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Sample records for adult bar patrons

  1. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Smoking Behavior Among Young Adult Bar Patrons

    PubMed Central

    Kalkhoran, Sara; Neilands, Torsten B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We described frequency of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among young adults patronizing bars and associations between SHS exposure, attitudes, and smoking behavior. Methods. We collected cross-sectional surveys from randomized time–location samples of bar patrons aged 18 to 26 years in San Diego, California, and Oklahoma City and Tulsa, Oklahoma, in 2010 to 2011. Multivariate logistic regression evaluated associations between SHS exposure, attitudes about dangers of SHS, susceptibility to smoking initiation among nonsmokers, and quit attempts among current smokers. Results. More than 80% of respondents reported past 7-day exposure to any SHS, and more than 70% reported exposure at a bar. Current smokers reported more SHS exposure in cars and their own homes than did nonsmokers. Among nonsmokers, SHS exposure was associated with susceptibility to initiation, but those who believed that SHS exposure is harmful were less susceptible. Belief that SHS is dangerous was associated with quit attempts among smokers. Conclusions. Smoke-free environments and education about the harms of SHS may decrease tobacco use among young adults who frequent bars, where they are heavily exposed to SHS. PMID:24028259

  2. Loose Cigarette Purchasing and Nondaily Smoking Among Young Adult Bar Patrons in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Guillory, Jamie; Johns, Michael; Farley, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined loose cigarette (loosie) purchasing behavior among young adult (aged 18–26 years) smokers at bars in New York City and factors associated with purchase and use. Methods. Between June and December 2013, we conducted cross-sectional surveys (n = 1916) in randomly selected bars and nightclubs. Using multivariable logistic regression models, we examined associations of loose cigarette purchasing and use with smoking frequency, price, social norms, cessation behaviors, and demographics. Results. Forty-five percent (n = 621) of nondaily smokers and 57% (n = 133) of daily smokers had ever purchased a loosie; 15% of nondaily smokers and 4% of daily smokers reported that their last cigarette was a loosie. Nondaily smokers who never smoked daily were more likely than were daily smokers to have last smoked a loosie (odds ratio = 7.27; 95% confidence interval = 2.35, 22.48). Quitting behaviors and perceived approval of smoking were associated with ever purchasing and recently smoking loosies. Conclusions. Loosie purchase and use is common among young adults, especially nondaily smokers. Smoking patterns and attitudes should be considered to reduce loose cigarette purchasing among young adults in New York City. PMID:25880951

  3. The Social Prioritization Index and Tobacco Use among Young Adult Bar Patrons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisha, Nadra E.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Holmes, Louisa M.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2016-01-01

    Social benefits likely play a role in young adult tobacco use. The Social Prioritization Index (SPI) was developed to measure the degree to which young adults place a great importance on their social lives. We examined the usefulness of this measure as a potential predictor of tobacco use controlling for demographics and tobacco-related attitudes.…

  4. Last Call: decreasing drunk driving among 21-34-year-old bar patrons.

    PubMed

    Rivara, Frederick P; Boisvert, Deanne; Relyea-Chew, Annemarie; Gomez, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Any effort to decrease the toll of drunk driving must include efforts directed at people who drink in bars, particularly young adults who use motor vehicles after drinking. We designed a multifaceted social marketing campaign, Last Call, to increase the use of designated drivers and safe rides homes among 21-34-year olds. There were three components to the intervention: (1) use of taxi stands to promote taxi use; (2) point-of-sale information to patrons at partner bars and (3) a mass media campaign to support the designated driver/safe ride home message. Among the heaviest drinkers, the programme significantly increased the use of designated drivers and increased the use of taxis by 63%.

  5. Feasibility and acceptability of a bar-based sexual risk reduction intervention for bar patrons in Tshwane, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Morojele, Neo K.; Kitleli, Naledi; Ngako, Kgalabi; Kekwaletswe, Connie T.; Nkosi, Sebenzile; Fritz, Katherine; Parry, Charles D.H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol consumption is a recognised risk factor for HIV infection. Alcohol serving establishments have been identified as appropriate venues in which to deliver HIV prevention interventions. This paper describes experiences and lessons learnt from implementing a combined HIV prevention intervention in bar settings in one city- and one township-based bar in Tshwane, South Africa. The intervention consisted of peer-led and brief intervention counselling sub-components. Thirty-nine bar patrons were recruited and trained, and delivered HIV and alcohol risk reduction activities to their peers as peer interventionists. At the same time, nine counsellors received training and visited the bars weekly to provide brief motivational interviewing counselling, advice, and referrals to the patrons of the bars. A responsible server sub-component that had also been planned was not delivered as it was not feasible to train the staff in the two participating bars. Over the eight-month period the counsellors were approached by and provided advice and counselling for alcohol and sexual risk-related problems to 111 bar patrons. The peer interventionists reported 1323 risk reduction interactions with their fellow bar patrons during the same period. The intervention was overall well received and suggests that bar patrons and servers can accept a myriad of intervention activities to reduce sexual risk behaviour within their drinking settings. However, HIV- and AIDS-related stigma hindered participation in certain intervention activities in some instances. The buy-in that we received from the relevant stakeholders (i.e. bar owners/managers and patrons, and the community at large) was an important contributor to the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. PMID:24750106

  6. A Cost Analysis of Web-Enhanced Training to Reduce Alcohol Sales to Intoxicated Bar Patrons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Timothy F.; Nederhoff, Dawn M.; Ecklund, Alexandra M.; Horvath, Keith J.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to document the development and testing costs of the Enhanced Alcohol Risk Management (eARM) intervention, a web enhanced training program to prevent alcohol sales to intoxicated bar patrons and to estimate its implementation costs in a "real world", non-research setting. Methods: Data for this…

  7. Observations from behind the bar: changing patrons' behaviours in response to smoke-free legislation in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Shona; Cameron, Jane; MacLean, Alice; Petticrew, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Background "Smoke-Free" legislation prohibiting smoking in all enclosed public places was introduced in March 2006. This qualitative study presents insights from bar workers about their observations of the changing social bar environment, changing patrons' behaviours and challenges bar workers have faced in managing smoke-free legislation. Methods Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted between November 2006 and January 2007 with a purposively-selected sample of bar workers, identified from a larger quantitative study evaluating the impact of the legislation in Scotland [the Bar Workers' Health and Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure project (BHETSE)]. Results Bar workers all spoke of the improvements the legislation had brought to their working lives and the greater comfort it appeared to offer patrons. Bar workers reported that patrons were generally quick to accept and comply with the new law, and that families had become a greater feature of pub life since the legislation. However, they expressed concerns that older men seemed to have had most difficulty adjusting to the legislation and lack of knowledge about the best practices they should adopt in order to reduce the risks of unattended drinks being spiked and of anti-social behaviour associated with patrons moving outside to smoke. Conclusion Smoke-free legislation is changing the social context of smoking in Scotland. Further research to assess the impact the legislation is having on older male smokers and on the incidence of drink spiking would be useful. More specifically, bar workers would benefit from guidance on how to manage issues arising from patrons moving outside to smoke. PMID:18625044

  8. A Critical Assessment of Bias in Survey Studies Using Location-Based Sampling to Recruit Patrons in Bars

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Christopher; Lee, Juliet P.; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Marzell, Miesha

    2015-01-01

    Location-based sampling is a method to obtain samples of people within ecological contexts relevant to specific public health outcomes. Random selection increases generalizability, however in some circumstances (such as surveying bar patrons) recruitment conditions increase risks of sample bias. We attempted to recruit representative samples of bars and patrons in six California cities, but low response rates precluded meaningful analysis. A systematic review of 24 similar studies revealed that none addressed the key shortcomings of our study. We recommend steps to improve studies that use location-based sampling: (i) purposively sample places of interest, (ii) utilize recruitment strategies appropriate to the environment, and (iii) provide full information on response rates at all levels of sampling. PMID:26574657

  9. Reducing intoxication among bar patrons: some lessons from prevention of drinking and driving.

    PubMed

    Graham, Kathryn; Miller, Peter; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Bellis, Mark A; Clapp, John D; Hughes, Karen; Toomey, Traci L; Wells, Samantha

    2014-05-01

    Intoxication in and around licensed premises continues to be common, despite widespread training in the responsible service of alcohol and laws prohibiting service to intoxicated individuals. However, research suggests that training and the existence of laws are unlikely to have an impact on intoxication without enforcement, and evidence from a number of countries indicates that laws prohibiting service to intoxicated individuals are rarely enforced. Enforcement is currently hampered by the lack of a standardized validated measure for defining intoxication clearly, a systematic approach to enforcement and the political will to address intoxication. We argue that adoption of key principles from successful interventions to prevent driving while intoxicated could be used to develop a model of consistent and sustainable enforcement. These principles include: applying validated and widely accepted criteria for defining when a person is 'intoxicated'; adopting a structure of enforceable consequences for violations; implementing procedures of unbiased enforcement; using publicity to ensure that there is a perceived high risk of being caught and punished; and developing the political will to support ongoing enforcement. Research can play a critical role in this process by: developing and validating criteria for defining intoxication based on observable behaviour; documenting the harms arising from intoxication, including risk curves associated with different levels of intoxication; estimating the policing, medical and social costs from intoxicated bar patrons; and conducting studies of the cost-effectiveness of different interventions to reduce intoxication.

  10. Drink Specials and the Intoxication Levels of Patrons Exiting College Bars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thombs, Dennis L.; Dodd, Virginia; Porkorny, Steven B.; Omli, Morrow R.; O'Mara, Ryan; Webb, Monica C.; Lacaci, Diana M.; Werch, Chad

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether drink specials independently increase patrons' risk of achieving a high level of intoxication upon exiting drinking establishments. Methods: In a campus community, data were collected from exiting patrons (N=291) via sidewalk interviews and breath tests on 6 nights of 2 consecutive semesters. Results: A…

  11. A cost analysis of web-enhanced training to reduce alcohol sales to intoxicated bar patrons

    PubMed Central

    Page, Timothy F.; Nederhoff, Dawn M.; Ecklund, Alexandra M.; Horvath, Keith J.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to document the development and testing costs of the Enhanced Alcohol Risk Management (eARM) intervention, a web enhanced training program to prevent alcohol sales to intoxicated bar patrons and to estimate its implementation costs in a “real world”, non-research setting. Methods Data for this study were obtained retrospectively from a randomized controlled trial of the eARM intervention, which was conducted across 15 communities in a Midwestern metropolitan area. Inputs and their costs were obtained from records maintained during the randomized controlled trial. Total development and testing costs were computed, and implementation costs were estimated with input from the research team. The average implementation cost per establishment was calculated by dividing the total estimated implementation cost by the number of establishments that participated in the study. This provides an estimate of the resources needed to support a broader dissemination of interventions such as eARM. Results Direct development and testing costs were $484,904. Including the University's overhead cost rate of 51 percent, total development and testing costs were $732,205. Total estimated implementation costs were $179,999 over a 12 month period. The average cost per establishment was $1,588. Conclusions Given the large damage liability awards faced by establishments that serve alcohol to drunk drivers, establishments or their insurance companies may be willing to pay the $1,588 estimated implementation cost in order to limit their exposure to these large damage awards. Therefore, making interventions such as eARM available could be an effective and sustainable policy for reducing alcohol-related incidents. PMID:27087708

  12. Social Branding to Decrease Smoking Among Young Adults in Bars

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for “hipster” young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. Methods. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. Results. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P < .001). There were significant interactions between hipster affiliation and alcohol use on smoking. Among hipster binge drinkers, the odds of daily smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30, 0.63) and nondaily smoking (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.42, 0.77) decreased significantly at follow-up 3. Binge drinking also decreased significantly at follow-up 3 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.78). Conclusions. Social Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons. PMID:24524502

  13. Assessment of risk for asthma initiation and cancer and heart disease deaths among patrons and servers due to secondhand smoke exposure in restaurants and bars

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ruiling; Bohac, David L; Gundel, Lara A; Hewett, Martha J; Apte, Michael G; Hammond, S Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite efforts to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), only 5% of the world's population enjoy smoke-free restaurants and bars. Methods Lifetime excess risk (LER) of cancer death, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) death and asthma initiation among non-smoking restaurant and bar servers and patrons in Minnesota and the US were estimated using weighted field measurements of SHS constituents in Minnesota, existing data on tobacco use and multiple dose-response models. Results A continuous approach estimated a LER of lung cancer death (LCD) of 18×10−6(95% CI 13 to 23×10−6) for patrons visiting only designated non-smoking sections, 80×10−6(95% CI 66 to 95×10−6) for patrons visiting only smoking venues/sections and 802×10−6(95% CI 658 to 936×10−6) for servers in smoking-permitted venues. An attributable-risk (exposed/non-exposed) approach estimated a similar LER of LCD, a LER of IHD death about 10−2 for non-smokers with average SHS exposure from all sources and a LER of asthma initiation about 5% for servers with SHS exposure at work only. These risks correspond to 214 LCDs and 3001 IHD deaths among the general non-smoking population and 1420 new asthma cases among non-smoking servers in the US each year due to SHS exposure in restaurants and bars alone. Conclusions Health risks for patrons and servers from SHS exposure in restaurants and bars alone are well above the acceptable level. Restaurants and bars should be a priority for governments’ effort to create smoke-free environments and should not be exempt from smoking bans. PMID:23407112

  14. Audiobook Format: A Patron's Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Kelly C.

    This study examines patron preference for abridged versus unabridged audiobooks, looking at patron usage over time and noting any changes in preference and why they occurred. A survey was conducted at the four branches of the Geauga County Public Library System (Geauga County, Ohio) with a random sample of adult patrons. Of the 274 surveys…

  15. Perceptions of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels among a sample of bar patrons with BrAC values of 0.08% or higher.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ryan J; Chaney, Beth H; Cremeens-Matthews, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen

    2016-09-01

    Breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) is a commonly used measure of alcohol intoxication. Because of the potential negative consequences of excessive alcohol consumption, it is important to examine how accurately intoxicated individuals can estimate their BrAC values, especially individuals over the legal BrAC driving threshold (i.e., 0.08%). To better understand perceptions of BrAC values among intoxicated individuals, this field study examined actual BrAC values and BrAC range estimates (0.08% and above, 0.02-0.07%, less than 0.02%) among a sample of bar patrons (N = 454) with BrAC levels at 0.08% or higher. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between actual BrAC values and perceived BrAC levels. We also examined whether the following demographic and drinking variables were associated with underestimating BrAC in this sample: gender, age, race, college student status, plans to get home, and hazardous drinking. Results indicated that the majority (60.4%) of participants underestimated their BrAC (i.e., less than 0.08%) and lower BrAC values correlated with underestimating BrAC ranges (p < .001, 95% CI[0.2, 0.6]). Further, females (p = .001, 95% CI[1.3, 3.3]) and participants under 21 (p = .039, 95% CI = 1.0, 2.6) were significantly more likely to estimate their BrAC to be less than 0.08%, which is concerning given that young (less than 21) intoxicated females are a group at high risk for sexual assault on college campuses. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Male circumcision, alcohol use and unprotected sex among patrons of bars and taverns in rural areas of North-West province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nkosi, Sebenzile; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Kekwaletswe, Connie T; Morojele, Neo K

    2015-01-01

    Strong research evidence has shown that medical male circumcision significantly reduces heterosexual HIV acquisition among men. However, its effectiveness is enhanced by behavioural factors such as condom use. Currently, little is known of unprotected sex associated with male circumcision (MC) among alcohol-drinking tavern-going men, or whether engagement in unprotected sex may differ between men who have been traditionally circumcised and those who have been medically circumcised. The study sought to determine the relative importance of alcohol consumption and MC as correlates of unprotected sex and to compare the risk of engaging in unprotected sex between traditionally circumcised and medically circumcised tavern-going men from two rural villages in North-West province, South Africa. Data from 314 adult men (≥18 years) were analysed. The men were recruited from four bars/taverns using systematic sampling. They responded to questions regarding their demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, circumcision status and method (where applicable), and engagement in unprotected sex. Descriptive analyses and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Age, education, relationship status, alcohol consumption and traditional male circumcision (TMC) were independently and significantly associated with unprotected sex. Specifically, probable alcohol dependence and traditional circumcision were independent risk factors for engaging in unprotected sex among tavern-going men. Traditionally circumcised men had a higher risk of engaging in unprotected sex than medically circumcised men. Interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption, encouraging protective behaviour among men who have undergone TMC, and increasing condom use are needed in bar/tavern settings. HIV prevention education must be urgently incorporated into TMC programmes.

  17. Problem Patron Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Marion, Comp.; And Others

    This document presents guidelines for handling disruptive behavior in the Schenectady County Public Library (New York). Specific responses are listed for dealing with questions about library selection policy and sudden patron illness or injury. Also listed are responses to problem situations involving angry or irate patrons, assault or physically…

  18. Ingestion of nutrition bars high in protein or carbohydrate does not impact 24-h energy intakes in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Trier, Catherine M; Johnston, Carol S

    2012-12-01

    Sales of nutrition bars increased almost 10-fold to $1.7billion over the past decade yet few studies have examined the impact of bar ingestion on dietary parameters. In this crossover trial, 24-h energy intakes were assessed in free-living college students ingesting a high-protein (HP, 280kcal) or a high-carbohydrate (HC, 260kcal) nutrition bar upon waking. Fifty-four students entered the trial, and 37 participants completed the three test days. Daily energy intakes ranged from 1752±99kcal for the non-intervention day to 1846±75 and 1891±110kcal for the days the HP and HC bars were consumed respectively (p=0.591). However, for individuals who reported high levels of physically activity (n=11), daily energy intakes increased significantly compared to the control day for the HC bar day (+45%; p=0.030) and HP bar day (+22%; p=0.038). Macro- and micro-nutrient intakes differed significantly across test days in the total sample mirroring the nutrient profile of the specific bars. These data suggest that young adults adjust caloric intakes appropriately following the ingestion of energy-dense nutrition bars over a 24-h period. Moreover, nutrition bars may represent a unique opportunity to favorably influence nutrient status of young adults.

  19. Services to Gay and Lesbian Patrons: Examining the Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Cal; Greenblatt, Ellen

    1992-01-01

    Discusses library services to gay and lesbian patrons. Topics addressed include heterosexist prejudices; information needs of gay and lesbian patrons; censorship; inadequate indexing of lesbian and gay materials; inappropriate subject headings; reviews of pertinent materials; interlibrary loan; and services to children and young adults. (LRW)

  20. Understanding Tobacco-Related Attitudes among College and Noncollege Young Adult Hookah and Cigarette Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Youn Ok; Bahreinifar, Sareh; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in tobacco-related attitudes and hookah and cigarette use among college and noncollege young adults. Participants: Time-location samples of young adult bar patrons in San Diego, California ("N" = 2,243), Tulsa ("N" = 2,095) and Oklahoma City ("N" = 2,200), Oklahoma, Albuquerque…

  1. Adults only: the prevalence of tobacco promotions in bars and clubs in the Boston area

    PubMed Central

    Biener, L; Nyman, A; Kline, R; Albers, A

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To document the nature and prevalence of tobacco promotions in bars and clubs in a major US city. Design: We conducted systematic observations in a representative sample of 38 establishments in the Boston area, half of which had been advertised in a tobacco company ad. We also observed seven events in six additional clubs hosting Camel Casbah promotions. Telephone interviews were later completed with club managers. Main outcome measure: Use of branded give-away items, distribution of free cigarette samples, managers' reports of costs and benefits of hosting promotions. Results: The majority of the 38 clubs were observed to use bar paraphernalia including matchbooks with tobacco brand logos, regardless of their history of appearing in tobacco sponsored ads. Free cigarette samples were not observed at any of the sampled clubs, but were a feature of every Casbah event. Managers of clubs in the advertised group were somewhat more likely to report having hosted promotions, but 44% of managers of non-advertised clubs indicated that tobacco promotions had occurred in their establishments in the past. Approximately one third of club managers viewed public links with a tobacco company as a negative feature of hosting promotions. Conclusions: Based on managers' reports, tobacco promotions occurred in more than 50% of the Boston area entertainment venues frequented by young adults. Cigarette companies should be required to inform the attorney general of plans to conduct promotions in adult-only venues to facilitate monitoring of compliance with the Master Settlement Agreement. The negative health and business consequences of hosting promotions should be communicated to bar owners. PMID:15564626

  2. Social Organization in Bars: Implications for Tobacco Control Policy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Juliet P.; Antin, Tamar M.J.; Moore, Roland S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers social roles and relationships of the patrons, staff and owners of bars as critical factors determining adherence to public health policies, and specifically California’s smokefree workplace law. Specific elements of social organization in bars affecting health policy include the community within which the bar is set, the unique identity the bar creates, the bar staff and patrons who enact this identity, and their bar society. These elements were found to contribute to the development of power relations within the bar and solidarity against the outside world, resulting in either resistance to or compliance with smokefree workplace policy. PMID:22522904

  3. Cultural Factors Related to Smoking in San Francisco's Irish Bars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Antin, Tamar M. J.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2009-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act was extended to include bars in 1998. While the majority of bars in the state have become smoke free, in many bars patrons and staff continue to smoke despite the law. The authors present findings from a study which assessed cultural factors related to continued smoking in bars in the city of San Francisco. In…

  4. The effect of three snack bars on glycemic response in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Carla K; Gabbay, Robert A; Dillon, Judith; Apgar, Joan; Miller, Debra

    2006-05-01

    Many consumers prefer convenient, portable, and preportioned snack foods. Foods with a lower glycemic response are associated with reduced risk for chronic disease. The glycemic index and glycemic load of three nationally available snack bars were determined. Ten subjects, with mean age (+/-standard deviation) of 29+/-7 years and mean body mass index (+/-standard deviation) of 25.3+/-3.2, were tested on four occasions on nonconsecutive days. After an overnight fast, subjects consumed 50 g of available carbohydrate as a glucose beverage or as a portion of one of three bars: SmartZone nutrition bar (The Hershey Co, Hershey, PA), ZonePerfect nutrition bar (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL), or SlimFast meal bar (SlimFast Foods Co, West Palm Beach, FL). Blood glucose was tested at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after consumption. Incremental area under the glucose response curve was calculated for each test bar and compared with that of the glucose beverage to determine glycemic index. The glycemic index (+/-standard error of the mean) for SmartZone was 10.9+/-3.9 and was significantly less (P<0.05) than that of ZonePerfect (43.7+/-7.3) or SlimFast (63.8+/-13.0). The glycemic loads (+/-standard error of the mean) for the SmartZone (2.0+/-0.7) and ZonePerfect (8.3+/-1.4) bars were significantly less (P<0.05) than the glycemic load of the SlimFast bar (21.1+/-4.3). Although the long-term impact of snack foods with a lower glycemic load requires further research, the SmartZone and ZonePerfect bars provide a lower glycemic response for consumers.

  5. Analysis of commode grab bar usage for the monitoring of older adults in the smart home environment.

    PubMed

    Arcelus, Amaya; Holtzman, Megan; Goubran, Rafik; Sveistrup, Heidi; Guitard, Paulette; Knoefel, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of falls inside the home is a common yet potentially hazardous issue for adults as they age. Even with the installation of physical aids such as grab bars, weight transfers on and off a toilet or bathtub can become increasingly difficult as a person's level of physical mobility and sense of balance deteriorate. Detecting this deterioration becomes an important goal in fall prevention within a smart home. This paper develops an unobtrusive method of analyzing the usage of toilet grab bars using pressure sensors embedded into the arm rests of a commode. Clinical parameters are successfully extracted automatically from a series of stand-to-sit (StSi) and sit-to-stand (SiSt) transfers performed by a trial group of young and older adults. A preliminary comparison of the parameters indicates differences between the two groups, and aligns well with published characteristics obtained using accelerometers worn on the body. The unobtrusive nature of this method provides a useful tool to be incorporated into a system of continuous monitoring of older adults within the smart home environment.

  6. High Bar Swing Performance in Novice Adults: Effects of Practice and Talent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busquets, Albert; Marina, Michel; Irurtia, Alfredo; Ranz, Daniel; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa M.

    2011-01-01

    An individual's a priori talent can affect movement performance during learning. Also, task requirements and motor-perceptual factors are critical to the learning process. This study describes changes in high bar swing performance after a 2-month practice period. Twenty-five novice participants were divided by a priori talent level…

  7. Bar and Club Tobacco Promotions in the Alternative Press: Targeting Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sepe, Edward; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated changes in tobacco promotions in two alternative newspapers in San Francisco and Philadelphia from 1994-99. Results indicated that the numbers of tobacco advertisements increased dramatically during those years. The tobacco industry increased its use of bars and clubs as promotional venues and used the alternative press to reach young…

  8. Empowering Library Patrons with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ravonne A.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the characteristics of patrons with learning disabilities (LD) and how these characteristics might affect library use. The lack of services for college patrons who have learning disabilities (LD) in this decade is much like the lack of adequate and appropriate services for high school patrons with LD in previous decades. The…

  9. Smoking spaces and practices in pubs, bars and clubs: young adults and the English smokefree legislation.

    PubMed

    Rooke, Catriona; Amos, Amanda; Highet, Gill; Hargreaves, Katrina

    2013-01-01

    Young adulthood is an important but overlooked period in the development of smoking behaviour. We know little about the impact of smokefree policies on this group. In a secondary analysis of longitudinal, qualitative interview data we explore smoking practices in young adulthood, the role of smoking in the spaces of the night-time economy, and the impact of smokefree legislation. Participants carefully managed their smoking in different spaces in relation to the self they wished to present. This was shaped by the transitional nature of young adulthood. Smoking played a role in constructing time-out periods from the demands of everyday life in a similar way to alcohol use. The restrictions imposed by the smokefree legislation quickly became normal for most; however, the experience of smoking was influenced by the nature and quality of smoking spaces. The re-spatialisation of smoking necessitated by the smokefree legislation may reaffirm processes of social denormalisation and stigmatisation of smoking, whilst simultaneously allowing young adult smokers to produce, in some contexts, a positive, fun, sociable smoker identity.

  10. Evaluating Patron Use of an Online Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Marilyn; Shupe, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Describes a study conducted to investigate patron use of the online catalog at New York's Nassau Community College. Provides findings related to the number and types of patrons using information terminals, time required for searches, preferred methods for learning to use the terminal, and the most common searches. (MAB)

  11. Schools and the Law: A Patron's Introspection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colton, Paul

    2009-01-01

    In Ireland, where education at both primary and second level is overwhelmingly denominational in character, patronage is exercised, in the main, by religious patrons. This article is an introspective analysis of current legal issues as they face one patron and schools under his patronage; it looks at the intersection of civil law with Church law;…

  12. An exploratory study of drug use in bar environments

    PubMed Central

    Trocki, Karen; Michalak, Laurence; McDaniel, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the characteristics of bars where drug use was observed compared to those where no drug use was observed. The study was done through a combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques gleaned through observations and interviews. Among the most important of indicators were the type of activity (particularly dancing) and the level of rowdiness evident in the bars. In addition drug use bars had higher levels of other types of rule-breaking. Patron characteristics (more men) and behavioral patterns (more sexual risk-taking) also distinguished these bars. PMID:25221431

  13. Long term compliance with California's Smoke-Free Workplace Law among bars and restaurants in Los Angeles County

    PubMed Central

    Weber, M; Bagwell, D; Fielding, J; Glantz, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess long term compliance with the California Smoke-Free Workplace Law in Los Angeles County freestanding bars and bar/restaurants. Design: Population based annual site inspection survey of a random sample of Los Angeles County freestanding bars and bar/restaurants was conducted from 1998 to 2002. Main outcome measures: The primary outcomes of interest were patron and employee smoking. The secondary outcomes of interest were the presence of ashtrays and designated outdoor smoking areas. Results: Significant increases in patron non-smoking compliance were found for freestanding bars (45.7% to 75.8%, p < 0.0001) and bar/restaurants (92.2% to 98.5%, p < 0.0001) between 1998 and 2002. Increases in employee non-smoking compliance were found for freestanding bars (86.2% to 94.7%, p < 0.0003) and bar/restaurants (96.5% to 99.2%, p < 0.005). Conclusions: This study provides clear evidence that the California Smoke-Free Workplace Law has been effective at reducing patron and employee smoking in Los Angeles County bars and restaurants. Recommendations include educational campaigns targeted to freestanding bar owners and staff to counter perceptions of lost revenue, more rigorous enforcement, and more severe penalties for repeat violators such as alcohol licence revocation. Policymakers can enact smoke-free restaurant and bar policies to protect employees and patrons from secondhand smoke, confident that these laws can be successfully implemented. PMID:12958386

  14. Can obviously intoxicated patrons still easily buy alcohol at on-premise establishments?

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, Traci L.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nederhoff, Dawn M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Ecklund, Alexandra M.; Horvath, Keith J.; Erickson, Darin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol consumption at licensed alcohol establishments (i.e., bars and restaurants) has been directly linked to alcohol-related problems such as traffic crashes and violence. Historically, alcohol establishments have had a high likelihood of selling alcohol to obviously intoxicated patrons (also referred to as “overservice”) despite laws prohibiting these sales. Given the risks associated with overservice and the need for up-to-date data, it is critical that we monitor the likelihood of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons. Methods To assess the current likelihood of a licensed alcohol establishment selling alcohol to an obviously intoxicated patron, we conducted pseudo-intoxicated purchase attempts (i.e., actors attempt to purchase alcohol while acting out obvious signs of intoxication) at 340 establishments in one Midwestern metropolitan area. We also measured characteristics of the establishments, the pseudo-intoxicated patrons, the servers, the managers, and the neighborhoods to assess whether these characteristics were associated with likelihood of sales of obviously intoxicated patrons. We assessed these associations with bivariate and multivariate regression models. Results Pseudo-intoxicated buyers were able to purchase alcohol at 82% of the establishments. In the fully adjusted multivariate regression model, only one of the characteristics we assessed was significantly associated with likelihood of selling to intoxicated patrons–establishments owned by a corporate entity had 3.6 greater odds of selling alcohol to a pseudo-intoxicated buyer compared to independently-owned establishments. Discussion Given the risks associated with overservice of alcohol, more resources should be devoted first to identify effective interventions for decreasing overservice of alcohol and then to educate practitioners who are working in their communities to address this public health problem. PMID:26891204

  15. Computer Training for Staff and Patrons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krissoff, Alan; Konrad, Lee

    1998-01-01

    Describes a pilot computer training program for library staff and patrons at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Reviews components of effective training programs and highlights core computer competencies: operating systems, hardware and software basics and troubleshooting, and search concepts and techniques. Includes an instructional outline and…

  16. Using Text Messages to Communicate with Patrons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konshak, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Text messaging is an ideal communications method for libraries, which often want to send short, concise messages to their patrons near and far. Uses for text messaging in libraries include reminders about items' due dates, hold pickup notices, program reminders, and even short messages of content. Some libraries are already using text messaging…

  17. Head First into the Patron-Driven Acquisition Pool: A Comparison of Librarian Selections versus Patron Purchases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Lisa; Cassidy, Erin Dorris; Elmore, Eric; Griffin, Glenda; Manolovitz, Tyler; Martinez, Michelle; Turney, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    Although many recent studies have been conducted on the implementation and results of patron-driven acquisition (PDA) initiatives at academic libraries, very few have focused on whether, or how, patrons' selections vary from selection choices librarians would have made. This study compares titles selected by patrons during a PDA pilot program…

  18. Exemptions for hookah bars in clean indoor air legislation: a public health concern.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Devon

    2010-01-01

    Popularity of waterpipe smoking or hookah smoking in the United States has been growing for some time now among youth and young adults. Currently, many cities and states have exemptions that allow hookah bars to remain in operation despite the passage of clean indoor air legislation. From a public health perspective this is concerning for many reasons. One public health concern with the increase in popularity of this type of tobacco use is the associated health effects. Another concern is that hookah smoke produces a sweet smelling aroma making it less obvious that patrons and employees of hookah bars are inhaling noxious fumes from mainstream smoke, as well as the toxins from the charcoal that is used to heat the tobacco. The purpose of this paper is to discuss smoke-free air legislation in relation to hookah use, the public health implications of exempting hookah bars from current smoke-free legislation, and implications for the public health nurse in protecting the public from the dangers of second-hand smoke, and limiting this new form of tobacco use.

  19. The influence of marijuana and alcohol use on condom use behavior: findings from a sample of young adult female bar drinkers.

    PubMed

    Parks, Kathleen A; Collins, R Lorraine; Derrick, Jaye L

    2012-12-01

    Prevalence data indicate that alcohol and marijuana are frequently used intoxicants among young adults in the United States. In a number of studies, both alcohol use and marijuana use have been associated with failure to use condoms, a high-risk sexual behavior. The purpose of the current study was to assess the individual and additive effects of alcohol and marijuana use on this risky sexual behavior among 251 young adult, female bar drinkers. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the likelihood of condom use during sexual events that occurred as a function of substance use (none, only alcohol, only marijuana, or both) prior to and partner type (known or casual) during the event, as well as individual differences in sexual assertiveness. Initial model testing (Levels 1 and 2) revealed that there were significant main effects for partner type (known), substance use (alcohol and marijuana) and sexual assertiveness (refusal, pregnancy/STI prevention) on risky sex. Final model testing indicated that sexual assertiveness interacted with substance use to influence risky sex. Women who were low in sexual assertiveness refusal were more likely to engage in risky sex on days when they had consumed both alcohol and marijuana prior to the sexual activity. These findings highlight the complex nature of the relationship between substance use and risky sex.

  20. Identification of singles bar as a direct transcriptional target of Drosophila Myocyte enhancer factor-2 and a regulator of adult myoblast fusion.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Tonya M; Fremin, Brayon J; Cripps, Richard M

    2015-05-15

    In Drosophila, myoblast fusion is a conserved process in which founder cells (FCs) and fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fuse to form a syncytial muscle fiber. Mutants for the myogenic regulator Myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) show a failure of myoblast fusion, indicating that MEF2 regulates the fusion process. Indeed, chromatin immunoprecipitation studies show that several genes involved in myoblast fusion are bound by MEF2 during embryogenesis. Of these, the MARVEL domain gene singles bar (sing), is down-regulated in MEF2 knockdown pupae, and has five consensus MEF2 binding sites within a 9000-bp region. To determine if MEF2 is an essential and direct regulator of sing during pupal muscle development, we identified a 315-bp myoblast enhancer of sing. This enhancer was active during myoblast fusion, and mutation of two MEF2 sites significantly decreased enhancer activity. We show that lack of sing expression resulted in adult lethality and muscle loss, due to a failure of fusion during the pupal stage. Additionally, we sought to determine if sing was required in either FCs or FCMs to support fusion. Interestingly, knockdown of sing in either population did not significantly affect fusion, however, knockdown in both FCs and FCMs resulted in muscles with significantly reduced nuclei numbers, provisionally indicating that sing function is required in either cell type, but not both. Finally, we found that MEF2 regulated sing expression at the embryonic stage through the same 315-bp enhancer, indicating that sing is a MEF2 target at both critical stages of myoblast fusion. Our studies define for the first time how MEF2 directly controls fusion at multiple stages of the life cycle, and provide further evidence that the mechanisms of fusion characterized in Drosophila embryos is also used in the formation of the more complex adult muscles.

  1. Sir Thomas Brisbane - Patron of Colonial Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Peter J.

    British Army office Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane was sworn in as Governor of New South Wales on 1 December 1821. His appointment allowed him to pursue his plans for astronomical observations of the southern sky by setting up an observatory near his residence at Government House Parramatta. He also joined the Philosophical Society of Australasia and became Patron of the newly formed Agricultural Society of New South Wales. These societies were the precursors of many important later professional bodies, so that Brisbane's connection with them represents his most important contribution to Australian science.

  2. Mars by Way of Storytellers and Patrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polk, C.

    A business model is presented in which space-themed entertainment and educational media are harnessed to the goal of designing and financing the establishment of a self-sustaining Mars outpost. The model draws from two precedents: (i) The National Geographic Society's use of media sales to fund research and (ii) the historical role of patrons in the process of creativity. These precedents are combined in an international non-governmental organization (INGO) that is governed by the individuals who participate in the media businesses branded by the INGO - these individuals constitute a patron base of several tens of millions. Requiring only modest penetration into global media markets, expenditures of USD 5 billion per year (in 2008 dollars) can commence in 2025 and continue at an accelerating rate until the Mars outpost is established. The financing approach utilized, combined with a decision authority that is free to consider a broad range of solutions, will advance the technical state-of-the-art and result in an Earth-Mars infrastructure capable of expanding the initial Mars outpost into humanity's first second home.

  3. Assistive Technologies for Library Patrons with Visual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunrich, Matthew; Green, Ravonne

    2007-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the various products available for library patrons with blindness or visual impairments. To provide some insight into the status of library services for patrons with blindness, a sample of American universities that are recognized for their programs for students with visual impairments was surveyed to discern…

  4. The Higher Power of Patron: Profile of Newbery Winner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleck, Joan

    2007-01-01

    One lousy starred review. That was all, initially, that Susan Patron had to show for the 10 years she spent writing "The Higher Power of Lucky," her funny, tender story of a little girl struggling to gain control over her life. One star, from "Kirkus Reviews," for the heart and soul Patron poured into her second novel. Positive notices had…

  5. The Problem Patron: Is There One in Your Library?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chattoo, Calmer D.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the history of problem patrons in libraries and explains various types of problem patrons and their identifying behavior. Highlights include senior citizens; technology-created problems, such as users with cell phones; eccentric behavior; non-compliance with library rules; harassment; intentional bad behavior such as theft; and problems…

  6. Anonymity versus Perceived Patron Identity in Virtual Reference Transcripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Kristin Grabarek; Sobel, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Librarians who provide virtual reference services often perceive that their patrons self-identify to some degree, even when transactions are anonymous. They also develop a sense of patrons' greatest research-related needs over time. In this article, two librarians analyze two years' worth of virtual reference transcripts to determine what patrons…

  7. CULTURAL FACTORS RELATED TO SMOKING IN SAN FRANCISCO’S IRISH BARS

    PubMed Central

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Antin, Tamar M.J.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2009-01-01

    California’s Smoke-Free Workplace Act was extended to include bars in 1998. While the majority of bars in the state have become smoke free, in many bars patrons and staff continue to smoke despite the law. The authors present findings from a study which assessed cultural factors related to continued smoking in bars in the city of San Francisco. In bars serving primarily Irish migrants, tight-knit relations within the local Irish bar community together with a reluctance to be the first Irish bar to ban smoking were found to contribute to continued indoor smoking. The findings illustrate challenges to implementing tobacco control policies within ethnic subpopulations and particularly highlight the importance of considering how cultural dynamics within subpopulations may help or hinder such policies. PMID:19999704

  8. Reflections on the Development of Patron-Client Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melick-Barthelmess, Karin

    1985-01-01

    The development of the institution of clientage is traced from ancient Rome to modern times. The patron-client relationships in the hierarchical nature of society and institutions in Spain and Latin America are specifically examined. (RM)

  9. Changes in Smoking-Related Norms in Bars Resulting from California’s Smoke-Free Workplace Act*

    PubMed Central

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2013-01-01

    California’s Smoke-Free Workplace Act— CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)—was extended to bars in 1998. This paper analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive observations and interviews with bar staff and patrons, health officials, and law enforcement personnel in three California counties. Smoking outside became a normal pause in the social environment and created a new type of bar socializing for outside smokers. Although some bar owners and staff reported initially resenting the responsibility to uphold the law, once norms regarding cigarettes and smoking began changing, bar workers experienced less conflict in upholding the law. Non-smoking behavior within bars also became the normative behavior for bar patrons. California’s Smoke-Free Workplace Act has both reflected and encouraged normative beliefs and behaviors related to smoking in bars. The findings indicate that such shifts are possible even in contexts where smoking behaviors and attitudes supporting smoking were deeply entrenched. Recommendations include attending to the synergistic effect of education and policy in effective tobacco control programs. PMID:23705511

  10. Using nutrition labeling as a potential tool for changing eating habits of university dining hall patrons.

    PubMed

    Driskell, Judy A; Schake, Marian C; Detter, Hillary A

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the influence of the nutritional labeling Nutrition Bytes on the eating habits of adults eating in dining halls at a Midwestern university and to assess differences between sexes. Dining hall patrons (114 men, 91 women) 19 years of age or older voluntarily completed a descriptive 15-item written questionnaire that examined the use and nonuse of Nutrition Bytes, which contains much of the information included in the Nutrition Facts label. A significantly higher percentage of women than men patrons reported currently using Nutrition Bytes labels (P<0.001). Predominant reasons for using Nutrition Bytes labels were: general knowledge, concern about overall health, calorie counting, and concern about a certain nutrient(s). Predominant reasons given for not using Nutrition Bytes labels were: will not change my mind about food items selected and not enough time. Reasons given by men and women for using or not using Nutrition Bytes labels were similar. Significantly higher percentages of women than men using Nutrition Bytes labels indicated being interested in having serving sizes (P<0.005) and ingredients (P<0.0005) listed, whereas higher percentages of men than women indicated being interested in having protein listed (P<0.05). The percentages of users who indicated nearly always and sometimes changing their food choices after reading Nutrition Bytes labels inside the dining halls were 12% and 80%, respectively, whereas 23% and 65%, respectively, indicated changing their food choices after reading the nutrition label when eating outside the dining halls. Nutrition Bytes labeling seemed to positively impact food choices of these adult dining hall patrons, and likely would do so at other dining halls.

  11. Strategic Responses to Demographic Changes: Students, Faculty, and Patrons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Robert A.

    Demographic changes affecting college students, faculty, and patrons and responses to the changes are considered. For each of the three groups, attention is directed to factors influencing change within and outside the campus, options available to the campus, and strategies for responding to the demographic changes. To recruit new full-time…

  12. Library Service to Spanish Speaking Patrons: A Practical Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Sharon Chickering

    This book is a guide for librarians and media specialists who recognize the value of bilingual-bicultural education and are looking for ideas to develop library services for their Spanish-speaking patrons. Chapter one gives a brief history of Spanish-speaking people in the United States, as well as cultural characteristics, family role,…

  13. Training for Library Patrons Who Are Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Cordelia

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of library patrons are hard of hearing. The U.S. Bureau of Census projected that 35 million North Americans would suffer from hearing loss by the year 2005 based on the age-population projections. These individuals would have at one time been labeled as deaf due to the lack of assistive hearing technology such as hearing aids…

  14. RSS Made Easy with Engaged Patrons and Yahoo! Pipes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widner, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Jasper County Public Library in Indiana had started using EngagedPatrons.org (EP) in 2007. EP is a low-cost technology solution providing online events calendars, RSS feeds, database support, and other web services to connect libraries to their users. It was created in 2006 by Glenn Peterson, who also designs the feature-rich websites for…

  15. Include Your Patrons in Web Design. Computers in Small Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Successful Web publishing requires not only technical skills but also a refined sense of taste, a good understanding of design, and strong writing abilities. When designing a library Web page, a person must possess all of these talents and be able to market to a broad spectrum of patrons. As a result, library sites vary widely in their style and…

  16. Method of transportation and drinking among club patrons

    PubMed Central

    Bourdeau, Beth; Miller, Brenda A.; Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The current study examines the variation in alcohol use among nightclub patrons under three transportation conditions: those who departed from a club using modes of transportation other than cars or motorcycles (e.g., pedestrians, bicyclists, subway riders); those who were passengers of drivers (auto/taxi passenger patrons); and those who drove from the club (driving patrons). We seek to determine whether patrons' choice for how to leave the club contributes to their risk, as assessed by blood alcohol concentrations (BAC), after controlling for other factors that may contribute to their BAC including demographic characteristics and social drinking group influences. Methods Data were collected from social drinking groups as they entered and exited clubs for 71 different evenings at ten clubs from 2010 through 2012. Using portal methodology, a research site was established proximal to club entrances. Each individual participant provided data on themselves and others in their group. The present analyses are based upon 1833 individuals who completed both entrance and exit data. Our outcome variable is blood alcohol content (BAC) based upon breath tests attained from patrons at entrance and exit from the club. Independent variables include method of transportation, social group characteristics, drug use, and personal characteristics. We use step-wise multiple regressions to predict entrance BAC, change in BAC from entrance to exit, and exit BAC: first entering individual demographic characteristics, then entering group characteristics, then drug use, and finally entering method of transportation (two dummy coded variables such that drivers are the referent category). Results In sum, in all three of our analyses, only three variables are consistently predictive of BAC: presence of a group member who is frequently drunk and non-driving modes of transportation, either being the passenger or taking alternate methods of transportation. In particular, taking an

  17. Bar Codes for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Erwin

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of standards for bar codes (series of printed lines and spaces that represent numbers, symbols, and/or letters of alphabet) and describes the two types most frequently adopted by libraries--Code-A-Bar and CODE 39. Format of the codes is illustrated. Six references and definitions of terminology are appended. (EJS)

  18. The Reliability of Naturalistic Observations of Social, Physical and Economic Environments of Bars.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Christopher; Lee, Juliet P; Gruenewald, Paul J; Mair, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Drinking in bars contributes to numerous public health problems, including violence and motor vehicle crashes. In order to formulate effective preventive interventions it is essential to identify which specific features of bar environments are related to increased risks. Unobtrusive ethnographic observations are one approach that has been used to characterize these features; however no studies have assessed reliability in a representative sample of bars. We performed brief scouting assessments in all 165 bars in six purposively selected California cities, followed by unobtrusive observations from a subsequent representative sample of 97 bars which were located in low and high bar density areas of the cities. Inter-rater reliability between two independent observers assessed individual item reliability, and principal components analyses assessed the reliability of a series of scales describing the physical, social, and economic characteristics of the bars. For the scouting assessment, items exhibited at least moderate reliability (κ or r ≥ 0.40). For the unobtrusive observations, items assessing physical and economic environments (e.g., pool table present, κ = 0.90; index beer cost, r = 0.82) had moderate to outstanding reliability (κ or r > 0.80). Items describing the social environment generally had poorer reliability, though group aspects (e.g., patron count, r = 0.78; patron circulation, r = 0.64) had better reliability than individual behaviors (e.g., derogatory speech, κ = 0.12). Scales constructed from specific sets of items exhibited modest reliability. The individual metrics and principal components we present will enable future studies seeking to disaggregate relationships between bar characteristics and public health problems.

  19. The Reliability of Naturalistic Observations of Social, Physical and Economic Environments of Bars

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Christopher; Lee, Juliet P.; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Mair, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Drinking in bars contributes to numerous public health problems, including violence and motor vehicle crashes. In order to formulate effective preventive interventions it is essential to identify which specific features of bar environments are related to increased risks. Unobtrusive ethnographic observations are one approach that has been used to characterize these features; however no studies have assessed reliability in a representative sample of bars. We performed brief scouting assessments in all 165 bars in six purposively selected California cities, followed by unobtrusive observations from a subsequent representative sample of 97 bars which were located in low and high bar density areas of the cities. Inter-rater reliability between two independent observers assessed individual item reliability, and principal components analyses assessed the reliability of a series of scales describing the physical, social, and economic characteristics of the bars. For the scouting assessment, items exhibited at least moderate reliability (κ or r ≥ 0.40). For the unobtrusive observations, items assessing physical and economic environments (e.g., pool table present, κ = 0.90; index beer cost, r = 0.82) had moderate to outstanding reliability (κ or r > 0.80). Items describing the social environment generally had poorer reliability, though group aspects (e.g., patron count, r = 0.78; patron circulation, r = 0.64) had better reliability than individual behaviors (e.g., derogatory speech, κ = 0.12). Scales constructed from specific sets of items exhibited modest reliability. The individual metrics and principal components we present will enable future studies seeking to disaggregate relationships between bar characteristics and public health problems. PMID:27695393

  20. Public Library Programming for Young Adults: Frill or Necessity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedak, Maria

    1978-01-01

    Argues that libraries have a social responsibility toward their patrons, and that the public library can and should provide a positive, supportive role for young adults in their development toward independence. (JD)

  1. Mass modeling for bars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1987-01-01

    Methods of modeling mass for bars are surveyed. A method for extending John Archer's concept of consistent mass beyond just translational inertia effects is included. Recommendations are given for various types of modeling situations.

  2. Short Nuss bar procedure

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Nuss procedure is now the preferred operation for surgical correction of pectus excavatum (PE). It is a minimally invasive technique, whereby one to three curved metal bars are inserted behind the sternum in order to push it into a normal position. The bars are left in situ for three years and then removed. This procedure significantly improves quality of life and, in most cases, also improves cardiac performance. Previously, the modified Ravitch procedure was used with resection of cartilage and the use of posterior support. This article details the new modified Nuss procedure, which requires the use of shorter bars than specified by the original technique. This technique facilitates the operation as the bar may be guided manually through the chest wall and no additional stabilizing sutures are necessary. PMID:27747185

  3. Jackson Bar Training Structure Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    sediment model was used to simulate hydraulic conditions at Jackson Bar, located on the Black Warrior-Tombigbee Waterway (BWT) in the vicinity of...1 Figure 2. November 2003 dredge cut at Jackson Bar, with RM shown in black ...at Jackson Bar, located on the Black Warrior-Tombigbee Waterway (BWT) in the vicinity of Jackson, AL. Jackson Bar, a sand bar, is located on the

  4. Toll Bar on Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Dave

    2008-01-01

    In the summer of 2007 the United Kingdom experienced some of the heaviest rainfall since records began. Toll Bar in South Yorkshire featured prominently in media coverage as the village and the homes surrounding it began to flood. Many people lost everything: their homes, their furniture, their possessions. In an effort to come to terms with what…

  5. Breaking through the Bar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Katti

    2011-01-01

    Howard University School of Law had a problem, and school officials knew it. Over a 20-year period, 40 percent of its graduates who took the Maryland bar exam failed it on their first try. During the next 24 months--the time frame required to determine its "eventual pass rate"--almost 90 percent of the students did pass. What they did…

  6. Patron Behavior in Libraries: A Handbook of Positive Approaches to Negative Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Beth; Johnson, Denise J.

    This book provides strategies for dealing with negative patron behavior in the library and presents guidelines for identifying and effectively responding to, as well as preventing a variety of behavior problems. Fifteen librarians wrote the thirteen chapters, which are divided into three sections. Part 1 deals with patrons who pose the most…

  7. Primed for Patron-Driven Acquisition: A Look at the Big Picture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Candice

    2012-01-01

    The development of patron-driven acquisition (PDA) as a viable collections practice is encouraging many academic libraries to be proactive about sharing significant collection development responsibilities with their patrons. The adoption of PDA represents a challenge to some long-held understandings about libraries and collections, however, and…

  8. Considering FERPA Requirements for Library Patron Databases within a Consortial Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Astrid; Prosser, Eric; Chittenden, Lloyd

    2016-01-01

    This case study examines patron record privacy and the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) within a consortial environment. FERPA requirements were examined, as well as college and library policy and procedure. It was determined that information in library patron records is directory information and, under most circumstances, does…

  9. The Customer Is Always Right: What the Business World Can Teach Us about Problem Patrons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Rebecca

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of problem patrons in libraries focuses on how businesses handle customer complaints, namely regarding them as opportunities to improve customer service and satisfaction. Suggests libraries need to provide channels for patrons to make complaints, follow up on them, and train staff to deal with user dissatisfaction. (Author/LRW)

  10. Library Catalog Log Analysis in E-Book Patron-Driven Acquisitions (PDA): A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbano, Cristóbal; Zhang, Yin; Downey, Kay; Klingler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Patron-Driven Acquisitions (PDA) is a new model used for e-book acquisition by academic libraries. A key component of this model is to make records of ebooks available in a library catalog and let actual patron usage decide whether or not an item is purchased. However, there has been a lack of research examining the role of the library catalog as…

  11. Measurements of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar and vertical bar Vub vertical bar at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Rotondo, M.

    2005-10-12

    We report results from the BABAR Collaboration on the semileptonic B decays, highlighting the measurements of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements Vub and Vcb. We describe the techniques used to obtain the matrix element |Vcb| using the measurement of the inclusive B {yields} Xclv process and a large sample of exclusive B {yields} D*lv decays. The vertical bar Vub vertical bar matrix elements has been measured studying different kinematic variables of the B {yields} Xulv process, and also with the exclusive reconstruction of B {yields} {pi}({rho})lv decays.

  12. Membrane biology: fission behind BARs.

    PubMed

    Haucke, Volker

    2012-06-05

    Membrane bending is accomplished in part by amphipathic helix insertion into the bilayer and the assembly of BAR domain scaffolds preparing the membrane for fission. Two recent studies highlight the roles of amphipathic helices and BAR scaffolds in membrane fission and establish the structural basis of membrane bending by the N-BAR protein endophilin.

  13. Dark matter trapping by stellar bars: the shadow bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Michael S.; Weinberg, Martin D.; Katz, Neal

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the complex interactions between the stellar disc and the dark-matter halo during bar formation and evolution using N-body simulations with fine temporal resolution and optimally chosen spatial resolution. We find that the forming stellar bar traps dark matter in the vicinity of the stellar bar into bar-supporting orbits. We call this feature the shadow bar. The shadow bar modifies both the location and magnitude of the angular momentum transfer between the disc and dark matter halo and adds 10 per cent to the mass of the stellar bar over 4 Gyr. The shadow bar is potentially observable by its density and velocity signature in spheroid stars and by direct dark matter detection experiments. Numerical tests demonstrate that the shadow bar can diminish the rate of angular momentum transport from the bar to the dark matter halo by more than a factor of 3 over the rate predicted by dynamical friction with an untrapped dark halo, and thus provides a possible physical explanation for the observed prevalence of fast bars in nature.

  14. [Patron saints and Christian perception of health and illness].

    PubMed

    Spehar, Milan

    2012-01-01

    As a religion based on the teaching of Jesus Christ, from the outset Christianity has developed a completely different attitude toward health and illness than the Old Testament. Health and illness are now viewed through the eyes of Jesus Christ the redeemer, who accepted each and every man. The history of Christianity has had its episodes of masochistic attitude toward illness, but today it clearly underscores the need to fight it with any means available, but it also teaches to accept what can not be changed. Saints are often patrons against diseases they had to endure. However, this is not their main role. To this day many seem to miss the main point their heritage, but see them as miracle healers. This misperception of miracle needs revising as well as the simplistic interpretation of the healing powers of relics (viewed as a demiurge of sort) and of the private vows and votive offerings.

  15. Strained graphene Hall bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanović, S. P.; Peeters, F. M.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of strain, induced by a Gaussian bump, on the magnetic field dependent transport properties of a graphene Hall bar are investigated. The numerical simulations are performed using both classical and quantum mechanical transport theory and we found that both approaches exhibit similar characteristic features. The effects of the Gaussian bump are manifested by a decrease of the bend resistance, R B, around zero-magnetic field and the occurrence of side-peaks in R B. These features are explained as a consequence of bump-assisted scattering of electrons towards different terminals of the Hall bar. Using these features we are able to give an estimate of the size of the bump. Additional oscillations in R B are found in the quantum description that are due to the population/depopulation of Landau levels. The bump has a minor influence on the Hall resistance even for very high values of the pseudo-magnetic field. When the bump is placed outside the center of the Hall bar valley polarized electrons can be collected in the leads.

  16. Bar coded retroreflective target

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    2000-01-01

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  17. [Neurohagiography. Lamberto Caesaraugustanus, the cephalophoric: holy patron of Spanish neurology?].

    PubMed

    Martín, A; Fernández-Armayor, V; Moreno, J M; Bustamante, C

    2002-10-01

    Until now Neurology has lacked a patron saint who, taking the most advantage of the rich cultural tradition inherited from our past and independently of the religious ideology of each one, can be helpful approach in the neurologist figure to different people. An Ad Hoc Committee from the Neurology History Study Group of the SEN has researched the medical hagiography with any kind of neurological relationship (neurohagiography), in order to make a hagiography study of every saint related to our speciality, with the added luck of proposing a patron for Neurology with hispanic origin. In this pioneer study of historiographic research different documents related with the medical hagiography have been studied, especially the Index ac Status Causarum, and information coming from different national ecclesiastic archives. A total of 342 saints share the patronage of 137 diseases, of which a 27,7% are related in some way to Neurology. Headache constitutes the prime cause of the invocations, with 20 saints. Another 11 saints plead for epilepsy; to these we also must add another six for so called possessed patients. Therefore, two of the three main causes of invocation (headache, fever and epilepsy) come up to chronic processes. Of all the saints with a hispanic origin candidates to the patronage of the neurologists San Lamberto Caesaraugustanus stands out, who died in the year 303 during Diocletian persecution. Belonging to the selected standing of "cephalophoric martyrs" (those beheahed who carry their own head in their hands), he was able to walk an important distance (about six kilometres) with his head split from the body, a fact only understood as a suprahuman phenomenon thanks to which he has becomes the brain transplant pioneer.

  18. Restaurant menu labeling: impact of nutrition information on entree sales and patron attitudes.

    PubMed

    Albright, C L; Flora, J A; Fortmann, S P

    1990-01-01

    This study examined changes in sales of low fat/low cholesterol foods targeted in a restaurant menu labeling program. Sales of labeled items were tracked before and after the program was introduced, and a subsample of patrons were surveyed for information on visibility and comprehension of the menu labels. Two of the four restaurants had significant increases in the sales of targeted foods following labeling. Comparisons between patrons dining in restaurants which had an increase in sales (I--increase restaurants) to those dining in restaurants which had no overall shift in sales (NI--no increase restaurants) revealed no differences in patron awareness or comprehension of the menu labels. There were age and gender differences between I and NI restaurants, with I restaurants having proportionally more males, and a younger clientele. Taste was the primary reason given by patrons for their entree choice, regardless of whether or not it was labeled. In all four restaurants women and older patrons were more aware of the program and more responsive to its recommendations. These findings suggest that environmental strategies may be an effective method of encouraging dietary changes in the general population, but patron characteristics such as age and gender may influence receptivity to this type of intervention. Future studies aimed at developing effective point of purchase education programs should evaluate these patron characteristics and include more powerful behavior change strategies.

  19. Giving Economically Disadvantaged, Minority Food Pantry Patrons' a Voice: Implications for Equitable Access to Sufficient, Nutritious Food.

    PubMed

    Greer, Anna E; Cross-Denny, Bronwyn; McCabe, Michelle; Castrogivanni, Brianna

    2016-01-01

    This study provides economically disadvantaged, minority food pantry patrons (hereafter, patrons) a meaning-ful voice by examining their experiences trying to obtain sufficient, nutritious food. Five focus groups were conducted using a semistructured discussion guide. Atlast.ti software was used to manage and analyze the data. Patrons reported that pantry staff who preserved their dignity by showing compassion were highly valued. Stigma and shame associated with pantry use were major concerns. Patrons suggested environmental and policy changes to improve their food acquisition experiences. These findings suggest that multilevel interventions addressing food access, food distribution policies, and patron-staff interactions are warranted.

  20. [Epilepsy, eponyms and patron saints (history of Western civilization)].

    PubMed

    Janković, S M; Sokić, D V; Lević, Z M; Susić, V; Stojsavljević, N; Drulović, J

    1996-01-01

    From a historic point of view, epilepsy and its eponyms were in an ontogenetic symbiosis throughout their history. Epilepsy is a disease with a history of eponyms presenting the frame of mind of both streetwise as well as skilled "authors" about its origin and nature. From ancient times the names for epilepsy, archetypal Hippocratic disease, just as rich in number as varied in their implication, reflected the local folkways of thinking. In this article we briefly presented more than 50 eponyms and patrons of epilepsy. As the source of information we used both the apocryphal, canonical and hagiographic as well as heretic literature, legends and iconography from the Middle Ages of domestic and foreign origin. Pre- and post-Hippocratic era, apart from stemming from the oldest written medical sources, point to the position that the disease had organic origin located in the brain. The period of Rome adopted the attitudes set by Galen which remained en vogue throughout the emerging Middle Ages and Renaissance. These eras generated new eponyms which reflected a downfall in the manor, stating that the disease is the consequence of supernatural forces. In the "Age of darkness" eponyms for epilepsy reflected more the relation of men to the Nature than to the disease or a sick man; this is evidenced through the generation of number of patrons for the disease. The most famous patron of patients with epilepsy was St. Valentine (after conversion from pagandom he died in Rome as a martyr, c. 270). He was allotted a patronage either due to the phonic resemblance of his name with the (past participle of the) verb "fallen"-as Martin Luther claimed, or due to a cure of epilepsy of the son of a Roman rhetor who built for him a chapel in which he continued to cure the sick. The emergence of a flamboyant personality of Paracelsus on the historic scene of the XVI century represents a less successful attempt to revoke the way of thinking set by the old Greek doctors; however, it brought

  1. Physeal bar equivalent.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Hamlet A; Shaughnessy, William J; Stans, Anthony A

    2016-09-29

    Premature partial physeal arrest without the formation of an osseous bar - physeal bar equivalent (PBE) - is uncommon. Four children with a PBE had an infection near the distal femoral physis before the age of 11 months. Some growth was achieved after resection of the PBE in each case. Of two cases diagnosed and treated early, one required only contralateral physeal arrests to achieve limb-length equality at maturity. The other, currently 8 years and 4 months old, has a 1.1-cm limb-length discrepancy 6 years after PBE resection and will require observation until maturity. Of two cases diagnosed and treated late, one required ipsilateral femoral lengthening and contralateral femoral shortening and physeal arrests to treat the limb-length discrepancy and angular deformity. The other, currently 7 years and 1 month old, has a 4.8-cm discrepancy and will need future surgical limb-length equalization. Early recognition and treatment of PBE is required to avoid severe limb-length inequality and angular deformity.

  2. Bar-Code-Scribing Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badinger, Michael A.; Drouant, George J.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed hand-held tool applies indelible bar code to small parts. Possible to identify parts for management of inventory without tags or labels. Microprocessor supplies bar-code data to impact-printer-like device. Device drives replaceable scribe, which cuts bar code on surface of part. Used to mark serially controlled parts for military and aerospace equipment. Also adapts for discrete marking of bulk items used in food and pharmaceutical processing.

  3. Social Branding to Decrease Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Young Adult Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Fallin, Amanda; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals are more likely to smoke than the general population. This study evaluated a Social Branding intervention, CRUSH, which included an aspirational brand, social events, and targeted media to discourage smoking among LGBT young adults in Las Vegas, NV. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys (N = 2,395) were collected in Las Vegas LGBT bars at 2 time points 1 year apart. Multivariate logistic regressions examined associations between campaign exposure, message understanding, and current (past 30 days) smoking, controlling for demographics. Results: LGBT individuals were significantly more likely to report current (past 30 day) smoking than heterosexual/straight, gender-conforming participants. Overall, 53% of respondents reported exposure to CRUSH; of those exposed, 60% liked the campaign, 60.3% reported they would attend a CRUSH event on a night when they usually went somewhere else, and 86.3% correctly identified that the campaign was about “partying fresh and smokefree.” Current smoking was reported by 47% of respondents at Time 1 and 39.6% at Time 2. There were significant interactions between time and campaign exposure and campaign exposure and understanding the message. Among those who understood the CRUSH smokefree message, the highest level of campaign exposure was significantly associated with 37%–48% lower odds for current smoking. Conclusions: While longitudinal studies would better assess the impact of this intervention, CRUSH shows promise to reduce tobacco use among LGBT bar patrons. PMID:26180223

  4. Tobacco related bar promotions: insights from tobacco industry documents

    PubMed Central

    Katz, S; Lavack, A

    2002-01-01

    Design: Over 2000 tobacco industry documents available as a result of the Master Settlement Agreement were reviewed on the internet at several key web sites using keyword searches that included "bar", "night", "pub", "party", and "club". The majority of the documents deal with the US market, with a minor emphasis on Canadian and overseas markets. Results: The documents indicate that bar promotions are important for creating and maintaining brand image, and are generally targeted at a young adult audience. Several measures of the success of these promotions are used, including number of individuals exposed to the promotion, number of promotional items given away, and increased sales of a particular brand during and after the promotion. Conclusion: Bar promotions position cigarettes as being part of a glamorous lifestyle that includes attendance at nightclubs and bars, and appear to be highly successful in increasing sales of particular brands. PMID:11893819

  5. Raising the Bar: A Qualitative Study of Adult Learning Theory and Its Role on the Effectiveness of Law School Education in Preparing New Graduates to Begin the Practice of Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bryan Finley

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research study examined the effectiveness of law school education in preparing new attorneys to practice law from the view point of novice criminal law attorneys. A debate has existed over the past few decades between legal academia and the practicing bar as to what are the most effective learning processes and strategies of…

  6. Gender-based violence, alcohol use, and sexual risk among female patrons of drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree

    2013-06-01

    Gender-based violence is a well-recognized risk factor for HIV infection among women. Alcohol use is associated with both gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior, but has not been examined as a correlate of both in a context of both high HIV risk and hazardous drinking. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between recent abuse by a sex partner with alcohol and sexual risk behavior among female patrons of alcohol serving venues in South Africa. Specifically, the aim of this study is to determine whether sexual risk behaviors are associated with gender-based violence after controlling for levels of alcohol use. We surveyed 1,388 women attending informal drinking establishments in Cape Town, South Africa to assess recent history of gender-based violence, drinking, and sexual risk behaviors. Gender-based violence was associated with both drinking and sexual risk behaviors after controlling for demographics among the women. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for alcohol use sexual risk behavior remained significantly associated with gender-based violence, particularly with meeting a new sex partner at the bar, recent STI diagnosis, and engaging in transactional sex, but not protected intercourse or number of partners. In South Africa where heavy drinking is prevalent women may be at particular risk of physical abuse from intimate partners as well as higher sexual risk. Interventions that aim to reduce gender-based violence and sexual risk behaviors must directly work to reduce drinking behavior.

  7. GASEOUS STRUCTURES IN BARRED GALAXIES: EFFECTS OF THE BAR STRENGTH

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Woong-Tae; Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, Yonghwi

    2012-10-10

    Using hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the physical properties of gaseous substructures in barred galaxies and their relationships with the bar strength. The gaseous medium is assumed to be isothermal and unmagnetized. The bar potential is modeled as a Ferrers prolate with index n. To explore situations with differing bar strength, we vary the bar mass f{sub bar} relative to the spheroidal component as well as its aspect ratio R. We derive expressions as functions of f{sub bar} and R for the bar strength Q{sub b} and the radius r(Q{sub b} ) where the maximum bar torque occurs. When applied to observations, these expressions suggest that bars in real galaxies are most likely to have f{sub bar} {approx} 0.25-0.50 and n {approx}< 1. Dust lanes approximately follow one of the x{sub 1}-orbits and tend to be straighter under a stronger and more elongated bar, but are insensitive to the presence of self-gravity. A nuclear ring of a conventional x{sub 2} type forms only when the bar is not so massive or elongated. The radius of an x{sub 2}-type ring is generally smaller than the inner Lindblad resonance, decreases systematically with increasing Q{sub b} , and is slightly larger when self-gravity is included. This is evidence that the ring position is not determined by the resonance, but instead by the amount of angular momentum loss at dust-lane shocks. Nuclear spirals exist only when the ring is of the x{sub 2} type and is sufficiently large in size. Unlike the other features, nuclear spirals are transient in that they start out being tightly wound and weak, and then, due to the nonlinear effect, unwind and become stronger until they turn into shocks, with an unwinding rate that is higher for larger Q{sub b} . The mass inflow rate to the galaxy center is found to be less than 0.01 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} for models with Q{sub b} {approx}< 0.2, while becoming larger than 0.1 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} when Q{sub b} {approx}> 0.2 and self-gravity is included.

  8. New Roads for Patron-Driven E-Books: Collection Development and Technical Services Implications of a Patron-Driven Acquisitions Pilot at Rutgers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Fino, Melissa; Lo, Mei Ling

    2011-01-01

    Collection development librarians have long struggled to meet user demands for new titles. Too often, required resources are not purchased, whereas some purchased resources do not circulate. E-books selected through patron-driven plans are a solution but present new challenges for both selectors and catalogers. Radical changes to traditional…

  9. Making the Connection: Some People, Programs and Ideas Highlighted by Adult Learners Week 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John; Della, Jennie

    This document profiles selected people, programs, and ideas highlighted by Australia's Adult Learners Week 2001 and begins with these papers: "Adult Learners Week: A National Celebration" (Ned Dennis); "A Message from the Adult Learners Week Patron" (Peter Hollingworth); "A Message of Support from the Prime Minister of…

  10. Reference Services for the Adult Learner: Challenging Issues for the Traditional and Technological Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkodie-Mensah, Kwasi, Ed.

    This book offers approaches for teaching adult patrons how and where to find information in libraries and through information services. It includes 34 papers, organized in seven sections, expressing the views of faculty, adult students, and administrators as well as librarians on theories of educational psychology that explain how adults learn.…

  11. Bar shapes and orbital stochasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Athanassoula, E. )

    1990-06-01

    Several independent lines of evidence suggest that the isophotes or isodensities of bars in barred galaxies are not really elliptical in shape but more rectangular. The effect this might have on the orbits in two different types of bar potentials is studied, and it is found that in both cases the percentage of stochastic orbits is much larger when the shapes are more rectangularlike or, equivalently, when the m = 4 components are more important. This can be understood with the help of the Chirikov criterion, which can predict the limit for the onset of global stochasticity. 9 refs.

  12. Dynamical Evolution: Spirals and Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, F.

    Non-axisymmetric modes like spirals and bars are the main driver of the evolution of disks, in transferring angular momentum, and allowing mass accretion. This evolution proceeds through self-regulation and feedback mechanisms, such as bar destruction or weakening by a central mass concentration, decoupling of a nuclear bar taking over the gas radial flows and mass accretion, etc.. These internal mechanisms can also be triggered by interaction with the environment. Recent problems are discussed, like the influence of counter-rotation in the m=1 and m=2 patterns development and on mass accretion by a central AGN.

  13. Signalling with a cryptic trait: the regularity of barred plumage in common waxbills

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Cristiana I. J.; Batalha, Helena R.; Cardoso, Gonçalo C.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual signals often compromise camouflage because of their conspicuousness. Pigmentation patterns, on the contrary, aid in camouflage. It was hypothesized that a particular type of pattern—barred plumage in birds, whereby pigmented bars extend across feathers—could simultaneously signal individual quality, because disruptions of these patterns should be perceptually salient at close range and help assess plumage condition. Here we show that common waxbills (Estrilda astrild), which have extensive barred plumage, have more regular patterns as adults than as juveniles, and that adult males have more regular patterns than females. Both these differences are indicative of sexual signalling in species with conventional sex roles. More regular barred plumage was related to better body condition in adult males. Colour ornamentation traits were also related to aspects of quality, either the same as barred plumage (body condition) or a different one (good feather development), supporting both the ‘redundant message’ and the ‘multiple message’ hypotheses for the coexistence of multiple sexual signals. Although receiver responses to the regularity of barred plumage were not studied here, research on other species has shown that barred plumage can mediate social interactions. We conclude that using barred plumage as a signal of quality helps circumvent the functional compromise between camouflage and communication. PMID:27293800

  14. Property Control through Bar Coding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingma, Gerben J.

    1984-01-01

    A public utility company uses laser wands to read bar-coded labels on furniture and equipment. The system allows an 80 percent savings of the time required to create reports for inventory control. (MLF)

  15. Triple bar, high efficiency mechanical sealer

    DOEpatents

    Pak, Donald J.; Hawkins, Samantha A.; Young, John E.

    2013-03-19

    A clamp with a bottom clamp bar that has a planar upper surface is provided. The clamp may also include a top clamp bar connected to the bottom clamp bar, and a pressure distribution bar between the top clamp bar and the bottom clamp bar. The pressure distribution bar may have a planar lower surface in facing relation to the upper surface of the bottom clamp bar. An object is capable of being disposed in a clamping region between the upper surface and the lower surface. The width of the planar lower surface may be less than the width of the upper surface within the clamping region. Also, the pressure distribution bar may be capable of being urged away from the top clamp bar and towards the bottom clamp bar.

  16. Torsional Split Hopkinson Bar Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-10

    is the torsional wave speed . Also, one can relate the torque with the yield stress of the material, as seen in equation 2; where r is the radius of...be equal to the mechanical impedance of the bars. In other words, the product of density, speed of wave and polar moment of inertia must remain...pillow blocks used to mount the incident and transmitter bars are cast iron based- mounted Babbitt-lined bearing split, for 1 in. shaft diameter

  17. A Large Specific Deterrent Effect of Arrest for Patronizing a Prostitute

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Devon D.; Potterat, John J.; Muth, Stephen Q.; Roberts, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Background Prior research suggests that arrest, compared with no police detection, of some types of offenders does not decrease the chances they will reoffend. Methodology/Principal Findings We assessed the specific deterrent effect of arrest for patronizing a street prostitute in Colorado Springs by comparing the incidence of arrest for clients of prostitutes first detected through public health surveillance with the incidence of rearrest for clients first detected by police arrest. Although these sets of clients were demographically and behaviorally similar, arrest reduced the likelihood of a subsequent arrest by approximately 70%. In other areas of the United States, arrest did not appear to displace a client's patronizing. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that apprehending clients decreases their patronizing behavior substantially. PMID:17183691

  18. 25 CFR 543.14 - What are the minimum internal control standards for patron deposit accounts and cashless systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... patron deposit accounts and cashless systems? 543.14 Section 543.14 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING...) The patron must appear at the gaming operation in person, at a designated area of accountability,...

  19. 25 CFR 543.14 - What are the minimum internal control standards for patron deposit accounts and cashless systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... patron deposit accounts and cashless systems? 543.14 Section 543.14 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING...) The patron must appear at the gaming operation in person, at a designated area of accountability,...

  20. Let's Go to the Mall: Thinking outside the Neighborhood Branch, Libraries in Malls Make for Happy Partnerships and Patrons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankinship, Donna Gordon

    2005-01-01

    Branches in shopping malls help build community by attracting new patrons to the library. They help libraries offer exciting new venues with a retail-like approach and raise awareness of the work libraries are doing. In some cases, though not at Glendale, the library is more cost-effective owing to the smaller space used to serve patrons. These…

  1. Low energy {bar p} physics at FNAL

    SciTech Connect

    Hsueh, S.Y.

    1992-12-01

    The charmonium formation experiment is the only low energy {bar p} experiment at FNAL. This paper describes the performance of the Fermilab {bar p} Accumulator during fixed target run for the experiment and the planned upgrades. We also discuss the proposal for the direct CP violation search in {bar p} + p {yields} {bar {Lambda}} + {Lambda} {yields} {bar p}{pi}{sup +} + p{pi}{sup {minus}}.

  2. Avoiding DWI Among Bar-room Drinkers: Strategies and Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Caudill, Barry D.; Rogers, John W.; Howard, Jan; Frissell, Kevin C.; Harding, Wayne M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the prevalence and predictors of 11strategies to avoid driving when feeling intoxicated among 561 bar-room patrons in two medium-sized Maryland communities. Logistic regression analyses identified demographic, behavioral, and attitudinal predictors of avoidance strategies and interactions among predictors. Overall, 89% reported one or more DWI avoidance actions in the past year, and 38% reported driving intoxicated during that time. Average frequencies of avoidance behavior and intoxicated driving increased significantly as drinking level increased. However, the higher the drinking level, the smaller the ratio of avoidance actions to DWI experiences, highlighting the vulnerability of heavy drinkers who had driven intoxicated. Using a sober driver or one who allegedly drank less than the respondent were the most popular and frequent strategies, but paying for a cab, walking, and using a bus or free cab were relatively unpopular. Higher drinking levels predicted significantly higher odds of using avoidance approaches, as did intoxicated driving. Confidence in driving safely when intoxicated was positively related to drinking level and intoxicated driving, but it tended to predict lower odds of avoidance actions. Similarly, marital status, age, gender, and location influenced the odds of avoidance behaviors. Interventions should be strategically tailored to exploit or counter drinker predilections among avoidance options. PMID:22879742

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.-T.

    2013-04-01

    Magnetic fields are pervasive in barred galaxies, especially in gaseous substructures such as dust lanes and nuclear rings. To explore the effects of magnetic fields on the formation of the substructures as well as on the mass inflow rates to the galaxy center, we run two-dimensional, ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We use a modified version of the Athena code whose numerical magnetic diffusivity is shown to be of third order in space. In the bar regions, magnetic fields are compressed and abruptly bent around the dust-lane shocks. The associated magnetic stress not only reduces the peak density of the dust-lane shocks but also removes angular momentum further from the gas that is moving radially in. Nuclear rings that form at the location of centrifugal barrier rather than resonance with the bar are smaller and more radially distributed, and the mass flow rate to the galaxy center is correspondingly larger in models with stronger magnetic fields. Outside the bar regions, the bar potential and strong shear conspire to amplify the field strength near the corotation resonance. The amplified fields transport angular momentum outward, producing trailing magnetic arms with strong fields and low density. The base of the magnetic arms are found to be unstable to a tearing-mode instability of magnetic reconnection. This produces numerous magnetic islands that eventually make the outer regions highly chaotic.

  4. Helping Patrons Find Locally Held Electronic Resources: An Interlibrary Loan Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The University of North Texas Libraries provide extensive online access to academic journals through major vendor databases. As illustrated by interlibrary loan borrowing requests for items held in our databases, patrons often have difficulty navigating the available resources. In this study, the Interlibrary Loan staff used data gathered from the…

  5. Factors Influencing Virtual Patron Satisfaction with Online Library Resources and Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Katherine Mary

    2010-01-01

    College students are accessing virtual libraries whether they are on campus or learning from a distance. Academic institutions serving virtual patrons must remain focused on meeting the needs of those library users by continually examining their preferences, their searching behavior, and the information they seek. The purpose of this research was…

  6. Factors Influencing Virtual Patron Satisfaction with Online Library Resources and Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Katherine; Hastings, Nancy B.

    2011-01-01

    College students are accessing virtual libraries whether they are on campus or learning from a distance. Academic institutions serving virtual patrons must remain focused on meeting the needs of those library users by continually examining their preferences, their searching behavior, and the information they seek. The purpose of this research was…

  7. Connecting the Library's Patron Database to Campus Administrative Software: Simplifying the Library's Accounts Receivable Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Astrid; Dahlquist, Janet; Tankersley, Jan; Emrich, Beth

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the processes that occurred when the Library, Controller's Office, and Information Technology Department agreed to create an interface between the Library's Innovative Interfaces patron database and campus administrative software, Banner, using file transfer protocol, in an effort to streamline the Library's accounts…

  8. Keyword/Boolean Searching on an Online Public Access Catalog: Patrons and Their Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensor, Pat

    This report presents the results of a study which explored how patron perceptions and demographics related to keyword/Boolean searching on Indiana State University's (ISU) Library User Information System (LUIS), the online public access catalog (OPAC). Two general theses guide the study: (1) whether the use or non-use of keyword searching on LUIS…

  9. The Problem Patron and the Academic Library Web Site as Virtual Reference Desk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Daniel; Porter, George S.

    2002-01-01

    Considers problem library patrons in a virtual environment based on experiences at California Institute of Technology's Web site and its use for virtual reference. Discusses the virtual reference desk concept; global visibility and access to the World Wide Web; problematic email; and advantages in the electronic environment. (LRW)

  10. Leading Libraries: Virtual Reference in Libraries: Remote Patrons Heading Your Way?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfer, Doris Small

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the decline in reference statistics in academic libraries and considers the role of access to information via the Internet. Highlights include patron expectations and demands; commercial Web reference services; and virtual reference desk software so libraries can offer 24 hour service, including public libraries. (LRW)

  11. Gathering and Using Patron and Librarian Perceptions of Question-Answering Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the strengths and weaknesses of patrons and reference librarians as sources of data for the evaluation of the effectiveness of answers to reference questions. Describes the Wisconsin-Ohio Reference Evaluation program and considers staffing patterns, time spent, collection size, and bibliographic instruction. Reference Transaction…

  12. The Role of the African Media in Patron-Client Relations: A Preliminary Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Jo Ellen

    Noting the many difficulties in conceptualizing and analyzing development communication, this paper enriches the concept by linking it with a particular form of political, economic, and social organization common to many developing nations--the patron-client network. After a brief review of relevant communication and political science literature…

  13. Policy Patrons: Philanthropy, Education Reform, and the Politics of Influence. Educational Innovations Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins-Stange, Megan E.

    2016-01-01

    "Policy Patrons" offers a rare behind-the-scenes view of decision making inside four influential education philanthropies: the Ford Foundation, the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation. The outcome is an intriguing, thought-provoking look at the impact of current…

  14. Taming Technology: Planning for Patron Use of Microcomputers in the Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Leslie

    1983-01-01

    Describes introduction of microcomputer services at the Rolling Meadows (Illinois) Public Library, noting funding, purchase of an Apple microcomputer, placement of the terminal, software, staff development, and patron workshops. Rules for computer use and Apple computer worksheet (logging on, useful tips, logging off, and activities) are included.…

  15. Strategies for Helping Patrons when a Line Forms at the Reference Desk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Librarians who staff the reference desk at a community college are familiar with the moments when multiple patrons need assistance concurrently. Their needs can vary from technical issues to directional questions, such as the location of the restroom, to deeper reference questions that require the librarian's time and focused attention to conduct…

  16. Remote Dial-In Patron Access to CD-ROM LANs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, Howard

    1990-01-01

    Examines technical and support issues that impact on libraries' decisions to provide patrons with remote communication access to CD-ROM local area networks. Areas discussed include licensing costs for CD-ROM, remote control communications software, dedicated hardware, system maintenance, computer security, and the provision of quality, user…

  17. New Approaches to the Measurement of Public Library Use by Individual Patrons. Occasional Paper Number 162.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Philip M.

    Based on the concept that library use measurement should have as its basic starting point the individual patron, a method of data collection and analysis has been developed that explores individual patterns of borrowing over time. The method accounts for the number of visits on which borrowing takes place, number of items borrowed per visit, and…

  18. Developing an Interlibrary Loan Borrowing Policy for Evergreen Valley College Library Patrons. Governance and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehlmann, Ruth I.

    The increased use of interlibrary loan (ILL) services at the Evergreen Valley College (EVC) library which resulted from joining OCLC automated Interlibrary Loan subsystem in 1979 led to the development of an Interlibrary Loan Borrowing Policy by the EVC library staff. The policy is designed to explain to library patrons the limitations on…

  19. The Secret to Patron-Centered Web Design: Cheap, Easy, and Powerful Usability Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Erica

    2008-01-01

    When the Johnson County Library (JoCo Library), a midsize suburban public library in Kansas City, Kansas, completely rebuilt its 2,000-plus-page website--one that had remained relatively stable for almost 5 years--the reaction from patrons and staff members was overwhelmingly positive. The web development team at the JoCo Library realized that the…

  20. Anonymous Library Cards Allow You to Wonder, "Who Was That Masked Patron?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrowsky, Ben

    2005-01-01

    Like the Lone Ranger's mask, a good information retention policy can safeguard personal identity information. Librarians want to be sure that patrons will return what they borrow, and they want statistics that quantify the library's value to its community. Librarians also want to protect customers' privacy; they usually don't keep personally…

  1. Bar-spheroid interaction in galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernquist, Lars; Weinberg, Martin D.

    1992-01-01

    N-body simulation and linear analysis is employed to investigate the secular evolution of barred galaxies, with emphasis on the interaction between bars and spheroidal components of galaxies. This interaction is argued to drive secular transfer of angular momentum from bars to spheroids, primarily through resonant coupling. A moderately strong bar, having mass within corotation about 0.3 times the enclosed spheroid mass, is predicted to shed all its angular momentum typically in less than about 10 exp 9 yr. Even shorter depletion time scales are found for relatively more massive bars. It is suggested either that spheroids around barred galaxies are structured so as to inhibit strong coupling with bars, or that bars can form by unknown processes long after disks are established. The present models reinforce the notion that bars can drive secular evolution in galaxies.

  2. Local Differences in HIV Prevalence: A Comparison of Social Venue Patrons, Antenatal Patients, and STI Patients in Eastern Kinshasa

    PubMed Central

    Mwandagalirwa, Kashamuka; Jackson, Elizabeth F.; McClamroch, Kristi; Ryder, Robert W.; Weir, Sharon S.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study compares the sexual behavior and HIV prevalence of men and women at social venues where people meet new sexual partners in Eastern Kinshasa with the HIV prevalence and behavior of STI treatment and antenatal clinic patients in the same area. Methods ANC clinic patients, STI clinic patients and social venue patrons were interviewed, asked to provide a blood sample onsite, and provided information about obtaining test results. All social venue patrons at all identified social venues in the study area were invited to participate. Results 1,116 pregnant women; 66 male and 229 female STI clinic patients; and 952 male and 247 female patrons of social venues were interviewed and tested. HIV prevalence ranged by group: ANC patients (4%); female venue patrons (12%); female STI patients (16%); male venue patrons (2%); and male STI patients (23%). HIV prevalence among sexworkers at social venues (29%) was higher than the prevalence among other female patrons with new or multiple partnerships (19%) or among female patrons denying sexwork (6%). However, the absolute number of infected women was higher among women reporting recent new or multiple partnerships than the smaller group of sexworkers (23 vs 18). Two-thirds of the infected female STI patients (24/36) reported no more than one sexual partner in the past year. Conclusion Improving prevention programs in Kinshasa is essential. Prevention efforts should not neglect women at social venues who do not self-identify as sexworkers but have high rates of new sexual partnerships. PMID:19525891

  3. A study of the relationship between mass and physical strength of keratin bars in vivo.

    PubMed

    Peplow, P V; Dias, G J

    2004-11-01

    A study was undertaken of the changes in the mass and physical properties of keratin bars implanted subcutaneously in adult rats. A very gradual decrease occurred in vivo in the dry weight of the bars over the period of the study (up to 18 weeks). The elastic modulus of the bars decreased abruptly when present in vivo between 3 and 6 weeks. At the same time there was an increase in the number of cavitations and fissures at the surface of the bars, and an increase in a central internal region of the bars where there was a disorganisation in structure of the polymer. A biocompatible material showing such changes in vivo is likely to be suitable for a variety of medical and surgical applications in which it provides a framework for cell invasion.

  4. Nonformal and Informal Adult Learning in Museums: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudzinska-Przesmitzki, Dana; Grenier, Robin S.

    2008-01-01

    The taking up of an "educative" mantle has proven to be a complex task for museums, filled with many unknown and/or misunderstood factors. Of the vast assortment of educational opportunities museums afford their adult patrons and staff, the majority fall into one or two learning categories: either they are nonformal or informal. In effort to…

  5. Peer crowd affiliation as a segmentation tool for young adult tobacco use

    PubMed Central

    Lisha, Nadra E; Jordan, Jeffrey W; Ling, Pamela M

    2016-01-01

    Background In California, young adult tobacco prevention is of prime importance; 63% of smokers start by the age of 18 years, and 97% start by the age of 26 years. We examined social affiliation with ‘peer crowd’ (eg, Hipsters) as an innovative way to identify high-risk tobacco users. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2014 (N=3368) among young adult bar patrons in 3 California cities. We examined use rates of five products (cigarettes, e-cigarettes, hookah, cigars and smokeless tobacco) by five race/ethnicity categories. Peer crowd affiliation was scored based on respondents' selecting pictures of young adults representing those most and least likely to be in their friend group. Respondents were classified into categories based on the highest score; the peer crowd score was also examined as a continuous predictor. Logistic regression models with each tobacco product as the outcome tested the unique contribution of peer crowd affiliation, controlling for race/ethnicity, age, sex, sexual orientation and city. Results Respondents affiliating with Hip Hop and Hipster peer crowds reported significantly higher rates of tobacco use. As a categorical predictor, peer crowd was related to tobacco use, independent of associations with race/ethnicity. As a continuous predictor, Hip Hop peer crowd affiliation was also associated with tobacco use, and Young Professional affiliation was negatively associated, independent of demographic factors. Conclusions Tobacco product use is not the same across racial/ethnic groups or peer crowds, and peer crowd predicts tobacco use independent of race/ethnicity. Antitobacco interventions targeting peer crowds may be an effective way to reach young adult tobacco users. Trial registration number NCT01686178, Pre-results. PMID:27697952

  6. Positioning bars for large wire harnesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glessner, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    By tying positioning bars to harness, its configuration can be preserved during transport, thus facilitating installation. Harness can also be showed temporarily by placing hanging hooks on end of bar.

  7. Effect of bars on the galaxy properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, Matias; Alonso, Sol; Coldwell, Georgina

    2016-10-01

    Aims: With the aim of assessing the effects of bars on disk galaxy properties, we present an analysis of different characteristics of spiral galaxies with strong bars, weak bars and without bars. Methods: We identified barred galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). By visual inspection of SDSS images we classified the face-on spiral galaxies brighter than g< 16.5 mag into strong-bar, weak-bar, and unbarred galaxies. With the goal of providing an appropriate quantification of the influence of bars on galaxy properties, we also constructed a suitable control sample of unbarred galaxies with similar redshifts, magnitudes, morphology, bulge sizes, and local density environment distributions to those of barred galaxies. Results: We found 522 strong-barred and 770 weak-barred galaxies; this represents a bar fraction of 25.82% with respect to the full sample of spiral galaxies, in good agreement with several previous studies. We also found that strong-barred galaxies show lower efficiency in star formation activity and older stellar populations (as derived with the Dn(4000) spectral index) with respect to weak-barred and unbarred spirals from the control sample. In addition, there is a significant excess of strong-barred galaxies with red colors. The color-color and color-magnitude diagrams show that unbarred and weak-barred galaxies are more extended towards the blue zone, while strong-barred disk objects are mostly grouped in the red region. Strong-barred galaxies present an important excess of high metallicity values compared to unbarred and weak-barred disk objects, which show similar distributions. Regarding the mass-metallicity relation, we found that weak-barred and unbarred galaxies are fitted by similar curves, while strong-barred ones show a curve that falls abruptly with more significance in the range of low stellar masses (log (M∗/M⊙) < 10.0). These results would indicate that prominent bars produced an accelerating effect on the gas processing

  8. ORBITAL SUPPORT OF FAST AND SLOW INNER BARS IN DOUBLE-BARRED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Maciejewski, Witold; Small, Emma E.

    2010-08-10

    We analyze how the orbital support of the inner bar in a double-barred galaxy (nested bars) depends on the angular velocity (i.e., pattern speed) of this bar. We study orbits in seven models of double bars using the method of invariant loops. The range of pattern speed is covered exhaustively. We find that not all pattern speeds are allowed when the inner bar rotates in the same direction as the outer bar. Below a certain minimum pattern speed orbital support for the inner bar abruptly disappears, while at high values of this speed the orbits indicate an increasingly round bar that looks more like a twist in the nuclear isophotes than a dynamically independent component. For values between these two extremes, orbits supporting the inner bar extend further out as the bar's pattern speed decreases, their corresponding loops become more eccentric, pulsate more, and their rotation becomes increasingly non-uniform, as they speed up and slow down in their motion. Lower pattern speeds also lead to a less coherent bar, as the pulsation and acceleration increasingly varies among the loops supporting the inner bar. The morphologies of fast and slow inner bars expected from the orbital structure studied here have been recently recovered observationally by decomposition of double-barred galaxies. Our findings allow us to link the observed morphology to the dynamics of the inner bar.

  9. Bifunctional apoptosis inhibitor (BAR) protects neurons from diverse cell death pathways.

    PubMed

    Roth, W; Kermer, P; Krajewska, M; Welsh, K; Davis, S; Krajewski, S; Reed, J C

    2003-10-01

    The bifunctional apoptosis regulator (BAR) is a multidomain protein that was originally identified as an inhibitor of Bax-induced apoptosis. Immunoblot analysis of normal human tissues demonstrated high BAR expression in the brain, compared to low or absent expression in other organs. Immunohistochemical staining of human adult tissues revealed that the BAR protein is predominantly expressed by neurons in the central nervous system. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that BAR localizes mainly to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of cells. Overexpression of BAR in CSM 14.1 neuronal cells resulted in significant protection from a broad range of cell death stimuli, including agents that activate apoptotic pathways involving mitochondria, TNF-family death receptors, and ER stress. Downregulation of BAR by antisense oligonucleotides sensitized neuronal cells to induction of apoptosis. Moreover, the search for novel interaction partners of BAR identified several candidate proteins that might contribute to the regulation of neuronal apoptosis (HIP1, Hippi, and Bap31). Taken together, the expression pattern and functional data suggest that the BAR protein is involved in the regulation of neuronal survival.

  10. The image of health sciences librarians: how we see ourselves and how patrons see us.

    PubMed Central

    Blackwelder, M B

    1996-01-01

    A survey was conducted to solicit data related to health professionals image of librarians. Physicians, residents, nurses, medical students, dentists, pharmacists, physical therapists, and occupational therapists were questioned about their experiences with and opinions of librarians, particularly the skills and characteristics needed by helpful, successful librarians. Health sciences librarians were also questioned about their own professional image and their perceptions of their patrons' impression of librarians. Librarians and health professionals alike ranked good communication as the most important skill for librarians. Computer or technological skills were ranked fourth by librarians but second by health professionals. Although librarians tended to describe themselves in slightly more positive terms than did their patrons, health professionals viewed librarians as approachable, responsive, supportive, and open to change. Health professionals also reported that they received accurate, reliable, and timely information from librarians and that this information was valuable. PMID:8883982

  11. Bar-holding prosthetic limb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, Thomas W. (Inventor); Norton, William E. (Inventor); Belcher, Jewell G. (Inventor); Carden, James R. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A prosthetic device for below-the-elbow amputees is disclosed. The device has a removable effector, which is attached to the end of an arm cuff. The effector is comprised of a pair of C-shaped members that are oriented so as to face each other. Working in concert, the C-shaped members are able to hold a bar such as a chainsaw handle. A flat spring is fitted around the C-shaped members to hold them together.

  12. Galaxy Zoo: Observing secular evolution through bars

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Edmond; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.; Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Melvin, Thomas; Bell, Eric F.; Lintott, Chris; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A.; Willett, Kyle W.

    2013-12-20

    In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR) and bulge prominence. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall (strong) bar fraction of 23.6% ± 0.4%, of which 1154 barred galaxies also have bar length (BL) measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in galaxy evolution. We find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anticorrelated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. We find that the trends of bar likelihood and BL with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR. We interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution that include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. We suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks, a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. We interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as being due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1).

  13. Gay bathhouse HIV prevention: the use of staff monitoring of patron sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Woods, William J; Sheon, Nicolas; Morris, Joseph A; Binson, Diane

    2013-06-01

    Many HIV prevention interventions have been launched in gay bathhouses and sex clubs since the onset of the AIDS epidemic, such as condom distribution and HIV testing. Perhaps none of these are as intrusive to the venue's environment as what is called "monitoring," which involves staff, during every shift, repeatedly walking throughout the public areas of a bathhouse to check on patrons' sexual behavior. Yet, monitoring has received little evaluation. Between 2002 and 2004, we conducted qualitative interviews with venue managers, staff and patrons in New York City, Los Angeles, and the San Francisco Bay Area. An analysis found that monitoring was influenced by the kinds of space available for sex, suggesting three approaches to monitoring: 1) monitoring all sex in clubs that only had public areas where men had sex ; 2) monitoring some sex in clubs with private rooms for sex; and 3) no monitoring of sex, regardless of the kinds of space for sex. This paper explores each approach as described by club managers, staff, and patrons to understand the potential effectiveness of monitoring as an HIV prevention intervention.

  14. Making licensed venues safer for patrons: what environmental factors should be the focus of interventions?

    PubMed

    Homel, Ross; Carvolth, Russell; Hauritz, Marge; McIlwain, Gillian; Teague, Rosie

    2004-03-01

    The Queensland Safety Action Projects operationalized a problem-focused responsive regulatory model in order to make nightclubs and other venues safer. A problem-focused approach requires a careful analysis of the total environment of licensed venues, including drinking and its controls but also the social and physical environments, patron mix and management practices. We present new analyses of observational data collected in 1994 and 1996 in the north Queensland cities of Cairns, Townsville and Mackay. Major reductions in aggression and violence were observed, as well as improvements in many aspects of the venue environment and management practices. We do not argue in this paper that the interventions caused the environmental and management changes, although we believe this to be true. Rather, our assumption is that whatever caused them, some of the environmental and management changes were critical to the reductions in aggression. Regression techniques were used to identify those factors that best explained the declines in aggression. For reduced physical violence four key predictors were identified: improved comfort, availability of public transport, less overt sexual activity and fewer highly drunk men. For reduced non-physical aggression, four key predictors were: fewer Pacific Islander patrons, less male swearing, fewer intoxicated patrons requiring that management be called and more chairs with armrests. The analyses are consistent with the argument that the control of drinking is necessary but not sufficient to reduce aggression and violence.

  15. Estimating the Number of HIV-infected gay sauna patrons in Taipei area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Ying-Hen; Chen, Cathy W. S.; Lee, Shen-Ming; Chen, Yi-Ming A.; Wu, Shiow-Ing; Lai, Shu-Fen; Chang, An-Lung

    2006-04-01

    We make use of the voluntary HIV and syphilis test results conducted at five gay saunas in Taipei from August of 1999 to end of 2002 to estimate the number of HIV-positive gay saunas patrons in Taipei area by utilizing Hierarchical Bayes method in Generalized Removal Model for Open Populations (GERMO). Considering the effect of a nearby anonymous HIV quick test program on the gay sauna HIV serotesting data, we make use of the association between HIV and syphilis serotesting results from the gay sauna program to amend possible measurement error occurred at the time of data collection by utilizing the regression calibration method. The median estimates for the number of HIV-positive patrons of the five gay saunas increase from 120 (95% CI: 76.5-159.0) during the first half of 2000 to 224 (95% CI: 171.0-265.5) for the second half of 2002. The result, indicating two-fold increase within two and half years, confirms that the gay sauna patrons in Taipei area are at high risk for HIV infection.

  16. Gay bathhouse HIV prevention: the use of staff monitoring of patron sexual behavior

    PubMed Central

    Woods, William J.; Sheon, Nicolas; Morris, Joseph A.; Binson, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Many HIV prevention interventions have been launched in gay bathhouses and sex clubs since the onset of the AIDS epidemic, such as condom distribution and HIV testing. Perhaps none of these are as intrusive to the venue's environment as what is called "monitoring," which involves staff, during every shift, repeatedly walking throughout the public areas of a bathhouse to check on patrons' sexual behavior. Yet, monitoring has received little evaluation. Between 2002 and 2004, we conducted qualitative interviews with venue managers, staff and patrons in New York City, Los Angeles, and the San Francisco Bay Area. An analysis found that monitoring was influenced by the kinds of space available for sex, suggesting three approaches to monitoring: 1) monitoring all sex in clubs that only had public areas where men had sex ; 2) monitoring some sex in clubs with private rooms for sex; and 3) no monitoring of sex, regardless of the kinds of space for sex. This paper explores each approach as described by club managers, staff, and patrons to understand the potential effectiveness of monitoring as an HIV prevention intervention. PMID:24044008

  17. [Nutritional characteristics of cereal and peanut bars].

    PubMed

    Escobar, B; Estévez, A M; Tepper, A; Aguayo, M

    1998-06-01

    Snack with good nutritional value could play an important role in the physical and mental development of children and teenagers since they show a great preference for them. The tendency is increasing their nutritional value by supplying proteins, carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and minerals in a balanced form. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the chemical, sensorial and nutritional quality of cereal and peanut bars. Three types of bars using different ratios of oat, wheat germ, peanut, toasted and expanded amaranthus and wheat extrudate were prepared. Bars proximate composition was determined according the AOAC methods, and their acceptability according Hedonic Scale. In the biological assays, rats fed with 10% protein diets, were used to obtain the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) Net Protein Ratio (NPR) and Apparent Digestibility (AD). Corrected PER, relative PER, relative AD, PER and NPR values did not showed difference between bars CM1 and CM2 (PER: 2.59-2.57; NPR: 3.99-3.95 respectively); CM3 bar showed a lower quality. There were not differences among bars in relation to AD. CM1 and CM2 bars had a better biological quality of the protein being CM3 bar of lower quality. From a chemical and sensorial point of view CM1 bar shows the highest protein content (14.23%) and acceptability (6.8) and CM2 bar shows a high raw fiber content (2.27%).

  18. Different Properties of the \\varvec{bar{K}NN} and \\varvec{bar{K}bar{K}N} Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, N. V.

    2017-03-01

    A series of exact or accurate three-body calculations of different properties of the bar{K}NN and bar{K}bar{K}N systems is described. In particular, binding energies and widths of the quasi-bound states in the systems were calculated. Near-threshold elastic K^- d amplitudes were also found together with the 1 s level shift and width of kaonic deuterium. Different dependences of the three-body results on two-body inputs are discussed.

  19. Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.

    1986-03-01

    KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase 1 Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs. Today's economic scenario indicates that optimization of volume reduction operation procedures could significantly reduce waste management costs, especially where burial penalties have become more severe. As a reaction to the economic burden imposed by final disposal, many nuclear plants are currently modifying their design and operating philosophies concerning liquid radwaste processing systems to meet stricter environmental regulations, and to derive potential economic benefits by reducing the ever-increasing volumes of wastes that are produced. To effect these changes, innovative practices in waste management and more efficient processing technologies are being successfully implemented.

  20. DO BARS DRIVE SPIRAL DENSITY WAVES?

    SciTech Connect

    Buta, Ronald J.; Knapen, Johan H.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Salo, Heikki; Laurikainen, Eija; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Puerari, Ivanio; Block, David L. E-mail: jhk@iac.es E-mail: hsalo@sun3.oulu.fi E-mail: elmegreen@vassar.edu E-mail: David.Block@wits.ac.za

    2009-05-15

    We present deep near-infrared K{sub s} -band Anglo-Australian Telescope Infrared Imager and Spectrograph observations of a selected sample of nearby barred spiral galaxies, including some with the strongest known bars. The sample covers a range of Hubble types from SB0{sup -} to SBc. The goal is to determine if the torque strengths of the spirals correlate with those of the bars, which might be expected if the bars actually drive the spirals as has been predicted by theoretical studies. This issue has implications for interpreting bar and spiral fractions at high redshift. Analysis of previous samples suggested that such a correlation exists in the near-infrared, where effects of extinction and star formation are less important. However, the earlier samples had only a few excessively strong bars. Our new sample largely confirms our previous studies, but still any correlation is relatively weak. We find two galaxies, NGC 7513 and UGC 10862, where there is only a weak spiral in the presence of a very strong bar. We suggest that some spirals probably are driven by their bars at the same pattern speed, but that this may be only when the bar is growing or if there is abundant gas and dissipation.

  1. Basic physics of xylophone and marimba bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suits, B. H.

    2001-07-01

    The frequency-dependent wave velocity and nonsinusoidal spatial dependence found for transverse waves in finite vibrating bars stands in stark contrast to the solutions to the one-dimensional wave equation, for example for the idealized vibrating string. The difference is particularly important when the resulting vibrations are used to produce music. Here, the appropriate approximate equations for transverse vibrations on a uniform bar are developed and compared to measurements using wooden bars. The results are extended using a simple finite element model to provide a means to predict normal mode behavior in nonuniform wooden bars such as those used for xylophones, marimbas, and related musical instruments.

  2. New design of high performance ionizing bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ronggang; Sun, Yurong

    2013-03-01

    This paper introduces a new design of DC-pulse ionizing bar to solve the problem of imbalance offset voltage for the AC ionizing bar, which is easily affected by the environment, as well as indicate the final tests. The new design mainly includes five parts: power supply circuit, main control unit, logic circuit, high frequency transformer unit, and feedback unit. The ionizing bar can automatically adjust the discharge voltage, pulse frequency and pulse width to balance the positive and negative ions. The final test results indicate that the DC ionizing bar owns good effect in electrostatic elimination.

  3. Properties of Bars in the Local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Preethi

    2009-12-01

    Early work on bar fractions suffered from poor sample sizes which limited the study of correlations between bar fraction and physical properties. Recent large surveys like SDSS and COSMOS have helped rectify this deficiency. Sheth et al. (2008) using a sample of 2000 galaxies from COSMOS, have shown that bar fractions decrease with redshift as claimed by Abraham et al. (1999) and van den Bergh et al. (2000) . In addition, they find the bar fraction of spiral galaxies is a strong function of stellar mass, color and bulge prominence such that more massive, redder, concentrated galaxies have a larger bar fraction than less massive, bluer, diskier galaxies. Barazza et al. (2008) using 2000 galaxies from SDSS find results counter to Sheth et al. (2008) i.e., bar fractions increase with decreasing mass and bluer colors (corresponding to late type galaxies). Using a larger sample of 15000 visually classified SDSS galaxies (which includes bar classifications) I further investigate the properties of barred galaxies in the local universe. In addition, I will describe the variation of total fine fraction (bars + rings +lenses) with physical properties and the effects of AGN on the observed fine fraction.

  4. PREDICTIONS FOR $B \\to \\tau \\bar{\\mu} + \\mu \\bar{\\tau}$

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boubaa, Dris; Datta, Alakabha; Duraisamy, Murugeswaran; Khalil, Shaaban

    2013-12-01

    The observation of B -> τ \\bar {μ } + μ \\bar {τ } at present experiments would be a clear sign of new physics. In this paper, we calculate this process in an extended Higgs sector framework where the decay is mediated by the exchange of spin zero particle with flavor changing neutral current couplings. If we identify the scalar with the newly discovered state at LHC with a mass 125 GeV then we find that, after imposing all experimental constraints, the BR(Bs -> τ \\bar {μ } + μ \\bar {τ }) can be as high as 10-6 and BR (Bd -> τ \\bar {μ } + μ \\bar {τ }) can be as high as 10-7. We also calculate this process in the minimal supersymmetric standard model and find the BR(Bs ->τ \\bar {μ } + μ \\bar {τ }) is typically of the order 10-8.

  5. Comparison of patrons of hotels with early opening and standard hours.

    PubMed

    Smith, D I

    1986-02-01

    A comparison was made of 72 men who were patrons in hotels with 6 A.M. or 7 A.M. opening, with a control group of 87 men interviewed in nearby hotels with 10 A.M. opening. The two groups were very similar on biographical characteristics, yet the men in the early-opening group consumed significantly more alcohol, had more drinking sessions, spent longer in drinking, and had significantly higher SMAST scores. The early opening was apparently facilitating problem drinking.

  6. [A short history of René Groupil, patron saint of anesthetists].

    PubMed

    Quintal, J

    1994-10-01

    Born in 1608 near Angers, France, René Goupil looked after the native people at Sillery, Québec between 1640 and 1642 as surgeon and donné. Ambushed and captured by Mohawk warriors, he was killed in September 1642 near Auriesville NY. He was canonized in 1930. The life of Goupil is reviewed with regards to primitive medicine of the 17th century. In 1951, american nurse anesthetists chose René Goupil, health worker and saint of North America, as the patron saint of the anaesthetists. Since, he has been recognized by more and more practitioners of anaesthesia.

  7. Too Much Bar and Not Enough Mitzvah? A Proposed Research Agenda on Bar/Bat Mitzvah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Jewish educators are understandably interested in research on how bar/bat mitzvah affect Jewish education or research on what Jewish schools have done to avoid the distortions of a focus on bar/bat mitzvah. Research might also focus on the somewhat different and more ambitious topic of the role that bar/bat mitzvah play in contemporary Jewish…

  8. Sex work and its associations with alcohol and methamphetamine use among female bar and spa workers in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Urada, Lianne A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Morisky, Donald E; Schilling, Robert F; Simbulan, Nymia P; Estacio, Leonardo R; Raj, Anita

    2014-03-01

    To assess the prevalence of sex work and its associations with substance use among female bar/spa workers in the Philippines (N = 498), workers from 54 bar or spa venues in Metro Manila (2009-2010) were surveyed on demographics, drug/alcohol use, abuse history, and sex work. Their median age was 23 years and 35% engaged in sex work. Sex work was independently associated with methamphetamine use (19% vs 4%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-6.2), alcohol use with patrons (49% vs. 27%; AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.4), and alcohol intoxication during sex (50% vs. 24%; AOR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2-3.5), but inversely associated with daily alcohol use (13% vs. 16%; AOR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1-0.5). Additional significant covariates included sexual abuse history, younger age, and not having a higher education. Findings suggest that interventions with sex workers in bars and spas should focus on methamphetamine use, alcohol use contexts, and violence victimization, to better meet the needs of this population.

  9. Sex Work and Its Associations With Alcohol and Methamphetamine Use Among Female Bar and Spa Workers in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Urada, Lianne A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Morisky, Donald E.; Schilling, Robert F.; Simbulan, Nymia P.; Estacio, Leonardo R.; Raj, Anita

    2014-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of sex work and its associations with substance use among female bar/spa workers in the Philippines (N = 498), workers from 54 bar or spa venues in Metro Manila (2009–2010) were surveyed on demographics, drug/alcohol use, abuse history, and sex work. Their median age was 23 years and 35% engaged in sex work. Sex work was independently associated with methamphetamine use (19% vs 4%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3–6.2), alcohol use with patrons (49% vs. 27%;AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1–3.4), and alcohol intoxication during sex (50% vs. 24%; AOR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2–3.5), but inversely associated with daily alcohol use (13% vs. 16%;AOR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1–0.5). Additional significant covariates included sexual abuse history, younger age, and not having a higher education. Findings suggest that interventions with sex workers in bars and spas should focus on methamphetamine use, alcohol use contexts, and violence victimization, to better meet the needs of this population. PMID:23343641

  10. Conservative Groups Threaten to Sue Bar Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    A proposed revision in the American Bar Association's accrediting standards for law schools is coming under fire from the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, which says the proposal seems to require the schools to use racial preferences in hiring and admissions despite federal and state laws limiting such policies. Although a bar-association official…

  11. Bar Study Stories. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on the impact of the availability of drinks in licensed establishments, such as bars and taverns on student drinking. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Cheap Drinks at College Bars Can Escalate Student Drinking (John D. Clapp); (2) High Alcohol Outlet Density: A Problem for Campuses and…

  12. Bars as seen by Herschel and Sloan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consolandi, Guido; Dotti, Massimo; Boselli, Alessandro; Gavazzi, Giuseppe; Gargiulo, Fabio

    2017-02-01

    We present an observational study of the effect of bars on the gas component and on the star formation properties of their host galaxies in a statistically significant sample of resolved objects, the Herschel Reference Sample. The analysis of optical and far-infrared images allows us to identify a clear spatial correlation between stellar bars and the cold-gas distribution mapped by the warm dust emission. We find that the infrared counterparts of optically identified bars are either bar-like structures or dead central regions in which star formation is strongly suppressed. Similar morphologies are found in the distribution of star formation directly traced by Hα maps. The sizes of such optical and infrared structures correlate remarkably well, hinting at a causal connection. In the light of previous observations and of theoretical investigations in the literature, we interpret our findings as further evidence of the scenario in which bars drive strong inflows toward their host nuclei: young bars are still in the process of perturbing the gas and star formation clearly delineates the shape of the bars; old bars on the contrary already removed any gas within their extents, carving a dead region of negligible star formation.

  13. Needle bar for warp knitting machines

    DOEpatents

    Hagel, Adolf; Thumling, Manfred

    1979-01-01

    Needle bar for warp knitting machines with a number of needles individually set into slits of the bar and having shafts cranked to such an extent that the head section of each needle is in alignment with the shaft section accommodated by the slit. Slackening of the needles will thus not influence the needle spacing.

  14. Flexible scaffolding made of rigid BARs.

    PubMed

    Frolov, Vadim A; Zimmerberg, Joshua

    2008-03-07

    Crescent-shaped BAR domains are generic actors in the creation of membrane curvature. In this issue, Frost et al. (2008) reveal how collective twisting of rigid F-BAR domains on a soft membrane surface may lead to different membrane curvatures.

  15. Raising the Bar: Engaging Staff and Students in a Culture of Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Sue

    2012-01-01

    To thrive, a successful school library program needs active participation from all members of its community. As an instructional leader, the school librarian must be the one to raise the bar, not just informing other educators about resources and services, but empowering all adults to become engaged in the school library program. For example,…

  16. [Development of cereal bar with pineapple skin].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Renata Siqueira; Del Santo, Victor Rogério; Souza, Gilberto Batista de; Pereira, Cíntia Alessandra Matiucci

    2011-06-01

    The cereal bars are multi-component products consisting of cereals, dried fruit and syrup binder and may be added to the consumable parts of fruits and vegetables which usually are not exploited and have high nutritional value, thereby reducing food waste. It was developed a jam with pineapple skin, which it was utilized in 13.5% in the cereal bar formulation. The cereal bar was sensorial evaluated and had its centesimal and mineral composition determined. The new product achieved average of 8.3 for global impression using 9 points hedonic scale, 91% of acceptance rate and 67% of purchase intent. In this first use of pineapple skin jam as food ingredient it can be concluded that its aggregation in the cereal bar formula is feasible, making an accepted product with fibers, proteins and minerals, as an alternative to traditional cereal bars.

  17. Adherence to the Tobacco Control Act, 2007: presence of a workplace policy on tobacco use in bars and restaurants in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, K J; Ayah, R; Olewe, T

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite extensive knowledge about effective tobacco control interventions, the prevalence of tobacco use in many middle- and low-income countries continues to rise. In these countries, public appreciation of levels of protection provided by laws and regulations on tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke is limited. After ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Kenya enacted the Tobacco Control Act, 2007, banning smoking in public places except in designated smoking areas. Objective To assess adherence to the Tobacco Control Act, 2007 by determining the presence of a workplace policy on tobacco use in bars and restaurants. Methods A survey of 176 liquor licensed bars and restaurants in Nairobi County was carried out. Their managers were asked about the presence of a workplace policy governing smoking of tobacco, and observations made on provisions that determine adherence to the Tobacco Control Act, 2007. Results Smoking took place in almost all bars and restaurants (150 (85%)). Half the establishments (86 (49%)) had a workplace policy governing tobacco use among employees, although a difference between bars (11 (23%)) and restaurants (75 (58%)) was recorded (p<0.001). Establishments at which managers had lower levels of education were less likely to have a workplace policy (p<0.001) and less likely to have ‘no smoking’ signs and designated smoking areas (p<0.005). Conclusions and recommendations Kenya's implementation of the Tobacco Control Act, 2007 does not provide sufficient protection of patrons and workers in bars and restaurants. It is important to sensitise hospitality workers to the dangers of tobacco smoke. Bar and restaurants managers should have a minimum post-secondary education level. The Tobacco Control Act, 2007 requires strengthening to ensure that bars and restaurants have a smoke-free environment. PMID:27683518

  18. Exploring the binding dynamics of BAR proteins.

    PubMed

    Kabaso, Doron; Gongadze, Ekaterina; Jorgačevski, Jernej; Kreft, Marko; Van Rienen, Ursula; Zorec, Robert; Iglič, Aleš

    2011-09-01

    We used a continuum model based on the Helfrich free energy to investigate the binding dynamics of a lipid bilayer to a BAR domain surface of a crescent-like shape of positive (e.g. I-BAR shape) or negative (e.g. F-BAR shape) intrinsic curvature. According to structural data, it has been suggested that negatively charged membrane lipids are bound to positively charged amino acids at the binding interface of BAR proteins, contributing a negative binding energy to the system free energy. In addition, the cone-like shape of negatively charged lipids on the inner side of a cell membrane might contribute a positive intrinsic curvature, facilitating the initial bending towards the crescent-like shape of the BAR domain. In the present study, we hypothesize that in the limit of a rigid BAR domain shape, the negative binding energy and the coupling between the intrinsic curvature of negatively charged lipids and the membrane curvature drive the bending of the membrane. To estimate the binding energy, the electric potential at the charged surface of a BAR domain was calculated using the Langevin-Bikerman equation. Results of numerical simulations reveal that the binding energy is important for the initial instability (i.e. bending of a membrane), while the coupling between the intrinsic shapes of lipids and membrane curvature could be crucial for the curvature-dependent aggregation of negatively charged lipids near the surface of the BAR domain. In the discussion, we suggest novel experiments using patch clamp techniques to analyze the binding dynamics of BAR proteins, as well as the possible role of BAR proteins in the fusion pore stability of exovesicles.

  19. Anxious Behaviors of Patrons of an X-Rated Movie: An Update of the Winick Study for the Commission on Obscenity and Pornography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Gary A.; Davis, Donald M.

    A study examined the behavior patterns of patrons arriving at theatres that showed both "X" rated and "PG" rated movies. The study was undertaken to update the findings of the President's Commission on Pornography and Obscenity, which conducted similar research in 1970 and 1971. Patrons entering the theatre's X and PG rated…

  20. Recruiting Disadvantaged Adults. Public Library Training Institutes Library Service Guide No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyster, George W.

    Disadvantaged adults who need the information a library can provide include those who are poor, in the minority, aging, institutionalized, or handicapped. Methods used to recruit these potential patrons may include the media, mailings, exhibits, posters and billboards, personal contact, classes, bookmobiles, speakers, and advisory committees. Some…

  1. Learning for Life: Adult Learners Week Report (September 3-9, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hefler, Marita

    This publication highlights information, comments, and other materials related to Adult Learners Week (ALW)2000 in Australia. An introduction (Tony Brown)describes the context and events of ALW 2000. A message from the Chair of ALW (Dorothy Lucardie) provides a summary. A list of Highlights, messages from the Patron of ALW (William Deane) and the…

  2. Education behind Bars. International Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, William, Ed.

    The 11 chapters in this book are intended to raise awareness of the wealth of expertise the prison education sector has to offer other adult educators. "Policy Development and Cultural Issues in Australian Prison Education" (Bob Semmens) details the current situation, with a major focus on recent developments in Victoria. "Policy, Praxis, and…

  3. All over Bar the Shouting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The author expresses surprise and concern about what she perceives as an absence of feminist analysis in current discussions of adult education issues and discusses why talking about social class or women's oppression is no longer popular. Looking at examples of current gender inequalities in the workforce, the writer contends that women's…

  4. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars...

  5. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars...

  6. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars...

  7. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars...

  8. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars...

  9. Cam-controlled boring bar

    DOEpatents

    Glatthorn, Raymond H.

    1986-01-01

    A cam-controlled boring bar system (100) includes a first housing (152) which is rotatable about its longitudinal axis (154), and a second housing in the form of a cam-controlled slide (158) which is also rotatable about the axis (154) as well as being translatable therealong. A tool-holder (180) is mounted within the slide (158) for holding a single point cutting tool. Slide (158) has a rectangular configuration and is disposed within a rectangularly configured portion of the first housing (152). Arcuate cam slots (192) are defined within a side plate (172) of the housing (152), while cam followers (194) are mounted upon the cam slide (158) for cooperative engagement with the cam slots (192). In this manner, as the housing (152) and slide (158) rotate, and as the slide (158) also translates, a through-bore (14) having an hourglass configuration will be formed within a workpiece (16) which may be, for example, a nuclear reactor steam generator tube support plate.

  10. BAR domain proteins regulate Rho GTPase signaling

    PubMed Central

    Aspenström, Pontus

    2014-01-01

    BAR proteins comprise a heterogeneous group of multi-domain proteins with diverse biological functions. The common denominator is the Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain that not only confers targeting to lipid bilayers, but also provides scaffolding to mold lipid membranes into concave or convex surfaces. This function of BAR proteins is an important determinant in the dynamic reconstruction of membrane vesicles, as well as of the plasma membrane. Several BAR proteins function as linkers between cytoskeletal regulation and membrane dynamics. These links are provided by direct interactions between BAR proteins and actin-nucleation-promoting factors of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family and the Diaphanous-related formins. The Rho GTPases are key factors for orchestration of this intricate interplay. This review describes how BAR proteins regulate the activity of Rho GTPases, as well as how Rho GTPases regulate the function of BAR proteins. This mutual collaboration is a central factor in the regulation of vital cellular processes, such as cell migration, cytokinesis, intracellular transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis. PMID:25483303

  11. Tidally Induced Bars of Galaxies in Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łokas, Ewa L.; Ebrová, Ivana; del Pino, Andrés; Sybilska, Agnieszka; Athanassoula, E.; Semczuk, Marcin; Gajda, Grzegorz; Fouquet, Sylvain

    2016-08-01

    Using N-body simulations, we study the formation and evolution of tidally induced bars in disky galaxies in clusters. Our progenitor is a massive, late-type galaxy similar to the Milky Way, composed of an exponential disk and a Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter halo. We place the galaxy on four different orbits in a Virgo-like cluster and evolve it for 10 Gyr. As a reference case, we also evolve the same model in isolation. Tidally induced bars form on all orbits soon after the first pericenter passage and survive until the end of the evolution. They appear earlier, are stronger and longer, and have lower pattern speeds for tighter orbits. Only for the tightest orbit are the properties of the bar controlled by the orientation of the tidal torque from the cluster at pericenter. The mechanism behind the formation of the bars is the angular momentum transfer from the galaxy stellar component to its halo. All of the bars undergo extended periods of buckling instability that occur earlier and lead to more pronounced boxy/peanut shapes when the tidal forces are stronger. Using all simulation outputs of galaxies at different evolutionary stages, we construct a toy model of the galaxy population in the cluster and measure the average bar strength and bar fraction as a function of clustercentric radius. Both are found to be mildly decreasing functions of radius. We conclude that tidal forces can trigger bar formation in cluster cores, but not in the outskirts, and thus can cause larger concentrations of barred galaxies toward the cluster center.

  12. First Measurement of σ(gg → t$\\bar{t}$)/σ(p$\\bar{p}$ → t$\\bar{t}$)

    SciTech Connect

    Alamdari, Shabnaz Pashapour

    2008-01-01

    The work presented here is the first measurement of the fraction of top quark pair production through gluon-gluon fusion. We use an integrated luminosity of 0.96 ± 0.06 fb-1 of p{bar p} collisions at √s of 1.96 TeV collected by the CDF II detector. We select t$\\bar{t}$ candidates by identifying a high-pT lepton candidate, a large missing ET as evidence for a neutrino candidate and at least four high ET jets, one of which has to be identified as originating from a b quark. The challenge is to discriminate between the two production processes with the identical final state, gg → t$\\bar{t}$ and q$\\bar{p}$ → t$\\bar{t}$. We take advantage of the fact that compared to a quark, a gluon is more likely to radiate a low momentum gluon and therefore, one expects a larger number of charged particles with low pT in a process involving more gluons. Given the large uncertainties associated with the modeling of the low pT charged particle multiplicity, a data-driven technique was employed. Using calibration data samples, we show there exists a clear correlation between the observed average number of low pT charged particles and the average number of gluons involved in the production process predicted by Monte Carlo calculations. Given the correlation, one can identify low pT charged particle multiplicity distributions associated with specific average number of gluons. The W + 0 jet sample and dijets sample with leading jet ET in the range of 80-100 GeV are used to find no-gluon and gluon-rich low p{sub T} charged particle multiplicity distributions, respectively. Using these no-gluon and gluon-rich distributions in a likelihood fit, we find the fraction of gluon-rich events in t{bar t} candidates. This fraction has contributions from the signal and background events. Taking into account these contributions and the gg → t$\\bar{t}$ and q$\\bar{q}$ → t$\\bar

  13. Infragravity waves over a natural barred profile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H.; Holman, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of cross-shore flow were made across the surf zone during a storm as a nearshore bar became better developed and migrated offshore. Measured infragravity band spectra were compared to synthetic spectra calculated numerically over the natural barred profile assuming a white run-up spectrum of leaky mode or high-mode edge waves. The dominant wave observed early in the storm was consistent with Symond and Bowen's (1984) theoretical prediction of resonant amplification of discrete frequencies over a barred profile. -from Authors

  14. "Hack" Is Not A Dirty Word--The Tenth Anniversary of Patron Access Microcomputer Centers in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Patrick R.

    1986-01-01

    The history of patron access microcomputers in libraries is described as carrying on a tradition that information and computer power should be shared. Questions that all types of libraries need to ask in planning microcomputer centers are considered and several model centers are described. (EM)

  15. The Relationship between Patron-Dependence, Communication and Development: A Look into Social Integration and Socio-Economic Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quesada, Gustavo M.

    Personal interviews were conducted in July, 1967, with 315 farm operators in rural Brazil where the local extension service had been in operation for more than four years. Patron-dependence (PD) was described as the subscription to a value system, according to the individual's position in the status structure, which produces dependency at…

  16. 39 CFR 3001.117 - Posting of documents by Postal Service for inspection by affected postal patrons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Posting of documents by Postal Service for inspection by affected postal patrons. 3001.117 Section 3001.117 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION... Close or Consolidate Post Offices § 3001.117 Posting of documents by Postal Service for inspection...

  17. Give 'Em What They Want: A One-Year Study of Unmediated Patron-Driven Acquisition of e-Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karen S.; Wright, Michael; Clatanoff, Kathleen; Barton, Hope; Shreeves, Edward

    2012-01-01

    In September 2009, the University of Iowa Libraries embarked on an experiment with patron-driven acquisition (PDA) of e-books with ebrary and YBP. An e-book-only PDA plan was initiated, entirely unmediated and with instantaneous access to the content. MARC records were loaded for each title, determined by our YBP approval profile and other…

  18. The Effects of Nighttime Seat Belt Enforcement on Seat Belt Use by Tavern Patrons: A Preliminary Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malenfant, J. E. Louis; Van Houten, Ron

    1988-01-01

    Nighttime seat belt use by patrons of 10 taverns in two Canadian cities increased following an intervention consisting of police enforcement and the use of signs and posters. Separate observations of daytime seat belt use noted an increase in one city and maintenance at a high level in the other. (JW)

  19. Supporting Individual Library Patrons with Information Technologies: Emerging One-to-One Library Services on the College or University Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, John J., III; Hafner, Arthur W.

    2002-01-01

    Describes business techniques for mass marketing, where information technologies are used to target discrete individuals or groups and promote customer interaction. Considers the applicability of business concepts to academic library service, including uniquely identifying patrons, issues of privacy, focusing on the most valuable library services,…

  20. Impact resistance of bar glasses.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, J P; Huggett, R H; Kidner, G

    1993-12-01

    Bar glasses are often used as weapons in interpersonal violence. Violence often erupts spontaneously and assailants use objects close to hand as weapons. After an initial national Accident and Emergency Department study to identify glass designs most often implicated in interpersonal violence, the impact resistance of 1-pint beer glasses was tested in a materials laboratory with a Zwick 5102 pendulum impact tester. Both straight-sided (nonik) glasses (annealed and tempered) and handled tankards (annealed) were tested to destruction. The impact resistance of new glasses was compared with that of glasses subjected to wear. The mean impact resistance of new annealed noniks did not differ significantly although new glasses were significantly more resistant than worn glasses (p < 0.01). It was not possible to break any of the tempered glasses with the pendulum used (maximum impact energy, 4 J). When noniks had been scratched at the rim to mimic wear, tempered glasses also had the highest impact resistance (p < 0.01) whereas the mean resistance of the annealed noniks was not significantly different. When tempered glasses failed during testing, they all disintegrated into relatively harmless cubes of glass, particularly the thicker bases of glasses. In contrast, annealed designs fractured leaving sharp shards although the thicker bases remained intact. The mean impact resistance of new annealed noniks was 0.5 J, of worn annealed noniks 0.08 J, of tempered new noniks > 4 J, of worn tempered noniks 0.18 J, and of tankards, 1.7 J.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. The BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, A.

    1997-07-01

    The progress on the design and construction of the BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter including its mechanical structure, the readout system, the mechanical and optical properties of the crystals, and the schedule for the final assembly and testing is summarized.

  2. Blast Quantification Using Hopkinson Pressure Bars.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Samuel D; Fay, Stephen D; Rigby, Samuel E; Tyas, Andrew; Warren, James A; Reay, Jonathan J; Fuller, Benjamin J; Gant, Matthew T A; Elgy, Ian D

    2016-07-05

    Near-field blast load measurement presents an issue to many sensor types as they must endure very aggressive environments and be able to measure pressures up to many hundreds of megapascals. In this respect the simplicity of the Hopkinson pressure bar has a major advantage in that while the measurement end of the Hopkinson bar can endure and be exposed to harsh conditions, the strain gauge mounted to the bar can be affixed some distance away. This allows protective housings to be utilized which protect the strain gauge but do not interfere with the measurement acquisition. The use of an array of pressure bars allows the pressure-time histories at discrete known points to be measured. This article also describes the interpolation routine used to derive pressure-time histories at un-instrumented locations on the plane of interest. Currently the technique has been used to measure loading from high explosives in free air and buried shallowly in various soils.

  3. ${{\\bar{d}} - {\\bar{u}}}$ Flavor Asymmetry in the Proton in Chiral Effective Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Salamu, Y.; Ji, Cheung-Ryong; Melnitchouk, Wally; Wang, P.

    2015-09-01

    The ${\\bar d - \\bar u}$ flavor asymmetry in the proton arising from pion loops is computed using chiral effective field theory. The calculation includes both nucleon and Δ intermediate states, and uses both the fully relativistic and heavy baryon frameworks. The x dependence of ${\\bar d - \\bar u}$ extracted from the Fermilab E866 Drell–Yan data can be well reproduced in terms of a single transverse momentum cutoff parameter regulating the ultraviolet behavior of the loop integrals. In addition to the distribution at x > 0, corrections to the integrated asymmetry from zero momentum contributions are computed, which arise from pion rainbow and bubble diagrams at x = 0. These have not been accounted for in previous analyses, and can make important contributions to the lowest moment of ${\\bar d-\\bar u}$ .

  4. BAR Domains as Sensors of Membrane Curvature: The Amphiphysin BAR Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Brian J.; Kent, Helen M.; Mills, Ian G.; Vallis, Yvonne; Butler, P. Jonathan G.; Evans, Philip R.; McMahon, Harvey T.

    2004-01-01

    The BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs) domain is the most conserved feature in amphiphysins from yeast to human and is also found in endophilins and nadrins. We solved the structure of the Drosophila amphiphysin BAR domain. It is a crescent-shaped dimer that binds preferentially to highly curved negatively charged membranes. With its N-terminal amphipathic helix and BAR domain (N-BAR), amphiphysin can drive membrane curvature in vitro and in vivo. The structure is similar to that of arfaptin2, which we find also binds and tubulates membranes. From this, we predict that BAR domains are in many protein families, including sorting nexins, centaurins, and oligophrenins. The universal and minimal BAR domain is a dimerization, membrane-binding, and curvature-sensing module.

  5. FORMING DOUBLE-BARRED GALAXIES FROM DYNAMICALLY COOL INNER DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Min; Shen, Juntai; Debattista, Victor P.

    2015-05-10

    About one-third of early-type barred galaxies host small-scale secondary bars. The formation and evolution of such double-barred (S2B) galaxies remain far from being well understood. In order to understand the formation of such systems, we explore a large parameter space of isolated pure-disk simulations. We show that a dynamically cool inner disk embedded in a hotter outer disk can naturally generate a steady secondary bar while the outer disk forms a large-scale primary bar. The independent bar instabilities of inner and outer disks result in long-lived double-barred structures whose dynamical properties are comparable to those in observations. This formation scenario indicates that the secondary bar might form from the general bar instability, the same as the primary bar. Under some circumstances, the interaction of the bars and the disk leads to the two bars aligning or single, nuclear, bars only. Simulations that are cool enough of the center to experience clump instabilities may also generate steady S2B galaxies. In this case, the secondary bars are “fast,” i.e., the bar length is close to the co-rotation radius. This is the first time that S2B galaxies containing a fast secondary bar are reported. Previous orbit-based studies had suggested that fast secondary bars were not dynamically possible.

  6. Frequency-narrowed diode array bar.

    PubMed

    Babcock, Earl; Chann, Bien; Nelson, Ian A; Walker, Thad G

    2005-05-20

    We describe a method to frequency narrow multielement high-power diode bars. Using a commercial 60-W, 49-element, 1-cm-long diode array bar at 795 nm running at 45 W, we narrow the linewidth from 1000 to 64 GHz with only a loss of 33% in output power. The resulting laser light is well suited for spin-exchange optical pumping of noble gas nuclei.

  7. Intelligent bar chart plagiarism detection in documents.

    PubMed

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Rehman, Amjad; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts.

  8. Intelligent Bar Chart Plagiarism Detection in Documents

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts. PMID:25309952

  9. Delamination stresses in semicircular laminated composite bars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    1988-01-01

    Using anisotropic elasticity theory, delamination stresses in a semicircular laminated composite curved bar subjected to end forces and end moments were calculated, and their radial locations determined. A family of design curves was presented, showing variation of the intensity of delamination stresses and their radial locations with different geometry and different degrees of anisotropy of the curved bar. The effect of anisotropy on the location of peak delamination stress was found to be small.

  10. Bar pattern speeds in CALIFA galaxies. I. Fast bars across the Hubble sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguerri, J. A. L.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Amorin, A.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.; Cid Fernandes, R.; García-Benito, R.; García-Lorenzo, B.; González Delgado, R. M.; Husemann, B.; Kalinova, V.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Márquez, I.; Mast, D.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez, S. F.; van de Ven, G.; Walcher, C. J.; Backsmann, N.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; del Olmo, A.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Pérez, I.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Wisotzki, L.; Ziegler, B.

    2015-04-01

    Context. The bar pattern speed (Ωb) is defined as the rotational frequency of the bar, and it determines the bar dynamics. Several methods have been proposed for measuring Ωb. The non-parametric method proposed by Tremaine & Weinberg (1984, ApJ, 282, L5; TW) and based on stellar kinematics is the most accurate. This method has been applied so far to 17 galaxies, most of them SB0 and SBa types. Aims: We have applied the TW method to a new sample of 15 strong and bright barred galaxies, spanning a wide range of morphological types from SB0 to SBbc. Combining our analysis with previous studies, we investigate 32 barred galaxies with their pattern speed measured by the TW method. The resulting total sample of barred galaxies allows us to study the dependence of Ωb on galaxy properties, such as the Hubble type. Methods: We measured Ωb using the TW method on the stellar velocity maps provided by the integral-field spectroscopy data from the CALIFA survey. Integral-field data solve the problems that long-slit data present when applying the TW method, resulting in the determination of more accurate Ωb. In addition, we have also derived the ratio ℛ of the corotation radius to the bar length of the galaxies. According to this parameter, bars can be classified as fast (ℛ < 1.4) and slow (ℛ > 1.4). Results: For all the galaxies, ℛ is compatible within the errors with fast bars. We cannot rule out (at 95% level) the fast bar solution for any galaxy. We have not observed any significant trend between ℛ and the galaxy morphological type. Conclusions: Our results indicate that independent of the Hubble type, bars have been formed and then evolve as fast rotators. This observational result will constrain the scenarios of formation and evolution of bars proposed by numerical simulations.

  11. Preparation of a Breadfruit Flour Bar

    PubMed Central

    Nochera, Carmen L.; Ragone, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Breadfruit is a nutritious, high energy food with a low quantity of protein but excellent protein quality. It has the potential to be developed into desired products which will help increase its utilization and add value to the crop. The overall purposes of this investigation were to develop a portable, nutritious, ready-to-eat breadfruit product (bar), test the sensory qualities of the product, and evaluate the nutritional properties of the product. Flour made from the Micronesian variety, Meinpadahk (Artocarpus altilis × Artocarpus mariannensis), was utilized for the development of the breadfruit bar. Breadfruit is a rich source of fiber, vitamins such as vitamin C, minerals such as potassium, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Nutritional labeling indicates that the breadfruit bar is high in carbohydrates and low in fat, and sensory evaluation indicates that 81% of the panelists found the bar acceptable while 19% disliked the bar. The breadfruit bar can provide an appealing and inexpensive gluten-free food source based on locally available breadfruit. PMID:28231132

  12. Preparation of a Breadfruit Flour Bar.

    PubMed

    Nochera, Carmen L; Ragone, Diane

    2016-05-20

    Breadfruit is a nutritious, high energy food with a low quantity of protein but excellent protein quality. It has the potential to be developed into desired products which will help increase its utilization and add value to the crop. The overall purposes of this investigation were to develop a portable, nutritious, ready-to-eat breadfruit product (bar), test the sensory qualities of the product, and evaluate the nutritional properties of the product. Flour made from the Micronesian variety, Meinpadahk (Artocarpus altilis × Artocarpus mariannensis), was utilized for the development of the breadfruit bar. Breadfruit is a rich source of fiber, vitamins such as vitamin C, minerals such as potassium, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Nutritional labeling indicates that the breadfruit bar is high in carbohydrates and low in fat, and sensory evaluation indicates that 81% of the panelists found the bar acceptable while 19% disliked the bar. The breadfruit bar can provide an appealing and inexpensive gluten-free food source based on locally available breadfruit.

  13. Bar Evolution and Bar Properties from Disc Galaxies in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson-Smith, Tenley; Simmons, Brooke

    2017-01-01

    Bars in disc galaxies indicate a large collection of stars in a specific configuration of orbits that give the galaxy center a rectangular looking feature. Astronomers have discovered that these bars affect the distribution of matter in galaxies, and are also related to galaxy stellar mass and star formation history. Little is known about the specifics of how bars evolve and drive the evolution of their host galaxies because only a handful of bars have been studied in detail so far. I have examined a sample of 8,221 barred galaxies from the early universe to identify and examine correlations with galaxy properties. The data comes from Galaxy Zoo, an online citizen science project that allows anyone to classify and measure detailed properties of galaxies. I present results including the fraction of galaxies in the sample that have bars, and the variation of galaxy properties with bar length, including galaxy color and stellar mass. I also compare these results to barred galaxies in the local universe. I will discuss the implications of these results in the context of galaxy evolution overall, including the effect of dark matter on bars and galaxy evolution.

  14. $\\bar d - \\bar u$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory

    SciTech Connect

    Salamu, Yusupujiang; Ji, Chueng -Ryong; Melnitchouk, W.; Wang, P.

    2015-03-25

    We compute the $\\bar d - \\bar u$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory, including both nucleon and Δ degrees of freedom, within both relativistic and heavy baryon frameworks. In addition to the distribution at $x>0$, we estimate the correction to the integrated asymmetry arising from zero momentum contributions from pion rainbow and bubble diagrams at $x=0$, which have not been accounted for in previous analyses. In conclusion, we find that the empirical $x$ dependence of $\\bar d - \\bar u$ as well as the integrated asymmetry can be well reproduced in terms of a transverse momentum cutoff parameter.

  15. Dynamical Calculations of bar K and MULTI-bar K Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazda, D.; Mareš, J.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    We report on our recent calculations of bar K and multi-bar K nuclei. Calculations were performed fully self-consistently across the periodic table using the relativistic mean-field approach. We aimed at detailed analysis of dynamical processes and various thresholds that determine the K- absorption width. Further, we studied the behavior of the nuclear medium under the influence of increasing strangeness in order to search for bar K condensation precursor phenomena. Last, we explored possibly self-bound strange hadronic configurations consisting of neutrons and bar K0 mesons and studied their properties.

  16. Older Adults' Casino Gambling Behavior and Their Attitudes Toward New Casino Development.

    PubMed

    Piscitelli, Anthony; Harrison, Jay; Doherty, Sean; Carmichael, Barbara A

    2017-04-01

    Research on new casinos typically focuses upon their impact on the community, rather than on specific at-risk groups. This research study explores the impact of the opening of a new casino on attitudes of older adult casino patrons, especially those at particular risk of having gambling problems. Results demonstrate that over 80% of older adult casino patrons would not change their attitudes toward gambling or expect to increase their gambling as a result of the opening of a new casino. However, older adults with problem gambling issues are more likely to indicate they would visit a casino more, spend more time at a casino, and gamble more as a result of the opening of a new casino. In addition, older adults with signs of a gambling problem are more likely to say the opening of a new casino would change their opinions of gambling in general or casino gambling.

  17. Role of Erosion in Shaping Point Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, J.; Meade, R.

    2012-04-01

    A powerful metaphor in fluvial geomorphology has been that depositional features such as point bars (and other floodplain features) constitute the river's historical memory in the form of uniformly thick sedimentary deposits waiting for the geomorphologist to dissect and interpret the past. For the past three decades, along the channel of Powder River (Montana USA) we have documented (with annual cross-sectional surveys and pit trenches) the evolution of the shape of three point bars that were created when an extreme flood in 1978 cut new channels across the necks of two former meander bends and radically shifted the location of a third bend. Subsequent erosion has substantially reshaped, at different time scales, the relic sediment deposits of varying age. At the weekly to monthly time scale (i.e., floods from snowmelt or floods from convective or cyclonic storms), the maximum scour depth was computed (by using a numerical model) at locations spaced 1 m apart across the entire point bar for a couple of the largest floods. The maximum predicted scour is about 0.22 m. At the annual time scale, repeated cross-section topographic surveys (25 during 32 years) indicate that net annual erosion at a single location can be as great as 0.5 m, and that the net erosion is greater than net deposition during 8, 16, and 32% of the years for the three point bars. On average, the median annual net erosion was 21, 36, and 51% of the net deposition. At the decadal time scale, an index of point bar preservation often referred to as completeness was defined for each cross section as the percentage of the initial deposit (older than 10 years) that was still remaining in 2011; computations indicate that 19, 41, and 36% of the initial deposits of sediment were eroded. Initial deposits were not uniform in thickness and often represented thicker pods of sediment connected by thin layers of sediment or even isolated pods at different elevations across the point bar in response to multiple

  18. 21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of fused prisms of gradually...

  19. 21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of fused prisms of gradually...

  20. 21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of fused prisms of gradually...

  1. On the morphology of dust lanes in galactic bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Menguiano, L.; Pérez, I.; Zurita, A.; Martínez-Valpuesta, I.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Sánchez, S. F.; Comerón, S.; Díaz-García, S.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of our study is to use dynamical simulations to explore the influence of two important dynamical bar parameters, bar strength and bar pattern speed on the shape of the bar dust lanes. To quantify the shape of the dust lanes we have developed a new systematic method to measure the dust lane curvature. Previous numerical simulations have compared the curvature of bar dust lanes with the bar strength, predicting a relation between both parameters which has been supported by observational studies but with a large spread. We take into account the bar pattern speed to explore, simultaneously, the effect of both parameters on the dust lane shape. To that end, we separate our galactic bars in fast bars (1 < {R} < 1.4 ) and slow bars ({R} > 1.4 ), obtaining, as previous simulations, an inverse relation between the dust lane curvature and the bar strength for fast bars. For the first time, we extend the study to slow bars, finding a constant curvature as a function of the bar strength. As a result, we conclude that weak bars with straight dust lanes are candidates for slow bars. Finally, we have analysed a pilot sample of 10 S4G galaxies, obtaining dust lane curvatures lying within the range covered by the simulations.

  2. Automated bar detection in local disk galaxies from the SDSS. The colors of bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consolandi, G.

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes an automatic isophotal fitting procedure that succeeds, without the support of any visual inspection of either the images or the ellipticity/position-angle radial profiles, to extract a fairly pure sample of barred late-type galaxies (LTGs) among thousands of optical images from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The procedure relies on previous methods to robustly extract the photometrical properties of a large sample of local SDSS galaxies and is tailored to extract bars on the basis of their well-known peculiarities in their position angle and ellipticity profiles. This procedure was run on a sample of 5853 galaxies in the Coma and Local superclusters. The procedure extracted a color, an ellipticity and a position angle radial profile of the ellipses fitted to the isophotes for each galaxy. Examining the profiles of 922 face-on LTGs (B/A > 0.7) automatically, the procedure found that 36% are barred. The local bar fraction strongly increases with stellar mass. The sample of barred galaxies is used to construct a set of template radial color profiles to test the impact of the barred galaxy population on the average color profiles as previously shown in the literature and to test the bar-quenching scenario. The radial color profile of barred galaxy shows that bars are on average redder than their surrounding disk producing an outside-in gradient toward red in correspondence with their corotation radius. The distribution of the extension of the deprojected length of the bar suggests that bars have strong impact on the gradients of averaged color profiles. The dependence of the profiles on the mass is consistent with the bar-quenching scenario, i.e. more massive barred galaxies have redder colors (hence older stellar population and suppressed star formation) inside their corotation radius with respect to their lower mass counterparts. Tables of the barred and non-barred galaxies are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  3. Improved Coating System for High Strength Torsion Bars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-23

    SwW IMPROVED COATING SYSTEM FOR HIGH S- TYPE Of REPORT & PEROo CovERED STRENGTH TORSION BAR Final Report Plastisol Coating System Provides a Cost...8217 mumber) Torsion Bar Plastisol Coating Inorganic Coating Protective Coating Polyvinyl Chloride Coating Polyurethane Coating Corrosion Protection Tape...Bars E. Endurance Test Results for One-third Length Torsion E-1 Bar F. Specification for Application of Plastisol to High F-1 Strength Torsion Bar

  4. bar H and bar H+ production cross sections for the GBAR experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comini, P.; Hervieux, P.-A.

    2013-06-01

    The production and cooling of the bar H+ ion is the key point of the GBAR experiment (Gravitational Behaviour of Antihydrogen at Rest), which aims at performing the free fall of antihydrogen atoms to measure bar g, the acceleration of antimatter on Earth. bar H+ ions will be obtained from collisions between a positronium cloud and antiprotons delivered by the AD/ELENA facility at CERN, with intermediate formation of antihydrogen atoms. In order to optimise the experimental production of bar H+ ions, we computed the total cross sections of the two corresponding reactions, within the same theoretical framework of the Continuum Distorted Wave - Final State (CDW-FS) model. The different contributions of the bar H excited states have been systematically investigated for different states of Ps. The results exhibit an increase of the bar H production toward low kinetic energies, in agreement with experimental data and previous calculations, whereas the largest bar H+ production is obtained with low energy ground-state antihydrogen atoms. These theoretical predictions suggest that the overall production of bar H+ could be optimal for 2 keV antiproton impact energy, using positronium atoms prepared in the 2p state.

  5. Measurement of B0bar -> D(*)0 K(*)0bar BranchingFractions

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2006-04-10

    The authors present a study of the decays {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup (*)0}{bar K}{sup (*)0} using a sample of 226 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC. They report evidence for the decay of B{sup 0} and {bar B}{sup 0} mesons to the D*{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0} final state with an average branching fraction {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0}) {triple_bond} {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0}) + {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0}K{sup 0})/2 = (3.6 {+-} 1.2 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -5}.

  6. Do alcohol expectancies become intoxicated outcomes? A test of social-learning theory in a naturalistic bar setting.

    PubMed

    Wall, Anne-Marie; Thrussell, Christine; Lalonde, Richard N

    2003-09-01

    According to social-learning theory, alcohol outcome expectancies (AOEs) are important motivators of drinking behavior that are reinforced, in part, as a result of one's direct experience with alcohol's intoxicating effects. To date, limited research has been conducted in naturalistic bar settings to examine the congruency between AOEs held prior to drinking and individuals' subjective perceptions of post-drinking outcomes. The present study was designed to fill this void. Fifty regular bar patrons (30 males and 20 females) participated. Prior to the initiation of the drinking episode, expected alcohol effects and associated valences were assessed using the Comprehensive Effects of Alcohol (CEOA) questionnaire [Fromme, Stroot, and Kaplan, (1993) 19]. At the conclusion of the drinking episode, all individuals completed the CEOA that was modified in order to assess their subjective alcohol-related outcomes. Overall, while individuals' intoxicated outcomes generally mirrored their pre-drinking AOEs, a lack of congruency was observed with respect to alcohol-related risk and aggression, such that participants reported feeling less aggressive and more disinclined to engage in risky behavior than they had expected as a result of consuming alcohol. As well, two presumably negative (i.e., behavioral impairment and self-perception) and one positive (i.e., liquid courage) alcohol-related outcomes were rated more favorably at the end of the drinking episode. Finally, a main effect for gender was found for specific AOEs. The implications of these findings for social-learning explanations of drinking behavior are discussed.

  7. Arthroscopically assisted central physeal bar resection.

    PubMed

    Marsh, James S; Polzhofer, Gert K

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-seven central physeal bars were removed with an arthroscopically assisted technique. Thirty children (32 cases) have been followed to maturity or physeal closure. There were 19 boys and 11 girls, aged 4-14 years (mean, 9.5 years). Site of arrest was distal femur (15), proximal tibia (9), distal tibia (6), and distal radius (2). Mean follow-up was 6.5 years (range, 2-12 years). Adequate longitudinal growth was realized in 21 patients (70%) just after bar resection. Five patients (17%) required osteotomy, lengthening, or epiphysiodesis in addition to bar resection. In 4 patients (13%), bar resection failed. Failures occurred in those patients whose source of growth arrest was infection (3) or degree of physeal trauma approached 50% (1 case). This is the first series that studies and documents the efficacy of the arthroscope in central physeal bar resection. It provides the best visualization with minimal morbidity. The technique is described, including a discussion of technical tips and pitfalls.

  8. Partial entrainment of gravel bars during floods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, C.P.; Booth, D.B.; Burges, S.J.; Montgomery, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Spatial patterns of bed material entrainment by floods were documented at seven gravel bars using arrays of metal washers (bed tags) placed in the streambed. The observed patterns were used to test a general stochastic model that bed material entrainment is a spatially independent, random process where the probability of entrainment is uniform over a gravel bar and a function of the peak dimensionless shear stress ??*0 of the flood. The fraction of tags missing from a gravel bar during a flood, or partial entrainment, had an approximately normal distribution with respect to ??*0 with a mean value (50% of the tags entrained) of 0.085 and standard deviation of 0.022 (root-mean-square error of 0.09). Variation in partial entrainment for a given ??*0 demonstrated the effects of flow conditioning on bed strength, with lower values of partial entrainment after intermediate magnitude floods (0.065 < ??*0 < 0.08) than after higher magnitude floods. Although the probability of bed material entrainment was approximately uniform over a gravel bar during individual floods and independent from flood to flood, regions of preferential stability and instability emerged at some bars over the course of a wet season. Deviations from spatially uniform and independent bed material entrainment were most pronounced for reaches with varied flow and in consecutive floods with small to intermediate magnitudes.

  9. Warp evidence in precessing galactic bar models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Martín, P.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Masdemont, J. J.

    2016-04-01

    Most galaxies have a warped shape when they are seen edge-on. The reason for this curious form is not completely known so far, so in this work we apply dynamical system tools to contribute to its explanation. Starting from a simple, but realistic model formed by a bar and a disc, we study the effect of a small misalignment between the angular momentum of the system and its angular velocity. To this end, a precession model was developed and considered, assuming that the bar behaves like a rigid body. After checking that the periodic orbits inside the bar continue to be the skeleton of the inner system even after inflicting a precession to the potential, we computed the invariant manifolds of the unstable periodic orbits departing from the equilibrium points at the ends of the bar to find evidence of their warped shapes. As is well known, the invariant manifolds associated with these periodic orbits drive the arms and rings of barred galaxies and constitute the skeleton of these building blocks. Looking at them from a side-on viewpoint, we find that these manifolds present warped shapes like those recognised in observations. Lastly, test particle simulations have been performed to determine how the stars are affected by the applied precession, this way confirming the theoretical results.

  10. Numerical simulations of wave propagation in long bars with application to Kolsky bar testing

    SciTech Connect

    Corona, Edmundo

    2014-11-01

    Material testing using the Kolsky bar, or split Hopkinson bar, technique has proven instrumental to conduct measurements of material behavior at strain rates in the order of 103 s-1. Test design and data reduction, however, remain empirical endeavors based on the experimentalist's experience. Issues such as wave propagation across discontinuities, the effect of the deformation of the bar surfaces in contact with the specimen, the effect of geometric features in tensile specimens (dog-bone shape), wave dispersion in the bars and other particulars are generally treated using simplified models. The work presented here was conducted in Q3 and Q4 of FY14. The objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of numerical simulations of Kolsky bar tests, which was done successfully.

  11. Measuring the Fraction of Bars and Offset Bars Using the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Alexa

    2012-01-01

    Using the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies at 3.6 and 4.5μm, I have measured a preliminary bar fraction and offset bar fraction in the local universe by visually identifying bar structure within a sample of 2,140 local galaxies. A sample this large has not been used since 1963, when Gerard de Vaucouleurs found the bar fraction to be roughly fbar ˜ 0.6 in the Third Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies. Since then, there has been much debate over the true value of the bar fraction. The purpose of finding a bar fraction using S4G is to provide a final say in this debate. I have found that the bar fraction in the local universe is fbar = 0.69 when including both definite bars (SB) and candidate bars (SAB). I have also measured a preliminary value for the fraction of offset bars using the same sample. Offset bars are a very rare phenomenon. Of the sample used, 91 galaxies are found to be definite offset bars while an additional 39 are found to be candidate offset bars. When including both definite offset bars and candidate offset bars, the offset bar fraction in the local universe becomes fob = 0.12. I also measure the fraction of offset bars as a function of Hubble type and stellar mass. We find that 54% of offset bars are found in disks having a stellar mass of M ≤ 108 M⊙. Late-type disks possess significantly more offset bars than early-type with 60% of offset bars being found in disks having a Hubble type t ≥ 6.

  12. Evaluations by staff, residents, and community seniors of patronizing speech in the nursing home: impact of passive, assertive, or humorous responses.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E B; Kennaley, D E; Pratt, M W; Shumovich, M A

    2000-06-01

    Two studies tested the impact of alternative communication in accommodation strategies. Nursing home staff and residents (and community-residing seniors in Study 2) rated nurse-resident conversational scenarios in which a resident responded passively, directly assertively, or humorously (indirectly assertively) to a patronizing nurse. The nurse then either maintained a patronizing manner or accommodated with a more respectful speech style. Even though all groups devalued the nurse who maintained a patronizing speech style, nursing home residents predictably showed the most acceptance. The directly assertive response by the resident elicited more devaluation of the nonaccommodating nurse than did either passive or humorous responses, but also the least favorable ratings of the resident. Ratings of the humorous response in Study 2 suggested that humor could be a good compromise response style for allowing the receiver of patronizing speech to express opposition to a request, yet still maintain an appearance of competence and politeness.

  13. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  14. B Counting at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    McGregor, Grant Duncan

    2008-12-16

    In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

  15. Imaging of physeal bars in children.

    PubMed

    Wang, David C; Deeney, Vincent; Roach, James W; Shah, Amisha J

    2015-08-01

    The growth plate, also known as the physis or epiphyseal plate, is essential for longitudinal growth of bones in the immature skeleton. A variety of insults to the growth plate from trauma to infection to idiopathic causes can lead to physeal bar formation, an interruption in normal growth plate cartilage, where a bony or fibrous bridge develops between the metaphysis and epiphysis. This bridge restricts subsequent bone growth, leading to limb shortening and/or angular deformities. Early recognition of the presence of a physeal bar can help direct appropriate surgical management to restore linear growth of the bone.

  16. Four Experiments on the Perception of Bar Charts.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Justin; Setlur, Vidya; Anand, Anushka

    2014-12-01

    Bar charts are one of the most common visualization types. In a classic graphical perception paper, Cleveland & McGill studied how different bar chart designs impact the accuracy with which viewers can complete simple perceptual tasks. They found that people perform substantially worse on stacked bar charts than on aligned bar charts, and that comparisons between adjacent bars are more accurate than between widely separated bars. However, the study did not explore why these differences occur. In this paper, we describe a series of follow-up experiments to further explore and explain their results. While our results generally confirm Cleveland & McGill's ranking of various bar chart configurations, we provide additional insight into the bar chart reading task and the sources of participants' errors. We use our results to propose new hypotheses on the perception of bar charts.

  17. Biological reference values for chemical compounds in the work area (BARs): an approach for evaluating biomonitoring data.

    PubMed

    Göen, Thomas; Schaller, Karl-Heinz; Drexler, Hans

    2012-07-01

    Biological monitoring is a routine method that has been applied in occupational medical practice for many years. A requirement for its application is the availability of criteria suitable for evaluating biomonitoring data. Health-based threshold values are particularly useful as a criterion, yet only for substances for which effect thresholds can reliably be determined. For substances for which the concept of health-based threshold values is not applicable, the Working Group Setting of Threshold Limit Values in Biological Materials of the DFG Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area has recently established "Biologische Arbeitsstoff-Referenzwerte" (BARs, Biological Reference Values for Chemical Compounds in the Work Area) as an approach for evaluating biomonitoring data. The BAR represents the upper reference concentration of a biomarker in the general adult population without occupational exposure to the agent. It is derived from biomonitoring data of a sample of a defined population group. In general, a BAR corresponds to the 95th percentile of the sample distribution. Ideally, national environmental surveys including human biomonitoring results are used as basis for deriving BARs. The influence of age, sex, social status, residential area and life style factors on background exposure is considered in the evaluation of these values. Because tobacco smoking is the most frequent influencing factor, several BARs have been determined for non-smokers only. To date, BARs for 17 substances or substance groups are listed in the List of MAK and BAT Values 2011. BARs for another five substances have been discussed, but have not been established because of the insufficient scientific database. Establishing the BARs aims to facilitate the evaluation of human exposure to chemical compounds for which no health-based threshold values can be derived but an adequate assessment of exposure is required due to their toxicity. The

  18. Factors associated with the perpetration of sexual violence among wine-shop patrons in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Go, Vivian F; Srikrishnan, Aylur K; Salter, Megan L; Mehta, Shruti; Johnson, Sethulakshmi C; Sivaram, Sudha; Davis, Wendy; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D

    2010-10-01

    With an estimated 2.5 million people living with HIV/AIDS, India has the third highest number of HIV-infected people in the world. Despite reductions in prevalence among the general population, the percentage of all infections occurring among Indian women is continuing to rise. Women's risk of HIV infection from their partner and observed associations between sexual violence and HIV infection in India underscore the importance of understanding determinants of forced sex. A probability survey was conducted from June 2003 to August 2007 in Chennai, India, among alcohol venue ("wine shops") patrons to estimate the prevalence of sexual violence and to identify risk factors associated with perpetrating forced sex. Among 1499 men, 28.5% reported forced sex with at least one partner in the past 3 months. In multivariate analysis, earning income for less than 12 months a year, visiting the wine shop with friends, STD symptoms, perpetration of physical violence, and number of sexual partners were statistically significantly associated with perpetrating forced sex. Men who reported having 3 or more close friends were less likely to perpetrate violence. HIV interventions that facilitate formal groups that foster positive social support and address a range of HIV risk behaviors including sexually and physically abusive behaviors are recommended to reduce sexual violence.

  19. Analysis of the Putative Remains of a European Patron Saint–St. Birgitta

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Martina; Possnert, Göran; Edlund, Hanna; Budowle, Bruce; Kjellström, Anna; Allen, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Saint Birgitta (Saint Bridget of Sweden) lived between 1303 and 1373 and was designated one of Europe's six patron saints by the Pope in 1999. According to legend, the skulls of St. Birgitta and her daughter Katarina are maintained in a relic shrine in Vadstena abbey, mid Sweden. The origin of the two skulls was assessed first by analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to confirm a maternal relationship. The results of this analysis displayed several differences between the two individuals, thus supporting an interpretation of the two skulls not being individuals that are maternally related. Because the efficiency of PCR amplification and quantity of DNA suggested a different amount of degradation and possibly a very different age for each of the skulls, an orthogonal procedure, radiocarbon dating, was performed. The radiocarbon dating results suggest an age difference of at least 200 years and neither of the dating results coincides with the period St. Birgitta or her daughter Katarina lived. The relic, thought to originate from St. Birgitta, has an age corresponding to the 13th century (1215–1270 cal AD, 2σ confidence), which is older than expected. Thus, the two different analyses are consistent in questioning the authenticity of either of the human skulls maintained in the Vadstena relic shrine being that of St. Birgitta. Of course there are limitations when interpreting the data of any ancient biological materials and these must be considered for a final decision on the authenticity of the remains. PMID:20169108

  20. Measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry of $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ production in $p \\bar{p}$ collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich

    2016-02-09

    Here, we study $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ production asymmetries in $p \\bar{p} \\rightarrow \\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda}) X$, $p \\bar{p} \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda}) X$, and $p \\bar{p} \\rightarrow \\mu^\\pm \\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda}) X$ events recorded by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider at $\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$ TeV. We find an excess of $\\Lambda$'s ($\\bar{\\Lambda}$'s) produced in the proton (antiproton) direction. This forward-backward asymmetry is measured as a function of rapidity. We confirm that the $\\bar{\\Lambda}/\\Lambda$ production ratio, measured by several experiments with various targets and a wide range of energies, is a universal function of "rapidity loss", i.e., the rapidity difference of the beam proton and the lambda.

  1. Measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry of $$\\Lambda$$ and $$\\bar{\\Lambda}$$ production in $$p \\bar{p}$$ collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich

    2016-02-09

    Here, we studymore » $$\\Lambda$$ and $$\\bar{\\Lambda}$$ production asymmetries in $$p \\bar{p} \\rightarrow \\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda}) X$$, $$p \\bar{p} \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda}) X$$, and $$p \\bar{p} \\rightarrow \\mu^\\pm \\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda}) X$$ events recorded by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider at $$\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$$ TeV. We find an excess of $$\\Lambda$$'s ($$\\bar{\\Lambda}$$'s) produced in the proton (antiproton) direction. This forward-backward asymmetry is measured as a function of rapidity. We confirm that the $$\\bar{\\Lambda}/\\Lambda$$ production ratio, measured by several experiments with various targets and a wide range of energies, is a universal function of "rapidity loss", i.e., the rapidity difference of the beam proton and the lambda.« less

  2. 50 CFR Figures 14a and 14b to Part... - Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Bent Bars... 223—Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and...

  3. Hiding Solar-Array Bus Bars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hufnagel, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    End terminals mounted under cells, maximizing usable illuminated area. Reconfigured solar panel bus bars placed under cells, reducing portion of module area not occupied by active silicon. Underside of last cell in string of cells serves as contact for positive bus. Negative tab of last cell in string is wrapped around from top of cell. Tabs are connected to output boards mounted under cells.

  4. My Bar Graph Tells a Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Sue; McMillen, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Connecting stories to qualitative coordinate graphs has been suggested as an effective instructional strategy. Even students who are able to "create" bar graphs may struggle to correctly "interpret" them. Giving children opportunities to work with qualitative graphs can help them develop the skills to interpret, describe, and compare information…

  5. Spinners, Scroll Bars and Simpson's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Ed

    2005-01-01

    One of the most remarkable devices embedded in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is known as the spinner. Its staggering simplicity is undoubtedly its strength. As an incrementing device that allows graphs to dance across the screen, it gives the concept of variability a whole new meaning. Spinners and their close cousins scroll bars can be grabbed…

  6. Unitarity Triangles at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Vidal, Fernando; /Valencia U., IFIC

    2011-11-23

    The BaBar experiment has used a variety of methods to determine the angles {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa Unitarity Triangle, which give insight into the Standard Model description of CP violation in the quark sector of the electroweak interactions. Here we review the main experimental techniques and analyses, with emphasis in the most recent results.

  7. Divorce and Bar Mitzvah: A First Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geffen, Michael; Kaplan, Earl

    After an introductory discussion and review of literature on divorce among Jewish families, this document presents and analyzes two case studies which show the adverse effect of divorce and child-custody battles on the children of Jewish families who subsequently plan a B'nai Mitzvah (Bar or Bat Mitzvah) ceremony--a joyous ritual of initiation…

  8. Star formation properties in barred galaxies. III. Statistical study of bar-driven secular evolution using a sample of nearby barred spirals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Zhi-Min; Wu, Hong; Cao, Chen E-mail: hwu@bao.ac.cn

    2015-01-01

    Stellar bars are important internal drivers of secular evolution in disk galaxies. Using a sample of nearby spiral galaxies with weak and strong bars, we explore the relationships between the star formation feature and stellar bars in galaxies. We find that galaxies with weak bars tend coincide with low concentrical star formation activity, while those with strong bars show a large scatter in the distribution of star formation activity. We find enhanced star formation activity in bulges toward stronger bars, although not predominantly, consistent with previous studies. Our results suggest that different stages of the secular process and many other factors may contribute to the complexity of the secular evolution. In addition, barred galaxies with intense star formation in bars tend to have active star formation in their bulges and disks, and bulges have higher star formation densities than bars and disks, indicating the evolutionary effects of bars. We then derived a possible criterion to quantify the different stages of the bar-driven physical process, while future work is needed because of the uncertainties.

  9. Internal meson dominance for pp-bar annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Brix, G.; Genz, H.; Tatur, S.

    1989-04-01

    The previously considered /sup 3/S/sub 1/ internal fusion model of pp-bar..-->..YY-bar, YY-bar /sup */, and Y/sup */Y-bar/sup */ (Y denotes hyperon) at low energies is modified and thereby extended to also include pp-bar..-->..nn-bar and ..delta../sup ++/Delta-bar/sup - -/. It is assumed that the same nonperturbative mechanism that mixes the different qq-bar pairs within the neutral, nonstrange mesons is also responsible for the scattering, annihilation, and creation of qq-bar pairs within the baryon-antibaryon system. More specifically, we assume that processes qq-bar..-->..QQ-bar within the baryon-antibaryon system with q = d or u and Q = d, u, or s quarks is mediated by fusion of the qq-bar to a pseudoscalar or vector meson that also within the system decays into QQ-bar. The /sup 1/S/sub 0/ pseudoscalar-meson model disagrees with experiment whereas the /sup 3/S/sub 1/ vector-meson fusion model is in reasonable agreement with it. As compared to the previously considered /sup 3/S/sub 1/ internal fusion model the main change is an extension of the approximate agreement to the nonstrange final-state baryons. This is achieved since strange baryons in the model are only produced via the small ..omega..-phi mixing.

  10. Some Comments on the Branching Ratios for n-bar p Annihilation into pipi, KK-bar , and pieta Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, A. E.

    2000-11-01

    We give some remarks on the $\\bar n p$-partial branching ratios in flight at low momenta of antineutron, measured by OBELIX collaboration. The comparison is made to the known branching ratios from the $p \\bar p$-atomic states. The branching ratio for the reaction $\\bar n p \\to \\pi^+\\pi^0$ is found to be suppressed in comparison to what follows from the $ p \\bar p$-data. It is also shown, that there is no so called dynamic I=0-amplitude suppression for the process $N\\bar N \\to K\\bar K$.

  11. Calculations of bar K-nuclear quasi-bound states using chiral bar KN amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareš, J.; Barnea, N.; Cieplý, A.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Gazda, D.

    2014-03-01

    We review our recent calculations of K- quasi-bound states in nuclear systems using subthreshold energy dependent chiral bar KN amplitudes. Strong energy dependence of the scattering amplitudes requires self-consistent evaluation of the involved bar KN interactions. In view of sizable widths predicted by our calculations, an unambiguous identification of K--nuclear quasi-bound states in ongoing experimental searches would be difficult.

  12. Laboratory and workplace assessments of rivet bucking bar vibration emissions.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Thomas W; Warren, Christopher; Xu, Xueyan S; Welcome, Daniel E; Dong, Ren G

    2015-04-01

    Sheet metal workers operating rivet bucking bars are at risk of developing hand and wrist musculoskeletal disorders associated with exposures to hand-transmitted vibrations and forceful exertions required to operate these hand tools. New bucking bar technologies have been introduced in efforts to reduce workplace vibration exposures to these workers. However, the efficacy of these new bucking bar designs has not been well documented. While there are standardized laboratory-based methodologies for assessing the vibration emissions of many types of powered hand tools, no such standard exists for rivet bucking bars. Therefore, this study included the development of a laboratory-based method for assessing bucking bar vibrations which utilizes a simulated riveting task. With this method, this study evaluated three traditional steel bucking bars, three similarly shaped tungsten alloy bars, and three bars featuring spring-dampeners. For comparison the bucking bar vibrations were also assessed during three typical riveting tasks at a large aircraft maintenance facility. The bucking bars were rank-ordered in terms of unweighted and frequency-weighted acceleration measured at the hand-tool interface. The results suggest that the developed laboratory method is a reasonable technique for ranking bucking bar vibration emissions; the lab-based riveting simulations produced similar rankings to the workplace rankings. However, the laboratory-based acceleration averages were considerably lower than the workplace measurements. These observations suggest that the laboratory test results are acceptable for comparing and screening bucking bars, but the laboratory measurements should not be directly used for assessing the risk of workplace bucking bar vibration exposures. The newer bucking bar technologies exhibited significantly reduced vibrations compared to the traditional steel bars. The results of this study, together with other information such as rivet quality, productivity, tool

  13. Laboratory and Workplace Assessments of Rivet Bucking Bar Vibration Emissions

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Thomas W.; Warren, Christopher; Xu, Xueyan S.; Welcome, Daniel E.; Dong, Ren G.

    2016-01-01

    Sheet metal workers operating rivet bucking bars are at risk of developing hand and wrist musculoskeletal disorders associated with exposures to hand-transmitted vibrations and forceful exertions required to operate these hand tools. New bucking bar technologies have been introduced in efforts to reduce workplace vibration exposures to these workers. However, the efficacy of these new bucking bar designs has not been well documented. While there are standardized laboratory-based methodologies for assessing the vibration emissions of many types of powered hand tools, no such standard exists for rivet bucking bars. Therefore, this study included the development of a laboratory-based method for assessing bucking bar vibrations which utilizes a simulated riveting task. With this method, this study evaluated three traditional steel bucking bars, three similarly shaped tungsten alloy bars, and three bars featuring spring-dampeners. For comparison the bucking bar vibrations were also assessed during three typical riveting tasks at a large aircraft maintenance facility. The bucking bars were rank-ordered in terms of unweighted and frequency-weighted acceleration measured at the hand-tool interface. The results suggest that the developed laboratory method is a reasonable technique for ranking bucking bar vibration emissions; the lab-based riveting simulations produced similar rankings to the workplace rankings. However, the laboratory-based acceleration averages were considerably lower than the workplace measurements. These observations suggest that the laboratory test results are acceptable for comparing and screening bucking bars, but the laboratory measurements should not be directly used for assessing the risk of workplace bucking bar vibration exposures. The newer bucking bar technologies exhibited significantly reduced vibrations compared to the traditional steel bars. The results of this study, together with other information such as rivet quality, productivity, tool

  14. Orthogonal Vertical Velocity Dispersion Distributions Produced by Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Min; Shen, Juntai; Debattista, Victor P.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, Adriana

    2017-02-01

    In barred galaxies, the contours of stellar velocity dispersions (σ) are generally expected to be oval and aligned with the orientation of bars. However, many double-barred (S2B) galaxies exhibit distinct σ peaks on the minor axis of the inner bar, which we termed “σ-humps,” while two local σ minima are present close to the ends of inner bars, i.e., “σ-hollows.” Analysis of numerical simulations shows that {σ }z-humps or hollows should play an important role in generating the observed σ-humps+hollows in low-inclination galaxies. In order to systematically investigate the properties of {σ }z in barred galaxies, we apply the vertical Jeans equation to a group of well-designed three-dimensional bar+disk(+bulge) models. A vertically thin bar can lower {σ }z along the bar and enhance it perpendicular to the bar, thus generating {σ }z-humps+hollows. Such a result suggests that {σ }z-humps+hollows can be generated by the purely dynamical response of stars in the presence of a sufficiently massive, vertically thin bar, even without an outer bar. Using self-consistent N-body simulations, we verify the existence of vertically thin bars in the nuclear-barred and S2B models that generate prominent σ-humps+hollows. Thus, the ubiquitous presence of σ-humps+hollows in S2Bs implies that inner bars are vertically thin. The addition of a bulge makes the {σ }z-humps more ambiguous and thus tends to somewhat hide the {σ }z-humps+hollows. We show that {σ }z may be used as a kinematic diagnostic of stellar components that have different thicknesses, providing a direct perspective on the morphology and thickness of nearly face-on bars and bulges with integral field unit spectroscopy.

  15. 21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 201.25 Section 201.25... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act or the Public Health Service Act are subject to these bar code... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (b) What drugs are subject to these bar code requirements?...

  16. 21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 201.25 Section 201.25... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act or the Public Health Service Act are subject to these bar code... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (b) What drugs are subject to these bar code requirements?...

  17. 21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 201.25 Section 201.25... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act or the Public Health Service Act are subject to these bar code... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (b) What drugs are subject to these bar code requirements?...

  18. 21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 201.25 Section 201.25... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act or the Public Health Service Act are subject to these bar code... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (b) What drugs are subject to these bar code requirements?...

  19. 10 CFR 39.49 - Uranium sinker bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uranium sinker bars. 39.49 Section 39.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.49 Uranium sinker bars. The licensee may use a uranium sinker bar in well logging applications only if it is...

  20. 10 CFR 39.49 - Uranium sinker bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uranium sinker bars. 39.49 Section 39.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.49 Uranium sinker bars. The licensee may use a uranium sinker bar in well logging applications only if it is...

  1. 10 CFR 39.49 - Uranium sinker bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uranium sinker bars. 39.49 Section 39.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.49 Uranium sinker bars. The licensee may use a uranium sinker bar in well logging applications only if it is...

  2. 10 CFR 39.49 - Uranium sinker bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uranium sinker bars. 39.49 Section 39.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.49 Uranium sinker bars. The licensee may use a uranium sinker bar in well logging applications only if it is...

  3. 10 CFR 39.49 - Uranium sinker bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uranium sinker bars. 39.49 Section 39.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.49 Uranium sinker bars. The licensee may use a uranium sinker bar in well logging applications only if it is...

  4. 21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 610.67 Section 610.67...) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.67 Bar code label requirements. Biological products must comply with the bar code requirements at § 201.25 of this chapter. However, the...

  5. 21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 201.25 Section 201.25...: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.25 Bar code label requirements. (a) Who is subject to these bar code requirements? Manufacturers, repackers, relabelers, and private label distributors of...

  6. EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, BUFFALO PLANT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ROLL SHOP. 8" BAR MILL DESIGNED AND BUILT BY DONNER STEEL CO. (PREDECESSOR OF REPUBLIC), 1919-1920. FOR DESCRIPTION OF ORIGINAL MILL SEE "IRON AGE", 116\\4 (23 JULY 1925): 201-204. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  7. Chord, Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Detail in Plan; Crossbracing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord, Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Detail in Plan; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail in Plan; Chord Joining Detail in Plan & Elevation; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar, & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail in Section; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar & Horizontal Brace Joint Detail - Narrows Bridge, Spanning Sugar Creek at Old County Road 280 East, Marshall, Parke County, IN

  8. 33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10... DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall receive more than one Gold Lifesaving Medal and...

  9. 33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10... DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall receive more than one Gold Lifesaving Medal and...

  10. 33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10... DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall receive more than one Gold Lifesaving Medal and...

  11. 33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10... DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall receive more than one Gold Lifesaving Medal and...

  12. 33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10... DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall receive more than one Gold Lifesaving Medal and...

  13. [Storage and use of antioxidants in cereal and peanut bars].

    PubMed

    Estévez, A M; Escobar, B; Tepper, A; Castillo, E

    1998-06-01

    The use of fatty materials in cereal bars gives to them a good energetic value; however they are exposed to oxidative rancidity which can affect their acceptability and nutritional value. So, the purpose of this research was to determine the stability in storage and the effect of antioxidants on three tipes of cereal bars with peanuts. Cereal bars with 18% of peanuts were prepared, with and without antioxidants (BHA + BHT; 100 ppm). Bars were packed in polyprolpilene-aluminium-polythilene bags, and were stored at room temperature (18-20 degrees C) for 90 days. Each 30 days, analysis of water activity (Aw); moisture content, peroxides index, sensory quality (flavor, aroma and appearance) and acceptability, were carried out. Moisture content was similar in all bars (7.6-9.6%) and Aw was higher in the bar which contained expanded amaranthus and antioxidant. At the 60th day of storage, the peroxide values were lower in the bars with antioxidants; only the bar which included expanded amaranthus showed significant differences (16.4 meq/kg in the bar with antioxidant and 25.7 meq/kg for the control bar). The sensory parameters were kept within normal status without differences between the bars with antioxidants and the control ones, along all the storage period. Shelf life of bars CM1 and CM2 was at least of 60 days when they are kept at 18-20 degrees C.

  14. Multidecadal dynamics of alternate bars in the Alpine Rhine River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, Luca; Bertoldi, Walter; Zolezzi, Guido

    2016-11-01

    We report on a multidecadal analysis of alternate bar dynamics in a 41.7 km reach of the Alpine Rhine River, which represents an almost unique example of a regulated river with fixed levees, straight reaches, and regular bends in which alternate gravel bars spontaneously formed and migrated for more than a century. The analysis is based on freely available Landsat imagery, which provided an accurate and frequent survey of the dynamics of the alternate bar configuration since 1984. Bars were characterized in terms of wavelength, migration, and height. Longitudinal and temporal patterns are investigated as a function of flood occurrence and magnitude and in relation to the presence of local planform discontinuities (bends and ramps) that may affect their dynamics. Bars in the upper part of the reach are mostly steady and relatively long (about 13 channel widths); bars in the lower part of the reach are migrating and shorter (about 9 channel widths). Bar height is rather uniform along the reach, ranging between 3 and 4 m. The temporally long hydrological data set allowed the investigation of bar migration during flood events, showing that bars migrate faster for intermediate floods. The observed relationship between bar migration and wavelength was consistent with linear theories for free migrating and steady forced bars in straight channels. The comparison of theories with observations highlights the key role of theories to support interpretation of observations, for a better understanding of the morphodynamic processes controlling bar formation and dynamics.

  15. A Local Reference For Bar Studies In The Distant Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín; Sheth, Kartik; S4G Team

    2015-08-01

    Stellar bars are present in ~2/3 of nearby spirals and play a critical role in the evolution of their hosts. With the advent of large high-resolution imaging surveys, bar studies are being extended to distant galaxies. However, photometric studies of the distant universe are invariably subject to the effects of band-shifting, the progressive shift of the photometric band to bluer rest-frame wavelengths. In order to reliably characterize the intrinsic evolution of bars with redshift, safe from band-shifting effects, it is necessary to establish a local anchor of how bar properties vary with wavelength. We present a detailed multi-band study of bar properties from UV through mid-infrared for a sample of 16 large nearby barred galaxies. Based on ellipticity and position angle profiles resulting from fitting elliptical isophotes to the 2D light distribution of each galaxy, we find that both the bar length and the bar ellipticity increase at bluer wavebands. We attribute the increase in bar length to the frequent presence of prominent star forming knots at the end of bars: these regions are significantly brighter in bluer bands, resulting in the “artificial” lengthening of the bar. The increase in bar ellipticity, on the other hand, is driven by the bulge size: the bulge, composed primarily of old/red stars, is less prominent at bluer bands, allowing for thinner ellipses to be fit within the bar region. The resulting effect is that bars appear longer and thinner at bluer bands. Although we find that ~50% of the bars disappear in the UV, the results on bar ellipticity and length extend to those cases in which the bar is still visible in the UV. These results imply that careful correction for band-shifting effects is necessary for high-z studies to reliably gauge any intrinsic evolution of the bar properties with redshift. In the light of the ample space-based optical data now available, this study may be used as a reference to implement band-shifting corrections to

  16. Bar-code automated waste tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, T.E.

    1994-10-01

    The Bar-Code Automated Waste Tracking System was designed to be a site-Specific program with a general purpose application for transportability to other facilities. The system is user-friendly, totally automated, and incorporates the use of a drive-up window that is close to the areas dealing in container preparation, delivery, pickup, and disposal. The system features ``stop-and-go`` operation rather than a long, tedious, error-prone manual entry. The system is designed for automation but allows operators to concentrate on proper handling of waste while maintaining manual entry of data as a backup. A large wall plaque filled with bar-code labels is used to input specific details about any movement of waste.

  17. The Lifetimes of Spirals and Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellwood, J. A.

    2015-03-01

    Simulations of isolated galaxy disks that are stable against bar formation readily manifest multiple, transient spiral patterns. It therefore seems likely that some spirals in real galaxies are similarly self-excited, although others are clearly driven by tidal interactions or by bars. The rapidly changing appearance of simulated spirals does not, however imply that the patterns last only a fraction of an orbit. Power spectrum analysis reveals a few underlying, longer-lived spiral waves that turn at different rates, which when super-posed give the appearance of swing-amplified transients. These longer-lived waves are genuine unstable spiral modes; each grows vigorously, saturates and decays over a total of several orbit periods. As each mode decays, the wave action created as it grew drains away to the Lindblad resonances, where it scatters stars. The resulting changes to the disk create the conditions for a new instability, giving rise to a recurring cycle of unstable modes.

  18. Did liberalising bar hours decrease traffic accidents?

    PubMed

    Green, Colin P; Heywood, John S; Navarro, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Legal bar closing times in England and Wales have historically been early and uniform. Recent legislation liberalised closing times with the object of reducing social problems thought associated with drinking to "beat the clock." Indeed, using both difference in difference and synthetic control approaches we show that one consequence of this liberalisation was a decrease in traffic accidents. This decrease is heavily concentrated among younger drivers. Moreover, we provide evidence that the effect was most pronounced in the hours of the week directly affected by the liberalisation: late nights and early mornings on weekends. This evidence survives a series of robustness checks and suggests at least one socially positive consequence of extending bar hours.

  19. Hadron Physics in BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Lafferty, G.D.; /Manchester U.

    2005-08-29

    Some recent results in hadron physics from the BaBar experiment are discussed. In particular, the observation of two new charmed states, the D*{sub sJ}{sup +}(2317) and the D*{sub sJ}{sup +}(2457), is described, and results are presented on the first measurement of the rare decay mode of the B meson, B{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}.

  20. Delamination Analysis Of Composite Curved Bars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Jackson, Raymond H.

    1990-01-01

    Classical anisotropic elasticity theory used to construct "multilayer" composite semicircular curved bar subjected to end forces and end moments. Radial location and intensity of open-mode delamination stress calculated and compared with results obtained from anisotropic continuum theory and from finite element method. Multilayer theory gave more accurate predictions of location and intensity of open-mode delamination stress. Currently being applied to predict open-mode delamination stress concentrations in horse-shoe-shaped composite test coupons.

  1. PAH Emission in the Orion Bar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, Jesse; Sloan, G. C.

    1996-01-01

    The emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in the Orion Bar region is investigated using a combination of narrow-band imaging and long-slit spectroscopy. The goal was to study how the strength of the PAH bands vary with spatial position in this edge-on photo-dissociation region. The specific focus here is how these variations constrain the carrier of the 3.4 micron band.

  2. Kinematic Clues to Bar Evolution for Galaxies in the Local Universe: Why the Fastest Rotating Bars are Rotating Most Slowly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, J.; Beckman, J. E.; Martínez-Valpuesta, I.; Borlaff, A. S.; James, P. A.; Díaz-García, S.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Camps-Fariña, A.; Gutiérrez, L.; Amram, P.

    2017-02-01

    We have used Spitzer images of a sample of 68 barred spiral galaxies in the local universe to make systematic measurements of bar length and bar strength. We combine these with precise determinations of the corotation radii associated with the bars, taken from our previous study, which used the phase change from radial inflow to radial outflow of gas at corotation, based on high-resolution two-dimensional velocity fields in Hα taken with a Fabry–Pérot spectrometer. After presenting the histograms of the derived bar parameters, we study their dependence on the galaxy morphological type and on the total stellar mass of the host galaxy, and then produce a set of parametric plots. These include the bar pattern speed versus bar length, the pattern speed normalized with the characteristic pattern speed of the outer disk versus the bar strength, and the normalized pattern speed versus { R }, the ratio of corotation radius to bar length. To provide guidelines for our interpretation, we used recently published simulations, including disk and dark matter halo components. Our most striking conclusion is that bars with values of { R } < 1.4, previously considered dynamically fast rotators, can be among the slowest rotators both in absolute terms and when their pattern speeds are normalized. The simulations confirm that this is because as the bars are braked, they can grow longer more quickly than the outward drift of the corotation radius. We conclude that dark matter halos have indeed slowed down the rotation of bars on Gyr timescales.

  3. Leptonic B Decays at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Baracchini, Elisabetta; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome

    2011-11-10

    We will present the most recent results on leptonic B decays B{sup {+-}(0)} {yields} K*{sup {+-}(0)}{nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{nu}, based on the data collected by the BaBar detector at PEP-II, an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the center of mass energy of the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. Rare B decays have always been a standard probe for New Physics (NP) searches. The very low Standard Model (SM) rate of these decays often make them unaccessible with the present experimental datasets, unless NP effects enhance the rate up to the current experimental sensitivity. Moreover, as NP effects can modify the decay kinematic, particular attention must be paid in order to perform a model independent analysis. A B-Factory provides an unique environment to investigate these processes. The high number of B{bar B} pairs produced by a B-Factory often allows to approach the needed experimental sensitivity. Moreover, the clean environment and the closed kinematic of the initial state enable to obtaining a very pure sample where to look for these decays.

  4. New Spectroscopy at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzoni, M.A.; /INFN, Rome

    2007-04-18

    The Babar experiment at the SLAC B factory has accumulated a high luminosity that offers the possibility of systematic studies of quarkonium spectroscopy and of investigating rare new phenomena. Recent results in this field are presented. In recent times spectroscopy has become exciting again, after the discovery of new states that are not easily explained by conventional models. States such as the X(3872) and the Y(4260) could be new excited charmonium states, but require precise measurements for positive identification. The BaBar experiment [1] is installed at the asymmetric storage ring PEP-II. 90% of the data accumulated by BaBar are taken at the Y(4S) (10.58 GeV) and 10% just below (10.54 GeV). The BaBar detector includes a 5-layer, double-sided silicon vertex tracker and a 40-layer drift chamber in a 1.5 T solenoidal magnetic field, which detect charged particles and measures their momenta and ionization energy losses. Photons, electrons, and neutral hadrons are detected with a CsI(Tl)-crystal electromagnetic calorimeter. An internally reflecting ring-imaging Cherenkov is also used for particle id. Penetrating muon and neutral hadrons are identified by an array of resistive-plate chambers embedded in the steel of the flux return. The detector allows good track and vertex resolution, good particle id and good photon detection so it is especially suited for spectroscopy studies.

  5. Evidence for nu bar sub mu to nu bar sub e oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Federspiel, F.J.

    1995-12-31

    A search for {bar {nu}}{sub e}`s in excess of the number expected from conventional sources has been made using the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector, located 30 m behind the LAMPF beam stop. The {bar {nu}}{sub e} are detected via {bar {nu}}{sub e}p{r_arrow}e{sup +}n with e{sup +} energy between 36 and 60 MeV, followed by a {gamma} from np{r_arrow}d{gamma} (2.2 MeV). Using strict cuts to identify {gamma}`s correlated with an e{sup +} yields 9 events with only 2.1{+-}0.3 background expected. A likelihood fit to the entire e{sup +} sample results in a total excess of 16.4{sup +9.7}{sub -8.9}{+-}3.3 events. If attributed to {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}}{r_arrow}{bar {nu}}{sub e} oscillations, this corresponds to an oscillation probability of (0.34{sup +0.200}{sub -0.18}{+-}0.07)%.

  6. Which bulges are favoured by barred S0 galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barway, Sudhanshu; Saha, Kanak; Vaghmare, Kaustubh; Kembhavi, Ajit K.

    2016-11-01

    S0 galaxies are known to host classical bulges with a broad range of size and mass, while some such S0s are barred and some not. The origin of the bars has remained a long-standing problem - what made bar formation possible in certain S0s? By analysing a large sample of S0s with classical bulges observed by the Spitzer Space Telescope, we find that most of our barred S0s host comparatively low-mass classical bulges, typically with bulge-to-total ratio less than 0.5, whereas S0s with more massive classical bulges than these do not host any bar. Furthermore, we find that amongst the barred S0s, there is a trend for the longer and massive bars to be associated with comparatively bigger and massive classical bulges - possibly suggesting bar growth being facilitated by these classical bulges. In addition, we find that the bulge effective radius is always less than the bar effective radius - indicating an interesting synergy between the host classical bulge and bars being maintained while bar growth occurred in these S0s.

  7. MULTI-bar K (hyper)nuclei and Kaon Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazda, D.; Mareš, J.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    We report on recent relativistic mean-field calculations of multi-bar K nuclei1,2 which were performed fully and self-consistently across the periodic table. The bar K separation energy B{bar K} as well as the nuclear and bar K-meson densities were found to saturate with the number of antikaons in the nuclear medium. Saturation appears robust against a wide range of variations, including the nuclear model used and the type of boson fields mediating the strong interactions. In addition, we have explored properties of kaonic hypernuclei — strange systems made of nucleons, hyperons and K- mesons. We observed saturation also in these objects. Since the bar K separation energy B{bar K} does not exceed 200 MeV, multi-bar K nuclei lie energetically well above multi-hyperonic nuclei and it is unlikely that kaon condensation could occur in strong-interaction self-bound hadronic matter.

  8. MULTI-bar K (hyper)nuclei and Kaon Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazda, D.; Mareš, J.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2010-10-01

    We report on recent relativistic mean-field calculations of multi-bar K nuclei1,2 which were performed fully and self-consistently across the periodic table. The bar K separation energy B{bar K} as well as the nuclear and bar K-meson densities were found to saturate with the number of antikaons in the nuclear medium. Saturation appears robust against a wide range of variations, including the nuclear model used and the type of boson fields mediating the strong interactions. In addition, we have explored properties of kaonic hypernuclei - strange systems made of nucleons, hyperons and K- mesons. We observed saturation also in these objects. Since the bar K separation energy B{bar K} does not exceed 200 MeV, multi-bar K nuclei lie energetically well above multi-hyperonic nuclei and it is unlikely that kaon condensation could occur in strong-interaction self-bound hadronic matter.

  9. Impact of Redd Loss at Vernita Bar on Hanford Reach Chinook Salmon Production: Final Report 1988.

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Donald E.

    1988-10-01

    This report describes the effect on chinook salmon production within the Hanford Reach of redd loss at Vernita Bar. The current target escapement of 40,000 chinook past McNary dam has no real biological justification because the wrong data were used in the analysis and the methods used are now known to be very unreliable for the type of data available. The escapement that maximizes MSY may be lower than 40,000, or much higher, and reliable estimates of optimum escapement are unlikely to be available for several more years. If the optimum escapement is truly 40,000 (or less), then loss of a few hundred redds on Vernita Bar would have no detrimental, and possibly beneficial consequences on total chinook production from the Hanford Reach, so long as escapements are in excess of 40,000. If the optimal escapement is actually much higher (60,000+), the biological cost of redd loss when escapements are in excess of 40,000 would be about two fish in the adult return for every redd lost. So long as escapements exceed 40,000, the issue of redd loss at Vernita Bar is simply a question of losing a few dozen or hundred adult fish in the next brood and is not an issue of stock conservation. 12 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Observation of B+ -> K0bar K+ and B0 -> K0 K0bar

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2006-08-16

    The authors report observations of the b {yields} d penguin-dominated decays B{sup +} {yields} {bar K}{sup 0}K{sup +} and B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup 0}{bar K}{sup 0} in approximately 350 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected with the BABAR detector. They measure the branching fractions {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {bar K}{sup 0}K{sup +}) = (1.61 {+-} 0.44 {+-} 0.09) x 10{sup -6} and {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup 0}{bar K}{sup 0}) = (1.08 {+-} 0.28 {+-} 0.11) x 10{sup -6}, and the CP-violating charge asymmetry {Alpha}{sub CP} ({bar K}{sup 0} K{sup +}) = 0.10 {+-} 0.26 {+-} 0.03. Using a vertexing technique previously employed in several analyses of all-neutral final states containing kaons, they report the first measurement of time-dependent CP-violating asymmetries in B{sup 0} {yields} K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0}, obtaining S = -1.28{sub -0.73 -0.16}{sup +0.80 +0.11} and C = -0.40 {+-} 0.41 {+-} 0.06. They also report improved measurements of the branching fraction {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} K{sup 0} {pi}{sup +}) = (23.9 {+-} 1.1 {+-} 1.0) x 10{sup -6} and CP-violating charge asymmetry {Alpha}{sub CP} (K{sup 0} {pi}{sup +}) = -0.029 {+-} 0.039 {+-} 0.010.

  11. Finite Element Simulations to Explore Assumptions in Kolsky Bar Experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Justin

    2015-08-05

    The chief purpose of this project has been to develop a set of finite element models that attempt to explore some of the assumptions in the experimental set-up and data reduction of the Kolsky bar experiment. In brief, the Kolsky bar, sometimes referred to as the split Hopkinson pressure bar, is an experimental apparatus used to study the mechanical properties of materials at high strain rates. Kolsky bars can be constructed to conduct experiments in tension or compression, both of which are studied in this paper. The basic operation of the tension Kolsky bar is as follows: compressed air is inserted into the barrel that contains the striker; the striker accelerates towards the left and strikes the left end of the barrel producing a tensile stress wave that propogates first through the barrel and then down the incident bar, into the specimen, and finally the transmission bar. In the compression case, the striker instead travels to the right and impacts the incident bar directly. As the stress wave travels through an interface (e.g., the incident bar to specimen connection), a portion of the pulse is transmitted and the rest reflected. The incident pulse, as well as the transmitted and reflected pulses are picked up by two strain gauges installed on the incident and transmitted bars as shown. By interpreting the data acquired by these strain gauges, the stress/strain behavior of the specimen can be determined.

  12. The Nature and Nurture of Bars and Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-Abreu, J.; Sánchez-Janssen, R.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Corsini, E. M.; Zarattini, S.

    2012-12-01

    The effects that interactions produce on galaxy disks and how they modify the subsequent formation of bars need to be distinguished to fully understand the relationship between bars and environment. To this aim we derive the bar fraction in three different environments ranging from the field to Virgo and Coma Clusters, covering an unprecedentedly large range of galaxy luminosities (or, equivalently, stellar masses). We confirm that the fraction of barred galaxies strongly depends on galaxy luminosity. We also show that the difference between the bar fraction distributions as a function of galaxy luminosity (and mass) in the field and Coma Cluster is statistically significant, with Virgo being an intermediate case. The fraction of barred galaxies shows a maximum of about 50% at Mr ~= - 20.5 in clusters, whereas the peak is shifted to Mr ~= - 19 in the field. We interpret this result as a variation of the effect of environment on bar formation depending on galaxy luminosity. We speculate that brighter disk galaxies are stable enough against interactions to keep their cold structure, thus, the interactions are able to trigger bar formation. For fainter galaxies, the interactions become strong enough to heat up the disks inhibiting bar formation and even destroying the disks. Finally, we point out that the controversy regarding whether the bar fraction depends on environment could be resolved by taking into account the different luminosity ranges probed by the galaxy samples studied so far.

  13. THE NATURE AND NURTURE OF BARS AND DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez-Abreu, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Zarattini, S.; Corsini, E. M.

    2012-12-10

    The effects that interactions produce on galaxy disks and how they modify the subsequent formation of bars need to be distinguished to fully understand the relationship between bars and environment. To this aim we derive the bar fraction in three different environments ranging from the field to Virgo and Coma Clusters, covering an unprecedentedly large range of galaxy luminosities (or, equivalently, stellar masses). We confirm that the fraction of barred galaxies strongly depends on galaxy luminosity. We also show that the difference between the bar fraction distributions as a function of galaxy luminosity (and mass) in the field and Coma Cluster is statistically significant, with Virgo being an intermediate case. The fraction of barred galaxies shows a maximum of about 50% at M{sub r} {approx_equal} - 20.5 in clusters, whereas the peak is shifted to M{sub r} {approx_equal} - 19 in the field. We interpret this result as a variation of the effect of environment on bar formation depending on galaxy luminosity. We speculate that brighter disk galaxies are stable enough against interactions to keep their cold structure, thus, the interactions are able to trigger bar formation. For fainter galaxies, the interactions become strong enough to heat up the disks inhibiting bar formation and even destroying the disks. Finally, we point out that the controversy regarding whether the bar fraction depends on environment could be resolved by taking into account the different luminosity ranges probed by the galaxy samples studied so far.

  14. Alcohol Use Disorder, Contexts of Alcohol Use, and the Risk of HIV Transmission among South African Male Patrons of Shebeens

    PubMed Central

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.; Cain, Demetria; Simbayi, Leickness C.; Kalichman, Seth C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Shebeens in South Africa are settings in which alcohol use and sexual behavior often co-occur. The prevalence of alcohol use disorder (AUD), and the association between AUD, situations and settings, and sexual risk behavior, in shebeens remains unknown. Methods Men (n = 763; mean age = 30; 98% Black African) were recruited from townships in Cape Town, South Africa and completed a self-administered survey that assessed alcohol use, sexual risk behaviors, and situations and settings of alcohol use. The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule DSV-IV Version (AUDADIS-IV) was used to identify the likelihood of AUD. Bivariate regression analyses assessed whether screening for AUD predicted sexual risk behaviors. Multivariate regression analyses examined whether AUD and/or situations/settings predicted risk behaviors. Results Nearly two-thirds of men (62%) endorsed sufficient criteria for AUD; 25%, 17%, and 20% were classified as having a mild, moderate, or severe AUD, respectively. AUD was associated with HIV risk such that men with AUD reported more unprotected sex than men without AUD. Analyses indicated that (a) individual (i.e., AUD) and (b) settings (i.e., frequency of having sex with a partner in a shebeen, tavern, or bottle store) interacted to predict unprotected sex. Conclusions The prevalence of AUD among shebeen patrons was high and was associated with unprotected sex. Findings suggest the need to integrate both individual and situational/setting factors to prevent HIV among patrons of shebeens. PMID:24854966

  15. DEPENDENCE OF BARRED GALAXY FRACTION ON GALAXY PROPERTIES AND ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gwang-Ho; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Park, Changbom; Choi, Yun-Young E-mail: mglee@astro.snu.ac.kr E-mail: yy.choi@khu.ac.kr

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the dependence of the occurrence of bars in galaxies on galaxy properties and environment. We use a volume-limited sample of 33,391 galaxies brighter than M{sub r} = -19.5 + 5logh at 0.02 {<=} z {<=} 0.05489, drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We classify the galaxies into early and late types, and identify bars by visual inspection. Among 10,674 late-type galaxies with axis ratio b/a > 0.60, we find 3240 barred galaxies (f{sub bar} = 30.4%) which divide into 2542 strong bars (f{sub SB1} = 23.8%) and 698 weak bars (f{sub SB2} = 6.5%). We find that f{sub SB1} increases as u - r color becomes redder and that it has a maximum value at intermediate velocity dispersion ({sigma} {approx_equal}150 km s{sup -1}). This trend suggests that strong bars are dominantly hosted by intermediate-mass systems. Weak bars prefer bluer galaxies with lower mass and lower concentration. In the case of strong bars, their dependence on the concentration index appears only for massive galaxies with {sigma} > 150 km s{sup -1}. We also find that f{sub bar} does not directly depend on the large-scale background density when other physical parameters (u - r color or {sigma}) are fixed. We discover that f{sub SB1} decreases as the separation to the nearest neighbor galaxy becomes smaller than 0.1 times the virial radius of the neighbor regardless of neighbor's morphology. These results imply that strong bars are likely to be destroyed during strong tidal interactions and that the mechanism for this phenomenon is gravitational and not hydrodynamical. The fraction of weak bars has no correlation with environmental parameters. We do not find any direct evidence for environmental stimulation of bar formation.

  16. {barP}ANDA at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepers, G.

    The {barP}ANDA experiment represents the central part of the hadron physics branch of the antiproton program of the new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt/Germany. It will investigate antiproton annihilations with an almost 4π acceptance from two sequent spectrometer in the momentum range from 1.5 to 15 GeV/c. The gluon rich reaction product of antiproton-proton and antiproton-nucleus collisions on one hand and the high intensity and phase space cooled antiproton beam of the HESR on the other hand constitutes an ideal environment to study the sector of non-conventional hadronic states.

  17. Predicting Error Bars for QSAR Models

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeter, Timon; Mika, Sebastian; Ter Laak, Antonius; Suelzle, Detlev; Ganzer, Ursula; Heinrich, Nikolaus; Mueller, Klaus-Robert

    2007-09-18

    Unfavorable physicochemical properties often cause drug failures. It is therefore important to take lipophilicity and water solubility into account early on in lead discovery. This study presents log D{sub 7} models built using Gaussian Process regression, Support Vector Machines, decision trees and ridge regression algorithms based on 14556 drug discovery compounds of Bayer Schering Pharma. A blind test was conducted using 7013 new measurements from the last months. We also present independent evaluations using public data. Apart from accuracy, we discuss the quality of error bars that can be computed by Gaussian Process models, and ensemble and distance based techniques for the other modelling approaches.

  18. CP Violation at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Yeche, Christophe; /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay

    2011-11-15

    We report recent measurements of the three CKM angles of the Unitarity Triangle using about 383 millions b{bar b} pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. The results of the angles ({beta}, {alpha}, {gamma}) of the unitarity triangle are consistent with Belle results, and with other CKM constraints such as the measurement of {epsilon}{sub K}, the length of the sides of the unitarity triangle determined from the measurements of {Delta}m{sub d}, {Delta}m{sub s}, |V{sub ub}|. This is an impressive confirmation of Standard Model in quark-flavor sector.

  19. Predicting Error Bars for QSAR Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeter, Timon; Schwaighofer, Anton; Mika, Sebastian; Ter Laak, Antonius; Suelzle, Detlev; Ganzer, Ursula; Heinrich, Nikolaus; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2007-09-01

    Unfavorable physicochemical properties often cause drug failures. It is therefore important to take lipophilicity and water solubility into account early on in lead discovery. This study presents log D7 models built using Gaussian Process regression, Support Vector Machines, decision trees and ridge regression algorithms based on 14556 drug discovery compounds of Bayer Schering Pharma. A blind test was conducted using 7013 new measurements from the last months. We also present independent evaluations using public data. Apart from accuracy, we discuss the quality of error bars that can be computed by Gaussian Process models, and ensemble and distance based techniques for the other modelling approaches.

  20. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    PubMed

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.

  1. Predicting Vertical Jump Height from Bar Velocity

    PubMed Central

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s-2). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r2 = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r2 = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key points Vertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer. The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s-2 and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement. Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance. PMID:25983572

  2. Don't Fear the Reader: Librarian versus Interlibrary Loan Patron-Driven Acquisition of Print Books at an Academic Library by Relative Collecting Level and by Library of Congress Classes and Subclasses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, David C.; Melvin, Joyce C.; Epp, MaryLou; Kreps, Anita M.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of literature on patron-driven acquisition (PDA) has been published that addresses the implementation and results of PDA programs at academic libraries. However, despite widespread worries that PDA will lead to unbalanced collections, little attention has been paid to whether patrons' and librarians' purchasing differ…

  3. Challenges for the smoking ban in Israeli pubs and bars: analysis guided by the behavioral ecological model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The latest amendment to the ban on smoking in public places in Israel was implemented in 2007, adding pubs and bars (P&B) to the list of public places in which smoking is prohibited. However, smoking in most P&B continued. The aim of the study was to identify the theoretically plausible reasons for the partial success of a public ban on smoking in P&B settings. Explanations provided by P&B owners were interpreted as probable causal factors based on the Behavioral Ecological Model (BEM). Methods Qualitative interviews were performed with 36 P&B owners in Tel-Aviv and 18 Israeli towns and cities of various population size. Results P&B owners reported a variety of situational factors (i.e., contingencies) and reinforcers as likely explanations of the partial failure of the legislated ban on smoking in public places, particularly P&B. The major reinforcers for non-adherence with the law were no or low frequency of inspections and low penalties from authorities. P&B owners also feared loss of customers and revenue if bans were enforced in their own establishment but not in competing establishments. Finally, owners reported social norms prevailing among some Israeli patrons supporting smoking in P&B settings, in part to express opposition to the new law. Conclusions Qualitative assessment can uncover probable social situations that operate to prevent greater adherence to smoking bans. The results warrant confirmation by quantitative analyses. Policies with mandated inspections and penalty requirements that are implemented in all bars without prejudice could lead to greater adherence to smoking bans. Positive reinforcing consequences that encourage adherence (such as publicity and support from non-smokers) would be more likely to generate both greater adherence to the policy and good will toward the government. Principles of behavior outlined in the BEM offer guidance for designing quantitative confirmation analyses of future bans. PMID:22913392

  4. Automated multisyringe stir bar sorptive extraction using robust montmorillonite/epoxy-coated stir bars.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Milad; Saraji, Mohammad; Maya, Fernando; Cerdà, Víctor

    2016-05-06

    Herein we present a simple, rapid and low cost strategy for the preparation of robust stir bar coatings based on the combination of montmorillonite with epoxy resin. The composite stir bar was implemented in a novel automated multisyringe stir bar sorptive extraction system (MS-SBSE), and applied to the extraction of four chlorophenols (4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol) as model compounds, followed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. The different experimental parameters of the MS-SBSE, such as sample volume, selection of the desorption solvent, desorption volume, desorption time, sample solution pH, salt effect and extraction time were studied. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limits were between 0.02 and 0.34μgL(-1). Relative standard deviations (RSD) of the method for the analytes at 10μgL(-1) concentration level ranged from 3.5% to 4.1% (as intra-day RSD) and from 3.9% to 4.3% (as inter-day RSD at 50μgL(-1) concentration level). Batch-to-batch reproducibility for three different stir bars was 4.6-5.1%. The enrichment factors were between 30 and 49. In order to investigate the capability of the developed technique for real sample analysis, well water, wastewater and leachates from a solid waste treatment plant were satisfactorily analyzed.

  5. $D^0 \\bar{D}^0$ Mixing at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Jonathon; /SLAC

    2011-10-26

    This article reviews the recent measurement of D{sup 0}-{bar D}{sup 0} mixing with the D{sup 0} {yields} K{pi} decay channel from the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II B-Factory. Averages from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group between this result and a previous result from BELLE are also presented.

  6. Improved specimen recovery in tensile split Hopkinson bar

    PubMed Central

    Isakov, Matti; Hiermaier, Stefan; Kuokkala, Veli-Tapani

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an improved specimen recovery method for the tensile split Hopkinson bar (TSHB) technique. The method is based on the trapping of residual stress waves with the use of momentum trap bars. As is well known, successful momentum trapping in TSHB is highly sensitive to experimental uncertainties, especially on the incident bar side of the set-up. However, as is demonstrated in this paper, significant improvement in the reliability of specimen recovery is obtained by using two momentum trap bars in contact with the incident bar. This makes the trapping of the reflected wave insensitive to striker speed and removes the need for a precision set gap between the incident bar and the momentum trap. PMID:25071235

  7. Studying Barred Galaxies by Means of Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma

    We describe two morphological structures of barred galaxies with the help of numerical simulations. The first one is a feature seen in face-on barred galaxies, the ansae, probably very important dynamically speaking. The second one are the Boxy/Peanut bulges in disc galaxies. They have been associated to stellar bars, and are a result of the secular evolution of barred galaxies. We analyze their properties in a large sample of N-body simulations, using different methods to measure their strength, shape and possible asymmetry, and then inter-compare the results. Some of these methods can be applied to both simulations and observations. In particular, we seek correlations between bar and peanut properties, which, when applied to real galaxies, will give information on bars in edge-on galaxies, and on peanuts in face-on galaxies.

  8. Tau Decays at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Hast, Carsten; /SLAC

    2009-01-22

    Recent results of tau lepton decay studies based on luminosities between 350 fb{sup -1} and 469 fb{sup -1} collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory are presented. The analyses reported here are Charged Current Lepton Universality and measurements of |V{sub us}| using {tau}{sup -} {yields} e{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub e}{nu}{sub {tau}}, {mu}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {mu}}{nu}{sub {tau}}, {pi}{sup -} {nu}{sub {tau}}, and K{sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}} decays, as well as searches for Second Class Currents in {tau}{sup -} {yields} {omega}{pi}{sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}} decays, studies of Lepton Flavor Violations, and a tau mass measurement and CPT-Test. If not explicitly mentioned, charge conjugate decay modes are also implied. decays, as well as searches for Second Class Currents in {tau}{sup -} {yields} {omega}{pi}{sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}} decays, studies of Lepton Flavor Violations, and a tau mass measurement and CPT-Test. If not explicitly mentioned, charge conjugate decay modes are also implied.

  9. Stir bar sorptive extraction for trace analysis.

    PubMed

    David, Frank; Sandra, Pat

    2007-06-08

    Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) was introduced in 1999 as a solventless sample preparation method for the extraction and enrichment of organic compounds from aqueous matrices. The method is based on sorptive extraction, whereby the solutes are extracted into a polymer coating on a magnetic stirring rod. The extraction is controlled by the partitioning coefficient of the solutes between the polymer coating and the sample matrix and by the phase ratio between the polymer coating and the sample volume. For a polydimethylsiloxane coating and aqueous samples, this partitioning coefficient resembles the octanol-water partitioning coefficient. In comparison to solid phase micro-extraction, a larger amount of sorptive extraction phase is used and consequently extremely high sensitivities can be obtained as illustrated by several successful applications in trace analysis in environmental, food and biomedical fields. Initially SBSE was mostly used for the extraction of compounds from aqueous matrices. The technique has also been applied in headspace mode for liquid and solid samples and in passive air sampling mode. In this review article, the principles of stir bar sorptive extraction are described and an overview of SBSE applications is given.

  10. Uncertainties in the deprojection of the observed bar properties

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Yanfei; Shen, Juntai; Li, Zhao-Yu

    2014-08-10

    In observations, it is important to deproject the two fundamental quantities characterizing a bar, i.e., its length (a) and ellipticity (e), to face-on values before any careful analyses. However, systematic estimation on the uncertainties of the commonly used deprojection methods is still lacking. Simulated galaxies are well suited in this study. We project two simulated barred galaxies onto a two-dimensional (2D) plane with different bar orientations and disk inclination angles (i). Bar properties are measured and deprojected with the popular deprojection methods in the literature. Generally speaking, deprojection uncertainties increase with increasing i. All of the deprojection methods behave badly when i is larger than 60°, due to the vertical thickness of the bar. Thus, future statistical studies of barred galaxies should exclude galaxies more inclined than 60°. At moderate inclination angles (i ≤ 60°), 2D deprojection methods (analytical and image stretching), and Fourier-based methods (Fourier decomposition and bar-interbar contrast) perform reasonably well with uncertainties ∼10% in both the bar length and ellipticity, whereas the uncertainties of the one-dimensional (1D) analytical deprojection can be as high as 100% in certain extreme cases. We find that different bar measurement methods show systematic differences in the deprojection uncertainties. We further discuss the deprojection uncertainty factors with the emphasis on the most important one, i.e., the three-dimensional structure of the bar itself. We construct two triaxial toy bar models that can qualitatively reproduce the results of the 1D and 2D analytical deprojections; they confirm that the vertical thickness of the bar is the main source of uncertainties.

  11. Face on Barred and Ringed Spiral Galaxy NGC 3351

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet image (left) and visual image (right) of the face on barred and ringed spiral galaxy NGC 3351 (M95). The morphological appearance of a galaxy can change dramatically between visual and ultraviolet wavelengths. In the case of M95, the nucleus and bar dominate the visual image. In the ultraviolet, the bar is not even visible and the ring and spiral arms dominate.

  12. Magnetic fields in barred galaxies. I. The atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, R.; Shoutenkov, V.; Ehle, M.; Harnett, J. I.; Haynes, R. F.; Shukurov, A.; Sokoloff, D. D.; Thierbach, M.

    2002-08-01

    The total and polarized radio continuum emission of 20 barred galaxies was observed with the Very Large Array (VLA) at lambda 3, 6, 18 and 22 cm and with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at lambda 6 cm and 13 cm. Maps at 30\\arcsec angular resolution are presented here. Polarized emission (and therefore a large-scale regular magnetic field) was detected in 17 galaxies. Most galaxies of our sample are similar to non-barred galaxies with respect to the radio/far-infrared flux correlation and equipartition strength of the total magnetic field. Galaxies with highly elongated bars are not always radio-bright. We discuss the correlation of radio properties with the aspect ratio of the bar and other measures of the bar strength. We introduce a new measure of the bar strength, Lambda , related to the quadrupole moment of the bar's gravitational potential. The radio surface brightness I of the barred galaxies in our sample is correlated with Lambda , I~Lambda 0.4+/-0.1, and thus is highest in galaxies with a long bar where the velocity field is distorted by the bar over a large fraction of the disc. In these galaxies, the pattern of the regular field is significantly different from that in non-barred galaxies. In particular, field enhancements occur upstream of the dust lanes where the field lines are oriented at large angles to the bar's major axis. Polarized radio emission seems to be a good indicator of large-scale non-axisymmetric motions. Tables 3, 4 and Figs. 8-10, 13, 15, 16, 18 and 22 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  13. Cereal and nut bars, nutritional quality and storage stability.

    PubMed

    Estévez, A M; Escobar, B; Vásquez, M; Castillo, E; Araya, E; Zacarías, I

    1995-06-01

    Six snack-type bars were manufactured, to contain oat and wheat germ and two different walnut levels, agglutinated with natural sweeteners and fats. Two bars also contained toasted amaranth with brown sugar cover and wheat extrudate, while two others, contained puffed instead of toasted amaranth. Water activity (Aw) and moisture were determined in the manufactured products. Quality and sensory evaluation and proximate analysis were carried out on the bars containing highest levels of walnuts (18%). The caloric contribution of the bars was computed by Atwater methods. The nutritional quality of the bars was determined by means of the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) and Net Protein Ratio (NPR), and the results were used to obtain relative PER and relative NPR. Samples of the latter bars were kept under accelerated storage for 15 days at 37 degrees C and analyzed every 5 days to determine their Aw, moisture, peroxide and sensory acceptability. The drying time for the cereal - and walnut - based bars was 45 min at 120 degrees C. All bars presented a good fiber supply and the CN1 bar, containing only oat, wheat germ and walnut, had the greatest protein content. In the sensory evaluation, the walnut level with the greatest preference was 18%. PER and NPR values of the bars did not differ significantly showing values approximately 86% that of the casein value. During storage, the moisture and Aw decreased in all the bars. Peroxides remained within the acceptable ranges; acceptability based on sensory evaluation remained best in the bar with toasted amaranth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Parametric signal amplification to create a stiff optical bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somiya, K.; Kataoka, Y.; Kato, J.; Saito, N.; Yano, K.

    2016-02-01

    An optical cavity consisting of optically trapped mirrors makes a resonant bar that can be stiffer than diamond. A limitation of the stiffness arises in the length of the optical bar as a consequence of the finite light speed. High laser power and light mass mirrors are essential for realization of a long and stiff optical bar that can be useful for example in the gravitational-wave detector aiming at the observation of a signal from neutron-star collisions, supernovae, etc. In this letter, we introduce a parametric signal amplification scheme that realizes the long and stiff optical bar with a non-linear crystal inside the signal-recycling cavity.

  15. Non-uniform impact excitation of a cylindrical bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karp, Baruch; Dorogoy, Avraham; Wang, Zonggang

    2009-06-01

    An experimental and numerical study of a non-uniform impact excitation of a circular bar is reported. In experiments, nine strikers with different contact area were accelerated against a circular bar. Axial surface strain of the impacted bar was measured at several distances from the impinged end to include the near and the far fields. The same experimental conditions were solved numerically using a commercial finite element code. It was demonstrated that the far-field response is insensitive to both the size and the form of the striker's colliding end. The distance at which such insensitivity is set is estimated to be approximately one and a half bar diameters.

  16. Measurement of the B0-bar Lifetime and the B0B0-bar Oscillation Frequency Using Partially Reconstructed B0-bar to D*+ l- nu-bar Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Vanderbilt U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2005-07-27

    The authors present a simultaneous measurement of the {bar B}{sup 0} lifetime {tau}{sub B{sup 0}} and B{sup 0}{bar B}{sup 0} oscillation frequency {Delta}m{sub d}. We use a sample of about 50,000 partially reconstructed {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}{ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}} decays identified with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring at SLAC. The flavor of the other B meson in the event is determined from the charge of another high-momentum lepton.

  17. Queering the Adult Gaze: Young Male Hustlers and Their Alliances with Older Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raible, John

    2011-01-01

    Based on ethnographic data collected at a gay bar with sexual minority youths as dancers or strippers, this study calls attention to the gazes through which adults view and position male youths. It highlights a dancer named Austin, who at times engaged in the underground hustling economy centered in the bar. The findings suggest that the social…

  18. "Click Here to Order This Book": A Case Study of Print and Electronic Patron-Driven Acquisition in University College Dublin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Mark; McCarney, Eoin

    2014-01-01

    University College Dublin became the first library in the Republic of Ireland to trial patron-driven acquisition (PDA) as a collection development tool in 2013. A total of 42% of UCD Library's book budget was allocated to the project, which included both electronic and print books. This article describes the twelve month project from the tender…

  19. Determining a Cost Effective Sampling Technique Which Will Provide Estimates of the Number of Patrons Utilizing the Purdue General Library During the Fall Semester of 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolliver, Don L.; Lied, Terry R.

    A study examined the feasibility of developing a cost effective sampling technique which would estimate the mean number of patrons using the Purdue University General Library during one semester. The technique employed, called random sampling without replacement, meant that, from the total population of days in the Fall Semester, particular days…

  20. Nutritional Evaluation of NASA's Rodent Food Bar Diet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joyce E.; Yu, Diane S.; Dalton, Bonnie P.

    2000-01-01

    Tests are being conducted on NASA's rodent Food Bar in preparation for long-term use as the rat and mouse diet aboard the International Space Station. Nutritional analyses are performed after the bars are manufactured and then repeated periodically to determine nutritional stability. The primary factors analyzed are protein, ash, fat, fiber, moisture, amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals. Nutrient levels are compared to values published in the National Research Council's dietary requirements for rodents, and also to those contained in several commonly used commercial rodent lab diets. The Food Bar is manufactured from a powdered diet to which moisture is added as it is processed through an extruder. The bars are dipped into potassium sorbate, vacuum-sealed, and irradiated. In order to determine nutrient changes during extrusion and irradiation, the powdered diet, the non-irradiated bars, and the irradiated bars are all analyzed. We have observed lower values for some nutrients (iodine, vitamin K, and iron) in the Food Bars compared with NRC requirements. Many nutrients in the Food Bars are contained at a higher level than levels in the NRC requirements. An additional factor we are investigating is the 26% moisture level in the Food Bars, which drops to about 15% within a week, compared to a stable 10% moisture in many standard lab chow diets. In addition to the nutritional analyses, the food bar is being fed to several strains of rats and mice, and feeding study and necropsy results are being observed (Barrett et al, unpublished data). Information from the nutritional analyses and from the rodent studies will enable us to recommend the formulation that will most adequately meet the rodent Food Bar requirements for long-term use aboard the Space Station.

  1. THE RELATION BETWEEN DYNAMICS AND STAR FORMATION IN BARRED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Garcia, Eric E.; Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A. E-mail: emartinez@cida.ve

    2011-06-20

    We analyze optical and near-infrared data of a sample of 11 barred spiral galaxies, in order to establish a connection between star formation and bar/spiral dynamics. We find that 22 regions located in the bars and 20 regions in the spiral arms beyond the end of the bar present azimuthal color/age gradients that may be attributed to star formation triggering. Assuming a circular motion dynamic model, we compare the observed age gradient candidates with stellar population synthesis models. A link can then be established with the disk dynamics that allows us to obtain parameters like the pattern speed of the bar or spiral as well as the positions of resonance radii. We subsequently compare the derived pattern speeds with those expected from theoretical and observational results in the literature (e.g., bars ending near corotation). We find a tendency to overestimate bar pattern speeds derived from color gradients in the bar at small radii, away from corotation; this trend can be attributed to non-circular motions of the young stars born in the bar region. In spiral regions, we find that {approx}50% of the color gradient candidates are 'inverse', i.e., with the direction of stellar aging contrary to that of rotation. The other half of the gradients found in spiral arms have stellar ages that increase in the same sense as rotation. Of the nine objects with gradients in both bars and spirals, six (67%) appear to have a bar and a spiral with similar {Omega}{sub p}, while three (33%) do not.

  2. Active chatter control system for long-overhang boring bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, Douglas R.; Golioto, Igor; Thompson, Norman B.

    1997-05-01

    Some machining processes, such as boring, have been historically limited by excessive bar vibration, often resulting in poor surface finish and reduced tool life. A unique boring bar system has been developed to suppress bar vibration, or chatter, during machining using active control technology. Metal cutting test programs have shown proven, repeatable performance on hard-to-cut, aircraft industry high-temperature nickel alloys as well as more easily cut carbon steels. Critical bar length-to-diameter (L/D) ratios, depths-of-cuts, feed rates and cutting speeds far exceed those attainable from the best available passively-damped boring bars. This industry-ready system consists of three principle subsystems: active clamp, instrumented bar, and control electronics. The active clamp is a lathe-mountable body capable of supporting bars of varying sizes and articulating them in orthogonal directions from the base of the bar shank. The instrumented bar consists of a steel shank, standard insert head and imbedded accelerometers. Wire harnesses from both the bar and clamp connect to control electronics comprised of highly-efficient switched- capacitor amplifiers that drive the piezoelectric actuators, sensor signal conditioning, a PC-based program manager and two 32-bit floating-point DSPs. The program manager code runs on the host PC and distributes system identification and control functions to the two DSPs. All real-time signal processing is based on the principles of adaptive filter minimization. For the described system, cutting performance has extended existing chatter thresholds (cutting parameter combinations) for nickel alloys by as much as 400% while maintaining precision surface finish on the machined part. Bar L/D ratios as high as 11 have enabled deep boring operations on nickel workpieces that otherwise could not be performed free of chatter.

  3. /bar p/p collider physics

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1989-03-01

    This note encompasses a set of six lectures given at the summer school held at Campos Do Jordao in January of 1989 near Sao Paulo, Brazil. The intent of the lectures was to describe the physics of /bar p/p at CERN and Fermilab. Particular attention has been paid to making a self contained presentation to a prospective audience of graduate students. Since large Monte Carlo codes might not be available to all members of this audience, great reliance was placed on ''back of the envelope estimates.'' Emphasis was also placed on experimental data rather than theoretical speculation, since predictions for, for example, supersymmetric particle production are easily obtained by transcription of formulae already obtained. 9 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Hierarchical tapered bar elements undergoing axial deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganesan, N.; Thampi, S. K.

    1992-01-01

    A method is described to model the dynamics of tapered axial bars of various cross sections based on the well-known Craig/Bampton component mode synthesis technique. This element is formed in terms of the static constraint modes and interface restrained normal modes. This is in contrast with the finite elements as implemented in NASTRAN where the interface restrained normal modes are neglected. These normal modes are in terms of Bessel functions. Restoration of a few of these modes leads to higher accuracy with fewer generalized coordinates. The proposed models are hierarchical so that all lower order element matrices are embedded in higher order element matrices. The advantages of this formulation compared to standard NASTRAN truss element formulation are demonstrated through simple numerical examples.

  5. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  6. Charm Spectroscopy at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Poireau, Vincent; /Annecy, LAPP

    2007-12-21

    We present a mini-review on charm spectroscopy at the BABAR experiment. We first report on the c{bar s} meson spectrum, and present precise measurements of the D{sub s1}(2536) meson as well as the properties of the many new states discovered since 2003 (D*{sub s0}(2317), D{sub s1}(2460), D*{sub sJ}(2860), and D{sub sJ}(2700) mesons). We then discuss about charmed baryons observed recently in the BABAR experiment: {Omega}{sub c}{sup 0} and {Omega}*{sub c}{sup 0} css baryons, {Lambda}{sub c}(2940){sup +} udc baryon and the {Xi}{sub c} usc/dsc baryons.

  7. Multiple Sand Bar Formation in the Nearshore Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Absalonsen, L.; Dean, R.

    2011-12-01

    Sand bars are prominent features on many beaches, and can represent a major source of morphologic change in the cross-shore profile. The breaking waves are concentrated at the bar crests, resulting in reduced energy in the landward zone. Bars respond to different wave energy conditions, slowly moving shoreward with low waves and rapidly moving offshore with higher waves. However the formation and evolution of bars on multiple barred beaches is poorly understood. The presentation will describe preliminary efforts to predict the location of sand bars in the cross-shore profile, to quantify the number of sand bars under different hydrodynamic conditions and to illustrate the capability to predict profile evolution. A wave height transformation model (Dally model), a sediment transport model and conservation model are applied. The two-dimensional wave height model establishes wave height across the nearshore zone due to wave shoaling and breaking, including wave setup and bottom stress. This model utilizes two threshold values to predict the breaking position and after breaking, in the deeper water of the bar trough, the position where the waves stabilize and start to shoal again (stability criterion). Both criteria depend on the local water depth. At present, the sediment transport model consists of three components. First, the moment of momentum due to breaking waves is transferred to the bottom as a seaward shear stress concentrated somewhat landward of the bar crest. Secondly, the onshore shear stress is due to the nonlinearity of the breaking waves. Finally, the onshore transport is magnified by the proximity of turbulence to the bottom in shallow water. This model is of the "open loop" type, thus there is no guarantee of convergence to a stable profile. The capability of the model to predict bar locations on an actual profile is illustrated as follows. A profile consisting of three bars is selected from Volusia County along the northeast Florida Atlantic

  8. Survey of bar-lounges and restaurants regarding compliance with the current smoke-free regulation in Thulamela Municipality, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Akinsola, Henry A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Tobacco Products Control Act, No. 83 of 1993 was introduced in South Africa in 1993. Due to the shortfalls of the 1993 Act, the Tobacco Products Control Amendment Act, No. 12 of 1999 was passed in 1999. The regulation relating to smoking of tobacco products in public places was gazetted in 2000 and implemented in 2001. Setting The setting for the study was all selected registered licensed bar-lounges including restaurants within the municipality. Purpose of the study To examine compliance levels with the current smoke-free regulation at bar-lounges and restaurants in Thulamela Municipality. Objectives of the study To observe whether structural alterations had been effected to accommodate smoking patrons. To observe whether tobacco-related litter was present in non-smoking areas and in the outdoor areas within 5 meters of windows and entry ways. To observe whether individuals or groups engaged in smoking in non-smoking areas. Methods An observational survey was conducted to measure the level of compliance by lounges and restaurants in Thulamela Municipality. A convenience sampling method was used to sample 56 bar-lounges, including restaurants. Data were collected using an observation log. Collected data were analysed using SPSS 20.0. Results The study findings noted low compliance with the legislation with only one establishment (1.8%) complying with the requirements of the legislation. Conclusion The level of compliance with the legislation is in a very low state in Thulamela Municipality. Further research is needed to explore factors influencing non-compliance with the regulation. PMID:27380859

  9. Wave Dissipation on a Barred Beach: A Method for Determining Sand Bar Morphology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    Studies Work Unit 31665 Monitored by Coastal Engineering Research Center US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station 3909 Halls Ferry Road...College of Oceanography (If applicable) USAEWES, Coastal Engineering Research Oregon State University Center 6c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 7b...to provide coastal engineers with a technique to remotely measure natural sand bar scale and morphology change. The work was prepared and published

  10. Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? KidsHealth > ... nutritivas: ¿Energía o mera exageración? The Buzz on Energy Foods Energy drinks and nutrition bars often make ...

  11. Nutrition Education Strategies: A Trip to the Salad Bar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, June; Kotch, Anne

    1995-01-01

    Learning activities related to visiting a salad bar can help students apply basic nutrition concepts to real-life situations and make healthier choices at restaurants and in food preparation. The paper describes a class activity involving students in setting up a salad bar, making choices among ingredients and dressings, and taking home leftovers.…

  12. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader....

  13. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader....

  14. 21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 610.67 Section 610.67 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.67 Bar code label...

  15. 21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 610.67 Section 610.67 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.67 Bar code label...

  16. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader....

  17. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader....

  18. 21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 610.67 Section 610.67 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.67 Bar code label...

  19. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader....

  20. VIEW OF SHEAR (ELECTRIC POWERED), SCALE HOUSE TO LEFT. BARS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SHEAR (ELECTRIC POWERED), SCALE HOUSE TO LEFT. BARS ARE PLACED ON WEIGHING SCALE SHOWN LOWER LEFT. 15-TON CLEVELAND CRANE HANDLES BARS FOR FINAL LOADING INTO RAILROAD CARS (12" BAY) AND FOR MOVING FROM TABLE TO SHEAR TABLE. - Cambria Iron Company, Gautier Works, 12" Mill, Clinton Street & Little Conemaugh River, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  1. Stellar, Gas, and Dark Matter Content of Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo

    2017-01-01

    We select a sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7) where galaxies are classified, through visual inspection, as hosting strong bars, weak bars, or as unbarred galaxies, and make use of H i mass and kinematic information from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey catalog, to study the stellar, atomic gas, and dark matter content of barred disk galaxies. We find, in agreement with previous studies, that the bar fraction increases with increasing stellar mass. A similar trend is found with total baryonic mass, although the dependence is not as strong as with stellar mass, due to the contribution of gas. The bar fraction shows a decrease with increasing gas mass fraction. This anticorrelation between the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar with the gas richness of the galaxy results from the inhibiting effect the gas has in the formation of bars. We also find that for massive galaxies with stellar masses larger than 1010 M⊙, at fixed stellar mass, the bar fraction decreases with increasing global halo mass (i.e., halo mass measured up to a radius of the order of the H i disk extent).

  2. 37. Tap room with bar, looking from east to west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Tap room with bar, looking from east to west showing part of the mural (on north wall) depicting nautical and whaling themes. (mural and bar were removed 1998 - 99 respectively.) - Fort Ord, Soldiers' Club, California State Highway 1 near Eighth Street, Seaside, Monterey County, CA

  3. Sweet! Candy Bar Activity Teaches CAD, Math, and Graphics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granlund, George

    2009-01-01

    By far, the tastiest technology learning activity that the author's students work on is the development of the design of a chocolate candy bar. This article describes how the author implemented the candy bar activity. The activity gives students an opportunity to design a product and to take it from concept through to production.

  4. Objectivity in Grading: The Promise of Bar Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jae, Haeran; Cowling, John

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes the use of a new technology to assure student anonymity and reduce bias hazards: identifying students by using bar codes. The limited finding suggests that the use of bar codes for assuring student anonymity could potentially cause students to perceive that grades are assigned more fairly and reassure teachers that they are…

  5. 5 CFR 9701.305 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bar on collective bargaining. 9701.305 Section 9701.305 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration General § 9701.305 Bar on...

  6. 5 CFR 9701.205 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bar on collective bargaining. 9701.205 Section 9701.205 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification General § 9701.205 Bar on collective bargaining....

  7. 27 CFR 70.266 - Credit against barred liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Credit against barred liability. 70.266 Section 70.266 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... liability would be barred by the applicable statute of limitations at the time such credit is made. (26...

  8. Influence of grid bar shape on field cleaner performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has shown that the performance of sling-off type cleaning machines designed to remove foreign matter from harvested seed cotton is influenced by design factors such as grid bar to saw cylinder clearance, grid bar spacing, saw cylinder speeds, and saw cylinder arrangement. However, ...

  9. An Innovative Class Registration Method Based on Bar Code Input.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Raoul J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes system of computerized class registration utilizing bar code input which is part of the Student Data System, developed by Management Information Division of the Los Angeles Unified School District. An explanation of the system notes the hardware used, printing of bar code labels, registration procedures, and operational aspects. (EJS)

  10. 49 CFR 393.90 - Buses, standee line or bar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Buses, standee line or bar. 393.90 Section 393.90... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.90 Buses, standee line or bar. Except as provided below, every bus, which is designed and constructed so as to allow standees, shall...

  11. 49 CFR 393.90 - Buses, standee line or bar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Buses, standee line or bar. 393.90 Section 393.90... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.90 Buses, standee line or bar. Except as provided below, every bus, which is designed and constructed so as to allow standees, shall...

  12. 49 CFR 393.90 - Buses, standee line or bar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buses, standee line or bar. 393.90 Section 393.90... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.90 Buses, standee line or bar. Except as provided below, every bus, which is designed and constructed so as to allow standees, shall...

  13. 49 CFR 393.90 - Buses, standee line or bar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Buses, standee line or bar. 393.90 Section 393.90... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.90 Buses, standee line or bar. Except as provided below, every bus, which is designed and constructed so as to allow standees, shall...

  14. 49 CFR 393.90 - Buses, standee line or bar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Buses, standee line or bar. 393.90 Section 393.90... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.90 Buses, standee line or bar. Except as provided below, every bus, which is designed and constructed so as to allow standees, shall...

  15. 5 CFR 9701.305 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bar on collective bargaining. 9701.305 Section 9701.305 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration General § 9701.305 Bar on...

  16. 5 CFR 9701.205 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bar on collective bargaining. 9701.205 Section 9701.205 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification General § 9701.205 Bar on collective bargaining....

  17. Arthroscopic visualization during excision of a central physeal bar.

    PubMed

    Stricker, S

    1992-01-01

    A centrally located developmental physeal bar in the proximal tibia was removed via a metaphyseal window. The use of an arthroscope to assist in the complete removal of the bone bridge is described. The arthroscope improved visualization and allowed reduction in the size of the metaphyseal window. At 2-year follow-up, the growth plate showed no evidence of bar reformation.

  18. 21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Bar code label requirements. 610.67 Section 610.67 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.67 Bar code label...

  19. 27 CFR 70.266 - Credit against barred liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Credit against barred... Collection of Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Limitations § 70.266 Credit against barred liability. Any credit against a liability in respect of any taxable year shall be void if the collection of...

  20. 27 CFR 70.266 - Credit against barred liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Credit against barred... Collection of Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Limitations § 70.266 Credit against barred liability. Any credit against a liability in respect of any taxable year shall be void if the collection of...

  1. Vacuum-type backup bar speeds weld repairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmody, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    A backup bar designed to use both vacuum and air pressure provides a method of sealing the weld root of a faulty section of seam weld. With slight redesign, the bar can be made sufficiently flexible to fit any large cylindrical surface.

  2. The active zone T-bar--a plasticity module?

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Carolin; Sigrist, Stephan J

    2010-09-01

    The synaptic active zone, the site where Ca(2+)-triggered fusion of synaptic vesicles takes place, is commonly associated with protein-rich, electron-dense cytomatrices. The molecular composition and functional role of active zones, especially in the context of vesicular exo- and endocytosis, are under intense investigation. Per se, Drosophila synapses, which display so-called T-bars as electron-dense specializations, should be a highly suitable model system, as they allow for a combination of efficient genetics with ultrastructural and electrophysiological analyses. However, it needed a biochemical approach of the Buchner laboratory to "molecularly" access the T-bar by identification of the CAST/ERC-family member Bruchpilot as the first T-bar-residing protein. Genetic elimination of Bruchpilot revealed that the protein is essential for T-bar formation, calcium channel clustering, and hence proper vesicle fusion and patterned synaptic plasticity. Recently, Bruchpilot was shown to directly shape the T-bar, likely by adopting an elongated conformation. Moreover, first mechanisms that control the availability of Bruchpilot for T-bar assembly were described. This review seeks to summarize the information on T-bar structure, as well as on functional aspects, formulating the hypothesis that T-bars are genuine "plasticity modules."

  3. Researchers Misunderstand Confidence Intervals and Standard Error Bars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belia, Sarah; Fidler, Fiona; Williams, Jennifer; Cumming, Geoff

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about researchers' understanding of confidence intervals (CIs) and standard error (SE) bars. Authors of journal articles in psychology, behavioral neuroscience, and medicine were invited to visit a Web site where they adjusted a figure until they judged 2 means, with error bars, to be just statistically significantly different (p…

  4. [A report of outbreaks of pulmonary tuberculosis in two bars].

    PubMed

    Ishibatake, H; Onizuka, R

    1997-11-01

    We experienced small outbreaks of M. tuberculosis infection in two bars. 9 patients were diagnosed as tuberculosis by identifying M. tuberculosis from their sputa. Six of them were regular customers or employees of the bar, one of them was a family members. Each outbreak within the two bars was suspected of the common source of infection, because one patient was a regular customer of the both bars. The analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was done on 5 strains of M. tuberculosis which were isolated from five of 9 patients. The result unexpectedly showed that 5 isolates were classified into 3 groups. Within each group, identical fingerprints were shown. It does mean that each outbreak in two bars was originated from independent source. There was also one relapsed case of tuberculosis. He was suspected of relapsed tuberculosis after a period of 7 years because of the similarity of drug resistance compared with his primary tuberculosis. It was cleared up that 3 different strains of M. tuberculosis were concerned with these outbreaks in the two bars. In this case, almost all patients were heavy drinkers, however, liver dysfunction and malnutrition were not recognized among them. These experiences indicate that a place like bar may be a space of infection of M. tuberculosis. We should always keep in mind a spread of tuberculosis in a place like a bar as one of problems in tuberculosis control.

  5. 5 CFR 9701.205 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bar on collective bargaining. 9701.205 Section 9701.205 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification General § 9701.205 Bar on collective bargaining....

  6. 5 CFR 9701.305 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bar on collective bargaining. 9701.305 Section 9701.305 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration General § 9701.305 Bar on...

  7. 5 CFR 9701.205 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bar on collective bargaining. 9701.205 Section 9701.205 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification General § 9701.205 Bar on collective bargaining....

  8. 5 CFR 9701.305 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bar on collective bargaining. 9701.305 Section 9701.305 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration General § 9701.305 Bar on...

  9. Hader bar and clip attachment retained mandibular complete denture

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kunwarjeet; Gupta, Nidhi; Kapoor, Vikram; Gupta, Ridhimaa

    2013-01-01

    Bar and clip attachments significantly improve the level of satisfaction of denture-wearing patients by enhancing the retention and stability of the prosthesis. These attachments have been most commonly used for connecting the prosthesis to implants, but they can be effectively used to retain tooth-supported prosthesis as well. The primary functions of bar attachments are splinting the abutments together, even distribution of forces to the abutments and supporting areas, guiding the prosthesis into place, improving the retention, stability, support and comfort of the patient. The primary requirement for the use of bar attachments is the availability of sufficient vertical and buccolingual space for the proper placement of the bar, sleeves, teeth arrangement and sufficient thickness of acrylic denture base to minimise incidence of denture fracture in the area of bar assembly. PMID:24145505

  10. Surface photometry of Virgo cluster galaxies - Barred galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedict, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Photographic surface photometry in B and V is presented for three barred galaxies in the Virgo cluster: N4548, N4596, and N4608. Intercomparisons of luminosity and color profiles and standard photometric parameters indicate that for these galaxies: (1) the nuclear component follows the fourth-root-of-radius luminosity law for both B and V, (2) the luminosity profiles along the bar show a characteristic shoulder with a slight fall in B-V color profile at the brightest point in the bar, the strength of the effect declining from N4548 to N4608, (3) the integrated bar component is slightly bluer than the nucleus, and (4) as the disk, arm, and ring components contribute less to the total luminosity of the system, the contribution of the bar increases as does the equivalent gradient.

  11. Comparison of the effects of a liquid yogurt and chocolate bars on satiety: a multidimensional approach.

    PubMed

    Chapelot, Didier; Payen, Flore

    2010-03-01

    In the context of epidemic obesity, satiety is an important target for nutritional interventions. Using a multidimensional approach, we compared the effect on satiety of two food products frequently consumed in France by young adults as a small mid-afternoon meal called the 'goûter'. Participants were eighteen healthy young males (aged 20.8 (sd 1.8) years) of normal body weight (BMI 21.7 (sd 1.7) kg/m2) used to eating four times per d including a 'goûter'. On two occasions, under laboratory conditions, the time-blinded participants consumed a fixed energy lunch (2.8 MJ) and, 240 min later, either a liquid yogurt or chocolate bars matched for energy (1.2 MJ) and weight (366 g). Then, satiety was assessed by: (1) ratings of hunger, appetite, desire to eat and fullness at 20 min intervals (perception), (2) the delay until the subject requested his dinner meal (duration) and (3) energy intake at this meal (consumption). Results showed that satiety was perceived higher after liquid yogurt than chocolate bars over the 60 min preceding the next meal, as evidenced by hunger (P < 0.005), appetite, (P < 0.005), desire to eat (P < 0.04) and fullness (P < 0.05) ratings. However, its duration was similar between liquid yogurt and chocolate bars (165 (se 8) and 174 (se 7) min respectively) and this difference was not followed by reduced intake at dinner. In conclusion, this approach of satiety revealed that a liquid yogurt induced a lower subjective motivation to eat than chocolate bars during the hour preceding the spontaneous onset of a meal, without affecting subsequent food intake.

  12. Revealing galactic scale bars with the help of Galaxy Zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Karen L.

    2015-03-01

    We use visual classifications of the brightest 250,000 galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Main Galaxy Sample provided by citizen scientists via the Galaxy Zoo project (www.galaxyzoo.org, Lintott et al. 2008) to identify a sample of local disc galaxies with reliable bar identifications. These data, combined with information on the atomic gas content from the ALFALFA survey (Haynes et al. 2011) show that disc galaxies with higher gas content have lower bar fractions. We use a gas deficiency parameter to show that disc galaxies with more/less gas than expected for their stellar mass are less/more likely to host bars. Furthermore, we see that at a fixed gas content there is no residual correlation between bar fraction and stellar mass. We argue that this suggests previously observed correlations between galaxy colour/stellar mass and (strong) bar fraction (e.g. from the sample in Masters et al. 2011, and also see Nair & Abraham 2010) could be driven by the interaction between bars and the gas content of the disc, since more massive, optically redder disc galaxies are observed to have lower gas contents. Furthermore we see evidence that at a fixed gas content the global colours of barred galaxies are redder than those of unbarred galaxies. We suggest that this could be due to the exchange of angular momentum beyond co-rotation which might stop a replenishment of gas from external sources, and act as a source of feedback to temporarily halt or reduce the star formation in the outer parts of barred discs. These results (published as Masters et al. 2012) combined with those of Skibba et al. (2012), who use the same sample to show a clear (but subtle and complicated) environmental dependence of the bar fraction in disc galaxies, suggest that bars are intimately linked to the evolution of disc galaxies.

  13. A mathematical high bar-human body model for analysing and interpreting mechanical-energetic processes on the high bar.

    PubMed

    Arampatzis, A; Brüggemann, G P

    1998-12-01

    The aims of this study were: 1. To study the transfer of energy between the high bar and the gymnast. 2. To develop criteria from the utilisation of high bar elasticity and the utilisation of muscle capacity to assess the effectiveness of a movement solution. 3. To study the influence of varying segment movement upon release parameters. For these purposes a model of the human body attached to the high bar (high bar-human body model) was developed. The human body was modelled using a 15-segment body system. The joint-beam element method (superelement) was employed for modelling the high bar. A superelement consists of four rigid segments connected by joints (two Cardan joints and one rotational-translational joint) and springs (seven rotation springs and one tension-compression spring). The high bar was modelled using three superelements. The input data required for the high bar human body model were collected with video-kinematographic (50 Hz) and dynamometric (500 Hz) techniques. Masses and moments of inertia of the 15 segments were calculated using the data from the Zatsiorsky et al. (1984) model. There are two major phases characteristic of the giant swing prior to dismounts from the high bar. In the first phase the gymnast attempts to supply energy to the high bar-humanbody system through muscle activity and to store this energy in the high bar. The difference between the energy transferred to the high bar and the reduction in the total energy of the body could be adopted as a criterion for the utilisation of high bar elasticity. The energy previously transferred into the high bar is returned to the body during the second phase. An advantageous increase in total body energy at the end of the exercise could only be obtained through muscle energy supply. An index characterising the utilisation of muscle capacity was developed out of the difference between the increase in total body energy and the energy returned from the high bar. A delayed and initially slow but

  14. Nuss bar procedure: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Obermeyer, Robert J.; Kelly, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Repair of pectus excavatum began at the beginning of the 20th century before endotracheal intubation was standard practice. Surgeons therefore developed techniques that corrected the deformity using an open procedure via the anterior chest wall. Initial techniques were unsatisfactory, but by the 1930s the partial rib resection and sternal osteotomy technique had been developed and was used in combination with external traction post-operatively to prevent the sternum from sinking back into the chest. In 1949, Ravitch recommended complete resection of the costal cartilages and complete mobilization of the sternum without external traction, and in 1961 Adkins and Blades introduced the concept of a substernal strut for sternal support. The wide resection resulted in a very rigid anterior chest wall, and in some instances, the development of asphyxiating chondrodystrophy. The primary care physicians therefore became reluctant to refer the patients for repair. In 1987, Nuss developed a minimally invasive technique that required no cartilage or sternal resection and relied only on internal bracing by means of a sub-sternal bar, which is inserted into the chest through two lateral thoracic incisions and guided across the mediastinum with the help of thoracoscopy. After publication of the procedure in 1998, it became widely accepted and a flood of new patients suddenly started to appear, which allowed for rapid improvements and modifications of the technique. New instruments were developed specifically for the procedure, complications were recognized, and the steps taken to prevent them included the development of a stabilizer and the use of pericostal sutures to prevent bar displacement. Various options were developed for sternal elevation prior to mediastinal dissection to prevent injury to the mediastinal structures, allergy testing was implemented, and pain management improved. The increased number of patients coming for repair permitted studies of cardiopulmonary

  15. Storm-induced response of a nearshore-bar system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H.; Holman, R.A.; Birkemeier, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    A nearshore-bar system was surveyed periodically through a storm and the following recovery period. The data showed a very rapid response of morphology to changing wave conditions and allowed various models on bar formation to be tested. Under low-energy conditions prior to the storm a small bar was surveyed 13 m offshore. Both the high reflectivity of the beach and the cross-shore distance to the bar are consistent with a model of sediment convergence at the node or antinode of a standing wave of incident period. Such a small-scale bar may be a common feature on beaches with steep foreshores and more gentle offshore slopes. With the increase in wave height during the storm, the bar became better developed and migrated offshore at rates up to 2.2 m h-1. The bar maintained its form in that the ratio of trough depth to crest depth ( ht hc) remained roughly constant. The bar was in no way related to processes which would cause the convergence of sediment in the breaker zone; through most of the storm the bar-crest distance offshore was typically only 10% of the surf-zone width. Analysis of the bar distance offshore in terms of a standing wave motion showed that the causative wave period must have been much longer than that of incident waves, probably on the order of a minute. Surf-zone wave data showed significant energy in the infragravity band at these periods although no definite link has been made. After the height of the storm, the bar had a crescentic morphology. The development of this morphology occurred very rapidly with parts of the bar migrating onshore at rates up to 1.2 m h-1. In contrast to the storm, during the recovery period ht hc varied by nearly a factor of three. Analysis of the offshore and longshore length scales showed the bar to be similar to one which would be generated by a standing mode 1 edge wave of period on the order of one minute. ?? 1985.

  16. The Role of 2D Circulation in Sand Bar Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Splinter, K. D.; Holman, R. A.; Plant, N. G.; Holland, K. T.

    2006-12-01

    Models of bar dynamics typically involve moments of the cross-shore flow, with offshore movement associated with the strong offshore directed undertow and onshore migration related to wave asymmetry and skewness [Gallagher, et al., 1998]. Based on these hypotheses, models and laboratory studies have used the alongshore-mean bar position and alongshore-uniform wave conditions (a 1DH approach) to study bar response to varying wave conditions. Commonly, cases of offshore migration were reproduced with reasonable accuracy, but predictions of onshore migration were less successful. However, examination of time-exposure images of waves show that during periods of offshore migration, bars tend to be alongshore uniform and move rapidly offshore, but during onshore migration, sand bars are rarely straight, instead becoming very sinuous, violating the 1DH approach. We hypothesize that under milder wave conditions, the 2DH circulation associated with this alongshore-variable morphology is, in fact, largely responsible for increased onshore net sand transport and the resulting onshore bar movement. We extend the work of Plant et al. [in review] that relates bar position, sinuosity, and wave forcing within a dynamical feedback model. The model consists of coupled differential equations that govern the rates of change of cross-shore position and horizontal sinuosity as a function of the current cross-shore position and sinuosity and a proxy for wave forcing. Using a short data set from Duck, NC, they solve for the unknown coupling coefficients by doing a least-squares fit. They find that the coefficients for the self-interaction terms have a negative sign, indicating the overall system is stable. The coefficients of the cross-interaction terms (the effect of sinuosity on rate of change of bar position and visa versa), however, are non-zero and have opposite signs indicating the systems are coupled and stability is not affected by these terms. We expand this study, relating bar

  17. Dehydration kinetics of talc at 1 bar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguly, J.; Bose, K.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental results on the dehydration kinetics of talc, which is likely to be a major potential resource for water and hydrogen in carbonaceous chondrites, is presented. The rate of dehydration of an essentially pure Mg-end member natural talc, (Mg(.99)Fe(.01))3Si4O10(OH)2, was studied by measuring in situ weight change under isothermal condition at 1 bar as a function of time in the temperature range 775 to 985 C. The grain size of the starting material was 0.7 to 1 micron. It was found that the data up to 50 to 60 percent dehydration can be fitted by an equation of the form alpha = exp(-Kt(exp n)), where alpha is the weight fraction of talc remaining, K is a rate constant and n is a numerical constant for a given temperature. For any set of isothermal data, there is a major change in the value of n for larger dehydration. For up to approximately 50 percent dehydration, all rate constants can be described by an Arrheniun relation with an activation energy of 432 (+/- 30) kJ/mol; n has a nearly constant value of 0.54 between 775 and 875 C, but increases almost linearly according to n = -10.77 + 0.012T C at T greater than or equal to 875 C.

  18. Telescoping magnetic ball bar test gage

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, J.B.

    1982-03-15

    A telescoping magnetic ball bar test gage for determining the accuracy of machine tools, including robots, and those measuring machines having non-disengagable servo drives which cannot be clutched out. Two gage balls are held and separated from one another by a telescoping fixture which allows them relative radial motional freedom but not relative lateral motional freedom. The telescoping fixture comprises a parallel reed flexure unit and a rigid member. One gage ball is secured by a magnetic socket knuckle assembly which fixes its center with respect to the machine being tested. The other gage ball is secured by another magnetic socket knuckle assembly which is engaged or held by the machine in such manner that the center of that ball is directed to execute a prescribed trajectory, all points of which are equidistant from the center of the fixed gage ball. As the moving ball executes its trajectory, changes in the radial distance between the centers of the two balls caused by inaccuracies in the machine are determined or measured by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) assembly actuated by the parallel reed flexure unit. Measurements can be quickly and easily taken for multiple trajectories about several different fixed ball locations, thereby determining the accuracy of the machine.

  19. Telescoping magnetic ball bar test gage

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, J.B.

    1984-03-13

    A telescoping magnetic ball bar test gage for determining the accuracy of machine tools, including robots, and those measuring machines having non-disengageable servo drives which cannot be clutched out is disclosed. Two gage balls are held and separated from one another by a telescoping fixture which allows them relative radial motional freedom but not relative lateral motional freedom. The telescoping fixture comprises a parallel reed flexure unit and a rigid member. One gage ball is secured by a magnetic socket knuckle assembly which fixes its center with respect to the machine being tested. The other gage ball is secured by another magnetic socket knuckle assembly which is engaged or held by the machine in such manner that the center of that ball is directed to execute a prescribed trajectory, all points of which are equidistant from the center of the fixed gage ball. As the moving ball executes its trajectory, changes in the radial distance between the centers of the two balls caused by inaccuracies in the machine are determined or measured by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) assembly actuated by the parallel reed flexure unit. Measurements can be quickly and easily taken for multiple trajectories about several different fixed ball locations, thereby determining the accuracy of the machine. 3 figs.

  20. Telescoping magnetic ball bar test gage

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, James B.

    1984-01-01

    A telescoping magnetic ball bar test gage for determining the accuracy of machine tools, including robots, and those measuring machines having non-disengageable servo drives which cannot be clutched out. Two gage balls (10, 12) are held and separated from one another by a telescoping fixture which allows them relative radial motional freedom but not relative lateral motional freedom. The telescoping fixture comprises a parallel reed flexure unit (14) and a rigid member (16, 18, 20, 22, 24). One gage ball (10) is secured by a magnetic socket knuckle assembly (34) which fixes its center with respect to the machine being tested. The other gage ball (12) is secured by another magnetic socket knuckle assembly (38) which is engaged or held by the machine in such manner that the center of that ball (12) is directed to execute a prescribed trajectory, all points of which are equidistant from the center of the fixed gage ball (10). As the moving ball (12) executes its trajectory, changes in the radial distance between the centers of the two balls (10, 12) caused by inaccuracies in the machine are determined or measured by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) assembly (50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 60) actuated by the parallel reed flexure unit (14). Measurements can be quickly and easily taken for multiple trajectories about several different fixed ball (10) locations, thereby determining the accuracy of the machine.

  1. Long-term observations of migrating shore-normal bars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gelfenbaum, Guy; Brooks, Gregg R.; ,

    1997-01-01

    A series of migrating shore-normal sandbars with wavelengths of 50-200 m and heights of 0.5-2 m have been identified off the northern tip of Anna Maria Island, a barrier island on the west-central Florida coast. Similar features have been described elsewhere since the 1930's and termed `transverse bars.' The transverse bars identified off Anna Maria Island are found for about 3 km along the coast and extend 4 km offshore. No cusps or any other associated beach expression is evident despite the fact that the bars come to within about 75 m of the beach. Historical aerial photographs from the early 1940's through the mid 1990's provide an excellent means of quantifying the migration of the bars for this time period. The historical photographs were orthorectified resulting in errors in geographic positions of 1-2 m. Analyses of the orthorectified photos clearly show movement or migration taking place in the bar field. In the forty year period from 1951 to 1991, the southern edge of the bar field moved 200-350 m to the south, with an average migration rate of 7.9 m/yr. A current-meter deployment suggests that southerly winds associated with the passage of cold fronts drives near-bed currents to the south that are strong enough to initiate sediment transport and cause the southerly migration of the transverse bars.

  2. Vision system for gauging and automatic straightening of steel bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidla, Oliver; Wilding, Ernst; Niel, Albert; Barg, Herbert

    2001-02-01

    A machine vision application for the fully automatic straightening of steel bars is presented. The bars with lengths of up to 6000 mm are quite bent on exit of the rolling mill and need to be straightened prior to delivery to a customer. The shape of the steel bar is extracted and measured by two video resolution cameras which are calibrated in position and viewing angle relative to a coordinate system located in the center of the roller table. Its contour is tracked and located with a dynamic programming method utilizing several constraints to make the algorithm as robust as possible. 3D camera calibration allows the transformation of image coordinates to real-world coordinates. After smoothing and spline fitting the curvature of the bar is computed. A deformation model of the effect of force applied to the steel allows the system to generate press commands which state where and with what specific pressure the bar has to be processed. The model can be used to predict the straightening of the bar over some consecutive pressing events helping to optimize the operation. The process of measurement and pressing is repeated until the straightness of the bar reaches a predefined limit.

  3. Alluvial Bars of the Obed Wild and Scenic River, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, W.J.; Fitch, K.C.; Ladd, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Park Service (NPS) initiated a reconnaissance study of alluvial bars along the Obed Wild and Scenic River (Obed WSR), in Cumberland and Morgan Counties, Tennessee. The study was partly driven by concern that trapping of sand by upstream impoundments might threaten rare, threatened, or endangered plant habitat by reducing the supply of sediment to the alluvial bars. The objectives of the study were to: (1) develop a preliminary understanding of the distribution, morphology, composition, stability, and vegetation structure of alluvial bars along the Obed WSR, and (2) determine whether evidence of human alteration of sediment dynamics in the Obed WSR warrants further, more detailed examination. This report presents the results of the reconnaissance study of alluvial bars along the Obed River, Clear Creek, and Daddys Creek in the Obed WSR. The report is based on: (1) field-reconnaissance visits by boat to 56 alluvial bars along selected reaches of the Obed River and Clear Creek; (2) analysis of aerial photographs, topographic and geologic maps, and other geographic data to assess the distribution of alluvial bars in the Obed WSR; (3) surveys of topography, surface particle size, vegetation structure, and ground cover on three selected alluvial bars; and (4) analysis of hydrologic records.

  4. Environmental regulation of cloud and star formation in galactic bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, F.; Bournaud, F.; Emsellem, E.; Agertz, O.; Athanassoula, E.; Combes, F.; Elmegreen, B.; Kraljic, K.; Motte, F.; Teyssier, R.

    2015-12-01

    The strong time-dependence of the dynamics of galactic bars yields a complex and rapidly evolving distribution of dense gas and star forming regions. Although bars mainly host regions void of any star formation activity, their extremities can gather the physical conditions for the formation of molecular complexes and mini-starbursts. Using a sub-parsec resolution hydrodynamical simulation of a Milky Way-like galaxy, we probe these conditions to explore how and where bar (hydro-)dynamics favours the formation or destruction of molecular clouds and stars. The interplay between the kpc-scale dynamics (gas flows, shear) and the parsec-scale (turbulence) is key to this problem. We find a strong dichotomy between the leading and trailing sides of the bar, in term of cloud fragmentation and in the age distribution of the young stars. After orbiting along the bar edge, these young structures slow down at the extremities of the bar, where orbital crowding increases the probability of cloud-cloud collision. We find that such events increase the Mach number of the cloud, leading to an enhanced star formation efficiency and finally the formation of massive stellar associations, in a fashion similar to galaxy-galaxy interactions. We highlight the role of bar dynamics in decoupling young stars from the clouds in which they form, and discuss the implications on the injection of feedback into the interstellar medium (ISM), in particular in the context of galaxy formation.

  5. A numerical study of interactions and stellar bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma; Aguerri, J. Alfonso L.; González-García, A. César; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Stringer, Martin

    2017-01-01

    For several decades, it has been known that stellar bars in disc galaxies can be triggered by interactions, or by internal processes such as dynamical instabilities. In this work, we explore the differences between these two mechanisms using numerical simulations. We perform two groups of simulations based on isolated galaxies, one group in which a bar develops naturally, and another group in which the bar could not develop in isolation. The rest of the simulations recreate 1:1 coplanar fly-by interactions computed with the impulse approximation. The orbits we use for the interactions represent the fly-bys in groups or clusters of different masses accordingly to the velocity of the encounter. In the analysis, we focus on bars' amplitude, size, pattern speed and their rotation parameter, R=R_{CR}/R_{bar}. The latter is used to define fast (R<1.4) and slow rotation (R>1.4). Compared with equivalent isolated galaxies, we find that bars affected or triggered by interactions: (i) remain in the slow regime for longer, (ii) are more boxy in face-on views and (iii) they host kinematically hotter discs. Within this set of simulations, we do not see strong differences between retrograde or prograde fly-bys. We also show that slow interactions can trigger bar formation.

  6. Numerical Simulations of the Kolsky Compression Bar Test

    SciTech Connect

    Corona, Edmundo

    2015-10-01

    The Kolsky compression bar, or split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB), is an ex- perimental apparatus used to obtain the stress-strain response of material specimens at strain rates in the order of 10 2 to 10 4 1/s. Its operation and associated data re- duction are based on principles of one-dimensional wave propagation in rods. Second order effects such as indentation of the bars by the specimen and wave dispersion in the bars, however, can significantly affect aspects of the measured material response. Finite element models of the experimental apparatus were used here to demonstrate these two effects. A procedure proposed by Safa and Gary (2010) to account for bar indentation was also evaluated and shown to improve the estimation of the strain in the bars significantly. The use of pulse shapers was also shown to alleviate the effects of wave dispersion. Combining the two can lead to more reliable results in Kolsky compression bar testing.

  7. Discrimination of single bars by the honeybee (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Horridge, G Adrian

    2003-05-01

    The bees learn to come for a reward to a very simple pattern, a black bar in a fixed position on a white background, in a Y-choice apparatus, with the targets presented in the vertical plane at a fixed range. They were trained on a number of different arrangements of a single bar on one or both targets. The trained bees were then given appropriate tests to discover what cues they had learned. A cue is an essential parameter that is recognized, not the whole pattern. At the choice point they learn exactly which way to look for consistent cues. After training on a single broad bar versus a blank target, they respond in tests to any area of black where they expect to see it, and are less able to detect it the more it has been displaced from the training position. They are more sensitive to vertical than to horizontal displacement of the bar. The cue is anything black of the right size. They do not recognize the shape or orientation of the bar. When trained to discriminate between two bars at right angles to each other, centred on the reward hole, the cue is the edge orientation at the expected places on the targets, and the bees are less able to discriminate the orientation cues the more they are displaced. When trained on a pair of broad black bars in different positions, the cues are the vertical positions of the centres. Division of the bar into squares, or making the edges stepped, removes the orientation cue but not the position cue. Addition of a large black spot or a checkerboard background to the original bar prevents discrimination, as if the spatial reference frame is disturbed. In training, or testing trained bees, parallax does not assist the discrimination of orientation.

  8. Dense cloud formation and star formation in a barred galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimori, M.; Habe, A.; Sorai, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Hirota, A.; Namekata, D.

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the properties of massive, dense clouds formed in a barred galaxy and their possible relation to star formation, performing a two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulation with the gravitational potential obtained from the 2MASS data from the barred spiral galaxy, M83. Since the environment for cloud formation and evolution in the bar region is expected to be different from that in the spiral arm region, barred galaxies are a good target to study the environmental effects on cloud formation and the subsequent star formation. Our simulation uses for an initial 80 Myr isothermal flow of non-self gravitating gas in the barred potential, then including radiative cooling, heating and self-gravitation of the gas for the next 40 Myr, during which dense clumps are formed. We identify many cold, dense gas clumps for which the mass is more than 104 M⊙ (a value corresponding to the molecular clouds) and study the physical properties of these clumps. The relation of the velocity dispersion of the identified clump's internal motion with the clump size is similar to that observed in the molecular clouds of our Galaxy. We find that the virial parameters for clumps in the bar region are larger than that in the spiral arm region. From our numerical results, we estimate star formation in the bar and spiral arm regions by applying the simple model of Krumholz & McKee (2005). The mean relation between star formation rate and gas surface density agrees well with the observed Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. The star formation efficiency in the bar region is ˜60 per cent of the spiral arm region. This trend is consistent with observations of barred galaxies.

  9. Semi-automatic pusher machine leveler bar control and method

    SciTech Connect

    Berenato, J.W. III; Raivel, E.L. Jr.; Strepelis, J.J.

    1985-11-26

    A leveler bar for a coke oven is controlled in its travel toward and away from the coke side of the oven by semi-automatic means to move the leveler bar during a ''cycle'' mode through half strokes and during the ''finish'' mode it performs four ''full'' strokes of which a full stroke can mean a 3/4 distance of full travel across the oven. Electrical circuitry which modifies or adds to prior art circuitry to accomplish this leveler bar movement is included herein.

  10. Simulations of slow bars in anisotropic disk systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. A.; Sotnikova, N. Ya.; Koshkin, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    The instability of anisotropic disk systems with elongated stellar orbits has been investigated. N-body generalized polytropic models of stellar disks have been constructed. They are shown to be unstable with respect to the bar formation at any degree of anisotropy. This result differs from the results of the studies of such models by other authors. The bar pattern speed and amplitude have been found. The initial distribution of precession rates and the adiabatic invariants of stellar orbits have been calculated. A bar is shown to be formed in such systems due to the radial orbit instability.

  11. When physics takes over: BAR proteins and membrane curvature

    PubMed Central

    Simunovic, Mijo; Voth, Gregory A.; Callan-Jones, Andrew; Bassereau, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Cell membranes become highly curved during membrane trafficking, cytokinesis, infection, immune response or cell motion. Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain proteins with their intrinsically curved and anisotropic shape are involved in many of these processes, but with a large spectrum of modes of action. In vitro experiments and multiscale computer simulations have contributed in identifying a minimal set of physical parameters, namely protein density on the membrane, membrane tension, and membrane shape, that control how bound BAR domain proteins behave on the membrane. In this review, we summarize the multifaceted coupling of BAR proteins to membrane mechanics and propose a simple phase diagram that recapitulates the effects of these parameters. PMID:26519988

  12. Efficient star formation in the bright bar of M83

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, S. D.; Strom, S. E.; Young, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    The bright molecular bar in M83 was detected standing out as a 100% enhancement of molecular emission with respect to the off-bar emission at the same radii. The spatial variations in the star formation efficiency, as traced by H alpha emission and the surface density of the interstellar gas, in M83 and M51 were compared. Both the central bar of M83 and the spiral arms of M51 are regions characterized by high massive star formation rates. For M83, it is ascribed that both the gas surface density and the star formation efficiency are high to the hydrodynamics of the central region.

  13. Icing research tunnel rotating bar calibration measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Theresa L.; Dearmon, John M.

    1993-01-01

    In order to measure icing patterns across a test section of the Icing Research Tunnel, an automated rotating bar measurement system was developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. In comparison with the previously used manual measurement system, this system provides a number of improvements: increased accuracy and repeatability, increased number of data points, reduced tunnel operating time, and improved documentation. The automated system uses a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) to measure ice accretion. This instrument is driven along the bar by means of an intelligent stepper motor which also controls data recording. This paper describes the rotating bar calibration measurement system.

  14. A Study of $e^+e^-\\to p\\bar{p}$ Using Initial StateRadiation with BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Karlsruhe U., EKP /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Vanderbilt U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2005-12-13

    The e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} p{bar p} cross-section is determined over a range of p{bar p} masses, from threshold to 4.5 GeV/c{sup 2}, by studying the e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} p{bar p}{gamma} process. The data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 232 fb{sup -1}, collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage ring, at an e{sup +}e{sup -} center-of-mass energy of 10.6 GeV. The mass dependence of the ratio of electric and magnetic form factors, |G{sub E}/G{sub M}|, is measured for p{bar p} masses below 3 GeV/c{sup 2}; its value is found to be significantly larger than 1 for masses up to 2.2 GeV/c{sup 2}. We also measure J/{psi} {yields} p{bar p} and {psi}(2S) {yields} p{bar p} branching fractions and set an upper limit on Y(4260) {yields} p{bar p} production and decay.

  15. Patterns and Predictors of Non-Prescription Medicine Use among Malaysian Pharmacy Patrons: A National Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Mohamad Yahaya, Abdul Haniff; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Saleem, Fahad; Chua, Gin Nie; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2013-01-01

    Objective The study aims to evaluate the predictors of non-prescription medicine purchasing patterns among pharmacy patrons in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional nationwide study was undertaken in 2011 in sixty randomly selected community pharmacies across 14 Malaysian states. A pharmacy exit survey was conducted over a 6-month period across Malaysia. A one-stage random cluster sampling technique was employed as there was no national sampling framework available for conducting this survey. Face-to-face interviews using a validated and pre-tested questionnaire were conducted by trained data collectors. The non-prescription medicine purchasing pattern was explored and analysed descriptively. Chi-square/Fisher exact test was used to determine the association between study variables. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of type of non-prescription medicine purchased. Results A total of 2729 pharmacy patrons agreed to participate in 60 selected pharmacy outlets. A total of 3462 non-prescription medicine were purchased during the study period with an average of 1.3 medicines per participant. Most of the non-prescription medicine purchased was meant for alimentary tract and metabolism (31.8%), followed by respiratory system (19.4%) and musculoskeletal system (15.8%) usage. Factors found to be associated with the choice of non-prescription medicine purchased were age group [χ2 = 170.75, (df = 57), p<0.01], locality [χ2 = 48.16, (df = 19), p<0.01], gender [χ2 = 32.93, (df = 13), p = 0.002], ethnic group [χ2 = 118.89, (df = 39), p<0.01] and type of occupation [χ2 = 222.434, (df = 117), p<0.01]. Non-prescription medicine purchased defined about 20% of the variance in the combination of predictors such as locality, gender, age, ethnicity, type of occupation and household income. Conclusion The predictors for selection of non-prescription medicine were locality (urban or rural), gender

  16. Numerical Hopkinson Bar Analysis: Uni-Axial Stress and Planar Bar-Specimen Interface Conditions by Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    3- D analysis, uni-axial stress, specimen design, planar bar-specimen interface, transmission tube 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 19a. NAME OF...direction; subscripts i = C, D , and E represent bar-center, specimen-edge, and bar-edge, respectively; superscripts j = 1 and 2; “1” = IB-S interface...S BD / D = 0.60 , S SH / D 1.00= , SD̂ = 0.60. .........13 Figure 11. Axial stress distribution on the surface of ceramic specimen at a different

  17. Visual mining geo-related data using pixel bar charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Ming C.; Keim, Daniel A.; Dayal, Umeshwar; Wright, Peter; Schneidewind, Joern

    2005-03-01

    A common approach to analyze geo-related data is using bar charts or x-y plots. They are intuitive and easy to use. But important information often gets lost. In this paper, we introduce a new interactive visualization technique called Geo Pixel Bar Charts, which combines the advantages of Pixel Bar Charts and interactive maps. This technique allows analysts to visualize large amounts of spatial data without aggregation and shows the geographical regions corresponding to the spatial data attribute at the same time. In this paper, we apply Geo Pixel Bar Charts to visually mining sales transactions and Internet usage from different locations. Our experimental results show the effectiveness of this technique for providing data distribution and exceptions from the map.

  18. Application of laser bar code technology in power fitting evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaohong; Liu, Shuhuab

    2007-12-01

    In this work, an automatic encoding and management system on power fittings (PFEMS) is developed based on laser bar coding technology. The system can encode power fittings according to their types, structure, dimensions, materials, and technical characteristics. Both the character codes and the laser bar codes of power fittings can be produced from the system. The system can evaluate power fittings and search process-paper automatically. The system analyzes the historical values and technical information of congeneric fittings, and forms formulae of evaluation with recursive analytical method. And then stores the formulae and technical documents into the database for index. Scanning the bar code with a laser bar code reader, accurate evaluation and corresponding process-paper of the fittings can be produced. The software has already been applied in some power stations and worked very well.

  19. Resection of a physeal bar under computer-assisted guidance.

    PubMed

    Kang, H G; Yoon, S J; Kim, J R

    2010-10-01

    Excision of a physeal bar and filling the space with interposition material may allow resumption of normal growth. Both the extent and the location of the bar and the amount of growth remaining from physis must be determined. Computer-assisted surgery is being used increasingly in various fields of orthopaedics. We describe the management of a patient with premature physeal arrest of the right distal tibia in which resection of a physeal bar was achieved under real-time three-dimensional intra-operative monitoring by computer-assisted navigation. The advantage of this method over other means of imaging is that intra-operative identification can increase the accuracy of resection of the bar.

  20. 45. EXTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOLWER, COS COB, SHOWING BARS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. EXTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOLWER, COS COB, SHOWING BARS AND PIPES LEADING TO SWITCHES - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  1. 44. EXTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING BARS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. EXTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING BARS LINKING SWITCH LEVERS AND PIPES LEADING TO SWITCHES - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  2. Transorbital orbitocranial penetrating injury caused by a metal bar

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Mehmet; Eseoğlu, Metehan; Güdü, Burhan Oral; Demir, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Transorbital intracranial injury is uncommon, representing 0.04% of penetrating head trauma with a high mortality rate. Orbital penetrating injuries may cause severe brain injury if the cranium is entered, typically via the orbital roof, the superior orbital fissure, or the optic canal. A 13-year-old male sustained a severe brain injury due to penetration of the right orbit with an iron bar. The bar entered the inferiomedial aspect of the orbit and emerged from the left occipital bone. Neurological examination revealed deep coma (GCS: E1M2V1) with fixed, dilated, and non-reactive pupils. The bar followed an intracranial trajectory, through the third ventricle and suprasellar cistern. The patient underwent an immediate exploration with removal of the bar. Unfortunately, he died 10 days postoperatively due to severe diencephalic injury with brainstem herniation. In this case report, we discuss the radiologic diagnosis and surgical management of transorbital orbitocranial injury by foreign body penetration. PMID:22865972

  3. 15. MACHINERY DETAILS: LATCH WHEEL BRACKET, LATCH POCKET, LOCK BAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. MACHINERY DETAILS: LATCH WHEEL BRACKET, LATCH POCKET, LOCK BAR, LATCH CRADLE, SPLIT COLLAR, ETC. - Niantic River Swing Bridge, Spanning Niantic River between East Lyme & Waterford, Old Lyme, New London County, CT

  4. Nondestructive Method for Bulk Chemical Characterization of Barred Olivine Chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya-Perez, M. A.; Cervantes-de la Cruz, K. E.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.

    2017-02-01

    This work develops a bulk chemical characterization of barred olivine chondrules based on the XRF analysis using a portable equipment at the National Research and Conservation Science Laboratory of Cultural Heritage (LANCIC-IF) in Mexico City.

  5. 7. Pin connections and eye bar nest, lower chord, up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Pin connections and eye bar nest, lower chord, up river truss, 321-4 Span 3. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Main Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River at mile post 3.1, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  6. 6. Pin connection and eye bar nest, lower chord, up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Pin connection and eye bar nest, lower chord, up river truss, 321-4 Span 3. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Main Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River at mile post 3.1, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  7. 8. Pin connecting and eye bar nest, lower chord, down ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Pin connecting and eye bar nest, lower chord, down river truss 132-0 Span 2 from Hot Metal Bridge. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Main Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River at mile post 3.1, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  8. Context matters: the educational potential of gay bars revisited.

    PubMed

    Warwick, Ian; Douglas, Nicola; Aggleton, Peter; Boyce, Paul

    2003-08-01

    Gay bars have been frequently identified as suitable environments in which to conduct HIV prevention activities among homosexually active men. In theory, they provide easy access to a relatively diverse group of men. However, gay bars are environments in which the primary purpose is a social one. Gay men use them to take time out, to socialize, and, on occasions, to find new sexual partners. They are also settings in which social reputations often have to be managed. This study examined the HIV/AIDS educational potential of four gay bars in London, Britain. Semistructured observations and interviews took place in four contrasting bars with a focus on men's perceptions of HIV/AIDS-related health promotion activities including condom promotion, the use of posters and small media, and understandings of safer sex. Respondents were ambivalent about AIDS-related health education activities being undertaken. The implications of such responses for the development of HIV primary prevention activities in such settings are discussed.

  9. Membrane curvature and its generation by BAR proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mim, Carsten; Unger, Vinzenz M

    2012-01-01

    Membranes are flexible barriers that surround the cell and its compartments. To execute vital functions such as locomotion or receptor turnover, cells need to control the shapes of their membranes. In part, this control is achieved through membrane-bending proteins, such as the bin/amphiphysin/rvs domain (BAR) proteins. Many open questions remain about the mechanisms by which membrane-bending proteins function. Addressing this shortfall, recent structures of BAR protein:membrane complexes support existing mechanistic models, but also produced novel insights into how BAR-domain proteins sense, stabilize and generate curvature. Here we review these recent findings, focusing on how BAR proteins interact with the membrane, and how the resulting scaffold structures might aid the recruitment of other proteins to the sites where membranes are bent. PMID:23058040

  10. Chord, Horizontal Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Details; Crossbracing Center ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord, Horizontal Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Details; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Posts, Braces & Counterbrace Joint Detail - Brownsville Covered Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River (moved to Eagle Creek Park, Indianapolis), Brownsville, Union County, IN

  11. Deficiency of "Thin" Stellar Bars in Seyfert Host Galaxies.

    PubMed

    Shlosman; Peletier; Knapen

    2000-06-01

    Using all available major samples of Seyfert galaxies and their corresponding closely matched control samples of nonactive galaxies, we find that the bar ellipticities (or axial ratios) in Seyfert galaxies are systematically different from those in nonactive galaxies. Overall, there is a deficiency of bars with large ellipticities (i.e., "thin" or "strong" bars) in Seyfert galaxies compared to nonactive galaxies. Accompanied with a large dispersion due to small number statistics, this effect is strictly speaking at the 2 sigma level. To obtain this result, the active galaxy samples of near-infrared surface photometry were matched to those of normal galaxies in type, host galaxy ellipticity, absolute magnitude, and, to some extent, redshift. We discuss possible theoretical explanations of this phenomenon within the framework of galactic evolution, and, in particular, of radial gas redistribution in barred galaxies. Our conclusions provide further evidence that Seyfert hosts differ systematically from their nonactive counterparts on scales of a few kiloparsecs.

  12. The Semileptonic Decay Modes {bar{B} rightarrow Dell bar{ν}} and {bar{B}s rightarrow Ds ell bar{ν}}: A New Analysis in Potential Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanabadi, H.; Rahmani, S.; Zarrinkamar, S.

    2016-04-01

    We consider the Schrödinger equation with a combination of Deng-Fan-type and harmonic terms. To solve the corresponding differential equation, we split the equation to two parts: the parent and the perturbation terms. We use the Nikiforov-Uvarov technique to solve the parent part. For the perturbation part, we apply the series expansion method. Next, using the calculated wave function, we investigate some bottom and charm mesons within the Isgur-Wise function formalism. We present especially semileptonic {bar{B} rightarrow Dell bar{ν}} and {bar{B}s rightarrow D_s ell bar{ν }} decay widths, branching ratios and {|V_{cb}|} (element of the CKM matrix). Masses of some pseudoscalar mesons are also indicated. Comparisons of our results with experimental values and other approaches are included.

  13. Using bar codes for material control and accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, B.

    1997-04-01

    Modern computers have become an important part of almost all business operations, including nuclear material control and accountability (NMC&A). However the effectiveness of any computer hardware/software system is a function of the input data provided to it. To maximize the benefit from a computer, timely (ideally, real-time) and accurate data are required. This paper presents the benefits of using automatic data collection, and more specifically bar code technology. Bar coding is a simple and cost effective keyless data entry solution that has been widely adopted in world commerce and government agencies. Since its introduction to the first MINATOM facility in 1995, bar code activities at other facilities have increased. Tasks to integrate bar code technology with computerized MC&A, equipment, and training workshops have been an important part of the USDOE/MINATOM collaboration.

  14. Main interior space facing the bar. The more recent kitchen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Main interior space facing the bar. The more recent kitchen and restroom additions are behind the rear wall. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  15. A quark model of {bar {Lambda}}{Lambda} production in {bar p}p interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Alberg, M.A. |; Henley, E.M.; Wilets, L.; Kunz, P.D.

    1993-12-31

    A quark model which includes both scalar and vector contributions to the reaction mechanism (SV quark model) is used in a DWBA calculation of {anti {Lambda}}{Lambda} production in {bar p}p interactions. Total and differential cross-sections, polarizations, depolarizations, and spin-correlation coefficients are computed for laboratory momenta from threshold to 1695 MeV/c. The free parameters of the calculation are the scalar and vector strengths, a quark cluster size parameter, and the parameters of the unknown {anti {Lambda}}{Lambda} potentials. Good agreement with experiment is found for constructive interference of the scalar and vector terms, and for {anti {Lambda}}{Lambda} potentials which differ from those suggested by several authors on the basis of SU(3) arguments. The fit to the data is better than that obtained by other quark models, which use only scalar or vector annihilation terms. The agreement with experiment is also better than that found in meson-exchange models. The recent suggestion [1] that measurement of the depolarization parameter D{sub nn} can be used to discriminate between meson-exchange and quark models is examined in detail. We conclude that a measurement of D{sub nn} will provide a test of which of these models, as presently constructed, is the more appropriate description of strangeness production in the {bar p}p {yields} {anti {Lambda}}{Lambda} reaction.

  16. Downstream-migrating fluvial point bars in the rock record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Ielpi, Alessandro; Aldinucci, Mauro; Fustic, Milovan

    2016-04-01

    Classical models developed for ancient fluvial point bars are based on the assumption that meander bends invariably increase their radius as meander-bend apices migrate in a direction transverse to the channel-belt axis (i.e., meander bend expansion). However, many modern meandering rivers are also characterized by down-valley migration of the bend apex, a mechanism that takes place without a significant change in meander radius and wavelength. Downstream-migrating fluvial point bars (DMFPB) are the dominant architectural element of these types of meander belts. Yet they are poorly known from ancient fluvial-channel belts, since their disambiguation from expansional point bars often requires fully-3D perspectives. This study aims to review DMFPB deposits spanning in age from Devonian to Holocene, and to discuss their main architectural and sedimentological features from published outcrop, borehole and 3D-seismic datasets. Fluvial successions hosting DMFPB mainly accumulated in low accommodation conditions, where channel belts were affected by different degrees of morphological (e.g., valleys) or tectonic (e.g., axial drainage of shortening basins) confinement. In confined settings, bends migrate downstream along the erosion-resistant valley flanks and little or no floodplain deposits are preserved. Progressive floor aggradation (e.g., valley filling) allow meander belts with DMFPB to decrease their degree of confinement. In less confined settings, meander bends migrate downstream mainly after impinging against older, erosion-resistant channel fill mud. By contrast, tectonic confinement is commonly associated with uplifted alluvial plains that prevented meander-bend expansion, in turn triggering downstream translation. At the scale of individual point bars, translational morphodynamics promote the preservation of downstream-bar deposits, whereas the coarser-grained upstream and central beds are less frequently preserved. However, enhanced preservation of upstream-bar

  17. Bar-Chart-Monitor System For Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Oscar

    1993-01-01

    Real-time monitor system provides bar-chart displays of significant operating parameters developed for National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at Ames Research Center. Designed to gather and process sensory data on operating conditions of wind tunnels and models, and displays data for test engineers and technicians concerned with safety and validation of operating conditions. Bar-chart video monitor displays data in as many as 50 channels at maximum update rate of 2 Hz in format facilitating quick interpretation.

  18. Development of omega-3 rich energy bar with flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Mridula, D; Singh, K K; Barnwal, P

    2013-10-01

    Energy bar sample were prepared with different levels of flaxseed (0-20%) in addition to cereals and pulses with varying levels of sweeteners (45, 50, and 55%) to deliver a nutritious food to the consumer. The developed bars were evaluated for textural, colour, nutritional quality, sensory attributes and total microbial load. Different levels of flaxseed and sweeteners significantly affected the hue and chroma values of the energy bar. In general the level of flaxseed in energy bar did not affect the hardness but it was decreased with increasing level of sweeteners except in control sample. The total calories obtained from the energy bar showed significant increase with the increasing levels of flaxseed, the maximum (397.95 kcal) being for bars with 20% flaxseed and 45% sweeteners. This energy bar sample also showed the maximum protein (12.41%), crude fat (11.86%), ash (1.65%), iron (3.77 mg/100 g), crude fiber (2.18%) and omega-3 as alpha-linolenic acid (22.50%, fatty acid basis) content. The overall mean sensory score for overall acceptability for samples with 10% flaxseed and 55% sweeteners and 15% flaxseed and 45% sweeteners were at par but the omega-3 and other nutrients in the later sample was higher than the former sample, hence, 15% flaxseed and 45% sweeteners along with other ingredients may be considered for production of acceptable quality omega-3 fatty acid rich energy bar at commercial scale, which also stored well at refrigerated condition.

  19. THE MASS PROFILE AND SHAPE OF BARS IN THE SPITZER SURVEY OF STELLAR STRUCTURE IN GALAXIES (S{sup 4}G): SEARCH FOR AN AGE INDICATOR FOR BARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Taehyun; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Sheth, Kartik; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Zaritsky, Dennis; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; Holwerda, Benne; Ho, Luis C.; Comerón, Sébastien; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Knapen, Johan H.; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Hinz, Joannah L.; Buta, Ronald J.; Kim, Minjin; Madore, Barry F.; and others

    2015-01-20

    We have measured the radial light profiles and global shapes of bars using two-dimensional 3.6 μm image decompositions for 144 face-on barred galaxies from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies. The bar surface brightness profile is correlated with the stellar mass and bulge-to-total (B/T) ratio of their host galaxies. Bars in massive and bulge-dominated galaxies (B/T > 0.2) show a flat profile, while bars in less massive, disk-dominated galaxies (B/T ∼ 0) show an exponential, disk-like profile with a wider spread in the radial profile than in the bulge-dominated galaxies. The global two-dimensional shapes of bars, however, are rectangular/boxy, independent of the bulge or disk properties. We speculate that because bars are formed out of disks, bars initially have an exponential (disk-like) profile that evolves over time, trapping more disk stars to boxy bar orbits. This leads bars to become stronger and have flatter profiles. The narrow spread of bar radial profiles in more massive disks suggests that these bars formed earlier (z > 1), while the disk-like profiles and a larger spread in the radial profile in less massive systems imply a later and more gradual evolution, consistent with the cosmological evolution of bars inferred from observational studies. Therefore, we expect that the flatness of the bar profile can be used as a dynamical age indicator of the bar to measure the time elapsed since the bar formation. We argue that cosmic gas accretion is required to explain our results on bar profile and the presence of gas within the bar region.

  20. Offline detection of broken rotor bars in AC induction motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Craig Stephen

    ABSTRACT. OFFLINE DETECTION OF BROKEN ROTOR BARS IN AC INDUCTION MOTORS. The detection of the broken rotor bar defect in medium- and large-sized AC induction machines is currently one of the most difficult tasks for the motor condition and monitoring industry. If a broken rotor bar defect goes undetected, it can cause a catastrophic failure of an expensive machine. If a broken rotor bar defect is falsely determined, it wastes time and money to physically tear down and inspect the machine only to find an incorrect diagnosis. Previous work in 2009 at Baker/SKF-USA in collaboration with the Korea University has developed a prototype instrument that has been highly successful in correctly detecting the broken rotor bar defect in ACIMs where other methods have failed. Dr. Sang Bin and his students at the Korea University have been using this prototype instrument to help the industry save money in the successful detection of the BRB defect. A review of the current state of motor conditioning and monitoring technology for detecting the broken rotor bar defect in ACIMs shows improved detection of this fault is still relevant. An analysis of previous work in the creation of this prototype instrument leads into the refactoring of the software and hardware into something more deployable, cost effective and commercially viable.

  1. Visual mining business service using pixel bar charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Ming C.; Dayal, Umeshwar; Casati, Fabio

    2004-06-01

    Basic bar charts have been commonly available, but they only show highly aggregated data. Finding the valuable information hidden in the data is essential to the success of business. We describe a new visualization technique called pixel bar charts, which are derived from regular bar charts. The basic idea of a pixel bar chart is to present all data values directly instead of aggregating them into a few data values. Pixel bar charts provide data distribution and exceptions besides aggregated data. The approach is to represent each data item (e.g. a business transaction) by a single pixel in the bar chart. The attribute of each data item is encoded into the pixel color and can be accessed and drilled down to the detail information as needed. Different color mappings are used to represent multiple attributes. This technique has been prototyped in three business service applications-Business Operation Analysis, Sales Analysis, and Service Level Agreement Analysis at Hewlett Packard Laboratories. Our applications show the wide applicability and usefulness of this new idea.

  2. Dynamical Modelling Of The Inner Galactic Barred Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portail, Matthieu

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the present state of the Milky Way disk is a necessary first step towards learning about the formation history of our Galaxy. While it is clear from infrared photometry that the inner disk hosts a 5 kpc long bar with a central Box/Peanut bulge, the interplay between the bar and the inner disk remains poorly known. To this end we build N-body dynamical models of the inner Galaxy with the Made-to-Measure method, combining deep photometry from the VVV, UKIDSS and 2MASS surveys with kinematics from the BRAVA, OGLE and ARGOS surveys. We explore their stellar to dark matter fraction together with their bar pattern speed and constrain from the modelling the effective Galactic potential (gravitational potential + bar pattern speed) inside the solar radius. Our best model is able to reproduce simultaneously (i) the Box/Peanut shape of the bulge, (ii) the transition between bulge and long bar, (iii) the bulge line-of-sight kinematics and proper motion dispersions, (iv) the ARGOS velocity field in the bar region and (v) the rotation curve of the Galaxy inside 10 kpc. Our effective potential will be an important input to more detailed chemodynamical studies of the stellar populations in the inner Galaxy, as revealed by the ARGOS or APOGEE surveys.

  3. SECULAR DAMPING OF STELLAR BARS IN SPINNING DARK MATTER HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Stacy; Shlosman, Isaac; Heller, Clayton

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate using numerical simulations of isolated galaxies that growth of stellar bars in spinning dark matter halos is heavily suppressed in the secular phase of evolution. In a representative set of models, we show that for values of the cosmological spin parameter λ ≳ 0.03, bar growth (in strength and size) becomes increasingly quenched. Furthermore, the slowdown of the bar pattern speed weakens considerably with increasing λ until it ceases completely. The terminal structure of the bars is affected as well, including extent and shape of their boxy/peanut bulges. The essence of this effect lies in the modified angular momentum exchange between the disk and the halo facilitated by the bar. For the first time we have demonstrated that a dark matter halo can emit and not purely absorb angular momentum. Although the halo as a whole is not found to emit, the net transfer of angular momentum from the disk to the halo is significantly reduced or completely eliminated. The paradigm shift implies that the accepted view that disks serve as sources of angular momentum and halos serve as sinks must be revised. Halos with λ ≳ 0.03 are expected to form a substantial fraction, based on the lognormal distribution of λ. The dependence of secular bar evolution on halo spin, therefore, implies profound corollaries for the cosmological evolution of galactic disks.

  4. Dynamics of membrane nanotubes coated with I-BAR

    PubMed Central

    Barooji, Younes F.; Rørvig-Lund, Andreas; Semsey, Szabolcs; Reihani, S. Nader S.; Bendix, Poul M.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane deformation is a necessary step in a number of cellular processes such as filopodia and invadopodia formation and has been shown to involve membrane shaping proteins containing membrane binding domains from the IRSp53-MIM protein family. In reconstituted membranes the membrane shaping domains can efficiently deform negatively charged membranes into tubules without any other proteins present. Here, we show that the IM domain (also called I-BAR domain) from the protein ABBA, forms semi-flexible nanotubes protruding into Giant Unilamellar lipid Vesicles (GUVs). By simultaneous quantification of tube intensity and tubular shape we find both the diameter and stiffness of the nanotubes. I-BAR decorated tubes were quantified to have a diameter of ~50 nm and exhibit no stiffening relative to protein free tubes of the same diameter. At high protein density the tubes are immobile whereas at lower density the tubes diffuse freely on the surface of the GUV. Bleaching experiments of the fluorescently tagged I-BAR confirmed that the mobility of the tubes correlates with the mobility of the I-BAR on the GUV membrane. Finally, at low density of I-BAR the protein upconcentrates within tubes protruding into the GUVs. This implies that I-BAR exhibits strong preference for negatively curved membranes. PMID:27444356

  5. On backward dispersion correction of Hopkinson pressure bar signals

    PubMed Central

    Tyas, A.; Ozdemir, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Elastic theory shows that wide spectrum signals in the Hopkinson pressure bar suffer two forms of distortion as they propagate from the loaded bar face. These must be accounted for if accurate determination of the impact load is to be possible. The first form of distortion is the well-known phase velocity dispersion effect. The second form, which can be equally deleterious, is the prediction that at high frequencies, the stress and strain generated in the bar varies with radial position on the cross section, even for a uniformly applied loading. We consider the consequences of these effects on our ability to conduct accurate backward dispersion correction of bar signals, that is, to derive the impact face load from the dispersed signal recorded at some other point on the bar. We conclude that there is an upper limit on the frequency for which the distortion effects can be accurately compensated, and that this can significantly affect the accuracy of experimental results. We propose a combination of experimental studies and detailed numerical modelling of the impact event and wave propagation along the bar to gain better understanding of the frequency content of the impact event, and help assess the accuracy of experimental predictions of impact face load. PMID:25071236

  6. Introducing a New 3D Dynamical Model for Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Christof; Zotos, Euaggelos E.

    2015-11-01

    The regular or chaotic dynamics of an analytical realistic three dimensional model composed of a spherically symmetric central nucleus, a bar and a flat disk is investigated. For describing the properties of the bar, we introduce a new simple dynamical model and we explore the influence on the character of orbits of all the involved parameters of it, such as the mass and the scale length of the bar, the major semi-axis and the angular velocity of the bar, as well as the energy. Regions of phase space with ordered and chaotic motion are identified in dependence on these parameters and for breaking the rotational symmetry. First, we study in detail the dynamics in the invariant plane z = pz = 0 using the Poincaré map as a basic tool and then study the full three-dimensional case using the Smaller Alignment index method as principal tool for distinguishing between order and chaos. We also present strong evidence obtained through the numerical simulations that our new bar model can realistically describe the formation and the evolution of the observed twin spiral structure in barred galaxies.

  7. Dynamics of membrane nanotubes coated with I-BAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barooji, Younes F.; Rørvig-Lund, Andreas; Semsey, Szabolcs; Reihani, S. Nader S.; Bendix, Poul M.

    2016-07-01

    Membrane deformation is a necessary step in a number of cellular processes such as filopodia and invadopodia formation and has been shown to involve membrane shaping proteins containing membrane binding domains from the IRSp53-MIM protein family. In reconstituted membranes the membrane shaping domains can efficiently deform negatively charged membranes into tubules without any other proteins present. Here, we show that the IM domain (also called I-BAR domain) from the protein ABBA, forms semi-flexible nanotubes protruding into Giant Unilamellar lipid Vesicles (GUVs). By simultaneous quantification of tube intensity and tubular shape we find both the diameter and stiffness of the nanotubes. I-BAR decorated tubes were quantified to have a diameter of ~50 nm and exhibit no stiffening relative to protein free tubes of the same diameter. At high protein density the tubes are immobile whereas at lower density the tubes diffuse freely on the surface of the GUV. Bleaching experiments of the fluorescently tagged I-BAR confirmed that the mobility of the tubes correlates with the mobility of the I-BAR on the GUV membrane. Finally, at low density of I-BAR the protein upconcentrates within tubes protruding into the GUVs. This implies that I-BAR exhibits strong preference for negatively curved membranes.

  8. Would a Galactic bar destroy the globular cluster system?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Kevin; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Aguilar, Luis

    1992-01-01

    Five different dynamical Galaxy models are presented for the Galactic potential which satisfy the observed rotation curve but contain a central bar so that the 3-kpc nonintersecting streamlines have a radial velocity of 50 km/s when viewed at 45 deg to the bar axis. The effect of the central bars on the destruction rates of globular clusters in the Galaxy is investigated. The method of Aguilar et al. (1988) is applied to these barred Galaxy models. The unknown tangential velocity components of each observed cluster are drawn randomly from an assumed distribution function. The cluster's orbit is integrated, and the bulge shocking rate is calculated. The median destruction rate of the cluster is computed by sampling a large number of such orbits. The addition of the rotating bar does not strongly affect the destruction rates of globular clusters. There is a small increase in the destruction rate for those clusters within about 2.5 kpc. Thus it is not possible to rule out the existence of a rotating bar on these grounds.

  9. A Study of B→c$\\bar{c}$γK in the BaBar Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fulsom, Brian Gregory

    2009-04-01

    The BABAR Collaboration is a high energy physics experiment located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The primary goal of the experiment is to study charge and parity violation in the B-meson sector, however the copious production of B mesons decaying to other final states allows for a wide-ranging physics program. In particular, one can access the charmonium system via colour-suppressed b → c decays of the type B → c$\\bar{c}$K. This thesis presents a study of B →c$\\bar{c}$γK decays where c$\\bar{c}$ includes J/Ψ and Ψ(2S), and K includes K±, KS0 and K*(892). The particular emphasis is on a search for the radiative decays X(3872) → J/Ψγ and X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ. The X(3872) state is a recently-discovered resonance of undetermined quark composition, speculatively a conventional charmonium state or exotic four-quark di-meson molecule. This research is also sensitive to the well-known radiative charmonium decays B → χc1,2K, which are used as verification for the analysis technique. This dissertation sets the best B → χc1K branching fraction measurements to date, and sees the first evidence for factorization-suppressed B0 → χc2}K*0 decay at a level of 3.6σ. It also provides evidence for X(3872) → J/Ψγ and X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ with 3.6σ and 3.3σ significance, respectively. The product of branching fractions β(B± → X(3872)K±) • β(X(3872) → J/Ψγ) = (2.8 ± 0.8(stat.) ± 0.2(syst.)) x 10{sup -6} and β(B{± → X(3872)K±) → β(X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ) = (9.5 ± 2.7(stat.) ± 0.9(syst.)) x 10-6 are measured. These results improve upon previous X(3872) → J/Ψγ measurements, and represent the first evidence for X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ.

  10. Demographic response of northern spotted owls to barred owl removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diller, V. Lowell; Hamm, Keith A; Early, Desiree A; Lamphear, David W; Katie Dugger,; Yackulic, Charles B.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Carlson, Peter C.; McDonald, Trent L.

    2016-01-01

    Federally listed as threatened in 1990 primarily because of habitat loss, the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has continued to decline despite conservation efforts resulting in forested habitat being reserved throughout its range. Recently, there is growing evidence the congeneric invasive barred owl (Strix varia) may be responsible for the continued decline primarily by excluding spotted owls from their preferred habitat. We used a long-term demographic study for spotted owls in coastal northern California as the basis for a pilot barred owl removal experiment. Our demography study used capture–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected from 1990 to 2013 to evaluate trends in vital rates and populations. We used a classic before-after-control-impact (BACI) experimental design to investigate the demographic response of northern spotted owls to the lethal removal of barred owls. According to the best 2-species dynamic occupancy model, there was no evidence of differences in barred or northern spotted owl occupancy prior to the initiation of the treatment (barred owl removal). After treatment, barred owl occupancy was lower in the treated relative to the untreated areas and spotted owl occupancy was higher relative to the untreated areas. Barred owl removal decreased spotted owl territory extinction rates but did not affect territory colonization rates. As a result, spotted owl occupancy increased in the treated area and continued to decline in the untreated areas. Prior to and after barred owl removal, there was no evidence that average fecundity differed on the 2 study areas. However, the greater number of occupied spotted owl sites on the treated areas resulted in greater productivity in the treated areas based on empirical counts of fledged young. Prior to removal, survival was declining at a rate of approximately 0.2% per year for treated and untreated areas. Following treatment, estimated survival was 0.859 for

  11. Binge Drinking Associations with Patrons' Risk Behaviors and Alcohol Effects after Leaving a Nightclub: Sex Differences in the "Balada com Ciência" Portal Survey Study in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Zila M; Ribeiro, Karen J; Wagner, Gabriela A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of binge drinking detected at the exit of nightclubs and risk behaviors and alcohol effects just after leaving the venue in a representative sample of Brazilian nightclub patrons according to sex. For this purpose, a portal survey study called Balada com Ciência was conducted in 2013 in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, using a two-stage cluster sampling survey design. Individual-level data were collected in 2422 subjects at the entrance and 1822 subjects at the exit of 31 nightclubs, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) was measured using a breathalyzer. The following day, 1222 patrons answered an online follow-up survey that included questions about risk behaviors and alcohol effects practiced just after leaving the nightclub. Weighted logistic regressions were used to analyze binge drinking associated with risk behaviors by sex. For both sexes, the most prevalent risk behaviors practiced after leaving a nightclub were drinking and driving (men=27.9%; women=20.4%), the use of illicit drugs (men=15.8%; women=9.4%) and risky sexual behavior (men=11.4%; women=6.8%). The practice of binge drinking increased the behavior of illicit drug use after leaving the nightclub by 2.54 times [95% CI: 1.26-5.09] among men who drank and increased the risk of an episode of new alcohol use by 5.80 times [95% CI: 1.50-22.44] among women who drank. Alcoholic blackouts were more prevalent among men [OR=8.92; 95% CI: 3.83-20.80] and women [OR= 5.31; 95% CI: 1.68-16.84] whose BrAC was equivalent to binge drinking compared with patrons with a lower BrAC. Public policies aiming to reduce patrons' BrAC at the exit of nightclubs, such as staff training in responsible beverage service and legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals, would be useful to protect patrons from the risk behaviors associated with binge drinking in nightclubs.

  12. 75 FR 41987 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Bars Along the Coasts of Oregon and Washington; Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... is making a change to the Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) covering the Umpqua River Bar in Oregon so... established Regulated Navigation Areas (RNA) covering each of the coastal bars in Oregon and Washington... Umpqua River Bar in Oregon indicating that the RNA covering that bar, as defined in 33 CFR...

  13. 75 FR 18449 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Bars Along the Coasts of Oregon and Washington; Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ...: The Coast Guard proposes to change the Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) covering the Umpqua River Bar... that use the waters near the Umpqua River Bar in Oregon indicating that the RNA covering that bar, as... restricted or closed, the Coast Guard proposes to change the Umpqua River Bar RNA as defined in 33 CFR...

  14. 76 FR 1599 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... results of its administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar from Brazil. The... stainless steel bar (SSB) from Brazil. See Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results...

  15. Using newly-designed lint cleaner grid bars to remove seed coat fragments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to remove seed coat fragments at the saw-type lint cleaner using newly-designed grid bars. The test consisted of five experimental grid bar designs and one control. The experimental grid bars had angles from the sharp toe of the grid bar (or the angle from vertical) of ...

  16. Partnering with libraries to promote walking among community-dwelling adults: a Kingston gets active pilot pedometer-lending project.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Holly H; Faloon, Kathryn J; Lévesque, Lucie; McDonald, Deanna

    2009-10-01

    Most adults do not walk enough to obtain health benefits. Pedometers have been successfully utilized to motivate and increase walking. Given that libraries are a place where community members seek health resources, they are a logical setting for increasing community accessibility to pedometers. The purpose was to examine the feasibility of lending pedometers to library patrons to increase walking. In five Canadian public libraries, 90 pedometers were made available for 6 months. A total of 41 library patrons (33 women, 8 men, age range 18 to 65 or older) completed a survey about their walking patterns and pedometer use. More than 330 loans were made. Chisquare analysis found significant associations between walking and motivation to walk more (p < .05), walking and goal setting (p < .05), and motivation to walk more and setting a walking goal (p < .001). Results provide preliminary evidence that lending pedometers through local libraries is an effective, low-cost approach to enhance walking in community members.

  17. Triply heavy tetraquark states with the QQbar{Q}bar{q} configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kan; Liu, Xiang; Liu, Yan-Rui; Wu, Jing; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of the color-magnetic interaction, we systematically investigate the mass splittings of the QQbar{Q}bar{q} tetraquark states and estimate their rough masses in this work. These systems include the explicitly exotic states ccbar{b}bar{q} and bbbar{c}bar{q} and the hidden exotic states ccbar{c}bar{q}, cbbar{b}bar{q}, bcbar{c}bar{q}, and bbbar{b}bar{q}. If a state around the estimated mass region can be observed, its nature as a genuine tetraquark is favored. The strong decay patterns shown here will be helpful to the experimental search for these exotic states.

  18. Developments and trends in fruit bar production and characterization.

    PubMed

    Orrego, C E; Salgado, N; Botero, C A

    2014-01-01

    Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits of fruits. The consumers prefer fruit bars that are more tasted followed by proper textural features that could be obtained by establishing the equilibrium of ingredients, the proper choosing of manufacturing stages and the control of the product final moisture content. Fruit bar preparations may include a mixture of pulps, fresh or dried fruit, sugar, binders, and a variety of minor ingredients. Additionally to the conventional steps of manufacturing (pulping, homogenizing, heating, concentrating, and drying) there have been proposed the use of gelled fruit matrices, dried gels or sponges, and extruders as new trends for processing fruit bars. Different single-type dehydration or combined methods include, in order of increasing process time, air-infrared, vacuum and vacuum-microwave drying convective-solar drying, convective drying, and freeze drying are also suggested as alternative to solar traditional drying stage. The dehydration methods that use vacuum exhibited not only higher retention of antioxidants but also better color, texture, and rehydration capacity. Antioxidant activity resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds in the bars is well established. Besides this, fruit bars are also important sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Given the wide range of bioactive factors in fresh fruits that are preserved in fruit bars, it is plausible that their uptake consumption have a positive effect in reducing the risk of many diseases.

  19. Potential trophic cascades triggered by the barred owl range expansion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holm, Samantha R.; Noon, Barry R.; Wiens, David; Ripple, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the barred owl (Strix varia) has expanded its range into the Pacific Northwest of the United States resulting in pronounced effects on the demography and behavior of the northern spotted owl (S. occidentalis caurina). The range expansion has brought together historically allopatric species, creating the potential for significant changes in the avian predator community with possible cascading effects on food-web dynamics. The adverse effects of the barred owl on the behavior and demography of the northern spotted owl are well-documented, but little is known about the immediate and long-term effects changes in the predator community may have on native species composition and ecosystem processes. Based on northern spotted owl and barred owl selection for diet and habitat resources, there is a potential for trophic cascades within the region's predator and prey communities, differing responses by their shared and unique prey species, and possible direct and indirect effects on ecosystem processes. We explored the possible ecological consequences of the barred owl range expansion to wildlife communities of the Pacific Northwest based on the theoretical underpinnings of predator–prey relationships, interspecific competition, intraguild predation, and potential cascading trophic interactions. Negative effects on fitness of northern spotted owls because of interspecific competition with barred owls are strong selection forces that may contribute to the regional extinction of the northern spotted owl. In addition, we posit that shared prey species and those uniquely consumed by barred owls, along with other competing native predators, may experience changes in behavior, abundance, and distribution as a result of increased rates of predation by rapidly expanding populations of barred owls.

  20. Dynamics of barred galaxies: effects of disc height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klypin, Anatoly; Valenzuela, Octavio; Colín, Pedro; Quinn, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    We study dynamics of bars in models of disc galaxies embedded in realistic dark matter haloes. We find that disc thickness plays an important, if not dominant, role in the evolution and structure of the bars. We also make extensive numerical tests of different N-body codes used to study bar dynamics. Models with thick discs typically used in this type of modelling (height-to-length ratio hz/Rd = 0.2) produce slowly rotating, and very long, bars. In contrast, more realistic thin discs with the same parameters as in our Galaxy (hz/Rd ~ 0.1) produce bars with normal length Rbar ~ Rd, which rotate quickly with the ratio of the corotation radius to the bar radius compatible with observations. Bars in these models do not show a tendency to slow down, and may lose as little as 2-3 per cent of their angular momentum due to dynamical friction with the dark matter over cosmological time. We attribute the differences between the models to a combined effect of high phase-space density and smaller Jeans mass in the thin-disc models, which result in the formation of a dense central bulge. Special attention is paid to numerical effects, such as the accuracy of orbital integration, force and mass resolution. Using three N-body codes - GADGET, adaptive refinement tree (ART) and PKDGRAV - we find that numerical effects are very important and, if not carefully treated, may produce incorrect and misleading results. Once the simulations are performed with sufficiently small time-steps and with adequate force and mass resolution, all the codes produce nearly the same results: we do not find any systematic deviations between the results obtained with TREE codes (GADGET and PKDGRAV) and with the adaptive mesh refinement (ART) code.

  1. Mass Distribution and Bar Formation in Growing Disk Galaxy Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrier, Joel C.; Sellwood, J. A.

    2016-11-01

    We report idealized simulations that mimic the growth of galaxy disks embedded in responsive halos and bulges. The disks manifested an almost overwhelming tendency to form strong bars that we found very difficult to prevent. We found that fresh bars formed in growing disks after we had destroyed the original, indicating that bar formation also afflicts continued galaxy evolution, and not just the early stages of disk formation. This behavior raises still more insistently the previously unsolved question of how some galaxies avoid bars. Since our simulations included only collisionless star and halo particles, our findings may apply to gas-poor galaxies only; however, the conundrum persists for the substantial unbarred fraction of those galaxies. Our original objective was to study how internal dynamics rearranged the distribution of mass in the disk as a generalization of our earlier study with rigid spherical components. With difficulty, we were able to construct some models that were not strongly influenced by bars, and found that halo compression and angular momentum exchange with the disk did not alter our earlier conclusion that spiral activity is largely responsible for creating smooth density profiles and rotation curves.

  2. [Amaranth bars enriched with fructans: acceptability and nutritional value].

    PubMed

    Dias Capriles, Vanessa; Gomes Arêas, José Alfredo

    2010-09-01

    There is an increasing appeal for convenience foods with potential health benefits to the consumer. Raw materials with high nutritional value and functional properties must be used on the development of these food products. Amaranth is a gluten-free grain with high nutrition value. Inulin and oligofructose are prebiotic ingredients presenting effects as the enhancement of calcium absorption. Amaranth bars enriched with inulin and oligofructose were developed in the flavors: banana, Brazilian nuts and dried grape, coconut, peach, strawberry and wall nut. The proximate composition were determined and compared to commercial cereal bars, available in traditional (n=59), light (n=60), diet (n=8), with soy (n=10) and quinoa (n=1) categories. Amaranth bars present mean global acceptance values from 6.3 to 7.6 on a 9-point hedonic scale, nutritional advantages as compared to commercial cereal bars (caloric reduction and higher levels of dietary fiber). Although amaranth is an unknown raw material in Brazil, it shows good potential to be used in the manufacturing of ready-to-eat products. As they are gluten free, these amaranth bars are also an alternative product for celiacs, also contributing to the enhancement of calcium absorption, a problem frequently observed in these patients.

  3. Magnetometry of micro-magnets with electrostatically defined Hall bars

    SciTech Connect

    Lachance-Quirion, Dany; Camirand Lemyre, Julien; Bergeron, Laurent; Sarra-Bournet, Christian; Pioro-Ladrière, Michel

    2015-11-30

    Micro-magnets are key components for quantum information processing with individual spins, enabling arbitrary rotations and addressability. In this work, characterization of sub-micrometer sized CoFe ferromagnets is performed with Hall bars electrostatically defined in a two-dimensional electron gas. Due to the ballistic nature of electron transport in the cross junction of the Hall bar, anomalies such as the quenched Hall effect appear near zero external magnetic field, thus hindering the sensitivity of the magnetometer to small magnetic fields. However, it is shown that the sensitivity of the diffusive limit can be almost completely restored at low temperatures using a large current density in the Hall bar of about 10 A/m. Overcoming the size limitation of conventional etched Hall bars with electrostatic gating enables the measurement of magnetization curves of 440 nm wide micro-magnets with a signal-to-noise ratio above 10{sup 3}. Furthermore, the inhomogeneity of the stray magnetic field created by the micro-magnets is directly measured using the gate-voltage-dependent width of the sensitive area of the Hall bar.

  4. Bar Coding Platforms for Nucleic Acid and Protein Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Uwe R.

    A variety of novel bar coding systems has been developed as multiplex testing platforms for applications in biological, chemical, and biomedical diagnostics. Instead of identifying a target through capture at a specific locus on an array, target analytes are captured by a bar coded tag, which then uniquely identifies the target, akin to putting a UPC bar code on a product. This requires an appropriate surface functionalization to ensure that the correct target is captured with high efficiency. Moreover the tag, or bar code, has to be readable with minimal error and at high speed, typically by flow analysis. For quantitative assays the target may be labeled separately, or the tag may also serve as the label. A great variety of materials and physicochemical principles has been exploited to generate this plethora of novel bar coding platforms. Their advantages compared to microarray-based assay platforms include in-solution binding kinetics, flexibility in assay design, compatibility with microplate-based assay automation, high sample throughput, and with some assay formats, increased sensitivity.

  5. Suspended-sediment inflows to Watts Bar Reservoir. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, L.K.

    1993-09-01

    Suspended-sediment inflows to Watts Bar Reservoir are important data that are required in numerical modeling of transport and deposition of sediment in the reservoir. Acceptable numerical modeling requires sediment inflow rates and locations in order to be able to compute the location and quantity of sediment deposited within the reservoir. Therefore, the representativeness of modeling results is highly dependent on the characteristics of sediment input to the model. The following recommendations, that account for suspended-sediment inflows to be used in the numerical modeling of sediment transport and deposition in Watts Bar Reservoir, were developed through an evaluation of available watershed and sediment deposition data. (1) Use the suspended-sediment rating regression equations of Gaydos et al., for Emory River at Oakdale, TN, and for Poplar Creek near Oak Ridge, TN, to represent the suspended-sediment inflows into Watts Bar Reservoir from its tributaries; (2) Use a suspended-sediment rating regression equation that was derived from suspended-sediment and streamflow data of the Little Tennessee River at McGhee, TN, to represent sediment inflow from the Little Tennessee River for simulation of any historical year before the completion of Tellico Dam; (3) Check the appropriateness of any assumption for suspended-sediment inflows from upstream reservoirs by using its long-term relationship to local suspended-sediment inflows and to the suspended-sediment outflow through Watts Bar Dam; and (4) Focus refinements to suspended-sediment inflow rates on the Clinch arm of Watts Bar Reservoir.

  6. Predictions for the $\\bar{B}^{0}\\rightarrow \\bar{K}^{\\ast 0}$ X(YZ) and $\\bar{B}^{0}_{s}\\rightarrow\\phi$ X(YZ) with X(4160), Y(3940), Z(3930)

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Wei -Hong; Molina, R.; Xie, Ju -Jun; Doring, M.; Oset, E.

    2015-05-22

    We investigate the decay of $\\bar B^0 \\to \\bar K^{*0} R$ and $\\bar B^0_s \\to \\phi R$ with $R$ being the $X(4160)$, $Y(3940)$, $Z(3930)$ resonances. Under the assumption that these states are dynamically generated from the vector-vector interaction, as has been concluded from several theoretical studies, we use a reaction mechanism of quark production at the elementary level, followed by hadronization of one final $q \\bar q$ pair into two vectors and posterior final state interaction of this pair of vector mesons to produce the resonances. With this procedure we are able to predict five ratios for these decays, which are closely linked to the dynamical nature of these states, and also predict the order of magnitude of the branching ratios which we find of the order of $10^{-4}$, well within the present measurable range. In order to further test the dynamical nature of these resonances we study the $\\bar B^0_s \\to \\phi D^* \\bar D^*$ and $\\bar B^0_s \\to \\phi D_s^* \\bar D_s^*$ decays close to the $D^* \\bar D^*$ and $D_s^* \\bar D_s^*$ thresholds and make predictions for the ratio of the mass distributions in these decays and the $\\bar B^0_s \\to \\phi R$ decay widths. In conclusion, the measurement of these decays rates can help unravel the nature of these resonances.

  7. Predictions for the $$\\bar{B}^{0}\\rightarrow \\bar{K}^{\\ast 0}$$ X(YZ) and $$\\bar{B}^{0}_{s}\\rightarrow\\phi$$ X(YZ) with X(4160), Y(3940), Z(3930)

    DOE PAGES

    Liang, Wei -Hong; Molina, R.; Xie, Ju -Jun; ...

    2015-05-22

    We investigate the decay ofmore » $$\\bar B^0 \\to \\bar K^{*0} R$$ and $$\\bar B^0_s \\to \\phi R$$ with $R$ being the $X(4160)$, $Y(3940)$, $Z(3930)$ resonances. Under the assumption that these states are dynamically generated from the vector-vector interaction, as has been concluded from several theoretical studies, we use a reaction mechanism of quark production at the elementary level, followed by hadronization of one final $$q \\bar q$$ pair into two vectors and posterior final state interaction of this pair of vector mesons to produce the resonances. With this procedure we are able to predict five ratios for these decays, which are closely linked to the dynamical nature of these states, and also predict the order of magnitude of the branching ratios which we find of the order of $$10^{-4}$$, well within the present measurable range. In order to further test the dynamical nature of these resonances we study the $$\\bar B^0_s \\to \\phi D^* \\bar D^*$$ and $$\\bar B^0_s \\to \\phi D_s^* \\bar D_s^*$$ decays close to the $$D^* \\bar D^*$$ and $$D_s^* \\bar D_s^*$$ thresholds and make predictions for the ratio of the mass distributions in these decays and the $$\\bar B^0_s \\to \\phi R$$ decay widths. In conclusion, the measurement of these decays rates can help unravel the nature of these resonances.« less

  8. Polymyositis - adult

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash is a sign of a similar condition, dermatomyositis . Common symptoms include: Muscle weakness in the shoulders ... in the treatment of refractory adult and juvenile dermatomyositis and adult polymyositis: a randomized, placebo-phase trial. ...

  9. Study of F- Production in BaBar RPCs

    SciTech Connect

    Band, H.R.; Bellini, F.; Covarelli, R.; Di Marco, E.; D'Orazio, A.; Ferroni, F.; Li Gioi, L.; Lopez, L.; Polci, F.; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome

    2008-02-22

    The BaBar detector has operated over 200 2nd generation Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) in the forward endcap since 2002. Many chambers have increased noise rates and high voltage currents. These aging symptoms are correlated with the integrated RPC current as expected, but also depend on the rate and direction of the gas flow, indicating that pollutants produced in the gas can accelerate aging of downstream RPC surfaces. HF produced by decomposition of the Freon 134a component of the BaBar RPC gas in electric discharges has been proposed as the main pollutant. This paper presents measurements of HF production and absorption rates in BaBar RPCs. Since many of the highest rate chambers in the forward endcap were converted to avalanche mode operation, a comparison of HF production in streamer and avalanche mode RPCs is made. Correlations between the HF production rate and other chamber operating conditions were also explored.

  10. Optimization of steel bar manufacturing process using six sigma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeem, Khawar; Ullah, Misbah; Tariq, Adnan; Maqsood, Shahid; Akhtar, Rehman; Nawaz, Rashid; Hussain, Iftikhar

    2016-03-01

    Optimization of a manufacturing process results in higher productivity and reduced wastes. Production parameters of a local steel bar manufacturing industry of Pakistan is optimized by using six Sigma-Define, measure, analyze, improve, and controlmethodology. Production data is collected and analyzed. After analysis, experimental design result is used to identify significant factors affecting process performance. The significant factors are controlled to optimized level using two-level factorial design method. A regression model is developed that helps in the estimation of response under multi variable input values. Model is tested, verified, and validated by using industrial data collected at a local steel bar manufacturing industry of Peshawar(Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan). The sigma level of the manufacturing process is improved to 4.01 from 3.58. The novelty of the research is the identification of the significant factors along with the optimum levels that affects the process yield, and the methodology to optimize the steel bar manufacturing process.

  11. On split Hopkinson pressure bar testing of rubbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrigan, John

    2011-06-01

    Split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) studies of rubber materials are difficult due to their ability to undergo large deformations at low levels of stress. Analytical, numerical and experimental investigations are reported. The tests were performed using polymer bars. A key stage in this is the experimental determination of the propagation coefficient. An analytical investigation of the experimental arrangements used to ascertain the propagation coefficient is reported. A finite element (FE) simulation of longitudinal stress waves in solid, circular, polymer bars is presented also. The viscoelastic material definition employed in the FE simulations is obtained by curve fitting Prony series expansions to the experimentally derived elastic modulus. In order to assess the accuracy of the experimental arrangement, an FE model of the full viscoelastic SHPB set-up is then used to simulate tests on hyper-elastic materials with specified properties. Finally, experimental data for rubber materials at strain rates of the order of 1000 s-1 are presented.

  12. Measurement of the $t\\bar{t}$ production cross section using dilepton events in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; Abbott, Braden Keim; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; Adams, Mark Raymond; Adams, Todd; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; Alton, Andrew K.; Alverson, George O.; Alves, Gilvan Augusto; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; /Nijmegen U. /Fermilab

    2011-05-01

    We present a measurement of the t{bar t} production cross section {sigma}{sub t{bar t}} in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using 5.4 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected with the D0 detector. We consider final states with at least two jets and two leptons (ee, e{mu}, {mu}{mu}), and events with one jet for the the e{mu} final state as well. The measured cross section is {sigma}{sub t{bar t}} = 7.36{sub -0.79}{sup +0.90} (stat + syst) pb. This result combined with the cross section measurement in the lepton + jets final state yields {sigma}{sub t{bar t}} = 7.56{sub -0.56}{sup +0.63}(stat + syst) pb, which agrees with the standard model expectation. The relative precision of 8% of this measurement is comparable to the latest theoretical calculations.

  13. In situ study of the R{bar 3}c-R{bar 3}m orientational disorder in calcite.

    SciTech Connect

    Antao, S. M.; Hassan, I.; Mulder, W. H.; Lee, P. L.; Toby, B. H.; X-Ray Science Division; Univ. of West Indies

    2009-01-01

    The temperature dependences of the crystal structure and intensities of the (113) and (211) reflections in calcite, CaCO{sub 3}, were studied using Rietveld structure refinements based on synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction data. Calcite transforms from R{bar 3}c to R{bar 3}m at about T{sub c} = 1240 K. A CO{sub 3} group occupies, statistically, two positions with equal frequency in the disordered R{bar 3}m phase, but with unequal frequency in the partially ordered R{bar 3}c phase. One position for the CO{sub 3} group is rotated by 180{sup o} with respect to the other. The unequal occupancy of the two orientations in the partially ordered R{bar 3}c phase is obtained directly from the occupancy factor, x, for the O1 site and gives rise to the order parameter, S = 2x - 1. The a cell parameter shows a negative thermal expansion at low T, followed by a plateau region at higher T, then a steeper contraction towards T{sub c}, where the CO{sub 3} groups disorder in a rapid process. Using a modified Bragg-Williams model, fits were obtained for the order parameter S, and for the intensities of the (113) and (211) reflections.

  14. Staying away from the bar: the local dynamical signature of slow and fast bars in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monari, Giacomo; Famaey, Benoit; Siebert, Arnaud; Duchateau, Aurore; Lorscheider, Thibault; Bienaymé, Olivier

    2017-02-01

    Both the three-dimensional density of red clump giants and the gas kinematics in the inner Galaxy indicate that the pattern speed of the Galactic bar could be much lower than previously estimated. Here, we show that such slow bar models are unable to reproduce the bimodality observed in local stellar velocity space. We do so by computing the response of stars in the solar neighbourhood to the gravitational potential of slow and fast bars, in terms of their perturbed distribution function in action-angle space up to second order, as well as by identifying resonantly trapped orbits. We also check that the bimodality is unlikely to be produced through perturbations from spiral arms, and conclude that, contrary to gas kinematics, local stellar kinematics still favour a fast bar in the Milky Way, with a pattern speed of the order of almost twice (and no less than 1.8 times) the circular frequency at the Sun's position. This leaves open the question of the nature of the long flat extension of the bar in the Milky Way.

  15. STAR FORMATION IN NUCLEAR RINGS OF BARRED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, Woong-Tae E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2013-06-01

    Nuclear rings in barred galaxies are sites of active star formation. We use hydrodynamic simulations to study the temporal and spatial behavior of star formation occurring in nuclear rings of barred galaxies where radial gas inflows are triggered solely by a bar potential. The star formation recipes include a density threshold, an efficiency, conversion of gas to star particles, and delayed momentum feedback via supernova explosions. We find that the star formation rate (SFR) in a nuclear ring is roughly equal to the mass inflow rate to the ring, while it has a weak dependence on the total gas mass in the ring. The SFR typically exhibits a strong primary burst followed by weak secondary bursts before declining to very small values. The primary burst is associated with the rapid gas infall to the ring due to the bar growth, while the secondary bursts are caused by re-infall of the ejected gas from the primary burst. While star formation in observed rings persists episodically over a few Gyr, the duration of active star formation in our models lasts for only about half of the bar growth time, suggesting that the bar potential alone is unlikely to be responsible for gas supply to the rings. When the SFR is low, most star formation occurs at the contact points between the ring and the dust lanes, leading to an azimuthal age gradient of young star clusters. When the SFR is large, on the other hand, star formation is randomly distributed over the whole circumference of the ring, resulting in no apparent azimuthal age gradient. Since the ring shrinks in size with time, star clusters also exhibit a radial age gradient, with younger clusters found closer to the ring. The cluster mass function is well described by a power law, with a slope depending on the SFR. Giant gas clouds in the rings have supersonic internal velocity dispersions and are gravitationally bound.

  16. A Unified Theory of the Formation of Galactic Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyachenko, V. L.; Polyachenko, E. V.

    2003-07-01

    We give arguments for a basically unified formation mechanism of slow (Lynden-Bell) and fast (common) galactic bars. This mechanism is based on an instability that is akin to the well-known instability of radial orbits and is produced by the mutual attraction and alignment of precessing stellar orbits (so far, only the formation of slow bars has been explained in this way). We present a general theory of the low-frequency modes in a disk that consists of orbits precessing at different angular velocities. The problem of determining these modes is reduced to integral equations of moderately complex structure. The characteristic pattern angular velocities Omega_p of the low-frequency modes are of the order of the mean orbital precession angular velocity . Bar modes are also among the low-frequency modes; while Omega_p is approximately equal to for slow bars, Omega_p for fast bars can appreciably exceed even the maximum orbital precession angular velocity in the disk Omega_pr(max) (however, it remains of the order of these precession angular velocities). The possibility of such an excess of Omega_p over Omega_pr(max) is associated with the effect of "repelling" orbits. The latter tend to move in a direction opposite to the direction in which they are pushed. We analyze the pattern of orbital precession in potentials typical of galactic disks. We note that the maximum radius of an "attracting" circular orbit r_c can serve as a reasonable estimate of the bar length l_b. Such an estimate is in good agreement with the available results of N-body simulations.

  17. Star Formation in Nuclear Rings of Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, Woong-Tae

    2013-06-01

    Nuclear rings in barred galaxies are sites of active star formation. We use hydrodynamic simulations to study the temporal and spatial behavior of star formation occurring in nuclear rings of barred galaxies where radial gas inflows are triggered solely by a bar potential. The star formation recipes include a density threshold, an efficiency, conversion of gas to star particles, and delayed momentum feedback via supernova explosions. We find that the star formation rate (SFR) in a nuclear ring is roughly equal to the mass inflow rate to the ring, while it has a weak dependence on the total gas mass in the ring. The SFR typically exhibits a strong primary burst followed by weak secondary bursts before declining to very small values. The primary burst is associated with the rapid gas infall to the ring due to the bar growth, while the secondary bursts are caused by re-infall of the ejected gas from the primary burst. While star formation in observed rings persists episodically over a few Gyr, the duration of active star formation in our models lasts for only about half of the bar growth time, suggesting that the bar potential alone is unlikely to be responsible for gas supply to the rings. When the SFR is low, most star formation occurs at the contact points between the ring and the dust lanes, leading to an azimuthal age gradient of young star clusters. When the SFR is large, on the other hand, star formation is randomly distributed over the whole circumference of the ring, resulting in no apparent azimuthal age gradient. Since the ring shrinks in size with time, star clusters also exhibit a radial age gradient, with younger clusters found closer to the ring. The cluster mass function is well described by a power law, with a slope depending on the SFR. Giant gas clouds in the rings have supersonic internal velocity dispersions and are gravitationally bound.

  18. Estimation of material properties of a nonlinearly elastic bar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, B. E.; Childs, B.

    1974-01-01

    A method of determining certain characteristic flexural rigidities and elastic properties of nonlinearly elastic materials is presented. An estimation method utilizing perturbation methods and a least squares fitting technique is used to solve the nonlinear differential equation derived from the moment curvature relation, subject to boundary values representing deflections of the bar at discrete points. Deflection data from numerical simulations of a nonlinearly elastic, prismatic bar are used to demonstrate the estimation method. Numerical experiments relating the accuracy of the identification to the number and accuracy of the boundary values are presented. Conclusions based on the numerical experiments are included.

  19. Ultracold elastic H(bar sign)-He scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Prabal K.; Ghosh, A. S.

    2003-08-01

    In view of the current interest in trapping antihydrogen H(bar sign) atoms below 1 K, the s-wave elastic-scattering parameters for the antihydrogen scattering off atomic helium target are calculated in the energy range 1x10{sup -16}-1x10{sup -2} a.u. using close-coupling models. The predicted cross section will help to simulate the evolution of a realistic mixture of He and H{sub 2} through the process involving ejection of H(bar sign) from the trap. The trend of the present results with different basis sets conclusively indicates the reliability of the predicted results.

  20. KINEMATIC AND PHOTOMETRIC EVIDENCE FOR A BAR IN NGC 2683

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Zagursky, Matthew J.; McGaugh, Stacy S. E-mail: mzagursk@umd.edu

    2009-10-15

    We present optical long-slit and SparsePak Integral Field Unit emission line spectroscopy along with optical broadband and near-IR images of the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 2683. We find a multi-valued, figure-of-eight velocity structure in the inner 45'' of the long-slit spectrum and twisted isovelocity contours in the velocity field. We also find, regardless of wavelength, that the galaxy isophotes are boxy. We argue that taken together, these kinematic and photometric features are evidence for the presence of a bar in NGC 2683. We use our data to constrain the orientation and strength of the bar.

  1. Denture bar-coding: An innovative technique in forensic dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Venkateshwaran, Rajendran; Vidhya, J; Anuradha, R; Mary, Gold Pealin; Pradeep, R; Senthileagappan, A R

    2015-08-01

    Denture markers play an important role in forensic odontology and also in identifying a person. A number of methods are there for identifying dentures from a less expensive technique to a more expensive technique. Out of different denture markers, the bar-coding system is a way of collecting data from the mobile. Even a huge amount of data can be stored in that. It can be easily incorporated during acrylization of the denture and thus could be helpful in identification. This article reviews the strengths of bar-coding and how easily it can be used in the routine procedure.

  2. Normal waves in elastic bars of rectangular cross section.

    PubMed

    Krushynska, Anastasiia A; Meleshko, Viatcheslav V

    2011-03-01

    This paper addresses a theoretical study of guided normal waves in elastic isotropic bars of rectangular cross-section by an analytical superposition method. Dispersion properties of propagating and evanescent modes for four families are analyzed in detail at various geometric and physical parameters of the bar. A comparison of the obtained results with the well-known properties for waves in infinite plates and circular cylinders is provided. The complicated structure of dispersion spectra is explained. High-frequency limiting values for phase and group velocities of normal waves are established for the first time. Calculated data agree well with the available experimental results.

  3. Photometric Surveys of the Galactic Bulge and Long Bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, O.; Wegg, C.; Portail, M.

    The Galactic bar and box/peanut bulge can be studied in an unrivaled manner, star-by-star, with detailed chemical information and full 3D kinematics. Because of intervening dust this is greatly facilitated by the availability of wide field deep NIR photometric surveys. Here we summarize recent results on the three-dimensional structure of the bulge and the long bar region, based on 2MASS, UKIDSS, and particularly the ongoing VVV survey. We also summarize results from dynamical models for the Galactic bulge constructed with the Made-to-Measure method.

  4. Longshore currents over barred beach with mild slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Zou, Zhi-li

    2016-04-01

    The laboratory experiment and numerical simulations of wave-driven longshore currents by random waves on barred beaches with slopes of 1:100 and 1:40 were conducted to investigate the bimodal feature of mean longshore currents, with emphasis on the location and ratio of two peaks of longshore currents. The location and ratio of two peaks are controlled by the sand bar. The influences of wave heights and beach slopes on the longshore currents are discussed. Numerical simulations were also performed to compute the measured velocity profile, with the emphasis on the effect of lateral mixing, bottom friction and surface rollers on numerical results.

  5. Spectroscopy of snake states using a graphene Hall bar

    SciTech Connect

    Milovanović, S. P. Ramezani Masir, M. Peeters, F. M.

    2013-12-02

    An approach to observe snake states in a graphene Hall bar containing a pn-junction is proposed. The magnetic field dependence of the bend resistance in a ballistic graphene Hall bar structure containing a tilted pn-junction oscillates as a function of applied magnetic field. We show that each oscillation is due to a specific snake state that moves along the pn-interface. Furthermore, depending on the value of the magnetic field and applied potential, we can control the lead in which the electrons will end up and hence control the response of the system.

  6. Metallicity and kinematics of the bar in situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babusiaux, C.; Katz, D.; Hill, V.; Royer, F.; Gómez, A.; Arenou, F.; Combes, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Gilmore, G.; Haywood, M.; Robin, A. C.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, N.; Sartoretti, P.; Schultheis, M.

    2014-03-01

    Context. Constraints on the Galactic bulge and bar structures and on their formation history from stellar kinematics and metallicities mainly come from relatively high-latitude fields (|b| > 4°) where a complex mix of stellar population is seen. Aims: We aim here to constrain the formation history of the Galactic bar by studying the radial velocity and metallicity distributions of stars in situ (|b| ≤ 1°). Methods: We observed red clump stars in four fields along the bar's major axis (l = 10°, -6°, 6° and b = 0° plus a field at l = 0°, b = 1°) with low-resolution spectroscopy from FLAMES/GIRAFFE at the VLT, observing around the Ca ii triplet. We developed robust methods for extracting radial velocity and metallicity estimates from these low signal-to-noise spectra. We derived distance probability distributions using Bayesian methods rigorously handling the extinction law. Results: We present radial velocities and metallicity distributions, as well as radial velocity trends with distance. We observe an increase in the radial velocity dispersion near the Galactic plane. We detect the streaming motion of the stars induced by the bar in fields at l = ±6°, the highest velocity components of this bar stream being metal-rich ([Fe/H] ~ 0.2 dex). Our data is consistent with a bar that is inclined at 26 ± 3° from the Sun-Galactic centre line. We observe a significant fraction of metal-poor stars, in particular in the field at l = 0°, b = 1°. We confirm the flattening of the metallicity gradient along the minor axis when getting closer to the plane, with a hint that it could actually be inverted. Conclusions: Our stellar kinematics corresponds to the expected behaviour of a bar issued from the secular evolution of the Galactic disc. The mix of several populations, seen further away from the plane, is also seen in the bar in situ since our metallicity distributions highlight a different spatial distribution between metal-poor and metal-rich stars, the more

  7. Chill-Bar Assembly For Cooling Areas Adjacent To Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David S.; Mcferrin, David C.; Coby, J. Ben, Jr.; Gangl, Kenneth J.; Dawson, Sidney G.

    1996-01-01

    Assembly of custom-shaped water-cooled chill bars developed for use during repair process in which cracks and pinholes in rocket-engine combustion chamber welded closed. Held in required relative geometric relationships by rigid framework, chill bars pressed against surface of chamber to conduct heat away from areas surrounding welds, preventing damage caused by overheating of areas not meant to be welded. Design features beneficial in other welding applications; for example, manufacture and repair of pressure vessels, chemical-processing vessels, and complexly shaped laboratory vacuum vessels.

  8. Denture bar-coding: An innovative technique in forensic dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Venkateshwaran, Rajendran; Vidhya, J.; Anuradha, R.; Mary, Gold Pealin; Pradeep, R.; Senthileagappan, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Denture markers play an important role in forensic odontology and also in identifying a person. A number of methods are there for identifying dentures from a less expensive technique to a more expensive technique. Out of different denture markers, the bar-coding system is a way of collecting data from the mobile. Even a huge amount of data can be stored in that. It can be easily incorporated during acrylization of the denture and thus could be helpful in identification. This article reviews the strengths of bar-coding and how easily it can be used in the routine procedure. PMID:26538876

  9. A Case of Severe Thoracoabdominal Impalement by a Steel Bar

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Tae; Seo, Pil Won

    2016-01-01

    A 53-year-old man arrived at the trauma center with a steel bar penetrating from the epigastrium to the right scapula. He was hypotensive and hypoxic, and immediate resuscitation and basic evaluation were performed. An emergency operation was performed due to an unstable hemodynamic state. Multiple injuries were confirmed in the right lower lobe, posterior chest wall, diaphragm, and liver lateral segment. Right lower lobectomy and liver lateral sectionectomy were performed following removal of the bar. The patient recovered without additional hemorrhage after the surgery, and was transferred to a rehabilitation institution with periodic follow-up. PMID:27965930

  10. Near threshold enhancement of the p p-bar mass spectrum in J/Psi decay

    SciTech Connect

    A. Sibirtsev; J. Haidenbauer; S. Krewald; Ulf-G. Meissner; A.W. Thomas

    2004-12-01

    We investigate the nature of the near-threshold enhancement in the p {bar p} invariant mass spectrum of the reaction J/{Psi} {yields} {gamma} p {bar p} reported recently by the BES Collaboration. Using the Juelich N {bar N} model we show that the mass dependence of the p {bar p} spectrum close to the threshold can be reproduced by the S-wave p {bar p} final state interaction in the isospin I=1 state within the Watson-Migdal approach. However, because of our poor knowledge of the N {bar N} interaction near threshold and of the J/{Psi} {yields} {gamma} p {bar p} reaction mechanism and in view of the controversial situation in the decay J/{Psi} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} p {bar p}, where no obvious signs of a p {bar p} final state interaction are seen, explanations other than final state interactions cannot be ruled out at the present stage.

  11. Different functional modes of BAR domain proteins in formation and plasticity of mammalian postsynapses.

    PubMed

    Kessels, Michael M; Qualmann, Britta

    2015-09-01

    A plethora of cell biological processes involve modulations of cellular membranes. By using extended lipid-binding interfaces, some proteins have the power to shape membranes by attaching to them. Among such membrane shapers, the superfamily of Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain proteins has recently taken center stage. Extensive structural work on BAR domains has revealed a common curved fold that can serve as an extended membrane-binding interface to modulate membrane topologies and has allowed the grouping of the BAR domain superfamily into subfamilies with structurally slightly distinct BAR domain subtypes (N-BAR, BAR, F-BAR and I-BAR). Most BAR superfamily members are expressed in the mammalian nervous system. Neurons are elaborately shaped and highly compartmentalized cells. Therefore, analyses of synapse formation and of postsynaptic reorganization processes (synaptic plasticity) - a basis for learning and memory formation - has unveiled important physiological functions of BAR domain superfamily members. These recent advances, furthermore, have revealed that the functions of BAR domain proteins include different aspects. These functions are influenced by the often complex domain organization of BAR domain proteins. In this Commentary, we review these recent insights and propose to classify BAR domain protein functions into (1) membrane shaping, (2) physical integration, (3) action through signaling components, and (4) suppression of other BAR domain functions.

  12. Impact of Partial and Comprehensive Smoke-Free Regulations on Indoor Air Quality in Bars

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeonghoon; Ban, Hyunkyung; Hwang, Yunhyung; Ha, Kwonchul; Lee, Kiyoung

    2016-01-01

    In Korea, smoke-free regulations have been gradually implemented in bars based on venue size. Smoking bans were implemented in 2013 for bars ≥150 m2, in 2014 for bars ≥100 m2, and in 2015 for bars of all sizes. The purpose of this study was to determine indoor fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations in bars before and after implementation of the smoke-free policies based on venue size. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were measured with real-time aerosol monitors at four time points: (1) pre-regulation (n = 75); (2) after implementing the ban in bars ≥150 m2 (n = 75); (3) after implementing the ban in bars ≥100 m2 (n = 107); and (4) when all bars were smoke-free (n = 79). Our results showed that the geometric mean of the indoor PM2.5 concentrations of all bars decreased from 98.4 μg/m3 pre-regulation to 79.5, 42.9, and 26.6 μg/m3 after the ban on smoking in bars ≥150 m2, ≥100 m2, and all bars, respectively. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations in bars of each size decreased only after the corresponding regulations were implemented. Although smoking was not observed in Seoul bars after smoking was banned in all bars, smoking was observed in 4 of 21 bars in Changwon. Our study concludes that the greatest decrease in PM2.5 concentrations in bars was observed after the regulation covering all bars was implemented. However, despite the comprehensive ban, smoking was observed in bars in Changwon. Strict compliance with the regulations is needed to improve indoor air quality further. PMID:27472349

  13. [St. Ottilia, Patron saint of suffers from eye diseases. an unusual representation with a crab's pincer at the Mercy-Seat Altar in Bad Aussee (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Grossmann, T

    1981-06-01

    On an altar-piece of the Gothic mercy-seat altar in the hospital church of Bad Aussee, made in 1449, Saint Ottilia, the patron saint of eye sufferers, is depicted with a crab's pincer, an attribute hitherto unknown. In the Middle Ages it was customary to put crab-eyes, which are calcium formations in the stomach of the crab, into the eyes of individuals to remove foreign bodies. As these crab-eyes are too small to be seen at any distance, the author takes the view that another typical and well-known part of the crab's body, more suitable for the representation, was used.

  14. On wave dark matter in spiral and barred galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Medina, Luis A.; Matos, Tonatiuh; Bray, Hubert L. E-mail: bray@math.duke.edu

    2015-12-01

    We recover spiral and barred spiral patterns in disk galaxy simulations with a Wave Dark Matter (WDM) background (also known as Scalar Field Dark Matter (SFDM), Ultra-Light Axion (ULA) dark matter, and Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) dark matter). Here we show how the interaction between a baryonic disk and its Dark Matter Halo triggers the formation of spiral structures when the halo is allowed to have a triaxial shape and angular momentum. This is a more realistic picture within the WDM model since a non-spherical rotating halo seems to be more natural. By performing hydrodynamic simulations, along with earlier test particles simulations, we demonstrate another important way in which wave dark matter is consistent with observations. The common existence of bars in these simulations is particularly noteworthy. This may have consequences when trying to obtain information about the dark matter distribution in a galaxy, the mere presence of spiral arms or a bar usually indicates that baryonic matter dominates the central region and therefore observations, like rotation curves, may not tell us what the DM distribution is at the halo center. But here we show that spiral arms and bars can develop in DM dominated galaxies with a central density core without supposing its origin on mechanisms intrinsic to the baryonic matter.

  15. On-Line Measurement Of Hot Rolling Steel Bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chen

    1989-03-01

    A passive instrument for on-line measuring hot rolling steel bar has been developed. The instrument uses self emission of the hot steel bar to deside the profile of working piece. The instrument can measure the dimensions of the cross section of the high speed and high temperature steel bar on the production line. It can be used for real-time monitoring, evaluating, and controlling the quality of the products. Compared with other similar instrument, new instrument has following features: - Passive measurement for simplifying the structure; - Simultaneous dimension and position measurement for ensuring high accuracy; - Temperature measurement for compensating thermal error; - Solid state sensor array for raising reliability; - Special structure for running in hostile enviornment; All these features make it possible to realize accurate measurement in high temperature, high humidity, and high dusty circumstance. The paper will present and discuss relative problems in the design and construction of this instrument. A prototype has been made and a series analogue experiments have been carried out in the laboratory. Rolling shop running test approves that the instrument can accurately measure the hot rolling steel bar on the production line. The total error is less than 0.05 mm while the measuring rate is as high as 2000 samples per second.

  16. College Students' Exposure to Tobacco Marketing in Nightclubs and Bars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridner, S. Lee; Myers, John A.; Hahn, Ellen J.; Ciszewski, Tiffany N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether a college student's exposure to tobacco marketing in nightclubs and bars was affected by the presence of a smoke-free law. Participants: A random sample (N = 478) of students participated in the survey (no smoke-free law, n = 240; smoke-free law, n = 238). The analysis was limited to students who reported being in…

  17. The BaBar detector: Upgrades, operation and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; Gaillard, J. -M.; Hicheur, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prudent, X.; Robbe, P.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Garra Tico, J.; Lopez, L.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, G. P.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Borgland, A. W.; Breon, A. B.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Cahn, R. N.; Charles, E.; Clark, A. R.; Day, C. T.; Furman, M.; Gill, M. S.; Groysman, Y.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J. A.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kral, J. F.; Kukartsev, G.; LeClerc, C.; Levi, M. E.; Lynch, G.; Merchant, A. M.; Mir, L. M.; Oddone, P. J.; Orimoto, T. J.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Pripstein, M.; Roe, N. A.; Romosan, A.; Ronan, M. T.; Shelkov, V. G.; Suzuki, A.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Wenzel, W. A.; Zisman, M.; Barrett, M.; Bright-Thomas, P. G.; Ford, K. E.; Harrison, T. J.; Hart, A. J.; Hawkes, C. M.; Knowles, D. J.; Morgan, S. E.; O'Neale, S. W.; Penny, R. C.; Smith, D.; Soni, N.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Goetzen, K.; Held, T.; Koch, H.; Kunze, M.; Lewandowski, B.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Schmuecker, H.; Schroeder, T.; Steinke, M.; Fella, A.; Antonioli, E.; Boyd, J. T.; Chevalier, N.; Cottingham, W. N.; Foster, B.; Mackay, C.; Walker, D.; Abe, K.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Fulsom, B. G.; Hearty, C.; Knecht, N. S.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Thiessen, D.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; McKemey, A. K.; Randle-Conde, A.; Saleem, M.; Sherwood, D. J.; Teodorescu, L.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Korol, A. A.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Telnov, V. I.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Yushkov, A. N.; Best, D. S.; Bondioli, M.; Bruinsma, M.; Chao, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; McMahon, S.; Mommsen, R. K.; Stoker, D. P.; Abachi, S.; Buchanan, C.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Weinstein, A. J. R.; Atmacan, H.; Foulkes, S. D.; Gary, J. W.; Layter, J.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Shen, B. C.; Vitug, G. M.; Wang, K.; Yasin, Z.; Zhang, L.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hill, E. J.; Paar, H. P.; Rahatlou, S.; Schwanke, U.; Sharma, V.; Berryhill, J. W.; Campagnari, C.; Cunha, A.; Dahmes, B.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Kuznetsova, N.; Levy, S. L.; Lu, A.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Verkerke, W.; Beck, T. W.; Beringer, J.; Eisner, A. M.; Flacco, C. J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grothe, M.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Nesom, G.; Schalk, T.; Schmitz, R. E.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.; Spradlin, P.; Turri, M.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, L.; Wilder, M.; Williams, D. C.; Wilson, M. G.; Winstrom, L. O.; Chen, E.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Dorsten, M. P.; Dvoretskii, A.; Echenard, B.; Erwin, R. J.; Fang, F.; Flood, K.; Hitlin, D. G.; Metzler, S.; Narsky, I.; Oyang, J.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Samuel, A.; Yang, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andreassen, R.; Devmal, S.; Geld, T. L.; Jayatilleke, S.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Abe, T.; Antillon, E. A.; Barillari, T.; Becker, J.; Blanc, F.; Bloom, P. C.; Chen, S.; Clifton, Z. C.; Derrington, I. M.; Destree, J.; Dima, M. O.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Gilman, J. D.; Hachtel, J.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Johnson, D. R.; Kreisel, A.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Rankin, P.; Roy, J.; Ruddick, W. O.; Smith, J. G.; Ulmer, K. A.; van Hoek, W. C.; Wagner, S. R.; West, C. G.; Zhang, J.; Ayad, R.; Blouw, J.; Chen, A.; Eckhart, E. A.; Harton, J. L.; Hu, T.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Winklmeier, F.; Zeng, Q. L.; Altenburg, D.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Brandt, T.; Brose, J.; Colberg, T.; Dahlinger, G.; Dickopp, M.; Eckstein, P.; Futterschneider, H.; Kaiser, S.; Kobel, M. J.; Krause, R.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Mader, W. F.; Maly, E.; Nogowski, R.; Otto, S.; Schubert, J.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Sundermann, J. E.; Volk, A.; Wilden, L.; Bernard, D.; Brochard, F.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Dohou, F.; Ferrag, S.; Latour, E.; Mathieu, A.; Renard, C.; Schrenk, S.; T'Jampens, S.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Vasileiadis, G.; Verderi, M.; Anjomshoaa, A.; Bernet, R.; Clark, P. J.; Lavin, D. R.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Robertson, A. I.; Swain, J. E.; Watson, J. E.; Xie, Y.; Andreotti, D.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Carassiti, V.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Evangelisti, F.; Fioravanti, E.; Franchini, P.; Garzia, I.; Landi, L.; Luppi, E.; Malaguti, R.; Negrini, M.; Padoan, C.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Sarti, A.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; de Sangro, R.; Santoni, M.; Zallo, A.; Bagnasco, S.; Buzzo, A.; Capra, R.; Contri, R.; Crosetti, G.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M. M.; Minutoli, S.; Monge, M. R.; Musico, P.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F. C.; Patrignani, C.; Pia, M. G.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Prasad, V.; Bailey, S.; Brandenburg, G.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Lee, C. L.; Morii, M.; Won, E.; Wu, J.; Adametz, A.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Klose, V.; Lacker, H. M.; Aspinwall, M. L.; Bhimji, W.; Bowerman, D. A.; Dauncey, P. D.; Egede, U.; Flack, R. L.; Gaillard, J. R.; Gunawardane, N. J. W.; Morton, G. W.; Nash, J. A.; Nikolich, M. B.; Panduro Vazquez, W.; Sanders, P.; Smith, D.; Taylor, G. P.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Chai, X.; Charles, M. J.; Grenier, G. J.; Hamilton, R.; Lee, S. -J.; Mallik, U.; Meyer, N. T.; Chen, C.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Eyges, V.; Fischer, P. -A.; Lamsa, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Lae, C. K.; Schott, G.; Albert, J. N.; Arnaud, N.; Beigbeder, C.; Breton, D.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Dû, S.; Firmino da Costa, J.; Grosdidier, G.; Höcker, A.; Laplace, S.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Nief, J. Y.; Petersen, T. C.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pruvot, S.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Tocut, V.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Wang, L. L.; Wormser, G.; Bionta, R. M.; Brigljević, V.; Lange, D. J.; Simani, M. C.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Burke, J. P.; Chavez, C. A.; Coleman, J. P.; Forster, I. J.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; George, M.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Kay, M.; Parry, R. J.; Payne, D. J.; Schofield, K. C.; Sloane, R. J.; Touramanis, C.; Azzopardi, D. E.; Bellodi, G.; Bevan, A. J.; Clarke, C. K.; Cormack, C. M.; Di Lodovico, F.; Dixon, P.; George, K. A.; Menges, W.; Potter, R. J. L.; Sacco, R.; Shorthouse, H. W.; Sigamani, M.; Strother, P.; Vidal, P. B.; Brown, C. L.; Cowan, G.; Flaecher, H. U.; George, S.; Green, M. G.; Hopkins, D. A.; Jackson, P. S.; Kurup, A.; Marker, C. E.; McGrath, P.; McMahon, T. R.; Paramesvaran, S.; Salvatore, F.; Vaitsas, G.; Winter, M. A.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Griessinger, K.; Hafner, A.; Prencipe, E.; Allison, J.; Alwyn, K. E.; Bailey, D. S.; Barlow, N. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Chia, Y. M.; Edgar, C. L.; Forti, A. C.; Fullwood, J.; Hart, P. A.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Jackson, F.; Jackson, G.; Kelly, M. P.; Kolya, S. D.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lyon, A. J.; Naisbit, M. T.; Savvas, N.; Weatherall, J. H.; West, T. J.; Williams, J. C.; Yi, J. I.; Anderson, J.; Farbin, A.; Hulsbergen, W. D.; Jawahery, A.; Lillard, V.; Roberts, D. A.; Schieck, J. R.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Blaylock, G.; Dallapiccola, C.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Kofler, R.; Koptchev, V. B.; Li, X.; Moore, T. B.; Salvati, E.; Saremi, S.; Staengle, H.; Willocq, S. Y.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Fisher, P. H.; Henderson, S. W.; Koeneke, K.; Lang, M. I.; Sciolla, G.; Spitznagel, M.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Yi, M.; Zhao, M.; Zheng, Y.; Klemetti, M.; Lindemann, D.; Mangeol, D. J. J.; Mclachlin, S. E.; Milek, M.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Biassoni, P.; Cerizza, G.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Pellegrini, R.; Stracka, S.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Eschenburg, V.; Kroeger, R.; Reidy, J.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Godang, R.; Brunet, S.; Cote, D.; Nguyen, X.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Viaud, B.; Nicholson, H.; Cavallo, N.; De Nardo, G.; Fabozzi, F.; Gatto, C.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Paolucci, P.; Piccolo, D.; Sciacca, C.; Baak, M. A.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; LoSecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Allmendinger, T.; Benelli, G.; Brau, B.; Corwin, L. A.; Gan, K. K.; Honscheid, K.; Hufnagel, D.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Rahimi, A. M.; Regensburger, J. J.; Smith, D. S.; Ter-Antonyan, R.; Wong, Q. K.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Iwasaki, M.; Kolb, J. A.; Lu, M.; Potter, C. T.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Borsato, E.; Castelli, G.; Colecchia, F.; Crescente, A.; Dal Corso, F.; Dorigo, A.; Fanin, C.; Furano, F.; Gagliardi, N.; Galeazzi, F.; Margoni, M.; Marzolla, M.; Michelon, G.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Solagna, P.; Stevanato, E.; Stroili, R.; Tiozzo, G.; Voci, C.; Akar, S.; Bailly, P.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bonneaud, G.; Briand, H.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; John, M. J. J.; Lebbolo, H.; Leruste, Ph.; Malclès, J.; Marchiori, G.; Martin, L.; Ocariz, J.; Perez, A.; Pivk, M.; Prendki, J.; Roos, L.; Sitt, S.; Stark, J.; Thérin, G.; Vallereau, A.; Biasini, M.; Covarelli, R.; Manoni, E.; Pennazzi, S.; Pioppi, M.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Bucci, F.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Cenci, R.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Morganti, M.; Morsani, F.; Paoloni, E.; Raffaelli, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sandrelli, F.; Triggiani, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Haire, M.; Judd, D.; Biesiada, J.; Danielson, N.; Elmer, P.; Fernholz, R. E.; Lau, Y. P.; Lu, C.; Miftakov, V.; Olsen, J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Sands, W. R.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Tumanov, A.; Varnes, E. W.; Baracchini, E.; Bellini, F.; Bulfon, C.; Buccheri, E.; Cavoto, G.; D'Orazio, A.; Di Marco, E.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Jackson, P. D.; Lamanna, E.; Leonardi, E.; Li Gioi, L.; Lunadei, R.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Polci, F.; del Re, D.; Renga, F.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Serra, M.; Voena, C.; Bünger, C.; Christ, S.; Hartmann, T.; Leddig, T.; Schröder, H.; Wagner, G.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Bly, M.; Brew, C.; Condurache, C.; De Groot, N.; Franek, B.; Geddes, N. I.; Gopal, G. P.; Olaiya, E. O.; Ricciardi, S.; Roethel, W.; Wilson, F. F.; Xella, S. M.; Aleksan, R.; Bourgeois, P.; Emery, S.; Escalier, M.; Esteve, L.; Gaidot, A.; Ganzhur, S. F.; Giraud, P. -F.; Georgette, Z.; Graziani, G.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Kozanecki, W.; Langer, M.; Legendre, M.; London, G. W.; Mayer, B.; Micout, P.; Serfass, B.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Allen, M. T.; Akre, R.; Aston, D.; Azemoon, T.; Bard, D. J.; Bartelt, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Bechtle, P.; Becla, J.; Benitez, J. F.; Berger, N.; Bertsche, K.; Boeheim, C. T.; Bouldin, K.; Boyarski, A. M.; Boyce, R. F.; Browne, M.; Buchmueller, O. L.; Burgess, W.; Cai, Y.; Cartaro, C.; Ceseracciu, A.; Claus, R.; Convery, M. R.; Coupal, D. P.; Craddock, W. W.; Crane, G.; Cristinziani, M.; DeBarger, S.; Decker, F. J.; Dingfelder, J. C.; Donald, M.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Ebert, M.; Ecklund, S.; Erickson, R.; Fan, S.; Field, R. C.; Fisher, A.; Fox, J.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Gaponenko, I.; Glanzman, T.; Gowdy, S. J.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hadig, T.; Halyo, V.; Haller, G.; Hamilton, J.; Hanushevsky, A.; Hasan, A.; Hast, C.; Hee, C.; Himel, T.; Hryn'ova, T.; Huffer, M. E.; Hung, T.; Innes, W. R.; Iverson, R.; Kaminski, J.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, H.; Kim, P.; Kharakh, D.; Kocian, M. L.; Krasnykh, A.; Krebs, J.; Kroeger, W.; Kulikov, A.; Kurita, N.; Langenegger, U.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Lewis, P.; Li, S.; Libby, J.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Lüth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Marsiske, H.; McCulloch, M.; McDonald, J.; Melen, R.; Menke, S.; Metcalfe, S.; Messner, R.; Moss, L. J.; Mount, R.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, D.; Nelson, S.; Nordby, M.; Nosochkov, Y.; Novokhatski, A.; O'Grady, C. P.; O'Neill, F. G.; Ofte, I.; Ozcan, V. E.; Perazzo, A.; Perl, M.; Petrak, S.; Piemontese, M.; Pierson, S.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Ratkovsky, S.; Reif, R.; Rivetta, C.; Rodriguez, R.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schietinger, T.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwarz, H.; Schwiening, J.; Seeman, J.; Smith, D.; Snyder, A.; Soha, A.; Stanek, M.; Stelzer, J.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Teytelman, D.; Thompson, J. M.; Tinslay, J. S.; Trunov, A.; Turner, J.; van Bakel, N.; van Winkle, D.; Va'vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Weaver, M.; Weinstein, A. J. R.; Weber, T.; West, C. A.; Wienands, U.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wittmer, W.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Yan, Y.; Yarritu, A. K.; Yi, K.; Yocky, G.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Chen, X. R.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; Singh, H.; Weidemann, A. W.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Yumiceva, F. X.; Sekula, S. J.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Majewski, S. A.; Meyer, T. I.; Miyashita, T. S.; Petersen, B. A.; Roat, C.; Ahmed, M.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Bula, R.; Ernst, J. A.; Jain, V.; Liu, J.; Pan, B.; Saeed, M. A.; Wappler, F. R.; Zain, S. B.; Gorodeisky, R.; Guttman, N.; Peimer, D.; Soffer, A.; De Silva, A.; Lund, P.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Ragghianti, G.; Spanier, S. M.; Wogsland, B. J.; Eckmann, R.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Satpathy, A.; Schilling, C. J.; Schwitters, R. F.; Wray, B. C.; Drummond, B. W.; Izen, J. M.; Kitayama, I.; Lou, X. C.; Ye, S.; Bianchi, F.; Bona, M.; Gallo, F.; Gamba, D.; Pelliccioni, M.; Bomben, M.; Borean, C.; Bosisio, L.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Dittongo, S.; Grancagnolo, S.; Lanceri, L.; Poropat, P.; Rashevskaya, I.; Vitale, L.; Vuagnin, G.; Manfredi, P. F.; Re, V.; Speziali, V.; Frank, E. D.; Gladney, L.; Guo, Q. H.; Panetta, J.; Azzolini, V.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Milanes, D. A.; Oyanguren, A.; Agarwal, A.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Brown, C. M.; Choi, H. H. F.; Fortin, D.; Fransham, K. B.; Hamano, K.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Back, J. J.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Ilic, J.; Latham, T. E.; Mohanty, G. B.; Puccio, E.; Band, H. R.; Chen, X.; Cheng, B.; Dasu, S.; Datta, M.; Eichenbaum, A. M.; Hollar, J. J.; Hu, H.; Johnson, J. R.; Kutter, P. E.; Li, H.; Liu, R.; Mellado, B.; Mihalyi, A.; Mohapatra, A. K.; Pan, Y.; Pierini, M.; Prepost, R.; Scott, I. J.; Tan, P.; Vuosalo, C. O.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Wu, S. L.; Yu, Z.; Greene, M. G.; Kordich, T. M. B.

    2013-11-01

    The BaBar detector operated successfully at the PEP-II asymmetric e+e- collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory from 1999 to 2008. This report covers upgrades, operation, and performance of the collider and the detector systems, as well as the trigger, online and offline computing, and aspects of event reconstruction since the beginning of data taking.

  18. Science Behind Bars: Reaching Inmates from Rikers Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocsy, Agnes

    2017-01-01

    I report on the project ``Science Behind Bars: Reaching Inmates on Rikers Island'' partially funded through an APS Public Outreach and Informing the Public grant. This project involves developing leave-behind materials and setting up meetings to speak with Rikers Island inmates about science, evidence-based reasoning, and the dangers of stereotype threat. APS Mini Grant.

  19. Science Behind Bars: Reaching Inmates on Rikers Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mócsy, Ágnes

    2016-03-01

    I report on the project ``Science Behind Bars: Reaching Inmates on Rikers Island'' partially funded through an APS Public Outreach and Informing the Public Grant. This project involves setting up meetings to speak with female prisoners on Rikers Island about science, evidence based reasoning and the dangers of stereo-type threat.

  20. 2004 Fermilab fall shutdown p-bar water issues

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, Albert; Schneider, Frank; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    I was assigned to Frank Schneider, who works within the Accelerator Division Water Group. Frank would educate me with issues pertaining to water flow cooling at the P-Bar facility. Also during the shutdown period, water issues in the Pre-Vault Stub Room would be addressed.

  1. Study of the decay B0bar -> D* omega pi

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2006-04-24

    We report on a study of the decay {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}{omega}{pi}{sup -} with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B-factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Based on a sample of 232 million B{bar B} decays, we measure the branching fraction {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}{omega}{pi}{sup -}) = (2.88 {+-} 0.21(stat.) {+-} 0.31(syst.)) x 10{sup -3}. We study the invariant mass spectrum of the {omega}{pi}{sup -} system in this decay. This spectrum is in good agreement with expectations based on factorization and the measured spectrum in {tau}{sup -} {yields} {omega}{pi}{sup -} {nu}{sub {tau}}. We also measure the polarization of the D*{sup +} as a function of the {omega}{pi}{sup -} mass. In the mass region 1.1 to 1.9 GeV we measure the fraction of longitudinal polarization of the D*{sup +} to be {Lambda}{sub L}/{Lambda} = 0.654 {+-} 0.042(stat.) {+-} 0.016(syst.). This is in agreement with the expectations from heavy-quark effective theory and factorization assuming that the decay proceeds as {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}{rho}(1450), {rho}(1450) {yields} {omega}{pi}{sup -}.

  2. THE INNER GALACTIC BULGE: EVIDENCE FOR A NUCLEAR BAR?

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard, Ortwin; Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma

    2012-01-15

    Recent data from the VVV survey have strengthened evidence for a structural change in the Galactic bulge inward of |l| {<=} 4 Degree-Sign . Here we show with an N-body barred galaxy simulation that a boxy bulge formed through the bar and buckling instabilities effortlessly matches measured bulge longitude profiles for red clump stars. The same simulation snapshot was earlier used to clarify the apparent boxy bulge-long bar dichotomy, for the same orientation and scaling. The change in the slope of the model longitude profiles in the inner few degrees is caused by a transition from highly elongated to more nearly axisymmetric isodensity contours in the inner boxy bulge. This transition is confined to a few degrees from the Galactic plane; thus the change of slope is predicted to disappear at higher Galactic latitudes. We also show that the nuclear star count map derived from this simulation snapshot displays a longitudinal asymmetry similar to that observed in the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) data, but is less flattened to the Galactic plane than the 2MASS map. These results support the interpretation that the Galactic bulge originated from disk evolution and question the evidence advanced from star count data for the existence of a secondary nuclear bar in the Milky Way.

  3. 9. A photograph, looking southwest, from the sand bar on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. A photograph, looking southwest, from the sand bar on the east side of the bridge. This image shows the west abutment, including the mold marks which remained from the timber forms. Leaching and cracking are also visible along the arch ring. - Vigo County Bridge No. 139, Spanning Sugar Creek at Seventy-fourth Place, Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  4. 5 CFR 9701.205 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 9701.205 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification General § 9701.205 Bar on collective bargaining....

  5. 5 CFR 9701.305 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 9701.305 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration General § 9701.305 Bar on...

  6. 32 CFR 1802.22 - Challenges barred by res judicata.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Challenges barred by res judicata. 1802.22 Section 1802.22 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1.9...

  7. 32 CFR 1802.22 - Challenges barred by res judicata.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Challenges barred by res judicata. 1802.22 Section 1802.22 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1.9...

  8. 32 CFR 1803.22 - Requests barred by res judicata.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requests barred by res judicata. 1803.22 Section 1803.22 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC REQUESTS FOR MANDATORY DECLASSIFICATION REVIEW OF CLASSIFIED INFORMATION PURSUANT...

  9. 32 CFR 1802.22 - Challenges barred by res judicata.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Challenges barred by res judicata. 1802.22 Section 1802.22 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1.9...

  10. 32 CFR 1802.22 - Challenges barred by res judicata.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Challenges barred by res judicata. 1802.22 Section 1802.22 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1.9...

  11. 32 CFR 1802.22 - Challenges barred by res judicata.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Challenges barred by res judicata. 1802.22 Section 1802.22 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1.9...

  12. 32 CFR 1803.22 - Requests barred by res judicata.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requests barred by res judicata. 1803.22 Section 1803.22 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC REQUESTS FOR MANDATORY DECLASSIFICATION REVIEW OF CLASSIFIED INFORMATION PURSUANT...

  13. 15. VIEW OF ROLLING OPERATION. INGOTS AND BAR STOCK WERE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF ROLLING OPERATION. INGOTS AND BAR STOCK WERE ROLLED TO A SPECIFIED THICKNESS IN PREPARATION FOR FURTHER PROCESSING. (11/82) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. Let's go bananas: revisiting the endocytic BAR code

    PubMed Central

    Qualmann, Britta; Koch, Dennis; Kessels, Michael Manfred

    2011-01-01

    Against the odds of membrane resistance, members of the BIN/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain superfamily shape membranes and their activity is indispensable for a plethora of life functions. While crystal structures of different BAR dimers advanced our understanding of membrane shaping by scaffolding and hydrophobic insertion mechanisms considerably, especially life-imaging techniques and loss-of-function studies of clathrin-mediated endocytosis with its gradually increasing curvature show that the initial idea that solely BAR domain curvatures determine their functions is oversimplified. Diagonal placing, lateral lipid-binding modes, additional lipid-binding modules, tilde shapes and formation of macromolecular lattices with different modes of organisation and arrangement increase versatility. A picture emerges, in which BAR domain proteins create macromolecular platforms, that recruit and connect different binding partners and ensure the connection and coordination of the different events during the endocytic process, such as membrane invagination, coat formation, actin nucleation, vesicle size control, fission, detachment and uncoating, in time and space, and may thereby offer mechanistic explanations for how coordination, directionality and effectiveness of a complex process with several steps and key players can be achieved. PMID:21878992

  15. Recent Results From BaBar in Tau Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Lewczuk, Mateusz; /Victoria U.

    2009-06-25

    The BaBar collaboration has accumulated over 400 million {tau}-pairs which can be used to study charged leptonic and hadronic weak currents to unprecedented precision. This note presents results on lepton universality, measurements of |V{sub us}|, and searches for {tau} decays which violate lepton flavour conservation, or {tau} decays that proceed through a suppressed second class current.

  16. Dynamic high-temperature Kolsky tension bar techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Bo; Nelson, Kevin; Lipinski, Ronald; Bignell, John; Ulrich, George B; George, Easo P

    2015-01-01

    Kolsky tension bar techniques were modified for dynamic high-temperature tensile characterization of thin-sheet alloys. An induction coil heater was used to heat the specimen while a cooling system was applied to keep the bars at room temperature during heating. A preload system was developed to generate a small pretension load in the bar system during heating in order to compensate for the effect of thermal expansion generated in the high-temperature tensile specimen. A laser system was applied to directly measure the displacements at both ends of the tensile specimen in order to calculate the strain in the specimen. A pair of high-sensitivity semiconductor strain gages was used to measure the weak transmitted force due to the low flow stress in the thin specimen at elevated temperatures. As an example, the high-temperature Kolsky tension bar was used to characterize a DOP-26 iridium alloy in high-strain-rate tension at 860 s(-1)/1030 degrees C.

  17. Measuring Legal Research Skills on a Bar Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stephen P.

    Based on the importance for newly licensed attorneys to conduct legal research, this study assessed the relationship between bar exam scores and scores on a test designed to measure certain important legal research skills. It also investigated whether differences in performance level among racial groups on the Research Test paralleled differences…

  18. Prospects for X(3872) Detection at P-barANDA

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, Jens Soeren; Galuska, Martin; Gessler, Thomas; Kuehn, Wolfgang; Kuenze, Stephanie; Liang, Yutie; Muenchow, David; Spruck, Bjoern; Ullrich, Matthias; Werner, Marcel

    2011-10-24

    Monte-Carlo simulations for a resonance scan of the charmonium-like state X(3872) at P-barANDA are performed. Final state radiation hadronic background reactions are taken into account. The signal reconstruction uses a realistic pattern recognition (track finder and track fitter) and electron/pion discrimination.

  19. 8. Photocopied August 1978. BREAKING CONCRETE BARS, JULY 1898. TESTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopied August 1978. BREAKING CONCRETE BARS, JULY 1898. TESTING MACHINE USED BY VON SCHON IN EXPERIMENTS ON METHODS OF MIXING CONCRETE AND ON CONCRETE AGGREGATES WHICH USED LOCAL MATERIALS. (4) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  20. Adolescent Student Use of School-Based Salad Bars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lori; Myers, Leann; O'Malley, Keelia; Mundorf, Adrienne R.; Harris, Diane M.; Johnson, Carolyn C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity continues to be a public health problem in the United States. Increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables (F/V) is one strategy for decreasing high consumption of energy-dense, high-fat foods, thereby improving weight status. Many Orleans Parish public schools were provided with salad bars (SBs) to augment school…

  1. Recent Measurements of sin2beta at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Sciolla, Gabriella; /MIT

    2005-12-14

    The angle {beta} is the most accurately measured quantity that determines the Unitarity Triangle. In this article I review the various measurements of this angle performed by the BaBar Collaboration, and discuss their implications in the search for new physics.

  2. Fishery status assessment of Watts Bar Reservoir with management recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C.M.

    1987-09-01

    Watts Bar Reservior was impounded in 1942 and has been inventoried 16 of the following 44 years. The previous inventory was 1980. Fish biomass has increased over the years, most noticeably in prey and commercial species. Sport fish biomass has been the most stable overall. However, creel data indicate some important sport species numbers have had extreme fluctuations. 21 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. 1. View looking east from sand bar on west side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View looking east from sand bar on west side of bridge, upstream in the bed of Sugar Creek. West elevation of the bridge - Vigo County Bridge No. 139, Spanning Sugar Creek at Seventy-fourth Place, Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  4. Should Persons with Contagious Diseases Be Barred from School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews recent court decisions regarding whether individuals with contagious diseases may be barred from public schools. Devotes specific attention to the issue of whether certain communicable diseases such as tuberculosis and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) can be classified as handicaps and thereby qualify a person for protection…

  5. DIRC - The Particle Identification System for BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Leith, David

    2002-08-19

    I have the pleasure of reporting on the status of the DIRC particle identification sub-system(2) of the BaBar Detector, running at the asymmetric B Factory at SLAC. The acronym DIRC stands for ''Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov Light.'' This device grows out of our group's experience with ring-imaging Cherenkov devices founded on a long partnership with Tom Ypsilantis and in particular with the CRID device for the SLD experiment. Blair Ratcliff had the brilliant idea of using the totally internally reflected Cherenkov light created in quartz bars, and transported out to the photon detectors by those same quartz bars, to provide excellent {pi}, K, p particle identification in the momentum range important for the B Factory. His naming of this new instrument was aptly ''CRID'' spelled backwards. The detailed design, building and commissioning of the DIRC sub-system was the work of a large international collaboration of French and U.S. groups. The device has proven to be a very robust detector, with the promised performance essentially fully realized, and is being effectively utilized in almost all of the current BaBar physics analysis.

  6. Using a Spreadsheet Scroll Bar to Solve Equilibrium Concentrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raviolo, Andres

    2012-01-01

    A simple, conceptual method is described for using the spreadsheet scroll bar to find the composition of a system at chemical equilibrium. Simulation of any kind of chemical equilibrium can be carried out using this method, and the effects of different disturbances can be predicted. This simulation, which can be used in general chemistry…

  7. Deficiency of ''Thin'' Stellar Bars in Seyfert Host Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlosman, Isaac; Peletier, Reynier F.; Knapen, Johan

    1999-01-01

    Using all available major samples of Seyfert galaxies and their corresponding control samples of closely matched non-active galaxies, we find that the bar ellipticities (or axial ratios) in Seyfert galaxies are systematically different from those in non-active galaxies. Overall, there is a deficiency of bars with large ellipticities (i.e., 'fat' or 'weak' bars) in Seyferts, compared to non-active galaxies. Accompanied with a large dispersion due to small number statistics, this effect is strictly speaking at the 2 sigma level. To obtain this result, the active galaxy samples of near-infrared surface photometry were matched to those of normal galaxies in type, host galaxy ellipticity, absolute magnitude, and, to some extent, in redshift. We discuss possible theoretical explanations of this phenomenon within the framework of galactic evolution, and, in particular, of radial gas redistribution in barred galaxies. Our conclusions provide further evidence that Seyfert hosts differ systematically from their non-active counterparts on scales of a few kpc.

  8. Mandatory Identification Bar Checks: How Bouncers Are Doing Their Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk-Turner, Elizabeth; Allen, John; Casten, John; Cowling, Catherine; Gray, Charles; Guhr, David; Hoofnagle, Kara; Huffman, Jessica; Mina, Moises; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of bouncers at on site establishments that served alcohol was observed. Our aim was to better understand how bouncers went about their job when the bar had a mandatory policy to check identification of all customers. Utilizing an ethnographic decision model, we found that bouncers were significantly more likely to card customers that…

  9. Kinematic signature of a rotating bar near a resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Martin D.

    1994-01-01

    Recent work based on H I, star count and emission data suggests that the Milky Way has rotating bar-like features. In this paper, I show that such features cause distinctive stellar kinematic signatures near Outer Lindblad Resonance (OLR) and Inner Lindblad Resonance (ILR). The effect of these resonances may be observable far from the peak density of the pattern and relatively nearby the solar position. The details of the kinematic signatures depend on the evolutionary history of the 'bar' and therefore velocity data, both systematic and velocity dispersion, may be used to probe the evolutionary history as well as the present state of Galaxy. Kinematic models for a variety of sample scenarios are presented. Models with evolving pattern speeds show significantly stronger dispersion signatures than those with static pattern speeds, suggesting that useful observational constraints are possible. The models are applied to the proposed rotating spheroid and bar models; we find (1) none of these models chosen to represent the proposed large-scale rotating spheroid are consistent with the stellar kinematics and (2) a Galactic bar with semimajor axis of 3 kpc will cause a large increase in velocity dispersion in the vicinity of OLR (approximately 5 kpc) with little change in the net radial motion and such a signature is suggested by K-giant velocity data. Potential future observations and analyses are discussed.

  10. Broken-Rotor-Bar Diagnosis for Induction Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinjiang; Gao, Robert X.; Yan, Ruqiang

    2011-07-01

    Broken rotor bar is one of the commonly encountered induction motor faults that may cause serious motor damage to the motor if not detected timely. Past efforts on broken rotor bar diagnosis have been focused on current signature analysis using spectral analysis and wavelet transform. These methods require accurate slip estimation to localize fault-related frequency. This paper presents a new approach to broken rotor bar diagnosis without slip estimation, based on the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and the Hilbert transform. Specifically, the Hilbert transform first extracts the envelope of the motor current signal, which contains broken rotor fault-related frequency information. Subsequently, the envelope signal is adaptively decomposed into a number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by the EEMD algorithm. Two criteria based on the energy and correlation analyses have been investigated to automate the IMF selection. Numerical and experimental studies have confirmed that the proposed approach is effective in diagnosing broken rotor bar faults for improved induction motor condition monitoring and damage assessment.

  11. Measurements of Form Factors with the BaBar Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Selina Z.; /SLAC

    2011-08-25

    Selected recent results on measurements of form factors by the BaBar Collaboration are reviewed, including e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {eta}{prime}{gamma}, leptonic and semileptonic charm decays from data collected at or near the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance.

  12. Stress tracking in thin bars by eigenstrain actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeftner, J.; Irschik, H.

    2016-11-01

    This contribution focuses on stress tracking in slender structures. The axial stress distribution of a linear elastic bar is investigated, in particular, we seek for an answer to the following question: in which manner do we have to distribute eigenstrains, such that the axial stress in a bar is equal to a certain desired stress distribution, despite external forces or support excitations are present? In order to track a certain time- and space-dependent stress function, smart actuators, such as piezoelectric actuators, are needed to realize eigenstrains. Based on the equation of motion and the constitutive relation, which relate stress, strain, displacement and eigenstrains, an analytical solution for the stress tracking problem is derived. The starting point for the derivation of a solution for the stress tracking problem is a semi-positive definite integral depending on the error stress which is the difference between the actual stress and the desired stress. Our derived stress tracking theory is verified by two examples: first, a clamped-free bar which is harmonically excited is investigated. It is shown under which circumstances the axial stress vanishes at every location and at every time instant. The second example is a support-excited bar with end mass, where a desired stress profile is prescribed.

  13. STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY IN THE BARRED SPIRAL GALAXY NGC 4303

    SciTech Connect

    Momose, Rieko; Okumura, Sachiko K.; Sawada, Tsuyoshi; Koda, Jin E-mail: sokumura@nro.nao.ac.j E-mail: Jin.Koda@stonybrook.ed

    2010-09-20

    We present new {sup 12}CO (J = 1 - 0) observations of the barred galaxy NGC 4303 using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope (NRO45) and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). The H{alpha} images of barred spiral galaxies often show active star formation in spiral arms, but less so in bars. We quantify the difference by measuring star formation rate (SFR) and star formation efficiency (SFE) at a scale where local star formation is spatially resolved. Our CO map covers the central 2.'3 region of the galaxy; the combination of NRO45 and CARMA provides a high fidelity image, enabling accurate measurements of molecular gas surface density. We find that SFR and SFE are twice as high in the spiral arms as in the bar. We discuss this difference in the context of the Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) law, which indicates a constant SFR at a given gas surface density. The KS law breaks down at our native resolution ({approx}250 pc), and substantial smoothing (to 500 pc) is necessary to reproduce the KS law, although with greater scatter.

  14. Ground Water / Surface Water Exchange: Streambed Versus a Channel Bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shope, C. L.; Constantz, J. E.; Cooper, C. A.; McKay, W. A.

    2007-12-01

    The streambed is important in controlling exchange of water, solutes, and heat between streams and ground water. Processes such as sedimentation, erosion, and fluctuations in diurnal temperatures can have significant effects on the streambed hydraulic conductivity, which in turn affects fluid velocities across the streambed. The objectives of this study are to quantify the difference in flux magnitude and direction within and around a channel bar. The focus of this presentation is to compare fluxes in channel bar sediments with fluxes in the streambed to determine the effect of the upper boundary conditions on sediment fluxes. A network of piezometers was installed on and around a channel bar located within the Truckee River, a dense 6th order river network, located primarily in northwest Nevada. Instruments used were temperature loggers, pressure transducers, and stage recorders. Several methods were simultaneously utilized to quantify water and heat fluxes and to interpret the hydrodynamic processes through the streambed sediments. Numerical simulations are being completed to quantify the spatial and temporal fluid flux and heat transport in relation to varied hydraulic parameters such as variable river stage, geometry, and hydraulic conductivity. In general, we have found that surface water exchange to the streambed occurs at the upstream portion of bed features and streambed discharge dominates at the downstream bed feature. This exchange is evidenced at the channel bar as well as localized riffles and point bars adjacent to the channel bar. We found that at least two separate hydraulic conditions are evident during our study. The range in water levels between the piezometers was altered from approximately 1.25 m to a minimum of 0.10 m and the mean potentiometric surface increased by 1 m. These variations are geomorphic responses due to a flood event, inundating the channel bar, and a channel restoration project both upstream and downstream of the study area

  15. Single centre experience on short bar technique for pectus excavatum

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Pectus excavatum (PE) is the most frequent anomaly of the anterior chest wall. Before 2001, all patients in Denmark were referred to the plastic and reconstructive surgeon for implantation of a subcutaneous silicone prosthesis, because the modified Ravitch procedure was not used. Since 2001, all patients have been treated with a modified Nuss procedure, which today has become the gold standard for correction of PE. Methods From September 2001 to March 2016, 1,713 patients have been operated by a modified Nuss procedure using the short bar at Aarhus University Hospital with a male-female ratio 6:1. The median age was 16 years (range 7–58 years). All operations were done in general anesthesia with epidural analgesia and all patients were operated by the same surgeon. All patients were seen routinely 6 weeks after surgery and the bars were removed after 3 years. Results Patients were younger than 18 years in 1,109 cases (65%). The number of bars needed for optimal correction was one in 1,209 patients, two in 486 patients and three in 18 patients. The median length of bar changed from 11 inches to 10 inches during the study period. The annual number of procedures continued to rise during the study period [833 patients during the first 10 years and 880 patients in the last 6 years, though more patients received two bars in the later period, (34%) versus (24%)] and the proportion of patients older than 30 years increased from 7.7% to 10%. The average duration of the operation was 36 minutes (range 12–270 minutes) and did not change significantly during the study period, change in operation time which was around half an hour. The median postoperative hospital stay decreased over time from 6 to 2 days. There was no mortality. Conclusions The modified Nuss procedure with the short bar technique is effective for the correction of PE. The results are stable with a low rate of bar malrotations, and in may most cases can be done in less than an hour in

  16. Chemical abundances in LMC stellar populations. II. The bar sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Swaelmen, M.; Hill, V.; Primas, F.; Cole, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Aims: This paper compares the chemical evolution of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) to that of the Milky Way (MW) and investigates the relation between the bar and the inner disc of the LMC in the context of the formation of the bar. Methods: We obtained high-resolution and mid signal-to-noise ratio spectra with FLAMES/GIRAFFE at ESO/VLT and performed a detailed chemical analysis of 106 and 58 LMC field red giant stars (mostly older than 1 Gyr), located in the bar and the disc of the LMC respectively. To validate our stellar parameter determinations and abundance measurement procedures, we performed thorough tests using the well-known mildly metal-poor Milky-Way thick disc giant Arcturus (HD 124897, α Boo). We measured elemental abundances for O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti (α-elements), Na (light odd element), Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu (iron-peak elements), Y, Zr, Ba, La, and Eu (s- and r-elements). Results: We find that the α-element ratios [Mg/Fe] and [O/Fe] are lower in the LMC than in the MW while the LMC has similar [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe], and [Ti/Fe] to the MW. As for the heavy elements, [Ba,La/Eu] exhibit a strong increase with increasing metallicity starting from [Fe/H] ≈ -0.8 dex, and the LMC has lower [Y + Zr/Ba + La] ratios than the MW. Cu is almost constant over all metallicities and about 0.5 dex lower in the LMC than in the MW. The LMC bar and inner disc exhibit differences in their [α/ Fe] (slightly larger scatter for the bar in the metallicity range [-1, -0.5]), their Eu (the bar trend is above the disc trend for [Fe/H] ≥ -0.5 dex), their Y and Zr, their Na and their V (offset between the bar and the disc distributions). Conclusions: Our results show that the chemical history of the LMC experienced a strong contribution from type Ia supernovae as well as a strong s-process enrichment from metal-poor AGB winds. Massive stars made a smaller contribution to the chemical enrichment compared to the MW. The observed differences between the bar and the disc speak in

  17. Automatic detection of service initiation signals used in bars

    PubMed Central

    Loth, Sebastian; Huth, Kerstin; De Ruiter, Jan P.

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing the intention of others is important in all social interactions, especially in the service domain. Enabling a bartending robot to serve customers is particularly challenging as the system has to recognize the social signals produced by customers and respond appropriately. Detecting whether a customer would like to order is essential for the service encounter to succeed. This detection is particularly challenging in a noisy environment with multiple customers. Thus, a bartending robot has to be able to distinguish between customers intending to order, chatting with friends or just passing by. In order to study which signals customers use to initiate a service interaction in a bar, we recorded real-life customer-staff interactions in several German bars. These recordings were used to generate initial hypotheses about the signals customers produce when bidding for the attention of bar staff. Two experiments using snapshots and short video sequences then tested the validity of these hypothesized candidate signals. The results revealed that bar staff responded to a set of two non-verbal signals: first, customers position themselves directly at the bar counter and, secondly, they look at a member of staff. Both signals were necessary and, when occurring together, sufficient. The participants also showed a strong agreement about when these cues occurred in the videos. Finally, a signal detection analysis revealed that ignoring a potential order is deemed worse than erroneously inviting customers to order. We conclude that (a) these two easily recognizable actions are sufficient for recognizing the intention of customers to initiate a service interaction, but other actions such as gestures and speech were not necessary, and (b) the use of reaction time experiments using natural materials is feasible and provides ecologically valid results. PMID:24009594

  18. The Orbital Structure of a Tidally Induced Bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajda, Grzegorz; Łokas, Ewa L.; Athanassoula, E.

    2016-10-01

    Orbits are the key building blocks of any density distribution, and their study helps us understand the kinematical structure and the evolution of galaxies. Here, we investigate orbits in a tidally induced bar of a dwarf galaxy, using an N-body simulation of an initially disky dwarf galaxy orbiting a Milky Way-like host. After the first pericenter passage, a tidally induced bar forms in the stellar component of the dwarf. The bar evolution is different than in isolated galaxies and our analysis focuses on the period before it buckles. We study the orbits in terms of their dominant frequencies, which we calculate in a Cartesian coordinate frame rotating with the bar. Apart from the well-known x1 orbits, we find many other types, mostly with boxy shapes of various degree of elongation. Some of them are also near-periodic, admitting frequency ratios of 4/3, 3/2, and 5/3. The box orbits have various degrees of vertical thickness but only a relatively small fraction of those have banana (i.e., smile/frown) or infinity-symbol shapes in the edge-on view. In the very center we also find orbits known from the potential of triaxial ellipsoids. The elongation of the orbits grows with distance from the center of the bar in agreement with the variation of the shape of the density distribution. Our classification of orbits leads to the conclusion that more than 80% of them have boxy shapes, while only 8% have shapes of classical x1 orbits.

  19. Two-dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woong-Tae; Stone, James M.

    2012-06-01

    Barred galaxies are known to possess magnetic fields that may affect the properties of bar substructures such as dust lanes and nuclear rings. We use two-dimensional high-resolution magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to investigate the effects of magnetic fields on the formation and evolution of such substructures, as well as on the mass inflow rates to the galaxy center. The gaseous medium is assumed to be infinitesimally thin, isothermal, non-self-gravitating, and threaded by initially uniform, azimuthal magnetic fields. We find that there exists an outermost x 1-orbit relative to which gaseous responses to an imposed stellar bar potential are completely different between inside and outside. Inside this orbit, gas is shocked into dust lanes and infalls to form a nuclear ring. Magnetic fields are compressed in dust lanes, reducing their peak density. Magnetic stress removes further angular momentum of the gas at the shocks, temporarily causing the dust lanes to bend into an "L" shape and eventually leading to a smaller and more centrally distributed ring than in unmagnetized models. The mass inflow rates in magnetized models correspondingly become larger, by more than two orders of magnitude when the initial fields have an equipartition value with thermal energy, than in the unmagnetized counterparts. Outside the outermost x 1-orbit, on the other hand, an MHD dynamo due to the combined action of the bar potential and background shear operates near the corotation and bar-end regions, efficiently amplifying magnetic fields. The amplified fields shape into trailing magnetic arms with strong fields and low density. The base of the magnetic arms has a thin layer in which magnetic fields with opposite polarity reconnect via a tearing-mode instability. This produces numerous magnetic islands with large density that propagate along the arms to turn the outer disk into a highly chaotic state.

  20. Adapting for Impaired Patrons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a library, with an MCI Corporation grant, approached the process of setting up computers for the visually impaired. Discusses preparations, which included hiring a visually-impaired user as a consultant and contacting the VIP (Visually Impaired Persons) group; equipment; problems with the graphical user interface; and training.…