian Twin Registry (BTR) was established in 2013 and has impelled twin research in South America. The main aim of the initiative was to create a resource that would be accessible to the Brazilian scientific community as well as international researchers interested in the investigation of the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the development of common diseases, phenotypes, and human behavior traits. The BTR is a joint effort between academic and governmental institutions from Brazil and Australia. The collaboration includes the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) in Brazil, the University of Sydney and University of Melbourne in Australia, the Australian Twin Registry, as well as the research foundations CNPq and CAPES in Brazil. The BTR is a member of the International Network of Twin Registries. Recruitment strategies used to register twins have been through participation in a longitudinal study investigating genetic and environmental factors for low back pain occurrence, and from a variety of sources including media campaigns and social networking. Currently, 291 twins are registered in the BTR, with data on demographics, zygosity, anthropometrics, and health history having been collected from 151 twins using a standardized self-reported questionnaire. Future BTR plans include the registration of thousands of Brazilian twins identified from different sources and collaborate nationally and internationally with other research groups interested on twin studies.

  2. Genetic Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from the Sputa of Australian Adult Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Mario; Rose, Barbara; Pegler, Mary Beard; Elkins, Mark; Service, Helen; Thamotharampillai, Keerthi; Watson, Jason; Robinson, Michael; Bye, Peter; Merlino, John; Harbour, Colin

    2002-01-01

    Genetic investigations were carried out with 50 phenotypically selected strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from 18 patients attending an Australian cystic fibrosis (CF) center. The isolates were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Phylogenetic analysis of the macrorestriction patterns showed rates of genetic similarity ranging from 76 to 100%; 24 (48%) of the strains from 11 patients had greater than 90% similarity. A dominant strain emerged: 15 isolates from seven patients had identical PFGE patterns, and 4 other isolates were very closely related. The 50 isolates were grouped into 21 pulsotypes on the basis of visual delineation of a three-band difference. Ten of the 18 (56%) patients were infected with clonal or subclonal strains. Sequence analysis of PCR products derived from the mucA gene showed 20 mutations, with the number of mutations in individual isolates ranging from 1 to 4; 19 of these changes are reported here for the first time. Potentially functional changes were found in 22 (44%) isolates. Eight changes (five transversions and three single base deletions) led to premature stop codons, providing support for the presence of mucA mutations as one pathway to mucoidy. There was a trend toward an association between the dominant strain and lack of potentially functional mucA mutations (P = 0.09 by the χ2 test) but no relationship between genotype and phenotype. This is the first study of genetic variation in P. aeruginosa isolates from adult Australian CF patients. The findings highlight the need for further investigations on the transmissibility of P. aeruginosa in CF patients. PMID:12149328

  3. Access to commercial destinations within the neighbourhood and walking among Australian older adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical activity, particularly walking, is greatly beneficial to health; yet a sizeable proportion of older adults are insufficiently active. The importance of built environment attributes for walking is known, but few studies of older adults have examined neighbourhood destinations and none have investigated access to specific, objectively-measured commercial destinations and walking. Methods We undertook a secondary analysis of data from the Western Australian state government’s health surveillance survey for those aged 65–84 years and living in the Perth metropolitan region from 2003–2009 (n = 2,918). Individual-level road network service areas were generated at 400 m and 800 m distances, and the presence or absence of six commercial destination types within the neighbourhood service areas identified (food retail, general retail, medical care services, financial services, general services, and social infrastructure). Adjusted logistic regression models examined access to and mix of commercial destination types within neighbourhoods for associations with self-reported walking behaviour. Results On average, the sample was aged 72.9 years (SD = 5.4), and was predominantly female (55.9%) and married (62.0%). Overall, 66.2% reported some weekly walking and 30.8% reported sufficient walking (≥150 min/week). Older adults with access to general services within 400 m (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.07-1.66) and 800 m (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.02-1.42), and social infrastructure within 800 m (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.01-1.40) were more likely to engage in some weekly walking. Access to medical care services within 400 m (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.63-0.93) and 800 m (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.70-0.99) reduced the odds of sufficient walking. Access to food retail, general retail, financial services, and the mix of commercial destination types within the neighbourhood were all unrelated to walking. Conclusions The types of

  4. Does educational status impact adult mortality in Denmark? A twin approach.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Mia; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Christensen, Kaare; Andersen, Per Kragh; Osler, Merete

    2010-07-15

    To disentangle an independent effect of educational status on mortality risk from direct and indirect selection mechanisms, the authors used a discordant twin pair design, which allowed them to isolate the effect of education by means of adjustment for genetic and environmental confounding per design. The study is based on data from the Danish Twin Registry and Statistics Denmark. Using Cox regression, they estimated hazard ratios for mortality according to the highest attained education among 5,260 monozygotic and 11,088 dizygotic same-sex twin pairs born during 1921-1950 and followed during 1980-2008. Both standard cohort and intrapair analyses were conducted separately for zygosity, gender, and birth cohort. Educational differences in mortality were demonstrated in the standard cohort analyses but attenuated in the intrapair analyses in all subgroups but men born during 1921-1935, and no effect modification by zygosity was observed. Hence, the results are most compatible with an effect of early family environment in explaining the educational inequality in mortality. However, large educational differences were still reflected in mortality risk differences within twin pairs, thus supporting some degree of independent effect of education. In addition, the effect of education may be more pronounced in older cohorts of Danish men.

  5. A profile of Australian adults who have discussed their posthumous organ donation wishes with family members.

    PubMed

    Newton, Joshua D; Burney, Sue; Hay, Margaret; Ewing, Michael T

    2010-07-01

    Next of kin who are aware of the deceased's organ donation wishes usually will honor those wishes, while next of kin who are unaware of these wishes typically withhold consent for posthumous donation. Encouraging individuals to communicate or register their organ donation wishes is therefore important. Using a sample of 409 participants, the current study sought to develop a profile of Australian adults who had communicated their organ donation wishes to family members. Christian participants and those who had a higher income were more likely to have communicated their donation wishes. Conversely, participants were less likely to have communicated their donation wishes if they were unregistered and undecided/opposed to organ donation, unregistered but willing to donate, or fearful of death. Finally, whether participants had communicated, registered, or communicated and registered their donation wishes was associated with their age, religion, attitude toward organ donation, and recall of media content about organ donation. Messages encouraging the communication of organ donation wishes to family members should therefore be targeted toward those individuals who are most likely to be receptive toward enacting this behavior.

  6. Identifying effective healthy weight and lifestyle advertisements: Focus groups with Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Helen; Murphy, Michael; Scully, Maree; Rose, Mischa; Cotter, Trish

    2016-08-01

    This study explored adult's attitudes and reactions to a range of television advertisements (ads) promoting healthy weight, physical activity and healthy eating. Twenty-four focus groups (N = 179) were conducted in metropolitan and regional areas of the Australian states of Victoria, New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, with participants segmented by sex, education (no tertiary, at least some tertiary) and life stage (young adults, parents). Each group was assigned to one of the three advertising streams - Weight, Activity, or Nutrition - where responses to five different ads were explored using semi-structured, moderator-led discussions. Discussion transcripts were qualitatively content analysed using a conventional approach. Four main themes were identified in participants' discussions about the ads' main messages - (i) Why is it a problem? (ii) Who is it a problem for? (iii) What should I do about it? (iv) How do I make the changes? Reactions varied by demographic factors and current weight and lifestyle status. Participants furthest from achieving public health recommendations for weight, diet and activity were motivated by 'what' and 'how' ads involving gentle persuasion and helpful hints. Participants who were closer to meeting these recommendations were motivated by 'why' ads featuring more graphic and emotive content and new information. Findings suggest a strategic approach is important for the development of public health ads promoting healthy weight and lifestyle, with consideration given to the specific communication goals and who the target audience is. This should help ensure an appropriate message is delivered to priority population subgroups in the most informative and motivating manner.

  7. Heritability of Renal Function and Inflammatory Markers in Adult Male Twins

    PubMed Central

    Raggi, Paolo; Su, Shaoyong; Karohl, Cristina; Veledar, Emir; Rojas-Campos, Enrique; Vaccarino, Viola

    2010-01-01

    Background Loss of renal function is accompanied by a progressive increase in markers of inflammation; it is unknown whether they share common genetic pathways. Study Design We evaluated the shared heritability of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and markers of inflammation and endothelial activation in 524 twin males from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry; 9 twins were excluded due to incomplete or incorrect data. Models were adjusted for age, race, body mass index, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, prior coronary artery disease and intercurrent medications. Results The mean eGFR was 89 ± 13 ml/min/1.73 m2 (range 35–146); eGFR, intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) and TNF-α receptor (TNF-αR) were moderately heritable (all ∼50%), while IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) and P-selectin were highly heritable (68 and 76%, respectively). IL-6R and TNF-αR showed a significant inverse association with eGFR (p = 0.04 and p < 0.0001) while the association with ICAM and P-selectin was direct (p = 0.001 and p = 0.06). Bivariate structural equation models showed that the association between eGFR and biomarkers was due to unique environmental factors and there were no shared genetic pathways. Conclusion We found no shared genetic pathways between renal function and inflammation. Thus, increased inflammation represents a response to declining renal function rather than being a mechanism contributing to renal deterioration. PMID:20720405

  8. Variants close to NTRK2 gene are associated with birth weight in female twins.

    PubMed

    Metrustry, Sarah J; Edwards, Mark H; Medland, Sarah E; Holloway, John W; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Spector, Tim D; Cooper, Cyrus; Valdes, Ana M

    2014-08-01

    Low weight at birth has previously been shown to be associated with a number of adult diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, and obesity later in life. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been published for singleton-born individuals, but the role of genetic variation in birth weight (BW) in twins has not yet been fully investigated. A GWAS was performed in 4,593 female study participants with BW data available from the TwinsUK cohort. A genome-wide significant signal was found in chromosome 9, close to the NTRK2 gene (OMIM: 600456). QIMR, an Australian twin cohort (n = 3,003), and UK-based singleton-birth individuals from the Hertfordshire cohort (n = 2,997) were used as replication for the top two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) underpinning this signal, rs12340987 and rs7849941. The top SNP, rs12340987, was found to be in the same direction in the Australian twins and in the singleton-born females (fixed effects meta-analysis beta = -0.13, SE = 0.02, and p = 1.48 × 10-8) but not in the singleton-born males tested. These findings provide an important insight into the genetic component of BW in twins who are normally excluded due to their lower BW when compared with singleton births, as well as the difference in BW between twins. The NTRK2 gene identified in this study has previously been associated with obesity.

  9. Growing Old With Ice: A Review of the Potential Consequences of Methamphetamine Abuse in Australian Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Searby, Adam; Maude, Phil; McGrath, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This review analyzes contemporary literature in the context of Australian aging methamphetamine users, service response, and challenges to provision of care to this population. The article focuses on Australian literature with comparisons made with trends arising from international scholarship. Searches of the CINAHL, ProQuest, and Scopus electronic journal databases were performed in early 2014 as part of a wider study investigating dual diagnosis in older adults. Methamphetamine abuse is common in individuals with comorbid mental illness. The literature presented in this review outlines potential neuropsychological and persistent psychiatric sequelae associated with the use of methamphetamine, along with a number of concerning behaviors prevalent in individuals with comorbid human immunodeficiency virus-positive status. Despite an abundance of literature discussing methamphetamine use in adult populations, this is the first review exploring methamphetamine use in the context of aging and older adult mental health. Contemporary literature suggests that methamphetamine dependence will be a significant challenge for services that cater to older adults, requiring further research to fully assess the impact this cohort will have on the healthcare system.

  10. Time series analysis of the impact of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence among Australian adults, 2001–2011

    PubMed Central

    Coomber, Kerri; Durkin, Sarah J; Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Spittal, Matthew J; Simpson, Julie A; Hill, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on smoking prevalence in Australian adults. Methods Data for calculating the average monthly prevalence of smoking between January 2001 and June 2011 were obtained via structured interviews of randomly sampled adults aged 18 years or older from Australia’s five largest capital cities (monthly mean number of adults interviewed: 2375). The influence on smoking prevalence was estimated for increased tobacco taxes; strengthened smoke-free laws; increased monthly population exposure to televised tobacco control mass media campaigns and pharmaceutical company advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), using gross ratings points; monthly sales of NRT, bupropion and varenicline; and introduction of graphic health warnings on cigarette packs. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to examine the influence of these interventions on smoking prevalence. Findings The mean smoking prevalence for the study period was 19.9% (standard deviation: 2.0%), with a drop from 23.6% (in January 2001) to 17.3% (in June 2011). The best-fitting model showed that stronger smoke-free laws, tobacco price increases and greater exposure to mass media campaigns independently explained 76% of the decrease in smoking prevalence from February 2002 to June 2011. Conclusion Increased tobacco taxation, more comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased investment in mass media campaigns played a substantial role in reducing smoking prevalence among Australian adults between 2001 and 2011. PMID:24940015

  11. Genetic and environmental covariations among obsessive-compulsive symptoms, neuroticism, and extraversion in South Korean adolescent and young adult twins.

    PubMed

    Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2009-04-01

    A growing literature suggests that personality traits may be endophenotype markers for psychiatric illnesses. Although the phenotypic relationships between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and high neuroticism and low extraversion have been well documented, underlying genetic and environmental contributions to these associations have not been explored previously. Five hundred and twenty-four monozygoitc (MZ) and 228 dizygotic (DZ) pairs of adolescent and young adult twins (aged 13-24 years) drawn from the South Korean Twin Registry completed the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) and the Neuroticism and Extraversion scale of the Eysenck Personality Scale by mail. The total score of MOCI (MOCIT) was significantly and positively correlated with Neuroticism (r = .44), but only weakly and negatively related to Extraversion (r = -.10). A trivariate Cholesky model was applied to the data. The additive genetic correlations in the best-fitting model were .51 between Neuroticism and MOCIT and -.17 between Extraversion and MOCIT, suggesting that additive genetic factors that lead to high neuroticism and low extraversion overlap with those genetic factors influencing high OC symptoms. These findings add to the cumulative evidence of the shared genetic etiology for the associations between a personality profile of high neuroticism and low extraversion and mental illnesses.

  12. Assessment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder Diagnostic Criteria in the National Comorbidity Survey and Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubarych, Thomas S.; Aggen, Steven H.; Hettema, John M.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Neale, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated measurement properties of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition," generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) criteria in the National Comorbidity Survey and the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders (VATSPSUD). The two studies used different widely used…

  13. A Comparison of Anthropometric, Metabolic, and Reproductive Characteristics of Young Adult Women from Opposite-Sex and Same-Sex Twin Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Korsoff, Pirkko; Bogl, Leonie H.; Korhonen, Päivi; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Rose, Richard J.; Kaaja, Risto; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to androgens has been linked to masculinization of several traits. We aimed to determine whether putative female intra-uterine exposure to androgens influences anthropometric, metabolic, and reproductive parameters using a twin design. Methods: Two cohorts of Finnish twins born in 1975–1979 and 1983–1987 formed the basis for the longitudinal FinnTwin16 (FT16) and FinnTwin12 (FT12) studies. Self-reported anthropometric characteristics, disease status, and reproductive history were compared between 679 same-sex (SS) and 789 opposite-sex (OS) female twins (mean age ± SD: 34 ± 1.1) from the wave 5 of data collection in FT16. Serum lipid and lipoprotein subclass concentrations measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were compared in 226 SS and 169 OS female twins (mean age ± SD: 24 ± 2.1) from the wave 4 of data collection in FT12 and FT16. Results: Anthropometric measures, the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus type 2 did not differ significantly between females from SS and OS twin pairs at age 34. Similarly, the prevalence of infertility, age at first pregnancy and number of induced and spontaneous abortions did not differ significantly between these two groups of women. The serum lipid and lipoprotein profile did not differ between females from SS and OS twins at age 24. Conclusion: We found no evidence that androgen overexposure of the female fetus affects obesity, metabolic profile, or reproductive health in young adult females. However, these results do not exclude the possibility that prenatal androgen exposure in females could be adversely associated with these phenotypes later in life. PMID:24639667

  14. Forearm hair density and risk of keratinocyte cancers in Australian adults.

    PubMed

    von Schuckmann, L A; Hughes, M C; Green, A C; van der Pols, J C

    2016-11-01

    Evidence suggests that progenitor cells of keratinocyte cancers (basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)) may originate from epidermal stem cells including hair follicle stem cells. We hypothesised that, therefore, a relatively higher density of hair follicles on human skin may increase keratinocyte cancer risk. To evaluate this, we assessed density of mid-forearm hair in Australian adults who were randomly selected participants in a community-based cohort study of skin cancer. Hair density was assessed clinically against a set of four standard photographs showing grades of hair density, and incidence data on histologically confirmed BCC and SCC across a 20-year period were collected. Incidence rate ratios were calculated for categories of forearm hair density using multivariable regression analysis with adjustment for age, sex, phenotypic characteristics and markers of chronic sun exposure. Among the 715 participants (43 % male, average age 61 years), 237 developed at least one BCC and 115 persons developed at least one SCC. Participants with dense forearm hair (n = 169, all male) had a higher incidence of BCC (IRR = 2.24, 95 % CI 1.20, 4.18, P = 0.01) and SCC (IRR = 2.80, 95 % CI 1.20, 6.57, P = 0.02) compared to individuals with sparse forearm hair after multivariable adjustment. Stratified analyses showed that among men, those with dense versus sparse hair developed SCC more commonly (IRR = 3.01, 95 % CI 1.03, 8.78, P = 0.04). Women with moderate versus sparse hair density were more likely affected by BCC (IRR = 2.29, 95 % CI 1.05, 5.00, P = 0.038). Thus, our study suggests that in both men and women, a higher density of body hair may be associated with increased BCC and SCC risk.

  15. The Comparative Validity and Reproducibility of a Diet Quality Index for Adults: The Australian Recommended Food Score

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Clare E.; Burrows, Tracy L.; Rollo, Megan E.; Boggess, May M.; Watson, Jane F.; Guest, Maya; Duncanson, Kerith; Pezdirc, Kristine; Hutchesson, Melinda J.

    2015-01-01

    Adult diet quality indices are shown to predict nutritional adequacy of dietary intake as well as all-cause morbidity and mortality. This study describes the reproducibility and validity of a food-based diet quality index, the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS). ARFS was developed to reflect alignment with the Australian Dietary Guidelines and is modelled on the US Recommended Food Score. Dietary intakes of 96 adult participants (31 male, 65 female) age 30 to 75 years were assessed in two rounds, five months apart. Diet was assessed using a 120-question semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The ARFS diet quality index was derived using a subset of 70 items from the full FFQ. Reproducibility of the ARFS between round one and round two was confirmed by the overall intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.87 (95% CI 0.83, 0.90), which compared favourably to that for the FFQ at 0.85 (95% CI 0.80, 0.89). ARFS was correlated with FFQ nutrient intakes, particularly fiber, vitamin A, beta-carotene and vitamin C (0.53, 95% CI 0.37–0.67), and with mineral intakes, particularly calcium, magnesium and potassium (0.32, 95% CI 0.23–0.40). ARFS is a suitable brief tool to evaluate diet quality in adults and reliably estimates a range of nutrient intakes. PMID:25625814

  16. The comparative validity and reproducibility of a diet quality index for adults: the Australian Recommended Food Score.

    PubMed

    Collins, Clare E; Burrows, Tracy L; Rollo, Megan E; Boggess, May M; Watson, Jane F; Guest, Maya; Duncanson, Kerith; Pezdirc, Kristine; Hutchesson, Melinda J

    2015-01-23

    Adult diet quality indices are shown to predict nutritional adequacy of dietary intake as well as all-cause morbidity and mortality. This study describes the reproducibility and validity of a food-based diet quality index, the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS). ARFS was developed to reflect alignment with the Australian Dietary Guidelines and is modelled on the US Recommended Food Score. Dietary intakes of 96 adult participants (31 male, 65 female) age 30 to 75 years were assessed in two rounds, five months apart. Diet was assessed using a 120-question semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The ARFS diet quality index was derived using a subset of 70 items from the full FFQ. Reproducibility of the ARFS between round one and round two was confirmed by the overall intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.87 (95% CI 0.83, 0.90), which compared favourably to that for the FFQ at 0.85 (95% CI 0.80, 0.89). ARFS was correlated with FFQ nutrient intakes, particularly fiber, vitamin A, beta-carotene and vitamin C (0.53, 95% CI 0.37-0.67), and with mineral intakes, particularly calcium, magnesium and potassium (0.32, 95% CI 0.23-0.40). ARFS is a suitable brief tool to evaluate diet quality in adults and reliably estimates a range of nutrient intakes.

  17. Psychometric Properties of 7- and 30-Day Versions of the PROMIS Emotional Distress Item Banks in an Australian Adult Sample.

    PubMed

    Batterham, Philip J; Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Calear, Alison L

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the PROMIS depression, anxiety, and anger item banks in a large Australian population-based sample. The study tested for unidimensionality; evaluated invariance across age, gender, and education; assessed local independence; and tested item bank scores as an indicator for clinical criteria. In addition, equivalence of the 7-day time frame against an alternative 30-day time frame was assessed. A sample of 3,175 Australian adults were recruited into the study through online advertising. All three item banks showed strong evidence of unidimensionality and parsimony, with no items showing local dependence. All items were invariant across age, gender, and education. The item banks were accurate in detecting clinical criteria for major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and panic disorder, although legacy measures designed for this purpose sometimes performed marginally better. Responses to the 30-day time frame were highly consistent with the original 7-day time frame. The study provided support for the validity of the PROMIS emotional distress item banks as measures of depression, anxiety, and anger in the Australian population, supporting the generalizability of the measures. The time frame chosen for assessing mental health outcomes using these item banks should be based on pragmatic considerations.

  18. Uptake of health monitoring and disease self-management in Australian adults with neurofibromatosis type 1: strategies to improve care.

    PubMed

    Crawford, H A; Barton, B; Wilson, M J; Berman, Y; McKelvey-Martin, V J; Morrison, P J; North, K N

    2016-03-01

    Lifelong health monitoring is recommended in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) because of the progressive and unpredictable range of disabling and potentially life-threatening symptoms that arise. In Australia, strategies for NF1 health surveillance are less well developed for adults than they are for children, resulting in inequalities between pediatric and adult care. The aims of this study were to determine the uptake of health monitoring and capacity of adults with NF1 to self-manage their health. Australian adults with NF1 (n = 94, 18-40 years) participated in a semi-structured interview. Almost half reported no regular health monitoring. Thematic analysis of interviews identified four main themes as to why: (i) did not know where to seek care, (ii) unaware of the need for regular monitoring, (iii) futility of health monitoring as nothing can be done for NF1, and (iv) feeling healthy, therefore monitoring unnecessary. Overall, there were low levels of patient activation, indicating that adults with NF1 lacked knowledge and confidence to manage their health and health care. Findings are discussed in the context of service provision for adults with NF1 in New South Wales, Australia.

  19. Temporal and spatial trends in adult nuisance fly populations on Australian cattle feedlots.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Like the US, Australia produces beef on large feedlots. Complaints of fly problems prompted a request for information on biology and management of feedlot flies. Therefore, USDA-CMAVE scientists worked cooperatively for 3 years with Australian scientists to determine species composition, seasonality...

  20. Young Adults Who Re-enter Australian High Schools and Drop Out Again.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Bradley, Graham L.

    1996-01-01

    Study of 1,233 Australian dropouts who reentered high school showed that unsuccessful reentrants were often homeless and unemployed, were more likely to be at traditional rather than innovative schools, and had practical, interpersonal, or discipline-related problems at school. Three best predictors of repeat dropout were extent of interpersonal…

  1. Dietary patterns, nutrition knowledge and lifestyle: associations with blood pressure in a sample of Australian adults (the Food BP study).

    PubMed

    Khalesi, S; Sharma, S; Irwin, C; Sun, J

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the association between dietary patterns, nutrition knowledge and lifestyle with blood pressure (BP) in a sample of Australian adults. Adults with normal and high BP were included in a cross-sectional study. Dietary intake data was collected using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Nutrition knowledge and lifestyle surveys were included in the questionnaire. Dietary patterns were extracted using factor analysis followed by cluster analysis. Associations were analysed using logistic regression. Four hundred and seven participants were included. Three dietary patterns were identified: Western; Snack and alcohol; and Balanced. Participants with high BP had a higher intake of Western and a lower intake of Balanced dietary pattern. A significant and higher frequency of discretionary foods and oils consumption, as well as lower nutrition knowledge score and activity frequency, were observed in the high BP group. Regression analysis indicated that the intake of Western and Snack and alcohol dietary patterns increases the likelihood of having high BP by 2.40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28-4.49) and 2.76 (95% CI: 1.52-5.00), respectively, when nutrition knowledge and lifestyle were controlled for as moderator variables. The likelihood of high BP was not associated with nutrition knowledge, but increased with physical inactivity. This study indicates that poor dietary patterns and inactivity are associated with increases in the likelihood of high BP, and the association is not influenced by nutrition knowledge. These findings indicate the importance of developing public health strategies with an emphasis on improving the dietary patterns of individuals to prevent and control high BP in Australian adults.

  2. Alloparenting for chimpanzee twins

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto, Takeshi; Ando, Juko; Tatara, Seiki; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Konishi, Katsuya; Kimura, Natsuko; Fukumori, Akira; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    In April 2009, a female chimpanzee named Sango, living in a captive group at the Noichi Zoo, Japan, gave birth to dizygotic male-female twin chimpanzees (male: Daiya, female: Sakura). The extent to which adult group members cared for the twins was investigated using a focal animal sampling method targeting six adults (one male) when the twin chimpanzees were two years old. Data were collected for an average of 6.78 h (SD = 0.79) per focal participant. An unaffiliated female adult of Sango was engaged in parenting Sakura as much as Sango. Given that Sakura was in lesser proximity to Sango than Daiya, Sakura's departures from her mother and her ability to gesture requests might have enabled non-kin adults to provide her care. PMID:25200656

  3. Food fears: a national survey on the attitudes of Australian adults about the safety and quality of food.

    PubMed

    Williams, Peter; Stirling, Emma; Keynes, Nick

    2004-01-01

    A national telephone survey of a representative sample of 1200 Australian adults was conducted in March 2002 in order to identify the factors of greatest concern to consumers in relation to the safety and quality of food, to measure recent trends in views about hazards in the food supply, to explore beliefs about the safety of additives and to discover whether consumers use food labels to check for ingredients of concern. Forty five percent of Australians responded that they were more concerned about the safety and quality of food than they were five years previously, while only 5% were less concerned. The most common potential hazards volunteered were additives and chemical residues (28%), followed by food processing/handling/freshness (21%), food hygiene or contamination (14%), and also genetic modification (14%). More than half of the respondents believe that additives and preservatives are harmful to your health and that many foods contain high levels of pesticides. A greater proportion of consumers claimed to be conscious of checking for additives, either general or specific, on food labels than for information on the salt or sugar content of products. Food regulators, journalists, the food industry and health professionals need to work together to correct misconceptions about the risks to health posed by common food additives and pesticide residues.

  4. Adult body height of twins compared with that of singletons: a register-based birth cohort study of Norwegian males.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Willy; Sundet, Jon M; Tambs, Kristian

    2013-05-01

    In the present study, we evaluated whether childhood differences in body height between singletons and twins persist into adulthood. Data from the Medical Birth Register of Norway were linked with data from the Norwegian National Conscript Service. This study used data on the 457,999 males who were born alive and without physical anomalies in single or twin births in Norway during 1967-1984 and who were examined at the mandatory military conscription (age 18-20 years; 1985-2003). For sibling comparisons, the authors selected the 1,721 sibships of full brothers that included at least 1 male born in a single birth and at least 1 male born in a twin birth (4,520 persons, including 2,493 twins and 2,027 singletons). An analysis of the total study population using generalized estimating equations showed that the twins were 0.6 cm (95% confidence interval: 0.4, 0.7) shorter than were the singletons after adjustment for a series of background factors. The fixed-effects regression analysis of the sibships that included both twins and singletons showed that the twins were 0.9 cm (95% confidence interval: 0.6, 1.2) shorter than were their singleton brothers. The study suggests that male twins born in Norway during 1967-1984 were slightly shorter in early adulthood than were singletons.

  5. Birth Weight and Adult IQ, but Not Anxious-Depressive Psychopathology, Are Associated with Cortical Surface Area: A Study in Twins

    PubMed Central

    Córdova-Palomera, Aldo; Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; Falcón, Carles; Bargalló, Nuria; Alemany, Silvia; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Nenadic, Igor; Fañanás, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous research suggests that low birth weight (BW) induces reduced brain cortical surface area (SA) which would persist until at least early adulthood. Moreover, low BW has been linked to psychiatric disorders such as depression and psychological distress, and to altered neurocognitive profiles. Aims We present novel findings obtained by analysing high-resolution structural MRI scans of 48 twins; specifically, we aimed: i) to test the BW-SA association in a middle-aged adult sample; and ii) to assess whether either depression/anxiety disorders or intellectual quotient (IQ) influence the BW-SA link, using a monozygotic (MZ) twin design to separate environmental and genetic effects. Results Both lower BW and decreased IQ were associated with smaller total and regional cortical SA in adulthood. Within a twin pair, lower BW was related to smaller total cortical and regional SA. In contrast, MZ twin differences in SA were not related to differences in either IQ or depression/anxiety disorders. Conclusion The present study supports findings indicating that i) BW has a long-lasting effect on cortical SA, where some familial and environmental influences alter both foetal growth and brain morphology; ii) uniquely environmental factors affecting BW also alter SA; iii) higher IQ correlates with larger SA; and iv) these effects are not modified by internalizing psychopathology. PMID:26086820

  6. Young Australian adults with NF1 have poor access to health care, high complication rates, and limited disease knowledge.

    PubMed

    Oates, Emily C; Payne, Jonathan M; Foster, Sheryl L; Clarke, Nigel F; North, Kathryn N

    2013-04-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a multisystem disease associated with a lifelong risk of debilitating and potentially life-limiting complications, however many adults with NF1 have no regular health surveillance. We interviewed and examined 17 young adults with NF1 between the ages of 25 and 33. Most had not been assessed for NF1-related complications within the previous 8 years, including patients with known serious vascular complications, for example, renal artery stenosis. Acute and/or chronic pain, particularly back and plexiform-related pain were common symptoms, and despite a significant impact on quality of life, was untreated in most instances. Symptom and examination-directed imaging revealed serious complications in 41% of the cohort. These included severe spinal cord compression (two cases), a highly SUV avid lesion suggestive of malignancy (one case), and a Juvenile Pilocytic Astrocytoma in a patient without any previous NF1-related complications. Few study participants had a good understanding of NF1, its associated risks and complications, and many had not sought appropriate medical advice as questions or problems arose. NF1-related cognitive deficits in some participants, and the lack of a clear source of expert medical advice for adults with NF1 likely contributed to poor health surveillance and management in this population. Overall, these findings suggest that many Australian adults with NF1 are at risk of serious and life-threatening medical complications, but are not accessing and receiving adequate health care. Access to multidisciplinary adult clinics that specialize in NF1 may address many of the unmet health needs of young adults with NF1.

  7. Psychological Distress and Drug Use Patterns of Young Adult Ecstasy Users: A Complementary Analysis of Australian Datasets.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Andrew; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Alati, Rosa; Legosz, Margot; Burns, Lucy; Kemp, Robert; Wells, Helene; Najman, Jake M

    2013-08-01

    We examine psychological distress (PD) in young adult Ecstasy users in relation to age of initiation and frequency of use of Ecstasy, cannabis, alcohol, and tobacco. Using two Australian community samples, we assess whether different sampling methods produce comparable estimates of these associations. The Natural History Study of Drug Use (NHSDU; N = 339) in 2009 used population sampling and the 2009 Ecstasy and Related Drug Reporting System (EDRS; N = 359) used purposive sampling. Participants, aged 19-23 years, were recurrent Ecstasy users. PD was assessed using Kessler 10 in the EDRS and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale in the NHSDU. In both samples, PD was associated with daily tobacco use and early drug initiation, but not frequent Ecstasy use. One-third smoke tobacco daily. Study limitations and implications are noted.

  8. Regional Differences in Correlates of Daily Walking among Middle Age and Older Australian Rural Adults: Implications for Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Dollman, James; Hull, Melissa; Lewis, Nicole; Carroll, Suzanne; Zarnowiecki, Dorota

    2016-01-08

    Rural Australians are less physically active than their metropolitan counterparts, and yet very little is known of the candidate intervention targets for promoting physical activity in rural populations. As rural regions are economically, socially and environmentally diverse, drivers of regular physical activity are likely to vary between regions. This study explored the region-specific correlates of daily walking among middle age and older adults in rural regions with contrasting dominant primary industries. Participants were recruited through print and electronic media, primary care settings and community organisations. Pedometers were worn by 153 adults for at least four days, including a weekend day. A questionnaire identified potential intra-personal, social and environmental correlates of physical activity, according to a social ecological framework. Regression modelling identified independent correlates of daily walking separately in the two study regions. In one region, there were independent correlates of walking from all levels of the social ecological framework. In the other region, significant correlates of daily walking were almost all demographic (age, education and marital status). Participants living alone were less likely to be physically active regardless of region. This study highlights the importance of considering region-specific factors when designing strategies for promoting regular walking among rural adults.

  9. Regional Differences in Correlates of Daily Walking among Middle Age and Older Australian Rural Adults: Implications for Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Dollman, James; Hull, Melissa; Lewis, Nicole; Carroll, Suzanne; Zarnowiecki, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Rural Australians are less physically active than their metropolitan counterparts, and yet very little is known of the candidate intervention targets for promoting physical activity in rural populations. As rural regions are economically, socially and environmentally diverse, drivers of regular physical activity are likely to vary between regions. This study explored the region-specific correlates of daily walking among middle age and older adults in rural regions with contrasting dominant primary industries. Participants were recruited through print and electronic media, primary care settings and community organisations. Pedometers were worn by 153 adults for at least four days, including a weekend day. A questionnaire identified potential intra-personal, social and environmental correlates of physical activity, according to a social ecological framework. Regression modelling identified independent correlates of daily walking separately in the two study regions. In one region, there were independent correlates of walking from all levels of the social ecological framework. In the other region, significant correlates of daily walking were almost all demographic (age, education and marital status). Participants living alone were less likely to be physically active regardless of region. This study highlights the importance of considering region-specific factors when designing strategies for promoting regular walking among rural adults. PMID:26761020

  10. The global financial crisis and psychological health in a sample of Australian older adults: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sargent-Cox, Kerry; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2011-10-01

    Economic stress and uncertainty is argued to increase older adults' vulnerability to physical health decline and mental distress. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of research that examines the relationship between a large historical economic event, such as the recent global financial crisis (GFC), and health outcomes for older adults. This study provides a unique opportunity to compare self-reported health status and psychological functioning (number of depression and anxiety symptoms) in 1973 older Australian adults (mean age of 66.58 years (SD = 1.5)) prior to the GFC (2005-2006), with their status four years later during the GFC period (2009-2010). Latent difference score models revealed a significant difference in depression and anxiety symptoms over the two measurement occasions, indicating poorer psychological functioning for those who reported an impact as a result of the economic slowdown. These effects were not explained by demographic or socio-economic factors. Interaction effects showed that those participants who were surveyed within the acute salience period of the GFC (April to September 2009) were significantly less likely to report poorer psychological health over time compared to those who were surveyed after September 2009. This interesting timing effect is discussed in terms of potential time-lags in the negative effects of economic stress on health outcomes, as well as the possible protective effects of social norms that may be created by a large scale economic crisis.

  11. A Revised Australian Dietary Guideline Index and Its Association with Key Sociodemographic Factors, Health Behaviors and Body Mass Index in Peri-Retirement Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Maree G.; Milte, Catherine M.; Crawford, David; McNaughton, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Guideline Index, a measure of diet quality, was updated to reflect the 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines. This paper describes the revision of the index (DGI-2013) and examines its use in older adults. The DGI-2013 consists of 13 components reflecting food-based daily intake recommendations of the Australian Dietary Guidelines. In this cross-sectional study, the DGI-2013 score was calculated using dietary data collected via an 111-item food frequency questionnaire and additional food-related behaviour questions. The DGI-2013 score was examined in Australian adults (aged 55–65 years; n = 1667 men; 1801 women) according to sociodemographics, health-related behaviours and BMI. Women scored higher than men on the total DGI-2013 and all components except for dairy. Those who were from a rural area (men only), working full-time (men only), with lower education, smoked, did not meet physical activity guidelines, and who had a higher BMI, scored lower on the DGI-2013, highlighting a group of older adults at risk of poor health. The DGI-2013 is a tool for assessing compliance with the Australian Dietary Guidelines. We demonstrated associations between diet quality and a range of participant characteristics, consistent with previous literature. This suggests that the DGI-2013 continues to demonstrate convergent validity, consistent with the original Dietary Guideline Index. PMID:26978399

  12. Cause of death and potentially avoidable deaths in Australian adults with intellectual disability using retrospective linked data

    PubMed Central

    Srasuebkul, Preeyaporn; Xu, Han; Howlett, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To investigate mortality and its causes in adults over the age of 20 years with intellectual disability (ID). Design, setting and participants Retrospective population-based standardised mortality of the ID and Comparison cohorts. The ID cohort comprised 42 204 individuals who registered for disability services with ID as a primary or secondary diagnosis from 2005 to 2011 in New South Wales (NSW). The Comparison cohort was obtained from published deaths in NSW from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) from 2005 to 2011. Main outcome measures We measured and compared Age Standardised Mortality Rate (ASMR), Comparative Mortality Figure (CMF), years of productive life lost (YPLL) and proportion of deaths with potentially avoidable causes in an ID cohort with an NSW general population cohort. Results There were 19 362 adults in the ID cohort which experienced 732 (4%) deaths at a median age of 54 years. Age Standardised Mortality Rates increased with age for both cohorts. Overall comparative mortality figure was 1.3, but was substantially higher for the 20–44 (4.0) and 45–64 (2.3) age groups. YPLL was 137/1000 people in the ID cohort and 49 in the comparison cohort. Cause of death in ID cohort was dominated by respiratory, circulatory, neoplasm and nervous system. After recoding deaths previously attributed to the aetiology of the disability, 38% of deaths in the ID cohort and 17% in the comparison cohort were potentially avoidable. Conclusions Adults with ID experience premature mortality and over-representation of potentially avoidable deaths. A national system of reporting of deaths in adults with ID is required. Inclusion in health policy and services development and in health promotion programmes is urgently required to address premature deaths and health inequalities for adults with ID. PMID:28179413

  13. The Charles Perkins Centre's Twins Research Node.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lucas C; Craig, Jeffrey M; Hopper, John L; Carrick, Susan E

    2016-08-01

    Twins can help researchers disentangle the roles of genes from those of the environment on human traits, health, and diseases. To realize this potential, the Australian Twin Registry (ATR), University of Melbourne, and the Charles Perkins Centre (CPC), University of Sydney, established a collaboration to form the Twins Research Node, a highly interconnected research facility dedicated specifically to research involving twins. This collaboration aims to foster the adoption of twin designs as important tools for research in a range of health-related domains. The CPC hosted their Twins Research Node's launch seminar entitled 'Double the power of your research with twin studies', in which experienced twin researchers described how twin studies are supporting scientific discoveries and careers. The launch also featured twin pairs who have actively participated in research through the ATR. Researchers at the CPC were surveyed before the event to gauge their level of understanding and interest in utilizing twin research. This article describes the new Twins Research Node, discusses the survey's main results and reports on the launch seminar.

  14. The co-occurrence of autistic and ADHD dimensions in adults: an etiological study in 17,770 twins.

    PubMed

    Polderman, T J C; Hoekstra, R A; Posthuma, D; Larsson, H

    2014-09-02

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often occur together. To obtain more insight in potential causes for the co-occurrence, this study examined the genetic and environmental etiology of the association between specific ASD and ADHD disorder dimensions. Self-reported data on ASD dimensions social and communication difficulties (ASDsc), and repetitive and restricted behavior and interests (ASDr), and ADHD dimensions inattention (IA), and hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) were assessed in a community sample of 17,770 adult Swedish twins. Phenotypic, genetic and environmental associations between disorder dimensions were examined in a multivariate model, accounting for sex differences. ASDr showed the strongest associations with IA and HI in both sexes (r(p) 0.33 to 0.40). ASDsc also correlated moderately with IA (females r(p) 0.29 and males r(p) 0.35) but only modestly with HI (females r(p) 0.17 and males r(p) 0.20). Genetic correlations ranged from 0.22 to 0.64 and were strongest between ASDr and IA and HI. Sex differences were virtually absent. The ASDr dimension (reflecting restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities) showed the strongest association with dimensions of ADHD, on a phenotypic, genetic and environmental level. This study opens new avenues for molecular genetic research. As our findings demonstrated that genetic overlap between disorders is dimension-specific, future gene-finding studies on psychiatric comorbidity should focus on carefully selected genetically related dimensions of disorders.

  15. The mediating effect of parental neglect on adolescent and young adult anti-sociality: a longitudinal study of twins and their parents.

    PubMed

    Eaves, Lindon J; Prom, Elizabeth C; Silberg, Judy L

    2010-07-01

    The causes of correlation between parental treatment and offspring behavior are ambiguous since genetic and social factors are correlated in typical family studies. The problem is complicated by the need to characterize the effects of genes and environment on both juvenile and adult behavioral outcomes. A model is developed for the resemblance between juvenile and adult twins and their parents that allows some of these effects to be resolved. Data on childhood adversity, parental anti-social behavior, and longitudinal adult and juvenile anti-social behavior were obtained from 1,412 families of adolescent and young adult twins. A structural model is fitted that allows for the effects of genetic and social transmission of information from parents to children. Environmental effects of parents may be mediated through measured features of the home environment. Parameters were estimated by diagonal weighted least squares applied to the 33 distinct polychoric correlations between relatives and between variables within and between ages. Sub-hypotheses were tested. Results confirmed that effects of genes and environment were both highly significant. Genetic effects were large in juveniles and largely age and sex-specific. Approximately 30% of the variation due to the shared environment was due to the effect of childhood adversity. The remaining shared environmental effects are unexplained. Adversity is affected significantly by maternal anti-social behavior. The correlation between paternal ASP and adversity may be explained by antisocial fathers selecting (or creating) antisocial mothers. All significant environmental effects of parental ASP are mediated through the measure of adversity. Though transmission of ASP is both genetic and social, passive genotype-environment correlation is very small. Assortative mating for ASP has barely detectable consequence for the genetic correlation between siblings. The longitudinal study of twins and their parents makes it possible to

  16. A qualitative study of the determinants of dieting and non-dieting approaches in overweight/obese Australian adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dieting has historically been the main behavioural treatment paradigm for overweight/obesity, although a non-dieting paradigm has more recently emerged based on the criticisms of the original dieting approach. There is a dearth of research contrasting why these approaches are adopted. To address this, we conducted a qualitative investigation into the determinants of dieting and non-dieting approaches based on the perspectives and experiences of overweight/obese Australian adults. Methods Grounded theory was used inductively to generate a model of themes contrasting the determinants of dieting and non-dieting approaches based on the perspectives of 21 overweight/obese adults. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews to elicit in-depth individual experiences and perspectives. Results Several categories emerged which distinguished between the adoption of a dieting or non-dieting approach. These categories included the focus of each approach (weight/image or lifestyle/health behaviours); internal or external attributions about dieting failure; attitudes towards established diets, and personal autonomy. Personal autonomy was also influenced by another category; the perceived knowledge and self-efficacy about each approach, with adults more likely to choose an approach they knew more about and were confident in implementing. The time perspective of change (short or long-term) and the perceived identity of the person (fat/dieter or healthy person) also emerged as determinants of dieting or non-dieting approaches respectively. Conclusions The model of determinants elicited from this study assists in understanding why dieting and non-dieting approaches are adopted, from the perspectives and experiences of overweight/obese adults. Understanding this decision-making process can assist clinicians and public health researchers to design and tailor dieting and non-dieting interventions to population subgroups that have preferences and characteristics

  17. Learning to Be Drier: A Case Study of Adult and Community Learning in the Australian Riverland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mike; Schulz, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the adult and community learning associated with "learning to be drier" in the Riverland region of South Australia. Communities in the Riverland are currently adjusting and making changes to their understandings and practices as part of learning to live with less water. The analysis of adult and community learning…

  18. Is a history of school bullying victimization associated with adult suicidal ideation?: a South Australian population-based observational study.

    PubMed

    Roeger, Leigh; Allison, Stephen; Korossy-Horwood, Rebecca; Eckert, Kerena A; Goldney, Robert D

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this research was to determine whether a history of school bullying victimization is associated with suicidal ideation in adult life. A random and representative sample of 2907 South Australian adults was surveyed in Autumn, 2008. Respondents were asked "When you were at school, did you experience traumatic bullying by peers that was particularly severe, for example, being frequently targeted or routinely harassed in any way by 'bullies'?" Depression was determined by the mood module of the PRIME-MD which includes a suicidal ideation question; "In the last 2 weeks, have you had thoughts that you would be better off dead or hurting yourself in some way?" The overall prevalence of suicidal ideation in postschool age respondents was 3.4% (95% confidence interval: 2.8%-4.2%) in 2008. Bullying by peers was recalled by 18.7% (17.2%-20.3%). Respondents with a history of being bullied were approximately 3 times (odds ratio: 3.2) more likely to report suicidal ideation compared with those who did not. The association between being bullied and suicidal ideation remained after controlling for both depression and sociodemographic variables (odds ratio: 2.1). The results from the present research suggest that there is a strong association between a history of childhood bullying victimization and current suicidal ideation that persists across all ages. Bullying prevention programs in schools could hold the potential for longer lasting benefits in this important area of public health.

  19. Associations between religiosity and sexuality in a representative sample of Australian adults.

    PubMed

    de Visser, Richard O; Smith, Anthony M A; Richters, Juliet; Rissel, Chris E

    2007-02-01

    Many studies have examined the influence on sexual attitudes and behavior of religious belief (i.e., religious denomination) or religiosity (e.g., attendance at services, subjective importance of religion). However, few studies have examined the combined effects of religion and religiosity on sexual attitudes and behavior. This study examined such effects in a representative sample of 19,307 Australians aged 16-59 years (response rate, 73.1%). The study compared members of four religious groups (Protestant, Catholic, Buddhist, Muslim) and two levels of frequency of attendance at religious service (less than monthly, at least monthly). Religious participants were compared to their non-religious peers in analyses adjusted for potential confounding by demographic variables. The outcomes were five sexual behaviors and five corresponding measures of sexual attitudes. The study revealed inconsistent patterns of association between religion/religiosity and a range of sexual behaviors and attitudes. In general, greater attendance at religious services was associated with more conservative patterns of behavior and attitudes. However, religious people who attended services infrequently were more similar to their non-religious peers than their more religious peers. The results of this study highlight the importance of considering not only religion or religiosity, but the intersection between these two variables.

  20. Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001595.htm Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome is a rare condition ...

  1. Research That Counts: OECD Statistics and "Policy Entrepreneurs" Impacting on Australian Adult Literacy and Numeracy Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Stephen; Yasukawa, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses research that has impacted on Australia's most recent national policy document on adult literacy and numeracy, the National Foundation Skills Strategy (NFSS). The paper draws in part on Lingard's 2013 paper, "The impact of research on education policy in an era of evidence-based policy", in which he outlines the…

  2. Becoming an Australian Citizen: Some Dimensions of Assessing a Citizenship-Type Literacy amongst Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasou, James A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates a 20-item assessment of citizenship literacy in an adult sample comprising 179 persons of English-speaking and non-English speaking background. The results indicated that the assessment was internally consistent and that as expected it distinguished English-speaking from non-English speaking participants. The pattern of…

  3. Quality of life of Australian chronically-ill adults: patient and practice characteristics matter

    PubMed Central

    Jayasinghe, Upali W; Proudfoot, Judith; Barton, Christopher A; Amoroso, Cheryl; Holton, Chris; Davies, Gawaine Powell; Beilby, Justin; Harris, Mark F

    2009-01-01

    Background To study health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a large sample of Australian chronically-ill patients and investigate the impact of characteristics of patients and their general practices on their HRQOL and to assess the construct validity of SF-12 in Australia. Methods Cross sectional study with 96 general practices and 7606 chronically-ill patients aged 18 years or more using standard SF-12 version 2. Factor analysis was used to confirm the hypothesized component structure of the SF-12 items. SF-12 physical component score (PCS-12) and mental component score (MCS-12) were derived using the standard US algorithm. Multilevel regression analysis (patients at level 1 and practices at level 2) was applied to relate PCS-12 and MCS-12 to patient and practice characteristics. Results There were significant associations between lower PCS-12 or MCS-12 score and poorer general health (10.8 (regression coefficient) lower for PCS-12 and 7.3 lower for MCS-12), low socio-economic status (5.1 lower PCS-12 and 2.9 lower MCS-12 for unemployed, 0.8 lower PCS-12 and 1.7 lower MCS-12 for non-owner-occupiers, 1.0 lower PCS-12 for less well-educated) and having two or more chronic conditions (up to 2.7 lower PCS-12 and up to 1.5 lower MCS-12 than those having a single disease). Younger age was associated with lower MCS-12 (2.2 and 6.0 lower than middle age and older age respectively) but higher PCS-12 (4.7 and 7.6 higher than middle age and older age respectively). Satisfaction with quality of care (regression coefficient = 1.2) and patients who were married or cohabiting (regression coefficient = 0.6) was positively associated with MCS-12. Patients born in non-English-speaking countries were more likely to have a lower MCS-12 (1.5 lower) than those born in Australia. Employment had a stronger association with the quality of life of males than that of females. Those attending smaller practices had lower PCS-12 (1.0 lower) and MCS-12 (0.6 lower) than those attending larger

  4. Influenza epidemiology in adults admitted to sentinel Australian hospitals in 2014: the Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Allen C; Holmes, Mark; Senenayake, Sanjaya; Dwyer, Dominic E; Hewagama, Saliya; Korman, Tony; Irving, Louis; Brown, Simon; Waterer, Grant; Hunter, Cameron; Friedman, N Deborah; Wark, Peter; Simpson, Graham; Upman, John; Bowler, Simon; Macartney, Kristine; Blyth, Christopher; Kotsimbos, Tom; Kelly, Paul

    2015-09-30

    The Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN) is a sentinel hospital-based surveillance program that operates at sites in all states and territories in Australia. This report summarises the epidemiology of hospitalisations with laboratory-confirmed influenza during the 2014 influenza season. In this observational study, cases were defined as patients admitted to one of the sentinel hospitals with an acute respiratory illness with influenza confirmed by nucleic acid detection. During the period 3 April to 31 October 2014 (the 2014 influenza season), 1,692 adult patients (>16 years) were admitted with confirmed influenza to one of 15 of 17 FluCAN sentinel hospitals (excluding 2 paediatric hospitals). Of these, 47% were over 65 years of age, 10% were Indigenous Australians, 3.3% were pregnant and 85% had chronic co-morbidities. The majority of cases were due to influenza A. Influenza B was detected in 7% of patients. There were a large number of hospital admissions detected with confirmed influenza in this national observational surveillance system in 2014. These are estimated to represent a national annual burden of around 15,000 admissions and almost 100,000 bed-days nationally.

  5. Adolescent predictors of young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization among Australian youth

    PubMed Central

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current paper was to examine the adolescent risk and protective factors (at the individual, peer group, and family level) for young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. Methods Data from 2006 (Grade 9) to 2010 (young adulthood) were analyzed from a community sample of 927 Victorian students originally recruited as a state-wide representative sample in Grade 5 (age 10–11 years) in 2002 and followed up to age 18–19 years in 2010 (N = 809). Participants completed a self-report survey on adolescent risk and protective factors and traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, and young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. Results As young adults, 5.1% self-reported cyber-bullying perpetration only, 5.0% cyber-bullying victimization only, and 9.5% reported both cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. In fully adjusted logistic regression analyses, the adolescent predictors of cyber-bullying perpetration only were traditional bullying perpetration, traditional bullying perpetration and victimization, and poor family management. For young adulthood cyber-bullying victimization only, the adolescent predictor was emotion control. The adolescent predictors for young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization were traditional bullying perpetration and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, possible targets for prevention and early intervention are reducing adolescent involvement in (traditional or cyber-) bullying through the development of social skills and conflict resolution skills. In addition, another important prevention target is to support families with adolescents to ensure they set clear rules and monitor adolescent’s behavior. Universal programs that assist adolescents to develop skills in emotion control are warranted. PMID:24939014

  6. CICADA: Cough in Children and Adults: Diagnosis and Assessment. Australian cough guidelines summary statement.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Peter G; Chang, Anne B; Glasgow, Nicholas J; Holmes, Peter W; Katelaris, Peter; Kemp, Andrew S; Landau, Louis I; Mazzone, Stuart; Newcombe, Peter; Van Asperen, Peter; Vertigan, Anne E

    2010-03-01

    Cough is a common and distressing symptom that results in significant health care costs from medical consultations and medication use. Cough is a reflex activity with elements of voluntary control that forms part of the somatosensory system involving visceral sensation, a reflex motor response and associated behavioural responses. At the initial assessment for chronic cough, the clinician should elicit any alarm symptoms that might indicate a serious underlying disease and identify whether there is a specific disease present that is associated with chronic cough. If the examination, chest x-ray and spirometry are normal, the most common diagnoses in ADULTS are asthma, rhinitis or gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). The most common diagnoses in CHILDREN are asthma and protracted bronchitis. Management of chronic cough involves addressing the common issues of environmental exposures and patient or parental concerns, then instituting specific therapy. In ADULTS, conditions that are associated with removable causes or respond well to specific treatment include protracted bacterial bronchitis, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use, asthma, GORD, obstructive sleep apnoea and eosinophilic bronchitis. In CHILDREN, diagnoses that are associated with removable causes or respond well to treatment are exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, protracted bronchitis, asthma, motor tic, habit and psychogenic cough. In ADULTS, refractory cough that persists after therapy is managed by empirical inhaled corticosteroid therapy and speech pathology techniques.

  7. Role of Dietary Pattern Analysis in Determining Cognitive Status in Elderly Australian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ashby-Mitchell, Kimberly; Peeters, Anna; Anstey, Kaarin J.

    2015-01-01

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to determine the association between dietary patterns and cognitive function and to examine how classification systems based on food groups and food items affect levels of association between diet and cognitive function. The present study focuses on the older segment of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab) sample (age 60+) that completed the food frequency questionnaire at Wave 1 (1999/2000) and the mini-mental state examination and tests of memory, verbal ability and processing speed at Wave 3 (2012). Three methods were used in order to classify these foods before applying PCA. In the first instance, the 101 individual food items asked about in the questionnaire were used (no categorisation). In the second and third instances, foods were combined and reduced to 32 and 20 food groups, respectively, based on nutrient content and culinary usage—a method employed in several other published studies for PCA. Logistic regression analysis and generalized linear modelling was used to analyse the relationship between PCA-derived dietary patterns and cognitive outcome. Broader food group classifications resulted in a greater proportion of food use variance in the sample being explained (use of 101 individual foods explained 23.22% of total food use, while use of 32 and 20 food groups explained 29.74% and 30.74% of total variance in food use in the sample, respectively). Three dietary patterns were found to be associated with decreased odds of cognitive impairment (CI). Dietary patterns derived from 101 individual food items showed that for every one unit increase in ((Fruit and Vegetable Pattern: p = 0.030, OR 1.061, confidence interval: 1.006–1.118); (Fish, Legumes and Vegetable Pattern: p = 0.040, OR 1.032, confidence interval: 1.001–1.064); (Dairy, Cereal and Eggs Pattern: p = 0.003, OR 1.020, confidence interval: 1.007–1.033)), the odds of cognitive impairment decreased. Different results were

  8. Acoustic Properties Predict Perception of Unfamiliar Dutch Vowels by Adult Australian English and Peruvian Spanish Listeners

    PubMed Central

    Alispahic, Samra; Mulak, Karen E.; Escudero, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that the size of the second language (L2) vowel inventory relative to the native (L1) inventory may affect the discrimination and acquisition of L2 vowels. Models of non-native and L2 vowel perception stipulate that naïve listeners' non-native and L2 perceptual patterns may be predicted by the relationship in vowel inventory size between the L1 and the L2. Specifically, having a smaller L1 vowel inventory than the L2 impedes L2 vowel perception, while having a larger one often facilitates it. However, the Second Language Linguistic Perception (L2LP) model specifies that it is the L1–L2 acoustic relationships that predict non-native and L2 vowel perception, regardless of L1 vowel inventory. To test the effects of vowel inventory size vs. acoustic properties on non-native vowel perception, we compared XAB discrimination and categorization of five Dutch vowel contrasts between monolinguals whose L1 contains more (Australian English) or fewer (Peruvian Spanish) vowels than Dutch. No effect of language background was found, suggesting that L1 inventory size alone did not account for performance. Instead, participants in both language groups were more accurate in discriminating contrasts that were predicted to be perceptually easy based on L1–L2 acoustic relationships, and were less accurate for contrasts likewise predicted to be difficult. Further, cross-language discriminant analyses predicted listeners' categorization patterns which in turn predicted listeners' discrimination difficulty. Our results show that listeners with larger vowel inventories appear to activate multiple native categories as reflected in lower accuracy scores for some Dutch vowels, while listeners with a smaller vowel inventory seem to have higher accuracy scores for those same vowels. In line with the L2LP model, these findings demonstrate that L1–L2 acoustic relationships better predict non-native and L2 perceptual performance and that inventory size alone is not a good

  9. The contributions of solar ultraviolet radiation exposure and other determinants to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in Australian adults: the AusD Study.

    PubMed

    Kimlin, Michael G; Lucas, Robyn M; Harrison, Simone L; van der Mei, Ingrid; Armstrong, Bruce K; Whiteman, David C; Kricker, Anne; Nowak, Madeleine; Brodie, Alison M; Sun, Jiandong

    2014-04-01

    The Quantitative Assessment of Solar UV [ultraviolet] Exposure for Vitamin D Synthesis in Australian Adults (AusD) Study aimed to better define the relationship between sun exposure and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration. Cross-sectional data were collected between May 2009 and December 2010 from 1,002 participants aged 18-75 years in 4 Australian sites spanning 24° of latitude. Participants completed the following: 1) questionnaires on sun exposure, dietary vitamin D intake, and vitamin D supplementation; 2) 10 days of personal ultraviolet radiation dosimetry; 3) a sun exposure and physical activity diary; and 4) clinical measurements and blood collection for 25(OH)D determination. Our multiple regression model described 40% of the variance in 25(OH)D concentration; modifiable behavioral factors contributed 52% of the explained variance, and environmental and demographic or constitutional variables contributed 38% and 10%, respectively. The amount of skin exposed was the single strongest contributor to the explained variance (27%), followed by location (20%), season (17%), personal ultraviolet radiation exposure (8%), vitamin D supplementation (7%), body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) (4%), and physical activity (4%). Modifiable behavioral factors strongly influence serum 25(OH)D concentrations in Australian adults. In addition, latitude was a strong determinant of the relative contribution of different behavioral factors.

  10. Evidence for a genetic overlap between body dysmorphic concerns and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in an adult female community twin sample.

    PubMed

    Monzani, Benedetta; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Iervolino, Alessandra C; Anson, Martin; Cherkas, Lynn; Mataix-Cols, David

    2012-06-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is thought to be etiologically related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but the available evidence is incomplete. The current study examined the genetic and environmental sources of covariance between body dysmorphic and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in a community sample of adult twins. A total of 2,148 female twins (1,074 pairs) completed valid and reliable measures of body dysmorphic concerns and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The data were analyzed using bivariate twin modeling methods and the statistical programme Mx. In the best-fitting model, the covariation between body dysmorphic and obsessive-compulsive traits was largely accounted for by genetic influences common to both phenotypes (64%; 95% CI: 0.50-0.80). This genetic overlap was even higher when specific obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions were considered, with up to 82% of the phenotypic correlation between the obsessing and symmetry/ordering symptom dimensions and dysmorphic concerns being attributable to common genetic factors. Unique environmental factors, although influencing these traits individually, did not substantially contribute to their covariation. The results remained unchanged when excluding individuals reporting an objective medical condition/injury accounting for their concern in physical appearance. The association between body dysmorphic concerns and obsessive-compulsive symptoms is largely explained by shared genetic factors. Environmental risk factors were largely unique to each phenotype. These results support current recommendations to group BDD together with OCD in the same DSM-5 chapter, although comparison with other phenotypes such as somatoform disorders and social phobia is needed.

  11. Healthcare Resource Utilisation Associated with Herpes Zoster in a Prospective Cohort of Older Australian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Surendra; Newall, Anthony T.; MacIntyre, C. Raina; Heywood, Anita E.; McIntyre, Peter; Banks, Emily; Liu, Bette

    2016-01-01

    Background Herpes zoster (HZ) is a common condition that increases in incidence with older age but vaccines are available to prevent the disease. However, there are limited data estimating the health system burden attributable to herpes zoster by age. Methods In this study, we quantified excess healthcare resource usage associated with HZ during the acute/sub-acute period of disease (21days before to 90 days after onset) in 5952 cases and an equal number of controls matched on age, sex, and prior healthcare resource usage. Estimates were adjusted for potential confounders in multivariable regression models. Using population-based estimates of HZ incidence, we calculated the age-specific excess number of health service usage events attributable to HZ in the population. Results Per HZ case, there was an average of 0.06 (95% CI 0.04–0.08) excess hospitalisations, 1.61 (95% CI 1.51–1.69) excess general practitioner visits, 1.96 (95% CI 1.86–2.15) excess prescriptions filled and 0.11 (95% CI 0.09–0.13) excess emergency department visits. The average number of healthcare resource use events, and the estimated excess per 100,000 population increased with increasing age but were similar for men and women, except for higher rates of hospitalisation in men. The excess annual HZ associated burden of hospitalisations was highest in adults ≥80 years (N = 2244, 95%CI 1719–2767); GP visits was highest in those 60–69 years (N = 50567, 95%CI 39958–61105), prescriptions and ED visits were highest in 70–79 years (N = 50524, 95%CI 40634–60471 and N = 2891, 95%CI 2319–3449 respectively). Conclusions This study provides important data to establish the healthcare utilisation associated with HZ against which detailed cost-effectiveness analyses of HZ immunisation in older adults can be conducted. PMID:27483007

  12. Vitamin D status: multifactorial contribution of environment, genes and other factors in healthy Australian adults across a latitude gradient.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Robyn M; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Dear, Keith; Valery, Patricia C; Taylor, Bruce; van der Mei, Ingrid; McMichael, Anthony J; Pender, Michael P; Chapman, Caron; Coulthard, Alan; Kilpatrick, Trevor J; Stankovich, Jim; Williams, David; Dwyer, Terence

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common and implicated in risk of several human diseases. Evidence on the relative quantitative contribution of environmental, genetic and phenotypic factors to vitamin D status (assessed by the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)D) in free-living populations is sparse. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 494 Caucasian adults aged 18-61years, randomly selected from the Australian Electoral Roll according to groups defined by age, sex and region (spanning 27°-43°South). Data collected included personal characteristics, sun exposure behaviour, biomarkers of skin type and past sun exposure, serum 25(OH)D concentration and candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms. Ambient ultraviolet radiation (UVR) levels in the month six weeks before blood sampling best predicted vitamin D status. Serum 25(OH)D concentration increased by 10nmol/L as reported time in the sun doubled. Overall, 54% of the variation in serum 25(OH)D concentration could be accounted for: 36% of the variation was explained by sun exposure-related factors; 14% by genetic factors (including epistasis) and 3.5% by direct measures of skin phenotype. Novel findings from this study are demonstration of gene epistasis, and quantification of the relative contribution of a wide range of environmental, constitutional and genetic factors to vitamin D status. Ambient UVR levels and time in the sun were of prime importance but it is nonetheless important to include the contribution of genetic factors when considering sun exposure effects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'.

  13. Plasma omega-3 and omega-6 concentrations and risk of cutaneous basal and squamous cell carcinomas in Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Wallingford, Sarah C; Hughes, Maria Celia; Green, Adèle C; van der Pols, Jolieke C

    2013-10-01

    Laboratory-based evidence suggests that omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids may affect skin photocarcinogenesis, but epidemiologic evidence is inconsistent. In 1,191 White Australian adults, we prospectively investigated associations between baseline plasma concentrations of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and cutaneous basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated on the basis of number of histologically confirmed tumors diagnosed during follow-up (1997-2007). Plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentrations and omega-3/-6 ratio showed significant inverse associations with SCC tumors, comparing higher tertiles with the lowest, in age- and sex-adjusted models (Ptrend = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively) which weakened after adjustment for past sun exposure. Associations between EPA and SCC were stronger among participants with a history of skin cancer at baseline (n = 378; highest vs. lowest tertile: RR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.28-0.92; Ptrend = 0.01). Total omega-6 was inversely associated with BCC tumors in multivariate models (P = 0.04; highest vs. lowest tertile: RR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51-0.99), and more strongly in the subgroup with past skin cancer. Linoleic and linolenic acids were also inversely associated with BCC occurrence in this subgroup. When fatty acids were analyzed as continuous variables, however, there was no evidence of any linear or nonlinear associations. This study provides some support for reduced skin cancer risk with high plasma concentrations of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, but results depended on how fatty acid data were modeled. Further investigation of these associations in larger datasets is needed.

  14. Comparison of body fat estimation using waist:height ratio using different 'waist' measurements in Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Masaharu; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P

    2008-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine differences in predicting total and regional adiposity using the waist:height ratio (WHtR) calculated using different 'waist' measurements. Body composition of ninety-five males and 121 female Australian adults (aged 20 years and above) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The WHtR was calculated using: (1) the narrowest point between the lower costal border and the top of the iliac crest (WHtR-W), and (2) at the level of the umbilicus (WHtR-A). Relationships between calculated WHtR and measured body composition, such as percentage body fat (%BF) and percentage trunk fat (%TF) were determined. Values obtained from WHtR-A were significantly greater than WHtR-W in both groups (P < 0.05). While no correlation differences between WHtR-W and WHtR-A in relation to body composition variables were observed, females showed significantly lower correlation with lean mass compared with BMI. Regression analyses showed that neither WHtR had an age influence on %TF estimation. Estimated %BF and %TF were comparable for both WHtR and also with estimated values using a BMI of 25 kg/m2. Sensitivity of excess %BF and %TF increased by using WHtR-A, particularly in females. In conclusion, the umbilicus measurement may be better than using the narrowest site in the WHtR calculation, particularly in females. To improve the screening ability of the WHtR and make comparisons between studies easier there may be a need to standardise the measurement location. Further studies are recommended to confirm the findings across different ethnic groups.

  15. Conjoined Twins

    MedlinePlus

    ... each other. Conjoined twins develop when an early embryo only partially separates to form two individuals. Although two fetuses will develop from this embryo, they will remain physically connected — most often at ...

  16. Sun exposure over a lifetime in Australian adults from latitudinally diverse regions.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Robyn M; Valery, Patricia; van der Mei, Ingrid; Dwyer, Terence; Pender, Michael P; Taylor, Bruce; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise

    2013-01-01

    Spatio-temporal patterns in sun exposure underlie variations in skin cancer incidence and vitamin D deficiency, indicate effectiveness of sun protection programs and provide insights into future health risks. From 558 adults across four regions of Australia (Brisbane (27°S), Newcastle (33°S), Geelong and the Western Districts of Victoria (37°S) and Tasmania (43°S)), we collected: self-report data on time-in-the-sun from age 6 years; natural skin color and ethnicity; silicone skin casts (for cumulative skin damage); and serum for vitamin D status. Ambient ultraviolet radiation (UVR) at the location of residence, with time-in-the-sun, was used to calculate a "UVR dose" for each year of life. Individuals maintained their ranking compared to their peers for time-in-the-sun in summer compared to winter and across ages (Spearman rho 0.24-0.84, all P < 0.001). Time-in-the-sun decreased with age in all birth cohorts, and over calendar time. Summer time-in-the-sun increased with increasing latitude (P < 0.001). Seasonal variation in vitamin D status had greater amplitude and vitamin D deficiency increased with increasing latitude. Temporal patterns are consistent with effectiveness of sun protection programs. Higher relative time-in-the-sun persists from childhood through adulthood. Lower summer time-in-the-sun in the warmest location may have implications for predictions of UVR-related health risks of climate change.

  17. The role of art education in adult prisons: The Western Australian experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, Margaret; Paris, Lisa; Whale, Jacqui

    2016-12-01

    Incarceration costs are high; in Australia, for example, each prisoner costs an average of AUD 115,000 per year. Other countries are also feeling the fiscal pinch of high incarceration costs, and a number of jurisdictions are now closing some of their prisons. Most prison costs are non-discretionary (accommodation, meals, etc.). But some of the costs relate to discretionary activities, services and facilities (including schooling). In terms of correctional education, many prison managers try to invest any meagre correctional education resources available to them in those classes and courses which have proven to have the best results, such as improved labour market outcomes and reduced recidivism, minimising subsequent re-imprisonment. Course offers for prisoner-students include vocational training, adult basic education (ABE) and art studies. The two-tiered question this paper asks is: do art classes and courses produce these measurable outcomes and, if not, are there other reasons why they should continue to be funded? Addressing these issues, the authors argue that (1) these measurable outcomes are too narrow and do not reflect the complex but less quantifiable benefits to the individual and the community of studying art in prison, and (2) better measures of all impacts of art studies in prisons are needed, including qualitative and humanitarian aspects.

  18. Heritability of body height and educational attainment in an international context: comparison of adult twins in Minnesota and Finland.

    PubMed

    Silventoinen, Karri; Krueger, Robert F; Bouchard, Thomas J; Kaprio, Jaakko; McGue, Matt

    2004-01-01

    We studied the effect of genetic and environmental factors on the association between self-reported height and education in Minnesota and Finland. Our data included 1,598 twin pairs in Minnesota and 5,454 twin pairs in Finland born between 1936 and 1955. Correlations between education and height were found in Minnesota (r = 0.09 in men and 0.11 in women) and in Finland (r = 0.17 and 0.14, respectively) after adjustment for age. This trait correlation was mainly because of the correlation between shared environmental factors in Minnesota (r(C) = 0.38 and 0.36, respectively) and in Finland (r(C) = 0.74 and 0.37, respectively). An unshared environmental correlation was found only in Finland (r(E) = 0.13 and 0.06, respectively). Our results indicate that the association between body height and education is overwhelmingly due to the correlation of the shared environmental factors affecting these two traits. The differences between Minnesota and Finland are possibly associated with average higher education in Minnesota, which decreases the effect of the childhood environment on education, seen as a weaker correlation between height and education. Nonfamilial factors affecting education are possibly different in Minnesota than in Finland, since in Finland they are partly associated with the factors affecting height.

  19. Managing Monoamniotic Twin Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Post, Annalisa; Heyborne, Kent

    2015-09-01

    Monoamniotic twins comprise a rare but important subset of twins at risk of unique and serious complications, placing them at the highest risk of perinatal mortality of all twin gestations. In addition to risks faced by all twins (prematurity, selective growth restriction), all monochorionic twins (twin-twin transfusion syndrome), and all monozygotic twins (congenital anomalies), monoamniotic twins face the unique risk of cord entanglement. Accordingly, early diagnosis, screening for fetal anomalies, surveillance for twin-twin transfusion syndrome, decisions related to monitoring after viability, and timing and route of delivery are all critical. Herein, we present recommendations for optimal management.

  20. Is That Me or My Twin? Lack of Self-Face Recognition Advantage in Identical Twins

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Matteo; Bufalari, Ilaria; Stazi, Maria Antonietta; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing interest in twin studies and the stunning amount of research on face recognition, the ability of adult identical twins to discriminate their own faces from those of their co-twins has been scarcely investigated. One’s own face is the most distinctive feature of the bodily self, and people typically show a clear advantage in recognizing their own face even more than other very familiar identities. Given the very high level of resemblance of their faces, monozygotic twins represent a unique model for exploring self-face processing. Herein we examined the ability of monozygotic twins to distinguish their own face from the face of their co-twin and of a highly familiar individual. Results show that twins equally recognize their own face and their twin’s face. This lack of self-face advantage was negatively predicted by how much they felt physically similar to their co-twin and by their anxious or avoidant attachment style. We speculate that in monozygotic twins, the visual representation of the self-face overlaps with that of the co-twin. Thus, to distinguish the self from the co-twin, monozygotic twins have to rely much more than control participants on the multisensory integration processes upon which the sense of bodily self is based. Moreover, in keeping with the notion that attachment style influences perception of self and significant others, we propose that the observed self/co-twin confusion may depend upon insecure attachment. PMID:25853249

  1. Socioeconomic factors explain suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected Australian adults with viral suppression

    PubMed Central

    Siefried, Krista J.; Mao, Limin; Kerr, Stephen; Cysique, Lucette A.; Gates, Thomas M.; McAllister, John; Maynard, Anthony; de Wit, John; Carr, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Background Missing more than one tablet of contemporary antiretroviral therapy (ART) per month increases the risk of virological failure. Recent studies evaluating a comprehensive range of potential risk factors for suboptimal adherence are not available for high-income settings. Methods Adults on ART with undetectable viral load (UDVL) were recruited into a national, multi-centre cohort, completing a comprehensive survey assessing demographics, socio-economic indicators, physical health, well-being, life stressors, social supports, HIV disclosure, HIV-related stigma and discrimination, healthcare access, ART regimen, adherence, side effects, costs and treatment beliefs. Baseline data were assessed, and suboptimal adherence was defined as self-reported missing ≥1 ART dose/month over the previous 3-months; associated factors were identified using bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regression. Results We assessed 522 participants (494 [94.5%] men, mean age = 50.8 years, median duration UDVL = 3.3 years [IQR = 1.2–6.8]) at 17 sexual health, hospital, and general practice clinics across Australia. Seventy-eight participants (14.9%) reported missing ≥1 dose/month over the previous three months, which was independently associated with: being Australian-born (AOR [adjusted odds ratio] = 2.4 [95%CI = 1.2–4.9], p = 0.014), not being in a relationship (AOR = 3.3 [95%CI = 1.5–7.3], p = 0.004), reaching the “Medicare safety net” (capping annual medical/pharmaceutical costs) (AOR = 2.2 [95%CI = 1.1–4.5], p = 0.024), living in subsidised housing (AOR = 2.5 [95%CI = 1.0–6.2], p = 0.045), receiving home-care services (AOR = 4.4 [95%CI = 1.0–18.8], p = 0.046), HIV community/outreach services linkage (AOR = 2.4 [95%CI = 1.1–5.4], p = 0.033), and starting ART following self-request (AOR = 3.0 [95%CI = 1.3–7.0], p = 0.012). Conclusions In this population, 15% reported recent suboptimal ART adherence at levels associated in prospective studies with

  2. Narratives of Iraqi Adult Learners: Experiences of Spoken Register in English for Academic Purposes Programs at an Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Hamdany, Hayder; Picard, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the perceptions of Iraqi students of three different English Programs (a general English for academic purposes program, a pre-enrolment English program and the English component of a disciplinary bridging program) at an Australian University as reflected in their language learning narratives. It focuses specifically on the…

  3. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  4. Competent Coppers: An Analysis of the Standards and Practices of Adult Education within the Australian Federal Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berzins, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines how the educational environment within the Australian Federal Police (AFP) has changed over their 25 year history. The case study was used as a methodological framework through which content analysis and interviews were conducted. It was found that due to the changing nature of their profession, the involvement of police…

  5. Association between Lumbar Bone Mineral Density and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Korean Adults: a Cross-sectional Study of Healthy Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) has been suggested to be associated with atherosclerosis. In the present study, we evaluated the association between lumbar BMD and the segments of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a surrogate marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, in Korean adults, with consideration of sex and menopause status. Among 1,679 Korean adults who enrolled in a Healthy Twin Study, 723 men, 690 premenopausal women, and 266 postmenopausal women measured the CIMT at the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT), carotid bifurcation intima-media thickness (BIF-IMT), internal carotid artery intima-media thickness (ICA-IMT) using B-mode ultrasound and lumbar BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The composite CIMT was calculated as the mean value of three CIMTs. The association was evaluated using linear mixed models. In premenopausal women, lumbar BMD was positively associated with composite CIMT and with CCA-IMT (P = 0.008 and 0.002, respectively). However, no association was observed between BMD and CIMT in men or in postmenopausal women. Stratified analysis revealed the effect of body mass index (BMI) on the association between BMD and CIME. The positive association in premenopausal women persisted only in low BMI (< 25 kg/m2) group, whereas a positive association appeared at high BMI (≥ 25 kg/m2) group in men. A high lumbar BMD may indicate an elevated risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in premenopausal women and men with high BMI. PMID:27914134

  6. Socio-demographic factors and psychological distress in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults aged 18-64 years: analysis of national survey data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Indigenous Australians are known to be at greater risk of morbidity and mortality from mental health related conditions, but most available data relate to the use of mental health services, and little is known about other aspects of social and emotional wellbeing. Using the first available nationally representative data, we examined the prevalence and patterning of psychological distress among Indigenous Australian adults and compared these with corresponding data from the non-Indigenous population. Methods The analysis used weighted data on psychological distress, as measured by a modified Kessler Psychological Distress score (K5), and a range of socio-demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys. Very high psychological distress (VHPD) was defined as a K5 score ≥ 15 (possible range = 5-25). Results Indigenous adults were about three times more likely than non-Indigenous adults to be classified with VHPD: 14.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 12.9-16.0%) versus 5.5% (95% CI 5.0-5.9%). After adjusting for age, most socio-demographic variables were significantly associated with VHPD in both populations, although the relative odds were generally larger among non-Indigenous people. Indigenous people in remote areas had a lower prevalence of VHPD than their non-remote counterparts, and only marital status, main language, and food insecurity were significantly associated with VHPD in remote areas. Conclusions Higher absolute levels of VHPD combined with smaller socio-demographic gradients in the Indigenous population suggest the importance of risk factors such as interpersonal racism, marginalization and dispossession, chronic stress and exposure to violence that are experienced by Indigenous Australians with common and/or cross-cutting effects across the socioeconomic spectrum. The lower prevalence of VHPD and lack of association with many socio-demographic variables in

  7. CoSMoS and TwinPaW: initial report on two new German twin studies.

    PubMed

    Spinath, Frank M; Wolf, Heike

    2006-12-01

    After briefly recapitulating two earlier German twin studies (BiLSAT and GOSAT), we present two new German twin studies with a longitudinal perspective: CoSMoS and TwinPaW. The twin study on Cognitive ability, Self-reported Motivation and School performance (CoSMoS) aims to investigate predictors and influences of school performance in a genetically sensitive design, beginning with children in late elementary school. The Twin study on Personality And Wellbeing (TwinPaW) focuses on adult personality and its relation to physical health as well as health-related behavior in an adult sample of twins. Both studies are characterized by an effort to recruit new large twin samples through a novel recruitment procedure aimed at reducing self-selective sampling. In two German federal states, contact information on persons born on the same day and with the same name was retrieved from record sections. From the resulting pool of more than 36,000 addresses we contacted approximately 2000 parents of twins aged 9 and 10 for CoSMoS, as well as 2000 adult twin pairs for TwinPaW by telephone and mail. Personal contact by telephone proved to be more efficient with agreement rates of 63% in the children sample and 65% in the adult sample. In this article we briefly describe the rationale and the study aims of CoSMoS and TwinPaW as well as the characteristics of the sample we have recruited so far.

  8. The Cross-Sectional Association between Consumption of the Recommended Five Food Group “Grain (Cereal)”, Dietary Fibre and Anthropometric Measures among Australian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Petocz, Peter; McConnell, Andrew; Tuck, Kate; Mansour, Marie

    2017-01-01

    The Australian Dietary Guidelines recommended “grain (cereal)” core food group includes both refined and whole grain foods, but excludes those that are discretionary (i.e., cakes). We investigated the association between daily serves from the “grain (cereal)” group and its effect on fibre and adiposity. Data from Australian adults in the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used (n = 9341). Participants were categorised by serves of core grain foods and general linear models were used to investigate the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and dietary covariates on waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) and fibre intake. Compared to core grain avoiders (0 serves), high consumers (6+ serves/day) were: more likely male and socially advantaged, had a healthier dietary pattern, less likely dieting, overweight or obese, and were at lower risk of metabolic complications. After adjustment for age, sex and energy intake, there was an inverse relationship between core grain serves intake and BMI (p < 0.001), waist circumference (p = 0.001) and a positive relationship with fibre (p < 0.001). Model adjustments for diet and lifestyle factors resulted in a smaller difference in waist circumference (p = 0.006) and BMI (p = 0.006). Core grain serves was significantly associated with higher fibre, but marginally clinically significant for lower adiposity. PMID:28218715

  9. The Performance of Five Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Prediction Equations against Dual X-ray Absorptiometry in Estimating Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass in an Adult Australian Population

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Solomon C. Y.; Powell, Alice; Khow, Kareeann S. F.; Visvanathan, Renuka

    2016-01-01

    Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) is a diagnostic criterion for sarcopenia. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) offers a bedside approach to measure ASM but the performance of BIA prediction equations (PE) varies with ethnicities and body composition. We aim to validate the performance of five PEs in estimating ASM against estimation by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We recruited 195 healthy adult Australians and ASM was measured using single-frequency BIA. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the predictive accuracy of ASM as determined by BIA against DXA. Precision (root mean square error (RMSE)) and bias (mean error (ME)) were calculated according to the method of Sheiner and Beal. Four PEs (except that by Kim) showed ASM values that correlated strongly with ASMDXA (r ranging from 0.96 to 0.97, p < 0.001). The Sergi equation performed the best with the lowest ME of −1.09 kg (CI: −0.84–−1.34, p < 0.001) and the RMSE was 2.09 kg (CI: 1.72–2.47). In men, the Kyle equation performed better with the lowest ME (−0.32 kg (CI: −0.66–0.02) and RMSE (1.54 kg (CI: 1.14–1.93)). The Sergi equation is applicable in adult Australians (Caucasian) whereas the Kyle equation can be considered in males. The need remains to validate PEs in other ethnicities and to develop equations suitable for multi-frequency BIA. PMID:27043617

  10. Twinning of dodecanedicarboxylic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, R.; Wilcox, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    Twinning of 1,10-dodecanedicarboxyl acid (DDA) was observed in 0.1 mm thick films with a polarizing microscope. Twins originated from polycrystalline regions which tended to nucleate on twin faces, and terminated by intersection gone another. Twinning increased dramatically with addition of organic compounds with a similar molecular size and shape. Increasing the freezing rate, increasing the temperature gradient, and addition of silica particles increased twinning. It is proposed that twins nucleate with polycrystals and sometimes anneal out before they become observable. The impurities may enhance twinning either by lowering the twin energy or by adsorbing on growing faces.

  11. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter.

    PubMed

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive

    2015-04-29

    The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters' cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6-12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of "low-cost" adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of "low-cost" adoptions as an option for attempting to increase adoption rates. In addition, the results provide information that can be used to inform future campaigns aimed at increasing the number of adult cat adoptions, particularly in devising marketing strategies for adult cats.

  12. Twin Peaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The two hills in the distance, approximately one to two kilometers away, have been dubbed the 'Twin Peaks' and are of great interest to Pathfinder scientists as objects of future study. The white areas on the left hill, called the 'Ski Run' by scientists, may have been formed by hydrologic processes.

    The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) after its deployment on Sol 3. Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  13. Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... causing an unequal exchange of blood. The recipient twin is at risk for heart failure receiving too much blood from ... its heart to work harder, while the donor twin is at risk for loss of blood. Laser surgery may be ...

  14. Test of a Potential Causal Influence of Earlier Age of Gambling Initiation on Gambling Involvement and Disorder: A Multi-level Discordant Twin Design

    PubMed Central

    Slutske, Wendy S.; Deutsch, Arielle R.; Richmond-Rakerd, Leah S.; Chernyavskiy, Pavel; Statham, Dixie J.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2014-01-01

    The premise that an association between an earlier age of gambling initiation and the later development of disordered gambling is causal has not yet been empirically examined. The current study used a multi-level discordant twin design to examine the nature of this association. Participants were 3,546 same-sex twins (mean age = 37.7 years) from the Australian Twin Registry who completed a telephone interview that included an extensive assessment of gambling and related behaviors. Multilevel models were employed to estimate individual (within-twin-pair comparison) and family-level (between-twin-pair comparison) effects, as well as the cross-level interaction between these effects. Family-level effects (genetic or environmental factors shared by family members) of age of gambling initiation robustly predicted later adult gambling frequency and disorder; the evidence for individual-level effects (unique factors not shared by family members, including a potentially causal effect of earlier age of gambling onset) was less robust. The results of this study suggest that the relation between earlier age of gambling initiation and later gambling involvement and disorder is primarily non-causal; efforts to delay the onset of gambling among young people may not necessarily reduce the number who later go on to develop gambling-related problems. PMID:24635489

  15. The Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study Pathways to Cannabis Use, Abuse and Dependence Project: Current status, preliminary results and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, NA; Henders, AK; Davenport, TA; Hermens, DF; Wright, MJ; Martin, NG; Hickie, IB

    2013-01-01

    We describe the data being collected from the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study (BLTS) in Australia as part of the US National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) funded project Pathways to Cannabis Use, Abuse and Dependence. The history, recruitment, assessment and retention of twin families in this project are described in detail along with preliminary findings and plans for future research. The goal of this NIDA project is to make a significant contribution to the discovery of quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing cannabis use disorders. Although the focus is cannabis use, abuse and dependence in young adults, measures of comorbid illicit drug use disorders are also being collected. In addition, a variety of internalizing and externalizing disorders are being assessed, funded by support from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. Because these same twins have participated in numerous twin studies since 1992, future plans will include linking different phenotypes to investigate relationships between drug use, psychiatric disorders and psychological phenotypes within cross-sectional and longitudinal or developmental frameworks. PMID:23187020

  16. Understanding the covariation of tics, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: A population-based adult twin study.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rebecca; Monzani, Benedetta; Leckman, James F; Rück, Christian; Serlachius, Eva; Lichtenstein, Paul; Mataix-Cols, David

    2016-10-01

    Chronic tic disorders (TD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) frequently co-occur in clinical and epidemiological samples. Family studies have found evidence of shared familial transmission between TD and OCD, whereas the familial association between these disorders and ADHD is less clear. This study aimed to investigate to what extent liability of tics, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms is caused by shared or distinct genetic or environmental influences, in a large population-representative sample of Swedish adult twins (n = 21,911). Tics, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms showed modest, but significant covariation. Model fitting suggested a latent liability factor underlying the three phenotypes. This common factor was relatively heritable, and explained significantly less of the variance of attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptom liability. The majority of genetic variance was specific rather than shared. The greatest proportion of total variance in liability of tics, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms was attributed to specific non-shared environmental influences. Our findings suggest that the co-occurrence of tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and to a lesser extent attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms, can be partly explained by shared etiological influences. However, these phenotypes do not appear to be alternative expressions of the same underlying genetic liability. Further research examining sub-dimensions of these phenotypes may serve to further clarify the association between these disorders and identify more genetically homogenous symptom subtypes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Myopia in Young Adults Is Inversely Related to an Objective Marker of Ocular Sun Exposure: The Western Australian Raine Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    MCKNIGHT, CHARLOTTE M.; SHERWIN, JUSTIN C.; YAZAR, SEYHAN; FORWARD, HANNAH; TAN, ALEX X.; HEWITT, ALEX W.; PENNELL, CRAIG E.; MCALLISTER, IAN L.; YOUNG, TERRI L.; CORONEO, MINAS T.; MACKEY, DAVID A.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine the association between ocular sun exposure measured by conjunctival ultraviolet (UV) autofluorescence and myopic refractive error in young adults. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. METHODS SETTING Population-based cohort in Western Australia. STUDY POPULATION Total of 1344 mostly white subjects aged 19–22 years in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Eye Health Study. OBSERVATION PROCEDURES Cycloplegic autorefraction, conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence photography, participant questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Prevalence of myopic refractive error (spherical equivalent less than −0.50 diopters) and area of conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence in mm2. RESULTS There was an inverse relationship between myopic refractive error and ocular sun exposure, with more than double the prevalence of myopia in the lowest quartile of conjunctival autofluorescence than the highest quartile (33.0% vs 15.6%). Median area of autofluorescence was significantly lower in myopic than in nonmyopic subjects (31.9 mm2 vs 47.9 mm2, P < .001). These differences remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, parental history of myopia, and subject level of education. The use of corrective lenses did not explain the lower conjunctival autofluorescence observed in myopic subjects. CONCLUSIONS In this young adult population, myopic refractive error was inversely associated with objectively measured ocular sun exposure, even after adjustment for potential confounders. This further supports the inverse association between outdoor activity and myopia. PMID:25072831

  18. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter

    PubMed Central

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Commonly, more adult cats than kittens are euthanized in animal shelters. We surveyed 382 cat adopters to assess adoption outcomes and potential determinants of adopters’ choice of cat age group and price. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and responsible ownership requirements. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive in all age and adoption price groups. This study provides evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. Abstract The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters’ cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6–12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of “low-cost” adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of “low-cost” adoptions as an option for

  19. Australian Defense.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    Australia in World Affairs 1966-1970, (Melbourne: Cheshire Publishing Pty Ltd , 1974), p. 258. 6Department of Defence, Australian Defence Review...Pvt, Ltd .: 1977), p. 69. 74 17Desmond Ball, "American Bases: Implications for Australian Securi- ty" The Strategic and Defence Studies Centre...million with aircraft, or 3) a " Woolworth " carrier costing $300-400 million with aircraft.33 Defence planners are now faced with determin- ing which

  20. Twin Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda; Bozak, Rick

    2010-01-01

    Many subsonic and supersonic vehicles in the current fleet have multiple engines mounted near one another. Some future vehicle concepts may use innovative propulsion systems such as distributed propulsion which will result in multiple jets mounted in close proximity. Engine configurations with multiple jets have the ability to exploit jet-by-jet shielding which may significantly reduce noise. Jet-by-jet shielding is the ability of one jet to shield noise that is emitted by another jet. The sensitivity of jet-by-jet shielding to jet spacing and simulated flight stream Mach number are not well understood. The current experiment investigates the impact of jet spacing, jet operating condition, and flight stream Mach number on the noise radiated from subsonic and supersonic twin jets.

  1. University of Washington Twin Registry: Construction and characteristics of a community-based twin registry

    PubMed Central

    Afari, Niloofar; Noonan, Carolyn; Goldberg, Jack; Edwards, Karen; Gadepalli, Kiran; Osterman, Bethany; Evanoff, Cynthia; Buchwald, Dedra

    2010-01-01

    The University of Washington Twin Registry is a community-based registry of twins identified from the Washington State Department of Licensing. A fortuitous quirk in the Washington State drivers' license and identification number assignment, and collaborative Washington State laws, permitted us to build a statewide registry. Since obtaining approval from the Washington State Attorney General, the Washington State Department of Licensing has provided us with information on over 26,000 newly licensed twins, and we continue to receive computerized records on approximately 80 new twins per week. The University of Washington Twin Registry is assembled by mailing each twin a recruitment packet that includes an information sheet, brochure, brief survey, and nominal gift. Once both members of a twin pair have completed the packet, the pair is enrolled in the Registry. As of June 2006, 2,287 adult twin pairs have enrolled in the Registry; about one half of these are female-female pairs. Among all twins, the average age is 32 years. Based on self-report, 52% of twins are MZ, 42% are DZ, and zygosity on 6% cannot yet be determined. We also have established a clinical protocol for collecting additional data and DNA from all twins participating in research studies requiring an in-person visit. The Registry has established policies and procedures to protect the confidentiality of twin data and guidelines for the use of the Registry by investigators. Plans for the further growth of the University of Washington Twin Registry and its use are discussed. PMID:17254446

  2. Social determinants and psychological distress among Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander adults in the Australian state of Victoria: a cross-sectional population based study.

    PubMed

    Markwick, Alison; Ansari, Zahid; Sullivan, Mary; McNeil, John

    2015-03-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults in the Australian state of Victoria have a higher prevalence of psychological distress than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts. We sought to explain this inequality, focussing on the social determinants of health. We used population-based survey data from the 2008 Victorian Population Health Survey; a cross-sectional landline computer-assisted telephone survey of 34,168 randomly selected adults. We defined psychological distress as a score of 22 or more on the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress scale. We used logistic regression to identify socio-demographic characteristics and social capital indicators that were associated with psychological distress. We then created multivariable models to explore the association between psychological distress and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status that incorporated all significant socioeconomic status (SES) and social capital variables, adjusting for all non-SES socio-demographic characteristics. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Victorians (24.5%) were more than twice as likely than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts (11.3%) to have psychological distress (odds ratio (OR) = 2.56, 95% confidence interval; 1.67-3.93). Controlling for SES, negative perceptions of the residential neighbourhood, lack of social support from family, social and civic distrust, and all non-SES socio-demographic variables (age, sex, marital status, household composition, and rurality), rendered the previously statistically significant inequality in the prevalence of psychological distress, between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Victorians and their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts, insignificant at the p = 0.05 level (OR = 1.50; 0.97-2.32). Psychological distress is an important health risk factor for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults that has yet to be widely acknowledged and addressed. Addressing the

  3. Childhood sexual abuse and its association with adult physical and mental health: results from a national cohort of young Australian women.

    PubMed

    Coles, Jan; Lee, Adeline; Taft, Angela; Mazza, Danielle; Loxton, Deborah

    2015-07-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) occurs across the world, with a prevalence of 20% internationally. Our aim was to investigate the associations between CSA, CSA plus adult violence experiences, and selected self-reported physical and mental health in a community sample of women. Data from 7,700 women aged 28-33 years from the 1973-1978 cohort who completed Survey 4 of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were analyzed. Questions about prior abuse experience such as child sexual abuse, IPV, adult physical and sexual assaults, andphysical and mental health. Women who experienced CSA were 1.4 times more likely to experience bodily pain (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.37, confidence interval [CI] = [1.19, 1.58]), 1.3 times more likely to have poorer general health (AOR = 1.33, CI = [1.15, 1.54]), and 1.4 times more likely to be depressed in the past 3 years (AOR = 1.44, CI = [1.22, 1.71]) compared with those without abuse.. Women who experienced both CSA and adult violence were 2.4 to 3.1 times more likely to experience poor general (AOR = 2.35, CI = [1.76, 3.14]) and mental health (AOR = 2.69, CI = [1.98, 3.64]), and suffer from depression (AOR = 2.84, CI = [2.13, 3.78]) and anxiety (AOR = 3.10, CI = [2.12, 4.53]) compared with women with no abuse. This study demonstrates the importance of CSA in pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health.. It emphasizes how prior CSA may amplify pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health among women who are again exposed to violence in adulthood.

  4. Australian adult smokers’ responses to plain packaging with larger graphic health warnings 1 year after implementation: results from a national cross-sectional tracking survey

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie; Coomber, Kerri; Zacher, Meghan; Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily; Scollo, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background We assessed whether the Australian plain packs with larger graphic health warnings (GHWs) achieved three specific objectives of reducing the appeal of tobacco, increasing health warning effectiveness and reducing the ability of packaging to mislead about smoking harms. Methods We compared responses from continuous cross-sectional telephone surveys of n=2176 cigarette smokers during pre-plain packaging (April–September 2012, pre-PP) with n=759 surveyed in the transition period (October–November 2012) and n=4240 during the first year of implementation (December 2012–November 2013, PP year 1), using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results From pre-PP to PP year 1, more smokers disliked their pack (p<0.001), perceived lower pack appeal (p<0.001), lower cigarette quality (p<0.001), lower satisfaction (p<0.001) and lower value (p<0.001) and disagreed brands differed in prestige (p=0.003). There was no change in perceived differences in taste of different brands. More smokers noticed GHWs (p<0.001), attributed much motivation to quit to GHWs (p<0.001), avoided specific GHWs when purchasing (p<0.001), and covered packs (p<0.001), with no change in perceived exaggeration of harms. PP year 1 saw an increased proportion believing that brands do not differ in harmfulness (p=0.004), but no change in the belief that variants do not differ in strength or the perceived harmfulness of cigarettes compared with a year ago. Interactions signified greater change for four outcomes assessing aspects of appeal among young adults and two appeal outcomes among mid-aged adults. Conclusions The specific objectives of plain packaging were achieved and generally sustained among adult smokers up to 12 months after implementation.

  5. Trajectories of mental health over 16 years amongst young adult women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both predictors and outcomes of these trajectories. Using group-based trajectory modeling, we identified 4 distinct trajectory groups of mental health. The mental health of most participants (55%) was consistently high, with 12% improving, 24% varying, and 9% frequently low. The authors considered characteristics at the beginning and end of the trajectory period, taking a life-course perspective to understand vulnerabilities to, and outcomes of, low or variable poor mental health trajectories. Financial difficulties, poor general health, and weight or shape dissatisfaction were characteristics at Survey 1 that distinguished all other trajectory groups from those with consistently high mental health. Other differences were specific to 1 or 2 groups. By the end of the trajectory period, the improving mental health group showed few differences from those with consistently high mental health. However, those with varying and low mental health showed evidence of social disadvantage, poor physical and emotional health, and unhealthy behaviors, and were less likely to be mothers. The ability to identify distinct trajectories of mental health in early adulthood, and their correlates, provides evidence to underpin population health interventions targeting the prevention of mental health problems among this population group. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Literacy for Living Conference Papers. Australian Council for Adult Literacy National Conference (12th, Brisbane, Australia, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Marian, Ed.

    This document contains 43 papers on many aspects of adult literacy: "Literacy, Human Rights and Equality of Opportunity" (Einfeld); "Overcoming Illiteracy" (Marquet); "The Literacy Issue" (Crocker); "Literacy and Civil Liberties" (O'Gorman); "Designing a Tutor Training Program for Tutors of ESL"…

  7. Medication Use among Australian Adults with Intellectual Disability in Primary Healthcare Settings: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doan, Tan N.; Lennox, Nicholas G.; Taylor-Gomez, Miriam; Ware, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is concern about widespread medication use by people with intellectual disability (ID), especially psychotropic and anticonvulsant agents. However, there is sparse information on prescribing patterns in Australia. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted between 2000 and 2002 among adults with ID who live in the community…

  8. Second Cancer Risk and Late Mortality in Adult Australians Receiving Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Vajdic, Claire M; Mayson, Eleni; Dodds, Anthony J; O'Brien, Tracey; Wilcox, Leonie; Nivison-Smith, Ian; Le Marsney, Renate; Daniels, Benjamin; Ashton, Lesley J

    2016-05-01

    We quantified the risk of second cancer and late mortality in a population-based Australian cohort of 3273 adult (≥15 years) allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients (1992 to 2007). Most recipients received nonradiation-based conditioning and a peripheral blood graft from a matched related donor. Using record linkage with death and cancer registries, 79 second cancers were identified a median of 3.5 years after transplantation. The competing-risk adjusted cumulative incidence of second cancers was 3.35% (95% CI, 2.59 to 4.24) at 10 years, and the cancer risk relative to the matched general population was 2.10 (95% CI, 1.65 to 2.56). We observed an excess risk of melanoma and lip, tongue, esophagus, and soft tissue cancers. Cancer risk relative to the general population was elevated for those transplanted for lymphoma, some leukemia subtypes, and severe aplastic anemia, recipients who developed chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) and irrespective of radiation-based conditioning or stem cell source. In those alive 2 years after transplantation (n = 1463), the cumulative incidence of late mortality was 22.2% (95% CI, 19.7 to 24.9) at 10 years, and the risk of death relative to the matched general population was 13.8 (95% CI, 12.2 to 15.6). In multivariable modeling, risk of late death was reduced for females compared with males and those transplanted for chronic myeloid leukemia compared with acute myeloid leukemia; risk was increased for recipients with discordant sex donors, cGVHD, those undergoing second transplants, and disease relapse. Adults undergoing allogeneic transplantation have unique cancer and mortality risk profiles that continue to warrant prevention and surveillance activities targeted at high-risk subgroups.

  9. Review of the correlation between blood flow velocity and polycythemia in the fetus, neonate and adult: appropriate diagnostic levels need to be determined for twin anemia-polycythemia sequence.

    PubMed

    Lucewicz, A; Fisher, K; Henry, A; Welsh, A W

    2016-02-01

    Twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS) is recognized increasingly antenatally by the demonstration of an anemic twin and a polycythemic cotwin using the middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV). While the MCA-PSV has been shown to correlate well with anemia in singleton fetuses, the evidence to support its use to diagnose fetal polycythemia appears to be less clear-cut. We aimed to evaluate fetal, neonatal and adult literature used to support the use of MCA-PSV for the diagnosis of polycythemia. Comprehensive literature searches were performed for ultrasound evidence of polycythemia in the human fetus, neonate and adult using key search terms. Only manuscripts in the English language with an abstract were considered for the review, performed in June 2014. Fifteen manuscripts were found for the human fetus, including 38 cases of TAPS. Nine of these defined fetal polycythemia as MCA-PSV < 0.8 multiples of the median (MoM), five used < 1.0 MoM and one used 0.8-1.0 MoM. Only two studies, involving a total of 15 cases, proposed a diagnostic level, acknowledging false-positive and -negative cases, though neither reported sensitivities or specificities. Six neonatal studies (96 neonates) demonstrated evidence of decreased cerebral velocities in polycythemia and a consequent increase with hemodilution. In the adult, five studies (57 polycythemic adults) demonstrated increased flow or velocity with hemodilution. Neither neonatal nor adult studies conclusively defined levels for screening for polycythemia. Despite widespread adoption of a cut-off of < 0.8 MoM in the published literature for the polycythemic fetus in TAPS, this is based upon minimal evidence, with unknown sensitivity and specificity. We recommend caution in excluding TAPS based purely upon the absence of a reduced MCA-PSV.

  10. Patterns and correlates of self-reported racial discrimination among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults, 2008–09: analysis of national survey data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is now considerable evidence that racism is a pernicious and enduring social problem with a wide range of detrimental outcomes for individuals, communities and societies. Although indigenous people worldwide are subjected to high levels of racism, there is a paucity of population-based, quantitative data about the factors associated with their reporting of racial discrimination, about the settings in which such discrimination takes place, and about the frequency with which it is experienced. Such information is essential in efforts to reduce both exposure to racism among indigenous people and the harms associated with such exposure. Methods Weighted data on self-reported racial discrimination from over 7,000 Indigenous Australian adults participating in the 2008–09 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Survey, a nationally representative survey conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, were analysed by socioeconomic, demographic and cultural factors. Results More than one in four respondents (27%) reported experiencing racial discrimination in the past year. Racial discrimination was most commonly reported in public (41% of those reporting any racial discrimination), legal (40%) and work (30%) settings. Among those reporting any racial discrimination, about 40% experienced this discrimination most or all of the time (as opposed to a little or some of the time) in at least one setting. Reporting of racial discrimination peaked in the 35–44 year age group and then declined. Higher reporting of racial discrimination was associated with removal from family, low trust, unemployment, having a university degree, and indicators of cultural identity and participation. Lower reporting of racial discrimination was associated with home ownership, remote residence and having relatively few Indigenous friends. Conclusions These data indicate that racial discrimination is commonly experienced across a wide variety of settings, with public

  11. Australian Extinctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…

  12. Prevalence of co-occurring alcohol and other drug use in an Australian older adult mental health service.

    PubMed

    Searby, Adam; Maude, Phil; McGrath, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorder, known as dual diagnosis, is a significant challenge to mental health services. Few older adult specific alcohol and other drug treatment services exist, meaning older adult mental health services may become the default treatment option for many. Evidence suggests that dual diagnosis leads to substandard treatment outcomes, including higher rates of psychiatric relapse, higher costs of care and poorer treatment engagement. This paper explores the prevalence of co-occurring alcohol and other drug (AOD) use in an older adult community mental health service in inner Melbourne, Australia. This aim was accomplished by using a retrospective file audit of clinical intake assessments (n = 593) performed on consumers presenting to the service over a two-year period, June 2012-2014. Of consumers presenting to the service, 15.5% (n = 92) were assessed by clinicians as having co-occurring AOD use. Depression predominated in the dual diagnosis group as the primary mental health disorder. Dual diagnosis consumers in this sample were statistically more likely to be male and younger than their non-dual diagnosis counterparts. A limitation of this audit was the lack of implementation of screening tools, leaving assessment to clinical judgement or the interest of the clinician. This may also explain the discrepancy between the results of this study and previous work. Although appearing to be a relatively small percentage of assessments, the results accounted for 92 individuals with complex mental health, AOD and medical issues. Poor screening procedures in a population that is traditionally difficult to assess need to be rectified to meet the future challenges inherent in the ageing baby boomer generation, changing drug use trends and extended lifespans through harm reduction initiatives and medical advancements.

  13. The Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study: Pathways to Cannabis Use, Abuse, and Dependence project-current status, preliminary results, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Nathan A; Henders, Anjali K; Davenport, Tracy A; Hermens, Daniel F; Wright, Margie J; Martin, Nicholas G; Hickie, Ian B

    2013-02-01

    We describe the data being collected from the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study in Australia as part of the US National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-funded project, Pathways to Cannabis Use, Abuse and Dependence. The history, recruitment, assessment, and retention of twin families in this project are described in detail, along with preliminary findings and plans for future research. The goal of this NIDA project is to make a significant contribution to the discovery of quantitative trait loci influencing cannabis use disorders. Although the focus is cannabis use, abuse, and dependence in young adults, measures of comorbid illicit drug use disorders are also being collected. In addition, a variety of internalizing and externalizing disorders are being assessed, funded by support from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. Because these same twins have participated in numerous twin studies since 1992, future plans will include linking different phenotypes to investigate relationships between drug use, psychiatric disorders, and psychological phenotypes within cross-sectional and longitudinal or developmental frameworks.

  14. Three-month stability of the CogState brief battery in healthy older adults, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease: results from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers, and Lifestyle-rate of change substudy (AIBL-ROCS).

    PubMed

    Lim, Yen Ying; Jaeger, Judith; Harrington, Karra; Ashwood, Tim; Ellis, Kathryn A; Stöffler, Albrecht; Szoeke, Cassandra; Lachovitzki, Rebecca; Martins, Ralph N; Villemagne, Victor L; Bush, Ashley; Masters, Colin L; Rowe, Christopher C; Ames, David; Darby, David; Maruff, Paul

    2013-06-01

    Large prospective studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have sought to understand the pathological evolution of AD and factors that may influence the rate of disease progression. Estimates of rates of cognitive change are available for 12 or 24 months, but not for shorter time frames (e.g., 3 or 6 months). Most clinical drug trials seeking to reduce or modify AD symptoms have been conducted over 12- or 24-week periods. As such, we aimed to characterize the performance of a group of healthy older adults, adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and adults with AD on the CogState battery of tests over short test-retest intervals. This study recruited 105 healthy older adults, 48 adults with aMCI, and 42 adults with AD from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers, and Lifestyle study and administered the CogState battery monthly over 3 months. The CogState battery of tests showed high test-retest reliability and stability in all clinical groups when participants were assessed over 3 months. When considered at baseline, the CogState battery of tests was able to detect AD-related cognitive impairment. The data provide important estimates of the reliability, stability, and variability of each cognitive test in healthy older adults, adults with aMCI, and adults with AD. This may potentially be used to inform future estimates of cognitive change in clinical trials.

  15. Mapping the association between back pain and type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study of adult Spanish twins

    PubMed Central

    Ordoñana, Juan; Ferreira, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Background Back pain and type 2 diabetes often co-occur, resulting in greater impact on people’s health and complexity in their care. Plausible causal mechanisms for this association have been proposed, yet the nature of the link remains unclear. We therefore explored the direction of the association between type 2 diabetes and chronic back pain in twins, controlling for genetics and early environmental confounding. Methods 2,096 and 1,098 twins were included in the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, respectively. Any or severe (≥ 9) low back pain (LBP), neck pain (NP), and spinal pain (concurrent LBP and NP) and type 2 diabetes were investigated. Sequential analyses were performed using logistic regression. Firstly, twins were analysed unpaired (adjusted age and gender): total sample analyses. Then, to control for genetic and shared environmental factors, a co-twin case-control analysis was performed including monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs discordant for back pain (cross-sectional only). Results In the cross-sectional total sample analyses, type 2 diabetes was associated with chronic spinal pain (OR 1.61; 95%CI 1.12 to 2.31), severe chronic spinal pain (OR 3.33; 95%CI 1.47 to 7.53), chronic NP (OR 1.37; 95%CI 1.01 to 1.85), severe chronic NP (OR 2.28; 95%CI 1.24 to 4.21), and severe chronic LBP (OR 1.63; 95%CI 1.00 to 2.64). After further adjustment for genetic and shared environmental factors, none of the associations remained significant. The longitudinal analyses indicated that the presence of type 2 diabetes did not increase the risk of future back pain, or vice-versa, after two to four years. Conclusions Chronic back pain (spinal pain, NP, or LBP) was associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Associations are stronger for severe cases of pain. Future research should investigate the temporal relationships between these conditions with longer follow up in twins. PMID:28369107

  16. Residential proximity to urban centres, local-area walkability and change in waist circumference among Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Niyonsenga, Theo; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Paquet, Catherine; Taylor, Anne W; Daniel, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Consistent associations have been observed between macro-level urban sprawl and overweight/obesity, but whether residential proximity to urban centres predicts adiposity change over time has not been established. Further, studies of local-area walkability and overweight/obesity have generated mixed results. This study examined 4-year change in adults' waist circumference in relation to proximity to city centre, proximity to closest suburban centre, and local-area walkability. Data were from adult participants (n=2080) of a cohort study on chronic conditions and health risk factors in Adelaide, Australia. Baseline data were collected in 2000-03 with a follow-up in 2005-06. Multilevel regression models examined in 2015 the independent and joint associations of the three environmental measures with change in waist circumference, accounting for socio-demographic covariates. On average, waist circumference rose by 1.8cm over approximately 4years. Greater distance to city centre was associated with a greater increase in waist circumference. Participants living in distal areas (20km or further from city centre) had a greater increase in waist circumference (mean increase: 2.4cm) compared to those in proximal areas (9km or less, mean increase: 1.2cm). Counterintuitively, living in the vicinity of a suburban centre was associated with a greater increase in adiposity. Local-area walkability was not significantly associated with the outcome. Residential proximity to city centre appears to be protective against excessive increases in waist circumference. Controlled development and targeted interventions in the urban fringe may be needed to tackle obesity. Additional research needs to assess behaviours that mediate relationships between sprawl and obesity.

  17. Developmental trajectories of adolescent cannabis use and their relationship to young adult social and behavioural adjustment: A longitudinal study of Australian youth.

    PubMed

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Evans-Whipp, Tracy J; Toumbourou, John W; Patton, George C

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to identify distinct developmental trajectories (sub-groups of individuals who showed similar longitudinal patterns) of cannabis use among Australian adolescents, and to examine associations between trajectory group membership and measures of social and behavioural adjustment in young adulthood. Participants (n=852, 53% female) were part of the International Youth Development Study. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify distinct trajectories of cannabis use frequency from average ages 12 to 19, across 6 waves of data. Logistic regression analyses and analyses of covariance were used to examine relationships between trajectory group membership and young adult (average age: 21) adjustment, controlling for a range of covariates. Three trajectories were identified: abstainers (62%), early onset users (11%), and late onset occasional users (27%). The early onset users showed a higher frequency of antisocial behaviour, violence, cannabis use, cannabis-related harms, cigarette use, and alcohol harms, compared to the abstinent group in young adulthood. The late onset occasional users reported a higher frequency of cannabis use, cannabis-related harms, illicit drug use, and alcohol harms, compared to the abstinent group in young adulthood. There were no differences between the trajectory groups on measures of employment, school completion, post-secondary education, income, depression/anxiety, or alcohol use problems. In conclusion, early onset of cannabis use, even at relatively low frequency during adolescence, is associated with poorer adjustment in young adulthood. Prevention and intervention efforts to delay or prevent uptake of cannabis use should be particularly focussed on early adolescence prior to age 12.

  18. Accuracy of self-reported nevus and pigmentation phenotype compared to clinical assessment in a population-based study of young Australian adults

    PubMed Central

    Cust, Anne E.; Pickles, Kristen M.; Goumas, Chris; Vu, Thao; Schmid, Helen; Nagore, Eduardo; Kelly, John; Aitken, Joanne F.; Giles, Graham G.; Hopper, John L.; Jenkins, Mark A.; Mann, Graham J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Awareness of individual risk may encourage improved prevention and early detection of melanoma. Methods We evaluated the accuracy of self-reported pigmentation and nevus phenotype compared to clinical assessment, and examined agreement between nevus counts from selected anatomical regions. The sample included 456 cases with invasive cutaneous melanoma diagnosed between ages 18-39 years and 538 controls from the population-based Australian Melanoma Family Study. Participants completed a questionnaire regarding their pigmentation and nevus phenotype, and attended a dermatologic skin examination. Results There was strong agreement between self-reported and clinical assessment of eye color (kappa, κ, =0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74-0.81); and moderate agreement for hair color (κ =0.46, 95% CI 0.42-0.50). Agreement between self-reported skin color and spectrophotometer-derived measurements was poor (κ =0.12, 95% CI 0.08-0.16) to moderate (Spearman correlation rs=-0.37, 95% CI -0.32- to -0.42). Participants tended to under-estimate their nevus counts and pigmentation; men were more likely to under-report their skin color. The rs was 0.43 (95% CI 0.38-0.49) comparing clinical total body nevus counts with self-reported nevus categories. There was good agreement of quartile distributions of total body nevus counts with site-specific nevus counts, particularly on both arms. Conclusions Young adults have sub-optimal accuracy when assessing important risk characteristics including nevus numbers and pigmentation. Measuring nevus count on the arms is a good predictor of full body nevus count. Impact These results have implications for the likely success of targeted public health programs that rely on self-assessment of these factors. PMID:25628333

  19. Asymmetric twin Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Farina, Marco

    2015-11-09

    We study a natural implementation of Asymmetric Dark Matter in Twin Higgs models. The mirroring of the Standard Model strong sector suggests that a twin baryon with mass around 5 GeV is a natural Dark Matter candidate once a twin baryon number asymmetry comparable to the SM asymmetry is generated. We explore twin baryon Dark Matter in two different scenarios, one with minimal content in the twin sector and one with a complete copy of the SM, including a light twin photon. The essential requirements for successful thermal history are presented, and in doing so we address some of the cosmological issues common to many Twin Higgs models. The required interactions we introduce predict signatures at direct detection experiments and at the LHC.

  20. Asymmetric twin Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Farina, Marco

    2015-11-01

    We study a natural implementation of Asymmetric Dark Matter in Twin Higgs models. The mirroring of the Standard Model strong sector suggests that a twin baryon with mass around 5 GeV is a natural Dark Matter candidate once a twin baryon number asymmetry comparable to the SM asymmetry is generated. We explore twin baryon Dark Matter in two different scenarios, one with minimal content in the twin sector and one with a complete copy of the SM, including a light twin photon. The essential requirements for successful thermal history are presented, and in doing so we address some of the cosmological issues common to many Twin Higgs models. The required interactions we introduce predict signatures at direct detection experiments and at the LHC.

  1. Delivery of twins.

    PubMed

    Hofmeyr, G J; Drakeley, A J

    1998-03-01

    The delivery of twins presents considerable challenges to the obstetric team, particularly in terms of decision-making, technical skills required and the need to respond quickly to changing circumstances. There is a serious lack of sound evidence upon which to base decisions concerning the method of delivery of twins. The trend towards the routine use of caesarean section is not supported by evidence of improved outcome for the infants, while maternal outcome is compromised. Specific circumstances that may have a bearing on the need for caesarean section include gestational age, presentation of the twins and chorionicity/amnionicity. Caesarean section does not eliminate the chance of fetal trauma during delivery, particularly for premature twins. The techniques of twin delivery, whether vaginal or by caesarean section, require thorough preparation for all possible eventualities, and skilled teamwork. Particular attention should be paid to emotional needs during labour, birth and afterwards, of the parents of twins.

  2. Separation of Craniopagus Twins.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Reuben; Weir, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Separation of craniopagus twins is fraught by ethical issues. The surgery is high risk and may involve the sacrifice of one twin. We review surgical successes in separation of craniopagus twins and consider ethical and legal concepts affecting the decision to undertake such procedures. Our discussion considers how Gillett's potentiality principle and the concept of moral permissibility may be used to arrive at fair and realistic decisions.

  3. Australian Brain Alliance.

    PubMed

    2016-11-02

    A proposal for an Australian Brain Initiative (ABI) is under development by members of the Australian Brain Alliance. Here we discuss the goals of the ABI, its areas of research focus, its context in the Australian research setting, and its necessity for ensuring continued success for Australian brain research.

  4. Traditional and Emerging Lifestyle Risk Behaviors and All-Cause Mortality in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: Evidence from a Large Population-Based Australian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ding; Rogers, Kris; van der Ploeg, Hidde; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Bauman, Adrian E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lifestyle risk behaviors are responsible for a large proportion of disease burden worldwide. Behavioral risk factors, such as smoking, poor diet, and physical inactivity, tend to cluster within populations and may have synergistic effects on health. As evidence continues to accumulate on emerging lifestyle risk factors, such as prolonged sitting and unhealthy sleep patterns, incorporating these new risk factors will provide clinically relevant information on combinations of lifestyle risk factors. Methods and Findings Using data from a large Australian cohort of middle-aged and older adults, this is the first study to our knowledge to examine a lifestyle risk index incorporating sedentary behavior and sleep in relation to all-cause mortality. Baseline data (February 2006– April 2009) were linked to mortality registration data until June 15, 2014. Smoking, high alcohol intake, poor diet, physical inactivity, prolonged sitting, and unhealthy (short/long) sleep duration were measured by questionnaires and summed into an index score. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used with the index score and each unique risk combination as exposure variables, adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics. During 6 y of follow-up of 231,048 participants for 1,409,591 person-years, 15,635 deaths were registered. Of all participants, 31.2%, 36.9%, 21.4%, and 10.6% reported 0, 1, 2, and 3+ risk factors, respectively. There was a strong relationship between the lifestyle risk index score and all-cause mortality. The index score had good predictive validity (c index = 0.763), and the partial population attributable risk was 31.3%. Out of all 96 possible risk combinations, the 30 most commonly occurring combinations accounted for more than 90% of the participants. Among those, combinations involving physical inactivity, prolonged sitting, and/or long sleep duration and combinations involving smoking and high alcohol intake had the strongest associations with all

  5. NOTE: Arterio-venous flow between monochorionic twins determined during intra-uterine transfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gemert, Martin J. C.; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Lopriore, Enrico; Pasman, Suzanne A.; Vandenbussche, Frank P. H. A.

    2008-04-01

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of monozygotic (identical) twin fetuses sharing one single (monochorionic) placenta. TTTS is caused by a net inter-twin transfusion of blood through placental anastomoses, from one twin (the donor) to the other (the recipient), which link the two feto-placental circulations. Currently, the only reliable method to measure the net inter-twin transfusion clinically is when incomplete laser therapy of TTTS occurs and one of the twins becomes anemic and requires an intra-uterine transfusion of adult red blood cells. Then, differences between adult hemoglobin concentrations measured during the transfusion and at birth relate not only to the net inter-twin transfusion but also to the finite lifetime of the adult red blood cells. We have analyzed this situation, derived the differential equations of adult hemoglobin in the donor and recipient twins, given the solutions and given expressions relating the net inter-twin flow with clinically measured parameters. We have included single and multiple intra-uterine transfusions. In conclusion, because incomplete laser therapy occurs frequently, and some cases require an intra-uterine transfusion, this method may allow collecting a wealth of net inter-twin flow data from clinicians involved in laser therapy of TTTS. To aid to the widespread use of this method, we have presented the equations as clearly as possible in tables for easy use by others.

  6. Mature Age Students in Australian Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hore, Terry; West, Leo H. T.

    A study was undertaken, in 1976 and for the three following years, of adult students in Australian higher education. The study examined: (1) the phenomenon of adult students and the extent of their involvement in higher education; (2) the politics and practices of institutions towards these students; (3) staff attitudes in the courses; (4) adult…

  7. Guidelines on Library Twinning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Robert P., Comp.; Scarry, Patricia, Comp.

    This document serves as an overview of the many forms of library twinning, or formal exchanges of materials and/or staff between two institutions. Twinning can be reciprocal, but often involves a one-way arrangement whereby a library in a developing country receives a visit from a librarian of a developed country. Either way, both institutions can…

  8. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Arterio-venous flow between monochorionic twins determined during intra-uterine transfusion. Nonlinear decay of adult red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Pasman, Suzanne A.; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Lopriore, Enrico; Vandenbussche, Frank P. H. A.

    2008-07-01

    Recently, we derived equations relating the flow of adult red blood cells through a placental arterio-venous anastomosis with intra-uterine and post-natal measured adult hemoglobin concentrations. In this letter, we re-derived the equations, now including a more realistic nonlinear decay of adult red blood cells, and re-evaluated the measurement accuracy of the arterio-venous flow and the lifetime of the red blood cells.

  9. Cancer risks in twins and singletons from twin and non-twin families.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lingjing; Cnattingius, Sven; Nyman Iliadou, Anastasia; Oberg, Anna Sara

    2016-03-01

    The unique intrauterine environment has been proposed to put twins at increased risk of certain cancers compared to singletons, still large population comparisons have generally indicated lower risks in twins. To improve the understanding of potential twin influence on cancer we compared twins to their singletons siblings, to target a unique twinning influence. Singletons from twin families were contrasted to singletons from non-twin families to further capture potential twin family influence on risk of cancer. Family relations were identified using the Swedish Multi-Generation Register. Among individuals born between 1932 and 1958, 49,156 twins and N = 35,227 singletons were identified from 18,098 unique twin families. All incident cases of specific cancer types were identified in the National Cancer Register up to the end of 2007. Standardized survival functions were estimated using weighted Cox proportional hazard regression and the corresponding cumulative risks plotted against age. Overall, primary cancers were identified in 9% and 18% of all male and female twins, compared to 11% and 19% of their male and female singleton siblings. When specific cancer sites were compared using standardized cumulative risk plots, no consistent statistically significant differences were noted either between twins and singletons of twin families or between singletons of twin and non-twin families. Despite a different intrauterine experience, twinning does not seem to have any greater negative influence on life-time risks of cancer. The findings also indicate that twin family membership has no substantial influence on cancer risks.

  10. An Investigation of Exceptional Twins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crismore, Avon

    The author, herself a mother of twins, reviews research on exceptional twins. She considers reasons for fascination with twins and comments upon important advances in technology. Current research in Indianapolis to measure cognitive, perceptual, personality, and chromosome patterns of twins is described. Differences in the makeup of identical and…

  11. Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mahieu-Caputo, Dominique; Dommergues, Marc; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Lacoste, Mireille; Cai, Yi; Narcy, Françoise; Jolly, Dominique; Gonzales, Marie; Dumez, Yves; Gubler, Marie-Claire

    2000-01-01

    The twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTS) results from an unbalanced blood supply through placental anastomoses in monochorionic twins. It induces growth restriction, renal tubular dysgenesis, and oliguria in the donor and visceromegaly and polyuria in the recipient. A better understanding of its pathophysiology could contribute to improving the management of TTS, which still carries a high perinatal mortality in both twins. As well as several other candidates, the renin-angiotensin system might be involved in TTS. To evaluate its role in the pathogenesis of the syndrome, we studied the kidneys of 21 twin pairs who died from TTS at 19 to 30 weeks, compared with 39 individuals in a control group, using light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. The overexpression of the renin protein and transcript with frequent evidence of renin synthesis by mesangial cells was observed in the donor kidneys, presumably as a consequence of chronic renal hypoperfusion. This upregulation of renin synthesis might be beneficial to restore euvolemia. In severe cases of TTS, however, angiotensin-II-induced vasoconstriction acts as an additional deleterious factor by further reducing the renal blood flow in donors. In recipients, renin expression was virtually absent, possibly because it was down-regulated by hypervolemia. However, in addition to congestion and hemorrhagic infarction, there were severe glomerular and arterial lesions resembling those observed in polycythemia- or hypertension-induced microangiopathy. We speculate that fetal hypertension in the recipient might be partly mediated by the transfer of circulating renin produced by the donor, through the placental vascular shunts. PMID:10666392

  12. SUSY meets her twin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Andrey; Mariotti, Alberto; Pokorski, Stefan; Redigolo, Diego; Ziegler, Robert

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the general structure of mirror symmetry breaking in the Twin Higgs scenario. We show, using the IR effective theory, that a significant gain in fine tuning can be achieved if the symmetry is broken hardly. We emphasize that weakly coupled UV completions can naturally accommodate this scenario. We analyze SUSY UV completions and present a simple Twin SUSY model with a tuning of around 10% and colored superpartners as heavy as 2 TeV. The collider signatures of general Twin SUSY models are discussed with a focus on the extended Higgs sectors.

  13. Communication: Are Australians Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansford, B. C.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the question of the distinctive nature of communication in Australia. Discusses nonverbal messages, gender concerns, historical influences on communication, the Australian accent, communication with indigenous persons, communication apprehension, and classroom communication. Argues that Australians' communication is relatively similar to…

  14. Longitudinal Twin Study of Early Reading Development in Three Countries: Preliminary Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Brian; Delaland, Cara; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth; Quain, Peter; Samuelsson, Stefan; Hoien, Torleiv; Corley, Robin; DeFries, John C.; Wadsworth, Sally; Willcutt, Erik; Olson, Richard K.

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary results from data on 146 Australian, 284 American, and 70 Norwegian preschool twins indicate reliable genetic influences on phonological awareness and memory and learning. Vocabulary, grammar, and morphology showed significant shared environment and negligible genetic effects. A print knowledge composite showed genetic and shared…

  15. Twin delivery: how should the second twin be delivered?

    PubMed

    Olofsson, P; Rydhström, H

    1985-11-01

    In a series of 803 pairs of twins born between 1973 and 1982, 0.33% of second twins were delivered by cesarean section after vaginal delivery of the first twin. During the last year the frequency has increased to 7%, calling attention to the problem of declining obstetric skills and experience. This has caused us to update the routines of intrapartum management of twin gestations. In the present program only commonly available obstetric techniques are used. The potentially hazardous twin delivery is excluded from a trial of vaginal delivery. Hopefully, the program will help other obstetricians to decide in favor of vaginal delivery in selected twin gestations.

  16. Gestational age in twins.

    PubMed Central

    James, W H

    1980-01-01

    Dubowitz et al. have offered a scoring system for estimating the gestational age of newborn babies. If the system is applied to twin pairs, the heavier twin is generally estimated to have a greater gestational age than the lighter one. Previously this has been interpreted as a flaw in the scoring system. However, it may well be that in some twin pairs the gestational ages are slightly different and that therefore, the heavier twin would be expected to have a greater gestational age. Such cases would arise through superfecundation (the formation of two zygotes from different coitions). Superfecundation can be proved only in rare case (those with two fathers). It can be argued that the rarity of such cases is accounted for by the rarity with which women expose themselves to the risk of bearing such twins (and by the improbability of detection), rather than by the rarity of superfecundation. It is inferred that superfecundation by the same man is relatively common and that therefore dizygotic twins quite often have different gestational ages. The scoring system of Dubowitz can be tested for bias by submitting monozygotic pairs to it: the association between weight and estimated gestational age should be absent in such pairs. If the system proves free of such bias, then a finding first reported here will assume some interest: it is that in opposite-sexed twin pairs, the male is significantly more often assessed as having the greater gestational age. It is suggested that this finding should be provisionally accepted as evidence for the hyopthesis that male zygotes are formed earlier than females. PMID:7191240

  17. Twins: A cloning experience.

    PubMed

    Prainsack, Barbara; Spector, Tim D

    2006-11-01

    Drawing upon qualitative interviews with monozygotic (identical) twins sharing 100% of their genes, and with dizygotic (fraternal) twins and singletons as control groups, this paper explores what it means to be genetically identical. (The twins interviewed were from the TwinsUK register in London.) In the context of the ongoing debate on human reproductive cloning, it examines questions such as: To what extent do identical twins perceive their emotional and physical bond to be a result of their genetic makeup? What would they think if they had been deliberately created genetically identical? How would they feel about being genetically identical to a person who was born a few years earlier or later? First, our respondents ascribed no great significance to the role of genes in their understanding of what it means to be identical twins. Second, the opinion that human reproductive cloning would "interfere with nature", or "contradict God's will", was expressed by our respondents exclusively on the abstract level. The more our respondents were able to relate a particular invented cloning scenario to their own life-worlds, the lower the prevalence of the argument. Third, for all three groups of respondents, the scenario of having been born in one of the other groups was perceived as strange. Fourth, the aspect that our respondents disliked about cloning scenarios was the potential motives of the cloners. Without equating monozygotic twins directly with "clones", these results from "naturally" genetically identical individuals add a new dimension to what a future cloning situation could entail: The cloned person might possibly (a) perceive a close physical and emotional connection to the progenitor as a blessing; (b) suffer from preconceptions of people who regard physical likeness as a sign of incomplete individuality; and (c) perceive the idea of not having been born a clone of a particular person as unpleasant.

  18. Genetic and environmental contributions to pro-social attitudes: a twin study of social responsibility.

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, J. Philippe

    2004-01-01

    Although 51 twin and adoption studies have been performed on the genetic architecture of antisocial behaviour, only four previous studies have examined a genetic contribution to pro-social behaviour. Earlier work by the author with the University of London Institute of Psychiatry Adult Twin Register found that genes contributed approximately half of the variance to measures of self-report altruism, empathy, nurturance and aggression, including acts of violence. The present study extends those results by using a 22-item Social Responsibility Questionnaire with 174 pairs of monozygotic twins and 148 pairs of dizygotic twins. Forty-two per cent of the reliable variance was due to the twins' genes, 23% to the twins' common environment and the remainder to the twins' non-shared environment. PMID:15615684

  19. High incidence of supernumerary nipples and twins in formosan macaques (Macaca cyclopis) at Mt. Longevity, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, M J; Moore, J; Lin, J F; Agoramoorthy, G

    2000-12-01

    A population of Formosan macaques at Mt. Longevity exhibits an unusually high incidence of supernumerary nipples (polythelia: between 1-6 accessory nipples and/or areolae on 33% of adults), as well as a high rate of twinning (about 1% of births). The coexistence of these unusual traits suggests a connection, which is further supported by a tendency for mothers of twins to have accessory nipples and for twins to be born in troops with high incidence of polythelia.

  20. Maternal nutrition in twin pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D M; MacGillivray, I; Tuttle, S

    1982-01-01

    Energy and protein intake as measured by 24-hour urinary nitrogen values are similar in twin and singleton pregnancies. The relationship between urinary nitrogen and nitrogen intake is equally significant in twin and singleton pregnancies. Dietary zinc, copper, and iron are not different in women with twins, nor are the levels of these elements in plasma. These observations are surprising in view of the extra fetal demands on the mother and the different adaptation of twin pregnancies.

  1. Salicylate Metabolism in Twins

    PubMed Central

    Furst, Daniel E.; Gupta, Niroo; Paulus, Harold E.

    1977-01-01

    To evaluate the contribution of genetic influences on the individual variation in plateau serum salicylate levels, salicylate metabolism was studied in seven pairs of identical and six pairs of fraternal twins. Under the conditions of this study, after a single i.v. dose (40 mg/kg) of sodium salicylate, the serum salicylate concentration versus time curve approximated a straight line on linear coordinates (appeared approximately zero order). The slopes of the decay curves ranged between 0.64 and 1.02. The intrapair variation for identical twin pairs was significantly less than for fraternal twin pairs (P = 0.044). Likewise pleateau serum salicylic acid concentrations (milligrams/deciliter) and total salicylic acid excretion rate after multiple doses demonstrated significantly less intrapair variation for identical twins than for fraternal twins (P = 0.043 and 0.006). Plateau salicylurate excretion (milligram/kilogram per hour) differences after multiple dosing had a P = 0.067. Michaelis-Menton constant for salicylurate formation and hours to 50% excretion after the i.v. dose were not different when comparing identical and nonidentical twins. Salicylurate formation rates were increased after 3 days of oral therapy, and this induction phenomenon may account for much of the apparent discrepancy between genetic influences on salicylurate formation rates observed after single and multiple dose salicylate administration. This study suggests that the plateau concentration of serum salicylate varies among individuals given the same weight-adjusted dose in part because of genetically determined variations in their metabolism of salicylate. PMID:559691

  2. Twin Quintuplets in CVD Diamond

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-26

    microscopy (HRTEM). We conclude that the twin quintuplets have two main morphologies. The first consists of four Sigma = 3 twin boundaries and one...slightly more than the 70.53 deg tilt of a Sigma = 3 boundary. These grain boundaries and the conventional diamond lattice twin boundaries are the only types of boundaries that we have observed in CVD diamond.

  3. A case study of recipient twin surviving complications of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Squires, Linda Sharee

    2013-10-01

    Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) has a high rate of mortality and morbidity. This article describes the clinical course of a recipient twin in a case of TTTS. The twin was on long-term respiration support and survived two resuscitations, pneumothorax, chest tube placement, blood exchange, necrotizing enterocolitis and corrective surgery. This case demonstrates that the effective use of a collaborative, multidisciplinary care approach between two hospitals can result in a newborn surviving a severe case of TTTS.

  4. Perinatal chikungunya in twins

    PubMed Central

    Karthiga, Vikneswari; Kommu, Peter Prasanth Kumar; Krishnan, Lalitha

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of vertically transmitted chikungunya infection in heterozygous twin neonates presenting as seizures, encephalopathy, midfacial hyperpigmentation, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. This could be considered as a rare cause of neonatal seizure and identification would help in appropriate management. PMID:27857791

  5. Identical Twins Raised Apart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnsworth, David L.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a bivariate data set that is interesting to students. Indeed, this particular data set, which involves twins and IQ, has sparked more student interest than any other set that I have presented. Specific uses of the data set are presented.

  6. Twin Signature Schemes, Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäge, Sven

    In this paper, we revisit the twin signature scheme by Naccache, Pointcheval and Stern from CCS 2001 that is secure under the Strong RSA (SRSA) assumption and improve its efficiency in several ways. First, we present a new twin signature scheme that is based on the Strong Diffie-Hellman (SDH) assumption in bilinear groups and allows for very short signatures and key material. A big advantage of this scheme is that, in contrast to the original scheme, it does not require a computationally expensive function for mapping messages to primes. We prove this new scheme secure under adaptive chosen message attacks. Second, we present a modification that allows to significantly increase efficiency when signing long messages. This construction uses collision-resistant hash functions as its basis. As a result, our improvements make the signature length independent of the message size. Our construction deviates from the standard hash-and-sign approach in which the hash value of the message is signed in place of the message itself. We show that in the case of twin signatures, one can exploit the properties of the hash function as an integral part of the signature scheme. This improvement can be applied to both the SRSA based and SDH based twin signature scheme.

  7. Why Aren't Identical Twins Linguistically Identical? Genetic, Prenatal and Postnatal Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromswold, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Results of twin studies clearly demonstrate that genetic factors play an important role in the rate of language acquisition and linguistic proficiency attained by normal and impaired children and adults [see Stromswold, K. (2001). The heritability of language: A review and meta-analysis of twin, adoption and linkage studies. "Language," 77,…

  8. How Do Friends Influence Smoking Uptake? Findings from Qualitative Interviews with Identical Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Kim; White, Victoria; Mullins, Robyn; Davey, Claire; Wakefield, Melanie; Hill, David

    2008-01-01

    The smoking behavior of friends is a major risk factor for adolescent smoking uptake. To explore the social context of smoking experimentation and consolidation with a particular focus on friends, the authors interviewed both members of 14 young adult identical twin pairs who were discordant for smoking. The different smoking status of twins was…

  9. Mental Representations of Attachment in Identical Female Twins with and without Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantino, John N.; Chackes, Laura M.; Wartner, Ulrike G.; Gross, Maggie; Brophy, Susan L.; Vitale, Josie; Heath, Andrew C.

    2006-01-01

    Insecure mental representations of attachment, a nearly invariant feature of cluster B personality disorders, have never previously been studied in twins. We conducted the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) on 33 pairs of monozygotic (MZ) female twins reared together as an initial exploration of causal influences on mental representations of…

  10. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Extreme Personality Dispositions in Adolescent Female Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pergadia, Michele L.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Lessov, Christina N.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The objective was to determine whether the pattern of environmental and genetic influences on deviant personality scores differs from that observed for the normative range of personality, comparing results in adolescent and adult female twins. Methods: A sample of 2,796 female adolescent twins ascertained from birth records provided…

  11. Diabetes MILES--Australia (management and impact for long-term empowerment and success): methods and sample characteristics of a national survey of the psychological aspects of living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in Australian adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Successful management of diabetes requires attention to the behavioural, psychological and social aspects of this progressive condition. The Diabetes MILES (Management and Impact for Long-term Empowerment and Success) Study is an international collaborative. Diabetes MILES--Australia, the first Diabetes MILES initiative to be undertaken, was a national survey of adults living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in Australia. The aim of this study was to gather data that will provide insights into how Australians manage their diabetes, the support they receive and the impact of diabetes on their lives, as well as to use the data to validate new diabetes outcome measures. Methods/design The survey was designed to include a core set of self-report measures, as well as modules specific to diabetes type or management regimens. Other measures or items were included in only half of the surveys. Cognitive debriefing interviews with 20 participants ensured the survey content was relevant and easily understood. In July 2011, the survey was posted to 15,000 adults (aged 18-70 years) with type 1 or type 2 diabetes selected randomly from the National Diabetes Services Scheme (NDSS) database. An online version of the survey was advertised nationally. A total of 3,338 eligible Australians took part; most (70.4%) completed the postal survey. Respondents of both diabetes types and genders, and of all ages, were adequately represented in both the postal and online survey sub-samples. More people with type 2 diabetes than type 1 diabetes took part in Diabetes MILES--Australia (58.8% versus 41.2%). Most respondents spoke English as their main language, were married/in a de facto relationship, had at least a high school education, were occupied in paid work, had an annual household income > $AUS40,000, and lived in metropolitan areas. Discussion A potential limitation of the study is the under-representation of respondents from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds

  12. Mid-Adolescent Predictors of Adult Drinking Levels in Early Adulthood and Gender Differences: Longitudinal Analyses Based on the South Australian School Leavers Study

    PubMed Central

    Winefield, Helen R.; Hammarström, Anne

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable public health interest in understanding what factors during adolescence predict longer-term drinking patterns in adulthood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in the age 15 social and psychological predictors of less healthy drinking patterns in early adulthood. The study investigates the relative importance of internalising problems, other risky health behaviours, and peer relationships after controlling for family background characteristics. A sample of 812 young people who provided complete alcohol consumption data from the age of 15 to 20 years (5 measurement points) were drawn from South Australian secondary schools and given a detailed survey concerning their psychological and social wellbeing. Respondents were classified into two groups based upon a percentile division: those who drank at levels consistently below NHMRC guidelines and those who consistently drank at higher levels. The results showed that poorer age 15 scores on measures of psychological wellbeing including scores on the GHQ-12, self-esteem, and life-satisfaction as well as engagement in health-related behaviours such as smoking or drug-taking were associated with higher drinking levels in early adulthood. The pattern of results was generally similar for both genders. Higher drinking levels were most strongly associated with smoking and marijuana use and poorer psychological wellbeing during adolescence. PMID:27635278

  13. Reared-Apart Chinese Twins: Chance Discovery/Twin-Based Research: Twin Study of Media Use; Twin Relations Over the Life Span; Breast-Feeding Opposite-Sex Twins/Print and Online Media: Twins in Fashion; Second Twin Pair Born to Tennis Star; Twin Primes; Twin Pandas.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2017-04-01

    A January 2017 reunion of 10-year-old reared-apart Chinese twin girls was captured live on ABC's morning talk show Good Morning America, and rebroadcast on their evening news program Nightline. The twins' similarities and differences, and their participation in ongoing research will be described. This story is followed by reviews of twin research concerning genetic and environmental influences on media use, twin relations across the lifespan and the breast-feeding of opposite-sex twins. Popular interest items include twins in fashion, the second twin pair born to an internationally renowned tennis star, twin primes and twin pandas.

  14. Acardiac twin: an unusual case report.

    PubMed

    Kariappa, T M; Chidananda, H T; Mamatha, R

    2007-10-01

    Acardiac twinning is a rare anomaly .75% of cases occurring in monzygotic triplet pregnancies and the rest in monozygotic twins. We report an antenatally undiagnosed case of acardius amorphous. The condition results from abnormal placental vascular anastomoses termed as twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) theory. Early sonographic prenatal diagnosis improves the survival of the normal twin called the pump twin.

  15. Nutrition in twin pregnancy.

    PubMed

    MacGillivray, I

    1979-01-01

    The urinary nitrogen output appears to be related to both protein and energy intake, so that women having heavier babies probably eat more, although this may simply mean that they are larger women. Women with twin pregnancies have been found to have a lesser urinary nitrogen output, but it seems unlikely that this be due to lower intakes. They might simply utilize their diet more efficiently--a hypothesis that is now being tested.

  16. Challenges of Twin Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Lynn M.; Hose, Patricia M.

    1991-01-01

    Family physicians have an important role in the diagnosis and management of twin pregnancies. Optimal antepartum management begins with early detection. Provision of patient education about the risks of the pregnancy is important. Intrapartum management is dependent on gestation age, placentation, fetal presentation, and fetal well-being. Anticipatory guidance and ongoing support should be provided for postpartum issues, such as breast-feeding and family adjustment. PMID:21229108

  17. Are schools and alcohol a good mix? A qualitative study of school principals' experiences of adults' alcohol use in Australian secondary schools

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Bernadette M; Buykx, Penny; Munro, Geoffrey; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective Parents, schools and the broader community influence children's socialisation to alcohol. In Australia, the UK and the USA, there have been media reports of adults consuming alcohol at family-focused school events such as fairs and graduations. The aim of this qualitative study was to describe school principals' experiences of adults' use of alcohol at school events, when children are present. Design/setting/participants A qualitative study was undertaken. Publicly available lists were used to invite 60 principals from government and Catholic secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. In-depth interviews were conducted and analysed thematically and reported using the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research guidelines. Results 14 principals (5 female, 9 male) participated. Most (10) of the participating principals reported adults' use of alcohol at events when students were present. Regarding these events, most principals reported concerns regarding potential harms and responsibility for decision-making about alcohol availability in schools. Some (4) principals believed alcohol should not be present at such events and this was their practice. Half of the participating schools had recently made changes to reduce the availability or management of alcohol at school functions. Conclusions The findings confirm the common use of alcohol by adults at school events, the challenges this poses for school principals and suggests consideration needs to be given to identifying strategies for supporting schools and school principals in decision-making regarding the conduct of such events. PMID:27481620

  18. Tribute to dr louis keith: twin and physician extraordinaire/twin research reports: influences on asthma severity; chimerism revisited; DNA strand break repair/media reports: twins born apart; elevated twin frequencies; celebrity father of twins; conjoined twinning.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2014-10-01

    The International Society for Twin Studies has lost a valued friend and colleague. Dr Louis Keith, Emeritus Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Northwestern University, in Chicago, passed away on Sunday, July 6, 2014. His life and work with twins will be acknowledged at the November 2014 International Twin Congress in Budapest, Hungary. Next, twin research reports on the severity of asthma symptoms, a case of chimerism, and factors affecting DNA breakage and repair mechanisms are reviewed. Media reports cover twins born apart, elevated twin frequencies, a celebrity father of twins, and a family's decision to keep conjoined twins together.

  19. Genetic Influences on Political Ideologies: Twin Analyses of 19 Measures of Political Ideologies from Five Democracies and Genome-Wide Findings from Three Populations

    PubMed Central

    Hatemi, Peter K.; Medland, Sarah E.; Klemmensen, Robert; Oskarrson, Sven; Littvay, Levente; Dawes, Chris; Verhulst, Brad; McDermott, Rose; Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne; Klofstad, Casey; Christensen, Kaare; Johannesson, Magnus; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2014-01-01

    Almost forty years ago, evidence from large studies of adult twins and their relatives suggested that between 30-60% of the variance in social and political attitudes could be explained by genetic influences. However, these findings have not been widely accepted or incorporated into the dominant paradigms that explain the etiology of political ideology. This has been attributed in part to measurement and sample limitations, as well the relative absence of molecular genetic studies. Here we present results from original analyses of a combined sample of over 12,000 twins pairs, ascertained from nine different studies conducted in five democracies, sampled over the course of four decades. We provide evidence that genetic factors play a role in the formation of political ideology, regardless of how ideology is measured, the era, or the population sampled. The only exception is a question that explicitly uses the phrase “Left-Right”. We then present results from one of the first genome-wide association studies on political ideology using data from three samples: a 1990 Australian sample involving 6,894 individuals from 3,516 families; a 2008 Australian sample of 1,160 related individuals from 635 families and a 2010 Swedish sample involving 3,334 individuals from 2,607 families. No polymorphisms reached genome-wide significance in the meta-analysis. The combined evidence suggests that political ideology constitutes a fundamental aspect of one’s genetically informed psychological disposition, but as Fisher proposed long ago, genetic influences on complex traits will be composed of thousands of markers of very small effects and it will require extremely large samples to have enough power in order to identify specific polymorphisms related to complex social traits. PMID:24569950

  20. Trojan twin planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, R.; Loibnegger, B.; Schwarz, R.

    2017-03-01

    The Trojan asteroids are moving in the vicinity of the stable Lagrange points L_4 and L_5 of the gas giants Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune. Their motion can be described and understood with the aid of the restricted three-body problem. As an extension of this problem we investigate how stable motion close to the Lagrange points of two massive bodies can exist. This configuration can be described as the Trojan Twin Problem when we regard the two additional bodies as having a mass significantly smaller than the the two primary bodies: a star in the center (m_1) and an additional Jupiter-like mass (m_2). Using this 4-body problem we have undertaken numerical investigations concerning possible stable "twin orbits". However, these two bodies (m_3 and m_4) in Trojan-like orbits may have quite different masses. We decided to choose 6 different scenaria for this problem: as primary body, m2, we have taken a Jupiter-like planet, a Saturn-like one, and a super-Earth with 10 Earthmasses (m_{Earth}) respectively. As quasi twin planets, we have used different mass ratios namely objects for m3 and m4 from 10m_{Earth} to Moon like ones. We found different stable configurations depending on the involved masses and the initial distances between the twins (always close to the Lagrange point). Although the formation of such a configuration seems to be not very probable we should not exclude that it exists regarding the huge number of planets even in our own galaxy. This model is of special interest when the most massive planet (m_2) is moving on an orbit in the habitable zone around a main sequence star. One can use our results of stable orbits of Trojan Twin Planets (or asteroids) for extrasolar systems having as second primary a Jupiter-like, a Saturn-like or a super-Earth like planet around a star similar to our Sun.

  1. [Twins in myth (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    de Rachewiltz, B; Parisi, P; Castellani, V

    1976-01-01

    Twins have an important place in mythology and a sacred character appears to be attached to them since the most ancient times. In ancient Egypt, the royal placenta was worshipped, being considered as the Pharao's twin (a conception that is still alive among certain African populations), and actually everyone was considered to possess a spiritual twin, the Ka or astral body, through whom it was supposed to be possible to operate with magic rituals and hit enemies. Twin gods were worshipped by Babylonians and Assyrians (who even introduced them among astronomic constellations), and may be also found in the Persian and Veda religions. In the classic, Greco-Roman world, the examples of twin gods and heroes are innumerable: from the twin sons of Zeus, the Dioscuri, to the opposite-sexed twin gods Apollo and Diana, to Rome's founders, Romulus and Remus, etc. Since the most ancient times, a magic conception is connected to the twins, either in a positive or a negative sense, but often with some kind of a "fatidic" aspect. Such a two-faced approach to the phenomenon of twinning, that variously characterizes near-east, protomediterranean, classic, and other ancient civilizations, may still be found in contemporary primitive societies.

  2. Monozygotic twins discordant for sex.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, R; Sobel, E H; Nitowsky, H M; Dar, H; Allen, F H

    1976-01-01

    A pair of monozygotic, adolescent twins is discordant for sex. The phenotypic female twin has chromosome constitution of 46, XY/45, X. She displays many signs of Turner's syndrome, including typical facies, webbed neck, malformed left kidney, high plasma gonadotropins, and streak ovaries. However, her height is 154 cm which exceeds the height usually reported in Turner's syndrome. The male twin has a karyotype of 46, XY and normal sexual development. Only two other reports of pairs of monozygotic twins of opposite sex have been published. Images PMID:944787

  3. When You Are a Twin or Triplet

    MedlinePlus

    ... be a twin? Are you a twin and wonder why everyone thinks it's so special? It's fascinating ... the way the egg is fertilized when a woman becomes pregnant . In fraternal twins, two different eggs ...

  4. Australian Mineral Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides details on the philosophy and operation of the Australian Mineral Foundation, established in 1970 to update professionals in the mining and petroleum industries. Services in continuing education courses and to secondary school teachers and students are described. (CS)

  5. Research Readings. Australian Apprenticeships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Nigel, Ed.

    This volume on apprenticeships in Australia summarizes 11 research studies. After an "Introduction" (Nigel Smart), the reports are: "Apprenticeship in Australia: A Concise History" (John Ray); "Issues and Directions from the Australian Apprenticeship and Traineeship Literature" (Stephen Saunders); "Determinants…

  6. Twin Legacies: Victor and Vincent McKusick/Twin Studies: Twinning Rates I; Twinning Rates II; MZ Twin Discordance for Russell-Silver Syndrome; Twins' Language Skills/Headlines: Babies Born to Identical Twin Couples; Identity Exchange; Death of Princess Ashraf (Twin); Yahoo CEO Delivers Identical Twins.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2016-04-01

    The lives of the illustrious monozygotic (MZ) twins, Victor A. and Vincent L. McKusick, are described. Victor earned the distinction as the 'Father of Medical Genetics', while Vincent was a legendary Chief Justice of the Maine Supreme Court. This dual biographical account is followed by two timely reports of twinning rates, a study of MZ twin discordance for Russell-Silver Syndrome (RSS) and a study of twins' language skills. Twin stories in the news include babies born to identical twin couples, a case of switched identity, the death of Princess Ashraf (Twin) and a new mother of twins who is also Yahoo's CEO.

  7. Twinning and heteropaternity in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Ely, John J; Frels, William I; Howell, Sue; Izard, M Kay; Keeling, Michale E; Lee, D Rick

    2006-05-01

    Unlike monozygotic (MZ) twins, dizygotic (DZ) twins develop from separate ova. The resulting twins can have different sires if the fertilizing sperm comes from different males. Routine paternity testing of a pair of same-sexed chimpanzee twins born to a female housed with two males indicated that the twins were sired by two different males. DNA typing of 22 short-tandem repeat (STR) loci demonstrated that these twins were not MZ twins but heteropaternal DZ twins. Reproductive data from 1926-2002 at five domestic chimpanzee colonies, including 52 twins and two triplets in 1,865 maternities, were used to estimate total twinning rates and the MZ and DZ components. The average chimpanzee MZ twinning rate (0.43%) equaled the average human MZ rate (0.48%). However, the chimpanzee DZ twinning rate (2.36%) was over twice the human average, and higher than all but the fertility-enhanced human populations of Nigeria. Similarly high twinning rates among African chimpanzees indicated that these estimates were not artifacts of captivity. Log-linear analyses of maternal and paternal effects on recurrent twinning indicated that females who twinned previously had recurrence risks five times greater than average, while evidence for a paternal twinning effect was weak. Chimpanzee twinning rates appear to be elevated relative to corresponding estimated human rates, making twinning and possibly heteropaternity more important features of chimpanzee reproductive biology than previously recognized.

  8. Twin Peaks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The two hills in the distance, approximately one to two kilometers away, have been dubbed the 'Twin Peaks' and are of great interest to Pathfinder scientists as objects of future study. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The white areas on the left hill, called the 'Ski Run' by scientists, may have been formed by hydrologic processes.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  9. Monozygotic twinning: an evolutionary hypothesis.

    PubMed Central

    Gleeson, S K; Clark, A B; Dugatkin, L A

    1994-01-01

    Monozygotic twinning is rare within populations yet taxonomically widespread. We explore the evolution of monozygotic twinning by modeling an allele in a newly formed offspring that causes it to undergo mitosis and separation to form one or more clones (twins), potentially in conflict with the parents' best interest. The success of this twinning allele in our haploid models depends on the balance of the benefit of increased frequency in the clutch and the cost of reduced survival resulting from limited parental resources. The trait reaches high frequency in a broad range of plausible conditions but also fails to spread or is kept at low frequency in others when the survival cost is high (e.g., in small clutch sizes). Interestingly, there are two reasonable conditions that predict high frequency of the trait but low visibility: random parental abortion and selection for low penetrance. Thus our models suggest reasons why monozygotic twinning might be rare, or alternatively, be common yet appear rare. In addition, we discuss the implications for sex-linked twinning, dizygotic twinning, and twinning by gametes. Images PMID:7972065

  10. Transformation: From Twin to Individual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magagna, Jeanne

    2007-01-01

    This article explores some of the complexities of psychotherapy with an identical twin. The difficulty of developing in psychotherapy while so much of what is oneself is located in the other twin will also be explored. The use of the countertransference as a therapeutic method will be considered as the young person develops her unique, separate…

  11. Early onset alcohol use and self-harm: A discordant twin analysis

    PubMed Central

    Few, Lauren R.; Werner, Kimberly B.; Sartor, Carolyn E.; Trull, Timothy; Nock, Matthew K.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Deitz, Sarah K.; Glowinski, Anne L.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Statham, Dixie J.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Heath, Andrew; Lynskey, Michael T.; Agrawal, Arpana

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-harm has considerable societal and economic costs and has been extensively studied in relation to alcohol involvement. Whereas early onset alcohol use (EAU) has been causally linked to maladaptive clinical outcomes, its association with self-harm is less well characterized. The current study aimed to further examine the link between EAU and both non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempt (SA), and elucidate shared familial and causal/individual-specific pathways that explain this co-occurrence. Methods Using data from 6,082 Australian same-sex twin pairs (1,732 MZ and 1,309 DZ), ages 23-40, we examined prevalence rates of NSSI and SA among twin pairs concordant and discordant for EAU. Conditional logistic regression, controlling for early clinical covariates and the influence of zygosity on EAU, was used to examine the odds ratio (OR) of self-harm within twin pairs discordant for EAU. Results Prevalence rates of both NSSI and SA were highest among twin pairs concordant for EAU and for twins who reported EAU within discordant twin pairs. Results from discordant twin analyses revealed nearly four-fold increased odds of SA for the twin who endorsed EAU, and this OR was equal across monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. EAU also was associated with elevated odds of NSSI (OR=7.62), although this was only the case for DZ twins in discordant pairs. Conclusions The equivalent increase in odds of SA for both MZ and DZ twins suggests that causal or individual-specific influences explain the link between EAU and SA. For NSSI, elevated odds for DZ twins and nonsignificant findings for MZ twins implicate correlated genetic factors in the association between EAU and NSSI. Future studies should test mechanisms through which EAU may causally influence SA, as well as examine whether genetic risk for third variables (e.g., negative urgency, stress reactivity) may explain the genetic overlap between EAU and NSSI. PMID:26463647

  12. The Etiology of Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition in Australian School Students: A Behavior-Genetic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coventry, William; Anton-Mendez, Ines; Ellis, Elizabeth M.; Levisen, Christina; Byrne, Brian; van Daal, Victor H. P.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2012-01-01

    We present one of the first behavior-genetic studies of individual differences in school students' levels of achievement in instructed second language acquisition (ISLA). We assessed these language abilities in Australian twin pairs (maximum N pairs = 251) by means of teacher ratings, class rankings, and self-ratings of proficiency, and used the…

  13. [Hereditary phaeochromocytoma in twins].

    PubMed

    Tóth, Géza; Patócs, Attila; Tóth, Miklós

    2016-08-01

    Phaeochromocytoma is a tumor of the catecholamine-producing cells of the adrenal gland. Extraadrenal phaeochromocytomas are frequently called paragangliomas. The majority of phaeochromocytomas are sporadic, however, about 25-30% are caused by genetic mutation. These tumor are frequently referred as hereditary phaeochromocytomas/paragangliomas. Their incidence increases continuously which can be attributed to availability of genetic examination and to the discovery of novel genes. The 47-year-old female patient underwent abdominal computed tomography which revealed bilateral adrenal gland enlargement. Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging, the 131-I- metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy, urinary catecholamines and serum chomogranin A measurements confirmed the diagnosis of bilateral phaeochromocytomas. The genetically identical twin sister of the patient was also diagnosed with hormonally active bilateral phaechromocytoma, suggesting the genetic origin of phaeochromocytoma. Mutation screening confirmed a germline mutation of the transmembrane protein 127 tumorsupressor gene in both patients. Both patients underwent cortical-sparing adrenalectomy. The adrenal gland with the larger tumor was totally resected, while in the opposite side only the tumor was resected and a small part of the cortex was saved. After the operation urinary catecholamines and serum chromogranin A returned to normal in both patients. Adrenocortical deficiency was absent in the first patient, but her sister developed adrenal insufficiency requiring glucocorticoid replacement. To the best of the authors' knowledge phaeochromocytoma affecting twins has never been described earlier. Genetic examination performed in siblings confirmed the presence of the mutant gene through four generations. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(33), 1326-1330.

  14. A survey of Australian haematology reference intervals.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Leanne; Hall, Sara; Badrick, Tony

    2014-10-01

    This study was designed to create a snapshot of Australian haematology reference intervals (RIs) in use, in particular red cell parameters. We present an analysis of survey results conducted across Australian laboratories between November 2012 and January 2013.All Australian laboratories enrolled in the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Program (RCPA QAP) were invited to participate in the December 2012 Survey Monkey survey, with a response from 85 laboratories (17%) received. The scope included laboratory demographics (location, size/throughput, and network), RIs in use for the full blood count and selected derived parameters, their frequency of revision, source and statistical approach for derivation. Further questions related to uncertainty of measurement, pregnancy values, paediatric/adult cut-off, haematology profiles reported and the use of extended parameters.There is more consistency with some upper and lower limits than others, and wide ranges for reported uncertainty of measurement (UM). There is no apparent consistency with RIs used for particular instruments and technologies. When laboratories change their RIs, most obtain them from a text book, paper or another laboratory and have difficulty in determining the source. If they do determine their own, most don't have a standard operating procedure and calculations are not consistent in terms of sample size and statistical methods used.We have presented evidence of the wide variations in RIs used in Australian laboratories and that arguably these do not differ significantly from each other. The paediatric age cut-off requires standardisation.

  15. Genetic covariance structure of incisor crown size in twins.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, P J; Townsend, G C; Martin, N G; Neale, M C

    1995-07-01

    Previous studies of tooth size in twins and their families have suggested a high degree of genetic control, although there have been difficulties separating the various genetic and environmental effects. A genetic analysis of variation in crown size of the permanent incisors of South Australian twins was carried out, with structural equation modeling used to determine the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors. Maximum mesiodistal crown dimensions of maxillary and mandibular permanent incisors were recorded from dental models of 298 pairs of twins, including 149 monozygous (MZ) and 149 dizygous (DZ) pairs. The analysis revealed that: (i) an adequate fit required additive genetic and unique environmental components; (ii) augmenting the model with non-additive genetic variation did not lead to a significant improvement in fit; (iii) there was evidence of shared environmental influences in the upper central incisors of males; (iv) the additive genetic component constituted a general factor loading on all eight teeth, with group factors loading on antimeric pairs of teeth; (v) unique environmental effects were mostly variable-specific; (vi) most factor loadings on antimeric tooth pairs could be constrained to be equal, indicating a symmetry of genetic and environmental influences between left and right sides; and (vii) estimated heritability of the incisor mesiodistal dimensions varied from 0.81 to 0.91.

  16. Perinatal characteristics and risk of polio among Swedish twins.

    PubMed

    Perng, Wei; Cnattingius, Sven; Iliadou, Anastasia; Villamor, Eduardo

    2012-05-01

    Prenatal exposure to adverse environmental conditions is related to increased adult mortality in regions where infections are highly prevalent, yet there is little evidence of the impact of perinatal conditions on the risk of severe infections throughout life. Using prospectively collected data from 21 604 like-sexed Swedish twins of known zygosity born in 1926-1958, we examined the risk of polio in relation to perinatal characteristics using cohort and nested co-twin case-control analyses. Polio incidence was determined through an interview in 1998, and linkage with the Swedish national inpatient and death registries. There were 133 cases of polio. In the cohort analysis, birth length, birthweight and head circumference were positively associated with polio risk. After adjustment for sex, birth year, gestational age at birth and within-twin pair correlations, twins of shortest length (<44 cm) had a 67% ([95% CI: 6%, 88%]; P=0.04) lower risk of polio compared with the reference group (47-49 cm). After additional adjustment for birth length, every 100-g increase in birthweight was related to a 34% increased risk of polio ([95% CI: -1%, 82%]; P=0.06), and every 10-mm increase in head circumference was related to a 17% greater risk of polio ([95% CI: 5%, 31%]; P=0.004). In co-twin control analyses among 226 disease-discordant twins, birth length, birthweight and head circumference were 0.3 cm (P=0.19), 84 g (P=0.07) and 3 mm (P=0.08) higher in cases than controls, respectively. Similar associations were observed among monozygotic (n=84) and dizygotic (n=142) twins. These findings suggest that early intrauterine growth restriction may be inversely related to the incidence of polio.

  17. Twins and Kindergarten Separation: Divergent Beliefs of Principals, Teachers, Parents, and Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Lynn Melby

    2015-01-01

    Should principals enforce mandatory separation of twins in kindergarten? Do school separation beliefs of principals differ from those of teachers, parents of twins, and twins themselves? This survey questioned 131 elementary principals, 54 kindergarten teachers, 201 parents of twins, and 112 twins. A majority of principals (71%) believed that…

  18. The Genetic Relationship between Indentical Twins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Rosemary

    1984-01-01

    Reviews current research on a woman's chances of bearing twins and the genetic relationship, prenatal competition, and personality similarities between twins. In addition, the nature/nurture controversy is discussed in terms of evidence from studies of identical twins reared apart. Future studies are suggested to discover the ways twinning might…

  19. Recipient twin limb ischemia with postnatal onset.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Roland Spencer

    2007-02-01

    After the occurrence of 3 local cases of limb ischemia in newborn twins, we reviewed the literature to investigate this combination systematically. This review reveals a distinct condition: postnatal onset limb ischemia affecting recipient twins in twin-twin transfusion syndrome.

  20. Best Practices for Twin Placement in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacina, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The children's book "Two Is for Twins" celebrates twins and illustrates the many "twos" in a child's world. The uniqueness of twos does not have to mean separate classrooms for twins in child development programs, preschool, or elementary school settings. With recent dramatic increases in the US twin population, how should educators address the…

  1. HEREDITARY FACTORS IN NORMAL PERSONALITY TRAITS (AS MEASURED BY INVENTORIES). LOUISVILLE TWIN STUDY, RESEARCH REPORT NUMBER 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VANDENBERG, STEVEN G.

    RESEARCH ON HEREDITARY FACTORS IN NORMAL PERSONALITY TRAITS, AS MEASURED BY INVENTORIES, HAS BEEN LIMITED BY THE FOLLOWING FACTORS--(1) DATA DRAWN FROM ADOLESCENT, NOT ADULT, TWINS, (2) OMISSION OF MENTALLY ILL TWINS, (3) SMALL SIZE OF SAMPLES, (4) VARIABILITY STUDIED ONLY WITHIN FAMILY, (5) SMALL, ISOLATED, UNCOORDINATED STUDIES, AND (6) PROBLEMS…

  2. Twin Higgs Asymmetric Dark Matter.

    PubMed

    García García, Isabel; Lasenby, Robert; March-Russell, John

    2015-09-18

    We study asymmetric dark matter (ADM) in the context of the minimal (fraternal) twin Higgs solution to the little hierarchy problem, with a twin sector with gauged SU(3)^{'}×SU(2)^{'}, a twin Higgs doublet, and only third-generation twin fermions. Naturalness requires the QCD^{'} scale Λ_{QCD}^{'}≃0.5-20  GeV, and that t^{'} is heavy. We focus on the light b^{'} quark regime, m_{b^{'}}≲Λ_{QCD}^{'}, where QCD^{'} is characterized by a single scale Λ_{QCD}^{'} with no light pions. A twin baryon number asymmetry leads to a successful dark matter (DM) candidate: the spin-3/2 twin baryon, Δ^{'}∼b^{'}b^{'}b^{'}, with a dynamically determined mass (∼5Λ_{QCD}^{'}) in the preferred range for the DM-to-baryon ratio Ω_{DM}/Ω_{baryon}≃5. Gauging the U(1)^{'} group leads to twin atoms (Δ^{'}-τ^{'}[over ¯] bound states) that are successful ADM candidates in significant regions of parameter space, sometimes with observable changes to DM halo properties. Direct detection signatures satisfy current bounds, at times modified by dark form factors.

  3. Short-term changes in quitting-related cognitions and behaviours after the implementation of plain packaging with larger health warnings: findings from a national cohort study with Australian adult smokers

    PubMed Central

    Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily; Coomber, Kerri; Zacher, Meghan; Scollo, Michelle; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Background Plain packaging (PP) with larger graphic health warnings (GHWs) was implemented in Australia in late 2012. This study examined effects of these packaging changes on short-term changes in quitting-related cognitions and behaviours. Methods We used a series of cohorts of Australian adult cigarette smokers originally sourced from a nationally representative cross-sectional tracking survey, followed up approximately 1 month after their baseline interview (n(weighted)=5441). Logistic regression analyses compared changes in seven quitting-related outcomes over this 1-month follow-up period for the cohorts surveyed before PP, over the period of transition to PP, and during the first year of PP, adjusting for baseline levels of the outcome and covariates. Results Compared to the referent group of smokers who completed their follow-up survey pre-PP, those who were followed-up in the early transition period showed significantly greater increases in rates of stopping themselves from smoking (OR=1.51, 95% CI (1.08 to 2.10)) and higher quit attempt rates (OR=1.43, 95% CI (1.00 to 2.03)), those followed-up in the late transition period showed greater increases in intentions to quit (OR=1.42, 95% CI (1.06 to 1.92)) and pack concealment (OR=1.55, 95% CI (1.05 to 2.31)), and those followed-up in the first year of PP showed higher levels of pack concealment (OR=1.65, 95% CI (1.01 to 2.72)), more premature stubbing out of cigarettes (OR=1.55, 95% CI (1.01 to 2.36)), and higher quit attempt rates (OR=1.52, 95% CI (1.01 to 2.30)). Conclusions These findings provide some of the strongest evidence to date that implementation of PP with larger GHWs was associated with increased rates of quitting cognitions, microindicators of concern and quit attempts among adult cigarette smokers.

  4. Centenary Celebration for Scottish Missionary Mary Slessor: A Lasting Legacy for Twins/Twin Research: Twins With Kleinfelter's Syndrome; Twin Research on Atopic Diseases; Twin Study of Autism; Psychotherapy with Twins / General Interest: Female Twin Pole-Vaulters; Longest Twin Birth Interval; Pair of Franco-Cuban Vocalists; Croatian Twin Models.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2015-06-01

    The centenary celebration for Scottish missionary, Mary Slessor, took place on February 14, 2015 in Melle, Belgium. Slessor saved many newborn twins and their mothers from death and disownment by members of their community, including their families, who believed twins harbored evil spirits. The events of this unusual and significant gathering are described. Next, twin research and reports concerning Kleinfelter's disease, atopic diseases, autism and psychotherapy are presented. General interest subjects include identical female twin pole-vaulters, the longest twin birth interval, Franco-Cuban twin vocalists, and Croatian twin models.

  5. The vector-like twin Higgs

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Nathaniel; Knapen, Simon; Longhi, Pietro; Strassler, Matthew

    2016-07-01

    Here, we present a version of the twin Higgs mechanism with vector-like top partners. In this setup all gauge anomalies automatically cancel, even without twin leptons. The matter content of the most minimal twin sector is therefore just two twin tops and one twin bottom. The LHC phenomenology, illustrated with two example models, is dominated by twin glueball decays, possibly in association with Higgs bosons. We further construct an explicit four-dimensional UV completion and discuss a variety of UV completions relevant for both vector-like and fraternal twin Higgs models.

  6. Failure of vincristine induce twinning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, M.

    1984-01-01

    Mammalian ova do not contain axes of symmetry from which are derived embryonic axes of symmetry. Mammalian axis determination is an early embryologic event occurring at about the time that monozygous twinning in mice. (Kaufma MH & O'Shea KS, 1978, Nature 276:707) and an attempt was made to reproduce their work in several strains of mice. Over 3200 embryos were examined without any twins being found. To rule out the possibility that vincristine caused twinning plus some lethal malformation (with subsequent resorption of the embryo) the embryos were examined 36-60 hours after vincristine treatment.

  7. Mechanism of slip and twinning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastani, Mansur

    1992-01-01

    The objectives are to: (1) demonstrate the mechanisms of deformation in body centered cubic (BCC), face centered cubic (FCC), and hexagonal close-packed (HCP)-structure metals and alloys and in some ceramics as well; (2) examine the deformed microstructures (slip lines and twin boundaries) in different grains of metallic and ceramic specimens; and (3) study visually the deformed macrostructure (slip and twin bands) of metals and alloys. Some of the topics covered include: deformation behavior of materials, mechanisms of plastic deformation, slip bands, twin bands, ductile failure, intergranular fracture, shear failure, slip planes, crystal deformation, and dislocations in ceramics.

  8. Special forms in twin pregnancy - asymmetric conjoined twins.

    PubMed

    Anca, F A; Negru, A; Mihart, A E; Grigoriu, C; Bohîlțea, R E

    2015-01-01

    Twin pregnancies generally represent a high-risk pregnancy. However, monozygous twins are real challenges for obstetricians due to the complications that may occur. Among the particular cases of monozygous twins in the University Emergency Hospital of Bucharest, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, a monochorial monoamniotic pregnancy with conjoined twins has been described. These particular medical circumstances require a deeper understanding of the vascular anatomical particularities. An accurate diagnosis implies a most detailed description of the morphological dynamics of the fetuses with the study of the impact of the vascular anomaly on their development so that the maximum chances of survival and the best outcome for the viable fetus can be obtained. The diagnosis of the most frequently associated anomalies is also extremely important.

  9. Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ≥3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2). Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%), noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data suggest that undiagnosed

  10. Isolated oligodontia in monozygotic twins

    PubMed Central

    Halicioglu, Koray; Sahin, Hakan; Corekci, Bayram; Irgin, Celal; Toptas, Orcun

    2013-01-01

    This case report defines a case of isolated oligodontia of 9 and 10 permanent teeth in 9-year-old monozygotic twin sisters and gives information about the possible genetic and environmental etiology, related dental anomalies and treatment options. The twins have a negative family history of hypodontia and oligodontia in their parents, as well as their paternal and maternal grandmothers and first cousins. No other dental anomalies could be detected in either of the twins. With the occurrence of similarly located tooth agenesis, except for one tooth, in monozygotic twins, one may consider the influence of genetic and/or environmental factors in their etiology. Hereditary relationships associated with oligodontia could help the clinicians to predict the possibility of its occurrence in other family members and in the next generations. However, clinicians should consider oligodontia when it is not hereditary. PMID:24966717

  11. Twins, Triplets, and Other Multiples

    MedlinePlus

    ... complications Pregnancy loss Know your pregnancy rights Getting ready for baby Childbirth and ... Twins, triplets, and other multiples If you are pregnant with more than one baby, you are far from alone. In the ...

  12. The higher frequency of IgA deficiency among Swedish twins is not explained by HLA haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Frankowiack, M; Kovanen, R-M; Repasky, G A; Lim, C K; Song, C; Pedersen, N L; Hammarström, L

    2015-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) concentrations were determined in 12 600 adult Swedish twins, applying a high-throughput reverse-phase protein microarray technique. The prevalence of IgA deficiency (IgAD) was found to be 1:241 in monozygotic (MZ) twins and 1:198 in dizygotic (DZ) twins. Hence, the prevalence in twins is markedly elevated as compared with the normal Swedish adult population (1:600). The twins did not show a difference in the frequency of HLA haplotypes in comparison with almost 40 000 healthy Swedish controls. As expected, the risk-conveying HLA alleles A*01, B*08 and DRB1*01 were overrepresented among the IgAD twins and were also associated with significantly lower mean serum IgA concentrations in the twin cohort. In contrast, significantly higher mean IgA concentrations were found among individuals carrying the protective HLA alleles B*07 and DRB1*15. Exome sequencing data from two MZ twin pairs discordant for the deficiency showed no differences between the siblings. Model fitting analyses derived a heritability of 35% and indicate that genetic influences are modestly important for IgAD. The probandwise concordance rates for IgAD were found to be 31% for MZ and 13% for DZ twins.

  13. Twin-Axial Wire Antenna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-06

    08-2015 Publication Twin-Axial Wire Antenna David A. Tonn Naval Under Warfare Center Division, Newport 1176 Howell St., Code 00L, Bldg 102T...Approved for Public Release Distribution is unlimited Attorney Docket No. 300030 1 of 10 TWIN-AXIAL WIRE ANTENNA STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST...2 of 10 length of the antenna wire . This creates a high pass filter in the antenna and prevents current flow in the VLF/LF bands. [0005] U.S

  14. Australian Film Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Myles P.

    Although Australia had a vigorous film industry in the silent film era, it was stifled in the 1930s when United States and British interests bought up the Australian distribution channels and closed down the indigenous industry. However, the industry and film study have undergone a renaissance since the advent of the Labor government in 1972,…

  15. Trialling the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashman, Di

    2010-01-01

    In 2010, St. Leonards Primary School in Tasmania, along with other selected schools throughout Australia, trialled the draft Australian Curriculum: Mathematics. Mathematics had been a whole school focus at St. Leonards Primary School for several years, and the school found that the opportunity to be part of the trial strongly connected with their…

  16. Researching Australian Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxby, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    When in 1962 the author began to research the history of Australian children's literature, access to the primary sources was limited and difficult. From a catalogue drawer in the Mitchell Library of hand-written cards marked "Children's books" he could call up from the stacks, in alphabetical order, piles of early publications. His notes…

  17. Numeracy and Australian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgasz, Helen; Leder, Gilah

    2016-01-01

    Australian teachers, recruited via Facebook, completed an online survey about aspects of numeracy. The survey was designed to explore views on numeracy and capacity to respond to numeracy tasks. In this paper, we focus primarily on responses to two numeracy tasks--one numerical, the other requiring critical evaluation. On the first item, 40%…

  18. Music in Australian Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartle, Graham

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a survey of music in Australian schools. The survey included all types of schools, and includes facilities and equipment for musical education, and the use made of them. The courses of study, organization of musical activities, finance, supervision, teacher training, and…

  19. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek

    2013-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, the focus in this issue is on Measurement in the Measurement and Geometry strand. The small unit of work on measurement presented in this article has activities that can be modified to meet the requirements of…

  20. A general method to determine twinning elements

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yudong; Li, Zongbin; Esling, Claude; Muller, Jacques; Zhao, Xiang; Zuo, Liang

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental theory of crystal twinning has been long established, leading to a significant advance in understanding the nature of this physical phenomenon. However, there remains a substantial gap between the elaborate theory and the practical determination of twinning elements. This paper proposes a direct and simple method – valid for any crystal structure and based on the minimum shear criterion – to calculate various twinning elements from the experimentally determined twinning plane for Type I twins or the twinning direction for Type II twins. Without additional efforts, it is generally applicable to identify and predict possible twinning modes occurring in a variety of crystalline solids. Therefore, the present method is a promising tool to characterize twinning elements, especially for those materials with complex crystal structure. PMID:22477779

  1. How couples cope with the death of a twin or higher order multiple.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Patricia B; Kane, Robert T; Pearsall-Jones, Jillian G; Swanson, Carl F; Croft, Maxine L

    2009-08-01

    Fifty-two Australian couples who had experienced the death of at least one member of a multiple birth (twin or higher order), with at least one survivor of that birth, were interviewed about their experiences at the time of the death, and since. This study compared parents' coping after the twins' deaths using the Beck Depression Inventory II, Perinatal Grief Scale, and unstructured interviews with some structured queries. Parents provided information on the influence of family, community and medical staff. According to retrospective reports, mothers experienced significantly more depression and grief than fathers at the time of loss. Both parents found the death of their twins grievous, but fathers, unlike mothers, were not encouraged to express their emotions. Although parents generally agreed about what helped them cope, fathers believed that they should be able to cope regardless of their grief. The strength of parents' spiritual beliefs had increased significantly since their loss, and there was some evidence that depressed and grieving mothers turned to spiritual support. Parents whose children died earlier reported levels of depression similar to those reported by parents whose children died later. To date, this is the largest study of grief in couples who have experienced the death of a twin and who have a surviving twin or higher order multiple.

  2. The Twin Jet Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    M2-9 is a striking example of a 'butterfly' or a bipolar planetary nebula. Another more revealing name might be the 'Twin Jet Nebula.' If the nebula is sliced across the star, each side of it appears much like a pair of exhausts from jet engines. Indeed, because of the nebula's shape and the measured velocity of the gas, in excess of 200 miles per second, astronomers believe that the description as a super-super-sonic jet exhaust is quite apt. This is much the same process that takes place in a jet engine: The burning and expanding gases are deflected by the engine walls through a nozzle to form long, collimated jets of hot air at high speeds. M2-9 is 2,100 light-years away in the constellation Ophiucus. The observation was taken Aug. 2, 1997 by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. In this image, neutral oxygen is shown in red, once-ionized nitrogen in green, and twice-ionized oxygen in blue.

  3. Twin Dimples Intrigue Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is part of the first set of pictures that was returned to Earth after the rover exited 'Eagle Crater.' Scientists are busy analyzing Opportunity's new view of the plains of Meridiani Planum. The plentiful ripples are a clear indication that wind is the primary geologic process currently in effect on the plains. On the left of the image are two depressions--each about a meter (about 3.3 feet) across--that feature bright spots in their centers. One possibility is that the bright material is similar in composition to the rocks in Eagle Crater's outcrop and the surrounding darker material is what's referred to as 'lag deposit,' or erosional remnants that are much harder and more difficult to wear away. These twin dimples might be revealing pieces of a larger outcrop that lies beneath. The depression closest to Opportunity is whimsically referred to as 'Homeplate' and the one behind it as 'First Base.' The rover's panoramic camera is set to take detailed images of the depressions today, on Opportunity's 58th sol. The backshell and parachute that helped protect the rover and deliver it safely to the surface of Mars are also visible near the horizon, in the center of the image. This image was taken by the rover's navigation camera.

  4. Proactive Coping in Community-Dwelling Older Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sougleris, Christina; Ranzijn, Rob

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study of older community-dwelling Australian adults which aimed to test whether a relatively unexplored construct, proactive coping, could have a role in purpose in life, personal growth, and life satisfaction. A total of 109 women and 115 men (Mean age = 75.04 yrs, SD = 6.66) completed a questionnaire containing…

  5. Methylomic analysis of monozygotic twins discordant for childhood psychotic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Helen L; Murphy, Therese M; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Viana, Joana; Hannon, Eilis; Pidsley, Ruth; Burrage, Joe; Dempster, Emma L; Wong, Chloe C Y; Pariante, Carmine M; Mill, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Childhood psychotic symptoms are associated with increased rates of schizophrenia, other psychiatric disorders, and suicide attempts in adulthood; thus, elucidating early risk indicators is crucial to target prevention efforts. There is considerable discordance for psychotic symptoms between monozygotic twins, indicating that child-specific non-genetic factors must be involved. Epigenetic processes may constitute one of these factors and have not yet been investigated in relation to childhood psychotic symptoms. Therefore, this study explored whether differences in DNA methylation at age 10 were associated with monozygotic twin discordance for psychotic symptoms at age 12. The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study cohort of 2,232 children (1,116 twin pairs) was assessed for age-12 psychotic symptoms and 24 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for symptoms were identified for methylomic comparison. Children provided buccal samples at ages 5 and 10. DNA was bisulfite modified and DNA methylation was quantified using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 array. Differentially methylated positions (DMPs) associated with psychotic symptoms were subsequently tested in post-mortem prefrontal cortex tissue from adult schizophrenia patients and age-matched controls. Site-specific DNA methylation differences were observed at age 10 between monozygotic twins discordant for age-12 psychotic symptoms. Similar DMPs were not found at age 5. The top-ranked psychosis-associated DMP (cg23933044), located in the promoter of the C5ORF42 gene, was also hypomethylated in post-mortem prefrontal cortex brain tissue from schizophrenia patients compared to unaffected controls. These data tentatively suggest that epigenetic variation in peripheral tissue is associated with childhood psychotic symptoms and may indicate susceptibility to schizophrenia and other mental health problems.

  6. Estimating twin concordance for bivariate competing risks twin data.

    PubMed

    Scheike, Thomas H; Holst, Klaus K; Hjelmborg, Jacob B

    2014-03-30

    For twin time-to-event data, we consider different concordance probabilities, such as the casewise concordance that are routinely computed as a measure of the lifetime dependence/correlation for specific diseases. The concordance probability here is the probability that both twins have experienced the event of interest. Under the assumption that both twins are censored at the same time, we show how to estimate this probability in the presence of right censoring, and as a consequence, we can then estimate the casewise twin concordance. In addition, we can model the magnitude of within pair dependence over time, and covariates may be further influential on the marginal risk and dependence structure. We establish the estimators large sample properties and suggest various tests, for example, for inferring familial influence. The method is demonstrated and motivated by specific twin data on cancer events with the competing risk death. We thus aim to quantify the degree of dependence through the casewise concordance function and show a significant genetic component.

  7. Double effort: Parental behavior of wild Azara's owl monkeys in the face of twins.

    PubMed

    Huck, Maren; Van Lunenburg, Mari; Dávalos, Victor; Rotundo, Marcelo; Di Fiore, Anthony; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo

    2014-07-01

    In species of mammals that habitually bear single offspring, like most anthropoid primates, the occurrence of twins is expected to impose considerable energetic costs on the caretakers. The question then arises of how caregivers cope with the potentially increased costs of raising twins. These increased costs should lead to differing developmental rates in twins when compared to singletons, and/or to changes in the caregivers' behavior. Likewise, time budgets of parents of singletons are expected to differ from those of adults without offspring. Additionally, if twinning was an adaptive response to favorable ecological conditions, it should be more likely in years with high food abundance. Following the birth in 2011 of two sets of twins in a wild population of pair-living Azara's owl monkeys (Aotus azarae) in Northern Argentina, we used long-term demographic, behavioral, and phenological data to compare (a) the proportion of time that singleton and twin infants were carried by either parent; (b) adult time budgets and ranging behavior in groups with zero, one, or two infants; and (c) the availability of food in 2011 with food availability in other years. Twins, like singletons, were carried nearly exclusively by the male, and they were carried slightly more than singletons, suggesting a relatively inflexible pattern of infant care in the species. Time budgets showed that twin parents foraged more and moved less than singleton parents or groups without infants, despite the fact that phenological data indicate that fruit availability in 2011 was not substantially higher than in some of the other years. Overall, twinning thus presumably increased costs to breeders, especially males, but its effect on animals' long-term reproductive success remains unclear.

  8. The association between parental separation during childhood and obesity in adulthood: a Danish twin study

    PubMed Central

    Kyvik, K. O.; Heitmann, B. L.; Vámosi, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective The purpose of this study was to examine if parental separation during childhood is associated with obesity in adulthood. Methods A co‐twin case–control study of 146 adult same‐sexed twin pairs with discordant body mass index (BMI) (i.e. one of the twins should have a BMI of 20–25 kg/m2, and the co‐twin's BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) was selected from Danish Twin Registry (DTR). In total of 236 eligible twin individuals participated in the study. Childhood parental separation (defined as separation from one of the biological parents, regardless of the reason for separation) for at least one year prior to age 17 was self‐reported. The statistical analysis includes logistic and linear regression models using STATA 13.0. Results There were no differences in the odds of developing obesity in adulthood between the twin who stayed with a father and the co‐twin who was separated from him for at least 1 year prior to age 17 [OR = 1.22, 95%CI (0.46–3.34), p = 0.65]. Separation from a mother also showed no differences in the odds for developing obesity [OR = 0.90, 95%CI (0.32–2.46), p = 0.82]. Conclusions Because of the limited number of discordant twin pairs for childhood parental separation, we cannot provide evidence to suggest that separation from parents in childhood was associated with developing obesity in adulthood. Further studies of pooling discordant twins from several countries should be considered. PMID:28090349

  9. Vasospastic Angina in Identical Twins

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, Takayuki; Otsui, Kazunori; Suzuki, Atsushi; Ozawa, Toru; Iwata, Sachiyo; Takei, Asumi; Inoue, Nobutaka

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 58 Final Diagnosis: Vasospastic angina Symptoms: Chest pain Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Medical treatment Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Rare disease Background: The clinical conditions of various diseases, including coronary artery disease, are determined by genetics and the environment. Previous investigations noted the significance of genetic mutations and polymorphisms in cases of coronary spasm. Case Report: We report on monozygotic identical twins who almost simultaneously presented with vasospastic angina. The 58-year-old younger twin was admitted to our hospital because of persistent chest pain. An electrocardiogram showed an inverted T wave in the left precordial leads. Coronary angiographies revealed a short left main trunk (LMT) and 50% stenosis at the proximal portion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Infusion of acetylcholine to his left coronary artery caused marked vasoconstriction associated with a sensation of chest oppression. Nitroglycerine completely reversed this response. Based on these findings, we diagnosed Twin A with vasospastic angina. At nearly the same time, his identical twin brother was diagnosed with vasospastic angina at another hospital. Comparison of both coronary angiograms indicated similar structure of coronary vessels, including short LMT and mild stenosis at the proximal portion of LAD. Conclusions: These 2 cases highlight the importance of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of vasospastic angina. It may be important for individuals to receive medical attention if their identical twin presents with vasospastic angina. PMID:26347942

  10. 180. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. E. Pettygro, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    180. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. E. Pettygro, Photographer, date unknown. BLASTING TWIN FALLS CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY; BLASTING COTTONWOOD AREA TO REPLACE FLUME BY RUNNING HIGH LINE THROUGH SOLID ROCK. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  11. Psychiatric outcomes of bullying victimization: A study of discordant monozygotic twins

    PubMed Central

    Silberg, Judy L.; Copeland, William; Linker, Julie; Moore, Ashlee A.; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; York, Timothy P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bullying victimization in childhood is associated with a broad array of serious mental health disturbances, including anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation and behavior. The key goal of this study was to evaluate whether bullying victimization is a true environmental risk factor for psychiatric disturbance using data from 145 bully-discordant monozygotic (MZ) juvenile twin pairs from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development (VTSABD) and their follow-up into young adulthood. Method Since MZ twins share an identical genotype and familial environment, a higher rate of psychiatric disturbance in a bullied MZ twin compared to their non-bullied MZ co-twin would be evidence of an environmental impact of bullying victimization. Environmental correlations between being bullied and the different psychiatric traits were estimated by fitting structural equation models to the full sample of MZ and DZ twins (N = 2824). Environmental associations were further explored using the longitudinal data on the bullying-discordant MZ twins. Results Being bullied was associated with a wide range of psychiatric disorders in both children and young adults. The analysis of data on the MZ-discordant twins supports a genuine environmental impact of bullying victimization on childhood social anxiety [odds ratio (OR) 1.7], separation anxiety (OR 1.9), and young adult suicidal ideation (OR 1.3). There was a shared genetic influence on social anxiety and bullying victimization, consistent with social anxiety being both an antecedent and consequence of being bullied. Conclusion Bullying victimization in childhood is a significant environmental trauma and should be included in any mental health assessment of children and young adults. PMID:26979565

  12. Impact of Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome, Preterm Birth, and Vision Loss on Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste, Marie

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the developmental outcomes of twin boys (one who is blind and one who is sighted) who were born prematurely and diagnosed with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) at age 24 months. The results indicate a disparity in the developmental outcomes of the twins. Although the medical risk factors that are associated with TTTS…

  13. Brief Report: Autistic Traits in Twins vs. Non-Twins--A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Alexander; Todd, Richard D.; Constantino, John N.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that among affected sib pairs with autism there is an increase in the frequency of twins over what would be expected in comparison to the prevalence of twins in the general population. In this study we sought to determine whether "sub-threshold" autistic traits were more pronounced in twins than in non-twins. The…

  14. Diagnosis of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, selective fetal growth restriction, twin anaemia-polycythaemia sequence, and twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence.

    PubMed

    Sueters, Marieke; Oepkes, Dick

    2014-02-01

    Monochorionic twin pregnancies are well known to be at risk for a variety of severe complications, a true challenge for the maternal-fetal medicine specialist. With current standards of care, monochorionicity should be established in the first trimester. Subsequently, frequent monitoring using the appropriate diagnostic tools, and in-depth knowledge about the pathophysiology of all possible clinical presentations of monochorionic twin abnormalities, should lead to timely recognition, and appropriate management. Virtually all unique diseases found in monochorionic twins are directly related to placental angio-architecture. This, however, cannot be established reliably before birth. The clinician needs to be aware of the definitions and symptoms of twin-to twin transfusion syndrome, selective fetal growth restriction, twin anaemia-polycythaemia sequence, and twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence, to be able to recognise each disease and take the required action. In this chapter, we address current standards on correct and timely diagnoses of severe complications of monochorionic twin pregnancies.

  15. Having Twins? How to Stay Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Having Twins? How to Stay Healthy Page Content Article Body ... the eyes of obstetricians. Many would call a twin pregnancy a high-risk pregnancy , but don’t ...

  16. Nike Twins Seven Seven: Nigerian Batik Artist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDuke, Betty

    1987-01-01

    Chronicles the personal and professional life of Nike Twins Seven Seven (born 1951), a Nigerian batik artist, and her husband, Twins Seven Seven, a musician-artist, both of whom have received international acclaim. (BJV)

  17. Twin seasonality in a rural Catalonian population.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Miquel; García-Moro, Clara; Toja, Domingo Isaac; Esparza, Mireia; González-José, Rolando

    2004-12-01

    The seasonality of twinning in the Spanish populations has not been studied until now. Differences between seasonal distribution of the twin conceptions and those of the single births have been observed in other populations. The aim of this work is to explore the frequency of twinning in a rural population from Catalonia during the nineteenth century, as well as the seasonality patterns characterizing each of the twinning types. Data corresponding to all births recorded at Tortosa (South Catalonia) from 1801 to 1900 have been analyzed in order to study the twinning distribution. The distribution of the moving averages of the monthly rates of twins shows a peak in autumn. Twinning distribution differs from the total births' distribution in Tortosa. This fact is very clear in the case of unlike-sexed twins that have their greater incidence in the last quarter of the year, while the total maternities have their peak in the first one.

  18. Hardening: Australian for Transformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    ADF towards homeland defense. For further details, see Jeffrey Grey. A Military History of Australia. Melbourne, Australia, Cambridge University...is a simplified explanation of the hardene d force structure proposed by FLW. The hardened concept encompasses other aspects that enhance Army...standardized with three rifle companies. A 196 Leahy “ A Land Force for the Future: The Australian Army in the Early 21st Century.” 2003: 19. 197 See Monk, Paul

  19. Religious upbringing and neuroticism in Dutch twin families.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2007-04-01

    Evidence for a relation between neuroticism and religion is scarce and inconsistent. The aims of the present study were to determine the association of religious upbringing with adult neuroticism scores and to examine the effect of religious upbringing on the heritability of neuroticism. As part of a longitudinal survey of twin families from the Netherlands Twin Register, data were collected on neuroticism and religious upbringing. Restricting the sample to persons aged 25 and over resulted in a sample of 4369 twins and 1304 siblings from 2698 families. Religious upbringing was significantly associated with neuroticism; in both men and women neuroticism levels were lower in those who had received a religious upbringing. There were no sex or twin sibling differences in neuroticism variances and covariances. Structural equation modeling showed differences in heritability between those with and without religious upbringing. In the group with religious upbringing, variation in neuroticism was determined for 41% by additive genetic factors and for the remaining 59% by unique environmental factors. In the group who had not received a religious upbringing, variation in neuroticism was determined for 55% by genetic factors, with evidence for both additive and nonadditive factors, and for the remaining 45% by unique environmental influences. In conclusion, having received a religious upbringing is associated with lower neuroticism scores and a lower heritability in adulthood.

  20. The Fourth International Network of Twin Registries: Overview from Osaka/Research Reviews: Familial Fraternal Twinning; Twin Study of Masculine Faces; Physical Aggression and Epigenetics; Prenatal Education for Parents of Twins/Current Events: 2016 Guinness Book of World Records; Oldest Living Male Twins; Twins Reunited at Sixty-Nine; Panda Twins; Twins.com.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2015-12-01

    The 4th International Network of Twin Registries (INTR) Consortium Meeting took place in Osaka, Japan, September 28-29, 2015. The venue was the Osaka Medical Center for Medical Innovation and Translational Research. An overview of presentations and other activities is provided. Next, 1930s research on familial fraternal twinning, preference for masculine faces, physical aggression and epigenetics, and a prenatal education program for parents of multiples are described. Current twin-related events include the 2016 Guinness Book of World Records (GWR), the oldest living male twins, newly reunited twins, the birth of panda twins and a controversial twin-based website.

  1. Twins' injuries: genetic and environmental risks / twin research reports / human interest stories.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2011-04-01

    The relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to unintentional injuries are of interest to families with young twins. A recent study found that childhood injuries are explained mostly by child-specific environmental factors. Next, twin research reviews of the association between periodontal disease and cancer, secular trends in gestational age and birthweight, and language development in hearing and deaf co-twins are also summarized. Interesting reports of newborn twins, twin-like relationships, twin interactions and missed twin relationships are presented.

  2. Twins reunited: scientific and personal perspectives/twin research studies: multiple birth effects on IQ and body size; life style, muscles, and metabolism; monochorionic dizygotic twin with blood chimerism; amniocentesis for twins/twins in the media: identical doctors; freedom fighter for twins; twin scholarships; Auguste and Jean-Felix Piccard; twins born apart.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L; Mulligan, Christy A

    2014-04-01

    A reunion of 38-year-old female monozygotic twins took place in Daegu, South Korea, on January 14, 2014. Scientific and personal perspectives on this extraordinary event are provided. A review of timely twin research follows, covering the effects of multiple births on IQ and body size, lifestyle and physical fitness associations, a rare case of a dizygotic twin with blood chimerism and definitional issues surrounding amniocentesis-related loss in multiple birth pregnancies. Interesting and informative mention of twins in the media includes twin doctors, a twin freedom fighter, the availability of college scholarships for twins, a new book about the Piccard family (two of whose members were twins), and co-twins born before and after the new year. A follow-up to a previous mention of identical twin biatheletes is also provided.

  3. Increased Fetal Plasma Erythropoietin in Monochorionic Twin Pregnancies With Selective Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Abnormal Umbilical Artery Doppler.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Lung; Chao, An-Shine; Peng, Hsiu-Huei; Chang, Shuenn-Dyh; Su, Sheng-Yuan; Chen, Kuan-Ju; Cheng, Po-Jen; Wang, Tzu-Hao

    2016-08-01

    Hypoxia is the primary stimulus for the production of erythropoietin (EPO) in both fetal and adult life. Here, we investigated fetal plasma EPO concentrations in monochorionic (MC) twin pregnancies with selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR) and abnormal umbilical artery (UA) Doppler. We diagnosed sIUGR in presence of (1) birth-weight discordance >20% and (2) either twin with a birth weight <10th percentile. An abnormal UA Doppler was defined as a persistent absent-reverse end diastolic flow (AREDF). The intertwin EPO ratio was calculated as the plasma EPO level of the smaller (or small-for-gestational-age) twin divided by the EPO concentration of the larger (or appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA)) twin. Thirty-two MC twin pairs were included. Of these, 17 pairs were normal twins (Group 1), seven pairs were twins with sIUGR without UA Doppler abnormalities (Group 2), and eight pairs were twins with sIUGR and UA Doppler abnormalities (Group 3). The highest EPO ratio was identified in Group 3 (p < .001) but no significant differences were observed between Groups 1 and 2. Fetal hemoglobin levels did not differ significantly in the three groups, and fetal EPO concentration did not correlate with gestational age at birth. We conclude that fetal plasma EPO concentrations are selectively increased in MC twin pregnancies with sIUGR and abnormal UA Doppler, possibly as a result of uncompensated hypoxia.

  4. [Pygopagus Siamese twins. Surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Rollán Villamarín, V; Ollero Fresno, J C; Alonso Calderón, J L; Ollero Caprani, J M

    1991-04-01

    A case is presented wherein a set of black female pygopagus siamese twins were successfully separated by our department in their 45th day of life. Both twins had multiple malformations: cardiopulmonary, vertebral, anorectal, genitourinary, etc. The bilateral renal absence in one of them, originated her death on the 7th postoperative day. Only nine other cases have been referred successful during the last 35 years, in a bibliographic review conducted. The associated malformations and surgical skills for treatment and separation of them, are studied: previous colostomy and effective separation at life ages, comprised between one and thirteen months.

  5. The Twin Cities biomedical consortium.

    PubMed

    Bailey, A S

    1975-07-01

    Twenty-eight health science libraries in the St. Paul-Minneapolis area formed the Twin Cities Biomedical Consortium with the intention of developing a strong network of biomedical libraries in the Twin Cities area. Toward this end, programs were designed to strengthen lines of communication and increase cooperation among local health science libraries; improve access to biomedical information at the local level; and enable the Consortium, as a group, to meet an increasing proportion of its members' needs for biomedical information. Presently, the TCBC comprises libraries in twenty-two hospitals, two county medical societies, one school of nursing, one junior college, and two private corporations.

  6. On Teaching About Twins and Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses a four-step instructional presentation in which the twin on the earth is demonstrated older than the twin aboard a spaceship on the basis of the relativistic Doppler effect. Concludes that both twins can meet again at the same place in space at the expense of time. (CC)

  7. Natal Influences and Twin Differences: Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Daele, Leland D.

    1972-01-01

    A classification of natal influences is proposed with a model of their operation. Natal influences affect maternal capacity, maternal load, and maternal efficiency. Since maternal load is increased in twin pregnancy, results of twin studies must be generalized with caution. The method of co-twin control is exemplified by examination of a small…

  8. [The diagnostic algorithm in twin pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Ropacka-Lesiak, Mariola; Szaflik, Krzysztof; Breborowicz, Grzegorz H

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents the diagnostic algorithm in twin pregnancy. The most important sonographic parameters in the assessment of twins have been discussed. Moreover, the most significant complications of twin pregnancy as well as diagnostic possibilities and management, have been also presented and defined.

  9. Multiple rectal carcinoid tumors in monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Doi, Momoko; Ikawa, Osamu; Taniguchi, Hiroki; Kawamura, Takuji; Katsura, Kanade

    2016-08-01

    We report multiple rectal carcinoid tumors in monozygotic twins who, respectively, had 42 and 36 carcinoid tumors in the lower rectum. This is the first report about carcinoid tumors in monozygotic twins. Both twins developed a similar number of rectal carcinoids with a similar distribution. Investigation of their genetic background may provide information about the origin of these tumors.

  10. Postpartum Mental State of Mothers of Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantmüller, Éva; Gyúró, Mónika; Galgán, Kitti; Pakai, Annamária

    2016-01-01

    Twin birth is a relevant risk factor for postnatal depression (PND). The primary objective of our study is to reveal the prevalence of suspected cases of depression and to identify some background factors among mothers of twins. We applied convenience sampling method within a retrospective, quantitative study among mothers given birth to twins for…

  11. The Nature and Nurture of Melody: A Twin Study of Musical Pitch and Rhythm Perception.

    PubMed

    Seesjärvi, Erik; Särkämö, Teppo; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Tervaniemi, Mari; Peretz, Isabelle; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2016-07-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors are known to play a role in our ability to perceive music, but the degree to which they influence different aspects of music cognition is still unclear. We investigated the relative contribution of genetic and environmental effects on melody perception in 384 young adult twins [69 full monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs, 44 full dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs, 70 MZ twins without a co-twin, and 88 DZ twins without a co-twin]. The participants performed three online music tests requiring the detection of pitch changes in a two-melody comparison task (Scale) and key and rhythm incongruities in single-melody perception tasks (Out-of-key, Off-beat). The results showed predominantly additive genetic effects in the Scale task (58 %, 95 % CI 42-70 %), shared environmental effects in the Out-of-key task (61 %, 49-70 %), and non-shared environmental effects in the Off-beat task (82 %, 61-100 %). This highly different pattern of effects suggests that the contribution of genetic and environmental factors on music perception depends on the degree to which it calls for acquired knowledge of musical tonal and metric structures.

  12. Glide twinning and pseudotwinning in peristerite: twin morphology and propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, William L.

    1989-07-01

    Optically visible Albite glide “twins” in a peristerite (˜An9Or1.6), identified from their tapering shape and relationship to grain boundaries, were studied by transmission electron microscopy. Near the tips in sections ⊥ a, the microstructure consists of small (˜400 nm long) lensshaped Albite twins centred exclusively on the oligoclase lamellae. The lenses extend partly outwards into the two adjacent low albite lamellae and induce strong inhomogeneous strain. Where the lenses are closer together, they form, depending on the sense of shear, nearly linear left or right-stepping en échelon arrays, with overlap of the strain fields. Slightly farther in from the tip, the twin domains coalesce to form continuous pinch-and-swell lamellae, being always thicker in the oligoclase. Because of Si,Al order, only elastic glide pseudotwins are possible in low albite. In oligoclase glide pseudotwins may be mechanically stable (metastable relative to Si,Al order) and may deviate only slightly from true twins. Pseudotwins develop first in the oligoclase, propagate dynamically by jumping across the intervening albite lamellae, extend lengthways and thicken sideways and finally coalesce. They are stabilized by diffusion-controlled inversion of Si,Al order giving rise to true twins described in a companion paper.

  13. Review of Australian Higher Education: An Australian Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is one of the key foundations that economic prosperity is founded upon. Government policies, funding and strategic planning require a fine balance to stimulate growth, prosperity health and well-being. The key Australian government policies influenced by a Review of Australian Higher Education report include attracting many more…

  14. Twin Cyclones Result From Shift in the Trade Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    QuikSCAT, a NASA satellite instrument that measures winds, observed a strong typhoon threatening the Philippines on March 4, 2002, (top) unusual in the winter season, and a similar tropical cyclone passing along the Australian coast towards Nuomea. These unusual phenomena are results of the westerly winds (blowing from Indonesia towards the American coast) along the equator which started back in February 25, (lower) as QuikSCAT revealed. Color in these images relates to wind speed, arrows indicate direction. The reversal of the usual Trade Winds (which blow from the American coast towards Asia) generally triggers Kelvin waves (warm surface water that moves along the equator from Indonesia to the coast of Peru) and twin cyclones, which are early indicators of El Nino. The equatorial westerly winds generate a counter-clockwise vortex in the Northern Hemisphere and a clockwise vortex in the Southern Hemisphere. The Trade Winds push warm water from east to west across the Pacific, reaching the American coast in one to two months. The increase in frequency and strength of the Kelvin Waves may lead to El Nino. Strong westerly winds and twin cyclones were also observed by QuikSCAT during last Christmas season (2001) and the Kelvin wave triggered at that time reached South America in Early March 2002. Images courtesy Liu, Xie, and Tang, QuikSCAT Science Team

  15. NOTE: Increasing cardiac output and decreasing oxygenation sequence in pump twins of acardiac twin pregnancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Umur, Asli; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Van Bavel, Ed; Vandenbussche, Frank P. H. A.; Nikkels, Peter G. J.

    2005-02-01

    An acardiac twin pregnancy is a rare but serious complication of monochorionic twinning and consists of an acardiac twin and a pump twin. The acardiac twin is a severely malformed fetus that lacks most organs, particularly a heart, but grows during pregnancy because it is perfused by the developmentally normal pump twin via a set of arterioarterial and venovenous placental anastomoses. Pump twins die intrauterine or neonatally in about 50% of the cases. Because the effects of an acardiac mass on the pump twin's development are incompletely known, methods for outcome prognosis are currently not available. We sought to derive simple relations for the pump twin's excess cardiac output and decreased oxygenation and to use available clinical cases for a preliminary test of the model. As a method, we used a theoretical flow model to represent the fetoplacental circulation of an acardiac twin pregnancy and estimated blood deoxygenation and reoxygenation following perfusion of the two bodies and placentas, respectively. The results show the pump twin's excess cardiac output and decrease of venous oxygen saturation to depend on the ratio of pump twin to acardiac twin umbilical blood flow, whose ratio can be measured by ultrasonography. The clinical cases show a decreasing umbilical flow ratio with gestation. In conclusion, prospective serial study is necessary to test whether measurement of umbilical flow ratios allows monitoring the pump twin's pathophysiologic development, possibly resulting in a guideline for prognosis of pump twin survival.

  16. Twin Peaks (B/W)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Twin Peaks are modest-size hills to the southwest of the Mars Pathfinder landing site. They were discovered on the first panoramas taken by the IMP camera on the 4th of July, 1997, and subsequently identified in Viking Orbiter images taken over 20 years ago. The peaks are approximately 30-35 meters (-100 feet) tall. North Twin is approximately 860 meters (2800 feet) from the lander, and South Twin is about a kilometer away (3300 feet). The scene includes bouldery ridges and swales or 'hummocks' of flood debris that range from a few tens of meters away from the lander to the distance of the South Twin Peak. The large rock at the right edge of the scene is nicknamed 'Hippo'. This rock is about a meter (3 feet) across and 25 meters (80 feet) distant.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  17. [Separation of pygopagous Siamese twins].

    PubMed

    Gille, P; Aubert, D; Mourot, M; François, J Y; Nachin, P; Delafin, J; Bonneville, J F; Cordier, A; Rousseaux, D; Monnier, G

    1983-01-01

    The successful separation of pygopagous twins is described. The sacrum formed a common canal since S 1 to coccyx with two medullary cords side to side and diastematomyelia with, at this level, two dural sacks. In each baby there was small atrophy in one lower limb. There were two opposite vulvovaginal ducts and two recto-perineal fistules.

  18. Towards Inclusion: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the views of the Australian Special Education Principals' Association (ASEPA) on inclusion and the impact this is having on Australian Government Schools from a school based perspective. ASEPA is a relatively young association and was formed in 1997 out of the need to put forward the case to support students with special…

  19. Australian University International Student Finances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati

    2009-01-01

    The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study…

  20. Do Twin Boundaries Always Strengthen Metal Nanowires?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongfeng; Huang, Hanchen

    2009-01-01

    It has been widely reported that twin boundaries strengthen nanowires regardless of their morphology-that is, the strength of nanowires goes up as twin spacing goes down. This article shows that twin boundaries do not always strengthen nanowires. Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, the authors show that whether twin boundaries strengthen nanowires depends on the necessary stress for dislocation nucleation, which in turn depends on surface morphologies. When nanowires are circular cylindrical, the necessary stress of dislocation nucleation is high and the presence of twin boundaries lowers this stress; twin boundaries soften nanowires. In contrast, when nanowires are square cylindrical, the necessary stress of dislocation nucleation is low, and a higher stress is required for dislocations to penetrate twin boundaries; they strengthen nanowires.

  1. Twinning in nanocrystalline fcc and bcc metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyko, Vladimir S.; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.

    2013-03-01

    The deformation twinning in nanocrystalline (nc) face-centered cubic (fcc) metals, body-centered cubic (bcc) metals, and in nc Si is analyzed. The phenomenological approach is used to make a bridge between microscopical mechanisms of twin nucleation and macroscopical characteristics of twinning with different crystal structures and to calculate the grain size range of the twinning propensity, the requisite external stress for twinning propagation in nc polycrystals, and the grain size at which the slip begins to prevail over the twinning. The developed approach allows to derive analytical expressions and estimate lower and and upper limits of grain sizes at which a twinning propensity is occurred. Results of calculations for the nc fcc metals Al, Cu, Ni, Pd, Au, nc bcc metals Ta, Fe, Mo, W, Nb, and nc diamond-cubic Si are compared with the experimental data, otherwise predictions are made.

  2. Bruxism Is Associated With Nicotine Dependence: A Nationwide Finnish Twin Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahlberg, J.; Hublin, C.; Broms, U.; Madden, P. A. F.; Könönen, M.; Koskenvuo, M.; Lobbezoo, F.; Kaprio, J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association of smoking with bruxism while controlling for genetic and environmental factors using a co-twin-control design. Especially, the role of nicotine dependence was studied in this context. Methods: The material derives from the Finnish Twin Cohort consisting of 12,502 twin individuals who responded to a questionnaire in 1990 (response rate of 77%). All were born in 1930–1957, the mean age being 44 years. The questionnaire covered 103 multiple choice questions, 7 dealing with tobacco use and 22 with sleep and vigilance matters, including perceived bruxism. In addition, a subsample derived from the Nicotine Addiction Genetics Finland Study containing 445 twin individuals was studied. Results: In age- and gender-controlled multinomial logistic regression, both monthly and rarely reported bruxism associated with both current cigarette smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 1.74 and 1.64) and former cigarette smoking (OR = 1.64 and 1.47). Weekly bruxism associated with current smoking (OR = 2.85). Current smokers smoking 20 or more cigarettes a day reported weekly bruxism more likely (OR = 1.61–1.97) than those smoking less. Among twin pairs (N = 142) in which one twin was a weekly bruxer and the cotwin a never bruxer, there were 13 monozygotic pairs in which one twin was a current smoker and the other twin was not. In all cases, the bruxer was the smoker (p = .0003). Nicotine dependence associated significantly with bruxism. Conclusions: Our twin study provides novel evidence for a possible causal link between tobacco use and bruxism among middle-aged adults. Nicotine dependence may be a significant predisposing factor for bruxism. PMID:21041838

  3. Is resilience relevant to smoking abstinence for Indigenous Australians?

    PubMed

    Tsourtos, George; Ward, Paul R; Lawn, Sharon; Winefield, Anthony H; Hersh, Deborah; Coveney, John

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence rate of tobacco smoking remains high for Australian Indigenous people despite declining rates in other Australian populations. Given many Indigenous Australians continue to experience a range of social and economic structural problems, stress could be a significant contributing factor to preventing smoking abstinence. The reasons why some Indigenous people have remained resilient to stressful adverse conditions, and not rely on smoking to cope as a consequence, may provide important insights and lessons for health promotion policy and practice. In-depth interviews were employed to collect oral histories from 31 Indigenous adults who live in metropolitan Adelaide. Participants were recruited according to smoking status (non-smokers were compared with current smokers to gain a greater depth of understanding of how some participants have abstained from smoking). Perceived levels of stress were associated with encouraging smoking behaviour. Many participants reported having different stresses compared with non-Indigenous Australians, with some participants reporting having additional stressors such as constantly experiencing racism. Resilience often occurred when participants reported drawing upon internal psychological assets such as being motivated to quit and where external social support was available. These findings are discussed in relation to a recently developed psycho-social interactive model of resilience, and how this resilience model can be improved regarding the historical and cultural context of Indigenous Australians' experience of smoking.

  4. Infant twins' social interactions with caregivers and same-age siblings.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Naomi J; Brooks, Patricia J; Yuksel-Sokmen, P Ozlem; Ragir, Sonia; Flory, Michael J; Lennon, Elizabeth M; Karmel, Bernard Z; Gardner, Judith M

    2015-11-01

    The study of twin behavior offers the opportunity to study differential patterns of social and communicative interactions in a context where the adult partner and same-age peer are equally familiar. We investigated the development of social engagement, communicative gestures, and imitation in 7- to 25-month-old twins. Twin dyads (N=20 pairs) participated in 10-min, semi-structured play sessions, with the mother seated in a chair completing paperwork for half the session, and on the floor with her children for the other half. Overall, twins engaged more with their mothers than with their siblings: they showed objects and imitated speech and object use more frequently when interacting with their mothers than with their siblings. When the mother was otherwise engaged, the twins played with toys separately, observed each other's toy play, or were unengaged. These results demonstrate that adult scaffolding of social interactions supports increased communicative bids even in a context where both familiar peers and adults are available as communicative partners.

  5. A twin study of breastfeeding with a preliminary genome wide association scan

    PubMed Central

    Colodro-Conde, L.; Zhu, G.; Power, R. A.; Henders, A.; Heath, A.C.; Madden, P.A.F.; Montgomery, G.W.; Medland, S. E.; Ordoñana, J.R.; Martin, N.G.

    2015-01-01

    Breastfeeding has been an important survival trait during human history, though it has long been recognised that individuals differ in their exact breastfeeding behaviour. Here our aims were, first, to explore to what extent genetic and environmental influences contributed to the individual differences in breastfeeding behaviour; second, to detect possible genetic variants related to breastfeeding; and lastly, to test if the genetic variants associated with breastfeeding have been previously found to be related with breast size. Data were collected from a large community-based cohort of Australian twins, with 3,364 women for the twin modelling analyses and 1,521 of them included in the genome wide association study. Monozygotic twin correlations (rMZ = .52, 95% CI .46 – .57) were larger than dizygotic twin correlations (rDZ = .35, 95% CI .25 – .43) and the best-fitting model was the one composed by additive genetics and unique environmental factors, explaining 53% and 47% of the variance in breastfeeding behaviour, respectively. No breastfeeding-related genetic variants reached genome-wide significance. The polygenic risk score analyses showed no significant results, suggesting breast size does not influence breastfeeding. This study confers a replication of a previous one exploring the sources of variance of breastfeeding and, to our knowledge, is the first one to conduct a Genome-Wide Association Study on breastfeeding and look at the overlap with variants for breast size. PMID:25475840

  6. Spontaneous Posterior Uterine Rupture in Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Smid, Marcela C.; Waltner-Toews, Rebecca; Goodnight, William

    2015-01-01

    Background The maternal and fetal risks of uterine distension in rapidly progressive twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) in the setting of prior uterine scar are poorly characterized. Case We present the case of a 42-year-old woman, G4P1201, at 21 weeks gestation with stage-1 TTTS who developed a spontaneous posterior uterine rupture necessitating emergent laparotomy and delivery of previable fetuses, possibly due to prior uterine scar from a displaced intrauterine device. Conclusion TTTS may be a risk factor for uterine rupture, including uterine rupture in atypical anatomic locations. Prior unrecognized uterine scars, including perforations, may magnify the risk for atypical uterine rupture in the setting of excessive uterine distension. PMID:26929874

  7. Unequal growth of twinned variants in boron-rich fivefold twinned nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhiyang; Jiang, Jun; Zhu, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Boron-rich nanowires with fivefold twinned cross-sections were synthesized by conventional chemical vapor deposition. Interestingly, it is found that the lengths of twin variants in some rhombohedral based nanowires were substantially unequal, implying differences in the growth velocities of twin variants along longitudinal directions. This phenomenon is in sharp contrast with the developments of face-centered cubic (FCC) based fivefold twinned nanowires. We suggest the high density of microtwins in subcrystals was responsible for such kinetic growth behavior. More importantly, the current study implies that twin defects serve as an indispensable factor in prompting the kinetic growth of fivefold twinned nanowires.

  8. Do twins differ from single-born children on rates of behavioral difficulty in early childhood? A study of sibling relationship risk factors.

    PubMed

    Bekkhus, Mona; Staton, Sally; Borge, Anne I H; Thorpe, Karen

    2014-08-01

    The hypothesis that twinning raises risk for behavioral difficulties in childhood is persistent, yet there is limited and inconsistent empirical evidence. Simple mean comparison without control for confounders provides data on prevalence rates but cannot provide knowledge about risk or etiology. To assess the effect of twin relationship on behavior, comparison of patterns of association with single-born siblings may be informative. Analyses of data from an Australian sample of twins and single-born children (N = 305, mean age 4 years 9 months, and a follow-up 12 months later) were undertaken. The outcome measure was the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Predictor and control measures were obtained from parent report on the sibling/co-twin relationship behavior, family demographics, and obstetric history. We assessed difference between twins and single-born children in two respects: (a) mean behavioral difficulties, and (b) patterns of association between sibling relationship and behavioral difficulties, controlling for confounders. Results showed no differences in mean levels of behavioral difficulties between twins and single-born siblings identifying the importance of statistical control for family and obstetric adversity. Differences in patterns of association were found; for twin children, conflict in their co-twin relationship predicted externalizing behaviors, while for single-born children conflict predicted internalizing behaviors. The findings of mean differences between twin and single-born children in social background, but not in behavioral difficulties, underscore the necessity of statistical control to identify risk associated with twinning compared with risk associated with family and obstetric background factors.

  9. Oral health promotion for our ageing Australian population.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, J M

    2003-03-01

    The ageing Australian population living in the new millennium has dental needs that are very different and more complex than those experienced by previous older adult cohorts during the twentieth century. A summary of the oral health status of older Australians is presented, together with a review of the important relationships between general health and oral health. The key to maintaining and improving older adults' oral health status is the use of oral health promotion strategies that focus not only on dental characteristics, but also on the life characteristics of older adults, and on their quality of life issues. Traditionally, there has been very limited geriatric oral health promotion, with several myths contributing to this situation. Contemporary geriatric oral health promotion in the new millenium has an evidence-based and planned approach. It encompasses not only the treatment of oral diseases and conditions, but has an increased focus on the prevention of oral diseases and conditions to enhance oral health status and older adults' quality of life. Using the Ottawa Charter and a functional dependence classification, a geriatric oral health promotion matrix is presented, using a specific example of Australian residential care.

  10. Why the healing gods are twins.

    PubMed

    Hankoff, L D

    1977-01-01

    The association of twins with health-giving powers is widespread in mythology, folklore, and religion. The Ashvins of the Rig-Veda, the classical Dioscuri, and the early Christian saints Cosmos and Damian are among the many examples of twins divinely empowered in the area of health and fertility. A characteristic set of attributes of twins recurs in different mythologies of wide distribution. In addition to healing, divine twins are often empowered with the ability to revive the dead, increase the fertility of man, animals, and crops, influence the weather, predict the future, and insure victory in battle. In some traditional societies these special attributes are thought to extend to all of the twins and their parents in the tribe.Ancient and primitive societies supposed that the birth of twins was associated with divine influence, the mother having been visited or otherwise affected by supernatural powers. A frequent explanation was that twins were the result of superfetation, a divine impregnation occurring along with that by the lawful husband. The specific powers of divine twins appear to be a reflection of the particular form of origin of twins through divine interference with the fertilization process. The twins thus share some of the powers of the divine parent, particularly those pertaining to fertility. Their dual paternity and its inherent competition is related to their martial interests as well as their ability to resolve ambivalent or ambiguous situations and predict outcomes.

  11. Deformation twinning: Influence of strain rate

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, G.T. III

    1993-11-01

    Twins in most crystal structures, including advanced materials such as intermetallics, form more readily as the temperature of deformation is decreased or the rate of deformation is increased. Both parameters lead to the suppression of thermally-activated dislocation processes which can result in stresses high enough to nucleate and grow deformation twins. Under high-strain rate or shock-loading/impact conditions deformation twinning is observed to be promoted even in high stacking fault energy FCC metals and alloys, composites, and ordered intermetallics which normally do not readily deform via twinning. Under such conditions and in particular under the extreme loading rates typical of shock wave deformation the competition between slip and deformation twinning can be examined in detail. In this paper, examples of deformation twinning in the intermetallics TiAl, Ti-48Al-lV and Ni{sub 3}A as well in the cermet Al-B{sub 4}C as a function of strain rate will be presented. Discussion includes: (1) the microstructural and experimental variables influencing twin formation in these systems and twinning topics related to high-strain-rate loading, (2) the high velocity of twin formation, and (3) the influence of deformation twinning on the constitutive response of advanced materials.

  12. Why the Healing Gods Are Twins

    PubMed Central

    Hankoff, Leon D.

    1977-01-01

    The association of twins with health-giving powers is widespread in mythology, folklore, and religion. The Ashvins of the Rig-Veda, the classical Dioscuri, and the early Christian saints Cosmos and Damian are among the many examples of twins divinely empowered in the area of health and fertility. A characteristic set of attributes of twins recurs in different mythologies of wide distribution. In addition to healing, divine twins are often empowered with the ability to revive the dead, increase the fertility of man, animals, and crops, influence the weather, predict the future, and insure victory in battle. In some traditional societies these special attributes are thought to extend to all of the twins and their parents in the tribe. Ancient and primitive societies supposed that the birth of twins was associated with divine influence, the mother having been visited or otherwise affected by supernatural powers. A frequent explanation was that twins were the result of superfetation, a divine impregnation occurring along with that by the lawful husband. The specific powers of divine twins appear to be a reflection of the particular form of origin of twins through divine interference with the fertilization process. The twins thus share some of the powers of the divine parent, particularly those pertaining to fertility. Their dual paternity and its inherent competition is related to their martial interests as well as their ability to resolve ambivalent or ambiguous situations and predict outcomes. PMID:560764

  13. The Literacy and Numeracy "Crisis" in Australian Workplaces: Discursive Rhetoric vs. Production Floor Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Stephen; Yasukawa, Keiko; Brown, Tony

    2015-01-01

    The dominant discourse on adult literacy and numeracy in Australia sees the federal government, industry, workforce skills agencies and the media speaking with one voice on the "crisis" involving workers' low literacy and numeracy skills. Underpinning this discourse are the Australian results of the international Adult Literacy and Life…

  14. Fingerprint recognition with identical twin fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xunqiang; Chen, Xinjian; Yang, Xin; Tian, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Fingerprint recognition with identical twins is a challenging task due to the closest genetics-based relationship existing in the identical twins. Several pioneers have analyzed the similarity between twins' fingerprints. In this work we continue to investigate the topic of the similarity of identical twin fingerprints. Our study was tested based on a large identical twin fingerprint database that contains 83 twin pairs, 4 fingers per individual and six impressions per finger: 3984 (83*2*4*6) images. Compared to the previous work, our contributions are summarized as follows: (1) Two state-of-the-art fingerprint identification methods: P071 and VeriFinger 6.1 were used, rather than one fingerprint identification method in previous studies. (2) Six impressions per finger were captured, rather than just one impression, which makes the genuine distribution of matching scores more realistic. (3) A larger sample (83 pairs) was collected. (4) A novel statistical analysis, which aims at showing the probability distribution of the fingerprint types for the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, has been conducted. (5) A novel analysis, which aims at showing which finger from identical twins has higher probability of having same fingerprint type, has been conducted. Our results showed that: (a) A state-of-the-art automatic fingerprint verification system can distinguish identical twins without drastic degradation in performance. (b) The chance that the fingerprints have the same type from identical twins is 0.7440, comparing to 0.3215 from non-identical twins. (c) For the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, the probability distribution of five major fingerprint types is similar to the probability distribution for all the fingers' fingerprint type. (d) For each of four fingers of identical twins, the probability of having same fingerprint type is similar.

  15. The relationship between twin language, twins' close ties, and social competence.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Chisato; Mikami, Hiroshi; Nishihara, Reiko; Maeda, Chiho; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the relationship between twin language, twins' close ties, and social competence in a prospective longitudinal study. We hypothesized that twins whose tie is close would be more likely to develop a twin language, and these twins would be less likely to develop social competence. In addition, we hypothesize that some environmental factors, such as having an older sibling, preschool attendance, zygosity, and sex are also related to twin language, twins' close ties, and social competence. At baseline in 1999 a mailed questionnaire survey was conducted, and a follow-up questionnaire was distributed in 2004 among 958 mothers. As a result, 516 respondents returned the questionnaire (53.9%). In this study, we used 261 twin pairs aged from 6 to 12 years (school-age children) for analysis, excluding those with missing values. In the present study, we found that zygosity and sex were associated with twins' close ties. Having an older sibling and preschool attendance did not affect the twins' close tie, twin language, or social competence. One of the most important findings was that social competence was not affected directly by twins' close tie, but was affected when a twin language was found.

  16. Familial risk and ADHD-specific neural activity revealed by case-control, discordant twin pair design.

    PubMed

    Godinez, Detre A; Willcutt, Erik G; Burgess, Gregory C; Depue, Brendan E; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R; Banich, Marie T

    2015-09-30

    Individuals with ADHD, as well as their family members who do not meet clinical criteria, have shown deficits in executive function. However, it remains unclear whether underlying neural alterations are familial or ADHD-specific. To investigate this issue, neural activation underlying executive function was assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging during performance of a Stroop task in three groups of individuals: 20 young adults who were diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, their 20 dizygotic co-twins without ADHD in childhood, and 20 unrelated controls selected from dizygotic twin pairs in which neither twin had ADHD in childhood (total n=60). Implicating the frontoparietal network as a location of effects specific to ADHD, activation in the superior frontal (Brodmann's Area - BA 6) and parietal regions (BA 40) was significantly reduced in twins with childhood ADHD compared to both their control co-twins and unrelated control twins. Consistent with familial influences, activity in the anterior cingulate and insula was significantly reduced in both the twins with ADHD and their co-twins compared to the unrelated controls. These results show that both ADHD-specific and familial influences related to an ADHD diagnosis impact neural systems underlying executive function.

  17. Twins Early Development Study (TEDS): a genetically sensitive investigation of cognitive and behavioral development from childhood to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Haworth, Claire M A; Davis, Oliver S P; Plomin, Robert

    2013-02-01

    The Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) is a large longitudinal sample of twins born in England and Wales between 1994 and 1996. The focus of TEDS has been on cognitive and behavioral development, including difficulties in the context of normal development. TEDS began when multiple births were identified from birth records and the families were invited to take part in the study; 16,810 pairs of twins were originally enrolled in TEDS. More than 10,000 of these twin pairs remain enrolled in the study to date. DNA has been collected for more than 7,000 pairs, and genome-wide genotyping data for two million DNA markers are available for 3,500 individuals. The TEDS families have taken part in studies when the twins were aged 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, and 16 years of age. Data collection is currently underway to assess the adult destinations of the twins as they move from school to university and the workplace. Between January 2012 and December 2014, all of the TEDS twins will turn 18, and the study will transition to an adult sample. TEDS represents an outstanding resource for investigating the developmental effects of genes and environments on complex quantitative traits from childhood to young adulthood and beyond.

  18. 158. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    158. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Transit Book #404T, Page 3, #46, Division One). START OF MAIN CANAL SURVEY, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  19. 155. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    155. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #405T, Page 1, #46 Division One). STATEMENT RE: SURVEY ALIGNMENT 3/03, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  20. 154. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    154. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #405T, Page 2, #46 Division One). STATEMENT OF SIGHT-SETTING FOR 1903 SURVEY TO ALIGN SOUTH SIDE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  1. 192. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    192. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP (DAM DRAWN IN), MILNER SITE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; RIGHT SIDE OF MAP (LEFT ON ID-15-183). - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  2. 183. Photocopy of map (Twin Falls Canal Company). TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    183. Photocopy of map (Twin Falls Canal Company). TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP OF MILNER DAM SITE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; MAP, LEFT SIDE ONLY. CROSS REFERENCE: ID-15-192. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  3. 187. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    187. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP OF MILNER DAM LOCATION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT MAP. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  4. 157. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    157. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Field Book #360, Page 75, entitled, 'Clay-Seam Cut-Off.' Cross-Reference: ID-15-153). MILNER DAM SURVEY, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  5. 153. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    153. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Field Book #360, Page 74, entitled, 'Clay-Seam Cut-Off.' Cross-Reference: ID-15-157). MILNER DAM SURVEY, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  6. The Spread of Substance Use and Delinquency between Adolescent Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Brett; Hartl, Amy C.; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2017-01-01

    This investigation examines the spread of problem behaviors (substance use and delinquency) between twin siblings. A sample of 628 twins (151 male twin pairs and 163 female twin pairs) drawn from the Quebec Newborn Twin Study completed inventories describing delinquency and substance use at ages 13, 14, and 15. A 3-wave longitudinal actor-partner…

  7. Quantum-mechanical twin paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franson, J. D.

    2016-10-01

    In the twin paradox of special relativity, an observer that travels along an accelerated trajectory at a high velocity will experience a smaller amount of elapsed time than an observer that remains at rest. This illustrates the fact that time is relative unlike the situation in classical physics where time is absolute. In a recent paper, Bushev et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 093050) showed that the twin paradox can also be demonstrated using a single electron that functions as a quantum-mechanical clock. The wave function of the electron can travel along two different paths simultaneously, which allows a measurement of the difference in proper times along the two trajectories using a single particle. Quantum interference effects show that time cannot be thought of as a classical parameter even when associated with a single clock or observer.

  8. Twins eye study in Tasmania (TEST): rationale and methodology to recruit and examine twins.

    PubMed

    Mackey, David A; Mackinnon, Jane R; Brown, Shayne A; Kearns, Lisa S; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Sanfilippo, Paul G; Sun, Cong; Hammond, Christopher J; Young, Terri L; Martin, Nicholas G; Hewitt, Alex W

    2009-10-01

    Visual impairment is a leading cause of morbidity and poor quality of life in our community. Unravelling the mechanisms underpinning important blinding diseases could allow preventative or curative steps to be implemented. Twin siblings provide a unique opportunity in biology to discover genes associated with numerous eye diseases and ocular biometry. Twins are particularly useful for quantitative trait analysis through genome-wide association and linkage studies. Although many studies involving twins rely on twin registries, we present our approach to the Twins Eye Study in Tasmania to provide insight into possible recruitment strategies, expected participation rates and potential examination strategies that can be considered by other researchers for similar studies. Five separate avenues for cohort recruitment were adopted: (1) piggy-backing existing studies where twins had been recruited, (2) utilizing the national twin registry, (3) word-of-mouth and local media publicity, (4) directly approaching schools, and finally (5) collaborating with other research groups studying twins.

  9. Twins Eye Study in Tasmania (TEST): Rationale and Methodology to Recruit and Examine Twins

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, David A; MacKinnon, Jane R; Brown, Shayne A; Kearns, Lisa S; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Sanfilippo, Paul G; Sun, Cong; Hammond, Christopher J; Young, Terri L; Martin, Nicholas G; Hewitt, Alex W

    2013-01-01

    Visual impairment is a leading cause for morbidity and poor quality of life in our community. Unravelling the mechanisms underpinning important blinding diseases could allow for preventative or curative steps to be implemented. Twin siblings provide a unique opportunity in biology to discover genes associated with numerous eye diseases and ocular biometry. Twins are particularly useful for quantitative trait analysis through genome-wide association and linkage studies. Although many studies involving twins rely on twin registries, we present our approach to the Twins Eye Study in Tasmania to provide insight into possible recruitment strategies, expected participation rates and potential examination strategies that can be considered by other researchers for similar studies. Five separate avenues for cohort recruitment were adopted: 1) piggy-backing existing studies where twins had been recruited; 2); utilising the national twin registry; 3) word of mouth and local media publicity; 4) directly approaching schools; and finally 5) collaborating with other research groups studying twins. PMID:19803772

  10. A licence to vape: Is it time to trial of a nicotine licensing scheme to allow Australian adults controlled access to electronic cigarettes devices and refill solutions containing nicotine?

    PubMed

    Gartner, Coral; Hall, Wayne

    2015-06-01

    Australia has some of the most restrictive laws concerning use of nicotine in e-cigarettes. The only current legal option for Australians to legally possess and use nicotine for vaping is with a medical prescription and domestic supply is limited to compounding pharmacies that prepare medicines for specific patients. An alternative regulatory option that could be implemented under current drugs and poisons regulations is a 'nicotine licensing' scheme utilising current provisions for 'dangerous poisons'. This commentary discusses how such a scheme could be used to trial access to nicotine solutions for vaping outside of a 'medicines framework' in Australia.

  11. Macrodeformation Twins in Single-Crystal Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, F.; Wang, L.; Fan, D.; Bie, B. X.; Zhou, X. M.; Suo, T.; Li, Y. L.; Chen, M. W.; Liu, C. L.; Qi, M. L.; Zhu, M. H.; Luo, S. N.

    2016-02-01

    Deformation twinning in pure aluminum has been considered to be a unique property of nanostructured aluminum. A lingering mystery is whether deformation twinning occurs in coarse-grained or single-crystal aluminum at scales beyond nanotwins. Here, we present the first experimental demonstration of macrodeformation twins in single-crystal aluminum formed under an ultrahigh strain rate (˜106 s-1 ) and large shear strain (200%) via dynamic equal channel angular pressing. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the frustration of subsonic dislocation motion leads to transonic deformation twinning. Deformation twinning is rooted in the rate dependences of dislocation motion and twinning, which are coupled, complementary processes during severe plastic deformation under ultrahigh strain rates.

  12. The Southern California Twin Register at the University of Southern California: II

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Laura A.; Barton, Mafalda; Lozano, Dora Isabel; Raine, Adrian; Fowler, James H.

    2007-01-01

    The Southern California Twin Register was initiated in 1984 at the University of Southern California, and continues to grow. This article provides an update of the register since it was described in the 2002 special issue of this journal. The register has expanded considerably in the past 4 years, primarily as a result of recent access to Los Angeles County birth records and voter registration databases. Currently, this register contains nearly 5000 twin pairs, the majority of whom are school age. The potential for further expansion in adult twins using voter registration records is also described. Using the Los Angeles County voter registration database, we can identify a large group of individuals with a high probability of having a twin who also resides in Los Angeles County. In addition to describing the expansion of register, this article provides an overview of an ongoing investigation of 605 twin pairs who are participating in a longitudinal study of behavioral problems during childhood and adolescence. Characteristics of the twins and their families are presented, indicating baseline rates of conduct problems, depression and anxiety disorders, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnoses which are comparable to nontwins in this age range. PMID:17254433

  13. Evidence for nonadditive genetic effects on Eysenck Personality Scales in South Korean twins.

    PubMed

    Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2007-04-01

    While evidence supporting for nonadditive genetic influences on personality traits in Caucasian populations has been growing in recent years, twin studies that explored the existence of genetic nonadditivity in personality variation in Asian populations are still lacking. Seven hundred and sixty-five pairs of adolescent and young adult twins registered with the South Korean Twin Registry completed the 7 scales of the Eysenck Personality Scales through a mail survey. Maximum likelihood twin correlations were computed and model-fitting analyses were conducted. Monozygotic twin correlations were consistently higher than twice the dizygotic twin correlations for all 7 scales, suggesting pervasive influences of nonadditive genetic effects on personality traits in the South Korean population. Model-fitting analyses indicated that genetic nonadditivity is particularly important for the variation of Impulsivity, Venturesomeness, Empathy, Lie, and Psychoticism. According to the best fitting models, nonadditive genetic effects ranged from 34 to 49% for these scales. For Neuroticism and Extraversion, models that included an additive genetic component fit better than those including a nonadditive genetic variance component.

  14. A Powerful Twin Arrives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    First Images from FORS2 at VLT KUEYEN on Paranal The first, major astronomical instrument to be installed at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) was FORS1 ( FO cal R educer and S pectrograph) in September 1998. Immediately after being attached to the Cassegrain focus of the first 8.2-m Unit Telescope, ANTU , it produced a series of spectacular images, cf. ESO PR 14/98. Many important observations have since been made with this outstanding facility. Now FORS2 , its powerful twin, has been installed at the second VLT Unit Telescope, KUEYEN . It is the fourth major instrument at the VLT after FORS1 , ISAAC and UVES.. The FORS2 Commissioning Team that is busy installing and testing this large and complex instrument reports that "First Light" was successfully achieved already on October 29, 1999, only two days after FORS2 was first mounted at the Cassegrain focus. Since then, various observation modes have been carefully tested, including normal and high-resolution imaging, echelle and multi-object spectroscopy, as well as fast photometry with millisecond time resolution. A number of fine images were obtained during this work, some of which are made available with the present Press Release. The FORS instruments ESO PR Photo 40a/99 ESO PR Photo 40a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 345 pix - 203k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 689 pix - 563kb] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1280 x 1103 pix - 666kb] Caption to PR Photo 40a/99: This digital photo shows the twin instruments, FORS2 at KUEYEN (in the foreground) and FORS1 at ANTU, seen in the background through the open ventilation doors in the two telescope enclosures. Although they look alike, the two instruments have specific functions, as described in the text. FORS1 and FORS2 are the products of one of the most thorough and advanced technological studies ever made of a ground-based astronomical instrument. They have been specifically designed to investigate the faintest and most remote objects in the universe. They are "multi-mode instruments" that

  15. Exotic quarks in Twin Higgs models

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Hsin -Chia; Jung, Sunghoon; Salvioni, Ennio; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2016-03-14

    The Twin Higgs model provides a natural theory for the electroweak symmetry breaking without the need of new particles carrying the standard model gauge charges below a few TeV. In the low energy theory, the only probe comes from the mixing of the Higgs fields in the standard model and twin sectors. However, an ultraviolet completion is required below ~ 10 TeV to remove residual logarithmic divergences. In non-supersymmetric completions, new exotic fermions charged under both the standard model and twin gauge symmetries have to be present to accompany the top quark, thus providing a high energy probe of the model. Some of them carry standard model color, and may therefore be copiously produced at current or future hadron colliders. Once produced, these exotic quarks can decay into a top together with twin sector particles. If the twin sector particles escape the detection, we have the irreducible stop-like signals. On the other hand, some twin sector particles may decay back into the standard model particles with long lifetimes, giving spectacular displaced vertex signals in combination with the prompt top quarks. This happens in the Fraternal Twin Higgs scenario with typical parameters, and sometimes is even necessary for cosmological reasons. We study the potential displaced vertex signals from the decays of the twin bottomonia, twin glueballs, and twin leptons in the Fraternal Twin Higgs scenario. As a result, depending on the details of the twin sector, the exotic quarks may be probed up to ~ 2.5 TeV at the LHC and beyond 10 TeV at a future 100 TeV collider, providing a strong test of this class of ultraviolet completions.

  16. Partial Meissner effect in superconductors with twins

    SciTech Connect

    Gurevich, A.L.; Mints, R.G. )

    1988-11-01

    Superconductivity of twinning planes, arising at critical temperature T/sub c/ exceeding the bulk point T/sub co/, may prove to be important for the understanding of the properties of high-temperature superconductors with well-developed twinning structure. This paper shows that regardless of a specific mechanism of superconductivity, twins at T/sub c/>T/sub co/ act as seeds for the growth of metastable superconducting domains whose order parameter phases differ by {pi}.

  17. Exotic quarks in Twin Higgs models

    DOE PAGES

    Cheng, Hsin -Chia; Jung, Sunghoon; Salvioni, Ennio; ...

    2016-03-14

    The Twin Higgs model provides a natural theory for the electroweak symmetry breaking without the need of new particles carrying the standard model gauge charges below a few TeV. In the low energy theory, the only probe comes from the mixing of the Higgs fields in the standard model and twin sectors. However, an ultraviolet completion is required below ~ 10 TeV to remove residual logarithmic divergences. In non-supersymmetric completions, new exotic fermions charged under both the standard model and twin gauge symmetries have to be present to accompany the top quark, thus providing a high energy probe of themore » model. Some of them carry standard model color, and may therefore be copiously produced at current or future hadron colliders. Once produced, these exotic quarks can decay into a top together with twin sector particles. If the twin sector particles escape the detection, we have the irreducible stop-like signals. On the other hand, some twin sector particles may decay back into the standard model particles with long lifetimes, giving spectacular displaced vertex signals in combination with the prompt top quarks. This happens in the Fraternal Twin Higgs scenario with typical parameters, and sometimes is even necessary for cosmological reasons. We study the potential displaced vertex signals from the decays of the twin bottomonia, twin glueballs, and twin leptons in the Fraternal Twin Higgs scenario. As a result, depending on the details of the twin sector, the exotic quarks may be probed up to ~ 2.5 TeV at the LHC and beyond 10 TeV at a future 100 TeV collider, providing a strong test of this class of ultraviolet completions.« less

  18. Twin-Telescope Wettzell (TTW)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hase, H.; Dassing, R.; Kronschnabl, G.; Schlüter, W.; Schwarz, W.; Lauber, P.; Kilger, R.

    2007-07-01

    Following the recommendations made by the VLBI2010 vision report of the IVS, a proposal has been made to construct a Twin Telescope for the Fundamental Station Wettzell in order to meet the future requirements of the next VLBI generation. The Twin Telescope consists of two identical radiotelescopes. It is a project of the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG). This article summarizes the project and some design ideas for the Twin-Telescope. %ZALMA (2005). Technical Specification for Design, Manufacturing, Transport and Integration on Site of the ALMA ANTENNAS, Doc. ALMA-34.00.00.00.006-BSPE. Behrend, D. (2006). VLBI2010 Antenna Specs, Data sheet. DeBoer, D. (2001). The ATA Offset Gregorian Antenna, ATA Memo #16, February 10. Imbriale, W.A. (2006). Design of a Wideband Radio Telescope, Jet Propulsion Laboratory and S. Weinreb and H. Mandi, California Institute of Technology. Kilger, R. (2007). TWIN-Design studies, Presentation for the IVS board members (internal document),Wettzell. Kronschnabl, G. (2006). Subject: Memo from Bill Petrachenko, E-mail to the Twin-Working Group (in German), July. Lindgren, ETS-Lindgren (2005). The Model 3164-05 Open Boundary Quadridge Horn, Data Sheet. Niell, A., A. Whitney, W. Petrachenko, W. Schlüter, N. Vandenberg, H.Hase, Y. Koyama, C. Ma, H. Schuh, G. Tucari (2006). in: IVS Annual Report 2005, pg. 13-40, NASA/TP-2006-214136, April. Olsson, R., Kildal, P.-S., and Weinreb, S. (2006). IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 54, No. 2, February. Petrachenko, B. (2006). The Case For and Against Multiple Antennas at a Site, IVS Memorandum, 2006-019v01. Petrachenko, B. (2006). IVS Memorandum, 2006-016v01. RFSpin (2004). Double Ridged Waveguide Horn-Model DRH20, Antenna Specifications, Data Sheet. Rohde&Schwarz (2004). SHF Antennas Crossed Log- Periodic Antennas HL024A1/S1, Data Sheet. Rohde&Schwarz (2004). SHF Antennas Log-Periodic Antennas HL050/HL050S1, Data Sheet. Rogers, A.E.E. (2006). Simulations of broadband

  19. Genetic and Environmental Stability in Attention Problems across the Lifespan: Evidence from the Netherlands Twin Register

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Kees-Jan; Dolan, Conor V.; Nivard, Michel G.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To review findings on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and attention problems (AP) in children, adolescents, and adults, as established in the database of the Netherlands Twin Register and increase the understanding of stability in AP across the lifespan as a function of genetic and environmental influences. Method: A…

  20. Is "g" an Entity? A Japanese Twin Study Using Syllogisms and Intelligence Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shikishima, Chizuru; Hiraishi, Kai; Yamagata, Shinji; Sugimoto, Yutaro; Takemura, Ryo; Ozaki, Koken; Okada, Mitsuhiro; Toda, Tatsushi; Ando, Juko

    2009-01-01

    Using a behavioral genetic approach, we examined the validity of the hypothesis concerning the singularity of human general intelligence, the "g" theory, by analyzing data from two tests: the first consisted of 100 syllogism problems and the second a full-scale intelligence test. The participants were 448 Japanese young adult twins (167…

  1. College-age twins: university admission policies / twin research: birth weight and neuromotor performance; transfusion syndrome markers; vanishing twins and fetal sex determination; mz twin discordance for wilson's disease / media: big at birth; planned separation of conjoined twins; x factor twins; Cinema: the identical.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2014-12-01

    There is a lack of research findings addressing the unique college admissions issues faced by twins and other multiples. The advantages and disadvantage twins face, as reported by college administrators, twins and families are reviewed. Next, recent research addressing twins' birth weight and neuromotor performance, transfusion syndrome markers, the vanishing twin syndrome and monozygotic (MZ) twin discordance for Wilson's disease is described. News items concerning the birth of unusually large twins, the planned separation of conjoined twins, twin participants in the X Factor games and a film, The Identical, are also summarized.

  2. Asthma discordance in twins is linked to epigenetic modifications of T cells.

    PubMed

    Runyon, R Scott; Cachola, Leslie M; Rajeshuni, Nitya; Hunter, Tessa; Garcia, Marco; Ahn, Regina; Lurmann, Fred; Krasnow, Ruth; Jack, Lisa M; Miller, Rachel L; Swan, Gary E; Kohli, Arunima; Jacobson, Amanda C; Nadeau, Kari C

    2012-01-01

    T cells mediate the inflammatory responses observed in asthma among genetically susceptible individuals and have been suspected to be prone to epigenetic regulation. However, these relationships are not well established from past clinical studies that have had limited capacity to control for the effects of variable genetic predisposition and early environmental exposures. Relying on a cohort of monozygotic twins discordant for asthma we sought to determine if epigenetic modifications in T cells were associated with current asthma and explored whether such modifications were associated with second hand smoke exposures. Our study was conducted in a monozygotic twin cohort of adult twin pairs (n = 21) all discordant for asthma. Regulatory T cell (Treg) and effector T cell (Teff) subsets were assessed for levels of cellular function, protein expression, gene expression and CpG methylation within Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) and interferon gamma-γ (IFNγ) loci. Comparisons by asthma and current report of exposure to second hand smoke were made. Treg from asthmatic discordant twins demonstrated decreased FOXP3 protein expression and impaired Treg function that was associated with increased levels of CpG methylation within the FOXP3 locus when compared to their non-asthmatic twin partner. In parallel, Teff from discordant asthmatic twins demonstrated increased methylation of the IFNγ locus, decreased IFNγ expression and reduced Teff function when compared to Teff from the non-asthmatic twin. Finally, report of current exposure to second hand smoke was associated with modifications in both Treg and Teff at the transcriptional level among asthmatics. The results of the current study provide evidence for differential function of T cell subsets in monozygotic twins discordant for asthma that are regulated by changes in DNA methylation. Our preliminary data suggest exposure to second hand smoke may augment the modified T cell responses associated with asthma.

  3. Twin Loss: Implications for Counselors Working with Surviving Twins.(practice & Theory)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withrow, Rebecca; Schwiebert, Valerie L.

    2005-01-01

    Multiple births are becoming increasingly prevalent due to the use of fertility drugs and women choosing to wait until later life to conceive. With the growth in the twin population, little research has been done to investigate the effects on the grief process when 1 twin dies. Counselors must understand the unique experience of twins to formulate…

  4. Twin vaginal delivery: innovate or abdicate.

    PubMed

    Easter, Sarah Rae; Taouk, Laura; Schulkin, Jay; Robinson, Julian N

    2017-02-07

    Neonatal safety data along with national guidelines have prompted renewed interest in vaginal delivery of twins, particularly in the case of the noncephalic second twin. Yet, the rising rate of twin cesarean deliveries, coupled with the national decline in operative obstetrics, raises concerns about the availability of providers who are skilled in twin vaginal birth. Providers are key stakeholders for increasing rates of twin vaginal delivery. We surveyed a group of practicing obstetricians to explore potential barriers to the vaginal birth of twins with a focus on delivery of the noncephalic second twin. Among 107 responding providers, only 57% would deliver a noncephalic second twin by breech extraction. Providers who preferred breech extraction had a higher rate of maternal-fetal medicine subspecialty training (26.2% vs 4.3%; P<.01) and were more likely to be in an academic practice environment (36.1% vs 10.9%; P<.01) and to practice in high-volume centers that deliver >30 sets of twins annually (57.4% vs 34.8%; P=.02). Most providers (54.2%) were familiar with the findings from the recent randomized trial that demonstrated the safety of twin vaginal birth. However, knowledge of the trial was not associated statistically with a preference for breech extraction (62.3% vs 43.5%; P=.05). Providers who preferred breech extraction were more likely to agree with recent society guidelines that encourage the vaginal birth of twins (86.9% vs 63.0%; P<.01). In an adjusted analysis, the 46% of providers with a perceived need for more training were far less likely to prefer breech extraction for delivery of a noncephalic second twin (adjusted odds ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.95). Furthermore, 57% of providers who would not offer their patient breech extraction would be willing to consult a colleague for support with a noncephalic twin delivery. These results suggest that scientific evidence and society opinion are likely insufficient to reverse the national

  5. Siamese twins in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    el-Gohary, M A

    1998-03-01

    In the years 1985-1992, ten pairs of conjoined twins were born in the United Arab Emirates (UAE): one dicephalus, two teratopagi, and seven thoracoomphalopagi, one of which was still-born and three who were cared for in other hospitals. The first pair of thoraco-omphalopagus twins died of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia 6 months after successful separation. The management of the third set of twins gave rise to moral and ethical problems often encountered in such situations, while one of the teratopagi was a unique case of a parasite projecting from the mouth of the normal twin.

  6. Common plankton of Twin Lakes, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, D.M.

    1983-02-01

    A series of studies is being performed to evaluate the effects of the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Powerplant on the ecology of Twin Lakes. Twin Lakes are a pair of connected dimictic lakes, formed as the result of glacial action on alluvial deposits. This report presents a taxonomic species study of the common plankton collected since 1974 from Twin Lakes. A total of 11 zooplankters and 14 phytoplankters were identified from the limnetic zone of Twin Lakes and the associated Mt. Elbert Forebay. The four divisions of zooplankton included four species of Rotifera (rotifer), three species of Copepoda (copepod), three species of Cladocera (cladoceran), and one species of Mysidacea (opossum shrimp).

  7. Atomistic deformation mechanisms in twinned copper nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Bian, Jianjun; Niu, Xinrui; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Gangfeng

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we perform molecular dynamic simulations to investigate the compression response and atomistic deformation mechanisms of twinned nanospheres. The relationship between load and compression depth is calculated for various twin spacing and loading directions. Then, the overall elastic properties and the underlying plastic deformation mechanisms are illuminated. Twin boundaries (TBs) act as obstacles to dislocation motion and lead to strengthening. As the loading direction varies, the plastic deformation transfers from dislocations intersecting with TBs, slipping parallel to TBs, and then to being restrained by TBs. The strengthening of TBs depends strongly on the twin spacing.

  8. Newborn infant characteristics and risk of future rheumatoid arthritis: a twin-control study.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Anders J; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Houen, Gunnar; Nielsen, Christian; Holst, René; Skytthe, Axel; Junker, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Low birth weight has been proposed as a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The twin-control study design provides an opportunity to investigate the significance of potential prenatal determinants for adult morbidity by accounting for maternal characteristics and early environmental and genetic factors. We investigated the association between birth weight and RA in a sample of 42 twin pairs discordant for rheumatoid arthritis in which valid information on birth weight, birth length, and order was available from midwife records. Difference plot and conditional logistic regression were used to investigate the relationship between RA and birth weight or birth order adjusting for birth length and sex. The intra-pairwise birth weight differences, i.e., RA twin minus co-twin, ranged from -750 to 1,100 g, mean 78 g (95 % CI -13 to 70), 146 g (95 % CI (-36 to 329) in monozygotic, 32 g (95 % CI -90 to 154) in dizygotic, same sex and 69 g (95 % CI -122 to 260) in dizygotic, opposite sex twin pairs. The odds ratio for birth weight as risk factor for RA was 1.00 (95 % CI 0.997-1.003) when adjusting for birth length, birth order, and sex, irrespective of ACPA status. The odds ratio for developing RA as first born twin was 2.33 (95 % CI 0.97-5.60) when adjusting for birth length, birth weight, and sex, irrespective of ACPA status. In this twin-control study, birth weight was not associated with the development of RA in adult life. Being born first may predispose to RA.

  9. Different phenotypes in identical twins with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: case series.

    PubMed

    Zádori, Dénes; Szpisjak, László; Madar, László; Varga, Viktória Evelin; Csányi, Bernadett; Bencsik, Krisztina; Balogh, István; Harangi, Mariann; Kereszty, Éva; Vécsei, László; Klivényi, Péter

    2017-03-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare, genetically determined error of metabolism. The characteristic clinical symptoms are diarrhea, juvenile cataracts, tendon xanthomas and neuropsychiatric alterations. The aim of this study is to present a pair of identical adult twins with considerable differences in the severity of phenotype. With regards to neuropsychiatric symptoms, the predominant features were severe Parkinsonism and moderate cognitive dysfunctions in the more-affected individual, whereas these alterations in the less-affected patient were only very mild and mild, respectively. The characteristic increase in the concentrations of serum cholestanol and the lesion volumes in dentate nuclei in the brain assessed with magnetic resonance imaging were quite similar in both cases. The lifestyle conditions, including eating habits of the twin pair, were quite similar as well; therefore, currently unknown genetic modifiers or certain epigenetic factors may be responsible for the differences in severity of phenotype. This case series serves as the first description of an identical twin pair with CTX presenting heterogeneous clinical features.

  10. The teeth and faces of twins: providing insights into dentofacial development and oral health for practising oral health professionals.

    PubMed

    Hughes, T E; Townsend, G C; Pinkerton, S K; Bockmann, M R; Seow, W K; Brook, A H; Richards, L C; Mihailidis, S; Ranjitkar, S; Lekkas, D

    2014-06-01

    The continuing studies of the teeth and faces of Australian twins and their families in the Craniofacial Biology Research Group in the School of Dentistry at the University of Adelaide began 30 years ago. Three main cohorts of twins have been recruited, enabling various objectives and specific hypotheses to be addressed about the roles of genetic, epigenetic and environmental influences on human dentofacial growth and development, as well as oral health. This paper highlights some key findings arising from these studies, emphasizing those of direct relevance to practising oral health professionals. We also draw on published literature to review the significant developments in relation to the use of precision 2D and 3D imaging equipment, the application of modern molecular techniques, and the development of sophisticated computer software for analysing genetic relationships and comparing complex shapes. Such developments are valuable for current and future work. Apart from the classical or traditional twin model, there are several other twin models that can be used in research to clarify the relative contributions of genetic, epigenetic and environmental contributions to phenotypic variation. The monozygotic (MZ) co-twin model is one particularly valuable method, given that examination of only one pair of MZ twins can provide considerable insights into underlying causes of observed variation. This model can be used in a dental practice environment, with oral health professionals having the opportunity to explore differences in orofacial structures between MZ co-twins who are attending as patients. As researchers have become more aware of the complexities of the interactions between the genome, the epigenome and the environment during development, there is the need to collect more phenotypic data and define new phenotypes that will better characterize variations in growth processes and health status. When coupled with powerful new genetic approaches, including genome

  11. Food advertising on Australian television: the extent of children's exposure.

    PubMed

    Neville, Leonie; Thomas, Margaret; Bauman, Adrian

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the extent and nature of food advertising during Australian children's television (TV) viewing hours and programs, and to determine whether confectionery and fast food restaurant advertisements were more likely to be broadcast during children's programs than during adults' programs on Sydney television stations. One week (390 h) of Australian advertising data broadcast during children's TV viewing hours over 15 television stations were analysed to determine the proportion of food advertisements and, in turn, the proportion of those advertisements promoting foods high in fat and/or sugar. One week (346 h) of confectionery and fast food restaurant advertisements broadcast over three Sydney television stations were analysed to determine whether these types of advertisements were more likely to be advertised during children's programs than adults' programs. Half of all food advertisements promoted foods high in fat and/or sugar. 'Confectionery' and 'fast food restaurants' were the most advertised food categories during children's TV viewing hours. Confectionery advertisements were three times as likely, and fast food restaurant advertisements twice as likely, to be broadcast during children's programs than adults' programs. It can be concluded that foods most advertised during children's viewing hours are not those foods that contribute to a healthy diet for children. Confectionery and fast food restaurant advertising appears to target children. Australian children need protection from the targeted promotion of unhealthy foods on television, but currently little exists.

  12. 11. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works construction drawing dated January 15, 1951. Drawn by W.A. Doe for the Twin Lakes Reservoir and Canal Co. (copy in possession of Bureau of Reclamation, location of original unknown) 'AS CONSTRUCTED' PLANS OF 1949-1950, REHABILITATION OF TWIN LAKES RESERVOIR OUTLET WORKS, DETAILS OF UPSTREAM WING WALLS. - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

  13. 12. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works construction drawing dated January 15, 1951. Drawn by W.A. Doe for the Twin Lakes Reservoir and Canal Co. (copy in possession of Bureau of Reclamation, location of original unknown) 'AS CONSTRUCTED' PLANS OF 1949-50, REHABILITATION OF TWIN LAKES RESERVOIR OUTLET WORKS, DETAILS OF DISCHARGE BASIN. - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

  14. Weak phonon scattering effect of twin boundaries on thermal transmission

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Huicong; Xiao, Jianwei; Melnik, Roderick; Wen, Bin

    2016-01-01

    To study the effect of twin boundaries on thermal transmission, thermal conductivities of twinned diamond with different twin thicknesses have been studied by NEMD simulation. Results indicate that twin boundaries show a weak phonon scattering effect on thermal transmission, which is only caused by the additional twin boundaries’ thermal resistance. Moreover, according to phonon kinetic theory, this weak phonon scattering effect of twin boundaries is mainly caused by a slightly reduced average group velocity. PMID:26822675

  15. Weak phonon scattering effect of twin boundaries on thermal transmission.

    PubMed

    Dong, Huicong; Xiao, Jianwei; Melnik, Roderick; Wen, Bin

    2016-01-29

    To study the effect of twin boundaries on thermal transmission, thermal conductivities of twinned diamond with different twin thicknesses have been studied by NEMD simulation. Results indicate that twin boundaries show a weak phonon scattering effect on thermal transmission, which is only caused by the additional twin boundaries' thermal resistance. Moreover, according to phonon kinetic theory, this weak phonon scattering effect of twin boundaries is mainly caused by a slightly reduced average group velocity.

  16. [Social development of twins: the need for intervention to avoid adverse effects of twin language].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Chisato; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Maeda, Chiho; Nishihara, Reiko; Onoi, Miyuki

    2008-10-01

    Social competence is one of the most important accomplishments of human development, and this skill in human relationships is learned through communication. Therefore, it is considered that delays in language development could be a barrier to building human relationships and social competence. Although it is well known that there are delays in language development in twins compared with that of singletons, little is known about how these linguistic delays affect the development of social competence. Because twin language is a language that is unique to each pair of twins and cannot be understood by either their mother or others, it may be assumed that the social competence of twins who have a twin language is less than that of twins who don't have a twin language. Therefore, in this prospective longitudinal study we also investigated the relationship between twin language and social competence. A mailed questionnaire survey was conducted in 958 mothers as a follow-up of a study conducted in 2004. As a result, 522 respondents returned the questionnaire (53.9%). In this study, we used only 256 twins aged 6- 12-years-old (school-age children) for analysis, excluding those with missing values. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed. In the second child of twins, a low birth weight, the appearance of twin language and gestosis of the mother were positively related with social unbalance (OR = 1.846, 2.022 and 1.903). On the other hand, with the first child, however, there was no such link. The present results indicate that twin language might influence social competence in school-age children. It has been believed that linguistic intervention is unnecessary, because most twin language disappears spontaneously. However, early intervention, for example linguistic assistance by public health nurses or psychologists and early enrollment in a preschool may be necessary for twins with a twin language, to avoid adverse consequences in social competence at school-age.

  17. Australian helminths in Australian rodents: an issue of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Warner, L R

    1998-06-01

    The Australian public as well as Australian funding bodies are generally unsympathetic to native murids, rats and mice, in spite of the fact that 36% have either become extinct or critically endangered since European settlement. The endemic Australian parasites of these rats and mice have been even less sympathetically regarded. Prior to 1958 very little work was carried out on the helminths of Australian rodents and little more is known today. Records are known from only 28% of the extant host species, comprising some 109 species of helminth identified at least to generic level. The rodents invaded Australia from the north, perhaps through New Guinea in at least two separate waves, 5-8 then about 1 million years ago. The parasites they brought with them have adapted and speciated and there has been some host switching between rodent groups and between rodents and the Australian marsupials. This is illustrated particularly in the Trichostrongyloidea. The origins of the rodents from Southeast Asia down the Indonesian island chain are reflected in the presence of the nematode genus Tikusnema in both Australia and Indonesia, and Cyclodontostomum purvisi across Southeast Asia and into New Guinea. Hydromys chrysogaster, the Australian water-rat, illustrates how the biogeographical influences of the host's distribution and lifestyle can affect its parasite fauna. Most of the research to date is merely indicative of where more data are needed. The links between Australian and New Guinean helminth fauna, as well as the links between rodent and marsupial hosts and their fauna, cannot be determined without further research.

  18. Variable phenotype of Marfan syndrome in two large Australian pedigrees, one of Australian aboriginal origin

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, K.K.; Summers, K.M.; West, M.J.

    1994-09-01

    Marfan syndrome may affect the cardiovascular, ocular and skeletal systems. The gene for this autosomal dominant disease maps to chromosome 15 and codes for the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin. Phenotypic expression is very variable both within and between families, possibly due to the influence of other, unlinked, genetic factors interacting with the fibrillin gene. We report two Australian families which demonstrate the extent of inter- and intra-family phenotypic variability. Eye, cardiac and skeletal assessments were made independently. In the first family, 8 of 12 siblings and 11 of 19 of their children had ectopia lentis with or without other ocular findings. There were few cardiac signs. One child had mitral valve prolapse. He and three other children had mild dilatation of the aorta. Skeletal abnormalities were also found (3 adults and 7 children). Chest wall asymmetry was the most common skeletal finding. This family has less cardiac and skeletal involvement than is usual in Marfan syndrome, although the disease maps to chromosome 15 in the region of the fibrillin gene (LOD=4.8 at {theta}=0 with respect to CYP19). The second family is partly of Australian aboriginal origin. The disease has been traced through 5 generations. To date we have examined 37 of 84 living members. Twenty-three in 3 generations are affected. Five adults and 4 children have moderate to severe aortic dilatation and there has been at least one death due to aortic dissection. However, two adolescents with subluxed lenses and marked skeletal abnormalities have normal aortic diameters, two children have aortic dilatation without other signs and two children have only subluxed lenses. This family shows the range of phenotypic variation which can arise from mutation in the fibrillin gene, which may be influenced by the admixture of Australian aboriginal genes. These two families provide an invaluable resource for studying genetic interactions in this disease.

  19. Chronic Placental Inflammation in Twin Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Heejin; Bae, Go Eun; Park, Ha Young; Kim, Yeon Mee; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-young; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jung-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic placental inflammation, such as villitis of unknown etiology (VUE) and chronic chorioamnionitis (CCA), is considered a placental manifestation of maternal anti-fetal rejection. The aim of this study is to investigate its frequency in twin pregnancies compared to singleton pregnancies. Methods: Three hundred twin placentas and 1,270 singleton placentas were consecutively collected at a tertiary medical center in Seoul, Republic of Korea from 2009 to 2012. Hematoxylin and eosin sections of tissue samples (full-thickness placental disc and chorioamniotic membranes) were reviewed. Results: Non-basal VUE was more frequent in twin placentas than in singleton placentas (6.0% vs 3.2%, p < .05). In preterm birth, CCA was found less frequently in twin placentas than in singleton placentas (9.6% vs 14.8%, p < .05), reaching its peak at an earlier gestational age in twin placentas (29–32 weeks) than in singleton placentas (33–36 weeks). CCA was more frequent in twin pregnancies with babies of a different sex than with those with the same sex (13.8% vs 6.9%, p=.052). Separate dichorionic diamniotic twin placentas were affected by chronic deciduitis more frequently than singleton placentas (16.9% vs 9.7%, p<.05). Conclusions: The higher frequency of non-basal VUE in twin placentas and of CCA in twin placentas with different fetal sex supports the hypothesis that the underlying pathophysiological mechanism is maternal anti-fetal rejection related to increased fetal antigens in twin pregnancies. The peak of CCA at an earlier gestational age in twin placentas than in singleton placentas suggests that CCA is influenced by placental maturation. PMID:26459409

  20. NEC in Twin Pregnancies: Incidence and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    C Burjonrappa, Sathyaprasad; Shea, Brian; Goorah, Diya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal emergency in neonates. Previously established risk factors for the development of NEC include prematurity and low birth weight. However, it is not clear to date as to whether the etiology of NEC is due to host, environmental, or yet other unknown factors. We analyzed the differences in incidence of NEC in twin pregnancies to further clarify its etio-pathogenesis. Methods: After IRB approval, a retrospective search of the medical records of the Department of Pediatric Surgery was done to identify all the neonates treated for surgical NEC from 2006-2013. Patients that had been treated for NEC elsewhere and subsequently transferred in to our facility were excluded. The medical records of the resulting 45 patients were then analyzed for demographics, antenatal screening, risk factors, treatment (medical and surgical), and outcomes. The resulting data was then analyzed using relative risk calculations and standard statistical tests. Results: Of the 45 patients who developed surgical NEC, 9 neonates (20%) were born of a twin pregnancy. There were no cases in which both twin A and twin B developed NEC. NEC in twin pregnancy neonates showed a female preponderance (p less than 0.0001) and developed universally in the first born of the twins. Birth weight, time of onset of NEC, hospital stay and mortality were similar between twin and non-twin NEC. There was an average lead-time of three weeks to development of NEC in both singletons and twin pregnancies. Conclusion: There is a remarkable higher incidence of NEC amongst twins. Abnormal colonization of the gastrointestinal tract appears to be an immediate postpartum event. NEC in twin pregnancy does not appear to have a deleterious outcome compared to NEC in singleton pregnancy. PMID:26023516

  1. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Traits of Gender Identity Disorder: A Study of Japanese Twins Across Developmental Stages.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Shoko; Ozaki, Koken; Yamagata, Shinji; Takahashi, Yusuke; Shikishima, Chizuru; Kornacki, Tamara; Nonaka, Koichi; Ando, Juko

    2016-10-01

    The present study examined: (1) gender and age differences of mean gender identity disorder (GID) trait scores in Japanese twins; (2) the validity of the prenatal hormone transfer theory, which predicts that, in dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs, twins with an opposite-gender co-twin more frequently exhibit GID traits than twins with a same-gender co-twin; and (3) the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on GID traits as a function of age and gender. Data from 1450 male twin pairs, 1882 female twin pairs, and 1022 DZ male-female pairs ranging from 3 to 26 years of age were analyzed. To quantify individual variances in GID traits, each participant completed four questionnaire items based on criteria for GID from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR). Our most important findings were: (1) Japanese females exhibited GID traits more frequently than males and Japanese children exhibited GID traits less frequently than adolescents and adults (among females, the prevalence was 1.6 % in children, 10 % in adolescents, and 12 % in adults; among males, the prevalence was 0.5, 2, and 3 %, respectively); (2) the data did not support the prenatal hormone transfer theory for GID traits; and (3) a large part of the variance for GID traits in children was accounted for by familial factors; however, the magnitude was found to be greater in children than in adolescents or adults, particularly among females. This study suggests that although the prevalence is likely to increase, familial effects are likely to decrease as individuals age.

  2. NOTE: Haemodynamic resistance model of monochorionic twin pregnancies complicated by acardiac twinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umur, Asli; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Ross, Michael G.; Nikkels, Peter G. J.

    2004-07-01

    An acardiac twin is a severely malformed monochorionic twin fetus that lacks most organs, particularly a heart. It grows during pregnancy, because it is perfused by its developmentally normal co-twin (called the pump twin) via a set of placental arterioarterial and venovenous anastomoses. The pump twin dies intrauterine or neonatally in about 50% of the cases due to congestive heart failure, polyhydramnios and prematurity. Because the pathophysiology of this pregnancy is currently incompletely understood, we modified our previous haemodynamic model of monochorionic twins connected by placental vascular anastomoses to include the analysis of acardiac twin pregnancies. We incorporated the fetoplacental circulation as a resistance circuit and used the fetal umbilical flow that perfuses the body to define fetal growth, rather than the placental flow as done previously. Using this modified model, we predicted that the pump twin has excess blood volume and increased mean arterial blood pressure compared to those in the acardiac twin. Placental perfusion of the acardiac twin is significantly reduced compared to normal, as a consequence of an increased venous pressure, possibly implying reduced acardiac placental growth. In conclusion, the haemodynamic analysis may contribute to an increased knowledge of the pathophysiologic consequences of an acardiac body mass for the pump twin.

  3. The Italian Twin Project: from the personal identification number to a national twin registry.

    PubMed

    Stazi, Maria Antonietta; Cotichini, Rodolfo; Patriarca, Valeria; Brescianini, Sonia; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Cannoni, Stefania; Ristori, Giovanni; Salvetti, Marco

    2002-10-01

    The unique opportunity given by the "fiscal code", an alphanumeric identification with demographic information on any single person residing in Italy, introduced in 1976 by the Ministry of Finance, allowed a database of all potential Italian twins to be created. This database contains up to now name, surname, date and place of birth and home address of about 1,300,000 "possible twins". Even though we estimated an excess of 40% of pseudo-twins, this still is the world's largest twin population ever collected. The database of possible twins is currently used in population-based studies on multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, celiac disease, and type 1 diabetes. A system is currently being developed for linking the database with data from mortality and cancer registries. In 2001, the Italian Government, through the Ministry of Health, financed a broad national research program on twin studies, including the establishment of a national twin registry. Among all the possible twins, a sample of 500,000 individuals are going to be contacted and we expect to enrol around 120,000 real twin pairs in a formal Twin Registry. According to available financial resources, a sub sample of the enrolled population will be asked to donate DNA. A biological bank from twins will be then implemented, guaranteeing information on future etiological questions regarding genetic and modifiable factors for physical impairment and disability, cancers, cardiovascular diseases and other age related chronic illnesses.

  4. Clinical and echographic features of in utero cardiac dysfunction in the recipient twin in twin-twin transfusion syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Zosmer, N; Bajoria, R; Weiner, E; Rigby, M; Vaughan, J; Fisk, N M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--Fetal twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) presenting in the second trimester has been associated with almost no perinatal survival until recently, when serial drainage of amniotic fluid has improved the prognosis to 70%-80%. Most recipient twins now survive but develop cardiac dysfunction. The study was undertaken to evaluate the abnormal echocardiographic features and clinical complications of cardiac disease in the recipient twin of TTTS. DESIGN--Antenatal and postnatal echocardiographic and clinical observational study. SETTING--Antenatal studies in a tertiary referral centre. Postnatal management and follow up were performed by the same paediatric cardiologist, either at the obstetric hospital or at the regional referral centre. PATIENTS--Twin pregnancies complicated by TTTS with severe polyhydramnios diagnosed earlier than 25 weeks that proceeded until viability (n = 5). INTERVENTION--Serial fetal echocardiography with colour Doppler. Postnatal echocardiography in the first week and between two and seven months. Serial amnioreduction was performed in all pregnancies. Digoxin treatment, pericardiocentesis, paracentesis, or laser ablation of placental anastomoses was undertaken when there was hydrops. RESULTS--Increased cardiothoracic ratio and tricuspid regurgitation were seen in all recipient twins. High pulmonary artery velocities developed in three. One recipient twin died a week after delivery of endocardial fibroelastosis and infundibular pulmonary stenosis. Two other had balloon dilatation for pulmonary stenosis, one shortly after birth and one at four months. A further twin has apical thickening of the right ventricle at six months. The remaining recipient twin had normal echocardiographic findings at follow up. CONCLUSION--This report characterises for the first time a cardiac disease acquired in utero in the recipient twin in pregnancies complicated by TTTS. Clinical manifestations in utero range from mild to critical pulmonary stenosis or

  5. Vascular programming in twins: the effects of chorionicity and fetal therapy for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, H M; Barlas, A; Matsui, H; Diemert, A; Taylor, M J O; Preece, J; Gordon, F; Greenwald, S E; Hecher, K

    2012-06-01

    We assessed vascular programming in genetically identical monochorionic twin pairs with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) treated differently in utero by serial amnioreduction or fetal laser arterial photocoagulation. This case-control study re-assessed four twin groups at median 11 years comprising 20 pairs of monochorionic diamniotic twins: nine treated by amnioreduction (TTTS-amnio) and eleven by laser (TTTS-laser) with seven monochorionic and six dichorionic control pairs. Outcome measures were current blood pressure (BP), brachio-radial arterial stiffness derived from pulse wave velocity (PWV), resting microcirculation (Flux) and response to heating and post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia measured using laser Doppler. Potential confounders [PWV and BP at first study, current height, weight, heart rate and twin type (ex-recipient, ex-donor or heavier/lighter of pair)] were accounted for by Mixed Linear Models statistical methodology. PWV dichorionic > monochorionic (P = 0.024); systolic and diastolic BP dichorionic > TTTS-amnio and TTTS-laser (P = 0.004, P = 0.02 and P = 0.005, P = 0.02, respectively). Within-twin pair pattern of PWV discordance was similar in laser treated and dichorionic controls (heavier-born > lighter), opposite to TTTS-amnio and monochorionic controls. Flux monochorionic > dichorionic (P = 0.044) and heavier > lighter-born (P = 0.024). TTTS-laser and dichorionic diamniotic showed greatest hyperaemic responses (dichorionic > TTTS-amnio or monochorionic controls (P = 0.007, P = 0.025). Hyperaemic responses were slower in heavier-born twins (P = 0.005). In summary, monochorionic twins had lower BP, arterial stiffness and increased resting vasodilatation than dichorionic twins implying shared fetal circulation affects vascular development. Vascular responses in laser-TTTS were similar to dichorionic and opposite to TTTS-amnio suggesting a lasting effect of fetal therapy on vascular health.

  6. Twin-Foucault imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Ken

    2012-02-01

    A method of Lorentz electron microscopy, which enables observation two Foucault images simultaneously by using an electron biprism instead of an objective aperture, was developed. The electron biprism is installed between two electron beams deflected by 180° magnetic domains. Potential applied to the biprism deflects the two electron beams further, and two Foucault images with reversed contrast are then obtained in one visual field. The twin Foucault images are able to extract the magnetic domain structures and to reconstruct an ordinary electron micrograph. The developed Foucault method was demonstrated with a 180° domain structure of manganite La0.825Sr0.175MnO3.

  7. Ocular findings in conjoined (Siamese) twins.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mansour, N; Rosenberg, H S

    1991-01-01

    Conjoined twinning is a rare form of congenital anomaly. The ocular findings in six sets of conjoined twins as well as those reported elsewhere include abnormal optic nerve decussation, pseudosynophthalmos, microphthalmia, abnormal eyelids, orbital encephalocele, occipital encephalocele, and eyelid coloboma. These findings are interpreted as due to deformations from appositional fusion-related factors or malformations from developmental factors.

  8. Optimal nutrition for improved twin pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Goodnight, William; Newman, Roger

    2009-11-01

    Twin pregnancies contribute a disproportionate degree to perinatal morbidity, partly because of increased risks of low birth weight and prematurity. Although the cause of the morbidity is multifactorial, attention to twin-specific maternal nutrition may be beneficial in achieving optimal fetal growth and birth weight. Achievement of body mass index (BMI)-specific weight gain goals, micronutrient and macronutrient supplementation specific to the physiology of twin gestations, and carbohydrate-controlled diets are recommended for optimal twin growth and pregnancy outcomes. The daily recommended caloric intake for normal-BMI women with twins is 40-45 kcal/kg each day, and iron, folate, calcium, magnesium, and zinc supplementation is recommended beyond a usual prenatal vitamin. Daily supplementation of docosahexaenoic acid and vitamin D should also be considered. Multiple gestation-specific prenatal care settings with a focus on nutritional interventions improve birth weight and length of gestation and should be considered for the care of women carrying multiples. Antepartum lactation consultation can also improve the rate of postpartum breastfeeding in twin pregnancies. Twin gestation-specific nutritional interventions seem effective in improving the outcome of these pregnancies and should be emphasized in the antepartum care of multiple gestations. This review examines the available evidence and offers recommendations for twin pregnancy-specific nutritional interventions.

  9. [Hungarian twin studies: results of four decades].

    PubMed

    Tárnoki, Ádám Domonkos; Tárnoki, Dávid László; Horváth, Tamás; Métneki, Júlia; Littvay, Levente

    2013-10-06

    Twin studies play a role in examining the contribution of genetic variations and environmental factors responsible for the determination of phenotypic variables and of genetic linkage between genotypes. Hungarian twin studies, supported by three twin registries (among them two twin-database), date back to 1970s. Studies mainly focused on various congenital abnormalities, the effect of contraceptive pills and folic acid on the frequency of twin pregnancies, as well as psychosexual and alcohol consumptional behaviors. Monogenic Mendelian inheritance of lactose (mal)absorption was demonstrated for the first time. Hungarian Twin Registry was founded in 2007, which contributed to the current understanding on the background of several disorders, e.g. metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. As part of an international twin study, among others, arterial stiffness, central blood pressure, carotid intima/media thickness, venous biomechanics, body composition, lung function and smoking characteristics were also assessed. Absence of genetic background in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and high inheritance of carotid plaque characteristics were demonstrated for the first time. The review also aims to summarize future plans of the Hungarian Twin Registry.

  10. Cysticercosis with an Orbital Tropism in Twins

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bradford W.; Kumar, Usha R.; Lin, Jonathan H.; Amaro, Deirdre E.; Kikkawa, Don O.; Alameddine, Ramzi M.; Lowe, Maureen C.; Hilger, Peter A.; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Korn, Bobby S.

    2015-01-01

    Two fraternal twin sisters developed cysticercosis localizing to the right lateral orbit over the same period after a presumed common-source exposure in China. This case demonstrates that cysticercosis can be related to travel. Similar temporal and spatial occurrences of these infections suggest a genetic tropism of the infecting organism in these twins. PMID:26217041

  11. Twinning: A Marker for Biological Insults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Robert G.; Brown, Anne M.

    1970-01-01

    Analysis of various statistics from birth records of 317 consecutive births revealed that twins are nonrepresentative of newborns with respect to birth weight and gestation, with male pairs to same-sex pairs the least representative. Differences between Negro and Caucasian twins were also found. (MH)

  12. Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.

    2007-01-01

    The primary objectives of the present study are to introduce the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability, the first longitudinal twin study in which subjects have been specifically selected for having a history of reading difficulties, and to present some initial assessments of the stability of reading performance and cognitive…

  13. Entropic interaction between fluctuating twin boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dengke; Kulkarni, Yashashree

    2015-11-01

    Nanotwinned metals have opened up exciting avenues for the design of high-strength, high-ductility materials owing to the extraordinary properties of twin boundaries. The recent advances in the fabrication of nanostructured materials with twin lamella on the order of a mere few atomic layers call for a closer examination of the stability of these structural motifs, especially at high temperatures. This paper presents a study of the entropic interaction between fluctuating twin boundaries by way of atomistic simulations and statistical mechanics based analysis. The simulations reveal that fluctuations of twin boundaries are considerably enhanced in the presence of adjoining twin boundaries as their spacing, d, decreases. In addition, the theoretical analysis shows that fluctuating twin boundaries indeed exhibit an attractive entropic interaction which enhances their thermal fluctuations and that the entropic force decreases as 1 /d2. This finite temperature interaction between twin boundaries is fundamentally distinct from the well-known repulsive entropic interaction followed by fluctuating lipid membranes as well as many crystalline membranes and interfaces. This rather surprising attraction between fluctuating twin boundaries is attributed to their shear coupled normal motion.

  14. Utilizing twins as controls for non-twin case-materials in genome wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Ganna, Andrea; Ortega-Alonso, Alfredo; Havulinna, Aki; Salomaa, Veikko; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pedersen, Nancy L; Sullivan, Patrick F; Ingelsson, Erik; Hultman, Christina M; Magnusson, Patrik K E

    2013-01-01

    Twin registries around the globe have collected DNA samples from large numbers of monozygotic and dizygotic twins. The twin sample collections are frequently used as controls in disease-specific studies together with non-twins. This approach is unbiased under the hypothesis that twins and singletons are comparable in terms of allele frequencies; i.e. there are no genetic variants associated with being a twin per se. To test this hypothesis we performed a genome-wide association study comparing the allele frequency of 572,352 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1,413 monozygotic (MZ) and 5,451 dizygotic (DZ) twins with 3,720 healthy singletons. Twins and singletons have been genotyped using the same platform. SNPs showing association with being a twin at P-value < 1 × 10(-5) were selected for replication analysis in 1,492 twins (463 MZ and 1,029 DZ) and 1,880 singletons from Finland. No SNPs reached genome-wide significance (P-value < 5 × 10(-8)) in the main analysis combining MZ and DZ twins. In a secondary analysis including only DZ twins two SNPs (rs2033541 close to ADAMTSL1 and rs4149283 close to ABCA1) were genome-wide significant after meta-analysis with the Finnish population. The estimated proportion of variance on the liability scale explained by all SNPs was 0.08 (P-value=0.003) when MZ and DZ were considered together and smaller for MZ (0.06, P-value=0.10) compared to DZ (0.09, P-value=0.003) when analyzed separately. In conclusion, twins and singletons can be used in genetic studies together with general population samples without introducing large bias. Further research is needed to explore genetic variances associated with DZ twinning.

  15. Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program annual report, 2014.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, Carl D; Roczo-Farkas, Suzie

    2015-09-30

    The Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program, together with collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, reports the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis. During the survey period of 1 January to 31 December 2014, 1,022 faecal samples were referred for rotavirus G and P genotype analysis, and of these 733 were confirmed as rotavirus positive. A total of 480 specimens were collected from children under 5 years of age, while 253 were from older children and adults. Genotype analysis of the 733 rotavirus samples collected from both children and adults revealed that G12P[8] was the dominant genotype in this reporting period, identified in 29.6% of strains nationally. Genotype G1P[8] was the 2nd most common strain nationally, representing 22.9% of samples, followed by genotype G3P[8] (14.9%). This report highlights the continued significance of G12P[8] strains as the major cause of disease in this population. The genotype distribution was slightly altered when the analysis was restricted to samples collected from children under 5 years of age, with G1P[8] being the dominant genotype (29%) followed by G12P[8] as the 2nd most common genotype (26%). Fluctuations in genotype distribution were also observed based on the vaccine type in use. Genotype G12P[8] was more common in states and territories using RotaTeq, while G1P[8] was more common in the locations using Rotarix. This survey highlights the yearly fluctuations in rotavirus genotypes observed since vaccine introduction. The continuation of G12P[8] as the dominant genotype further illustrates the dynamic and diversity present in the wild-type rotavirus population evident in the Australian population since vaccine introduction.

  16. Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, Carl D; Roczo-Farkas, Susie

    2014-12-31

    This report from the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program, together with collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, describes the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 January to 31 December 2013. During the survey period, 1,035 faecal samples were referred for rotavirus G and P genotype analysis. Of these 828 were confirmed as rotavirus positive. A total of 503 specimens were collected from children under 5 years of age, while 325 were from older children and adults. Genotype analysis of the 828 rotavirus samples collected from both children and adults revealed that G12P[8] was the dominant genotype in this reporting period, identified in 33% of strains nationally. Genotype G3P[8] was the second most common strain nationally, representing 31% of samples, followed by genotype G2P[4] (14%). This represents the first report where G12P[8] strains are the major cause of disease in this population. The genotype distribution was slightly altered when the analysis was restricted to samples collected from children under 5 years of age, with G3P[8] being the dominant genotype (39.2%) followed by G12P[8] as the second most common genotype (31%). Fluctuations in genotype distribution were also observed based on the vaccine type in use. Genotype G12P[8] was more common in states and territories using RotaTeq, while G3P[8] was more common in the locations using Rotarix. This survey highlights the yearly fluctuations in rotavirus genotypes observed since vaccine introduction, with changes in dominant genotypes an annual event. The emergence of G12P[8] as the dominant genotype further illustrates the ongoing changes in the wild type rotavirus population evident in the Australian population since vaccine introduction.

  17. Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program annual report, 2015.

    PubMed

    Roczo-Farkas, Susie; Kirkwood, Carl D; Bines, Julie E

    2016-12-24

    The Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program, together with collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, reports the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 January to 31 December 2015. During the survey period, 1,383 faecal samples were referred for rotavirus G and P genotype analysis, and of these, 1,031 were confirmed as rotavirus positive. A total of 634 specimens had been collected from children under 5 years of age, while 397 were from older children and adults. Genotype analysis of samples from both children and adults revealed that G12P[8] was the dominant genotype in this reporting period, identified in 48.2% of strains nationally. Genotype G3P[8] was the second most common strain nationally, representing 22.8% of samples, followed by G2P[4] and G1P[8] (9% and 8% respectively). G3P[8] was further divided as equine-like G3P[8] (13.2% of all strains) and other wild-type G3P[8] (9.6%). This report highlights the continued predominance of G12P[8] strains as the major cause of disease in this population. Genotype distribution was distinct between jurisdictions using RotaTeq and Rotarix vaccines. Genotype G12P[8] was more common in states using RotaTeq, while equine-like G3P[8] and G2P[4] were more common in the states and territories using Rotarix. This survey highlights the dynamic change in rotavirus genotypes observed since vaccine introduction, including the emergence of a novel equine-like G3P[8] as a major strain. The prolonged dominance of G12P[8] for a 4th consecutive year further illustrates the unexpected trends in the wild type rotaviruses circulating in the Australian population since vaccine introduction.

  18. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    PubMed

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2016-01-01

    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality.

  19. 'Biracial'-Looking Twins: A New Twin Type?/Twin Research: Twins with Cystic Teratomas; Sleep Quality and Body Mass Index; Previable Membrane Rupture/Print and Online Reports: Twins Born to a Sister Surrogate; NASA Twin Study; African-Cosmopolitan Twin Fashion Inspirations; Triplet Hockey Stars.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2017-03-28

    Dizygotic (DZ) co-twins born to mothers and fathers from different racial or ethnic backgrounds often resemble one parent much more than the other. As such, these pairs comprise a unique subset of twins for investigating how others' responses to their different looks may affect their personalities and self-esteem. This article describes some of these twin pairs and some challenges of raising them, and suggests ways they may be used in research. Next, recent twin research on cystic teratomas, relations between sleep quality and body mass index, and previable membrane rupture is described. The final section concerns twins, twin studies, and related events in the media, namely: twins born to a sister surrogate, the NASA twin investigation, inspiring African-Cosmopolitan twins in fashion, and triplet Hockey Stars.

  20. Highlights from the 15th International Congress of Twin Studies/Twin Research: Differentiating MZ Co-twins Via SNPs; Mistaken Infant Twin-Singleton Hospital Registration; Narcolepsy With Cataplexy; Hearing Loss and Language Learning/Media Mentions: Broadway Musical Recalls Conjoined Hilton Twins; High Fashion Pair; Twins Turn 102; Insights From a Conjoined Twin Survivor.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2015-02-01

    Highlights from the 15th International Congress of Twin Studies are presented. The congress was held November 16-19, 2014 in Budapest, Hungary. This report is followed by summaries of research addressing the differentiation of MZ co-twins by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), an unusual error in infant twin-singleton hospital registration, twins with childhood-onset narcolepsy with cataplexy, and the parenting effects of hearing loss in one co-twin. Media interest in twins covers a new Broadway musical based on the conjoined twins Violet and Daisy Hilton, male twins becoming famous in fashion, twins who turned 102 and unique insights from a conjoined twin survivor. This article is dedicated to the memory of Elizabeth (Liz) Hamel, DZA twin who met her co-twin for the first time at age seventy-eight years. Liz and her co-twin, Ann Hunt, are listed in the 2015 Guinness Book of Records as the longest separated twins in the world.

  1. The Civic Mission of Australian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lawrence; Muirhead, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the origins and meaning of civic responsibility in the Australian model of the university, beginning with medieval European universities and progressing through Australian reforms of the 20th century. Warns against the university without a civic mission. (SLD)

  2. NOTE: Modelling the influence of amnionicity on the severity of twin twin transfusion syndrome in monochorionic twin pregnancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Umur, Asli; Ross, Michael G.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.

    2004-03-01

    Clinical treatment for diamniotic monochorionic twin twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) may include conversion of diamniotic pregnancies to a monoamniotic monochorionic state by disrupting the amnion septum. We sought to test the underlying hypothesis, i.e. that a monoamniotic state reduces the severity of TTTS. With use of our previously developed mathematical model of two equal fetoplacental circulatory units connected by various sizes and types of placental anastomoses, we compared the haemodynamic and amniotic fluid dynamics of monoamniotic and diamniotic twins that develop TTTS. We used three anastomotic patterns that produce severe, moderate or mild forms of TTTS, respectively, in our diamniotic monochorionic twin model. Monoamnionicity was modelled by adding the two amniotic fluid volumes and using the volume-averaged amniotic fluid osmolality. The results were as follows: for severe TTTS, small differences develop between diamniotic and monoamniotic donor twins in fetal urine production, swallowed volume, blood volume, blood pressures, net fetofetal transfusion, and blood and amniotic fluid osmolality. However, the circulatory imbalance between the monoamniotic twins deteriorates similar to that of diamniotic twins. The pathophysiological differences tend to disappear for milder TTTS. In conclusion, our model suggests that the uncommon finding of TTTS in monoamniotic twins is not due to the presence of a single amniotic sac. Rather, clinically significant differences in anastomotic patterns and the delayed or lack of identification of manifestations in monoamniotic twins account for the reduced rate of TTTS diagnosis. Based on these results we expect the clinical disruption of the amnion septum in diamniotic monochorionic TTTS pregnancies to have only minimal benefits.

  3. Gut microbiota from twins discordant for obesity modulate metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Ridaura, Vanessa K; Faith, Jeremiah J; Rey, Federico E; Cheng, Jiye; Duncan, Alexis E; Kau, Andrew L; Griffin, Nicholas W; Lombard, Vincent; Henrissat, Bernard; Bain, James R; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Ilkayeva, Olga; Semenkovich, Clay F; Funai, Katsuhiko; Hayashi, David K; Lyle, Barbara J; Martini, Margaret C; Ursell, Luke K; Clemente, Jose C; Van Treuren, William; Walters, William A; Knight, Rob; Newgard, Christopher B; Heath, Andrew C; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2013-09-06

    The role of specific gut microbes in shaping body composition remains unclear. We transplanted fecal microbiota from adult female twin pairs discordant for obesity into germ-free mice fed low-fat mouse chow, as well as diets representing different levels of saturated fat and fruit and vegetable consumption typical of the U.S. diet. Increased total body and fat mass, as well as obesity-associated metabolic phenotypes, were transmissible with uncultured fecal communities and with their corresponding fecal bacterial culture collections. Cohousing mice harboring an obese twin's microbiota (Ob) with mice containing the lean co-twin's microbiota (Ln) prevented the development of increased body mass and obesity-associated metabolic phenotypes in Ob cage mates. Rescue correlated with invasion of specific members of Bacteroidetes from the Ln microbiota into Ob microbiota and was diet-dependent. These findings reveal transmissible, rapid, and modifiable effects of diet-by-microbiota interactions.

  4. Dissimilar allergic disease in identical twins; a study of psychosomatic aspects.

    PubMed

    CREDE, R H; CARMAN, C T; WHALEY, R D; SCHUMACHER, I C

    1953-01-01

    Identical twins with bronchial asthma were studied. One had the first attack of the disease in late adolescence, the other not until he was adult. Both were demonstrated by immunologic means to be sensitive to house dust and certain foods. Yet, of itself, the factor of exposure to a known allergen seemed not enough to precipitate clinical allergic reaction in either of them. It is believed that emotional stress is accompanied by physiologic changes which facilitate increased reactions to antigenic agents that in normal circumstances would not cause clinical disease.The twins were widely different with regard to emotional development and in their reaction to situations of stress. In both of them allergic manifestations were associated with periods of emotional conflict.The dissimilar clinical manifestations of allergy in these identical twins may be explained by differences in personality and therefore in reactions to stress situations.

  5. "English" in the "Australian Curriculum: English"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This is the text of a paper given at the 2011 Symposium of the Australian Academy of the Humanities on the theme, "Educating the Nation: The Humanities in the New Australian Curriculum", the 42nd Annual Symposium of the Australian Academy of the Humanities at the University of Melbourne, 17 November 2011. It was presented in a session on…

  6. Embracing Babel: The "Framework for Australian Languages"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troy, Jaky; Walsh, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA) has been developing language-specific curricula for a range of languages in the "Australian Curriculum: Language"s and has also undertaken development of a "Framework for Australian Languages", to provide guidance for the development of curricula for specific…

  7. Changing Patterns of Governance for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Kay; Treadgold, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with the "corporate" model for university governance, a model advocated by both sides of the Australian parliament and adopted by Australian universities over the past two decades, prompted the Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee (AVCC) in 2003 to suggest an alternative "trusteeship" model. The paper…

  8. From alcohol initiation to tolerance to problems: Discordant twin modeling of a developmental process.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Arielle R; Slutske, Wendy S; Lynskey, Michael T; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2016-07-15

    The current study examined a stage-based alcohol use trajectory model to test for potential causal effects of earlier drinking milestones on later drinking milestones in a combined sample of two cohorts of Australian monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins (N = 7,398, age M = 30.46, SD = 2.61, 61% male, 56% monozygotic twins). Ages of drinking, drunkenness, regular drinking, tolerance, first nontolerance alcohol use disorder symptom, and alcohol use disorder symptom onsets were assessed retrospectively. Ages of milestone attainment (i.e., age-of-onset) and time between milestones (i.e., time-to-event) were examined via frailty models within a multilevel discordant twin design. For age-of-onset models, earlier ages of onset of antecedent drinking milestones increased hazards for earlier ages of onset for more proximal subsequent drinking milestones. For the time-to-event models, however, earlier ages of onset for the "starting" milestone decreased risk for a shorter time period between the starting and the "ending" milestone. Earlier age of onset of intermediate milestones between starting and ending drinking milestones had the opposite effect, increasing risk for a shorter time period between the starting and ending milestones. These results are consistent with a causal effect of an earlier age of drinking milestone onset on temporally proximal subsequent drinking milestones.

  9. Neonatal morbidity in growth-discordant monochorionic twins: comparison between the larger and the smaller twin.

    PubMed

    Lopriore, Enrico; Sluimers, Carolien; Pasman, Suzanne A; Middeldorp, Johanna M; Oepkes, Dick; Walther, Frans J

    2012-08-01

    Fetal growth restriction in singletons has been shown to enhance fetal lung maturation and reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome due to increased endogenous steroid production. However, data on lung maturation in growth-discordant monochorionic (thus, identical) twins are lacking. Our objective was to compare the risk of severe neonatal morbidity between the larger and the smaller twin in monochorionic twins with birth weight discordance (BWD). We included in the study all consecutive monochorionic diamniotic pregnancies with severe BWD (≥25%) and two live-born twins delivered at our center (n=47 twin pairs). We compared the incidence of neonatal morbidity, particularly respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), and cerebral lesions between the larger and the smaller co-twin. The incidence of severe neonatal morbidity in the larger and smaller twin was 38% (18/47) and 19% (9/47), respectively (odds ratio (OR) 2.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94-7.44) and was due primarily to the higher incidence of RDS, 32% (15/47) and 6% (3/47), respectively (OR 6.88, 95% CI 1.66-32.83). In conclusion, this study shows that the larger twin in monochorionic twin pairs with BWD is at increased risk of severe neonatal morbidity, particularly RDS, compared to the smaller twin.

  10. NOTE: Thrombosis of anastomoses may affect the staging sequence of twin twin transfusion syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Ross, Michael G.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.

    2008-03-01

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of monozygotic (identical) twins, which share one single monochorionic placenta. It is caused by placental anastomoses which link the two fetoplacental circulations of the twins and allow a chronic net inter-twin transfusion to develop between the fetuses. Clinical presentation of TTTS manifestations has been classified into five different stages. In this paper, we used our computational model of TTTS and examined the possible differences between chronic and rapidly increasing inter-twin transfusion in the simulated TTTS staging sequence. Our results suggest that rapid alterations in the net inter-twin transfusion, e.g. due to thrombosis of placental anastomoses, may produce a different staging sequence than in TTTS caused by chronic inter-twin transfusion. These results may aid an improved knowledge of TTTS pathophysiology under conditions of a rapidly changing cardiovascular function, and contribute to the planning of optimal intervention under such circumstances. Supported in part by the European Community Euro-twin-2-twin project (JPHMvdW) and by the National Institutes of Health, grant HL40899 (MGR).

  11. A bivariate twin study of regional brain volumes and verbal and nonverbal intellectual skills during childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Gregory L; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth C; Medland, Sarah E; Lenroot, Rhoshel K; Clasen, Liv S; Schmitt, James E; Neale, Michael C; Giedd, Jay N

    2010-03-01

    Twin studies indicate that both intelligence and brain structure are moderately to highly heritable. Recent bivariate studies of adult twins also suggest that intelligence and brain morphometry are influenced by shared genetic factors. The current study examines shared genetic and environmental factors between brain morphometry and intelligence in a sample of children and adolescents (twins, twin siblings, and singletons; n = 649, ages 4-19). To extend previous studies, brain morphometric data were parsed into subregions (lobar gray/white matter volumes, caudate nucleus, lateral ventricles) and intelligence into verbal and nonverbal skills (Wechsler Vocabulary and Block Design subtests). Phenotypic relationships between brain volumes and intelligence were small. Verbal skills shared unique environmental effects with gray matter volumes while nonverbal skills shared genetic effects with both global and regional gray and white matter. These results suggest that distinct mechanisms contribute to the small phenotypic relationships between brain volumes and verbal versus nonverbal intelligence.

  12. 159. Photocopy of written record (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    159. Photocopy of written record (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Low Line Book #1, pp. 76,77). RECORD OF BORROW AT LOW LINE SIPHON. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  13. 156. Photocopy of written record (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    156. Photocopy of written record (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company, Low Line Book #1, pp.2,3). LOW LINE CONTRACTORS AND BORROW RECORD. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  14. Successful Separation of Omphalopagus Twins: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Prashant S; Kothari, Paras; Gupta, Abhaya; Kekre, Geeta; Dikshit, KV; Kamble, Ravi; Deshmukh, Shahaji

    2016-01-01

    Omphalopagus twins are conjoined twins sharing part of gastrointestinal system and abdominal wall. These types of twins have best chances of survival if successfully separated. We report a case of successfully separated omphalopagus twins at day six of life. PMID:26793597

  15. 117. COTTONWOOD CREEK SPILL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. COTTONWOOD CREEK SPILL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF OUTLET SIDE OF SPILL, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  16. Dislocation Mechanism of Twinning in Ni-Mn-Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zárubová, N.; Ge, Y.; Gemperlová, J.; Gemperle, A.; Hannula, S.-P.

    2012-03-01

    Tensile tests were performed in situ in a transmission electron microscope to investigate the twinning mechanism in non-modulated Ni-Mn-Ga martensite. The reorientation of the twin variants occurs via twinning dislocations. Their generation and movement were followed; the glide plane and Burgers vector were verified. Individual twinning dislocations were visualized.

  17. Monozygotic twins with trisomy 18: a report of discordant phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Schlessel, J S; Brown, W T; Lysikiewicz, A; Schiff, R; Zaslav, A L

    1990-01-01

    The predicted incidence of liveborn monozygotic trisomy 18 twins is one per million births. The first case of liveborn monozygotic trisomy 18 twins was reported in 1989 and we report a second case in which striking phenotypic discordance existed. The probability of monozygotic trisomy 18 twinning and the mechanisms for phenotypic discordance in trisomic twins is discussed. Images PMID:2246775

  18. 134. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    134. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; VIEW OF LOW LINE AND POWER GATES, WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  19. 197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. GATE STEMS AND LIFTING DEVICES, NO COUNTY; BLUEPRINT SKETCHES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  20. 132. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    132. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; POWER GATES FOR HYDRO-ELECTRIC. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  1. TWINS Observations of Oxygen ENA Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alquiza, J. C.; Goldstein, J.; Gruntman, M.; McComas, D. J.; Redfern, J.; Valek, P. W.

    2009-12-01

    As part of the science objectives of the TWINS (Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers) mission, we aim to enhance the knowledge of the workings of our magnetosphere by contributing compositional information of the observed energetic neutral atom (ENA) flux from the two TWINS instruments. We will present images of oxygen (O) ENA flux varying over time and space. Results from a few cases of TWINS flight data of geomagnetic significance will be presented with this analysis. One such example is a simultaneous and continuous observation of a minor geomagnetic storm (-60 nT) on 11 Oct 2008 as seen by both TWINS instruments. Initial TWINS images of this event show evidences of low-altitude emissions (LAEs) near the limb of the Earth and ring current signatures as well. Our compositional analysis is based on the secondary electron pulse height (PH) distributions measured by TWINS. Secondary electrons are generated as ENAs pass through an ultra-thin carbon foil in the TWINS instrument apertures. The secondary electron (PH) distribution varys as a function of the ENA’s energy and mass. The observed PH functions are then compared to the secondary electron PH distributions determined during instrument calibration. The flight data are simply treated as a linear combination of the two anticipated and most abundant species of magnetospheric ENAs, i.e., hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O).

  2. Hypothesis test for synchronization: Twin surrogates revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, M. Carmen; Thiel, Marco; Kurths, Jürgen; Mergenthaler, Konstantin; Engbert, Ralf

    2009-03-01

    The method of twin surrogates has been introduced to test for phase synchronization of complex systems in the case of passive experiments. In this paper we derive new analytical expressions for the number of twins depending on the size of the neighborhood, as well as on the length of the trajectory. This allows us to determine the optimal parameters for the generation of twin surrogates. Furthermore, we determine the quality of the twin surrogates with respect to several linear and nonlinear statistics depending on the parameters of the method. In the second part of the paper we perform a hypothesis test for phase synchronization in the case of experimental data from fixational eye movements. These miniature eye movements have been shown to play a central role in neural information processing underlying the perception of static visual scenes. The high number of data sets (21 subjects and 30 trials per person) allows us to compare the generated twin surrogates with the "natural" surrogates that correspond to the different trials. We show that the generated twin surrogates reproduce very well all linear and nonlinear characteristics of the underlying experimental system. The synchronization analysis of fixational eye movements by means of twin surrogates reveals that the synchronization between the left and right eye is significant, indicating that either the centers in the brain stem generating fixational eye movements are closely linked, or, alternatively that there is only one center controlling both eyes.

  3. On the twinning in ZnPd.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Dennis C A; Burkhardt, Ulrich; Heggen, Marc; Ormeci, Alim; Armbrüster, Marc

    2017-02-22

    The intermetallic compound ZnPd has demonstrated excellent catalytic properties in methanol steam reforming. While it is known that defects and microstructures influence the catalytic properties, little is known about the defects occurring in ZnPd. Due to recent advances in synthetic methods, coarse-grained ZnPd samples are accessible. This enables the detection and investigation of twinning in ZnPd by studying the twinned regions from the macroscopic scale by polarised light and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) down to the atomic scale by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Twinning occurs in {101} and is coupled with a change in the c/a ratio in the vicinity of the twin boundary. Quantum chemical calculations result in only very small energy differences between the ideal and the twinned structure, explaining the experimentally observed thermal stability of the latter. The chemical bonding was investigated by the electron localizability indicator (ELI) and compared to the one in the ideal structure. The results confirm twinning along the {101} plane and demonstrate the high stability of the twin boundaries after formation.

  4. Mechanical twinning in small quartz crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laughner, J. W.; Newnham, R. E.; Cross, L. E.

    1982-02-01

    Quartz is known to be ferrobielastic; that is, quartz crystals have domain states (Dauphiné twins) which differ in their elastic compliance values and which can be switched by an appropriately oriented stress. Polycrystalline quartz has also been reported (Tullis 1970) to show preferential orientation of these domains following application of large uniaxial stresses. These experiments were designed to study twinning of synthetic quartz “grains” (minimum size 0.07×0.07×0.02 cm) in specially-constructed composites and of grains in three natural quartz aggregates — a quartzite, a novaculite, and a jasper. Backreflection X-ray techniques were used to verify twinning in the composite grains, while special electroding and electrical detection allowed the twinning processes to be examined in “real time.” Small synthetic quartz crystals were found to behave identically to the massive samples previously studied. Electrical pulses due to the reversal of piezoelectric coefficient d 11 in twinned quartz were detected from quartzite and from the man-made composites. Novaculite also gave electrical pulses which were probably from twinning (evidenced by the correlation of expected and observed pulse sizes and shapes), while no pulses from the jaspers indicative of twinning were detected. Grain size distribution differences are considered the main structural reason for the different behaviors.

  5. Twin and Triplet Drugs in Opioid Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Hideaki

    Twin and triplet drugs are defined as compounds that contain respectively two and three pharmacophore components exerting pharmacological effects in a molecule. The twin drug bearing the same pharmacophores is a "symmetrical twin drug", whereas that possessing different pharmacophores is a "nonsymmetrical twin drug." In general, the symmetrical twin drug is expected to produce more potent and/or selective pharmacological effects, whereas the nonsymmetrical twin drug is anticipated to show both pharmacological activities stemming from the individual pharmacophores (dual action). On the other hand, nonsymmetrical triplet drugs, which have two of the same pharmacophores and one different moiety, are expected to elicit both increased pharmacological action and dual action. The two identical portions could bind the same receptor sites simultaneously while the third portion could bind a different receptor site or enzyme. This review will mainly focus on the twin and triplet drugs with an evaluation of their in vivo pharmacological effects, and will also include a description of their pharmacology and synthesis.

  6. Teaching about twins: college courses and public lectures.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2013-12-01

    The present article describes teaching experiences and observations in college courses and public lectures on twins. It is concluded that much more information about twins, at both research and practical levels, requires general dissemination. This discussion is followed by reviews of recent twin research on the topics of obesity control, post-zygotic mutation, in vitro fertilization, and schisis-associated defects. Media reports of twins accused of rape, infant Chinese twins sold separately for profit, a twin CEO, and twins pursuing the same career are presented.

  7. Second Languages and Australian Schooling. Australian Education Review No. 54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo Bianco, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    It is an underlying principle of Australian Education Review (AER) 54 that active efforts should be made to cultivate the latent bilingual potential within Australia's wider population and that this should be linked to major improvements in the quality of language teaching in schools. A combined approach of this kind will require investment in…

  8. Potential exposure to Australian bat lyssavirus, Queensland, 1996-1999.

    PubMed Central

    McCall, B. J.; Epstein, J. H.; Neill, A. S.; Heel, K.; Field, H.; Barrett, J.; Smith, G. A.; Selvey, L. A.; Rodwell, B.; Lunt, R.

    2000-01-01

    Two human deaths caused by Australian bat lyssavirus (ABL) infection have been reported since 1996. Information was obtained from 205 persons (mostly adults from south Brisbane and the South Coast of Queensland), who reported potential ABL exposure to the Brisbane Southside Public Health Unit from November 1,1996, to January 31, 1999. Volunteer animal handlers accounted for 39% of potential exposures, their family members for 12%, professional animal handlers for 14%, community members who intentionally handled bats for 31%, and community members with contacts initiated by bats for 4%. The prevalence of Lyssavirus detected by fluorescent antibody test in 366 sick, injured, or orphaned bats from the area was 6%. Sequelae of exposure, including the requirement for expensive postexposure prophylaxis, may be reduced by educating bat handlers and the public of the risks involved in handling Australian bats. PMID:10827115

  9. Breastfeeding Twins: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Alvur, Tuncay Muge; Kose, Dilek; Nemut, Tijen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research was to explore the needs and difficulties of mothers who had multiple babies at Sakarya County by focusing on their breastfeeding experience. Ten mothers who gave birth to multiple infants participated in the study voluntarily. The framework method of data analysis was applied systematically both within and across cases, with categories and themes identified by reading transcripts of interviews. Major themes generated from focus narrative interviews are described. These themes are: willingness of mothers to breastfeed and continue, management of breastfeeding, use of pacifier, daily life, ınstructions of healthcare personnel, and advices from practice of experienced mothers. This study showed that women were aware of the importance of mother's milk for their babies. They all, somehow, made intensive efforts to breastfeed their twins. Women who expect and/or have multiple babies need much more support and guidance, which may include advice for nutritional and daily care. PMID:24592592

  10. Atypical parasitic ischiopagus conjoined twins.

    PubMed

    Corona-Rivera, J Román; Corona-Rivera, Enrique; Franco-Topete, Ramón; Acosta-León, Jorge; Aguila-Dueñas, Virginia; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo

    2003-02-01

    Occurrence of asymmetrical or parasitic conjoined twins (CT) is rare, and currently they are classified analogically to the common unions of symmetrical CT. The authors report on an infant with a parasitic third limb attached to the left lateral aspect of the autosite trunk, in whom male gonadal tissue was found histologically. Parasite parts included complete left lower limb, hemipelvis, lumbosacral vertebral column, spinal cord, and one kidney with ureter and adrenal gland. Autosite anomalies comprised a small left diaphragmatic defect, omphalocele, exstrophy of cloaca, and lumbar meningomyelocele. The authors considered this case to be a rare atypical parasitic ischiopagus CT. The differential diagnosis of the type of twining and other entities with caudal duplications is analyzed briefly.

  11. Effects of twin gestation on maternal morbidity.

    PubMed

    Young, Brett C; Wylie, Blair J

    2012-06-01

    As the incidence of twin gestation increases, it is important to consider the maternal risks associated with carrying multiples. Compared with singleton gestation, there are increased risks to the mother during the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum periods. Certain pregnancy complications are more likely to occur during a twin gestation, including preeclampsia and other hypertensive disorders, antepartum hospitalization for preterm labor or abnormal bleeding, nutritional deficiencies, cesarean delivery, and postpartum hemorrhage. Women carrying twins may benefit from early education regarding these issues, close maternal monitoring as well as physical therapy sessions, and nutrition counseling during their pregnancies.

  12. Intravenous nutrition during a twin pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Karamatsu, J T; Boyd, A T; Cooke, J; Vinall, P S; McMahon, M J

    1987-01-01

    A case is reported of a woman in the third trimester of a twin pregnancy who required intravenous nutrition because of inadequate absorption of nutrients due to a jejunoileal bypass. Weight gain was poor, and there was evidence of intrauterine growth retardation before commencement of intravenous feeding. She received overnight intravenous nutrition for 6 weeks and gained weight with ultrasound evidence of fetal growth. During the 33rd week of gestation, she was delivered of healthy twin males who were at appropriate birth weights and development for their age of gestation. The considerations in intravenous nutrition for a twin pregnancy after jejunoileal bypass are discussed.

  13. Spontaneous unilateral dizygotic twin tubal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tam, Teresa; Khazaei, Ali

    2009-02-01

    Spontaneous dizygotic unilateral twin tubal pregnancy is an extremely rare occurrence with a high risk for pregnancy-related mortality, and a diagnostic challenge for obstetricians. We present a case of a 27-year-old woman with spontaneous twin tubal pregnancy. Transvaginal color Doppler sonography revealed 2 separate gestational sacs within the right adnexa, each containing an embryo. Cytogenetic examination of the trophoblastic tissues confirmed the diagnosis of dizygotic twin ectopic pregnancy. Clinical signs and symptoms together with imaging studies help in the diagnosis of this rare variant of ectopic pregnancies.

  14. New growth mode through decorated twin boundaries.

    PubMed

    Bleikamp, Sebastian; Thoma, Arne; Polop, Celia; Pirug, Gerhard; Linke, Udo; Michely, Thomas

    2006-03-24

    Scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction were used to investigate the growth of partly twinned Ir thin films on Ir(111). A transition from the expected layer-by-layer to a defect dominated growth mode with a fixed lateral length scale and increasing roughness is observed. During growth, the majority of the film is stably transformed to twinned stacking. This transition is initiated by the energetic avoidance of the formation of intrinsic stacking faults compared to two independent twin faults. The atomistic details of the defect kinetics are outlined.

  15. A Proper Perspective on the Twin Deficits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    the deficits may be imprudent. It would not be a disaster. Moreover, focusing on the deficits diverts attention from the economy’s more significant...toIC TILE Q tN I A PRlOPE l PERSPECTIVE ON THE TWIN DEFICITS Charles Wolf, Jr. May 1989 DTIC LECT I P-7565 • " ’ " ’ , v pcbc MwI I The RAND...Monies, CA 90406-2138 A PROPER PERSPECTIVE ON THE TWIN DEFICITS [1] by Charles Wolf, Jr. While it’s true that the deficit twins -- the budget deficit and

  16. Parenting and risk for mood, anxiety and substance use disorders: a study in population-based male twins

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Charles O.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Hettema, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies consistently identified a relationship between parenting behavior and psychopathology. In this study, we extended prior analyses performed in female twins to a large sample of twins from male–male pairs. Methods We used interview data on 2,609 adult male twins from a population-based twin registry. We examined the association between three retrospectively reported parenting dimensions (coldness, protectiveness, and authoritarianism) and lifetime history of seven common psychiatric and substance use disorders. Using univariate structural equation modeling, we also examined the influence of the genetic and environmental factors on parenting. Results Examined individually, coldness was consistently associated with risk for a broad range of adult psychopathology. Averaged odds of psychiatric disorders associated with parenting were increased between 26 and 36 %. When the three parenting dimensions were examined together, coldness remained significant for major depression, phobia, and generalized anxiety disorder. Controlling for other disorders, the associations between the parenting dimensions and psychopathology were non-specific. Twin fitting model demonstrated that modest heritability accounted for parenting, whereas most variance resulted from the non-shared environment. Conclusions Based on our current and prior findings, there is broad similarity in the impact of parenting on adult psychopathology between men and women. PMID:23344783

  17. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BIRTH WEIGHT AND HYPODONTIA IN TWINS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The relationship between birth weight and congenitally missing teeth (hypodontia) was investigated in 262 twins from the naval recruit population... birth weight 5.5 pounds or less). Hypodontia frequency was higher in ’premature’ twins than in twins with birth weight over 5.5 pound. Mean birth weight was...number variability in twins. The increased frequency of hypodontia in twins and the low birth weight -hypodontia relationship suggest that prenatal

  18. Intragranular twinning, detwinning, and twinning-like lattice reorientation in magnesium alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Wei; Gao, Yanfei; Oak Ridge National Lab.; ...

    2016-09-11

    We present that deformation twinning plays a critical role on improving metals or alloys ductility, especially for hexagonal close-packed materials with low symmetry crystal structure. A rolled Mg alloy was selected as a model system to investigate the extension twinning behaviors and characteristics of parent-twin interactions by nondestructive in situ 3D synchrotron X-ray microbeam diffraction. Besides twinning- detwinning process, the twinning-like lattice reorientation process was captured within an individual grain inside a bulk material during the strain reversal. The distributions of parent, twin, and reorientated grains and sub-micron level strain variation across the twin boundary are revealed. A theoretical calculationmore » of the lattice strain confirms that the internal strain distribution in parent and twinned grains correlates with the experimental setup, grain orientation of parent, twin, and surrounding grains, as well as the strain path changes. In conclusion, the study suggests a novel deformation mechanism within the hexagonal close-packed structure that cannot be determined from surface-based characterization methods.« less

  19. Intragranular twinning, detwinning, and twinning-like lattice reorientation in magnesium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wei; Gao, Yanfei; Li, Nan; Parish, Chad M.; Liu, Wenjun; Liaw, Peter K.; An, Ke

    2016-09-11

    We present that deformation twinning plays a critical role on improving metals or alloys ductility, especially for hexagonal close-packed materials with low symmetry crystal structure. A rolled Mg alloy was selected as a model system to investigate the extension twinning behaviors and characteristics of parent-twin interactions by nondestructive in situ 3D synchrotron X-ray microbeam diffraction. Besides twinning- detwinning process, the twinning-like lattice reorientation process was captured within an individual grain inside a bulk material during the strain reversal. The distributions of parent, twin, and reorientated grains and sub-micron level strain variation across the twin boundary are revealed. A theoretical calculation of the lattice strain confirms that the internal strain distribution in parent and twinned grains correlates with the experimental setup, grain orientation of parent, twin, and surrounding grains, as well as the strain path changes. In conclusion, the study suggests a novel deformation mechanism within the hexagonal close-packed structure that cannot be determined from surface-based characterization methods.

  20. [Multicystic encephalomalacia in a surviving twin after death of the other twin in utero].

    PubMed

    Lajarrige, C; Adafer, M; Yassine, B; Atallah, W; Mouthemy, G; Klink, R; Khoury, M; Bouhelier, P; Kremp, L

    1993-01-01

    A case of multicystic encephalomalacia in a twin is reported. The other twin died in utero at 32 weeks gestational age. Because there was no evidence of fetal distress the pregnancy was allowed to continue until 36 weeks gestational age. Injuries to the surviving twin due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIVC) and vascular thrombosis or to anoxia and ischemia may occur when there are anastomoses between the circulatory systems of the two twins, i.e., in monochorionic pregnancies. The classically recommended strategy is to wait for adequate maturity of the surviving fetus (36 weeks). It is suggested that this attitude may be overly expectant and may deserve reappraisal.

  1. Promoting Leadership in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Andrew P.; Grice, Tim; Paulsen, Neil

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we review current practices for developing and promoting academic leadership in universities. We consider the forms of leadership that are appropriate for academic organisations, while exploring the types of leadership favoured by recruitment and promotion committees. Using the Australian higher education context as a case study, we…

  2. Australian Circuses as Cooperative Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Beverley J.

    2000-01-01

    Studied how circus personnel of all ages interact in Australian circuses to preserve traditional circus lifestyles and entertainment. Interviews with 30 personnel from 4 circuses show the importance of learning to be a member of a cooperative society through immersion. Results provide information about the education of a community of occupational…

  3. Arabic in Australian Islamic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Presents census data on the Muslim population in Australia and overviews full-time independent Islamic schools offering a comprehensive education across the curriculum. Argues that these schools offer great potential for the successful development of Arabic language and cultural literacy skills required by Australian exporters and diplomats in the…

  4. The Spirituality of Young Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael; Singleton, Andrew; Webber, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    A research project conducted in 2003-2006, the Spirit of Generation Y, using both extended interviews and a nationwide survey, revealed three main strands in the spirituality of young Australians: traditional, alternative and humanist. Their involvement in traditional religions was declining, like that of their parents, and although some adopted…

  5. The 2005 Australian Informatics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the Australian Informatics Competition (AIC), a non-programming competition aimed at identifying students with potential in programming and algorithmic design. It is the first step in identifying students to represent Australia at the International Olympiad in Informatics. The main aim of the AIC is to increase awareness of…

  6. Catalogue of Australian Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A catalogue of all families, subfamilies, genera, and species of Cynipoidea present in Australia is presented here. The Australian cynipoid fauna is very poorly known, with 37 genera cited: one each for Austrocynipidae, Ibaliidae, Liopteridae, two for Cynipidae, and 32 for Figitidae. The first Austr...

  7. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  8. Staff Bullying in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Dan; Duncan, Deirdre J.; Edwards, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of staff bullying in Australian schools, to identify bullies and targets and to examine some implications for school leaders in dealing with staff bullying. Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative research design survey instrument contained 11 demographic items, 44 questions of…

  9. Skills Gaps in Australian Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of more than 2000 managers examining perceptions of skills gaps in a range of Australian firms. It finds that three quarters report a skills gap, and almost one third report skills gaps across the whole organisation. Firm size and industry differences exist in perceptions of the effect of the skills gap…

  10. Big Ideas for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Within weeks of taking office, Australia's new Labor government commissioned two major reviews--one of Australia's innovation system and one of Australian higher education. Taken together, these reviews will have major implications for the future of research and teaching in Australia for decades to come. This paper discusses the main…

  11. Prevention of preterm delivery in twin pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rode, Line; Tabor, Ann

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of twin gestation has increased markedly over the past decades, mostly because of increased use of assisted reproductive technologies. Twin pregnancies are at increased risk of preterm delivery (i.e. birth before 37 weeks of gestation). Multiple gestations therefore account for 2-3% of all pregnancies but constitute at least 10% of cases of preterm delivery. Complications from preterm birth are not limited to the neonatal period, such as in retinopathy of prematurity, intraventricular haemorrhage, necrotising enterocolitis, respiratory disorder and sepsis; they can also constitute sequelae such as abnormal neurophysiological development in early childhood and underachievement in school. Several treatment modalities have been proposed in singleton high-risk pregnancies. The mechanism of initiating labour may, however, be different in singleton and twin gestations. Therefore, it is mandatory to evaluate the proposed treatments in randomised trials of multiple gestations. In this chapter, we describe the results of trials to prevent preterm delivery in twin pregnancies.

  12. Twin Studies: A Unique Epidemiological Tool

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Monalisha; Prasuna, Josyula G

    2016-01-01

    Twin studies are a special type of epidemiological studies designed to measure the contribution of genetics as opposed to the environment, to a given trait. Despite the facts that the classical twin studies are still being guided by assumptions made back in the 1920s and that the inherent limitation lies in the study design itself, the results suggested by earlier twin studies have often been confirmed by molecular genetic studies later. Use of twin registries and various innovative yet complex software packages such as the (SAS) and their extensions (e.g., SAS PROC GENMOD and SAS PROC PHREG) has increased the potential of this epidemiological tool toward contributing significantly to the field of genetics and other life sciences. PMID:27385869

  13. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast-feed more than one baby? Here's help breast-feeding twins or other multiples, from getting positioned and ensuring an adequate milk supply to combining breast-feeding and formula-feeding. By Mayo Clinic Staff If ...

  14. Shock Driven Twinning in Tantalum Single Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    McNaney, J M; HSUING, L M; Barton, N R; Kumar, M

    2009-07-20

    Recovery based observations of high pressure material behavior generated under high explosively driven flyer based loading conditions are reported. Two shock pressures, 25, and 55 GPa and four orientations {l_brace}(100), (110), (111), (123){r_brace} were considered. Recovered material was characterized using electron backscatter diffraction along with a limited amount of transmission electron microscopy to assess the occurrence of twinning under each test condition. Material recovered from 25 GPa had a very small fraction of twinning for the (100), (110), and (111) oriented crystals while a more noticeable fraction of the (123) oriented crystal was twinned. Material recovered from 55 GPa showed little twinning for (100) orientation slightly more for the (111) orientation and a large area fraction for the (123) orientation. The EBSD and TEM observations of the underlying deformation substructure are rationalized by comparing with previous static and dynamic results.

  15. [6 cases of toxoplasmosis in twins].

    PubMed

    Couvreur, J; Thulliez, T; Daffos, F; Aufrant, C; Bompard, Y; Goumy, P; Tournier, G

    1991-02-01

    Studies of congenital toxoplasmosis in twins confirm the definite role of the placenta in the modalities and mechanism of fetal contamination. In single-chorion twin pregnancies, clinical manifestations are generally identical in both infants. Conversely, twins from double-chorion pregnancies usually have different clinical patterns; occasionally, only one of the twins is affected (1 case). The diagnosis can be ascertained antenatally by sampling blood from each of the fetuses (2 cases). The cases reported herein illustrate some of the diagnostic pitfalls that may lead to inappropriate discontinuation of monitoring and treatment: negative placental studies, absence of specific IgM antibodies, transient fall in IgG antibody titers, delayed fetal contamination after a negative fetal blood study, and need for routine tests for increased CSF albumin levels.

  16. Asymmetric twins in rhombohedral boron carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Takeshi Guan, Pengfei; Madhav Reddy, K.; Hirata, Akihiko; Guo, Junjie; Chen, Mingwei

    2014-01-13

    Superhard materials consisting of light elements have recently received considerable attention because of their ultrahigh specific strength for a wide range of applications as structural and functional materials. However, the failure mechanisms of these materials subjected to high stresses and dynamic loading remain to be poorly known. We report asymmetric twins in a complex compound, boron carbide (B{sub 4}C), characterized by spherical-aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. The atomic structure of boron-rich icosahedra at rhombohedral vertices and cross-linked carbon-rich atomic chains can be clearly visualized, which reveals unusual asymmetric twins with detectable strains along the twin interfaces. This study offers atomic insights into the structure of twins in a complex material and has important implications in understanding the planar defect-related failure of superhard materials under high stresses and shock loading.

  17. Severe Anisometropic Myopia in Identical Twins

    PubMed Central

    Adenuga, Olukorede O.

    2014-01-01

    High anisometropic myopia is a rare condition in twins. Genetic factors have been implicated in its development and there may be an association with vision-threatening complications. A pair of 11-year-old twins presented with poor distance vision in both eyes. Detailed ocular examination was performed including slit lamp examination, dilated funduscopy, cycloplegic refraction, keratometry and axial length measurement. The objective refraction was -6.50DS -2.00DC × 180 (right eye), -1.00DS (left eye) for the first twin; -13.75DS -2.25DC × 180 (right eye), -0.50DS -0.75DC × 04 (left eye) for the second twin. This case suggests an underlying genetic defect in the development of myopia. PMID:25100917

  18. Temporal ghost imaging with twin photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis, Séverine; Moreau, Paul-Antoine; Devaux, Fabrice; Lantz, Eric

    2017-03-01

    We use twin photons generated by spontaneous parametric down conversion to perform temporal ghost imaging of a single time signal. The retrieval of a binary signal containing eight bits is performed with an error rate below 1%.

  19. Last Flight for GRAIL's Twin Spacecraft

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the final flight path for NASA’s twin GravityRecovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission spacecraft, which willimpact the moon on Dec. 17, 2012, around 2:28 p.m. PST. ...

  20. Stolen twin: fascination and curiosity/twin research reports: evolution of sleep length; dental treatment of craniopagus twins; cryopreserved double embryo transfer; gender options in multiple pregnancy/current events: appendectomy in one twin; autistic twin marathon runners; 3D facial recognition; twin biathletes.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2014-02-01

    The story of her allegedly stolen twin brother in Armenia is recounted by a 'singleton twin' living in the United States. The behavioral consequences and societal implications of this loss are considered. This case is followed by twin research reports on the evolution of sleep length, dental treatment of craniopagus conjoined twins, cryopreserved double embryo transfer (DET), and gender options in multiple pregnancy. Current events include the diagnosis of appendectomy in one identical twin, the accomplishments of autistic twin marathon runners, the power of three-dimensional (3D) facial recognition, and the goals of twin biathletes heading to the 2014 Sochi Olympics in Russia.

  1. Screening and Invasive Testing in Twins

    PubMed Central

    Monni, Giovanni; Iuculano, Ambra; Zoppi, Maria Angelica

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal screening and testing for trisomy 21 in twin pregnancies poses a number of challenges: the exact estimate of the a priori risk of trisomy 21, the choice of prenatal screening test and/or invasive techniques to employ for the diagnosis and the impact of the result on the options of treatment in case of discordant results within a twin pair or among multiples. These different aspects are discussed below while recognizing that many issues remain unresolved. PMID:26237482

  2. Down's syndrome in twins of unlike sex.

    PubMed Central

    Avni, A; Amir, J; Wilunsky, E; Katznelson, M B; Reisner, S H

    1983-01-01

    The occurrence of Down's syndrome in both dizygotic twins appears to be very rare. A case of twins of unlike sex is reported, in which chromosomal analysis showed trisomy 21 in both of them, while the parental karyotypes were normal. This is the third reported case of such a constellation, and the second one in which infant and parental chromosomal analysis was done. Images PMID:6221105

  3. The Use of a Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance System to Determine the Age, Period and Cohort Effects on the Prevalence of Obesity and Diabetes in South Australian Adults - 2003–2013

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Anne W.; Shi, Zumin; Montgomerie, Alicia; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Campostrini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Background Age, period and cohort (APC) analyses, using representative, population-based descriptive data, provide additional understanding behind increased prevalence rates. Methods Data on obesity and diabetes from the South Australian (SA) monthly chronic disease and risk factor surveillance system from July 2002 to December 2013 (n = 59,025) were used. Age was the self-reported age of the respondent at the time of the interview. Period was the year of the interview and cohort was age subtracted from the survey year. Cohort years were 1905 to 1995. All variables were treated as continuous. The age-sex standardised prevalence for obesity and diabetes was calculated using the Australia 2011 census. The APC models were constructed with ‘‘apcfit’’ in Stata. Results The age-sex standardised prevalence of obesity and diabetes increased in 2002-2013 from 18.6% to 24.1% and from 6.2% to 7.9%. The peak age for obesity was approximately 70 years with a steady increasing rate from 20 to 70 years of age. The peak age for diabetes was approximately 80 years. There were strong cohort effects and no period effects for both obesity and diabetes. The magnitude of the cohort effect is much more pronounced for obesity than for diabetes. Conclusion The APC analyses showed a higher than expected peak age for both obesity and diabetes, strong cohort effects with an acceleration of risk after 1960s for obesity and after 1940s for diabetes, and no period effects. By simultaneously considering the effects of age, period and cohort we have provided additional evidence for effective public health interventions. PMID:25923664

  4. Australian Family Research Conference Proceedings (Canberra, Australia, November 23-25, 1983). Volume V: Support Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne (Australia).

    This fifth volume in a series of volumes containing the proceedings of the 1983 Australian Family Research Conference deals with support networks. Papers and authors included are: "Blood Ties and Gender Roles: Adult Children Who Care for Aged Parents" (Hal L. Kendig), "Family Care Policies: Findings from a Survey of Carers"…

  5. Life Transitions and Mental Health in a National Cohort of Young Australian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Christiana; Gramotnev, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Young adulthood, a time of major life transitions and risk of poor mental health, may affect emotional well-being throughout adult life. This article uses longitudinal survey data to examine young Australian women's transitions across 4 domains: residential independence, relationships, work and study, and motherhood. Changes over 3 years in…

  6. The Accuracy of Older and Younger Australians' Understanding of Mental Health and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.

    1993-01-01

    Administered quiz about positive and negative aspects of mental health in old age to 250 Australian adults (ages 17-81). Retirees scored lowest, with no significant differences among younger students versus nonstudents. Age was more important mediator of retirees' low scores than was gender, living with older person, or self-definition as retired.…

  7. Australian Readers' Responses to the Cross-Cultural, Folklore-Based Fantasy Novels of Patricia Wrightson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Barbara

    In the 1970s and 1980s the white Australian author Patricia Wrightson's cross-cultural fantasies concerning the conflict of White characters with Aboriginal folk spirits struck a chord with many adolescent and adult readers who judged these novels to be outstandingly successful. A classroom-based study examined the responses of a class of seventh…

  8. Didgeridoo Playing and Singing to Support Asthma Management in Aboriginal Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eley, Robert; Gorman, Don

    2010-01-01

    Context: Asthma affects over 15% of Australian Aboriginal people. Compliance in asthma management is poor. Interventions that will increase compliance are required. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether Aboriginal children, adolescents and adults would engage in music lessons to increase their knowledge of asthma and support…

  9. Single-twin demise: pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Shek, Noel Wan Man; Hillman, Sarah C; Kilby, Mark D

    2014-02-01

    Single-twin demise can pose substantial risks for the surviving co-twin, including increased risk of fetal loss, preterm delivery, neurovascular injury, and end-organ damage. In this chapter, we summarise recently published research on the causes of single twin demise, the pathophysiology of injury to the surviving co-twin, and the evidence for current management strategies. The gestation at which single intrauterine fetal demise occurs, and the chorionicity of the multiple pregnancies, are the two most important factors when considering the risks to the surviving twin. Management should include fortnightly ultrasound scans for growth, umbilical artery Doppler studies, and liquor volume. In monochorionic twins, more complex Doppler assessment with middle cerebral artery Doppler velocimetry and a magnetic resonance imaging of the survivor's brain at least 3 weeks after single intrauterine fetal demise occurs should be carried out to look for evidence of neurological morbidity. With no other obstetric complications, dichorionic pregnancies can be delivered at term. Monochorionic pregnancies are more difficult to manage, and are often delivered between 34 and 36 weeks.

  10. Twin pregnancy in the congenital malformed uterus.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Pentti K

    2016-07-01

    The frequency and outcome of twin pregnancies in women with uterine malformation were studied. The cohort comprised 13 (4.9%) women with twin pregnancy found among 263 women. They had 483 deliveries, 13 of them twins (2.7%; 95% CI 1.6-4.6%). Among 38 patients with unicornuate uterus 5 (6.8%) out of 74 deliveries were twins, 39 women with didelphic uterus 2 (3.2%) out of 62 deliveries and 147 women with septate or subseptate uterus 6 (2.3%) out of 264 deliveries were twins. The mean duration of gestation was 249 days (range 190-268 days), 5 (38%) out of 13 deliveries were premature, 25 out of 26 newborns were alive. Mean durations of gestation and mean weights of newborns did not differ when 7 cases with unicornuate or didelphic uterus were compared to 6 cases with complete or partial uterine septum. A congenital malformed uterus can bear twin pregnancy without severe complications apart from prematurity.

  11. Imperfect twinning: a clinical and ethical dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Denardin, Daniela; Telles, Jorge Alberto B.; Betat, Rosilene da Silveira; Fell, Paulo Renato K.; da Cunha, André Campos; Targa, Luciano Vieira; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the history, epidemiology, etiology, gestational aspects, diagnosis and prognosis of imperfect twinning. DATA SOURCES Scientific articles were searched in PubMed, SciELO and Lilacs databases, using the descriptors "conjoined twins", "multiple pregnancy", "ultrasound", "magnetic resonance imaging" and "prognosis". The research was not delimited to a specific period of time and was supplemented with bibliographic data from books. DATA SYNTHESIS: The description of conjoined twins is legendary. The estimated frequency is 1/45,000-200,000 births. These twins are monozygotic, monochorionic and usually monoamniotic. They can be classified by the most prominent fusion site, by the symmetry between the conjoined twins or by the sharing structure. The diagnosis can be performed in the prenatal period or after birth by different techniques, such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography. These tests are of paramount importance for understanding the anatomy of both fetuses/children, as well as for prognosis and surgical plan determination. CONCLUSIONS Although imperfect twinning is a rare condition, the prenatal diagnosis is very important in order to evaluate the fusion site and its complexity. Hence, the evaluation of these children should be multidisciplinary, involving mainly obstetricians, pediatricians and pediatric surgeons. However, some decisions may constitute real ethical dilemmas, in which different points should be discussed and analyzed with the health team and the family. PMID:24142323

  12. A core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins

    PubMed Central

    Turnbaugh, Peter J.; Hamady, Micah; Yatsunenko, Tanya; Cantarel, Brandi L.; Duncan, Alexis; Ley, Ruth E.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; Jones, William J.; Roe, Bruce A.; Affourtit, Jason P.; Egholm, Michael; Henrissat, Bernard; Heath, Andrew C.; Knight, Rob; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2008-01-01

    The human distal gut harbors a vast ensemble of microbes (the microbiota) that provide us with important metabolic capabilities, including the ability to extract energy from otherwise indigestible dietary polysaccharides1–6. Studies of a small number of unrelated, healthy adults have revealed substantial diversity in their gut communities, as measured by sequencing 16S rRNA genes6–8, yet how this diversity relates to function and to the rest of the genes in the collective genomes of the microbiota (the gut microbiome) remains obscure. Studies of lean and obese mice suggest that the gut microbiota affects energy balance by influencing the efficiency of calorie harvest from the diet, and how this harvested energy is utilized and stored3–5. To address the question of how host genotype, environmental exposures, and host adiposity influence the gut microbiome, we have characterized the fecal microbial communities of adult female monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs concordant for leanness or obesity, and their mothers. Analysis of 154 individuals yielded 9,920 near full-length and 1,937,461 partial bacterial 16S rRNA sequences, plus 2.14 gigabases from their microbiomes. The results reveal that the human gut microbiome is shared among family members, but that each person’s gut microbial community varies in the specific bacterial lineages present, with a comparable degree of co-variation between adult monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. However, there was a wide array of shared microbial genes among sampled individuals, comprising an extensive, identifiable ‘core microbiome’ at the gene, rather than at the organismal lineage level. Obesity is associated with phylum-level changes in the microbiota, reduced bacterial diversity, and altered representation of bacterial genes and metabolic pathways. These results demonstrate that a diversity of organismal assemblages can nonetheless yield a core microbiome at a functional level, and that deviations from this

  13. Derivation of Australian diagnostic reference levels for paediatric multi detector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Hayton, Anna; Wallace, Anthony

    2016-09-01

    Australian National Diagnostic Reference Levels for paediatric multi detector computed tomography were established for three protocols, Head, Chest and AbdoPelvis, across two age groups, Baby/Infant 0-4 years and Child 5-14 years by the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency in 2012. The establishment of Australian paediatric DRLs is an important step towards lowering patient CT doses on a national scale. While Adult DRLs were calculated with data collected from the web based Australian National Diagnostic Reference Level Service, no paediatric data was submitted in the first year of service operation. Data from an independent Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists Quality Use of Diagnostic Imaging paediatric optimisation survey was used. The paediatric DRLs were defined for CTDIvol (mGy) and DLP (mGy·cm) values that referenced the 16 cm PMMA phantom for the Head protocol and the 32 cm PMMA phantom for body protocols for both paediatric age groups. The Australian paediatric DRLs for multi detector computed tomography are for the Head, Chest and AbdoPelvis protocols respectively, 470, 60 and 170 mGy·cm for the Baby/Infant age group, and 600, 110 and 390 mGy·cm for the Child age group. A comparison with published international paediatric DRLs for computed tomography reveal the Australian paediatric DRLs to be lower on average. However, the comparison is complicated by misalignment of defined age ranges. It is the intention of ARPANSA to review the paediatric DRLs in conjunction with a review of the adult DRLs, which should occur within 5 years of their publication.

  14. Estimation of Flavonoid Intake in Older Australians: Secondary Data Analysis of the Blue Mountains Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Kent, Katherine; Charlton, Karen E; Russell, Joanna; Mitchell, Paul; Flood, Victoria M

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids, consumed in plant-based foods, have been linked to risk reduction of cancers, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. The paucity of information on dietary sources and quantities of flavonoid intake in older adults limits interpretation of epidemiological studies that link flavonoid intake with health outcomes in this population. It was our aim to describe total flavonoid intake, including flavonoid subclasses, in older Australians and to identify rich and commonly consumed sources of flavonoids in this age group. Twelve days of weighed food record dietary data from a subsample of the Blue Mountains Eye Study baseline cohort study of older Australians (n = 79) was analyzed using the US Department of Agriculture flavonoid database. Mean intake of flavonoids was estimated to be 683 mg/day (SD = 507) of which flavan-3-ols contributed 92%, followed by flavonols (4%), flavanones (3%), and flavones (<1%). Black tea was the major flavonoid source, providing 89% of total flavonoid intake. No differences in intake between genders were identified. Dietary intake of flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses in older Australians is similar to the one other estimation of intake in Australian older adults and confirms the types of foods that contribute to flavonoid intake among this sample of older Australians.

  15. Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion: To Treat or Not?

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Meesha; Goel, Poonam; Punia, RPS

    2017-01-01

    Acardiac twinning or Twin Reverse Arterial Perfusion (TRAP)-sequence is a rare complication of monochorionic twin pregnancy. Whether to start elective or therapeutic treatment in TRAP-sequence is still controversial. In the present case, acardiac twin was not diagnosed till her delivery at 39 weeks. A healthy baby weighing 2.45 kg was delivered along with another amorphous mass (acardiac twin) of about 150 g which was attached to the placenta with a short and separate cord. As outcome of normal twin vary according to the growth of acardiac twin, frequent follow-up of the normal twin is required to look for the features of heart failure. Hence, the diagnosis of acardiac twin is essential in early pregnancy. PMID:28274006

  16. Twin anemia-polycythemia sequence in a case of monoamniotic twins.

    PubMed

    Diehl, W; Glosemeyer, P; Tavares De Sousa, M; Hollwitz, B; Ortmeyer, G; Hecher, K

    2013-07-01

    Twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS) complicates up to 6% of monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies, typically in the late second or third trimester. The presence of only a few and very small arteriovenous vascular anastomoses characterizes the underlying angioarchitecture at the chorionic plate in cases of TAPS. In monoamniotic twins, large vascular anastomoses can usually be seen at the placental vascular equator, and therefore one would not expect the development of TAPS in monoamniotic twins. We report a case of TAPS in a monoamniotic pregnancy at 26 + 5 weeks' gestation which responded favorably to fetoscopic laser coagulation of the small placental anastomoses, resolving severe anemia in one twin and polycythemia in the other. The pregnancy continued until 32 + 5 weeks, when worsening cord entanglement with increased resistance and the development of postsystolic notches in the umbilical artery of one twin prompted delivery by Cesarean section. There was only a moderate difference in neonatal hemoglobin concentrations, with the former polycythemic twin needing a single partial volume exchange transfusion. The postnatal course of the neonates was uneventful, according to their gestational age at birth. To our knowledge this is the first case report describing successful laser therapy for TAPS in monoamniotic twins.

  17. Paleostress Determination Based on Multiple-Inverse Method using Calcite Twins and Fault-Slip Data in the East Walanae Fault Zone South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaya, Asri; Nishikawa, Osamu

    2013-04-01

    Paleostress reconstructions from calcite twin and fault-slip data were performed to constrain the activity of the East Walanae Fault (EWF) South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The multiple-inverse method, which has been widely used with fault-slip data, was applied to calcite twin data in this study. Both independent data sets yield consistent stress states and provides a reliable stress tensors (maximum and minimum principal stresses: ?1and ?3, and stress ratio: ?), a predominance of NE-SW trending ?1and vertical to moderately-south-plunging ?3 with generally low ?. These stress states could have activated the EWF as a reverse fault with a dextral shear component and account for contractional deformation structures and landform around the trace of the fault. Most of the calcite twins and mesoscale faults were activated during the latest stage of folding or later. Based on the morphology and width of twin lamellae in the carbonate rocks, twinning of calcite in the deformation zone along the EWF may have occurred under the temperature of 200° C or lower. Inferred paleostress states around the EWF were most likely generated under the tectonic conditions influenced by the collision of Sulawesi with the Australian fragments since the Late Miocene. Radiocarbon dating from sheared soil collected from the outcrop along a major fault yielded ages between 3050 cal BP and 3990 cal BP suggesting a present activity of the EWF.

  18. How do friends influence smoking uptake? Findings from qualitative interviews with identical twins.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Kim; White, Victoria; Mullins, Robyn; Davey, Claire; Wakefield, Melanie; Hill, David

    2008-06-01

    The smoking behavior of friends is a major risk factor for adolescent smoking uptake. To explore the social context of smoking experimentation and consolidation with a particular focus on friends, the authors interviewed both members of 14 young adult identical twin pairs who were discordant for smoking. The different smoking status of twins was connected to their different friendship groups and development of different identities. Smoking respondents gravitated to the behaviors and images of the peer group who smoked. Many nonsmokers felt strong pressure from their peers not to smoke and spoke about how the images conveyed by smoking were inconsistent with their peer group's image. Adolescents and young adults are aware of the messages that smoking can convey to others and exploit these images to construct a social identity.

  19. Art for twins: Yorùbá artists and their statues/twin research studies: twins' education and conceptions; diurnal preference; inherited eye diseases; ultrasound counseling when twins are conjoined/popular twin reports: twin sisters (the film); rare pregnancy; diet test; French twins reared apart and reunited.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2014-06-01

    The Yorùbá of Nigeria are well known for their high twinning rate and the statues they create to commemorate deceased twins. An impressive collection of this artwork was displayed at the University of California's Fowler Museum in Los Angeles between October 13, 2013 and March 2, 2014. An overview of this exhibit is provided. Next, twin research on maternal education and conception, diurnal preference, inherited eye diseases, and ultrasound counseling for couples with conjoined twins are briefly summarized. This article concludes with a discussion of media-based items related to twins. The topics include an award-winning twin film, a rare pregnancy, a diet test, and the separation and chance reunion of monozygotic female twins.

  20. Aeroacoustic Experiments with Twin Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozak, Richard F.; Henderson, Brenda S.

    2012-01-01

    While the noise produced by a single jet is azimuthally symmetric, multiple jets produce azimuthally varying far-field noise. The ability of one jet to shield another reduces the noise radiated in the plane of the jets, while often increasing the noise radiated out of the plane containing the jets. The present study investigates the shielding potential of twin jet configurations over subsonic and over-expanded supersonic jet conditions with simulated forward flight. The experiments were conducted with 2 in. throat diameter nozzles at four jet spacings from 2.6d to 5.5d in center-to-center distance, where d is the nozzle throat diameter. The current study found a maximum of 3 dB reduction in overall sound pressure level relative to two incoherent jets in the peak jet noise direction in the plane containing the jets. However, an increase of 3 dB was found perpendicular to the plane containing the jets. In the sideline direction, shielding is observed for all jet spacings in this study.

  1. Niobium and tantalum: indispensable twins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulz, Klaus; Papp, John

    2014-01-01

    Niobium and tantalum are transition metals almost always paired together in nature. These “twins” are difficult to separate because of their shared physical and chemical properties. In 1801, English chemist Charles Hatchett uncovered an unknown element in a mineral sample of columbite; John Winthrop found the sample in a Massachusetts mine and sent it to the British Museum in London in 1734. The name columbium, which Hatchet named the new element, came from the poetic name for North America—Columbia—and was used interchangeably for niobium until 1949, when the name niobium became official. Swedish scientist Anders Ekberg discovered tantalum in 1802, but it was confused with niobium, because of their twinned properties, until 1864, when it was recognized as a separate element. Niobium is a lustrous, gray, ductile metal with a high melting point, relatively low density, and superconductor properties. Tantalum is a dark blue-gray, dense, ductile, very hard, and easily fabricated metal. It is highly conductive to heat and electricity and renowned for its resistance to acidic corrosion. These special properties determine their primary uses and make niobium and tantalum indispensable.

  2. Genetic and environmental influences on eating behavior - a study of twin pairs reared apart or reared together

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the relative influence of genetic versus environmental factors on specific aspects of eating behavior. Adult monozygotic twins (22 pairs and 3 singleton reared apart, 38 pairs and 9 singleton reared together, age 18-76 years, BMI 17-43 kg/m2) completed the Three Factor Eating Que...

  3. Prognostic and survival analysis of presbyopia: The healthy twin study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lira, Adiyani; Sung, Joohon

    2015-12-01

    Presbyopia, a vision condition in which the eye loses its flexibility to focus on near objects, is part of ageing process which mostly perceptible in the early or mid 40s. It is well known that age is its major risk factor, while sex, alcohol, poor nutrition, ocular and systemic diseases are known as common risk factors. However, many other variables might influence the prognosis. Therefore in this paper we developed a prognostic model to estimate survival from presbyopia. 1645 participants which part of the Healthy Twin Study, a prospective cohort study that has recruited Korean adult twins and their family members based on a nation-wide registry at public health agencies since 2005, were collected and analyzed by univariate analysis as well as Cox proportional hazard model to reveal the prognostic factors for presbyopia while survival curves were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Besides age, sex, diabetes, and myopia; the proposed model shows that education level (especially engineering program) also contribute to the occurrence of presbyopia as well. Generally, at 47 years old, the chance of getting presbyopia becomes higher with the survival probability is less than 50%. Furthermore, our study shows that by stratifying the survival curve, MZ has shorter survival with average onset time about 45.8 compare to DZ and siblings with 47.5 years old. By providing factors that have more effects and mainly associate with presbyopia, we expect that we could help to design an intervention to control or delay its onset time.

  4. Situs Inversus Totalis in Twins: A Brief Review and a Life History / Twin Research: Twin Studies of Trisomy 21; Monozygotic Twin Concordance for Bilateral Coronoid Hyperplasia; Prenatal Hormonal Effects in Mixed-Sex Non-Human Primate Litters; Insurance Mandates and Twinning After In Vitro Fertilization / News Reports: First Report of Identical Twin Puppies; Twins Sisters Turn 100; Remembering an Identical Twin Production Designer; New York City Marathon Quadruplets.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2017-02-01

    The presence of situs inversus totalis (full reversal of internal organs) in twins is briefly reviewed. Information gathered from 35-year-old monozygotic (MZ) female twin pair discordant for this condition is presented. This is followed by summaries of research on the frequency of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) in twins, the first case of MZ twin concordance for bilateral coronoid hyperplasia, prenatal hormonal effects in mixed-sex non-human primate litters, and links between insurance mandates and twinning following in vitro fertilization. The final section of this article describes twin-related events reported in the news, namely, the first recorded birth of identical twin puppies; the 100th birthday celebration of a pair of fraternal female twins, the passing of an award-winning identical twin production designer, and the first running of the New York City Marathon by a set of quadruplets.

  5. Aortic and pulmonary artery calcification: An unusual manifestation of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Sumitra; Sanyukta, J; Jain, S; Prabhu, SS; Kulkarni, S

    2017-01-01

    Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) at times complicates monochorionic twin gestations, resulting in conditions ranging from discordant sizes to fetal demise of one baby. Various types of cardiac defects have been described in the recipient twin of this syndrome. Isolated great artery calcification, i.e. aortic and pulmonary artery calcification is one such uncommon condition associated with TTTS. Calcification of the walls of great vessels may be due to chronic vascular injury sustained as a result of circulatory volume overload in the recipient twin. It may also cause severe systemic hypertension and cardiomyopathy. An accurate diagnosis is important for an optimal follow-up and appropriate genetic counseling. We report a case of aortic and pulmonary artery calcification in association with TTTS. PMID:28163434

  6. Aortic and pulmonary artery calcification: An unusual manifestation of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Sumitra; Sanyukta, J; Jain, S; Prabhu, S S; Kulkarni, S

    2017-01-01

    Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) at times complicates monochorionic twin gestations, resulting in conditions ranging from discordant sizes to fetal demise of one baby. Various types of cardiac defects have been described in the recipient twin of this syndrome. Isolated great artery calcification, i.e. aortic and pulmonary artery calcification is one such uncommon condition associated with TTTS. Calcification of the walls of great vessels may be due to chronic vascular injury sustained as a result of circulatory volume overload in the recipient twin. It may also cause severe systemic hypertension and cardiomyopathy. An accurate diagnosis is important for an optimal follow-up and appropriate genetic counseling. We report a case of aortic and pulmonary artery calcification in association with TTTS.

  7. Deformation twinning mechanisms in FCC and HCP metals

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian; Tome, Carlos N; Beyerlein, Irene J; Misra, Amit; Mara, N

    2011-01-31

    We report the recent work on twinning and detwinning in fcc and hcp metals based on the in situ and ex situ TEM observations and molecular dynamics simulations. Three aspects are discussed in this paper. (1) Detwinning in single-phase Cu with respect to growth twins, (2) deformation twinning in Ag-Cu composites, and (3) deformation twinning mechanisms in hcp metals. The main conclusion is that atomic structures of interfaces (twin boundaries, two-phases interface, and grain boundaries) play a crucial role in nucleating and propagating of deformation twins.

  8. Twin studies in auto-immune disease.

    PubMed

    Leslie, R D; Hawa, M

    1994-01-01

    Immune-mediated diseases affect up to 5% of the population and are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. These diseases can be organ specific, such as insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) and non-organ specific, such as Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Identical and non-identical twins have been used to establish whether these diseases are determined by genetic or environmental factors. The results of these studies have been collated in a new section of the Mendel Institute in Rome. Diseases included in these studies included IDDM, RA, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Myasthenia. Striking differences in concordance rates between identical and non-identical twins in all these studies suggest that genetic factors are important in causing these diseases. All the diseases are known to be associated with HLA genes on chromosome 6 which may account for some or all of the genetic susceptibility. However, in the majority of pairs the affected twin has an unaffected co-twin. These observations suggest that non-genetically determined factors, probably environmental factors and not somatic mutations, are critical. The study of unaffected co-twins, who are at high disease-risk, has allowed the identification of changes which precede and predict the clinical disease. The immune-mediated destruction in many of these diseases is probably caused by T-lymphocytes. Twin studies have shown the importance of genetic factors in determining T-cell responses. Identical twins should, therefore, provide the perfect test bed to assess the role of T-cells in immune-mediated diseases.

  9. The Project TALENT Twin and Sibling Study.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Carol A; Achorn, Deanna Lyter; Kaiser, Ashley; Mitchell, Lindsey; McArdle, John J; Lapham, Susan J

    2013-02-01

    Project TALENT is a US national longitudinal study of about 377,000 individuals born in 1942-1946, first assessed in 1960. Students in about 1,200 schools participated in a 2-day battery covering aptitudes, abilities, interests, and individual and family characteristics (Flanagan, 1962; www.projectTALENT.org). Follow-up assessments 1, 5, and 11 years later assessed educational and occupational outcomes. The sample includes approximately 92,000 siblings from 40,000 families, including 2,500 twin pairs and 1,200 other siblings of twins. Until recently, almost no behavior genetic research has been conducted with the sample. In the original data collection information was not collected with the intent to link family members. Recently, we developed algorithms using names, addresses, birthdates, and information about family structure to link siblings and identify twins. We are testing several methods to determine zygosity, including use of yearbook photographs. In this paper, we summarize the design and measures in Project TALENT, describe the Twin and Sibling sample, and present our twin-sib-classmate model. In most twin and family designs, the 'shared environment' includes factors specific to the family combined with between-family differences associated with macro-level variables such as socioeconomic status. The school-based sampling design used in Project TALENT provides a unique opportunity to partition the shared environment into variation shared by siblings, specific to twins, and associated with school- and community-level factors. The availability of many measured characteristics on the family, schools, and neighborhoods enhances the ability to study the impact of specific factors on behavioral variation.

  10. Funding emergency care: Australian style.

    PubMed

    Bell, Anthony; Crilly, Julia; Williams, Ged; Wylie, Kate; Toloo, Ghasem Sam; Burke, John; FitzGerald, Gerry

    2014-08-01

    The ongoing challenge for ED leaders is to remain abreast of system-wide changes that impact on the day-to-day management of their departments. Changes to the funding model creates another layer of complexity and this introductory paper serves as the beginning of a discussion about the way in which EDs are funded and how this can and will impact on business decisions, models of care and resource allocation within Australian EDs. Furthermore it is evident that any funding model today will mature and change with time, and moves are afoot to refine and contextualise ED funding over the medium term. This perspective seeks to provide a basis of understanding for our current and future funding arrangements in Australian EDs.

  11. [Australian short-beaked echidna].

    PubMed

    Rismiller, P

    1995-12-01

    The Australian short-beaked echidna, a monotreme, is one of the oldest living mammals on earth. It is recorded to be the most widely distributed native mammal on the island continent and classed as 'common'. Yet, little is known about its natural history and biology in the wild. What science has learned about the echidna in the past 200 years and why there are still large gaps is reported here.

  12. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  13. Policy: Australian astronomy looks forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhathal, Ragbir

    2005-12-01

    Over the next decade, a new generation of instruments will come into being for the benefit of astronomers across the world. Australian astronomers hope to build on their strong astronomical heritage and continue to take part in astronomy at the highest international level. To this end, they have prepared a Decadal Plan that envisages building, with international partners, a world-class radio telescope, greater invovlement with 8 metre telescopes, as well as making the most of the Antarctic opportunities that Australia offers.

  14. Australian Defence Force Demographic Data and Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE DEMOGRAPHIC DATA AND CHALLENGES Directorate of Strategic Personnel Planning and Research DSPPR Technical Note 10/2001...DATE 00 OCT 2001 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Australian Defence Force Demographic Data and Challenges 5a...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE DEMOGRAPHIC DATA AND CHALLENGES The findings and views expressed in this report are the results

  15. The Politics Are Personal: "The Australian" vs the Australian Curriculum in History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tony; Collins, Sue

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the relationship between the conservative newspaper "The Australian" and the development of a national history curriculum in Australia. The lead author surveyed the major Australian press in the five-year period between 2007 and 2012 and found clear patterns of difference between "The Australian" and other…

  16. The Australian Science Facilities Program: A Study of Its Influence on Science Education in Australian Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainley, John G.

    This report is a study conducted by the Australian Council for Educational Research to evaluate the influence of science material resources, provided under the Australian Science Facilities Program, on science education in Australia. Under the Australian Science Facilities Program some $123 million was spent, between July 1964 and June 1975, on…

  17. Genetics of dietary habits and obesity - a twin study.

    PubMed

    Hasselbalch, Ann Louise

    2010-09-01

    Obesity has become a major health concern due to the increased risk of co-morbidities, resulting in decreased quality of life, stigmatization, reduced working ability and early death. This causes a great challenge for the health care systems and results in increased direct costs related to treatment of obesity and co-morbidities, as well as increased indirect costs related to reduced function and withdrawal from the labour market. Both between and within societies, large variation in the prevalence of overweight and obesity exists. This variation is caused by differences in environmental exposures as well as genetic differences between individuals, resulting in differentiated susceptibility to environmental exposures. The evidence for genetic influence on anthropometry has previously been established and has been estimated to be 60-70% based on twin studies. These inter-individual differences can, however, not explain the increase in obesity prevalence during the past 70 years. Environmental factors must therefore play an important role in the obesity epidemic. Habitual diet is one of many environmental factors that potentially contribute to the inter-individual differences in body fat mass, but only limited evidence for associations between habitual dietary intake and anthropometry exists. Differences in habitual dietary intake are also partly determined by differences in genes influencing smell and taste preferences. But, so far, only few studies have investigated genetic influences on dietary intake in adults and the interplay between diet, genes and obesity. The focus of the thesis was to investigate the genetic and environmental influence on habitual diet and obesity as well as the association between habitual diet and anthropometry. The thesis is based on structural equation modelling of twin data from the Danish Twin Registry with special focus on the GEMINAKAR twin study that was performed in 1997-2000. In this study, anthropometric traits of the twin pairs

  18. Australian diagnostic reference levels for multi detector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Hayton, Anna; Wallace, Anthony; Marks, Paul; Edmonds, Keith; Tingey, David; Johnston, Peter

    2013-03-01

    The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) is undertaking web based surveys to obtain data to establish national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for diagnostic imaging. The first set of DRLs to be established are for multi detector computed tomography (MDCT). The survey samples MDCT dosimetry metrics: dose length product (DLP, mGy.cm) and volume computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol, mGy), for six common protocols/habitus: Head, Neck, Chest, AbdoPelvis, ChestAbdoPelvis and Lumbar Spine from individual radiology clinics and platforms. A practice reference level (PRL) for a given platform and protocol is calculated from a compliant survey containing data collected from at least ten patients. The PRL is defined as the median of the DLP/CTDIvol values for a single compliant survey. Australian National DRLs are defined as the 75th percentile of the distribution of the PRLs for each protocol and age group. Australian National DRLs for adult MDCT have been determined in terms of DLP and CTDIvol. In terms of DLP the national DRLs are 1,000 mGy cm, 600 mGy cm, 450 mGy cm, 700 mGy cm, 1,200 mGy cm, and 900 mGy cm for the protocols Head, Neck, Chest, AbdoPelvis, ChestAbdoPelvis and Lumbar Spine respectively. Average dose values obtained from the European survey Dose Datamed I reveal Australian doses to be higher by comparison for four out of the six protocols. The survey is ongoing, allowing practices to optimise dose delivery as well as allowing the periodic update of DRLs to reflect changes in technology and technique.

  19. Characterization of Gastric Microbiota in Twins.

    PubMed

    Dong, Quanjiang; Xin, Yongning; Wang, Lili; Meng, Xinying; Yu, Xinjuan; Lu, Linlin; Xuan, Shiying

    2017-02-01

    Contribution of host genetic backgrounds in the development of gastric microbiota has not been clearly defined. This study was aimed to characterize the biodiversity, structure and composition of gastric microbiota among twins. A total of four pairs of twins and eight unrelated individuals were enrolled in the study. Antral biopsies were obtained during endoscopy. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified and pyrosequenced. Sequences were analyzed for the composition, structure, and α and β diversities of gastric microbiota. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Fusobacteria were the most predominant phyla of gastric microbiota. Each individual, twins as well as unrelated individuals, harbored a microbiota of distinct composition. There was no evidence of additional similarity in the richness and evenness of gastric microbiota among co-twins as compared to unrelated individuals. Calculations of θYC and PCoA demonstrated that the structure similarity of gastric microbial community between co-twins did not increase compared to unrelated individuals. In contrast, the structure of microbiota was altered enormously by Helicobacter pylori infection. These results suggest that host genetic backgrounds had little effect in shaping the gastric microbiota. This property of gastric microbiota could facilitate the studies discerning the role of microbiota from genetic grounds in the pathogenesis.

  20. Psychological Distress in Twins with Urological Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Lisa Johnson; Noonan, Carolyn; Ahumada, Sandra; Rodríguez, María Ángeles Bullones; Buchwald, Dedra; Afari, Niloofar

    2010-01-01

    Objective Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is a chronic pain condition with unclear underlying etiology. Our objectives were to determine if psychological distress was higher in twins with urological symptoms commonly found in IC/PBS than twins without, and if so, did familial influences contribute to this association. Method Data from 1,165 female twins in a community-based sample were used. Urological symptoms, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and perceived stress were assessed with standardized questionnaires. Generalized estimating equation regression models were used to examine the relationship between psychological distress and urological symptoms. Results Compared to unaffected twins, twins with urological symptoms were more likely to report PTSD symptoms (OR = 3.9; CI = 2.6-5.8), depression (OR = 3.1; CI = 2.0-5.0), anxiety (OR = 3.4; CI = 2.3-5.2), and perceived stress (OR = 3.2; CI = 2.1-4.9). After adjusting for familial influences, the within-pair effects remained significant for PTSD symptoms (OR = 2.2; CI = 1.2-3.8) and perceived stress (OR = 2.2; CI = 1.2-3.8). Conclusion Familial influences partially explained the relationship between indicators of psychological distress and urological symptoms. Future research should examine shared environmental and genetic mechanisms that may further explain this relationship and improve diagnosis and treatment of this unexplained clinical condition. PMID:20430229

  1. NAE Twin Otter operations in FIFE 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macpherson, J. I.

    1990-01-01

    During the summer of 1989, the National Aeronautical Establishment (Canada) Twin Otter Atmospheric Research Aircraft was flow in support of the NASA sponsored First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment called FIFE-89. Airborne measurements of the fluxes of heat, momentum, water vapor and carbon dioxide were made during 16 flow-altitude flights over the FIFE project area in central Kansas. The Twin Otter operations in FIFE are documented and details are included on the instrumentation, software, flight procedures, atmospheric conditions and analysis methods. Comparisons of Twin Otter measured fluxes are made with those determined at several surface sites and with those made by other instrumented aircraft in the FIFE-87 measurements. Airborne flux measurements are related to run length, altitude, and environmental parameters such as vegetation type, temperature, and wind speed. One night flight was run in an attempt to measure the respiration component of the CO2 flux. The use of aircraft was studied for regional observations of fluxes and to relate these to satellite radiance measurements. Run average data are presented for all 285 flux runs flown by the Twin Otter in FIFE-89. This should serve as as a working reference for scientists utilizing Twin Otter data either directly of through the FIFE data archive.

  2. Yoruba customs and beliefs pertaining to twins.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Fernand; Olaleye-Oruene, Taiwo; Koeppen-Schomerus, Gesina; Bryan, Elizabeth

    2002-04-01

    The Yoruba are an important ethnic group mainly occupying Southwestern Nigeria. Mainly for genetic reasons, this very large tribe happens to present the highest dizygotic twinning rate in the world (4.4 % of all maternities). The high perinatal mortality rate associated with such pregnancies has contributed to the integration of a special twin belief system within the African traditional religion of this tribe. The latter is based on the concept of a supreme deity called Olodumare or Olorun, assisted by a series of secondary gods (Orisha) while Yoruba religion also involves immortality and reincarnation of the soul based on the animistic cult of ancestors. Twins are therefore given special names and believed to detain special preternatural powers. In keeping with their refined artistic tradition, the Yoruba have produced numerous wooden statuettes called Ibejis that represent the souls of deceased newborn twins and are involved in elaborate rituals. Among Yoruba traditional beliefs and lore some twin-related themes are represented which are also found in other parts of the world. Basic features of the original Yoruba beliefs have found their way into the religious traditions of descendants of African slaves imported in the West Indies and in South America.

  3. The Onsala Twin Telescope Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, R.

    2013-08-01

    This paper described the Onsala Twin Telescope project. The project aims at the construction of two new radio telescopes at the Onsala Space Observatory, following the VLBI2010 concept. The project starts in 2013 and is expected to be finalized within 4 years. Z% O. Rydbeck. Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Göteborg, ISBN 91-7032-621-5, 407-823, 1991. B. Petrachenko, A. Niell, D. Behrend, B. Corey, J. Böhm, P. Charlot, A. Collioud, J. Gipson, R. Haas, Th. Hobiger, Y. Koyama, D. MacMillan, Z. Malkin, T. Nilsson, A. Pany, G. Tuccari, A. Whitney, and J. Wresnik. Design Aspects of the VLBI2010 System. NASA/TM-2009-214180, 58 pp., 2009. R. Haas, G. Elgered, J. Löfgren, T. Ning, and H.-G. Scherneck. Onsala Space Observatory - IVS Network Station. In K. D. Baver and D. Behrend, editors, International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry 2011 Annual Report, NASA/TP-2012-217505, 88-91, 2012. H.-G. Scherneck, G. Elgered, J. M. Johansson, and B. O. Rönnäng. Phys. Chem. Earth, Vol. 23, No. 7-8, 811-823, 1998. A. R. Whitney. Ph.D. thesis, Dept. of Electrical engineering, MIT Cambridge, MA., 1974. B. A. Harper, J. D. Kepert, and J. D. Ginger. Guidelines for converting between various wind averaging periods in tropical cyclone conditions. WMO/TD-No. 1555, 64 pp., 2010 (available at \\url{http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/tcp/documents/WMO_TD_1555_en.pdf})

  4. Why do identical twins differ in personality: shared environment reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Torgersen, Anne Mari; Janson, Harald

    2002-02-01

    While heritability studies show that most of the variance in adult personality can be attributed to genetic or so-called nonshared environmental influence, this does not mean that shared events lack importance for the development of later personality differences. We studied the relationship between Big Five personality differences in monozygotic (MZ) twins at age 29, and life stressors at age 6 to 15, using prospective data from 26 MZ pairs studied from birth onwards. A positive significant correlation was found between stressors in childhood and early adolescence, and intrapair personality differences in Agreeableness, Openness, Conscientiousness, and five-factor profiles. We note that the effects of shared events are labeled "nonshared" environment when the effect is to make siblings more different. Case examples illustrate the relationship between stress and personality differences, and provide hypotheses for further studies in larger samples.

  5. HERITABILITY OF BRAIN NETWORK TOPOLOGY IN 853 TWINS AND SIBLINGS.

    PubMed

    Zhan, L; Jahanshad, N; Faskowitz, J; Zhu, D; Prasad, G; Martin, N G; de Zubicaray, G I; McMahon, K L; Wright, M J; Thompson, P M

    2015-04-01

    Anatomical brain networks change throughout life and with diseases. Genetic analysis of these networks may help identify processes giving rise to heritable brain disorders, but we do not yet know which network measures are promising for genetic analyses. Many factors affect the downstream results, such as the tractography algorithm used to define structural connectivity. We tested nine different tractography algorithms and four normalization methods to compute brain networks for 853 young healthy adults (twins and their siblings). We fitted genetic structural equation models to all nine network measures, after a normalization step to increase network consistency across tractography algorithms. Probabilistic tractography algorithms with global optimization (such as Probtrackx and Hough) yielded higher heritability statistics than "greedy" algorithms (such as FACT) which process small neighborhoods at each step. Some global network measures (probtrackx-derived GLOB and ST) showed significant genetic effects, making them attractive targets for genome-wide association studies.

  6. Heritability of Hepatic Fibrosis and Steatosis Based on a Prospective Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Loomba, Rohit; Schork, Nicholas; Chen, Chi-Hua; Bettencourt, Ricki; Bhatt, Ana; Ang, Brandon; Nguyen, Phirum; Hernandez, Carolyn; Richards, Lisa; Salotti, Joanie; Lin, Steven; Seki, Ekihiro; Nelson, Karen E; Sirlin, Claude B; Brenner, David

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Little is known about the heritability of hepatic fibrosis, and the heritability of hepatic steatosis has not been systematically assessed in adults. We investigated the heritability of hepatic fibrosis and steatosis in a community-dwelling twin cohort. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a cohort of well-characterized twins residing in Southern California including 60 pairs of twins (42 monozygotic and 18 dizygotic; average age, 45.7±22.1 years; average body mass index, 26.4±5.7 kg/m2). We collected data on medical history, physical examinations, fasting laboratory test results, and liver health; all participants underwent an advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination of the liver from January 2012 through January 2015. Hepatic steatosis was quantified non-invasively by MRI and determined based on the proton-density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF); liver fibrosis was measured based on stiffness measured by magnetic resonance elastography. Results Twenty-six of the 120 subjects (21.7%) had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (defined as MRI-PDFF ≥ 5% after exclusion of other causes of hepatic steatosis). The presence of hepatic steatosis correlated between monozygotic twins (r2=0.70, P<.0001) but not between di-zygotic twins (r2=0.36, P=0.2). The level of liver fibrosis also correlated between monozygotic twins (r2=0.48, P<.002) but not between dizygotic twins (r2=.12, P=.7). In multivariable models adjusted for age, sex, and ethnicity, the heritability of hepatic steatosis (based on MRI-PDFF) was 0.52 (95% confidence interval, 0.31–0.73; P<1.1x10−11) and the heritability of hepatic fibrosis (based on liver stiffness) was 0.5 (95% confidence interval, 0.28–0.72; P<6.1 x 10−11). Conclusions A study of twins provides evidence that hepatic steatosis and hepatic fibrosis are heritable traits. PMID:26299412

  7. 13. TWIN ROCK DITCH AND PIPELINE DITCH HEADING PLAN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. TWIN ROCK DITCH AND PIPELINE -- DITCH HEADING PLAN, ELEVATION, GABION COURSING & DETAILS - Twin Rock Irrigation Ditch, West bank of Animas River, East of U.S. Highway 550, Bondad, La Plata County, CO

  8. Twin anemia-polycythemia sequence in monochorionic twins: implications for diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Baschat, Ahmet A; Oepkes, Dick

    2014-09-01

    Twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS) is a recently described complication of monochorionic placentation characterized by discordance in hemoglobin (Hgb) levels in the absence of amniotic fluid abnormality characteristic of classical twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). The placental angioarchitecture that predisposes to TAPS consists of small diameter arteriovenous anastomoses and the absence of balancing arterioarterial anastomoses. This vascular pattern occurs sporadically in 3 to 5% of monochorionic twins or iatrogenically following 2 to 13% of selective fetoscopic laser surgeries for TTTS. The diagnosis is based on measurement of the middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV) which is not part of the Quintero staging for TTTS. With mild disease increased MCA-PSV in the anemic donor twin and a decreased MCA-PSV in the recipient twin are characteristic while severe disease is associated with critical Doppler findings, hydrops or single twin demise as in TTTS. Treatment options include fetoscopic laser, fetal blood transfusion, conservative management, and often preterm delivery. The most promising approach to TAPS is its prevention since the iatrogenic form comprises the majority of cases. When the fetoscopic laser technique is modified by coagulating the chorionic plate along the vascular equator (equatorial dichorionization or "Solomon" technique) the incidence of postlaser TAPS and recurrent TTTS is significantly reduced, survival is improved, and there is no increase in complications.

  9. Plasmonic twinned silver nanoparticles with molecular precision

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huayan; Wang, Yu; Chen, Xi; Zhao, Xiaojing; Gu, Lin; Huang, Huaqi; Yan, Juanzhu; Xu, Chaofa; Li, Gang; Wu, Junchao; Edwards, Alison J.; Dittrich, Birger; Tang, Zichao; Wang, Dongdong; Lehtovaara, Lauri; Häkkinen, Hannu; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2016-01-01

    Determining the structures of nanoparticles at atomic resolution is vital to understand their structure–property correlations. Large metal nanoparticles with core diameter beyond 2 nm have, to date, eluded characterization by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Here we report the chemical syntheses and structures of two giant thiolated Ag nanoparticles containing 136 and 374 Ag atoms (that is, up to 3 nm core diameter). As the largest thiolated metal nanoparticles crystallographically determined so far, these Ag nanoparticles enter the truly metallic regime with the emergence of surface plasmon resonance. As miniatures of fivefold twinned nanostructures, these structures demonstrate a subtle distortion within fivefold twinned nanostructures of face-centred cubic metals. The Ag nanoparticles reported in this work serve as excellent models to understand the detailed structure distortion within twinned metal nanostructures and also how silver nanoparticles can span from the molecular to the metallic regime. PMID:27611564

  10. Plasmonic twinned silver nanoparticles with molecular precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huayan; Wang, Yu; Chen, Xi; Zhao, Xiaojing; Gu, Lin; Huang, Huaqi; Yan, Juanzhu; Xu, Chaofa; Li, Gang; Wu, Junchao; Edwards, Alison J.; Dittrich, Birger; Tang, Zichao; Wang, Dongdong; Lehtovaara, Lauri; Häkkinen, Hannu; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2016-09-01

    Determining the structures of nanoparticles at atomic resolution is vital to understand their structure-property correlations. Large metal nanoparticles with core diameter beyond 2 nm have, to date, eluded characterization by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Here we report the chemical syntheses and structures of two giant thiolated Ag nanoparticles containing 136 and 374 Ag atoms (that is, up to 3 nm core diameter). As the largest thiolated metal nanoparticles crystallographically determined so far, these Ag nanoparticles enter the truly metallic regime with the emergence of surface plasmon resonance. As miniatures of fivefold twinned nanostructures, these structures demonstrate a subtle distortion within fivefold twinned nanostructures of face-centred cubic metals. The Ag nanoparticles reported in this work serve as excellent models to understand the detailed structure distortion within twinned metal nanostructures and also how silver nanoparticles can span from the molecular to the metallic regime.

  11. Aging and communication in the twin paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wolf, David A.

    2016-11-01

    The twin paradox of the special theory of relativity has given rize to a large body of literature discussing its implications. In its standard form, the traveler changes velocity only at the destination of the trip, so that he appears to perceive an improbably instantaneous and non-continuous change in age of the stationary twin. In this work, a smooth velocity/acceleration profile is used that allows the abrupt velocity-change case as a limit. All gravitational effects are ignored in this treatment. Aside from mutual perception of simultaneous clock times in an accelerating frame, constant communication of clock times between the twins by means of (digital) light signals is shown to be possible, in principle if not in practice.

  12. Stability of ideal fcc twin boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, T. W.; Daphalapurkar, N. P.; Ramesh, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    Ideas from continuum mechanics are used to derive an elastic stability inequality for a boundary between two different materials under quasi-static, homogeneous conditions. The terms in this inequality are interpreted for the case of an ideal twinning plane between two variants of a face-centered cubic material. High quality potentials for Ni and Cu are used in molecular dynamics calculations to calibrate relevant energies and displacements near the twinning plane. It is found that in comparison with direct molecular dynamics calculations the inequality predicts the critical stress that initiates movement of the twinning plane in Ni within 1.9% and within 1.3% for Cu. Although the predicted and calculated critical stresses are only upper bounds for the more realistic case of an imperfect boundary, the calculations give considerable insight into the interplay of energies that lead to boundary motion.

  13. Twinning-mediated formability in Mg alloys

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Byeong-Chan; Kim, Jae H.; Hwang, Ji Hyun; Shim, Myeong-Shik; Kim, Nack J.

    2016-01-01

    Mg alloys are promising candidates for automotive applications due to their low density and high specific strength. However, their widespread applications have not been realized mainly because of poor formability at room temperature, arising from limited number of active deformation systems and strong basal texture. It has been recently shown that Mg-Zn-Ca alloys have excellent stretch formability, which has been ascribed to their weak basal texture. However, the distribution of basal poles is orthotropic, which might result in anisotropy during deformation and have adverse effect on formability. Here, we show that tension twinning is mainly responsible for enhanced formability of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys. We found that tension twinning is quite active during both uniaxial deformation and biaxial deformation of Mg-Zn-Ca alloy even under the stress conditions unfavourable for the formation of tensile twins. Our results provide new insights into the development of Mg alloys having high formability. PMID:26926655

  14. Twinning-mediated formability in Mg alloys.

    PubMed

    Suh, Byeong-Chan; Kim, Jae H; Hwang, Ji Hyun; Shim, Myeong-Shik; Kim, Nack J

    2016-03-01

    Mg alloys are promising candidates for automotive applications due to their low density and high specific strength. However, their widespread applications have not been realized mainly because of poor formability at room temperature, arising from limited number of active deformation systems and strong basal texture. It has been recently shown that Mg-Zn-Ca alloys have excellent stretch formability, which has been ascribed to their weak basal texture. However, the distribution of basal poles is orthotropic, which might result in anisotropy during deformation and have adverse effect on formability. Here, we show that tension twinning is mainly responsible for enhanced formability of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys. We found that tension twinning is quite active during both uniaxial deformation and biaxial deformation of Mg-Zn-Ca alloy even under the stress conditions unfavourable for the formation of tensile twins. Our results provide new insights into the development of Mg alloys having high formability.

  15. Estimation of penetrance from twin data.

    PubMed

    Praxedes, L A; Otto, P A

    2000-12-01

    A simple method for estimating the gene frequency p and the penetrance value K from data on polymorphic monogenic characteristics on monozygotic twin pairs is presented. In spite of the method here presented having limited value because the results it yields cannot be evaluated on their own, the estimates of p and K it provides can be indirectly tested by comparing them to the ones obtained in familial aggregates through classical segregation analysis or by using the latter to calculate the expected proportions of dominant-dominant, dominant-recessive and recessive-recessive monozygotic twin pairs. When the method is applied to data on tongue-rolling ability published in the literature, a good agreement is observed between twin and familial estimates, thus indicating that the method is reliable and that it can be used as an ancillary way of corroborating or otherwise evidence of monogenic autosomal dominant mechanism inferred from the analysis of familial data.

  16. TWSVR: Regression via Twin Support Vector Machine.

    PubMed

    Khemchandani, Reshma; Goyal, Keshav; Chandra, Suresh

    2016-02-01

    Taking motivation from Twin Support Vector Machine (TWSVM) formulation, Peng (2010) attempted to propose Twin Support Vector Regression (TSVR) where the regressor is obtained via solving a pair of quadratic programming problems (QPPs). In this paper we argue that TSVR formulation is not in the true spirit of TWSVM. Further, taking motivation from Bi and Bennett (2003), we propose an alternative approach to find a formulation for Twin Support Vector Regression (TWSVR) which is in the true spirit of TWSVM. We show that our proposed TWSVR can be derived from TWSVM for an appropriately constructed classification problem. To check the efficacy of our proposed TWSVR we compare its performance with TSVR and classical Support Vector Regression(SVR) on various regression datasets.

  17. Longitudinal research on temperament in twins.

    PubMed

    Torgersen, A M

    1987-01-01

    The changing influence of genetic factors of temperamental individuality has been studied longitudinally in a group of 44 same-sexed twin pairs at four different ages from infancy to puberty. Previous results showed that genetic factors seemed to play an important role in the development of temperamental characteristics when the twins were in infancy and at six years of age. The present report shows that when the within-pair differences in temperament are studied again at age 15 years, the similarity of identical pairs is even higher than at earlier ages. When shared and nonshared stress in the twin pairs was assessed at this age, some interactions were found between within-pair differences in temperament, stress and zygosity.

  18. Paraphilic Sexual Interests and Sexually Coercive Behavior: A Population-Based Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Baur, Elena; Forsman, Mats; Santtila, Pekka; Johansson, Ada; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Långström, Niklas

    2016-07-01

    Prior research with selected clinical and forensic samples suggests associations between paraphilic sexual interests (e.g., exhibitionism and sexual sadism) and sexually coercive behavior. However, no study to date used a large, representative and genetically informative population sample to address the potential causal nature of this association. We used self-report data on paraphilic and sexually coercive behavior from 5990 18- to 32-year-old male and female twins from a contemporary Finnish population cohort. Logistic regression and co-twin control models were employed to examine if paraphilic behaviors were causally related to coercive behavior or if suggested links were confounded by familial (genetic or common family environment) risk factors. Results indicated that associations between four out of five tested paraphilic behaviors (exhibitionism, masochism, sadism, and voyeurism, respectively) and sexually coercive behavior were moderate to strong. Transvestic fetishism was not independently associated with sexual coercion. Comparisons of twins reporting paraphilic behavior with their paraphilic behavior-discordant twin further suggested that associations were largely independent of shared genetic and environmental confounds, consistent with a causal association. In conclusion, similar to previously reported predictive effects of paraphilias on sexual crime recidivism, paraphilic behavior among young adults in the general population increases sexual offending risk. Further, early identification of paraphilic interest and preventive interventions with at-risk individuals might also reduce perpetration of first-time sexual violence.

  19. A twin and molecular genetics study of sleep paralysis and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Denis, Dan; French, Christopher C; Rowe, Richard; Zavos, Helena M S; Nolan, Patrick M; Parsons, Michael J; Gregory, Alice M

    2015-08-01

    Sleep paralysis is a relatively common but under-researched phenomenon. In this paper we examine prevalence in a UK sample and associations with candidate risk factors. This is the first study to investigate the heritability of sleep paralysis in a twin sample and to explore genetic associations between sleep paralysis and a number of circadian expressed single nucleotide polymorphisms. Analyses are based on data from the Genesis1219 twin/sibling study, a community sample of twins/siblings from England and Wales. In total, data from 862 participants aged 22-32 years (34% male) were used in the study. This sample consisted of monozygotic and dizygotic twins and siblings. It was found that self-reports of general sleep quality, anxiety symptoms and exposure to threatening events were all associated independently with sleep paralysis. There was moderate genetic influence on sleep paralysis (53%). Polymorphisms in the PER2 gene were associated with sleep paralysis in additive and dominant models of inheritance-although significance was not reached once a Bonferroni correction was applied. It is concluded that factors associated with disrupted sleep cycles appear to be associated with sleep paralysis. In this sample of young adults, sleep paralysis was moderately heritable. Future work should examine specific polymorphisms associated with differences in circadian rhythms and sleep homeostasis further in association with sleep paralysis.

  20. Twins and politics: political careers and political attitudes / twin research reviews: pair-bonding; facial expressivity in reared apart twins; educating multiples / stories that move and amaze us: a military funeral; a twins' reunion; Egyptian septuplets; rare occupations.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2008-12-01

    Twins and twin research are providing fresh insights into the roots of political behavior. This topic is approached from dual perspectives: why some individuals choose to become politicians, and why individuals vary in their political attitudes and interests. Reviews of timely twin studies in the areas of pair-bonding, facial expressivity and education follow. Finally, some extraordinary events in the lives of twins and their families are revealed.

  1. The twin paradox in the presence of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperini, M.

    2014-09-01

    Conventional wisdom, based on kinematic (flat-space) intuition, tell us that a static twin is aging faster than his traveling twin brother. However, such a situation could be exactly inverted if the two twins are embedded in an external gravitational field, and if the (dynamical) distortion of the spacetime geometry, due to gravity, is strong enough to compensate the kinematic effect of the relative twin motion.

  2. [A case of twins with probable superfetation (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bertrams, J; Preuss, H

    1980-01-01

    A twin case of disputed paternity with probable superfetation is reported. The putative father could be excluded as the father of Twin F by HLA, GLO, and Ss typing results, but could not be excluded as the father of Twin S, with a probability of paternity for this twin of 99.995%. A birth weight difference of 450 g and the evidence for additional sexual intercourses by the mother suggest the very rare event of a superfetation.

  3. Psychological adjustment to twins after infertility.

    PubMed

    Klock, Susan C

    2004-08-01

    The birth of twins and other multiples is physically and emotionally stressful. The increase in the use of the assisted reproductive technologies has lead to an exponential increase in the rates of twins and triplets in the US. Whereas the medical complications of twins and other multiples has been well studied, the psychological and social implications of these events has not. Very little empirical research has been conducted to assess the differential impact of twins, as compared to singletons, on maternal adjustment, postpartum depression and marital functioning. In addition, assessment of infant health, disposition and behavior and its relation to maternal adjustment is lacking. The birth of twins after a period of infertility complicates the clinical picture and the impact of infertility on subsequent parental adjustment is only beginning to be understood. Although research suggests that infertile couples often desire multiples, the experience of parenting multiples after infertility has not been studied. Research on fertile couples indicate that: (i) approximately 10% of women develop postpartum depression and; (ii) marital adjustment declines after the birth of the first child. Because of the unique demands of parenting multiples, it is hypothesized that mothers of twins who have a history of infertility would be at increased risk for depression and marital decline. Descriptive studies of these families support this view, although additional studies are needed to determine the degree and extent of the problem. Additionally, variables such as, prepregnancy adjustment, equitable division of child-care tasks and perceived social support should be studied to determine if they buffer against the expected effects.

  4. Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program annual report, 2012.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, Carl D; Roczo-Farkas, Susie; Bishop, Ruth F; Barnes, Graeme L

    2014-03-31

    This report from the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program, together with collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, describes the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 January to 31 December 2012. During the survey period, 1,300 faecal samples were referred to the centre for rotavirus G and P genotype analysis, and of these 748 were confirmed as rotavirus positive. A total of 491 specimens were collected from children under 5 years of age, while 257 were from older children and adults. Genotype analysis revealed that G1P[8] was the dominant type in this reporting period, identified in 35% of strains nationally. Genotype G2P[4] was the second most common strain nationally, representing 28% of samples, followed by genotype G12P[8] (23%). This represents the first report where G12P[8] strains are a major cause of disease in this community. Fluctuations in genotype distribution were also observed based on the vaccine type in use. Genotype G2P[4] was more common in states and territories using Rotarix while G1P[8] was more common in states using RotaTeq. This survey of rotavirus strains circulating in 2012 highlights the continued fluctuations in rotavirus genotypes, with an annual change in dominant genotypes as well as emergence of a previously rare genotype, suggesting a dynamic wild-type population.

  5. Twin heart with a fused atria and separate ventricles in conjoined twins

    PubMed Central

    Ambar, Sameer Suresh; Halkati, Prabhu C; Patted, Suresh V; Yavagal, ST

    2010-01-01

    One of the most interesting congenital malformations is that of conjoined twins. We report echocardiographic features of twin heart in dicephalus, tribrachius, dispinous, thoracoomphalopagus twin. It showed two hearts fused at atrial level. Right-sided heart had single atrial chamber with a single ventricle. A single great vessel, aorta, originated from it. Left-sided heart was well developed with two atria and two ventricles. There was a small mid muscular ventricular septal defect and a small patent ductus arteriosus. Great arteries had normal origins. PMID:21234207

  6. Needle twins and right-angled twins in minerals: comparison between experiment and theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salje, E.K.H.; Buckley, A.; Van Tendeloo, G.; Ishibashi, Y.; Nord, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    Transformation twinning in minerals forms isolated twin walls, intesecting walls with corner junctions, and wedge-shaped twins as elements of hierarchical patterns. When cut perpendicular to the twin walls, the twins have characteristic shapes, right-angled and needle-shaped wall traces, which can be observed by transmission electron microscopy or by optical microscopy. Theoretical geometries of wall shapes recently derived for strain-related systems should hold for most displacive and order-disorder type phase transitions: 1) right-angled twins show curved junctions; 2) needle-shaped twins contain flat wall segments near the needle tip if the elastic behaviour of the mineral is dominated by its anisotroyp; 3) additional bending forces and pinning effects lead to curved walls near the junction that make the needle tip appear more blunt. Bent right-angled twins were analyzed in Gd2(MoO4)3. Linear needle tips were found in WO3, [N(CH3)4]2.ZnBr4 CrAl, BiVO4, GdBa2Cu3O7, and PbZrO. Parabolic tips occur in K2Ba(NO2)4, and GeTe whereas exponential curvatures appear in BaTiO3, KSCN, Pb3(PO4)2, CaTiO3, alkali feldspars, YBa2Cu3O7, and MnAl. The size and shape of the twin microstructure relates to its formation during the phase transition and the subsequent annealing history. The mobility of the twin walls after formation depends not only on the thermal activation but also on the structure of the wall, which may be pinned to impurities on a favorable structural site. Depinnign energies are often large compared with thermal energies for diffusion. This leads to kinetic time scales for twin coarsening that are comparable to geological time scales. Therefore, transformation twins that exhibit needle domains not only indicate that the mineral underwent a structural phase transition but also contain information about its subsequent geological history.

  7. Conjoined twins: scientific cinema and Pavlovian physiology.

    PubMed

    Krementsov, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    Through the lens of a 1957 documentary film, "Neural and humoral factors in the regulation of bodily functions (research on conjoined twins)," produced by the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, this essay traces the entwined histories of Soviet physiology, studies of conjoined twins and scientific cinema. It examines the role of Ivan Pavlov and his students, including Leonid Voskresenkii, Dmitrii Fursikov and Petr Anokhin, in the development of "scientific film" as a particular cinematographic genre in Soviet Russia and explores numerous puzzles hidden behind the film's striking visuals.

  8. Partial siamese twin as potential organ donor

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Rakesh; Maheshwari, Ruchir; Srivastava, Aneesh; Sharma, Raj K.

    2010-01-01

    During evaluation of a partial Siamese twin for removal of nonviable parasitic part in an 8-year-old male child, a fully functional kidney was found. The functional status of the extra kidney was found to be within acceptable limits for the purpose of transplant, which was subsequently done in a 24-year-old patient with end-stage renal disease. The recipient is healthy 19 months after the surgery. The possibility of using organs from a partial Siamese twin makes this a unique case report. PMID:20877612

  9. Achondroplasia in female twins: surgical indications.

    PubMed

    Albisetti, Walter; Pedretti, Leopoldo; De Bartolomeo, Omar; Verdoni, Fabio; Memeo, Antonio

    2011-03-01

    Although in literature achondroplasia has been described profusely, reports on achondroplastic twins are limited. We present two cases of monozygotic female twins with achondroplasia, who underwent limb-lengthening surgical procedure with external fixation in the following five steps: tibia, femur, tibia; femur, homer. Both the cases presented a good limb length and an optimal correction of associated deformities after the treatment, fulfilling the indications. Surgical indications were mostly led by the axial deviations of the lower limbs, and the timing of the limb-lengthening procedures has been the same in both couples showing the importance of this aspect.

  10. Epicyclic Twin-Helix Ionization Cooling Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Vasiliy Morozov, Yaroslav Derbenev, A. Afanaciev, R.P. Johnson

    2011-04-01

    Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) is proposed as the final 6D cooling stage of a highluminosity muon collider. For the implementation of PIC, we earlier developed an epicyclic twin-helix channel with correlated behavior of the horizontal and vertical betatron motions and dispersion. We now insert absorber plates with short energy-recovering units located next to them at the appropriate locations in the twin-helix channel. We first demonstrate conventional ionization cooling in such a system with the optics uncorrelated. We then adjust the correlated optics state and induce a parametric resonance to study ionization cooling under the resonant condition.

  11. Seeing double: annular diaper rash in twins.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Lacy L; Manders, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of dichorionic, diamniotic twins who developed similar erythematous, annular, erosive plaques in the inguinal folds in the first few weeks of life that were refractory to topical antifungals and oral antibiotics. The twins were found to have high transaminase levels, antinuclear antibody positivity, and anti-SSS/Ro) and anti-SSB/La autoantibodies. The rash resolved without scarring by 7 months of age with the use of low-potency topical corticosteroids. We suggest that physicians consider neonatal lupus erythematosus in neonates with atypical eruptions occurring in sun-protected skin.

  12. Herceptin (trastuzumab) therapy in a twin pregnancy with associated oligohydramnios.

    PubMed

    Beale, Jennifer M A; Tuohy, Jeremy; McDowell, Simon J

    2009-07-01

    Herceptin (trastuzumab) is an adjuvant chemotherapy agent used in treatment of certain breast cancers. Limited information is available on the use of herceptin in pregnancy. This case is a twin pregnancy exposed to herceptin until 23 weeks' gestation. One twin had chronic renal failure develop, whereas the other twin did not.

  13. Marital Conflict and Conduct Problems in Children of Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, K. Paige; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2007-01-01

    The Children-of-Twins design was used to test whether associations between marital conflict frequency and conduct problems can be replicated within the children of discordant twin pairs. A sample of 2,051 children (age 14-39 years) of 1,045 twins was used to estimate the genetic and environmental influences on marital conflict and determine…

  14. MAGNETIC DOMAINS AND TWINNING IN ALPHA-IRON.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Alpha - iron is another instance of mimetic twinning in which an edifice formed by a group of twinned tetragonal crystals presents an appearance of...cubic symmetry. This confirms earlier suggestions that magnetic domains are crystallographic twins. Crystals of alpha - iron were grown in thin strips of

  15. Hardening by twin boundary during nanoindentation in nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Qu, Shaoxing; Zhou, Haofei

    2010-08-20

    The atomistic deformation processes of nanocrystals embedded with nanoscale twin boundaries during nanoindentation are studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Load-displacement curves are obtained and the hardening mechanisms associated with the nanoscale twin boundaries are revealed. Johnson's theoretical indentation model is adopted to estimate the elastic stage of the nanoindentation. In addition, twin boundary-mediated dislocation nucleation is observed and analyzed.

  16. A Multivariate Twin Study of Early Literacy in Japanese "Kana"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Kakihana, Shinichiro; Olson, Richard K.; DeFries, John C.; Byrne, Brian; Ando, Juko

    2013-01-01

    This first Japanese twin study of early literacy development investigated the extent to which genetic and environmental factors influence individual differences in prereading skills in 238 pairs of twins at 42 months of age. Twin pairs were individually tested on measures of phonological awareness, "kana" letter name/sound knowledge,…

  17. The twin condition and the couple effects on personality development.

    PubMed

    Zazzo, R

    1976-01-01

    Twin psychology has been studied to a very limited extent. Only few remarkable peculiarities of the twins' development are known for sure, such as delayed intellectual development, language retardation with frequent cryptophasia, difficulties and fragility of self consciousness, reduced sociability. These and other peculiarities may result from a number of different factors: biological, peculiar parental attitude, and especially the twin situation itself, the psychology of the twin as an individual being a function of the psychology of the twin pair. Twin peculiarities have for a long time been ignored. On the one hand, psychology ignored the couple reality (it was a "one-body" psychology), and on the other, the twin method classically postulated that twins are not atypical and may therefore be used as a test for the general population. As a matter of fact, twin psychology opens a new way to science. The twin situation may serve as a paradigm for the general study of the couple effect, namely, for the objective analysis of personality as a consequence of the relations between self and others. For certain traits of personality, it is already known that MZ twins brought-up together are significantly less similar than MZ twins brought-up apart. In fact, couple effects may mask or considerably reduce genetic factors.

  18. Australian trachoma surveillance annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Cowling, Carleigh S; Liu, Bette C; Snelling, Thomas L; Ward, James S; Kaldor, John M; Wilson, David P

    2016-06-30

    Australia remains the only developed country to have endemic levels of trachoma (a prevalence of 5% or greater among children) in some regions. Endemic trachoma in Australia is found predominantly in remote and very remote Aboriginal communities. The Australian Government funds the National Trachoma Surveillance and Reporting Unit to collate, analyse and report trachoma prevalence data and document trachoma control strategies in Australia through an annual surveillance report. This report presents data collected in 2013. Data are collected from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island communities designated at-risk for endemic trachoma within New South Wales, the Northern Territory, South Australia and Western Australia. The World Health Organization grading criteria were used to diagnose cases of trachoma in Aboriginal children, with jurisdictions focusing screening activities on the 5-9 years age group; but some children in the 1-4 and 10-14 years age groups were also screened. The prevalence of trachoma within a community was used to guide treatment strategies as a public health response. Aboriginal adults aged 40 years or over were screened for trichiasis. Screening coverage for the estimated population of children aged 5-9 years and adults aged 40 years or over in at-risk communities required to be screened in 2013 was 84% and 30%, respectively. There was a 4% prevalence of trachoma among children aged 5-9 years who were screened. Of communities screened, 50% were found to have no cases of active trachoma and 33% were found to have endemic levels of trachoma. Treatment was required in 75 at-risk communities screened. Treatment coverage for active cases and their contacts varied between jurisdictions from 79% to 100%. Trichiasis prevalence was 1% within the screened communities.

  19. Planets and satellites: tectonic twins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2015-10-01

    There are only three solid planet-satellite pairs in the Solar system: Earth -Moon, Mars -Phobos, Pluto - Charon. For the first two pairs tectonic analogies were shown and explained by moving them in one circumsolar orbit. As it is known from the wave planetology [3, 4, 6], "orbits make structures". For the third pair the same was stated as a prediction based on this fundamental rule. Global tectonic forms of wave origin appear in cosmic bodies because they move in keplerian orbits with periodically changing accelerations. Warping bodies waves have a stationary character and obeying wave harmonics lengths. Starting from the fundamental 2πR-long wave 1 making the ubiquitous tectonic dichotomy (two-face appearance) warping wave lengths descend along harmonics. Very prominent along with the wave 1 are waves 2 responsible for tectonic sectoring superimposed on the wave 1 segments. Practically all bodies have traces of shorter waves making numerous polygons (rings) often confused with impact craters. Earth and the Moon moving in one circumsolar orbit both are distorted by wave 1, wave 2 and wave 4 features aligned along extent tectonic lines [4, 5]. At Earth they are: Pacific Ocean (2πR-structure) and Indian Ocean (πR-structure) from both ends with Malay Archipelago (πR/4-structure) in the middle. At Moon they are: Procellarum Ocean (2πR) and SPA Basin (πR) from ends and Mare Orientale (πR/4) in the middle. A regular disposition is surprising. Both Oceans and Basin occur on opposite hemispheres, lying in the middle both ring structures occur in the boundary between two hemispheres and are of the same relative size. These triads stretch along lines parallel to the equator (Earth) and with the angle about 30 degrees to it (Moon) indicating at a different orientation of the rotation axes in the ancient time [2]. On the whole, one could speak about a "lunar mould" of Earth [5] (Fig. 1-3). Another tectonic twin is the pair Mars -Phobos. Both bodies sharing one

  20. Australian Literature in the Primary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Colleen, Ed.

    This book was designed to supply information on available resources in Australian children's literature and a tradition of teaching which incorporates the Australian experience in an inclusive manner. Essays and their authors consist of the following: (1) "Children's Books in Australia: Two Hundred Years of Social Life" (Maurice Saxby);…