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Sample records for adult bar patrons

  1. Loose Cigarette Purchasing and Nondaily Smoking Among Young Adult Bar Patrons in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Guillory, Jamie; Johns, Michael; Farley, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined loose cigarette (loosie) purchasing behavior among young adult (aged 18–26 years) smokers at bars in New York City and factors associated with purchase and use. Methods. Between June and December 2013, we conducted cross-sectional surveys (n = 1916) in randomly selected bars and nightclubs. Using multivariable logistic regression models, we examined associations of loose cigarette purchasing and use with smoking frequency, price, social norms, cessation behaviors, and demographics. Results. Forty-five percent (n = 621) of nondaily smokers and 57% (n = 133) of daily smokers had ever purchased a loosie; 15% of nondaily smokers and 4% of daily smokers reported that their last cigarette was a loosie. Nondaily smokers who never smoked daily were more likely than were daily smokers to have last smoked a loosie (odds ratio = 7.27; 95% confidence interval = 2.35, 22.48). Quitting behaviors and perceived approval of smoking were associated with ever purchasing and recently smoking loosies. Conclusions. Loosie purchase and use is common among young adults, especially nondaily smokers. Smoking patterns and attitudes should be considered to reduce loose cigarette purchasing among young adults in New York City. PMID:25880951

  2. Feasibility and acceptability of a bar-based sexual risk reduction intervention for bar patrons in Tshwane, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Morojele, Neo K.; Kitleli, Naledi; Ngako, Kgalabi; Kekwaletswe, Connie T.; Nkosi, Sebenzile; Fritz, Katherine; Parry, Charles D.H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol consumption is a recognised risk factor for HIV infection. Alcohol serving establishments have been identified as appropriate venues in which to deliver HIV prevention interventions. This paper describes experiences and lessons learnt from implementing a combined HIV prevention intervention in bar settings in one city- and one township-based bar in Tshwane, South Africa. The intervention consisted of peer-led and brief intervention counselling sub-components. Thirty-nine bar patrons were recruited and trained, and delivered HIV and alcohol risk reduction activities to their peers as peer interventionists. At the same time, nine counsellors received training and visited the bars weekly to provide brief motivational interviewing counselling, advice, and referrals to the patrons of the bars. A responsible server sub-component that had also been planned was not delivered as it was not feasible to train the staff in the two participating bars. Over the eight-month period the counsellors were approached by and provided advice and counselling for alcohol and sexual risk-related problems to 111 bar patrons. The peer interventionists reported 1323 risk reduction interactions with their fellow bar patrons during the same period. The intervention was overall well received and suggests that bar patrons and servers can accept a myriad of intervention activities to reduce sexual risk behaviour within their drinking settings. However, HIV- and AIDS-related stigma hindered participation in certain intervention activities in some instances. The buy-in that we received from the relevant stakeholders (i.e. bar owners/managers and patrons, and the community at large) was an important contributor to the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. PMID:24750106

  3. Law in practice: obstacles to a smokefree workplace policy in bars serving Asian patrons.

    PubMed

    Antin, Tamar M J; Moore, Roland S; Lee, Juliet P; Satterlund, Travis D

    2010-04-01

    The California smokefree workplace ordinance (AB13) has been well-received, even in bars where deeply established traditions of smoking may exist. However, a closer investigation of bars where indoor smoking persists revealed that bar workers in some ethnic minority communities continue to be exposed to secondhand smoke in their workplaces. To identify sociocultural factors that may impede the adoption of AB13, the researchers conducted 150 observations and 29 patron and staff interviews in 50 California bars serving Asian patrons in Los Angeles and San Francisco counties. Observers witnessed indoor smoking in 82% of the bars. Interviews revealed that social relationships, social interactions, and a tendency to avoid confrontation complicated the positive reception of AB13 within these bars. Accounting for sociocultural factors provides a nuanced understanding of the challenges involved in implementing tobacco control policy in such diverse settings and may allow for culturally appropriate tobacco policy development and implementation in other jurisdictions.

  4. A Cost Analysis of Web-Enhanced Training to Reduce Alcohol Sales to Intoxicated Bar Patrons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Timothy F.; Nederhoff, Dawn M.; Ecklund, Alexandra M.; Horvath, Keith J.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to document the development and testing costs of the Enhanced Alcohol Risk Management (eARM) intervention, a web enhanced training program to prevent alcohol sales to intoxicated bar patrons and to estimate its implementation costs in a "real world", non-research setting. Methods: Data for this…

  5. Observations from behind the bar: changing patrons' behaviours in response to smoke-free legislation in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Shona; Cameron, Jane; MacLean, Alice; Petticrew, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Background "Smoke-Free" legislation prohibiting smoking in all enclosed public places was introduced in March 2006. This qualitative study presents insights from bar workers about their observations of the changing social bar environment, changing patrons' behaviours and challenges bar workers have faced in managing smoke-free legislation. Methods Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted between November 2006 and January 2007 with a purposively-selected sample of bar workers, identified from a larger quantitative study evaluating the impact of the legislation in Scotland [the Bar Workers' Health and Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure project (BHETSE)]. Results Bar workers all spoke of the improvements the legislation had brought to their working lives and the greater comfort it appeared to offer patrons. Bar workers reported that patrons were generally quick to accept and comply with the new law, and that families had become a greater feature of pub life since the legislation. However, they expressed concerns that older men seemed to have had most difficulty adjusting to the legislation and lack of knowledge about the best practices they should adopt in order to reduce the risks of unattended drinks being spiked and of anti-social behaviour associated with patrons moving outside to smoke. Conclusion Smoke-free legislation is changing the social context of smoking in Scotland. Further research to assess the impact the legislation is having on older male smokers and on the incidence of drink spiking would be useful. More specifically, bar workers would benefit from guidance on how to manage issues arising from patrons moving outside to smoke. PMID:18625044

  6. A Critical Assessment of Bias in Survey Studies Using Location-Based Sampling to Recruit Patrons in Bars.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Christopher; Lee, Juliet P; Gruenewald, Paul J; Marzell, Miesha

    2015-01-01

    Location-based sampling is a method to obtain samples of people within ecological contexts relevant to specific public health outcomes. Random selection increases generalizability; however, in some circumstances (such as surveying bar patrons), recruitment conditions increase risks of sample bias. We attempted to recruit representative samples of bars and patrons in six California cities, but low response rates precluded meaningful analysis. A systematic review of 24 similar studies revealed that none addressed the key shortcomings of our study. We recommend steps to improve studies that use location-based sampling: (i) purposively sample places of interest, (ii) use recruitment strategies appropriate to the environment, and (iii) provide full information on response rates at all levels of sampling.

  7. A Critical Assessment of Bias in Survey Studies Using Location-Based Sampling to Recruit Patrons in Bars

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Christopher; Lee, Juliet P.; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Marzell, Miesha

    2015-01-01

    Location-based sampling is a method to obtain samples of people within ecological contexts relevant to specific public health outcomes. Random selection increases generalizability, however in some circumstances (such as surveying bar patrons) recruitment conditions increase risks of sample bias. We attempted to recruit representative samples of bars and patrons in six California cities, but low response rates precluded meaningful analysis. A systematic review of 24 similar studies revealed that none addressed the key shortcomings of our study. We recommend steps to improve studies that use location-based sampling: (i) purposively sample places of interest, (ii) utilize recruitment strategies appropriate to the environment, and (iii) provide full information on response rates at all levels of sampling. PMID:26574657

  8. Drink Specials and the Intoxication Levels of Patrons Exiting College Bars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thombs, Dennis L.; Dodd, Virginia; Porkorny, Steven B.; Omli, Morrow R.; O'Mara, Ryan; Webb, Monica C.; Lacaci, Diana M.; Werch, Chad

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether drink specials independently increase patrons' risk of achieving a high level of intoxication upon exiting drinking establishments. Methods: In a campus community, data were collected from exiting patrons (N=291) via sidewalk interviews and breath tests on 6 nights of 2 consecutive semesters. Results: A…

  9. A cost analysis of web-enhanced training to reduce alcohol sales to intoxicated bar patrons

    PubMed Central

    Page, Timothy F.; Nederhoff, Dawn M.; Ecklund, Alexandra M.; Horvath, Keith J.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to document the development and testing costs of the Enhanced Alcohol Risk Management (eARM) intervention, a web enhanced training program to prevent alcohol sales to intoxicated bar patrons and to estimate its implementation costs in a “real world”, non-research setting. Methods Data for this study were obtained retrospectively from a randomized controlled trial of the eARM intervention, which was conducted across 15 communities in a Midwestern metropolitan area. Inputs and their costs were obtained from records maintained during the randomized controlled trial. Total development and testing costs were computed, and implementation costs were estimated with input from the research team. The average implementation cost per establishment was calculated by dividing the total estimated implementation cost by the number of establishments that participated in the study. This provides an estimate of the resources needed to support a broader dissemination of interventions such as eARM. Results Direct development and testing costs were $484,904. Including the University's overhead cost rate of 51 percent, total development and testing costs were $732,205. Total estimated implementation costs were $179,999 over a 12 month period. The average cost per establishment was $1,588. Conclusions Given the large damage liability awards faced by establishments that serve alcohol to drunk drivers, establishments or their insurance companies may be willing to pay the $1,588 estimated implementation cost in order to limit their exposure to these large damage awards. Therefore, making interventions such as eARM available could be an effective and sustainable policy for reducing alcohol-related incidents. PMID:27087708

  10. Social Branding to Decrease Smoking Among Young Adults in Bars

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for “hipster” young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. Methods. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. Results. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P < .001). There were significant interactions between hipster affiliation and alcohol use on smoking. Among hipster binge drinkers, the odds of daily smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30, 0.63) and nondaily smoking (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.42, 0.77) decreased significantly at follow-up 3. Binge drinking also decreased significantly at follow-up 3 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.78). Conclusions. Social Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons. PMID:24524502

  11. Audiobook Format: A Patron's Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Kelly C.

    This study examines patron preference for abridged versus unabridged audiobooks, looking at patron usage over time and noting any changes in preference and why they occurred. A survey was conducted at the four branches of the Geauga County Public Library System (Geauga County, Ohio) with a random sample of adult patrons. Of the 274 surveys…

  12. Perceptions of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels among a sample of bar patrons with BrAC values of 0.08% or higher.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ryan J; Chaney, Beth H; Cremeens-Matthews, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen

    2016-09-01

    Breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) is a commonly used measure of alcohol intoxication. Because of the potential negative consequences of excessive alcohol consumption, it is important to examine how accurately intoxicated individuals can estimate their BrAC values, especially individuals over the legal BrAC driving threshold (i.e., 0.08%). To better understand perceptions of BrAC values among intoxicated individuals, this field study examined actual BrAC values and BrAC range estimates (0.08% and above, 0.02-0.07%, less than 0.02%) among a sample of bar patrons (N = 454) with BrAC levels at 0.08% or higher. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between actual BrAC values and perceived BrAC levels. We also examined whether the following demographic and drinking variables were associated with underestimating BrAC in this sample: gender, age, race, college student status, plans to get home, and hazardous drinking. Results indicated that the majority (60.4%) of participants underestimated their BrAC (i.e., less than 0.08%) and lower BrAC values correlated with underestimating BrAC ranges (p < .001, 95% CI[0.2, 0.6]). Further, females (p = .001, 95% CI[1.3, 3.3]) and participants under 21 (p = .039, 95% CI = 1.0, 2.6) were significantly more likely to estimate their BrAC to be less than 0.08%, which is concerning given that young (less than 21) intoxicated females are a group at high risk for sexual assault on college campuses. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27631614

  13. Male circumcision, alcohol use and unprotected sex among patrons of bars and taverns in rural areas of North-West province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nkosi, Sebenzile; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Kekwaletswe, Connie T; Morojele, Neo K

    2015-01-01

    Strong research evidence has shown that medical male circumcision significantly reduces heterosexual HIV acquisition among men. However, its effectiveness is enhanced by behavioural factors such as condom use. Currently, little is known of unprotected sex associated with male circumcision (MC) among alcohol-drinking tavern-going men, or whether engagement in unprotected sex may differ between men who have been traditionally circumcised and those who have been medically circumcised. The study sought to determine the relative importance of alcohol consumption and MC as correlates of unprotected sex and to compare the risk of engaging in unprotected sex between traditionally circumcised and medically circumcised tavern-going men from two rural villages in North-West province, South Africa. Data from 314 adult men (≥18 years) were analysed. The men were recruited from four bars/taverns using systematic sampling. They responded to questions regarding their demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, circumcision status and method (where applicable), and engagement in unprotected sex. Descriptive analyses and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Age, education, relationship status, alcohol consumption and traditional male circumcision (TMC) were independently and significantly associated with unprotected sex. Specifically, probable alcohol dependence and traditional circumcision were independent risk factors for engaging in unprotected sex among tavern-going men. Traditionally circumcised men had a higher risk of engaging in unprotected sex than medically circumcised men. Interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption, encouraging protective behaviour among men who have undergone TMC, and increasing condom use are needed in bar/tavern settings. HIV prevention education must be urgently incorporated into TMC programmes.

  14. Smooth Moves: Bar and Nightclub Tobacco Promotions That Target Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sepe, Edward; Ling, Pamela M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This article describes the tobacco industry's use of bars and nightclubs to encourage smoking among young adults. Methods. Previously secret tobacco industry marketing documents were analyzed. Results. Tobacco industry bar and nightclub promotions in the 1980s and 1990s included aggressive advertising, tobacco brand–sponsored activities, and distribution of samples. Financial incentives for club owners and staff were used to encourage smoking through peer influence. Increased use of these strategies occurred concurrently with an increase in smoking among persons aged 18 through 24 years. Conclusions. The tobacco industry's bar and nightclub promotions are not yet politically controversial and are not regulated by the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement between the industry and the states. Tobacco control advocates should include young adults in research and advocacy efforts and should design interventions to counter this industry strategy to solidify smoking patterns and recruit young adult smokers. PMID:11867322

  15. Problem Patron Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Marion, Comp.; And Others

    This document presents guidelines for handling disruptive behavior in the Schenectady County Public Library (New York). Specific responses are listed for dealing with questions about library selection policy and sudden patron illness or injury. Also listed are responses to problem situations involving angry or irate patrons, assault or physically…

  16. [Patron saints of anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, K

    2014-12-01

    Patron saints act as facilitators between God and humans. Humans appeal to patron saints for support in devastating, often futile situations in life. Patron saints may intercede for trade and professional guilds, every so often they hold a protective hand over objects. Saint Barbara is venerated as the patron saint of surgeons. In anesthesia she also oversees barbiturates, protects anesthetized patients, anesthetists and anesthesia nursing personnel. Within the Anglo-American language area Saint René is venerated by anesthetists and anesthesia nursing personnel. During anesthesia or critical care treatment patient safety and welfare are entirely in the hands of anesthetists and intensivists. Especially in the borderland of critical illness and imminent death, it may be reassuring for religiously or spiritually orientated physicians and nurses that they can turn to "their" patron saints to intercede so that upcoming anesthetic procedures or intensive care interventions will meet with success. Hereby, the heavy burden of responsibility may be borne more easily and equanimously. PMID:25468256

  17. Understanding Tobacco-Related Attitudes among College and Noncollege Young Adult Hookah and Cigarette Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Youn Ok; Bahreinifar, Sareh; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in tobacco-related attitudes and hookah and cigarette use among college and noncollege young adults. Participants: Time-location samples of young adult bar patrons in San Diego, California ("N" = 2,243), Tulsa ("N" = 2,095) and Oklahoma City ("N" = 2,200), Oklahoma, Albuquerque…

  18. Social Organization in Bars: Implications for Tobacco Control Policy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Juliet P.; Antin, Tamar M.J.; Moore, Roland S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers social roles and relationships of the patrons, staff and owners of bars as critical factors determining adherence to public health policies, and specifically California’s smokefree workplace law. Specific elements of social organization in bars affecting health policy include the community within which the bar is set, the unique identity the bar creates, the bar staff and patrons who enact this identity, and their bar society. These elements were found to contribute to the development of power relations within the bar and solidarity against the outside world, resulting in either resistance to or compliance with smokefree workplace policy. PMID:22522904

  19. Cultural Factors Related to Smoking in San Francisco's Irish Bars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Antin, Tamar M. J.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2009-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act was extended to include bars in 1998. While the majority of bars in the state have become smoke free, in many bars patrons and staff continue to smoke despite the law. The authors present findings from a study which assessed cultural factors related to continued smoking in bars in the city of San Francisco. In…

  20. Distribution and habitat selection of adult striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), in Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Cheek, T.E.; Van den Avyle, M.J.; Coutant, C.C.

    1983-09-01

    Biotelemetry was used to determine seasonal distribution patterns and habitat preferences and to evaluate factors affecting movements of adult striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee. Distribution and movement of striped bass were strongly influenced by water temperature. Mean distances moved per day during spring and winter were similar but significantly higher than rates for summer and fall. During spring, striped bass moved into headwater areas as water temperatures approached those associated with spawning (15/sup 0/ to 19/sup 0/C). Brief habitation of the main body of the reservoir was noted during summer prior to movement to cool-water refuges located in the Clinch River and Tennessee River arms. No striped bass were located in the main body of the reservoir in early fall when temperatures ranged from 24/sup 0/ to 25/sup 0/C. Fish were located in thermal refuges during this period and occupied water temperatures averaging 20.5/sup 0/C. The only extended period of striped bass habitation of the main body of the reservoir occurred in winter, when the fish occupied a mean water temperature of 11/sup 0/C. Although distribution was restricted during warmer seasons, individual fish moved freely throughout the 116-km-long reservoir at other times, indicating that subpopulations did not exist. 64 references.

  1. Event-Specific Analyses of Poly-Drug Abuse and Concomitant Risk Behavior in a College Bar District in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thombs, Dennis L.; O'Mara, Ryan; Dodd, Virginia J.; Merves, Michele L.; Weiler, Robert M.; Goldberger, Bruce A.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Moore, Christine; Reingle, Jennifer; Gullet, Sara E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the epidemiology of risk behavior associated with poly-drug use in a college bar district of a large campus community. Participants: A total of 469 bar patrons participated in the study. Methods: The authors used self-report data and biological measures collected from patrons outside bars in July and August of…

  2. Responses to patronizing communication and factors that attenuate those responses.

    PubMed

    Hehman, Jessica A; Bugental, Daphne Blunt

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate younger (n = 52, ages 18-24) and older (n = 69, ages 61-98) adults' responses to patronizing communication in terms of (a) performance on a cognitive task (Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-III block design) and (b) physiological responses (i.e., change in cortisol levels), as well as factors that may attenuate those responses. Participants were randomly assigned to receive instructions for the task using either a patronizing or nonpatronizing speech style. Participants also completed a measure of attitudes about aging and the quantity/quality of their intergenerational interaction. Older adults (relative to younger adults) were found to be more reactive to the patronizing speech style in terms of their performance on the task as well as the change in their cortisol levels. Older adults who had more positive attitudes about aging as well as more positive intergenerational interactions were protected from the performance deficits as a result of patronizing speech style. These findings could be used to inform social programs aimed at reducing age-based stigma and improving the life course outcomes of our aging population. PMID:26146886

  3. The Effect of Smoke-Free Air Law in Bars on Smoking Initiation and Relapse among Teenagers and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Ce

    2015-01-01

    Background: Existing evidence has shown that most smoking uptake and escalation occurs while smokers are teenagers or young adults. Effective policies that reduce smoking uptake and escalation will play an important role in curbing cigarette smoking. This study aims to investigate the effect of smoke-free air (SFA) laws in bars on smoking initiation/relapse while controlling for other confounders. Methods: The national longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) from 1997–2009 was linked to state-level scores for the strength of SFA laws in order to carry out the analysis. Results and Conclusion: We find that SFA laws in bars with exemptions significantly reduce (p ≤ 0.01) the probability of smoking initiation (one-puff, daily, and heavy smoking initiation). The 100% SFA law in bars without exemption significantly deters smoking relapse from abstinence into daily smoking (p ≤ 0.05) or relapse from abstinence into heavy smoking (p ≤ 0.01) among people age 21 or older. The reduction of one-puff and daily smoking initiation is larger among ages 20 or younger than ages 21 or older, while the reduction in relapse does not differ by whether respondents reach the drinking age. Results also indicate that higher cigarette taxes significantly reduce daily smoking initiation and relapse into nondaily and light smoking. PMID:25584419

  4. High Bar Swing Performance in Novice Adults: Effects of Practice and Talent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busquets, Albert; Marina, Michel; Irurtia, Alfredo; Ranz, Daniel; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa M.

    2011-01-01

    An individual's a priori talent can affect movement performance during learning. Also, task requirements and motor-perceptual factors are critical to the learning process. This study describes changes in high bar swing performance after a 2-month practice period. Twenty-five novice participants were divided by a priori talent level…

  5. Bar and Club Tobacco Promotions in the Alternative Press: Targeting Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sepe, Edward; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated changes in tobacco promotions in two alternative newspapers in San Francisco and Philadelphia from 1994-99. Results indicated that the numbers of tobacco advertisements increased dramatically during those years. The tobacco industry increased its use of bars and clubs as promotional venues and used the alternative press to reach young…

  6. Empowering Library Patrons with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ravonne A.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the characteristics of patrons with learning disabilities (LD) and how these characteristics might affect library use. The lack of services for college patrons who have learning disabilities (LD) in this decade is much like the lack of adequate and appropriate services for high school patrons with LD in previous decades. The…

  7. Delivering Services to Patrons' Doorsteps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rynkiewcz, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    When properly utilized, the Internet can transcend the limitations of physical space, supporting the freedom of imagination and information on which the library profession is founded. The software described in this article (WebCalender, Dynix, Mambo) can benefit libraries by allowing their patrons to take full advantage of today's technologies.

  8. Coordination Analysis Reveals Differences in Motor Strategies for the High Bar Longswing among Novice Adults

    PubMed Central

    Busquets, Albert; Marina, Michel; Irurtia, Alfredo; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa M.

    2013-01-01

    Coordination between arm-trunk and trunk-leg is important for effective longswing performance. This research describes inter-segmental coordination changes after a practice period of longswing on high bar in a novice cohort. Novices were divided by initial skill level (talent) into two groups: spontaneously-talented, (ST, n = 10, closer to expert performance) and non-spontaneously-talented (NST, n = 15). Additionally, post-practice longswing coordination was compared to expert gymnasts (n = 9). Longswing amplitude and coordination (inter-joint reversal points and continuous relative phase, CRP) were assessed for pre- and post-practice sessions. ANOVAs showed similar practice effects in swing enlargements for the ST (11%) and NST (18%), but inter-joint reversal points and positive area in CRP during the downswing were different. Due to practice, the ST group paired shoulder and hip reversal points (events) during the downswing closer and with larger velocity of the arm in relation to the trunk than the NST group. The NST failed to modify coordination probably due to a large variability at the beginning of the downswing. Given a similar amount of practice, talent could help to achieve the right temporal events’ sequence during downswing, which would allow the exploration of different segmental coordination. However, upswing coordination of the novice groups (ST and NST) requires more focused practice to achieve expert levels than downswing, especially the arm-trunk coordination. PMID:23840720

  9. [Eligius, the patron of veterinarians].

    PubMed

    Häsler, S; Dängeli, J

    2014-01-01

    Saint Eligius became the saint patron of farriers and veterinarians in the 13th century. This was first mentioned by Jordanus Ruffus, emperor Frederic the 2nd's equerry, who refers to a gregorian hymnal dedicated to Eligius. The legend says that Eliguis amputated a horse's foot, shoed it and placed it back on the horse's leg. This legend might have replaced the Germanic cult described in the incantations of Merseburg. In Switzerland the veneration of Eligius is particularly spread in the canton of Lucerne. PMID:24394172

  10. [Eligius, the patron of veterinarians].

    PubMed

    Häsler, S; Dängeli, J

    2014-01-01

    Saint Eligius became the saint patron of farriers and veterinarians in the 13th century. This was first mentioned by Jordanus Ruffus, emperor Frederic the 2nd's equerry, who refers to a gregorian hymnal dedicated to Eligius. The legend says that Eliguis amputated a horse's foot, shoed it and placed it back on the horse's leg. This legend might have replaced the Germanic cult described in the incantations of Merseburg. In Switzerland the veneration of Eligius is particularly spread in the canton of Lucerne.

  11. Schools and the Law: A Patron's Introspection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colton, Paul

    2009-01-01

    In Ireland, where education at both primary and second level is overwhelmingly denominational in character, patronage is exercised, in the main, by religious patrons. This article is an introspective analysis of current legal issues as they face one patron and schools under his patronage; it looks at the intersection of civil law with Church law;…

  12. The patron saints of breast disease.

    PubMed

    Kissin, M W

    1991-06-01

    Throughout the Christian era, saints have been adopted as patrons of countries and towns, trades and professions, and also for protection against disease. Although patronage is usually related to the saint's most spectacular cure or mode of death, sometimes it derives from a play on words, an unusual physiognomy or mistaken identity. Historical research has identified 295 patrons of specific diseases. Thirteen of these saints are patrons of breast disease. St Agatha, who was martyred by mastectomy, being the most famous. The lives, legends, cults and pictorial representations of these saints are described. PMID:2059178

  13. Games and gambling involvement among casino patrons.

    PubMed

    LaPlante, Debi A; Afifi, Tracie O; Shaffer, Howard J

    2013-06-01

    A growing literature is addressing the nature of the relationships among gambling activity, gambling involvement, and gambling-related problems. This research suggests that among the general population, compared to playing any specific game, gambling involvement is a better predictor of gambling-related problems. To date, researchers have not examined these relationships among casino patrons, a population that differs from the general population in a variety of important ways. A survey of 1160 casino patrons at two Las Vegas resort casinos allowed us to determine relationships between the games that patrons played during the 12 months before their casino visit, the games that patrons played during their casino visit, and patrons' self-perceived history of gambling-related problems. Results indicate that playing specific gambling games onsite predicted (i.e., statistically significant odds ratios ranging from .5 to 4.51) self-perceived gambling-related problems. However, after controlling for involvement, operationally defined as the number of games played during the current casino visit and self-reported gambling frequency during the past 12 months, the relationships between games and gambling-related problems disappeared or were attenuated (i.e., odds ratios no longer statistically significant). These results extend the burgeoning literature related to gambling involvement and its relationship to gambling-related problems.

  14. Long term compliance with California's Smoke-Free Workplace Law among bars and restaurants in Los Angeles County

    PubMed Central

    Weber, M; Bagwell, D; Fielding, J; Glantz, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess long term compliance with the California Smoke-Free Workplace Law in Los Angeles County freestanding bars and bar/restaurants. Design: Population based annual site inspection survey of a random sample of Los Angeles County freestanding bars and bar/restaurants was conducted from 1998 to 2002. Main outcome measures: The primary outcomes of interest were patron and employee smoking. The secondary outcomes of interest were the presence of ashtrays and designated outdoor smoking areas. Results: Significant increases in patron non-smoking compliance were found for freestanding bars (45.7% to 75.8%, p < 0.0001) and bar/restaurants (92.2% to 98.5%, p < 0.0001) between 1998 and 2002. Increases in employee non-smoking compliance were found for freestanding bars (86.2% to 94.7%, p < 0.0003) and bar/restaurants (96.5% to 99.2%, p < 0.005). Conclusions: This study provides clear evidence that the California Smoke-Free Workplace Law has been effective at reducing patron and employee smoking in Los Angeles County bars and restaurants. Recommendations include educational campaigns targeted to freestanding bar owners and staff to counter perceptions of lost revenue, more rigorous enforcement, and more severe penalties for repeat violators such as alcohol licence revocation. Policymakers can enact smoke-free restaurant and bar policies to protect employees and patrons from secondhand smoke, confident that these laws can be successfully implemented. PMID:12958386

  15. An exploratory study of drug use in bar environments

    PubMed Central

    Trocki, Karen; Michalak, Laurence; McDaniel, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the characteristics of bars where drug use was observed compared to those where no drug use was observed. The study was done through a combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques gleaned through observations and interviews. Among the most important of indicators were the type of activity (particularly dancing) and the level of rowdiness evident in the bars. In addition drug use bars had higher levels of other types of rule-breaking. Patron characteristics (more men) and behavioral patterns (more sexual risk-taking) also distinguished these bars. PMID:25221431

  16. Sacred Trust or Competitive Opportunity: Using Patron Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estabrook, Leigh S.

    1996-01-01

    Examines libraries' policies of keeping patron records private and confidential. Addresses the idea that libraries use their automated systems to retain and use patron data to develop and improve library services. Describes uses of patron data that can help libraries develop targeted services to users to better meet their information needs. (JMV)

  17. Using Text Messages to Communicate with Patrons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konshak, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Text messaging is an ideal communications method for libraries, which often want to send short, concise messages to their patrons near and far. Uses for text messaging in libraries include reminders about items' due dates, hold pickup notices, program reminders, and even short messages of content. Some libraries are already using text messaging…

  18. Testing legal assumptions regarding the effects of dancer nudity and proximity to patron on erotic expression.

    PubMed

    Linz, D; Blumenthal, E; Donnerstein, E; Kunkel, D; Shafer, B J; Lichtenstein, A

    2000-10-01

    A field experiment was conducted in order to test the assumptions by the Supreme Court in Barnes v. Glen Theatre, Inc. (1991) and the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in Colacurcio v. City of Kent (1999) that government restrictions on dancer nudity and dancer-patron proximity do not affect the content of messages conveyed by erotic dancers. A field experiment was conducted in which dancer nudity (nude vs. partial clothing) and dancer-patron proximity (4 feet; 6 in.; 6 in. plus touch) were manipulated under controlled conditions in an adult night club. After male patrons viewed the dances, they completed questionnaires assessing affective states and reception of erotic, relational intimacy, and social messages. Contrary to the assumptions of the courts, the results showed that the content of messages conveyed by the dancers was significantly altered by restrictions placed on dancer nudity and dancer-patron proximity. These findings are interpreted in terms of social psychological responses to nudity and communication theories of nonverbal behavior. The legal implications of rejecting the assumptions made by the courts in light of the findings of this study are discussed. Finally, suggestions are made for future research. PMID:11026209

  19. Exemptions for hookah bars in clean indoor air legislation: a public health concern.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Devon

    2010-01-01

    Popularity of waterpipe smoking or hookah smoking in the United States has been growing for some time now among youth and young adults. Currently, many cities and states have exemptions that allow hookah bars to remain in operation despite the passage of clean indoor air legislation. From a public health perspective this is concerning for many reasons. One public health concern with the increase in popularity of this type of tobacco use is the associated health effects. Another concern is that hookah smoke produces a sweet smelling aroma making it less obvious that patrons and employees of hookah bars are inhaling noxious fumes from mainstream smoke, as well as the toxins from the charcoal that is used to heat the tobacco. The purpose of this paper is to discuss smoke-free air legislation in relation to hookah use, the public health implications of exempting hookah bars from current smoke-free legislation, and implications for the public health nurse in protecting the public from the dangers of second-hand smoke, and limiting this new form of tobacco use.

  20. Service preferences differences between community pharmacy and supermarket pharmacy patrons.

    PubMed

    Dominelli, Angela; Weck Marciniak, Macary; Jarvis, Janice

    2005-01-01

    Differences in service preferences between patrons of supermarket and chain pharmacies were determined. Subjects fell into two groups: patrons of a supermarket chain's pharmacies and patrons of the same supermarket chain who patronized other community chain pharmacies for prescription drug purchases. Subjects were asked to prioritize services in terms of convenience and impact on pharmacy selection. Differences in service preferences emerged. Community pharmacy patrons were more likely to rate easy navigation through a pharmacy and 24 X 7 hours of operation as key services. Supermarket pharmacy patrons were more likely to rate one-stop shopping and adequate hours of operation as priorities. Both groups rated basic services such as maintenance of prescription and insurance information as priorities. Pharmacies should stress the delivery of basic services when trying to attract customers.

  1. Sir Thomas Brisbane - Patron of Colonial Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Peter J.

    British Army office Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane was sworn in as Governor of New South Wales on 1 December 1821. His appointment allowed him to pursue his plans for astronomical observations of the southern sky by setting up an observatory near his residence at Government House Parramatta. He also joined the Philosophical Society of Australasia and became Patron of the newly formed Agricultural Society of New South Wales. These societies were the precursors of many important later professional bodies, so that Brisbane's connection with them represents his most important contribution to Australian science.

  2. Mars by Way of Storytellers and Patrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polk, C.

    A business model is presented in which space-themed entertainment and educational media are harnessed to the goal of designing and financing the establishment of a self-sustaining Mars outpost. The model draws from two precedents: (i) The National Geographic Society's use of media sales to fund research and (ii) the historical role of patrons in the process of creativity. These precedents are combined in an international non-governmental organization (INGO) that is governed by the individuals who participate in the media businesses branded by the INGO - these individuals constitute a patron base of several tens of millions. Requiring only modest penetration into global media markets, expenditures of USD 5 billion per year (in 2008 dollars) can commence in 2025 and continue at an accelerating rate until the Mars outpost is established. The financing approach utilized, combined with a decision authority that is free to consider a broad range of solutions, will advance the technical state-of-the-art and result in an Earth-Mars infrastructure capable of expanding the initial Mars outpost into humanity's first second home.

  3. Anonymity versus Perceived Patron Identity in Virtual Reference Transcripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Kristin Grabarek; Sobel, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Librarians who provide virtual reference services often perceive that their patrons self-identify to some degree, even when transactions are anonymous. They also develop a sense of patrons' greatest research-related needs over time. In this article, two librarians analyze two years' worth of virtual reference transcripts to determine what patrons…

  4. Confidentiality of Patron Records in Electronic Library Circulation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaman, Scott

    Issues concerning the confidentiality of library-patron records in the age of electronics are explored. Confidentiality of patron records is a relatively new concept for libraries and was first introduced in the 1938 Code of Ethics of the American Library Association (ALA). Librarians have worked on a state-by-state basis to protect library…

  5. The Higher Power of Patron: Profile of Newbery Winner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleck, Joan

    2007-01-01

    One lousy starred review. That was all, initially, that Susan Patron had to show for the 10 years she spent writing "The Higher Power of Lucky," her funny, tender story of a little girl struggling to gain control over her life. One star, from "Kirkus Reviews," for the heart and soul Patron poured into her second novel. Positive notices had…

  6. A Model for Deterring the Determined Thief of Patron Property

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Ongoing theft from library patrons may be the work of a determined thief, one who will not be deterred by the crimeproofing techniques that often stop less committed criminals. This type of theft can be deterred when the library staff makes their patrons aware that successful deterrence depends on them not abandoning their valuables. Other staff…

  7. Assistive Technologies for Library Patrons with Visual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunrich, Matthew; Green, Ravonne

    2007-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the various products available for library patrons with blindness or visual impairments. To provide some insight into the status of library services for patrons with blindness, a sample of American universities that are recognized for their programs for students with visual impairments was surveyed to discern…

  8. Delivery Speed, Timeliness and Satisfaction: Patrons' Perceptions About ILL Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver-Meyers, Pat L.; Stolt, Wilbur A.

    1996-01-01

    Library users' perceptions of the quality of interlibrary loan service are examined. Ten Greater Midwest Research Libraries Consortium members distributed surveys to patrons. Findings indicate patrons' satisfaction is minimally related to actual delivery speed; satisfaction and perceptions of timeliness are strongly correlated; a delivery speed of…

  9. Identification of singles bar as a direct transcriptional target of Drosophila Myocyte enhancer factor-2 and a regulator of adult myoblast fusion.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Tonya M; Fremin, Brayon J; Cripps, Richard M

    2015-05-15

    In Drosophila, myoblast fusion is a conserved process in which founder cells (FCs) and fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fuse to form a syncytial muscle fiber. Mutants for the myogenic regulator Myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) show a failure of myoblast fusion, indicating that MEF2 regulates the fusion process. Indeed, chromatin immunoprecipitation studies show that several genes involved in myoblast fusion are bound by MEF2 during embryogenesis. Of these, the MARVEL domain gene singles bar (sing), is down-regulated in MEF2 knockdown pupae, and has five consensus MEF2 binding sites within a 9000-bp region. To determine if MEF2 is an essential and direct regulator of sing during pupal muscle development, we identified a 315-bp myoblast enhancer of sing. This enhancer was active during myoblast fusion, and mutation of two MEF2 sites significantly decreased enhancer activity. We show that lack of sing expression resulted in adult lethality and muscle loss, due to a failure of fusion during the pupal stage. Additionally, we sought to determine if sing was required in either FCs or FCMs to support fusion. Interestingly, knockdown of sing in either population did not significantly affect fusion, however, knockdown in both FCs and FCMs resulted in muscles with significantly reduced nuclei numbers, provisionally indicating that sing function is required in either cell type, but not both. Finally, we found that MEF2 regulated sing expression at the embryonic stage through the same 315-bp enhancer, indicating that sing is a MEF2 target at both critical stages of myoblast fusion. Our studies define for the first time how MEF2 directly controls fusion at multiple stages of the life cycle, and provide further evidence that the mechanisms of fusion characterized in Drosophila embryos is also used in the formation of the more complex adult muscles.

  10. Changes in smoking-related norms in bars resulting from California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act.

    PubMed

    Satterlund, Travis D; Lee, Juliet P; Moore, Roland S

    2012-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act--CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)--was extended to bars in 1998. This article analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive observations and interviews with bar staff and patrons, health officials, and law enforcement personnel in three California counties. Smoking outside became a normal pause in the social environment and created a new type of bar socializing for outside smokers. Although some bar owners and staff reported initially resenting the responsibility to uphold the law, once norms regarding cigarettes and smoking began changing, bar workers experienced less conflict in upholding the law. Non-smoking behavior within bars also became the normative behavior for bar patrons. California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act has both reflected and encouraged normative beliefs and behaviors related to smoking in bars. The findings indicate that such shifts are possible even in contexts where smoking behaviors and attitudes supporting smoking were deeply entrenched. Recommendations include attending to the synergistic effect of education and policy in effective tobacco control programs.

  11. CULTURAL FACTORS RELATED TO SMOKING IN SAN FRANCISCO’S IRISH BARS

    PubMed Central

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Antin, Tamar M.J.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2009-01-01

    California’s Smoke-Free Workplace Act was extended to include bars in 1998. While the majority of bars in the state have become smoke free, in many bars patrons and staff continue to smoke despite the law. The authors present findings from a study which assessed cultural factors related to continued smoking in bars in the city of San Francisco. In bars serving primarily Irish migrants, tight-knit relations within the local Irish bar community together with a reluctance to be the first Irish bar to ban smoking were found to contribute to continued indoor smoking. The findings illustrate challenges to implementing tobacco control policies within ethnic subpopulations and particularly highlight the importance of considering how cultural dynamics within subpopulations may help or hinder such policies. PMID:19999704

  12. Changes of knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and preference of bar owner and staff in response to a smoke-free bar law

    PubMed Central

    Tang, H; Cowling, D; Stevens, C; Lloyd, J

    2004-01-01

    Design: Bar owners and staff were random selected and telephone interviewed in June 1998, shortly after a smoke-free bar law was enacted, and October 2002. Similar instruments were used in both surveys to collect data on attitudes related to secondhand smoke (SHS) and behaviours related to the smoke-free bar law. Participants: 651 and 650 respondents worked for either stand alone bars or combination bars. Measures: Preference of working in a smoke-free environment, concerns of the effect of SHS, and how to comply with the law. Results: The percentage of bar owners or staff working in stand alone bars who prefer to work in a smoke-free environment increased from 17.3% in 1998 to 50.9% in 2002 (p < 0.001). Significantly more respondents (45.5%) working in stand alone bars were concerned about the effects of SHS on their health, comparing to 21.6% in 1998 (p < 0.001). When patrons smoked in the bar, 82.1% of stand alone bar owners or staff in the 2002 survey would ask them to stop or to smoke outside, increased from only 43.0% in the 1998 survey (p < 0.001). Conclusion: A positive and significant attitudinal change related to the smoke-free bar law occurred among California bars. PMID:14985604

  13. Bar dimensions and bar shapes in estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuven, Jasper; Kleinhans, Maarten; Weisscher, Steven; van der Vegt, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Estuaries cause fascinating patterns of dynamic channels and shoals. Intertidal sandbars are valuable habitats, whilst channels provide access to harbors. We still lack a full explanation and classification scheme for the shapes and dimensions of bar patterns in natural estuaries, in contrast with bars in rivers. Analytical physics-based models suggest that bar length in estuaries increases with flow velocity, tidal excursion length or estuary width, depending on which model. However, these hypotheses were never validated for lack of data and experiments. We present a large dataset and determine the controls on bar shape and dimensions in estuaries, spanning bar lengths from centimeters (experiments) to 10s of kilometers length. First, we visually identified and classified 190 bars, measured their dimensions (width, length, height) and local braiding index. Data on estuarine geometry and tidal characteristics were obtained from governmental databases and literature on case studies. We found that many complex bars can be seen as simple elongated bars partly cut by mutually evasive ebb- and flood-dominated channels. Data analysis shows that bar dimensions scale with estuary dimensions, in particular estuary width. Breaking up the complex bars in simple bars greatly reduced scatter. Analytical bar theory overpredicts bar dimensions by an order of magnitude in case of small estuarine systems. Likewise, braiding index depends on local width-to-depth ratio, as was previously found for river systems. Our results suggest that estuary dimensions determine the order of magnitude of bar dimensions, while tidal characteristics modify this. We will continue to model bars numerically and experimentally. Our dataset on tidal bars enables future studies on the sedimentary architecture of geologically complex tidal deposits and enables studying effects of man-induced perturbations such as dredging and dumping on bar and channel patterns and habitats.

  14. Include Your Patrons in Web Design. Computers in Small Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Successful Web publishing requires not only technical skills but also a refined sense of taste, a good understanding of design, and strong writing abilities. When designing a library Web page, a person must possess all of these talents and be able to market to a broad spectrum of patrons. As a result, library sites vary widely in their style and…

  15. Training for Library Patrons Who Are Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Cordelia

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of library patrons are hard of hearing. The U.S. Bureau of Census projected that 35 million North Americans would suffer from hearing loss by the year 2005 based on the age-population projections. These individuals would have at one time been labeled as deaf due to the lack of assistive hearing technology such as hearing aids…

  16. RSS Made Easy with Engaged Patrons and Yahoo! Pipes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widner, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Jasper County Public Library in Indiana had started using EngagedPatrons.org (EP) in 2007. EP is a low-cost technology solution providing online events calendars, RSS feeds, database support, and other web services to connect libraries to their users. It was created in 2006 by Glenn Peterson, who also designs the feature-rich websites for…

  17. Method of transportation and drinking among club patrons

    PubMed Central

    Bourdeau, Beth; Miller, Brenda A.; Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The current study examines the variation in alcohol use among nightclub patrons under three transportation conditions: those who departed from a club using modes of transportation other than cars or motorcycles (e.g., pedestrians, bicyclists, subway riders); those who were passengers of drivers (auto/taxi passenger patrons); and those who drove from the club (driving patrons). We seek to determine whether patrons' choice for how to leave the club contributes to their risk, as assessed by blood alcohol concentrations (BAC), after controlling for other factors that may contribute to their BAC including demographic characteristics and social drinking group influences. Methods Data were collected from social drinking groups as they entered and exited clubs for 71 different evenings at ten clubs from 2010 through 2012. Using portal methodology, a research site was established proximal to club entrances. Each individual participant provided data on themselves and others in their group. The present analyses are based upon 1833 individuals who completed both entrance and exit data. Our outcome variable is blood alcohol content (BAC) based upon breath tests attained from patrons at entrance and exit from the club. Independent variables include method of transportation, social group characteristics, drug use, and personal characteristics. We use step-wise multiple regressions to predict entrance BAC, change in BAC from entrance to exit, and exit BAC: first entering individual demographic characteristics, then entering group characteristics, then drug use, and finally entering method of transportation (two dummy coded variables such that drivers are the referent category). Results In sum, in all three of our analyses, only three variables are consistently predictive of BAC: presence of a group member who is frequently drunk and non-driving modes of transportation, either being the passenger or taking alternate methods of transportation. In particular, taking an

  18. Use of a breathalyzer in a local bar: A community education project.

    PubMed

    Kerber, Cindy Sullivan; Schlenker, Emily

    2006-11-01

    In completing a faculty-assigned service-learning project, a group of nursing students sought to educate their peers and the public about the effects of alcohol consumption. Breathalyzer readings were obtained from 150 bar patrons and correlated with the number of drinks consumed and number of hours spent drinking. The results were used to educate bar patrons about the difference between how intoxicated they felt and their actual blood alcohol levels. The students also distributed information about substance abuse assistance and safe transportation home. This screening technique served as an application of secondary prevention principles for the nursing students. The project was considered innovative in that no similar study was found in the literature. Selected Healthy People 2010 goals were also addressed in this project. PMID:17120863

  19. Problem and pathological gambling in a sample of casino patrons.

    PubMed

    Fong, Timothy W; Campos, Michael D; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Davis, Alice; Marco, Adrienne; Pecanha, Viviane; Rosenthal, Richard J

    2011-03-01

    Relatively few studies have examined gambling problems among individuals in a casino setting. The current study sought to examine the prevalence of gambling problems among a sample of casino patrons and examine alcohol and tobacco use, health status, and quality of life by gambling problem status. To these ends, 176 casino patrons were recruited by going to a Southern California casino and requesting that they complete an anonymous survey. Results indicated the following lifetime rates for at-risk, problem, and pathological gambling: 29.2, 10.7, and 29.8%. Differences were found with regards to gambling behavior, and results indicated higher rates of smoking among individuals with gambling problems, but not higher rates of alcohol use. Self-rated quality of life was lower among pathological gamblers relative to non-problem gamblers, but did not differ from at-risk or problem gamblers. Although subject to some limitations, our data support the notion of higher frequency of gambling problems among casino patrons and may suggest the need for increased interventions for gambling problems on-site at casinos.

  20. The four bars problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauroy, Alexandre; Taslakian, Perouz; Langerman, Stefan; Jungers, Raphaël

    2016-09-01

    A four-bar linkage is a mechanism consisting of four rigid bars which are joined by their endpoints in a polygonal chain and which can rotate freely at the joints (or vertices). We assume that the linkage lies in the 2-dimensional plane so that one of the bars is held horizontally fixed. In this paper we consider the problem of reconfiguring a four-bar linkage using an operation called a pop. Given a four-bar linkage, a pop reflects a vertex across the line defined by its two adjacent vertices along the polygonal chain. Our main result shows that for certain conditions on the lengths of the bars, the neighborhood of any configuration that can be reached by smooth motion can also be reached by pops. The proof relies on the fact that pops are described by a map on the circle with an irrational number of rotation.

  1. Composite carrier bar device

    SciTech Connect

    Felder, D.W.

    1981-09-01

    A composite carrier bar is disclosed for oil well pumping units that utilize sucker rod to operate bottom hole pumps. The bar includes a recessed cavity for receiving a hydraulic ram to operate as a polish rod jack and also a secondary carrier bar for receiving a secondary polish rod clamp for use in respacing bottom hole pumps and serve as a safety clamp during operation.

  2. Bar Code Labels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

  3. Una técnica para filtrar patrones de fringing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrov, P. G.

    Se presenta una nueva técnica para filtrar los patrones de fringing producidos en los CCDs tipo RCA. El método consiste en construir un mapa con los ángulos de inclinación de las franjas en cada punto de la imagen. Este mapa es ulteriormente utilizado para alinear con el patrón de interferencia una ventana estrecha, sobre la que se aplica un filtro de mediana. Este procedimiento permite eliminar la mayor parte del ruido del patrón de fringing sin destruirlo.

  4. Considering FERPA Requirements for Library Patron Databases within a Consortial Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Astrid; Prosser, Eric; Chittenden, Lloyd

    2016-01-01

    This case study examines patron record privacy and the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) within a consortial environment. FERPA requirements were examined, as well as college and library policy and procedure. It was determined that information in library patron records is directory information and, under most circumstances, does…

  5. A Study of Information Used by Public Library Patrons To Select Videocassettes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Audrey L.

    A sample of 300 video patrons at the Grandview Heights Public Library (Ohio) was surveyed to determine what information they used from the videocassette container to make their selections. It was expected that knowing what patrons used could help in deciding how much information to enter in bibliographic records for videocassettes. The majority of…

  6. Patron Behavior Policies in the Public Library: "Kreimer v. Morristown" Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiszler, Robert W.

    1998-01-01

    The case of an indigent library patron recovering a judgment against a public library is used as a backdrop for discussing patron behavior policies in the public library. Highlights include First Amendment rights, the public library as an expressive forum, government rules, policy lessons from the case, and acceptable policies. (AEF)

  7. Patron Behavior in Libraries: A Handbook of Positive Approaches to Negative Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Beth; Johnson, Denise J.

    This book provides strategies for dealing with negative patron behavior in the library and presents guidelines for identifying and effectively responding to, as well as preventing a variety of behavior problems. Fifteen librarians wrote the thirteen chapters, which are divided into three sections. Part 1 deals with patrons who pose the most…

  8. Library Catalog Log Analysis in E-Book Patron-Driven Acquisitions (PDA): A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbano, Cristóbal; Zhang, Yin; Downey, Kay; Klingler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Patron-Driven Acquisitions (PDA) is a new model used for e-book acquisition by academic libraries. A key component of this model is to make records of ebooks available in a library catalog and let actual patron usage decide whether or not an item is purchased. However, there has been a lack of research examining the role of the library catalog as…

  9. Patron Contact Training: A Workshop for Personnel Who Meet the Public.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Wayne; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Presents a format for designing and running workshops to train personnel employed in positions of high customer contact, focusing on the practice of patron contact skills, i.e., communication with problem patrons. Describes opening exercises, attitude exploration, integration skills and attitudes, stress management, and evaluation. (WAS)

  10. Mass modeling for bars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1987-01-01

    Methods of modeling mass for bars are surveyed. A method for extending John Archer's concept of consistent mass beyond just translational inertia effects is included. Recommendations are given for various types of modeling situations.

  11. Short Nuss bar procedure

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Nuss procedure is now the preferred operation for surgical correction of pectus excavatum (PE). It is a minimally invasive technique, whereby one to three curved metal bars are inserted behind the sternum in order to push it into a normal position. The bars are left in situ for three years and then removed. This procedure significantly improves quality of life and, in most cases, also improves cardiac performance. Previously, the modified Ravitch procedure was used with resection of cartilage and the use of posterior support. This article details the new modified Nuss procedure, which requires the use of shorter bars than specified by the original technique. This technique facilitates the operation as the bar may be guided manually through the chest wall and no additional stabilizing sutures are necessary. PMID:27747185

  12. One year of smokefree bars and restaurants in New Zealand: Impacts and responses

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Background New Zealand introduced a smokefree bars and restaurants policy in December 2004. We reviewed the data available at December 2005 on the main public health, societal and political impacts and responses within New Zealand to the new law. Methods Data were collected from publicly available survey reports, and from government departments and interviews. This included data on smoking in bars, attitudes to smokefree bars, bar patronage, socially cued smoking, and perceived rights to smokefree workplaces. Results The proportion of surveyed bars with smoking occurring decreased from 95% to 3% during July 2004 – April 2005. Between 2004 and 2005, public support for smokefree bars rose from 56% to 69%. In the same period, support for the rights of bar workers to have smokefree workplaces rose from 81% to 91%. During the first ten months of the smokefree bars policy, there were only 196 complaints to officials about smoking in the over 9900 licensed premises. The proportion of smokers who reported that they smoked more than normal at bars, nightclubs, casinos and cafés halved between 2004 and 2005 (from 58% to 29%). Seasonally adjusted sales in bars and clubs changed little (0.6% increase) between the first three quarters of 2004 and of 2005, while café and restaurant sales increased by 9.3% in the same period. Both changes continued existing trends. Compared to the same period in 2004, average employment during the first three quarters of 2005 was up 24% for 'pubs, taverns and bars', up 9% for cafés/restaurants, and down 8% for clubs (though employment in 'pubs, taverns and bars' may have been affected by unusually high patronage around a major sports-series). The proportion of bar managers who approved of smokefree bars increased from 44% to 60% between November 2004 and May 2005. Bar managers also reported increased agreement with the rights of bar workers and patrons to smokefree environments. The main reported concerns of the national and regional

  13. [Patron saints and Christian perception of health and illness].

    PubMed

    Spehar, Milan

    2012-01-01

    As a religion based on the teaching of Jesus Christ, from the outset Christianity has developed a completely different attitude toward health and illness than the Old Testament. Health and illness are now viewed through the eyes of Jesus Christ the redeemer, who accepted each and every man. The history of Christianity has had its episodes of masochistic attitude toward illness, but today it clearly underscores the need to fight it with any means available, but it also teaches to accept what can not be changed. Saints are often patrons against diseases they had to endure. However, this is not their main role. To this day many seem to miss the main point their heritage, but see them as miracle healers. This misperception of miracle needs revising as well as the simplistic interpretation of the healing powers of relics (viewed as a demiurge of sort) and of the private vows and votive offerings. PMID:23560761

  14. [Neurohagiography. Lamberto Caesaraugustanus, the cephalophoric: holy patron of Spanish neurology?].

    PubMed

    Martín, A; Fernández-Armayor, V; Moreno, J M; Bustamante, C

    2002-10-01

    Until now Neurology has lacked a patron saint who, taking the most advantage of the rich cultural tradition inherited from our past and independently of the religious ideology of each one, can be helpful approach in the neurologist figure to different people. An Ad Hoc Committee from the Neurology History Study Group of the SEN has researched the medical hagiography with any kind of neurological relationship (neurohagiography), in order to make a hagiography study of every saint related to our speciality, with the added luck of proposing a patron for Neurology with hispanic origin. In this pioneer study of historiographic research different documents related with the medical hagiography have been studied, especially the Index ac Status Causarum, and information coming from different national ecclesiastic archives. A total of 342 saints share the patronage of 137 diseases, of which a 27,7% are related in some way to Neurology. Headache constitutes the prime cause of the invocations, with 20 saints. Another 11 saints plead for epilepsy; to these we also must add another six for so called possessed patients. Therefore, two of the three main causes of invocation (headache, fever and epilepsy) come up to chronic processes. Of all the saints with a hispanic origin candidates to the patronage of the neurologists San Lamberto Caesaraugustanus stands out, who died in the year 303 during Diocletian persecution. Belonging to the selected standing of "cephalophoric martyrs" (those beheahed who carry their own head in their hands), he was able to walk an important distance (about six kilometres) with his head split from the body, a fact only understood as a suprahuman phenomenon thanks to which he has becomes the brain transplant pioneer.

  15. Giving Economically Disadvantaged, Minority Food Pantry Patrons' a Voice: Implications for Equitable Access to Sufficient, Nutritious Food.

    PubMed

    Greer, Anna E; Cross-Denny, Bronwyn; McCabe, Michelle; Castrogivanni, Brianna

    2016-01-01

    This study provides economically disadvantaged, minority food pantry patrons (hereafter, patrons) a meaning-ful voice by examining their experiences trying to obtain sufficient, nutritious food. Five focus groups were conducted using a semistructured discussion guide. Atlast.ti software was used to manage and analyze the data. Patrons reported that pantry staff who preserved their dignity by showing compassion were highly valued. Stigma and shame associated with pantry use were major concerns. Patrons suggested environmental and policy changes to improve their food acquisition experiences. These findings suggest that multilevel interventions addressing food access, food distribution policies, and patron-staff interactions are warranted.

  16. [Epilepsy, eponyms and patron saints (history of Western civilization)].

    PubMed

    Janković, S M; Sokić, D V; Lević, Z M; Susić, V; Stojsavljević, N; Drulović, J

    1996-01-01

    From a historic point of view, epilepsy and its eponyms were in an ontogenetic symbiosis throughout their history. Epilepsy is a disease with a history of eponyms presenting the frame of mind of both streetwise as well as skilled "authors" about its origin and nature. From ancient times the names for epilepsy, archetypal Hippocratic disease, just as rich in number as varied in their implication, reflected the local folkways of thinking. In this article we briefly presented more than 50 eponyms and patrons of epilepsy. As the source of information we used both the apocryphal, canonical and hagiographic as well as heretic literature, legends and iconography from the Middle Ages of domestic and foreign origin. Pre- and post-Hippocratic era, apart from stemming from the oldest written medical sources, point to the position that the disease had organic origin located in the brain. The period of Rome adopted the attitudes set by Galen which remained en vogue throughout the emerging Middle Ages and Renaissance. These eras generated new eponyms which reflected a downfall in the manor, stating that the disease is the consequence of supernatural forces. In the "Age of darkness" eponyms for epilepsy reflected more the relation of men to the Nature than to the disease or a sick man; this is evidenced through the generation of number of patrons for the disease. The most famous patron of patients with epilepsy was St. Valentine (after conversion from pagandom he died in Rome as a martyr, c. 270). He was allotted a patronage either due to the phonic resemblance of his name with the (past participle of the) verb "fallen"-as Martin Luther claimed, or due to a cure of epilepsy of the son of a Roman rhetor who built for him a chapel in which he continued to cure the sick. The emergence of a flamboyant personality of Paracelsus on the historic scene of the XVI century represents a less successful attempt to revoke the way of thinking set by the old Greek doctors; however, it brought

  17. CHALLENGES TO IMPLEMENTING AND ENFORCING CALIFORNIA’S SMOKE-FREE WORKPLACE ACT IN BARS

    PubMed Central

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.; Antin, Tamar M.J.

    2009-01-01

    California’s 1995 Smoke-Free Workplace Act—Assembly Bill 13 (AB 13)—was extended to bars in 1998. This paper examines the challenges faced by officials responsible for implementing and enforcing the law. As part of a series of studies evaluating AB 13 in bars, researchers conducted confidential in-depth interviews with 35 state, county and municipal authorities and representatives of non-governmental agencies. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded and analyzed by themes and respondent categories. Data from structured observations in sampled bars and interviews with bar staff and patrons offer contextual information. Analyses indicated the following challenges: 1) an ineffective administrative structure, 2) problems associated with the complaint-driven system used to enforce the law, 3) lack of funding for enforcement, 4) low prioritization of enforcement, and 5) the minimal deterrence effect of the sanctioning penalties. The findings indicate why indoor smoking may continue in some bars despite the state law prohibiting smoking in workplaces. Many municipalities, states and countries may be considering restricting smoking in workplaces including bars, and our findings show that clear delineation of procedures and enforcement criteria, as well as funding and substantive penalties, should be considered in drafting these laws. PMID:20161559

  18. Toll Bar on Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Dave

    2008-01-01

    In the summer of 2007 the United Kingdom experienced some of the heaviest rainfall since records began. Toll Bar in South Yorkshire featured prominently in media coverage as the village and the homes surrounding it began to flood. Many people lost everything: their homes, their furniture, their possessions. In an effort to come to terms with what…

  19. BARS/SSC/SPHINX

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, W. )

    1993-06-06

    BARS is a program which allows retrieval of information from suitable bibliographic databases. Two databases are included, SSC and SPHINX, which together list bibliographic information for some 12,000 references related to the fields of shock compression of condensed media, high rate deformation of solids, and detonation.

  20. BARS/SSC/SPHINX

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, W. )

    1993-06-06

    BARS is a program which allows retrieval of information from suitable bibliographic databases. Two databases are included, SSC and SPHINX, which together list bibliographic information for some 12,000 references related to the fields of shoch compression of condensed media, high rate deformation of solids, and detonation.

  1. Frederick, Duke of York (1763-1827) - Medical Patron.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Margaret

    2015-08-01

    Frederick, Duke of York, was the hardest working prince of his day. He was Commander-in-Chief of the British Army for almost the entire period of the French revolutionary and Napoleonic wars and he used his position to implement important reforms to benefit the health of troops. He encouraged hygiene initiatives and improved medical treatment, steadily seeking to enhance the quality of medical officers and facilities. Frederick was particularly involved in the spread of vaccination, authorising the very earliest clinical trials of the process and doing all he could to promote the practice. He also played an active role in the fight to prevent and treat the ophthalmia that was decimating the British Army. As the favourite son of George III and ultimately his carer, he developed an interest in mental health and he sponsored the pioneering work of Alexander Morison (1779-1866) to expand understanding of the subject. Although not a medical man himself, Frederick was one of the most important patrons of the day and his efforts were the key to enabling others to make important advances that saved thousands of lives.

  2. Frederick, Duke of York (1763-1827) - Medical Patron.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Margaret

    2015-08-01

    Frederick, Duke of York, was the hardest working prince of his day. He was Commander-in-Chief of the British Army for almost the entire period of the French revolutionary and Napoleonic wars and he used his position to implement important reforms to benefit the health of troops. He encouraged hygiene initiatives and improved medical treatment, steadily seeking to enhance the quality of medical officers and facilities. Frederick was particularly involved in the spread of vaccination, authorising the very earliest clinical trials of the process and doing all he could to promote the practice. He also played an active role in the fight to prevent and treat the ophthalmia that was decimating the British Army. As the favourite son of George III and ultimately his carer, he developed an interest in mental health and he sponsored the pioneering work of Alexander Morison (1779-1866) to expand understanding of the subject. Although not a medical man himself, Frederick was one of the most important patrons of the day and his efforts were the key to enabling others to make important advances that saved thousands of lives. PMID:26025844

  3. Measurements of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar and vertical bar Vub vertical bar at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Rotondo, M.

    2005-10-12

    We report results from the BABAR Collaboration on the semileptonic B decays, highlighting the measurements of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements Vub and Vcb. We describe the techniques used to obtain the matrix element |Vcb| using the measurement of the inclusive B {yields} Xclv process and a large sample of exclusive B {yields} D*lv decays. The vertical bar Vub vertical bar matrix elements has been measured studying different kinematic variables of the B {yields} Xulv process, and also with the exclusive reconstruction of B {yields} {pi}({rho})lv decays.

  4. Dark Matter Trapping by Stellar Bars: The Shadow Bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Michael S.; Weinberg, Martin D.; Katz, Neal

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the complex interactions between the stellar disc and the dark-matter halo during bar formation and evolution using N-body simulations with fine temporal resolution and optimally chosen spatial resolution. We find that the forming stellar bar traps dark matter in the vicinity of the stellar bar into bar-supporting orbits. We call this feature the shadow bar. The shadow bar modifies both the location and magnitude of the angular momentum transfer between the disc and dark matter halo and adds 10 per cent to the mass of the stellar bar over 4 Gyr. The shadow bar is potentially observable by its density and velocity signature in spheroid stars and by direct dark matter detection experiments. Numerical tests demonstrate that the shadow bar can diminish the rate of angular momentum transport from the bar to the dark matter halo by more than a factor of three over the rate predicted by dynamical friction with an untrapped dark halo, and thus provides a possible physical explanation for the observed prevalence of fast bars in nature.

  5. Social Branding to Decrease Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Young Adult Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Fallin, Amanda; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals are more likely to smoke than the general population. This study evaluated a Social Branding intervention, CRUSH, which included an aspirational brand, social events, and targeted media to discourage smoking among LGBT young adults in Las Vegas, NV. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys (N = 2,395) were collected in Las Vegas LGBT bars at 2 time points 1 year apart. Multivariate logistic regressions examined associations between campaign exposure, message understanding, and current (past 30 days) smoking, controlling for demographics. Results: LGBT individuals were significantly more likely to report current (past 30 day) smoking than heterosexual/straight, gender-conforming participants. Overall, 53% of respondents reported exposure to CRUSH; of those exposed, 60% liked the campaign, 60.3% reported they would attend a CRUSH event on a night when they usually went somewhere else, and 86.3% correctly identified that the campaign was about “partying fresh and smokefree.” Current smoking was reported by 47% of respondents at Time 1 and 39.6% at Time 2. There were significant interactions between time and campaign exposure and campaign exposure and understanding the message. Among those who understood the CRUSH smokefree message, the highest level of campaign exposure was significantly associated with 37%–48% lower odds for current smoking. Conclusions: While longitudinal studies would better assess the impact of this intervention, CRUSH shows promise to reduce tobacco use among LGBT bar patrons. PMID:26180223

  6. Gender-based violence, alcohol use, and sexual risk among female patrons of drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree

    2013-06-01

    Gender-based violence is a well-recognized risk factor for HIV infection among women. Alcohol use is associated with both gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior, but has not been examined as a correlate of both in a context of both high HIV risk and hazardous drinking. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between recent abuse by a sex partner with alcohol and sexual risk behavior among female patrons of alcohol serving venues in South Africa. Specifically, the aim of this study is to determine whether sexual risk behaviors are associated with gender-based violence after controlling for levels of alcohol use. We surveyed 1,388 women attending informal drinking establishments in Cape Town, South Africa to assess recent history of gender-based violence, drinking, and sexual risk behaviors. Gender-based violence was associated with both drinking and sexual risk behaviors after controlling for demographics among the women. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for alcohol use sexual risk behavior remained significantly associated with gender-based violence, particularly with meeting a new sex partner at the bar, recent STI diagnosis, and engaging in transactional sex, but not protected intercourse or number of partners. In South Africa where heavy drinking is prevalent women may be at particular risk of physical abuse from intimate partners as well as higher sexual risk. Interventions that aim to reduce gender-based violence and sexual risk behaviors must directly work to reduce drinking behavior.

  7. Breaking through the Bar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Katti

    2011-01-01

    Howard University School of Law had a problem, and school officials knew it. Over a 20-year period, 40 percent of its graduates who took the Maryland bar exam failed it on their first try. During the next 24 months--the time frame required to determine its "eventual pass rate"--almost 90 percent of the students did pass. What they did not know was…

  8. Bar coded retroreflective target

    SciTech Connect

    Vann, C.S.

    2000-01-25

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  9. Bar coded retroreflective target

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    2000-01-01

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  10. Correlates of Concurrent Energy Drink and Alcohol Use among Socially Active Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Brooke E.; Kelly, Brian C.; Pawson, Mark; LeClair, Amy; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Golub, Sarit A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Research indicates that energy drink consumption and the combined use of energy drinks and alcohol are popular among young adults, although this research has typically focused on college students. Because of the potential for harms associated with this combination, it is critical to understand use among adults in nightlife scenes who may be most at risk for harms associated with combined energy drink and alcohol consumption. Objectives By focusing our sample on individuals in a range of nightlife scenes, we aim to gain a deeper understanding of the demographic factors associated with energy drink use and combined energy drink and alcohol consumption to benefit the targeting of intervention and prevention efforts beyond college campuses. Methods Using a field-based survey in New York City to survey adults active in various nightlife scenes, this study reports on the survey results of 1476 venue patrons at venues in five nightlife scenes in addition to college bar scenes Results Men, younger individuals, Latinos, and sexual minority individuals reported higher prevalence of recent energy drink consumption. Younger individuals, men, and those recruited in gay venues reported higher prevalence of combining alcohol and energy drinks. Conclusion These findings provide information useful to target education and prevention efforts. They also suggest the need for additional research to understand differences in motivations for use and in the behavioral and alcohol-related outcomes associated with consuming energy drinks and combining them with alcohol. PMID:23030475

  11. New Roads for Patron-Driven E-Books: Collection Development and Technical Services Implications of a Patron-Driven Acquisitions Pilot at Rutgers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Fino, Melissa; Lo, Mei Ling

    2011-01-01

    Collection development librarians have long struggled to meet user demands for new titles. Too often, required resources are not purchased, whereas some purchased resources do not circulate. E-books selected through patron-driven plans are a solution but present new challenges for both selectors and catalogers. Radical changes to traditional…

  12. State and local law enforcement agency efforts to prevent sales to obviously intoxicated patrons.

    PubMed

    Lenk, Kathleen M; Toomey, Traci L; Nelson, Toben F; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Erickson, Darin J

    2014-04-01

    Alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons are illegal and may lead to public health issues such as traffic crashes and violence. Over the past several decades, considerable effort has been made to reduce alcohol sales to underage persons but less attention has been given to the issue of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons. Studies have found a high likelihood of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons (i.e., overservice), but little is known about efforts by enforcement agencies to reduce these sales. We conducted a survey of statewide alcohol enforcement agencies and local law enforcement agencies across the US to assess their strategies for enforcing laws prohibiting alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons at licensed alcohol establishments. We randomly sampled 1,631 local agencies (1,082 participated), and surveyed all 49 statewide agencies that conduct alcohol enforcement. Sales to obviously intoxicated patrons were reported to be somewhat or very common in their jurisdiction by 55 % of local agencies and 90 % of state agencies. Twenty percent of local and 60 % of state agencies reported conducting enforcement efforts to reduce sales to obviously intoxicated patrons in the past year. Among these agencies, fewer than half used specific enforcement strategies on at least a monthly basis to prevent overservice of alcohol. Among local agencies, enforcement efforts were more common among agencies that had a full-time officer specifically assigned to carry out alcohol enforcement efforts. Enforcement of laws prohibiting alcohol sales to obviously intoxicated patrons is an underutilized strategy to reduce alcohol-related problems, especially among local law enforcement agencies.

  13. Reference Services for the Adult Learner: Challenging Issues for the Traditional and Technological Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkodie-Mensah, Kwasi, Ed.

    This book offers approaches for teaching adult patrons how and where to find information in libraries and through information services. It includes 34 papers, organized in seven sections, expressing the views of faculty, adult students, and administrators as well as librarians on theories of educational psychology that explain how adults learn.…

  14. Making the Connection: Some People, Programs and Ideas Highlighted by Adult Learners Week 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John; Della, Jennie

    This document profiles selected people, programs, and ideas highlighted by Australia's Adult Learners Week 2001 and begins with these papers: "Adult Learners Week: A National Celebration" (Ned Dennis); "A Message from the Adult Learners Week Patron" (Peter Hollingworth); "A Message of Support from the Prime Minister of Australia" (John Howard);…

  15. Raising the Bar: A Qualitative Study of Adult Learning Theory and Its Role on the Effectiveness of Law School Education in Preparing New Graduates to Begin the Practice of Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bryan Finley

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research study examined the effectiveness of law school education in preparing new attorneys to practice law from the view point of novice criminal law attorneys. A debate has existed over the past few decades between legal academia and the practicing bar as to what are the most effective learning processes and strategies of…

  16. Tobacco related bar promotions: insights from tobacco industry documents

    PubMed Central

    Katz, S; Lavack, A

    2002-01-01

    Design: Over 2000 tobacco industry documents available as a result of the Master Settlement Agreement were reviewed on the internet at several key web sites using keyword searches that included "bar", "night", "pub", "party", and "club". The majority of the documents deal with the US market, with a minor emphasis on Canadian and overseas markets. Results: The documents indicate that bar promotions are important for creating and maintaining brand image, and are generally targeted at a young adult audience. Several measures of the success of these promotions are used, including number of individuals exposed to the promotion, number of promotional items given away, and increased sales of a particular brand during and after the promotion. Conclusion: Bar promotions position cigarettes as being part of a glamorous lifestyle that includes attendance at nightclubs and bars, and appear to be highly successful in increasing sales of particular brands. PMID:11893819

  17. Beyond Hopkinson's bar.

    PubMed

    Pierron, F; Zhu, H; Siviour, C

    2014-08-28

    In order to perform experimental identification of high strain rate material models, engineers have only a very limited toolbox based on test procedures developed decades ago. The best example is the so-called split Hopkinson pressure bar based on the bar concept introduced 100 years ago by Bertram Hopkinson to measure blast pulses. The recent advent of full-field deformation measurements using imaging techniques has allowed novel approaches to be developed and exciting new testing procedures to be imagined for the first time. One can use this full-field information in conjunction with efficient numerical inverse identification tools such as the virtual fields method (VFM) to identify material parameters at high rates. The underpinning novelty is to exploit the inertial effects developed in high strain rate loading. This paper presents results from a new inertial impact test to obtain stress-strain curves at high strain rates (here, up to 3000 s(-1)). A quasi-isotropic composite specimen is equipped with a grid and images are recorded with the new HPV-X camera from Shimadzu at 5 Mfps and the SIMX16 camera from Specialised Imaging at 1 Mfps. Deformation, strain and acceleration fields are then input into the VFM to identify the stiffness parameters with unprecedented quality.

  18. Bar piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    PubMed

    Erhart, Jiří; Pulpan, Půlpán; Rusin, Luboš

    2013-07-01

    Bar-shaped piezoelectric ceramic transformers (PTs) working in the longitudinal vibration mode (k31 mode) were studied. Two types of the transformer were designed--one with the electrode divided into two segments of different length, and one with the electrodes divided into three symmetrical segments. Parameters of studied transformers such as efficiency, transformation ratio, and input and output impedances were measured. An analytical model was developed for PT parameter calculation for both two- and three-segment PTs. Neither type of bar PT exhibited very high efficiency (maximum 72% for three-segment PT design) at a relatively high transformation ratio (it is 4 for two-segment PT and 2 for three-segment PT at the fundamental resonance mode). The optimum resistive loads were 20 and 10 kΩ for two- and three-segment PT designs for the fundamental resonance, respectively, and about one order of magnitude smaller for the higher overtone (i.e., 2 kΩ and 500 Ω, respectively). The no-load transformation ratio was less than 27 (maximum for two-segment electrode PT design). The optimum input electrode aspect ratios (0.48 for three-segment PT and 0.63 for two-segment PT) were calculated numerically under no-load conditions.

  19. Stellar bar in NGC 1068

    SciTech Connect

    Scoville, N.Z.; Matthews, K.; Carico, D.P.; Sanders, D.B.

    1988-04-01

    High-resolution 2-micron mapping of the inner disk of NGC 1068 reveals a bar extending to + or - 16 arcsec from the nucleus at position angle 48 deg. The stellar mass distribution, presumably traced by the near-infrared light, is therefore strongly nonaxisymmetric with a contrast of approximately 3:1 between the major and minor axes of the bar. This large-scale galactic structure is probably responsible for the concentration of molecular clouds in a ring just outside the bar. The massive bar may also drive noncircular motions in the inner disk of the galaxy as possibly seen in the gaseous emission lines. 21 references.

  20. Let's Go to the Mall: Thinking outside the Neighborhood Branch, Libraries in Malls Make for Happy Partnerships and Patrons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankinship, Donna Gordon

    2005-01-01

    Branches in shopping malls help build community by attracting new patrons to the library. They help libraries offer exciting new venues with a retail-like approach and raise awareness of the work libraries are doing. In some cases, though not at Glendale, the library is more cost-effective owing to the smaller space used to serve patrons. These…

  1. Using the Contingent Valuation Method To Measure Patron Benefits of Reference Desk Service in an Academic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harless, David W.; Allen, Frank R.

    1999-01-01

    Describes use of the contingent valuation method, a survey technique, to estimate the economic value that patrons attached to reference-desk service in the Virginia Commonwealth University library. Argues that the appropriate measure of patron benefit from reference service includes use value and option value. (Author/LRW)

  2. PATRON: Using a Multimedia Digital Library for Learning and Teaching in the Performing Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Elizabeth

    The creation and application of a multimedia digital library to support learning and teaching in the performing arts is described. PATRON (Performing Arts Teaching Resources Online) delivers audio, video, music scores, dance notation, and theater scripts to the desktop via an innovative Web-based interface. Digital objects are linked subjectively…

  3. Developing an Interlibrary Loan Borrowing Policy for Evergreen Valley College Library Patrons. Governance and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehlmann, Ruth I.

    The increased use of interlibrary loan (ILL) services at the Evergreen Valley College (EVC) library which resulted from joining OCLC automated Interlibrary Loan subsystem in 1979 led to the development of an Interlibrary Loan Borrowing Policy by the EVC library staff. The policy is designed to explain to library patrons the limitations on…

  4. Remote Dial-In Patron Access to CD-ROM LANs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, Howard

    1990-01-01

    Examines technical and support issues that impact on libraries' decisions to provide patrons with remote communication access to CD-ROM local area networks. Areas discussed include licensing costs for CD-ROM, remote control communications software, dedicated hardware, system maintenance, computer security, and the provision of quality, user…

  5. The Role of the African Media in Patron-Client Relations: A Preliminary Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Jo Ellen

    Noting the many difficulties in conceptualizing and analyzing development communication, this paper enriches the concept by linking it with a particular form of political, economic, and social organization common to many developing nations--the patron-client network. After a brief review of relevant communication and political science literature…

  6. An Evaluation of Patron Perceptions of Library Space Using the Role Repertory Grid Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potthoff, Joy K.; Weis, David L.; Montanelli, Dale S.; Murbach, Matthew M.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the Role Repertory Grid Procedure, a technique derived from personal construct theory, for its practicality and validity as a way of gathering patron perceptions about the effectiveness and efficiency of academic library space. Concludes that further research regarding validity and reliability is needed. (Author/LRW)

  7. Factors Influencing Virtual Patron Satisfaction with Online Library Resources and Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Katherine; Hastings, Nancy B.

    2011-01-01

    College students are accessing virtual libraries whether they are on campus or learning from a distance. Academic institutions serving virtual patrons must remain focused on meeting the needs of those library users by continually examining their preferences, their searching behavior, and the information they seek. The purpose of this research was…

  8. Factors Influencing Virtual Patron Satisfaction with Online Library Resources and Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Katherine Mary

    2010-01-01

    College students are accessing virtual libraries whether they are on campus or learning from a distance. Academic institutions serving virtual patrons must remain focused on meeting the needs of those library users by continually examining their preferences, their searching behavior, and the information they seek. The purpose of this research was…

  9. The Secret to Patron-Centered Web Design: Cheap, Easy, and Powerful Usability Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Erica

    2008-01-01

    When the Johnson County Library (JoCo Library), a midsize suburban public library in Kansas City, Kansas, completely rebuilt its 2,000-plus-page website--one that had remained relatively stable for almost 5 years--the reaction from patrons and staff members was overwhelmingly positive. The web development team at the JoCo Library realized that the…

  10. Creating the User-Friendly Library by Evaluating Patron Perception of Signage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosman, Ellen; Rusinek, Carol

    1997-01-01

    Librarians at Indiana University Northwest Library surveyed patrons on how to make the library's collection and services more accessible by improving signage. Examines the effectiveness of signage to instruct users, reduce difficulties and fears, ameliorate negative experiences, and contribute to a user-friendly environment. (AEF)

  11. Helping Patrons Find Locally Held Electronic Resources: An Interlibrary Loan Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The University of North Texas Libraries provide extensive online access to academic journals through major vendor databases. As illustrated by interlibrary loan borrowing requests for items held in our databases, patrons often have difficulty navigating the available resources. In this study, the Interlibrary Loan staff used data gathered from the…

  12. Connecting the Library's Patron Database to Campus Administrative Software: Simplifying the Library's Accounts Receivable Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Astrid; Dahlquist, Janet; Tankersley, Jan; Emrich, Beth

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the processes that occurred when the Library, Controller's Office, and Information Technology Department agreed to create an interface between the Library's Innovative Interfaces patron database and campus administrative software, Banner, using file transfer protocol, in an effort to streamline the Library's accounts…

  13. How We Renovated Our Library, Physically and Electronically, for Handicapped Patrons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Cheryl H.; Morgan, Catherine Buck

    2001-01-01

    Describes methods used by the South Carolina State Library to make its library, both the workstations and the Web site, more accessible to visually and physically handicapped patrons. Discusses choosing new hardware and software, renovating the workstations, and becoming more aware of user needs; and lists resources for Web accessibility…

  14. Anonymous Library Cards Allow You to Wonder, "Who Was That Masked Patron?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrowsky, Ben

    2005-01-01

    Like the Lone Ranger's mask, a good information retention policy can safeguard personal identity information. Librarians want to be sure that patrons will return what they borrow, and they want statistics that quantify the library's value to its community. Librarians also want to protect customers' privacy; they usually don't keep personally…

  15. Gender-based Violence, Alcohol use, and Sexual Risk Among Female Patrons of Drinking Venues in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Eaton, Lisa A.; Cain, Demetria; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H.; Pieterse, Desiree

    2013-01-01

    Gender-based violence is a well-recognized risk factor for HIV infection among women. Alcohol use is associated with both gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior, but has not been examined as a correlate of both in a context of both high HIV risk and hazardous drinking. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between recent abuse by a sex partner with alcohol and sexual risk behavior among female patrons of alcohol serving venues in South Africa. Specifically, the aim of this study is to determine whether sexual risk behaviors are associated with gender-based violence after controlling for levels of alcohol use. We surveyed 1,388 women attending informal drinking establishments in Cape Town, South Africa to assess recent history of gender-based violence, drinking, and sexual risk behaviors. Gender-based violence was associated with both drinking and sexual risk behaviors after controlling for demographics among the women. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for alcohol use sexual risk behavior remained significantly associated with gender-based violence, particularly with meeting a new sex partner at the bar, recent STI diagnosis, and engaging in transactional sex, but not protected intercourse or number of partners. In South Africa where heavy drinking is prevalent women may be at particular risk of physical abuse from intimate partners as well as higher sexual risk. Interventions that aim to reduce gender-based violence and sexual risk behaviors must directly work to reduce drinking behavior. PMID:22526526

  16. 'Light bar' attitude indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enevoldson, E. K.; Horton, V. W.

    1982-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a light bar attitude indicator to help maintain proper aircraft attitude during high altitude night flying is described. A standard four-inch ADI was modified to project an artificial horizon across the instrument panel for pitch and roll information. A light bulb was put in the center of the ADI and a thin slit cut on the horizon, resulting in a thin horizontal sheet of light projecting from the instrument. The intensity of the projected beam is such that it can only be seen in a darkened room or at night. The beam on the instrument panel of the T-37 jet trainer is shown, depicting various attitudes. The favorable comments of about 50 pilots who evaluated the instrument are summarized, including recommendations for improving the instrument. Possible uses for the instrument to ease the pilot task are listed. Two potential problems in using the device are the development of pilot complacency and an upright-inverted ambiguity in the instrument.

  17. Signalling with a cryptic trait: the regularity of barred plumage in common waxbills.

    PubMed

    Marques, Cristiana I J; Batalha, Helena R; Cardoso, Gonçalo C

    2016-05-01

    Sexual signals often compromise camouflage because of their conspicuousness. Pigmentation patterns, on the contrary, aid in camouflage. It was hypothesized that a particular type of pattern-barred plumage in birds, whereby pigmented bars extend across feathers-could simultaneously signal individual quality, because disruptions of these patterns should be perceptually salient at close range and help assess plumage condition. Here we show that common waxbills (Estrilda astrild), which have extensive barred plumage, have more regular patterns as adults than as juveniles, and that adult males have more regular patterns than females. Both these differences are indicative of sexual signalling in species with conventional sex roles. More regular barred plumage was related to better body condition in adult males. Colour ornamentation traits were also related to aspects of quality, either the same as barred plumage (body condition) or a different one (good feather development), supporting both the 'redundant message' and the 'multiple message' hypotheses for the coexistence of multiple sexual signals. Although receiver responses to the regularity of barred plumage were not studied here, research on other species has shown that barred plumage can mediate social interactions. We conclude that using barred plumage as a signal of quality helps circumvent the functional compromise between camouflage and communication. PMID:27293800

  18. Signalling with a cryptic trait: the regularity of barred plumage in common waxbills

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Cristiana I. J.; Batalha, Helena R.; Cardoso, Gonçalo C.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual signals often compromise camouflage because of their conspicuousness. Pigmentation patterns, on the contrary, aid in camouflage. It was hypothesized that a particular type of pattern—barred plumage in birds, whereby pigmented bars extend across feathers—could simultaneously signal individual quality, because disruptions of these patterns should be perceptually salient at close range and help assess plumage condition. Here we show that common waxbills (Estrilda astrild), which have extensive barred plumage, have more regular patterns as adults than as juveniles, and that adult males have more regular patterns than females. Both these differences are indicative of sexual signalling in species with conventional sex roles. More regular barred plumage was related to better body condition in adult males. Colour ornamentation traits were also related to aspects of quality, either the same as barred plumage (body condition) or a different one (good feather development), supporting both the ‘redundant message’ and the ‘multiple message’ hypotheses for the coexistence of multiple sexual signals. Although receiver responses to the regularity of barred plumage were not studied here, research on other species has shown that barred plumage can mediate social interactions. We conclude that using barred plumage as a signal of quality helps circumvent the functional compromise between camouflage and communication. PMID:27293800

  19. Longshore Bars and Bragg Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, C. C.; Hara, T.; Yu, J.

    Longshore bars are often found on many gently sloping beaches of large lakes, bays and sea coasts. A beautiful example can be seen in Fig. 20.1 which gives the aerial view of the Escambia Bay in Florida. Several other typical observations are summarized in Table 20.1. In contrast to bars found in rivers where the flows are essentially unidirectional and characterized by very long time scales (see Chap. 15), coastal bars are usually the products of waves. Of scientific interests are the detailed physics of their generation by waves, as well as their influence on the propagation of waves.

  20. Legislation reduces exposure to second‐hand tobacco smoke in New Zealand bars by about 90%

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Dinusha; Fowles, Jefferson; Woodward, Alistair; Christophersen, Annemarie; Dickson, Stuart; Hosking, Matthew; Berezowski, Richard; Lea, Rod A

    2007-01-01

    Aim To measure exposure to second‐hand smoke (SHS) in New Zealand bars before and after comprehensive smoke‐free legislation enacted on 10 December 2004. Methods Cotinine is the main specific metabolite of nicotine and a well‐established biomarker for SHS exposure. We measured cotinine levels in saliva of non‐smoking volunteers before and after a 3 h visit to 30 randomly selected bars in 3 cities across the country. Two measures of cotinine before the smoke‐free law change during winter and spring 2004, and two follow‐up measurements in the same volunteers and venues during winter and spring 2005, were included. Results Before the smoke‐free law change, in all bars and in all volunteers, exposure to SHS was evident with an average increase in saliva cotinine of 0.66 ng/ml (SE 0.03 ng/ml). Increases in cotinine correlated strongly with the volunteers' subjective observation of ventilation, air quality and counts of lit cigarettes. However, even venues that were judged to be “seemingly smoke free” with “good ventilation” produced discernable levels of SHS exposure. After the law change, there remained some exposure to SHS, but at much lower levels (mean saliva cotinine increase of 0.08 ng/ml, SE 0.01 ng/ml). Smoking indoors in bars was almost totally eliminated: in 2005 only one lit cigarette was observed in 30 visits. Conclusions Comprehensive smoke‐free legislation in New Zealand seems to have reduced exposure of bar patrons to SHS by about 90%. Residual exposures to SHS in bars do not result from illicit smoking indoors. PMID:17652238

  1. Triple bar, high efficiency mechanical sealer

    DOEpatents

    Pak, Donald J.; Hawkins, Samantha A.; Young, John E.

    2013-03-19

    A clamp with a bottom clamp bar that has a planar upper surface is provided. The clamp may also include a top clamp bar connected to the bottom clamp bar, and a pressure distribution bar between the top clamp bar and the bottom clamp bar. The pressure distribution bar may have a planar lower surface in facing relation to the upper surface of the bottom clamp bar. An object is capable of being disposed in a clamping region between the upper surface and the lower surface. The width of the planar lower surface may be less than the width of the upper surface within the clamping region. Also, the pressure distribution bar may be capable of being urged away from the top clamp bar and towards the bottom clamp bar.

  2. Property Control through Bar Coding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingma, Gerben J.

    1984-01-01

    A public utility company uses laser wands to read bar-coded labels on furniture and equipment. The system allows an 80 percent savings of the time required to create reports for inventory control. (MLF)

  3. Nanoporosity of Si (100) bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, S. N.; Timoshenkov, S. P.; Minaev, V. S.; Goryunova, E. P.; Gerasimenko, N. N.; Smirnov, D. I.

    2016-09-01

    Si(100) samples cut from a typical bar (100 mm in diameter) prepared using industrial technology are studied. Measurements of the electron work function (EWF) show that the size effects in these samples (a reduction in thickness along with a sample's area and the EWF) detected earlier were due to nanostructure porosity that was buried by the technological treatment of a bar's surface. This hidden nanoporosity is assumed to be a manifestation of the secondary crystal structure.

  4. Bar Formation from Galaxy Flybys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Lang, Meagan; Sinha, Manodeep

    2016-05-01

    Both simulations and observations reveal that flybys—fast, one-time interactions between two galaxy halos—are surprisingly common, comparable to galaxy mergers. Since these are rapid, transient events with the closest approach well outside the galaxy disk, it is unclear if flybys can transform the galaxy in a lasting way. We conduct collisionless N-body simulations of three coplanar flyby interactions between pure-disk galaxies to take a first look at the effects flybys have on disk structure, with particular focus on stellar bar formation. We find that some flybys are capable of inciting a bar; bars form in both galaxies during our 1:1 interaction and in the secondary during our 10:1 interaction. The bars formed have ellipticities >0.5, sizes on the order of the scale length of the disk, and persist to the end of our simulations, ~5 Gyr after pericenter. The ability of flybys to incite bar formation implies that many processes associated with secular bar evolution may be more closely tied with flyby interactions than previously thought.

  5. Maximal dismounts from high bar.

    PubMed

    Hiley, Michael J; Yeadon, Maurice R

    2005-11-01

    In men's artistic gymnastics the triple straight somersault dismount from the high bar has yet to be performed in competition. The present study used a simulation model of a gymnast and the high bar apparatus (J. Appl. Biomech. 19(2003a) 119) to determine whether a gymnast could produce the required angular momentum and flight to complete a triple straight somersault dismount. Optimisations were carried out to maximise the margin for error in timing the bar release for a given number of straight somersaults in flight. The amount of rotation potential (number of straight somersaults) the model could produce whilst maintaining a realistic margin for error was determined. A simulation model of aerial movement (J. Biomech.23 (1990) 85) was used to find what would be possible with this amount of rotation potential. The model was able to produce sufficient angular momentum and time in the air to complete a triple straight somersault dismount. The margin for error when releasing the bar using the optimum technique was 28 ms, which is small when compared with the mean margin for error determined for high bar finalists at the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games (55 ms). Although the triple straight somersault dismount is theoretically possible, it would require close to maximum effort and precise timing of the release from the bar. However, when the model was required to have a realistic margin for error, it was able to produce sufficient angular momentum for a double twisting triple somersault dismount. PMID:16154409

  6. BAR FORMATION FROM GALAXY FLYBYS

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, Meagan; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Sinha, Manodeep E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu

    2014-08-01

    Recently, both simulations and observations have revealed that flybys—fast, one-time interactions between two galaxy halos—are surprisingly common, nearing/comparable to galaxy mergers. Since these are rapid, transient events with the closest approach well outside the galaxy disk, it is unclear if flybys can transform the galaxy in a lasting way. We conduct collisionless N-body simulations of three coplanar flyby interactions between pure-disk galaxies to take a first look at the effects flybys have on disk structure, with particular focus on stellar bar formation. We find that some flybys are capable of inciting a bar with bars forming in both galaxies during our 1:1 interaction and in the secondary during our 10:1 interaction. The bars formed have ellipticities ≳ 0.5, sizes on the order of the host disk's scale length, and persist to the end of our simulations, ∼5 Gyr after pericenter. The ability of flybys to incite bar formation implies that many processes associated with secular bar evolution may be more closely tied with interactions than previously thought.

  7. Nonformal and Informal Adult Learning in Museums: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudzinska-Przesmitzki, Dana; Grenier, Robin S.

    2008-01-01

    The taking up of an "educative" mantle has proven to be a complex task for museums, filled with many unknown and/or misunderstood factors. Of the vast assortment of educational opportunities museums afford their adult patrons and staff, the majority fall into one or two learning categories: either they are nonformal or informal. In effort to…

  8. Avoiding DWI Among Bar-room Drinkers: Strategies and Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Caudill, Barry D.; Rogers, John W.; Howard, Jan; Frissell, Kevin C.; Harding, Wayne M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the prevalence and predictors of 11strategies to avoid driving when feeling intoxicated among 561 bar-room patrons in two medium-sized Maryland communities. Logistic regression analyses identified demographic, behavioral, and attitudinal predictors of avoidance strategies and interactions among predictors. Overall, 89% reported one or more DWI avoidance actions in the past year, and 38% reported driving intoxicated during that time. Average frequencies of avoidance behavior and intoxicated driving increased significantly as drinking level increased. However, the higher the drinking level, the smaller the ratio of avoidance actions to DWI experiences, highlighting the vulnerability of heavy drinkers who had driven intoxicated. Using a sober driver or one who allegedly drank less than the respondent were the most popular and frequent strategies, but paying for a cab, walking, and using a bus or free cab were relatively unpopular. Higher drinking levels predicted significantly higher odds of using avoidance approaches, as did intoxicated driving. Confidence in driving safely when intoxicated was positively related to drinking level and intoxicated driving, but it tended to predict lower odds of avoidance actions. Similarly, marital status, age, gender, and location influenced the odds of avoidance behaviors. Interventions should be strategically tailored to exploit or counter drinker predilections among avoidance options. PMID:22879742

  9. The Virtual Naval Hospital: the digital library as knowledge management tool for nomadic patrons*

    PubMed Central

    D'Alessandro, Michael P.; D'Alessandro, Donna M.; Bakalar, Richard S.; Ashley, Denis E.; Hendrix, Mary J. C.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To meet the information needs of isolated primary care providers and their patients in the US Navy, a digital health sciences library, the Virtual Naval Hospital, was created through a unique partnership between academia and government. Methods: The creation of the digital library was heavily influenced by the principles of user-centered design and made allowances for the nomadic nature of the digital library's patrons and the heterogeneous access they have to Internet bandwidth. Results: The result is a digital library that has been in operation since 1997, continues to expand in size, is heavily used, and is highly regarded by its patrons. Conclusions: The digital library is dedicated to delivering the right information at the right time to the right person so the right decision can be made, and therefore the Virtual Naval Hospital functions as a knowledge-management system for the US Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery. PMID:15685269

  10. Drunken Environments: A Survey of Bartenders Working in Pubs, Bars and Nightclubs

    PubMed Central

    Tutenges, Sébastien; Bøgkjær, Trine; Witte, Maj; Hesse, Morten

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that bartenders play a key role in respect of the health and safety of patrons in nightlife environments. However, little is known of how bartenders themselves are affected by the environments in which they work, especially with regard to their exposure to violence, pressure to drink and stress. We used a cross-sectional survey to assess the experiences of bartenders (n = 424) working in pubs, bars and nightclubs in Denmark. 71% of the respondents reported drinking while working, 6% reported using other drugs than alcohol at work, and 33% reported drinking even when they did not feel like it because of pressure to drink at work. Verbal assaults and threats were common and associated with higher levels of perceived stress. Bartenders’ work environment poses a risk for the development of alcohol use disorders. The fact that many bartenders consume significant quantities of alcohol during their working hours may pose a risk not only to their own safety, but also to that of their colleagues and patrons. PMID:24157511

  11. Making licensed venues safer for patrons: what environmental factors should be the focus of interventions?

    PubMed

    Homel, Ross; Carvolth, Russell; Hauritz, Marge; McIlwain, Gillian; Teague, Rosie

    2004-03-01

    The Queensland Safety Action Projects operationalized a problem-focused responsive regulatory model in order to make nightclubs and other venues safer. A problem-focused approach requires a careful analysis of the total environment of licensed venues, including drinking and its controls but also the social and physical environments, patron mix and management practices. We present new analyses of observational data collected in 1994 and 1996 in the north Queensland cities of Cairns, Townsville and Mackay. Major reductions in aggression and violence were observed, as well as improvements in many aspects of the venue environment and management practices. We do not argue in this paper that the interventions caused the environmental and management changes, although we believe this to be true. Rather, our assumption is that whatever caused them, some of the environmental and management changes were critical to the reductions in aggression. Regression techniques were used to identify those factors that best explained the declines in aggression. For reduced physical violence four key predictors were identified: improved comfort, availability of public transport, less overt sexual activity and fewer highly drunk men. For reduced non-physical aggression, four key predictors were: fewer Pacific Islander patrons, less male swearing, fewer intoxicated patrons requiring that management be called and more chairs with armrests. The analyses are consistent with the argument that the control of drinking is necessary but not sufficient to reduce aggression and violence.

  12. Estimating the Number of HIV-infected gay sauna patrons in Taipei area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Ying-Hen; Chen, Cathy W. S.; Lee, Shen-Ming; Chen, Yi-Ming A.; Wu, Shiow-Ing; Lai, Shu-Fen; Chang, An-Lung

    2006-04-01

    We make use of the voluntary HIV and syphilis test results conducted at five gay saunas in Taipei from August of 1999 to end of 2002 to estimate the number of HIV-positive gay saunas patrons in Taipei area by utilizing Hierarchical Bayes method in Generalized Removal Model for Open Populations (GERMO). Considering the effect of a nearby anonymous HIV quick test program on the gay sauna HIV serotesting data, we make use of the association between HIV and syphilis serotesting results from the gay sauna program to amend possible measurement error occurred at the time of data collection by utilizing the regression calibration method. The median estimates for the number of HIV-positive patrons of the five gay saunas increase from 120 (95% CI: 76.5-159.0) during the first half of 2000 to 224 (95% CI: 171.0-265.5) for the second half of 2002. The result, indicating two-fold increase within two and half years, confirms that the gay sauna patrons in Taipei area are at high risk for HIV infection.

  13. Gay bathhouse HIV prevention: the use of staff monitoring of patron sexual behavior

    PubMed Central

    Woods, William J.; Sheon, Nicolas; Morris, Joseph A.; Binson, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Many HIV prevention interventions have been launched in gay bathhouses and sex clubs since the onset of the AIDS epidemic, such as condom distribution and HIV testing. Perhaps none of these are as intrusive to the venue's environment as what is called "monitoring," which involves staff, during every shift, repeatedly walking throughout the public areas of a bathhouse to check on patrons' sexual behavior. Yet, monitoring has received little evaluation. Between 2002 and 2004, we conducted qualitative interviews with venue managers, staff and patrons in New York City, Los Angeles, and the San Francisco Bay Area. An analysis found that monitoring was influenced by the kinds of space available for sex, suggesting three approaches to monitoring: 1) monitoring all sex in clubs that only had public areas where men had sex ; 2) monitoring some sex in clubs with private rooms for sex; and 3) no monitoring of sex, regardless of the kinds of space for sex. This paper explores each approach as described by club managers, staff, and patrons to understand the potential effectiveness of monitoring as an HIV prevention intervention. PMID:24044008

  14. High Tobacco Use among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Populations in West Virginian Bars and Community Festivals

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joseph G. L.; Goldstein, Adam O.; Ranney, Leah M.; Crist, Jeff; McCullough, Anna

    2011-01-01

    With no information on tobacco use for lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) populations in West Virginia (WV), it is unclear if nationally-identified LGB tobacco disparities also exist in this State. To address this data gap, we conducted a community tobacco survey in bars and events associated with the WV Pride Parade and Festival. Trained community surveyors used electronic and paper survey instruments in bars (n = 6) in three WV cities and community events associated with the WV Pride Parade and Festival. We analyzed results from 386 completed surveys from self-identified LGB individuals. Tobacco use among LGB bar patrons and LGB attendees at Pride-affiliated events was elevated (45%), as was current cigarette use (41%). Users of cigars and chewing tobacco were frequently dual users of cigarettes, with 80% and 60% reporting dual use, respectively. A substantial disparity likely exists in tobacco use among LGB West Virginians. Targeted interventions addressing tobacco use among LGB West Virginians are warranted in these venues, and the addition of a demographic question on sexual orientation would improve data collection and monitoring of this disparity. PMID:21845157

  15. High tobacco use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations in West Virginian bars and community festivals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joseph G L; Goldstein, Adam O; Ranney, Leah M; Crist, Jeff; McCullough, Anna

    2011-07-01

    With no information on tobacco use for lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) populations in West Virginia (WV), it is unclear if nationally-identified LGB tobacco disparities also exist in this State. To address this data gap, we conducted a community tobacco survey in bars and events associated with the WV Pride Parade and Festival. Trained community surveyors used electronic and paper survey instruments in bars (n = 6) in three WV cities and community events associated with the WV Pride Parade and Festival. We analyzed results from 386 completed surveys from self-identified LGB individuals. Tobacco use among LGB bar patrons and LGB attendees at Pride-affiliated events was elevated (45%), as was current cigarette use (41%). Users of cigars and chewing tobacco were frequently dual users of cigarettes, with 80% and 60% reporting dual use, respectively. A substantial disparity likely exists in tobacco use among LGB West Virginians. Targeted interventions addressing tobacco use among LGB West Virginians are warranted in these venues, and the addition of a demographic question on sexual orientation would improve data collection and monitoring of this disparity.

  16. High tobacco use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations in West Virginian bars and community festivals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joseph G L; Goldstein, Adam O; Ranney, Leah M; Crist, Jeff; McCullough, Anna

    2011-07-01

    With no information on tobacco use for lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) populations in West Virginia (WV), it is unclear if nationally-identified LGB tobacco disparities also exist in this State. To address this data gap, we conducted a community tobacco survey in bars and events associated with the WV Pride Parade and Festival. Trained community surveyors used electronic and paper survey instruments in bars (n = 6) in three WV cities and community events associated with the WV Pride Parade and Festival. We analyzed results from 386 completed surveys from self-identified LGB individuals. Tobacco use among LGB bar patrons and LGB attendees at Pride-affiliated events was elevated (45%), as was current cigarette use (41%). Users of cigars and chewing tobacco were frequently dual users of cigarettes, with 80% and 60% reporting dual use, respectively. A substantial disparity likely exists in tobacco use among LGB West Virginians. Targeted interventions addressing tobacco use among LGB West Virginians are warranted in these venues, and the addition of a demographic question on sexual orientation would improve data collection and monitoring of this disparity. PMID:21845157

  17. Comparison of drugs used by nightclub patrons and criminal offenders in Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Hallvard; Nordfjærn, Trond; Bretteville-Jensen, Anne Line; Edland-Gryt, Marit; Furuhaugen, Håvard; Karinen, Ritva; Øiestad, Elisabeth L

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate psychoactive drug use among nightclub patrons by analysing samples of oral fluid and compare with findings in blood samples from criminal suspects. We hypothesized that the profile of illicit drug use among nightclub patrons is different from what we observe in those forensic cases. Research stations were established outside nine popular nightclubs with different profiles and patron-characteristics in downtown Oslo. Data and sample collection was conducted on Fridays and Saturdays in March and May 2014. Individuals and groups who entered defined recruitment zones from 23:00 to 03:30 were invited to participate in this voluntary and anonymous study. Oral fluid was collected using the Intercept Oral Fluid Sampling Device. Methanol was added to increase the recovery of cannabinoids from the device. Sample preparation was performed using liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate/heptane (4:1) after adding internal standards, ammonium carbonate buffer pH 9.3 and Triton X100. The first 80 samples were analysed for 122 substances, which included psychoactive medicinal drugs, classical illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances (NPS). Based on the findings and discussions with police and customs authorities, the remaining oral fluid samples were analysed for 46 substances. Among the 500 samples collected during the study period, we found illicit drugs in 25.4% and medicinal drugs in 4.2% of the samples. The most prevalent substances were: cocaine 14.6%, THC 12.4%, amphetamine/methamphetamine 2.8%, diazepam 1.2% and clonazepam 1.0%. Various NPS were found in 1.4% of the samples. The prevalence of drugs in blood samples from criminal suspects were for cocaine 3.4%, THC 34.7%, amphetamine/methamphetamine 37.0%, diazepam 12.0%, and clonazepam 29.3%. Multi-drug use was more common among criminal suspects (41.3%) than among club patrons (6.8%). The results showed that the drug use pattern among nightclub patrons was substantially

  18. BARS/SSC/SPHINX. BARS Bibliographic Data Retrieval System

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, W.

    1993-05-01

    BARS is a program which allows retrieval of information from suitable bibliographic databases. Two databases are included, SSC and SPHINX, which together list bibliographic information for some 12,000 references related to the fields of shock compression of condensed media, high rate deformation of solids, and detonation.

  19. BARS/SSC/SPHINX. BARS Bibliographic Data Retrieval System

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, W.

    1993-06-06

    BARS is a program which allows retrieval of information from suitable bibliographic databases. Two databases are included, SSC and SPHINX, which together list bibliographic information for some 12,000 references related to the fields of shock compression of condensed media, high rate deformation of solids, and detonation.

  20. Bar-spheroid interaction in galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernquist, Lars; Weinberg, Martin D.

    1992-01-01

    N-body simulation and linear analysis is employed to investigate the secular evolution of barred galaxies, with emphasis on the interaction between bars and spheroidal components of galaxies. This interaction is argued to drive secular transfer of angular momentum from bars to spheroids, primarily through resonant coupling. A moderately strong bar, having mass within corotation about 0.3 times the enclosed spheroid mass, is predicted to shed all its angular momentum typically in less than about 10 exp 9 yr. Even shorter depletion time scales are found for relatively more massive bars. It is suggested either that spheroids around barred galaxies are structured so as to inhibit strong coupling with bars, or that bars can form by unknown processes long after disks are established. The present models reinforce the notion that bars can drive secular evolution in galaxies.

  1. Microlensing by the galactic bar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Hongsheng; Spergel, David N.; Rich, R. Michael

    1995-01-01

    We compute the optical depth and duration distribution of microlensing events towrd Baade's window in a model composed of a Galactic disk and a bar. The bar model is a self-consistent dynamical model built out of individual orbits that has been populated to be consistent with the COBE maps of the Galaxy and kinematic observations of the Galactic bulge. We find that most of the lenses are in the bulge with a line-of-sight distance 6.25 kpc (adopting R(sub 0) = 8 kpc). The microlensing optical depth of a 2 x 10(exp 10) solar mass bar plus a truncated disk is (2.2 +/- 0.45) x 10(exp -6), consistent with the large optical depth (3.2 +/- 1.2) x 10(exp -6) found by Udalski et al. (1994). This model optical depth is enhanced over the predictions of axisymmetric models by Kiraga & Paczynski (1994) by slightly more than a factor of 2, since the bar is elongated along the line of sight. The large Einstein radius and small transverse velocity dispersion also predict a longer event duration in the self-consistent bar model than in the Kiraga-Paczynski model. The event rate and duration distribution also depend on the lower mass cutoff of the lens mass function. With a 0.1 solar mass cutoff, five to seven events (depending on the contribution of disk lenses) with a logarithmic mean duration of 20 days are expected for the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) according to our model, while Udalski et al. (1994) observed nine events with durations from 8 to 62 days. On the other hand, if most of the lenses are brown dwarfs, our model predicts too many short-duration events. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test finds only 7% probability for the model with 0.01 solar mass cutoff to be consistent with current data.

  2. Effect of bars on the galaxy properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, Matias; Alonso, Sol; Coldwell, Georgina

    2016-10-01

    Aims: With the aim of assessing the effects of bars on disk galaxy properties, we present an analysis of different characteristics of spiral galaxies with strong bars, weak bars and without bars. Methods: We identified barred galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). By visual inspection of SDSS images we classified the face-on spiral galaxies brighter than g< 16.5 mag into strong-bar, weak-bar, and unbarred galaxies. With the goal of providing an appropriate quantification of the influence of bars on galaxy properties, we also constructed a suitable control sample of unbarred galaxies with similar redshifts, magnitudes, morphology, bulge sizes, and local density environment distributions to those of barred galaxies. Results: We found 522 strong-barred and 770 weak-barred galaxies; this represents a bar fraction of 25.82% with respect to the full sample of spiral galaxies, in good agreement with several previous studies. We also found that strong-barred galaxies show lower efficiency in star formation activity and older stellar populations (as derived with the Dn(4000) spectral index) with respect to weak-barred and unbarred spirals from the control sample. In addition, there is a significant excess of strong-barred galaxies with red colors. The color-color and color-magnitude diagrams show that unbarred and weak-barred galaxies are more extended towards the blue zone, while strong-barred disk objects are mostly grouped in the red region. Strong-barred galaxies present an important excess of high metallicity values compared to unbarred and weak-barred disk objects, which show similar distributions. Regarding the mass-metallicity relation, we found that weak-barred and unbarred galaxies are fitted by similar curves, while strong-barred ones show a curve that falls abruptly with more significance in the range of low stellar masses (log (M∗/M⊙) < 10.0). These results would indicate that prominent bars produced an accelerating effect on the gas processing

  3. Comparison of patrons of hotels with early opening and standard hours.

    PubMed

    Smith, D I

    1986-02-01

    A comparison was made of 72 men who were patrons in hotels with 6 A.M. or 7 A.M. opening, with a control group of 87 men interviewed in nearby hotels with 10 A.M. opening. The two groups were very similar on biographical characteristics, yet the men in the early-opening group consumed significantly more alcohol, had more drinking sessions, spent longer in drinking, and had significantly higher SMAST scores. The early opening was apparently facilitating problem drinking.

  4. Galaxy Zoo: Observing secular evolution through bars

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Edmond; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.; Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Melvin, Thomas; Bell, Eric F.; Lintott, Chris; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A.; Willett, Kyle W.

    2013-12-20

    In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR) and bulge prominence. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall (strong) bar fraction of 23.6% ± 0.4%, of which 1154 barred galaxies also have bar length (BL) measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in galaxy evolution. We find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anticorrelated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. We find that the trends of bar likelihood and BL with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR. We interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution that include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. We suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks, a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. We interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as being due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1).

  5. Bar Coding and Tracking in Pathology.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Matthew G; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2015-06-01

    Bar coding and specimen tracking are intricately linked to pathology workflow and efficiency. In the pathology laboratory, bar coding facilitates many laboratory practices, including specimen tracking, automation, and quality management. Data obtained from bar coding can be used to identify, locate, standardize, and audit specimens to achieve maximal laboratory efficiency and patient safety. Variables that need to be considered when implementing and maintaining a bar coding and tracking system include assets to be labeled, bar code symbologies, hardware, software, workflow, and laboratory and information technology infrastructure as well as interoperability with the laboratory information system. This article addresses these issues, primarily focusing on surgical pathology.

  6. The Effect of Spatial Arrangement, Upper-Lower Case Letter Combinations, and Reverse Video on Patron Response to CRT Displayed Catalog Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryser, Benjamin S.; Stirling, Keith H.

    1984-01-01

    Library patrons evaluated two versions of a bibliographic record displayed on cathode ray tube terminal, one representing Library of Congress (LC) format, the other, one of 15 format variations. Patrons generally preferred side heading label and underlining to LC forms, and upper and lower case letters to lower case only. (EJS)

  7. Recruiting Disadvantaged Adults. Public Library Training Institutes Library Service Guide No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyster, George W.

    Disadvantaged adults who need the information a library can provide include those who are poor, in the minority, aging, institutionalized, or handicapped. Methods used to recruit these potential patrons may include the media, mailings, exhibits, posters and billboards, personal contact, classes, bookmobiles, speakers, and advisory committees. Some…

  8. [Nutritional characteristics of cereal and peanut bars].

    PubMed

    Escobar, B; Estévez, A M; Tepper, A; Aguayo, M

    1998-06-01

    Snack with good nutritional value could play an important role in the physical and mental development of children and teenagers since they show a great preference for them. The tendency is increasing their nutritional value by supplying proteins, carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and minerals in a balanced form. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the chemical, sensorial and nutritional quality of cereal and peanut bars. Three types of bars using different ratios of oat, wheat germ, peanut, toasted and expanded amaranthus and wheat extrudate were prepared. Bars proximate composition was determined according the AOAC methods, and their acceptability according Hedonic Scale. In the biological assays, rats fed with 10% protein diets, were used to obtain the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) Net Protein Ratio (NPR) and Apparent Digestibility (AD). Corrected PER, relative PER, relative AD, PER and NPR values did not showed difference between bars CM1 and CM2 (PER: 2.59-2.57; NPR: 3.99-3.95 respectively); CM3 bar showed a lower quality. There were not differences among bars in relation to AD. CM1 and CM2 bars had a better biological quality of the protein being CM3 bar of lower quality. From a chemical and sensorial point of view CM1 bar shows the highest protein content (14.23%) and acceptability (6.8) and CM2 bar shows a high raw fiber content (2.27%). PMID:9830492

  9. Electrostatic precipatator construction having ladder bar spacers

    SciTech Connect

    Jonelis, J.A.

    1984-10-30

    The present invention relates to an improved construction for an electrostatic precipitator having ladder bar spacers. The electrostatic precipitator collects solid particles carried by a flue gas from a source of combustion. The precipitator includes a plurality of spaced plates for collecting solid particles from the flue gas by electrostatic attraction of the solid particles to the plates. A second plurality of elongated electrodes is positioned among the plates. Each of the electrodes is mounted between a pair of adjacent plates. Each of the electrodes is parallel to the other electrodes and is parallel to the plates. A third plurality of ladder bars is positioned between adjacent plates to hold the plates in a flat attitude and to maintain adjacent surfaces of adjacent plates substantially equidistantly spaced from one another. Each of the ladder bars has a connector bar secured to one of the pair of adjacent surfaces. Each of the ladder bars has a fourth plurality of holder bars. Each of the holder bars having one end connected to its respective connector bar and extending outwardly from the connector bar toward the other of the pair of adjacent surfaces. A contact on the other end of each holder bar engages the other of the pair of adjacent surfaces to hold the pair of adjacent surfaces apart.

  10. Healthy Family 2009: Practicing Healthy Adult Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Practicing Healthy Adult Living Past Issues / Winter ... diabetes, or if heart disease runs in your family, begin checking cholesterol at age 20. Colorectal Cancer : ...

  11. ON THE FRACTION OF BARRED SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Preethi B.; Abraham, Roberto G. E-mail: abraham@astro.utoronto.c

    2010-05-10

    We investigate the stellar masses of strongly barred spiral galaxies. Our analysis is based on a sample of {approx}14,000 visually classified nearby galaxies given by Nair and Abraham. The fraction of barred spiral galaxies is found to be a strong function of stellar mass and star formation history, with a minimum near the characteristic mass at which bimodality is seen in the stellar populations of galaxies. We also find that bar fractions are very sensitive to the central concentration of galaxies below the transition mass but not above it. This suggests that whatever process is causing the creation of the red and blue sequences is either influencing, or being influenced by, structural changes which manifest themselves in the absence of bars. As a consequence of strong bar fractions being sensitive to the mass range probed, our analysis helps resolve discrepant results on the reported evolution of bar fractions with redshift.

  12. Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.

    1986-03-01

    KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase 1 Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs. Today's economic scenario indicates that optimization of volume reduction operation procedures could significantly reduce waste management costs, especially where burial penalties have become more severe. As a reaction to the economic burden imposed by final disposal, many nuclear plants are currently modifying their design and operating philosophies concerning liquid radwaste processing systems to meet stricter environmental regulations, and to derive potential economic benefits by reducing the ever-increasing volumes of wastes that are produced. To effect these changes, innovative practices in waste management and more efficient processing technologies are being successfully implemented.

  13. Supporting Individual Library Patrons with Information Technologies: Emerging One-to-One Library Services on the College or University Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, John J., III; Hafner, Arthur W.

    2002-01-01

    Describes business techniques for mass marketing, where information technologies are used to target discrete individuals or groups and promote customer interaction. Considers the applicability of business concepts to academic library service, including uniquely identifying patrons, issues of privacy, focusing on the most valuable library services,…

  14. Give 'Em What They Want: A One-Year Study of Unmediated Patron-Driven Acquisition of e-Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karen S.; Wright, Michael; Clatanoff, Kathleen; Barton, Hope; Shreeves, Edward

    2012-01-01

    In September 2009, the University of Iowa Libraries embarked on an experiment with patron-driven acquisition (PDA) of e-books with ebrary and YBP. An e-book-only PDA plan was initiated, entirely unmediated and with instantaneous access to the content. MARC records were loaded for each title, determined by our YBP approval profile and other…

  15. 25 CFR 543.14 - What are the minimum internal control standards for patron deposit accounts and cashless systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for patron deposit accounts and cashless systems? 543.14 Section 543.14 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.14 What are the minimum internal...

  16. The Effects of Reference Librarians' Nonverbal Communications on the Patrons' Perceptions of the Library, Librarians, and Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVore-Chew, Marynelle; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experiment that examined the effect of nonverbal communication conveyed by touch, forward lean, and smile combined with the effect of gender on patrons perceptions of the library, librarians, and themselves. Possible reasons for the lack of correlation among these factors are discussed and the questionnaire used is appended. (35…

  17. Procedures to Follow if a Law Enforcement Official Asks for Patron Information: A Checklist for Access Services Student Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Brice; Byrne, Tim; Miller, Ann; Riberdy, Michael; Williams, Curt

    2004-01-01

    Since the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act was signed into law in October, 2001, library administrators have become increasingly concerned that staff-especially student employees-continue to protect the confidentiality of patron records. Administrators have also become increasingly concerned that when law enforcement officials provide paperwork giving them…

  18. "Hack" Is Not A Dirty Word--The Tenth Anniversary of Patron Access Microcomputer Centers in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Patrick R.

    1986-01-01

    The history of patron access microcomputers in libraries is described as carrying on a tradition that information and computer power should be shared. Questions that all types of libraries need to ask in planning microcomputer centers are considered and several model centers are described. (EM)

  19. Sex work and its associations with alcohol and methamphetamine use among female bar and spa workers in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Urada, Lianne A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Morisky, Donald E; Schilling, Robert F; Simbulan, Nymia P; Estacio, Leonardo R; Raj, Anita

    2014-03-01

    To assess the prevalence of sex work and its associations with substance use among female bar/spa workers in the Philippines (N = 498), workers from 54 bar or spa venues in Metro Manila (2009-2010) were surveyed on demographics, drug/alcohol use, abuse history, and sex work. Their median age was 23 years and 35% engaged in sex work. Sex work was independently associated with methamphetamine use (19% vs 4%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-6.2), alcohol use with patrons (49% vs. 27%; AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.4), and alcohol intoxication during sex (50% vs. 24%; AOR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2-3.5), but inversely associated with daily alcohol use (13% vs. 16%; AOR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1-0.5). Additional significant covariates included sexual abuse history, younger age, and not having a higher education. Findings suggest that interventions with sex workers in bars and spas should focus on methamphetamine use, alcohol use contexts, and violence victimization, to better meet the needs of this population.

  20. P{bar P} collider physics

    SciTech Connect

    Demarteau, M.

    1992-04-01

    A brief introduction to {bar p}p collider physics is given. Selected results from the collider experiments at the CERN S{bar p}pS and the Tevatron collider are described. The emphasis is on experimental aspects of {bar p}p collisions. Minimum bias physics and the production of jets, Intermediate Vector Bosons and heavy flavors is reviewed. The outlook for physics at hadron colliders for the near future is briefly discussed.

  1. {bar K}-NUCLEAR Deeply Bound States?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, Avraham

    Following the prediction by Akaishi and Yamazaki of relatively narrow {bar K}-nuclear states, deeply bound by over 100 MeV where the main decay channel {bar K} N -> π Σ is closed, several experimental signals in stopped K- reactions on light nuclei have been interpreted recently as due to such states. In this talk I review (i) the evidence from K--atom data for a deep bar K-nucleus potential, as attractive as V{bar K}(ρ 0) ˜ -(150 - 200) MeV at nuclear matter density, that could support such states; and (ii) the theoretical arguments for a shallow potential, V{bar K}(ρ 0) ˜ -(40 - 60) MeV. I then review a recent work by Mareš, Friedman and Gal in which {bar K}-nuclear bound states are generated dynamically across the periodic table, using a RMF Lagrangian that couples the {bar K} to the scalar and vector meson fields mediating the nuclear interactions. The reduced phase space available for {bar K} absorption from these bound states is taken into account by adding a density- and energy-dependent imaginary term, underlying the corresponding {bar K}-nuclear level widths, with a strength constrained by K--atom fits. Substantial polarization of the core nucleus is found for light nuclei, with central nuclear densities enhanced by almost a factor of two. The binding energies and widths calculated in this dynamical model differ appreciably from those calculated for a static nucleus. These calculations provide a lower limit of Γ {bar K} ˜ 50 ± 10 MeV on the width of nuclear bound states for {bar K} binding energy in the range B{bar K} = 100 - 200 MeV.

  2. Bar Impact Tests on Alumina (AD995)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazamias, James U.; Reinhart, William D.; Konrad, Carl H.; Chhabildas, Lalit C.; Bless, Stephan J.

    2002-07-01

    Dynamic strength may be inferred from bar impact tests, although interpretation of the data is affected by the time-to-failure of the target bar. To clarify the mechanics, tests with graded density impactors were conducted on bare and confined bars, 12 and 19 mm in diameter, cut from blocks of AD995 alumina. Manganin gauge and VISAR diagnostics were employed. Larger rods displayed higher strength. In some tests the "true" yield stress of ˜4.5 GPa was achieved.

  3. DO BARS DRIVE SPIRAL DENSITY WAVES?

    SciTech Connect

    Buta, Ronald J.; Knapen, Johan H.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Salo, Heikki; Laurikainen, Eija; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Puerari, Ivanio; Block, David L. E-mail: jhk@iac.es E-mail: hsalo@sun3.oulu.fi E-mail: elmegreen@vassar.edu E-mail: David.Block@wits.ac.za

    2009-05-15

    We present deep near-infrared K{sub s} -band Anglo-Australian Telescope Infrared Imager and Spectrograph observations of a selected sample of nearby barred spiral galaxies, including some with the strongest known bars. The sample covers a range of Hubble types from SB0{sup -} to SBc. The goal is to determine if the torque strengths of the spirals correlate with those of the bars, which might be expected if the bars actually drive the spirals as has been predicted by theoretical studies. This issue has implications for interpreting bar and spiral fractions at high redshift. Analysis of previous samples suggested that such a correlation exists in the near-infrared, where effects of extinction and star formation are less important. However, the earlier samples had only a few excessively strong bars. Our new sample largely confirms our previous studies, but still any correlation is relatively weak. We find two galaxies, NGC 7513 and UGC 10862, where there is only a weak spiral in the presence of a very strong bar. We suggest that some spirals probably are driven by their bars at the same pattern speed, but that this may be only when the bar is growing or if there is abundant gas and dissipation.

  4. Basic physics of xylophone and marimba bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suits, B. H.

    2001-07-01

    The frequency-dependent wave velocity and nonsinusoidal spatial dependence found for transverse waves in finite vibrating bars stands in stark contrast to the solutions to the one-dimensional wave equation, for example for the idealized vibrating string. The difference is particularly important when the resulting vibrations are used to produce music. Here, the appropriate approximate equations for transverse vibrations on a uniform bar are developed and compared to measurements using wooden bars. The results are extended using a simple finite element model to provide a means to predict normal mode behavior in nonuniform wooden bars such as those used for xylophones, marimbas, and related musical instruments.

  5. Dynamical mechanisms supporting barred-spiral structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsis, P. A.

    We review some recent results of the orbital theory, related with the dynamics of barred-spiral galaxies. The method we use is to study the responses of stellar and gaseous disks when time-independent, external potentials are imposed. These potentials are directly estimated from near-infrared images of disk galaxies. The goal of the work is to detect dynamical mechanisms that reinforce the bars and the spirals in realistic systems. Besides the known mechanism for building bars by quasiperiodic orbits trapped around stable orbits of the {xx} family, we find cases where bars can be supported, to a large extent, by chaotic orbits. These bars are of the ``ansae'' type and their effective potentials are characterized by multiple Lagrangian points roughly along the major axis of the bar. On the other hand the spirals are supported mainly by chaotic orbits and extend usually beyond corotation. We find that the spirals and the outer parts of the bars share the same orbital content. However, we have found also barred-spiral systems with spirals inside corotation, consisting mainly by chaotic orbits. Finally we indicate, that in barred-spiral systems with different pattern speeds for the two components, the dynamics of the spirals can be similar to the dynamics of the spirals of normal spiral galaxies.

  6. Adherence to the Tobacco Control Act, 2007: presence of a workplace policy on tobacco use in bars and restaurants in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, K J; Ayah, R; Olewe, T

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite extensive knowledge about effective tobacco control interventions, the prevalence of tobacco use in many middle- and low-income countries continues to rise. In these countries, public appreciation of levels of protection provided by laws and regulations on tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke is limited. After ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Kenya enacted the Tobacco Control Act, 2007, banning smoking in public places except in designated smoking areas. Objective To assess adherence to the Tobacco Control Act, 2007 by determining the presence of a workplace policy on tobacco use in bars and restaurants. Methods A survey of 176 liquor licensed bars and restaurants in Nairobi County was carried out. Their managers were asked about the presence of a workplace policy governing smoking of tobacco, and observations made on provisions that determine adherence to the Tobacco Control Act, 2007. Results Smoking took place in almost all bars and restaurants (150 (85%)). Half the establishments (86 (49%)) had a workplace policy governing tobacco use among employees, although a difference between bars (11 (23%)) and restaurants (75 (58%)) was recorded (p<0.001). Establishments at which managers had lower levels of education were less likely to have a workplace policy (p<0.001) and less likely to have ‘no smoking’ signs and designated smoking areas (p<0.005). Conclusions and recommendations Kenya's implementation of the Tobacco Control Act, 2007 does not provide sufficient protection of patrons and workers in bars and restaurants. It is important to sensitise hospitality workers to the dangers of tobacco smoke. Bar and restaurants managers should have a minimum post-secondary education level. The Tobacco Control Act, 2007 requires strengthening to ensure that bars and restaurants have a smoke-free environment. PMID:27683518

  7. Too Much Bar and Not Enough Mitzvah? A Proposed Research Agenda on Bar/Bat Mitzvah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Jewish educators are understandably interested in research on how bar/bat mitzvah affect Jewish education or research on what Jewish schools have done to avoid the distortions of a focus on bar/bat mitzvah. Research might also focus on the somewhat different and more ambitious topic of the role that bar/bat mitzvah play in contemporary Jewish…

  8. Taylor impact of glass bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Natalie; Bourne, Neil; Field, John

    1997-07-01

    Brar and Bless pioneeered the use of plate impact upon bars as a technique for investigating the 1D stress loading of glass. We wish to extend this technique by applying VISAR and embedded stress gauge measurements to a symmetrical version of the test. In this configuration two rods impact one upon the other in a symmetrical version of the Taylor test geometry in which the impact is perfectly rigid in the centre of mass frame. Previous work in the laboratory has characterised the three glass types (float, borosilicate and a high density lead glass). These experiments will identify the 1D stress failure mechanisms from high-speed photography and the stress and particle velocity histories will be interpreted in the light of these results. The differences in response of the three glasses will be highlighted.

  9. Bars Triggered By Galaxy Flybys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Lang, Meagan; Sinha, Manodeep

    2015-05-01

    Galaxy mergers drive galaxy evolution and are a key mechanism by which galaxies grow and transform. Unlike galaxy mergers where two galaxies combine into one remnant, galaxy flybys occur when two independent galaxy halos interpenetrate but detach at a later time; these one-time events are surprisingly common and can even out-number galaxy mergers at low redshift for massive halos. Although these interactions are transient and occur far outside the galaxy disk, flybys can still drive a rapid and large pertubations within both the intruder and victim halos. We explored how flyby encounters can transform each galaxy using a suite of N-body simulations. We present results from three co-planar flybys between disk galaxies, demonstrating that flybys can both trigger strong bar formation and can spin-up dark matter halos.

  10. Gas flow in barred potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sormani, Mattia C.; Binney, James; Magorrian, John

    2015-05-01

    We use a Cartesian grid to simulate the flow of gas in a barred Galactic potential and investigate the effects of varying the sound speed in the gas and the resolution of the grid. For all sound speeds and resolutions, streamlines closely follow closed orbits at large and small radii. At intermediate radii shocks arise and the streamlines shift between two families of closed orbits. The point at which the shocks appear and the streamlines shift between orbit families depends strongly on sound speed and resolution. For sufficiently large values of these two parameters, the transfer happens at the cusped orbit as hypothesized by Binney et al. over two decades ago. For sufficiently high resolutions, the flow downstream of the shocks becomes unsteady. If this unsteadiness is physical, as appears to be the case, it provides a promising explanation for the asymmetry in the observed distribution of CO.

  11. Raising the Bar: Engaging Staff and Students in a Culture of Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Sue

    2012-01-01

    To thrive, a successful school library program needs active participation from all members of its community. As an instructional leader, the school librarian must be the one to raise the bar, not just informing other educators about resources and services, but empowering all adults to become engaged in the school library program. For example,…

  12. Outreach to bar workers in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Sittitrai, W

    1990-12-01

    In the course of a campaign to provide AIDS education, information and related services to bar workers, outreach is a necessary strategy. This paper describes what "outreach" is, the direction it may take, who the bar workers are, where outreach is conducted, who performs the outreach, what "community preparation" or prior work is necessary, and useful tips for effective, ethical, outreach programmes.

  13. Adjustable drill bar replaces complex jigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coventry, J. H.

    1970-01-01

    Adjustable drill bar incorporates a micrometer screw which, when used in conjunction with standard gage blocks, provides rapid method of drill hole location and reduces time and skill requirements for precision drilling on large surfaces. Device picks up oddly dimensioned tool hole points and acts as sine drill bar.

  14. Constraints from microlensing on the COBE bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. S.

    Since the first review of converging evidences for a bar in the center of the Galaxy by de Zeeuw (1992) at the IAU Sym. 153 in Gent five years ago, the Galactic bar idea has been put on a solid footing by an influx of new data (COBE/DIRBE maps, star count data of bulge red clump giants, microlensing optical depth, and bulge stellar proper motions, etc.) and a burst of increasingly sophisticated theoretical models (triaxial luminosity models of Dwek et al. 1994, and Binney, Gerhard & Spergel 1997, steady state stellar bar dynamical model of Zhao 1996, combined luminosity, microlensing and gas kinematics models of Zhao, Rich & Spergel 1996, and Bissantz et al. 1997, etc.), which fit new data and improve upon earlier simple bulge/bar models (Kent 1992, Binney et al. 1991, Blitz & Spergel 1991). While research in this field shifts more and more to constraining the exact phase space and parameter space of the bar, both the non-uniqueness of and the mismatches among bars from different datasets start to show up. I compare the bar from microlensing data with the COBE bar and point out the effects the non-uniqueness.

  15. Bar Study Stories. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on the impact of the availability of drinks in licensed establishments, such as bars and taverns on student drinking. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Cheap Drinks at College Bars Can Escalate Student Drinking (John D. Clapp); (2) High Alcohol Outlet Density: A Problem for Campuses and…

  16. Conservative Groups Threaten to Sue Bar Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    A proposed revision in the American Bar Association's accrediting standards for law schools is coming under fire from the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, which says the proposal seems to require the schools to use racial preferences in hiring and admissions despite federal and state laws limiting such policies. Although a bar-association official…

  17. Needle bar for warp knitting machines

    DOEpatents

    Hagel, Adolf; Thumling, Manfred

    1979-01-01

    Needle bar for warp knitting machines with a number of needles individually set into slits of the bar and having shafts cranked to such an extent that the head section of each needle is in alignment with the shaft section accommodated by the slit. Slackening of the needles will thus not influence the needle spacing.

  18. [Development of cereal bar with pineapple skin].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Renata Siqueira; Del Santo, Victor Rogério; Souza, Gilberto Batista de; Pereira, Cíntia Alessandra Matiucci

    2011-06-01

    The cereal bars are multi-component products consisting of cereals, dried fruit and syrup binder and may be added to the consumable parts of fruits and vegetables which usually are not exploited and have high nutritional value, thereby reducing food waste. It was developed a jam with pineapple skin, which it was utilized in 13.5% in the cereal bar formulation. The cereal bar was sensorial evaluated and had its centesimal and mineral composition determined. The new product achieved average of 8.3 for global impression using 9 points hedonic scale, 91% of acceptance rate and 67% of purchase intent. In this first use of pineapple skin jam as food ingredient it can be concluded that its aggregation in the cereal bar formula is feasible, making an accepted product with fibers, proteins and minerals, as an alternative to traditional cereal bars.

  19. [Development of cereal bar with pineapple skin].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Renata Siqueira; Del Santo, Victor Rogério; Souza, Gilberto Batista de; Pereira, Cíntia Alessandra Matiucci

    2011-06-01

    The cereal bars are multi-component products consisting of cereals, dried fruit and syrup binder and may be added to the consumable parts of fruits and vegetables which usually are not exploited and have high nutritional value, thereby reducing food waste. It was developed a jam with pineapple skin, which it was utilized in 13.5% in the cereal bar formulation. The cereal bar was sensorial evaluated and had its centesimal and mineral composition determined. The new product achieved average of 8.3 for global impression using 9 points hedonic scale, 91% of acceptance rate and 67% of purchase intent. In this first use of pineapple skin jam as food ingredient it can be concluded that its aggregation in the cereal bar formula is feasible, making an accepted product with fibers, proteins and minerals, as an alternative to traditional cereal bars. PMID:22308949

  20. The Environment of Barred Galaxies Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes Sodi, B.; Li, C.; Park, C.; Wang, L.

    We present a study of the environment of barred galaxies using galaxies drawn from the SDSS. We use several different statistics to quantify the environment: the projected two-point cross-correlation function, the background-subtracted number counts of neighbor galaxies, the overdensity of the local environment, the membership of our galaxies to galaxy groups to segregate central and satellite systems, and, for central galaxies, the stellar to halo mass ratio (M∗/Mh). When we split our sample into early- and late-type galaxies, we see a weak but significant trend for early-type galaxies with a bar to be more strongly clustered on scales from a few 100 kpc to 1 Mpc when compared to unbarred early-type galaxies. This indicates that the presence of a bar in early-type galaxies depends on the location within their host dark matter halos. This is confirmed by the group catalog in the sense that for early-types, the fraction of central galaxies is smaller if they have a bar. For late-type galaxies, we find fewer neighbors within ˜ 50 kpc around the barred galaxies when compared to unbarred galaxies from the control sample, suggesting that tidal forces from close companions suppress the formation/growth of bars. For central late-type galaxies, bars are more common on galaxies with high M∗/Mh values, as expected from early theoretical works which showed that systems with massive dark matter halos are more stable against bar instabilities. Finally, we find no obvious correlation between overdensity and the bars in our sample, showing that galactic bars are not obviously linked to the large-scale structure of the universe.

  1. Hot Disks and Delayed Bar Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Kartik; Melbourne, Jason; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Athanassoula, E.; Abraham, Roberto G.; Weiner, Benjamin J.

    2012-10-01

    We present observational evidence for the inhibition of bar formation in dispersion-dominated (dynamically hot) galaxies by studying the relationship between galactic structure and host galaxy kinematics in a sample of 257 galaxies between 0.1 < z <= 0.84 from the All-Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey and the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2 survey. We find that bars are preferentially found in galaxies that are massive and dynamically cold (rotation-dominated) and on the stellar Tully-Fisher relationship, as is the case for barred spirals in the local universe. The data provide at least one explanation for the steep (×3) decline in the overall bar fraction from z = 0 to z = 0.84 in L* and brighter disks seen in previous studies. The decline in the bar fraction at high redshift is almost exclusively in the lower mass (10 < log M *(M ⊙) < 11), later-type, and bluer galaxies. A proposed explanation for this "downsizing" of the bar formation/stellar structure formation is that the lower mass galaxies may not form bars because they could be dynamically hotter than more massive systems from the increased turbulence of accreting gas, elevated star formation, and/or increased interaction/merger rate at higher redshifts. The evidence presented here provides observational support for this hypothesis. However, the data also show that not every disk galaxy that is massive and cold has a stellar bar, suggesting that mass and dynamic coldness of a disk are necessary but not sufficient conditions for bar formation—a secondary process, perhaps the interaction history between the dark matter halo and the baryonic matter, may play an important role in bar formation.

  2. Education behind Bars. International Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, William, Ed.

    The 11 chapters in this book are intended to raise awareness of the wealth of expertise the prison education sector has to offer other adult educators. "Policy Development and Cultural Issues in Australian Prison Education" (Bob Semmens) details the current situation, with a major focus on recent developments in Victoria. "Policy, Praxis, and…

  3. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars...

  4. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars...

  5. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars...

  6. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars...

  7. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars...

  8. A technique for relining bar-retained overdentures.

    PubMed

    Mosharraf, Ramin; Abolhasani, Majid; Givehchian, Pirooz

    2014-12-01

    This article describes a technique for relining a mandibular bar-retained overdenture that allows recording the soft tissue beneath the bar and makes it possible to replace or modify the retentive bar attachment simultaneously with the reline procedure.

  9. Interferometry-based Kolsky bar apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avinadav, C.; Ashuach, Y.; Kreif, R.

    2011-07-01

    A new experimental approach of the Kolsky bar system using optical interferometry is presented for determination of dynamic behavior of materials. Conventional measurements in the Kolsky bar system are based on recording the strain histories on the incident and transmitter bars with two strain gauges, and require good adhesion between the gauge and the bar. We suggest an alternative approach, based on measuring the actual velocities of the bars by using fiber-based velocity interferometry. Two fiber focusers illuminate the bars at a small angle and collect reflected Doppler-shifted light, which is interfered with a reference beam. Velocities are calculated from short-time Fourier transform and phase-based analysis, and the dynamic stress-strain curve is derived directly from the measured velocity traces. We demonstrate that the results coincide with those obtained by conventional strain gauge measurements. The new method is non-intervening and thus not affected by bar impacts, making it more robust and reliable than strain gauges.

  10. Cam-controlled boring bar

    DOEpatents

    Glatthorn, Raymond H.

    1986-01-01

    A cam-controlled boring bar system (100) includes a first housing (152) which is rotatable about its longitudinal axis (154), and a second housing in the form of a cam-controlled slide (158) which is also rotatable about the axis (154) as well as being translatable therealong. A tool-holder (180) is mounted within the slide (158) for holding a single point cutting tool. Slide (158) has a rectangular configuration and is disposed within a rectangularly configured portion of the first housing (152). Arcuate cam slots (192) are defined within a side plate (172) of the housing (152), while cam followers (194) are mounted upon the cam slide (158) for cooperative engagement with the cam slots (192). In this manner, as the housing (152) and slide (158) rotate, and as the slide (158) also translates, a through-bore (14) having an hourglass configuration will be formed within a workpiece (16) which may be, for example, a nuclear reactor steam generator tube support plate.

  11. Tidally Induced Bars of Galaxies in Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łokas, Ewa L.; Ebrová, Ivana; del Pino, Andrés; Sybilska, Agnieszka; Athanassoula, E.; Semczuk, Marcin; Gajda, Grzegorz; Fouquet, Sylvain

    2016-08-01

    Using N-body simulations, we study the formation and evolution of tidally induced bars in disky galaxies in clusters. Our progenitor is a massive, late-type galaxy similar to the Milky Way, composed of an exponential disk and a Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter halo. We place the galaxy on four different orbits in a Virgo-like cluster and evolve it for 10 Gyr. As a reference case, we also evolve the same model in isolation. Tidally induced bars form on all orbits soon after the first pericenter passage and survive until the end of the evolution. They appear earlier, are stronger and longer, and have lower pattern speeds for tighter orbits. Only for the tightest orbit are the properties of the bar controlled by the orientation of the tidal torque from the cluster at pericenter. The mechanism behind the formation of the bars is the angular momentum transfer from the galaxy stellar component to its halo. All of the bars undergo extended periods of buckling instability that occur earlier and lead to more pronounced boxy/peanut shapes when the tidal forces are stronger. Using all simulation outputs of galaxies at different evolutionary stages, we construct a toy model of the galaxy population in the cluster and measure the average bar strength and bar fraction as a function of clustercentric radius. Both are found to be mildly decreasing functions of radius. We conclude that tidal forces can trigger bar formation in cluster cores, but not in the outskirts, and thus can cause larger concentrations of barred galaxies toward the cluster center.

  12. Compliance with smoke-free policies in Korean bars and restaurants: A descriptive analysis in California

    PubMed Central

    Irvin, Veronica L.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Chambers, Christina D.; Usita, Paula M.; Norman, Gregory J.; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Compliance with California's smoke-free restaurant and bar policies may be more a function of social contingencies and less a function of legal contingencies. The aims of this study are: 1) to report indications of compliance with smoke-free legislation in Korean bars and restaurants in California; 2) to examine the demographic, smoking status, and acculturation factors of who smoked indoors; and 3) to report social cues in opposition to smoking among a sample of Koreans in California. Method Data were collected by telephone surveys administered by bilingual interviewers between 2007– 2009, and included California adults of Korean descent who visited a Korean bar or restaurant in a typical month (N=2,173, 55% female). Results 1% of restaurant-going participants smoked inside while 7% observed someone else smoke inside a Korean restaurant. 23% of bar-going participants smoked inside and 65% observed someone else smoke inside a Korean bar. Presence of ashtrays was related to indoor smoking in bars and restaurants. Among participants who observed smoking, a higher percentage observed someone ask a smoker to stop (17.6%) or gesture to a smoker (27.0%) inside Korean restaurants (N=169) than inside Korean bars (n=141, 17.0% observed verbal cue and 22.7% observed gesture). Participants who smoked inside were significantly younger and more acculturated than participants who did not. Less acculturated participants were significantly more to likely to be told to stop smoking. Conclusions Ten years after implementation of ordinances, smoking was common in Korean bars in California. PMID:25735336

  13. First Measurement of σ(gg → t$\\bar{t}$)/σ(p$\\bar{p}$ → t$\\bar{t}$)

    SciTech Connect

    Alamdari, Shabnaz Pashapour

    2008-01-01

    The work presented here is the first measurement of the fraction of top quark pair production through gluon-gluon fusion. We use an integrated luminosity of 0.96 ± 0.06 fb-1 of p{bar p} collisions at √s of 1.96 TeV collected by the CDF II detector. We select t$\\bar{t}$ candidates by identifying a high-pT lepton candidate, a large missing ET as evidence for a neutrino candidate and at least four high ET jets, one of which has to be identified as originating from a b quark. The challenge is to discriminate between the two production processes with the identical final state, gg → t$\\bar{t}$ and q$\\bar{p}$ → t$\\bar{t}$. We take advantage of the fact that compared to a quark, a gluon is more likely to radiate a low momentum gluon and therefore, one expects a larger number of charged particles with low pT in a process involving more gluons. Given the large uncertainties associated with the modeling of the low pT charged particle multiplicity, a data-driven technique was employed. Using calibration data samples, we show there exists a clear correlation between the observed average number of low pT charged particles and the average number of gluons involved in the production process predicted by Monte Carlo calculations. Given the correlation, one can identify low pT charged particle multiplicity distributions associated with specific average number of gluons. The W + 0 jet sample and dijets sample with leading jet ET in the range of 80-100 GeV are used to find no-gluon and gluon-rich low p{sub T} charged particle multiplicity distributions, respectively. Using these no-gluon and gluon-rich distributions in a likelihood fit, we find the fraction of gluon-rich events in t{bar t} candidates. This fraction has contributions from the signal and background events. Taking into account these contributions and the gg → t$\\bar{t}$ and q$\\bar{q}$ → t$\\bar

  14. Analysis of the putative remains of a European patron saint--St. Birgitta.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Martina; Possnert, Göran; Edlund, Hanna; Budowle, Bruce; Kjellström, Anna; Allen, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Saint Birgitta (Saint Bridget of Sweden) lived between 1303 and 1373 and was designated one of Europe's six patron saints by the Pope in 1999. According to legend, the skulls of St. Birgitta and her daughter Katarina are maintained in a relic shrine in Vadstena abbey, mid Sweden. The origin of the two skulls was assessed first by analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to confirm a maternal relationship. The results of this analysis displayed several differences between the two individuals, thus supporting an interpretation of the two skulls not being individuals that are maternally related. Because the efficiency of PCR amplification and quantity of DNA suggested a different amount of degradation and possibly a very different age for each of the skulls, an orthogonal procedure, radiocarbon dating, was performed. The radiocarbon dating results suggest an age difference of at least 200 years and neither of the dating results coincides with the period St. Birgitta or her daughter Katarina lived. The relic, thought to originate from St. Birgitta, has an age corresponding to the 13(th) century (1215-1270 cal AD, 2sigma confidence), which is older than expected. Thus, the two different analyses are consistent in questioning the authenticity of either of the human skulls maintained in the Vadstena relic shrine being that of St. Birgitta. Of course there are limitations when interpreting the data of any ancient biological materials and these must be considered for a final decision on the authenticity of the remains.

  15. [Epidemiologic study on patrons of traditional drink establishments (Bandjidromes) in Abidjan, Ivory Coast and surrounding areas].

    PubMed

    Yeo-Tenena, Y J M; Yao, Y P; Konan, Y E; Koffi, K E; Amani, N; Delfosse, R C J

    2007-02-01

    This transverse descriptive study was conducted over a three-month period from January 10 to April 10, 2003. Findings demonstrated a clear profile of 120 patrons of traditional drinking establishments called n the city of Abidjan and surrounding areas in the Ivory Coast. All subjects interrogated were male. Mean age was 31.1 years. Almost all subjects interrogated (99.2%) were of Ivory Coast nationality. The main ethnic group was Akan (86.7%) from Baoulé (60%). More than a third (35.9%) of subjects interviewed were unemployed. Most (62.5%) were single. All subjects interrogated stated that they attended "bandjidromes" to drink palm wine although other alcoholic beverages were served. However only 9.2% of subjects drank only palm wine. The euphoric effect of alcohol and friendly atmosphere of the drinking establishment were the main reasons for attendance (53.3%). Most persons interrogated (63.3%) had been consuming alcohol for more than 10 years. More than half (55%) spent less than three hours a day drinking alcoholic beverages. Daily consumption of palm wine ranged from two to four liters for most atrons (76.7%). Only 2.5% (3/120) presented neuropsychiatric disturbances. These results could be useful in the fight against alcoholism.

  16. Factors associated with the perpetration of sexual violence among wine-shop patrons in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Go, Vivian F.; Srikrishnan, Aylur K.; Salter, Megan L.; Mehta, Shruti; Johnson, Sethulakshmi C.; Sivaram, Sudha; Davis, Wendy; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D.

    2010-01-01

    With an estimated 2.5 million people living with HIV/AIDS, India has the third highest number of HIV-infected people in the world. Despite reductions in prevalence among the general population, the percentage of all infections occurring among Indian women is continuing to rise. Women s risk of HIV infection from their partner and observed associations between sexual violence and HIV infection in India underscore the importance of understanding determinants of forced sex. A probability survey was conducted from June 2003 to August 2007 in Chennai, India among alcohol venue (“wine shops”) patrons to estimate the prevalence of sexual violence and to identify risk factors associated with perpetrating forced sex. Among 1499 men, 28.5% reported forced sex with at least one partner in the past 3 months. In multivariate analysis, earning income for less than 12 months a year, visiting the wine shop with friends, STD symptoms, perpetration of physical violence, and number of sexual partners were statistically significantly associated with perpetrating forced sex. Men who reported having 3 or more close friends were less likely to perpetrate violence. HIV interventions that facilitate formal groups that foster positive social support and address a range of HIV risk behaviors including sexually and physically abusive behaviors are recommended to reduce sexual violence. PMID:20692757

  17. Blast Quantification Using Hopkinson Pressure Bars.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Samuel D; Fay, Stephen D; Rigby, Samuel E; Tyas, Andrew; Warren, James A; Reay, Jonathan J; Fuller, Benjamin J; Gant, Matthew T A; Elgy, Ian D

    2016-07-05

    Near-field blast load measurement presents an issue to many sensor types as they must endure very aggressive environments and be able to measure pressures up to many hundreds of megapascals. In this respect the simplicity of the Hopkinson pressure bar has a major advantage in that while the measurement end of the Hopkinson bar can endure and be exposed to harsh conditions, the strain gauge mounted to the bar can be affixed some distance away. This allows protective housings to be utilized which protect the strain gauge but do not interfere with the measurement acquisition. The use of an array of pressure bars allows the pressure-time histories at discrete known points to be measured. This article also describes the interpolation routine used to derive pressure-time histories at un-instrumented locations on the plane of interest. Currently the technique has been used to measure loading from high explosives in free air and buried shallowly in various soils.

  18. HOW DIFFERENT ARE NORMAL AND BARRED SPIRALS?

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Bergh, Sidney

    2011-06-15

    No significant color differences are found between normal and barred spirals over the range of Hubble stages a-ab-b-bc. Furthermore, no significant difference is seen between the luminosity distributions of normal and barred galaxies over the same range of Hubble stages. However, SBc galaxies are found to be systematically fainter than Sc galaxies at 99% confidence. The observation that normal and barred spirals with Hubble stages a-ab-b-bc have indistinguishable intrinsic colors hints at the possibility that the bars in such spiral galaxies might be ephemeral structures. Finally, it is pointed out that lenticular galaxies of types S0 and SB0 are systematically fainter than are other early-type galaxies, suggesting that such galaxies are situated on evolutionary tracks that differ systematically from those of galaxies that lie along the E-Sa-Sb-Sc and E-SBa-SBb-SBc sequences.

  19. ${{\\bar{d}} - {\\bar{u}}}$ Flavor Asymmetry in the Proton in Chiral Effective Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Salamu, Y.; Ji, Cheung-Ryong; Melnitchouk, Wally; Wang, P.

    2015-09-01

    The ${\\bar d - \\bar u}$ flavor asymmetry in the proton arising from pion loops is computed using chiral effective field theory. The calculation includes both nucleon and Δ intermediate states, and uses both the fully relativistic and heavy baryon frameworks. The x dependence of ${\\bar d - \\bar u}$ extracted from the Fermilab E866 Drell–Yan data can be well reproduced in terms of a single transverse momentum cutoff parameter regulating the ultraviolet behavior of the loop integrals. In addition to the distribution at x > 0, corrections to the integrated asymmetry from zero momentum contributions are computed, which arise from pion rainbow and bubble diagrams at x = 0. These have not been accounted for in previous analyses, and can make important contributions to the lowest moment of ${\\bar d-\\bar u}$ .

  20. THE DIRC Detector at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliff, Blair N

    1999-10-12

    A dedicated particle identification system based on the Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov (DIRC) light will be used in the BaBar detector. We provide an overview of the DIRC concept, design, and expected performance of the production device and a status report on its construction and commissioning. The DIRC is expected to be operating in the BaBar detector on beam line at the PEP-II B Factory in late spring 1999.

  1. Intelligent bar chart plagiarism detection in documents.

    PubMed

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Rehman, Amjad; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts.

  2. Intelligent Bar Chart Plagiarism Detection in Documents

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts. PMID:25309952

  3. $\\bar d - \\bar u$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory

    SciTech Connect

    Salamu, Yusupujiang; Ji, Chueng -Ryong; Melnitchouk, W.; Wang, P.

    2015-03-25

    We compute the $\\bar d - \\bar u$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory, including both nucleon and Δ degrees of freedom, within both relativistic and heavy baryon frameworks. In addition to the distribution at $x>0$, we estimate the correction to the integrated asymmetry arising from zero momentum contributions from pion rainbow and bubble diagrams at $x=0$, which have not been accounted for in previous analyses. In conclusion, we find that the empirical $x$ dependence of $\\bar d - \\bar u$ as well as the integrated asymmetry can be well reproduced in terms of a transverse momentum cutoff parameter.

  4. Possible Signatures of New Physics in e+e- and bar bar{p}p Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senju, H.

    1998-12-01

    A preon model with preonic charge predicts many unique new particles. Among them, several are expected to be relatively light, including the fermion lS, which is a stable WIMP, bosons U0 and U+ and the lepto-quark fermion q'. The production of these particles in e+e- and bar{p}p collisions is discussed, focusing on e+e- --> UlS(e) and bar{p}p --> bar{q}'q' + X. A signature of the latter is dilepton + 2 charm jets + missing energy. A discussion on reported unusual events in the dilepton + jets sample is made based on bar{q}'q' production.

  5. 21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of fused prisms of gradually...

  6. 21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of fused prisms of gradually...

  7. pp-bar->LAMBDA{sub c}LAMBDA-bar{sub c} within a Handbag Picture - Section and Spin Observables

    SciTech Connect

    Goritschnig, A. T.; Schweiger, W.; Kroll, P.

    2009-08-04

    We study the process pp-bar->LAMBDA{sub c}LAMBDA-bar{sub c} within the generalized parton picture. Our starting point is the double handbag diagram which factorizes into soft generalized parton distributions and a hard subprocess amplitude for uu-bar->cc-bar. Our cross-section predictions may become interesting in view of forthcoming experiments at FAIR in Darmstadt.

  8. The dual function of barred plumage in birds: camouflage and communication.

    PubMed

    Gluckman, T L; Cardoso, G C

    2010-11-01

    A commonly held principle in visual ecology is that communication compromises camouflage: while visual signals are often conspicuous, camouflage provides concealment. However, some traits may have evolved for communication and camouflage simultaneously, thereby overcoming this functional compromise. Visual patterns generally provide camouflage, but it was suggested that a particular type of visual pattern – avian barred plumage – could also be a signal of individual quality. Here, we test if the evolution of sexual dimorphism in barred plumage, as well as differences between juvenile and adult plumage, indicate camouflage and/or signalling functions across the class Aves. We found a higher frequency of female- rather than male-biased sexual dimorphism in barred plumage, indicating that camouflage is its most common function. But we also found that, compared to other pigmentation patterns, barred plumage is more frequently biased towards males and its expression more frequently restricted to adulthood, suggesting that barred plumage often evolves or is maintained as a sexual communication signal. This illustrates how visual traits can accommodate the apparently incompatible functions of camouflage and communication, which has implications for our understanding of avian visual ecology and sexual ornamentation.

  9. Bar Admission--Default on Student Loan Warrants Denial of Admission to Minnesota Bar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    William Mitchell Law Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The Minnesota Supreme Court upheld a decision that student loan default, and subsequent dismissal through bankruptcy, is sufficient reason to deny a law student's bar admission. The bar's requirement of good moral character was interpreted as financial integrity in the Gahan case. (MSE)

  10. Measurement of B0bar -> D(*)0 K(*)0bar BranchingFractions

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2006-04-10

    The authors present a study of the decays {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup (*)0}{bar K}{sup (*)0} using a sample of 226 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC. They report evidence for the decay of B{sup 0} and {bar B}{sup 0} mesons to the D*{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0} final state with an average branching fraction {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0}) {triple_bond} {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0}) + {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0}K{sup 0})/2 = (3.6 {+-} 1.2 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -5}.

  11. Measurements and efficient simulations of bowed bars

    PubMed

    Essl; Cook

    2000-07-01

    Bowing bar percussion instruments is an increasing part of the repertoire of modern composition and performance. Yet the system has not been studied systematically. In this paper experimental measurements of bars of bar percussion instruments bowed by a double bass bow and by a bowing machine are presented. They examine the relationships between performance parameters and perceptional parameters which are relevant for musical performance. In addition, a new efficient simulation method using a time-domain approach has been developed and the measured results are compared to the simulation. Most measurement results are in good qualitative agreement with the known results of the bowed string. The spectrum of the bowed bar is observed to be harmonic, independent of the harmonicity or inharmonicity of the eigenfrequencies of the bar. Important distinctions from the known results of the bowed string are the weakness or independence of bowing force and velocity on the fundamental frequency and the spectral content of the produced sound. Simulations show qualitative agreement with the measurements.

  12. Bar code usage in nuclear materials accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Mee, W.T.

    1983-07-01

    The age old method of physically taking an inventory of materials by listing each item's identification number has lived beyond its usefulness. In this age of computerization, which offers the local grocery store a quick, sure, and easy means to inventory, it is time for nuclear materials facilities to automate accountability activities. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant began investigating the use of automated data collection devices in 1979. At that time, bar code and optical-character-recognition (OCR) systems were reviewed with the purpose of directly entering data into DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). Both of these systems appeared applicable; however, other automated devices already employed for production control made implementing the bar code and OCR seem improbable. However, the DYMCAS was placed on line for nuclear material accountability, a decision was made to consider the bar code for physical inventory listings. For the past several months a development program has been underway to use a bar code device to collect and input data to the DYMCAS on the uranium recovery operations. Programs have been completed and tested, and are being employed to ensure that data will be compatible and useful. Bar code implementation and expansion of its use for all nuclear material inventory activity in Y-12 is presented.

  13. Bar code usage in nuclear materials accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Mee, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant began investigating the use of automated data collection devices in 1979. At this time, bar code and optical-character-recognition (OCR) systems were reviewed with the purpose of directly entering data into DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). Both of these systems appeared applicable, however, other automated devices already employed for production control made implementing the bar code and OCR seem improbable. However, the DYMCAS was placed on line for nuclear material accountability, a decision was made to consider the bar code for physical inventory listings. For the past several months a development program has been underway to use a bar code device to collect and input data to the DYMCAS on the uranium recovery operations. Programs have been completed and tested, and are being employed to ensure that data will be compatible and useful. Bar code implementation and expansion of its use for all nuclear material inventory activity in Y-12 is presented.

  14. Warp evidence in precessing galactic bar models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Martín, P.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Masdemont, J. J.

    2016-04-01

    Most galaxies have a warped shape when they are seen edge-on. The reason for this curious form is not completely known so far, so in this work we apply dynamical system tools to contribute to its explanation. Starting from a simple, but realistic model formed by a bar and a disc, we study the effect of a small misalignment between the angular momentum of the system and its angular velocity. To this end, a precession model was developed and considered, assuming that the bar behaves like a rigid body. After checking that the periodic orbits inside the bar continue to be the skeleton of the inner system even after inflicting a precession to the potential, we computed the invariant manifolds of the unstable periodic orbits departing from the equilibrium points at the ends of the bar to find evidence of their warped shapes. As is well known, the invariant manifolds associated with these periodic orbits drive the arms and rings of barred galaxies and constitute the skeleton of these building blocks. Looking at them from a side-on viewpoint, we find that these manifolds present warped shapes like those recognised in observations. Lastly, test particle simulations have been performed to determine how the stars are affected by the applied precession, this way confirming the theoretical results.

  15. Partial entrainment of gravel bars during floods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, C.P.; Booth, D.B.; Burges, S.J.; Montgomery, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Spatial patterns of bed material entrainment by floods were documented at seven gravel bars using arrays of metal washers (bed tags) placed in the streambed. The observed patterns were used to test a general stochastic model that bed material entrainment is a spatially independent, random process where the probability of entrainment is uniform over a gravel bar and a function of the peak dimensionless shear stress ??*0 of the flood. The fraction of tags missing from a gravel bar during a flood, or partial entrainment, had an approximately normal distribution with respect to ??*0 with a mean value (50% of the tags entrained) of 0.085 and standard deviation of 0.022 (root-mean-square error of 0.09). Variation in partial entrainment for a given ??*0 demonstrated the effects of flow conditioning on bed strength, with lower values of partial entrainment after intermediate magnitude floods (0.065 < ??*0 < 0.08) than after higher magnitude floods. Although the probability of bed material entrainment was approximately uniform over a gravel bar during individual floods and independent from flood to flood, regions of preferential stability and instability emerged at some bars over the course of a wet season. Deviations from spatially uniform and independent bed material entrainment were most pronounced for reaches with varied flow and in consecutive floods with small to intermediate magnitudes.

  16. On the Galactic Spin of Barred Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes-Sodi, Bernardo; Li, Cheng; Park, Changbom; Wang, Lixin

    2013-09-01

    We present a study of the connection between the galactic spin parameter (λ d ) and the bar fraction in a volume-limited sample of 10,674 disk galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. The galaxies in our sample are visually classified into one of three groups: non-barred galaxies and galaxies hosting long or short bars, respectively. We find that the spin distributions of these three classes are statistically different, with galaxies hosting long bars having the lowest λ d values, followed by non-barred galaxies, while galaxies with short bars present typically high spin parameters. The bar fraction presents its maximum at low to intermediate λ d values for the case of long bars, while the maximum for short bars is at high λ d . This bimodality is in good agreement with previous studies finding longer bars hosted by luminous, massive, red galaxies with a low content of cold gas, while short bars were found in low luminosity, low mass, blue galaxies that were typically gas rich. In addition, the rise and fall of the bar fraction as a function of λ d , within the long-bar sample shown in our results, can be explained as a result of two competing factors: the self-gravity of the disk that enhances bar instabilities and the support by random motions, instead of ordered rotational motion, that prevents the formation/growth of bars.

  17. ON THE GALACTIC SPIN OF BARRED DISK GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Cervantes-Sodi, Bernardo; Li, Cheng; Wang, Lixin; Park, Changbom

    2013-09-20

    We present a study of the connection between the galactic spin parameter (λ{sub d}) and the bar fraction in a volume-limited sample of 10,674 disk galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. The galaxies in our sample are visually classified into one of three groups: non-barred galaxies and galaxies hosting long or short bars, respectively. We find that the spin distributions of these three classes are statistically different, with galaxies hosting long bars having the lowest λ{sub d} values, followed by non-barred galaxies, while galaxies with short bars present typically high spin parameters. The bar fraction presents its maximum at low to intermediate λ{sub d} values for the case of long bars, while the maximum for short bars is at high λ{sub d}. This bimodality is in good agreement with previous studies finding longer bars hosted by luminous, massive, red galaxies with a low content of cold gas, while short bars were found in low luminosity, low mass, blue galaxies that were typically gas rich. In addition, the rise and fall of the bar fraction as a function of λ{sub d}, within the long-bar sample shown in our results, can be explained as a result of two competing factors: the self-gravity of the disk that enhances bar instabilities and the support by random motions, instead of ordered rotational motion, that prevents the formation/growth of bars.

  18. Interpretation of the neutron electric dipole moment: Possible relationship to t bar. epsilon. prime t bar

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, M.J.; Briere, R.A.; Sachs, R.G. )

    1990-01-01

    Recent measurements of {ital D}{sub {ital n}} indicate that it {ital may} be of order {ital G}{sub {ital F}} (milliweak), which is much larger than predicted by the Kobayashi-Maskawa (KM) model. The predicted KM moment is shown to be small because it is of second order in {ital G}{sub {ital F}} (superweak) {ital and} suppressed by the Glashow-Iliopoulos-Maiani (GIM) mechanism. GIM cancellations have their largest effect on the calculation of the moment of a single quark so that {ital W}-exchange contributions between pairs of quarks dominate {ital D}{sub {ital n}} in the KM model. Experimental confirmation that {ital D}{sub {ital n}} is of order {ital G}{sub {ital F}} (in the range 10{sup {minus}27}--10{sup {minus}25} e cm) would require a {ital T}-violating phase between the {ital P}-conserving and {ital P}-violating first-order weak interactions, as occurs in the Weinberg model. Any such {ital T} violation would lead to a relationship between {epsilon}{prime} and {ital D}{sub {ital n}} of the form {vert bar}{ital D}{sub {ital n}}{vert bar}{similar to}{vert bar}{epsilon}{prime}{vert bar}. We estimate the ratio {vert bar}{ital D}{sub {ital n}}/{epsilon}{prime}{vert bar} for the Weinberg model, and show that it is consistent with current data on {ital D}{sub {ital n}}, {vert bar}{epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon}{vert bar}, and {vert bar}{epsilon}{vert bar}. However, the current data are also consistent with {ital D}{sub {ital n}}={epsilon}{prime}=0, so that a firm conclusion cannot be drawn now.

  19. Measuring the Fraction of Bars and Offset Bars Using the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Alexa

    2012-01-01

    Using the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies at 3.6 and 4.5μm, I have measured a preliminary bar fraction and offset bar fraction in the local universe by visually identifying bar structure within a sample of 2,140 local galaxies. A sample this large has not been used since 1963, when Gerard de Vaucouleurs found the bar fraction to be roughly fbar ˜ 0.6 in the Third Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies. Since then, there has been much debate over the true value of the bar fraction. The purpose of finding a bar fraction using S4G is to provide a final say in this debate. I have found that the bar fraction in the local universe is fbar = 0.69 when including both definite bars (SB) and candidate bars (SAB). I have also measured a preliminary value for the fraction of offset bars using the same sample. Offset bars are a very rare phenomenon. Of the sample used, 91 galaxies are found to be definite offset bars while an additional 39 are found to be candidate offset bars. When including both definite offset bars and candidate offset bars, the offset bar fraction in the local universe becomes fob = 0.12. I also measure the fraction of offset bars as a function of Hubble type and stellar mass. We find that 54% of offset bars are found in disks having a stellar mass of M ≤ 108 M⊙. Late-type disks possess significantly more offset bars than early-type with 60% of offset bars being found in disks having a Hubble type t ≥ 6.

  20. Evidence for B+ -> K*0bar K*+

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Karlsruhe U., EKP /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2009-06-19

    We present measurements of the branching fraction and fraction of longitudinal polarization for the decay B{sup +} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K*{sup +} with a sample of 467 {+-} 5 million B{bar B} pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We obtain the branching fraction {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K*{sup +}) = (1.2 {+-} 0.5 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup ?6} with a significance of 3.7 standard deviations including systematic uncertainties. We measure the fraction of longitudinal polarization f{sub L} = 0.75{sub -0.26}{sup +0.16} {+-} 0.03. The first error quoted is statistical and the second is systematic.

  1. Subsurface Flow in Gravel River Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, E. N.; Dunne, T.

    2014-12-01

    The geomorphic and hydraulic characteristics of gravel bars control the direction, magnitude and spatial patterns of infiltration and exfiltration between rivers and their immediate subsurface environments. Bed undulation, water-surface gradient, alluvial depth, and the spatial variation of hydraulic conductivity (both deterministic trends and stochastic variability) affect the hydrologically-driven groundwater-surface water exchange. In this paper, we use a set of field measurements of morphological and hydrological characteristics along two reaches of the San Joaquin River, California to motivate a systematic analysis of the factors that affect paths and residence times of flow through gravel bars under an observed range of streamflow values. In the field investigation, it is shown that asymmetry of bar morphology is a first-order control on the extent and magnitude of infiltration, which is often represented to produce approximately equal areas of infiltration and seepage under the assumption of sinusoidal bedforms. Infiltration over the length of a bar is shown to be greater at low flow than at high flow because of the effect of water-surface gradient. Hydraulic conductivity (ksat) varies by orders of magnitude and systematic downstream coarsening arises related to the process of bar evolution. The lowest values of ksat were observed where the difference between the topographic gradient and the water-surface gradient is at a maximum and thus where the infiltration would be greatest into a uniform bar of homogeneous gravel. Morphology and fine sediment accumulation in recharge zones exert an important control over the mechanisms driving subsurface fluid exchange. Simulations from a numerical groundwater flow model that isolate the signatures of morphology and streambed sediment patterns on subsurface flow corroborate our interpretation that the infiltration patterns and rates are primarily controlled by bed morphology, with ksat playing a secondary role.

  2. B Counting at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    McGregor, Grant Duncan

    2008-12-16

    In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

  3. Newtorites in bar detectors of gravitational wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronga, F.; ROG Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The detection of particles with only gravitational interactions (Newtorites) in gravitational bar detectors was studied in 1984 by Bernard, De Rujula and Lautrup. The negative results of dark matter searches suggest to look to exotic possibilities like Newtorites. The limits obtained with the Nautilus bar detector will be presented and the possible improvements will be discussed. Since the gravitational coupling is very weak, the possible limits are very far from what is needed for dark matter, but for large masses are the best limits obtained on the Earth. An update of limits for MACRO particles will be given.

  4. Formation of q{bar q} resonances in the {bar N}N system

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, N.Ya.

    1995-11-01

    The formation of q{bar q} resonances lying on the leading Regge trajectories in the {bar N}N system is studied in the quark-gluon string model. The model predicts strong suppression of the decays of q{bar q} states into {bar N}N pairs in relation to two-meson modes. The author`s analysis shows that the contributions of the resonances f{sub 4}(2050) (I{sup G}J{sup PC}= 0{sup +}4{sup ++}), {rho}{sub 5}(2240) (I{sup G}J{sup PC} = 1{sup +}5{sup {minus}{minus}}), and f{sub 6}(2510) (I{sup G}J{sup PC} = 0{sup +}6{sup ++}) to the processes of two-meson {bar N}N annihilation ({bar p}p {yields} {pi}{pi}, {bar K}K, {hor_ellipsis}) are about 1% of the corresponding experimental integrated cross sections. 30 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  6. Measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry of $$\\Lambda$$ and $$\\bar{\\Lambda}$$ production in $$p \\bar{p}$$ collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich

    2016-02-09

    Here, we studymore » $$\\Lambda$$ and $$\\bar{\\Lambda}$$ production asymmetries in $$p \\bar{p} \\rightarrow \\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda}) X$$, $$p \\bar{p} \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda}) X$$, and $$p \\bar{p} \\rightarrow \\mu^\\pm \\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda}) X$$ events recorded by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider at $$\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$$ TeV. We find an excess of $$\\Lambda$$'s ($$\\bar{\\Lambda}$$'s) produced in the proton (antiproton) direction. This forward-backward asymmetry is measured as a function of rapidity. We confirm that the $$\\bar{\\Lambda}/\\Lambda$$ production ratio, measured by several experiments with various targets and a wide range of energies, is a universal function of "rapidity loss", i.e., the rapidity difference of the beam proton and the lambda.« less

  7. Paris [ital N[bar N

    SciTech Connect

    Pignone, M.; Lacombe, M.; Loiseau, B.; Vinh Mau, R. Division de Physique Theorique, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91406 Orsay Cedex LPTPE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 )

    1994-12-01

    The inner part of the Paris nucleon-antinucleon optical potential has been reanalyzed in view of new experimental constraints. These are mainly provided by accurate measurements of the analyzing power in charge-exchange scattering, [ital [bar p]p][r arrow][ital [bar n]n], together with elastic [ital [bar p]p][r arrow][ital [bar p]p] polarization data, allowing a better determination of the isospin dependence of the short-range forces. The fit is performed with a set of 3632 data. The good quality of the fit is illustrated over a large sample of observables for laboratory momenta from 180 to 910 MeV/[ital c]. Curves of the potentials and of the phase shifts are shown as well as the parameters of the potentials and effective range formula coefficients for the [ital S] and [ital P] waves. The spectrum of resonances and bound states predicted by our potential is also displayed. In particular, a bound state having the [ital AX](1565) quantum numbers is found with the right mass.

  8. Spinners, Scroll Bars and Simpson's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Ed

    2005-01-01

    One of the most remarkable devices embedded in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is known as the spinner. Its staggering simplicity is undoubtedly its strength. As an incrementing device that allows graphs to dance across the screen, it gives the concept of variability a whole new meaning. Spinners and their close cousins scroll bars can be grabbed…

  9. A piezo-bar pressure probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friend, W. H.; Murphy, C. L.; Shanfield, I.

    1967-01-01

    Piezo-bar pressure type probe measures the impact velocity or pressure of a moving debris cloud. It measures pressures up to 200,000 psi and peak pressures may be recorded with a total pulse duration between 5 and 65 musec.

  10. My Bar Graph Tells a Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Sue; McMillen, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Connecting stories to qualitative coordinate graphs has been suggested as an effective instructional strategy. Even students who are able to "create" bar graphs may struggle to correctly "interpret" them. Giving children opportunities to work with qualitative graphs can help them develop the skills to interpret, describe, and compare information…

  11. Divorce and Bar Mitzvah: A First Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geffen, Michael; Kaplan, Earl

    After an introductory discussion and review of literature on divorce among Jewish families, this document presents and analyzes two case studies which show the adverse effect of divorce and child-custody battles on the children of Jewish families who subsequently plan a B'nai Mitzvah (Bar or Bat Mitzvah) ceremony--a joyous ritual of initiation…

  12. Unitarity Triangles at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Vidal, Fernando; /Valencia U., IFIC

    2011-11-23

    The BaBar experiment has used a variety of methods to determine the angles {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa Unitarity Triangle, which give insight into the Standard Model description of CP violation in the quark sector of the electroweak interactions. Here we review the main experimental techniques and analyses, with emphasis in the most recent results.

  13. Star formation properties in barred galaxies. III. Statistical study of bar-driven secular evolution using a sample of nearby barred spirals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Zhi-Min; Wu, Hong; Cao, Chen E-mail: hwu@bao.ac.cn

    2015-01-01

    Stellar bars are important internal drivers of secular evolution in disk galaxies. Using a sample of nearby spiral galaxies with weak and strong bars, we explore the relationships between the star formation feature and stellar bars in galaxies. We find that galaxies with weak bars tend coincide with low concentrical star formation activity, while those with strong bars show a large scatter in the distribution of star formation activity. We find enhanced star formation activity in bulges toward stronger bars, although not predominantly, consistent with previous studies. Our results suggest that different stages of the secular process and many other factors may contribute to the complexity of the secular evolution. In addition, barred galaxies with intense star formation in bars tend to have active star formation in their bulges and disks, and bulges have higher star formation densities than bars and disks, indicating the evolutionary effects of bars. We then derived a possible criterion to quantify the different stages of the bar-driven physical process, while future work is needed because of the uncertainties.

  14. Gaseous Vortices in Barred Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, Martin N.; Hunter, James H., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    During the course of examining many two-dimensional, as well as a smaller sample of three-dimensional, models of gas flows in barred spiral galaxies, we have been impressed by the ubiquitous presence fo vortex pairs, oriented roughly perpendicular to their bars, with one vortex on each side. The vortices are obvious only when viewed in the bar frame, and the centers of their velocity fields usually are near Lagrangian points L(sub 4,5). In all models that we have studied, the vortices form on essentially the same time scale as that for the development of gaseous spiral arms, typically two bar rotations. Usually the corotation radius, r(sub c), lies slightly beyond the end of the bar. Depending upon the mass distributions of the various components, gas spirals either into, or out of, the vortices: In the former case, the vortices become regions of high density, whereas the opposite is true if the gas spirals out of a vortex. The models described in this paper have low-density vortices, as do most of the models we have studied. Moreover, usually the vortex centers lie approximately within +/- 15 deg of L(sub 4,5). In the stellar dynamic limit, when pressure and viscous forces are absent, short-period orbits exist, centered on L(sub 4,5). These orbits need not cross and therefore their morphology is that of gas streamlines, that is, vortices. We believe that the gas vortices in our models are hydrodynamic analogues of closed, short-period, libration orbits centered on L(sub 4,5).

  15. Don't Fear the Reader: Librarian versus Interlibrary Loan Patron-Driven Acquisition of Print Books at an Academic Library by Relative Collecting Level and by Library of Congress Classes and Subclasses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, David C.; Melvin, Joyce C.; Epp, MaryLou; Kreps, Anita M.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of literature on patron-driven acquisition (PDA) has been published that addresses the implementation and results of PDA programs at academic libraries. However, despite widespread worries that PDA will lead to unbalanced collections, little attention has been paid to whether patrons' and librarians' purchasing differ…

  16. X(5568) as a {su}\\bar{d}\\bar{b} tetraquark in a simple quark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancu, Fl

    2016-10-01

    The S-wave eigenstates of tetraquarks of type {su}\\bar{d}\\bar{b} with J P = 0+, 1+ and 2+ are studied within a simple quark model with chromomagnetic interaction and effective quark masses extracted from meson and baryon spectra. It is tempting to see if this spectrum can accommodate the new narrow structure X(5568), observed by the DØ Collaboration, but not confirmed by the LHCb Collaboration. If it exists, such a tetraquark is a system with four different flavors and its study can improve our understanding of multiquark systems. The presently calculated mass of X(5568) agrees quite well with the experimental value of the DØ Collaboration. Predictions are also made for the spectrum of the charmed partner {su}\\bar{d}\\bar{c}. However we are aware of the difficulty of extracting effective quark masses, from mesons and baryons, to be used in multiquark systems.

  17. nu. (nu-bar)+d. --> nu. (nu-bar)+n+p at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.K.; Khan, S.A.

    1981-03-01

    The deuteron disintegration processes ..nu..(nu-bar)+d..--> nu..(nu-bar)+n+p have been studied at intermediate energies in impulse approximation using closure over the final dinucleon states. The disintegration cross section sigma has been discussed as a function of neutrino (antineutrino) energy in various SU(2) x U(1) models for the helicity conserving weak neutral currents. A discussion on the helicity flipping weak neutral currents models of S, P, T couplings is also given.

  18. 11. Detail of horse lamp fixture in original Clubhouse bar. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail of horse lamp fixture in original Clubhouse bar. Fixture is at north end of bar. Camera pointed up and NW. (July 1993) - Longacres, Clubhouse & Additions, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  19. Laboratory and workplace assessments of rivet bucking bar vibration emissions.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Thomas W; Warren, Christopher; Xu, Xueyan S; Welcome, Daniel E; Dong, Ren G

    2015-04-01

    Sheet metal workers operating rivet bucking bars are at risk of developing hand and wrist musculoskeletal disorders associated with exposures to hand-transmitted vibrations and forceful exertions required to operate these hand tools. New bucking bar technologies have been introduced in efforts to reduce workplace vibration exposures to these workers. However, the efficacy of these new bucking bar designs has not been well documented. While there are standardized laboratory-based methodologies for assessing the vibration emissions of many types of powered hand tools, no such standard exists for rivet bucking bars. Therefore, this study included the development of a laboratory-based method for assessing bucking bar vibrations which utilizes a simulated riveting task. With this method, this study evaluated three traditional steel bucking bars, three similarly shaped tungsten alloy bars, and three bars featuring spring-dampeners. For comparison the bucking bar vibrations were also assessed during three typical riveting tasks at a large aircraft maintenance facility. The bucking bars were rank-ordered in terms of unweighted and frequency-weighted acceleration measured at the hand-tool interface. The results suggest that the developed laboratory method is a reasonable technique for ranking bucking bar vibration emissions; the lab-based riveting simulations produced similar rankings to the workplace rankings. However, the laboratory-based acceleration averages were considerably lower than the workplace measurements. These observations suggest that the laboratory test results are acceptable for comparing and screening bucking bars, but the laboratory measurements should not be directly used for assessing the risk of workplace bucking bar vibration exposures. The newer bucking bar technologies exhibited significantly reduced vibrations compared to the traditional steel bars. The results of this study, together with other information such as rivet quality, productivity, tool

  20. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section...

  1. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section...

  2. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section...

  3. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section...

  4. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section...

  5. Chord, Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Detail in Plan; Crossbracing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord, Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Detail in Plan; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail in Plan; Chord Joining Detail in Plan & Elevation; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar, & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail in Section; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar & Horizontal Brace Joint Detail - Narrows Bridge, Spanning Sugar Creek at Old County Road 280 East, Marshall, Parke County, IN

  6. Access to Bathtub Grab Bars: Evidence of a Policy Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkett, Nicholas; Nair, Rama; Murphy, Maureen; Roberge, Ginette; Lockett, Donna

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines access to bathtub grab bars in privately and publicly owned apartment buildings and explores the profile of seniors who have access to bathtub grab bars. Results indicate that bathtub grab bars were significantly more prevalent in apartments that were publicly owned (91.3%) as compared to privately owned (37.8%) (p lesser than…

  7. 21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 201.25 Section 201.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.25 Bar code label requirements. (a) Who is subject to these bar code...

  8. 21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... drug product from the bar code label requirements set forth in this section. The exemption request must... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 201.25 Section 201.25...: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.25 Bar code label requirements. (a) Who is subject...

  9. 21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... drug product from the bar code label requirements set forth in this section. The exemption request must... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 201.25 Section 201.25...: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.25 Bar code label requirements. (a) Who is subject...

  10. A Reading PR Reference for Bar Executive Staff and Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Bar, Atlanta.

    This manual provides information to assist bar association staff and officers in explaining the role and function of the bar and in dealing with critical public-relations problems. Sections discuss the use and value of public relations, public relations and the role of the bar, public-relations problems, and major public-opinion problems…

  11. [Storage and use of antioxidants in cereal and peanut bars].

    PubMed

    Estévez, A M; Escobar, B; Tepper, A; Castillo, E

    1998-06-01

    The use of fatty materials in cereal bars gives to them a good energetic value; however they are exposed to oxidative rancidity which can affect their acceptability and nutritional value. So, the purpose of this research was to determine the stability in storage and the effect of antioxidants on three tipes of cereal bars with peanuts. Cereal bars with 18% of peanuts were prepared, with and without antioxidants (BHA + BHT; 100 ppm). Bars were packed in polyprolpilene-aluminium-polythilene bags, and were stored at room temperature (18-20 degrees C) for 90 days. Each 30 days, analysis of water activity (Aw); moisture content, peroxides index, sensory quality (flavor, aroma and appearance) and acceptability, were carried out. Moisture content was similar in all bars (7.6-9.6%) and Aw was higher in the bar which contained expanded amaranthus and antioxidant. At the 60th day of storage, the peroxide values were lower in the bars with antioxidants; only the bar which included expanded amaranthus showed significant differences (16.4 meq/kg in the bar with antioxidant and 25.7 meq/kg for the control bar). The sensory parameters were kept within normal status without differences between the bars with antioxidants and the control ones, along all the storage period. Shelf life of bars CM1 and CM2 was at least of 60 days when they are kept at 18-20 degrees C. PMID:9830493

  12. 33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10... DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall receive more than one Gold Lifesaving Medal and...

  13. 33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10... DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall receive more than one Gold Lifesaving Medal and...

  14. 33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10... DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall receive more than one Gold Lifesaving Medal and...

  15. 33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10... DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall receive more than one Gold Lifesaving Medal and...

  16. 33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10... DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall receive more than one Gold Lifesaving Medal and...

  17. EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, BUFFALO PLANT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ROLL SHOP. 8" BAR MILL DESIGNED AND BUILT BY DONNER STEEL CO. (PREDECESSOR OF REPUBLIC), 1919-1920. FOR DESCRIPTION OF ORIGINAL MILL SEE "IRON AGE", 116\\4 (23 JULY 1925): 201-204. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  18. 10 CFR 39.49 - Uranium sinker bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uranium sinker bars. 39.49 Section 39.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.49 Uranium sinker bars. The licensee may use a uranium sinker bar in well logging applications only if it is...

  19. 10 CFR 39.49 - Uranium sinker bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uranium sinker bars. 39.49 Section 39.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.49 Uranium sinker bars. The licensee may use a uranium sinker bar in well logging applications only if it is...

  20. 10 CFR 39.49 - Uranium sinker bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uranium sinker bars. 39.49 Section 39.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.49 Uranium sinker bars. The licensee may use a uranium sinker bar in well logging applications only if it is...

  1. 10 CFR 39.49 - Uranium sinker bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uranium sinker bars. 39.49 Section 39.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.49 Uranium sinker bars. The licensee may use a uranium sinker bar in well logging applications only if it is...

  2. 10 CFR 39.49 - Uranium sinker bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uranium sinker bars. 39.49 Section 39.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.49 Uranium sinker bars. The licensee may use a uranium sinker bar in well logging applications only if it is...

  3. A Local Reference For Bar Studies In The Distant Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín; Sheth, Kartik; S4G Team

    2015-08-01

    Stellar bars are present in ~2/3 of nearby spirals and play a critical role in the evolution of their hosts. With the advent of large high-resolution imaging surveys, bar studies are being extended to distant galaxies. However, photometric studies of the distant universe are invariably subject to the effects of band-shifting, the progressive shift of the photometric band to bluer rest-frame wavelengths. In order to reliably characterize the intrinsic evolution of bars with redshift, safe from band-shifting effects, it is necessary to establish a local anchor of how bar properties vary with wavelength. We present a detailed multi-band study of bar properties from UV through mid-infrared for a sample of 16 large nearby barred galaxies. Based on ellipticity and position angle profiles resulting from fitting elliptical isophotes to the 2D light distribution of each galaxy, we find that both the bar length and the bar ellipticity increase at bluer wavebands. We attribute the increase in bar length to the frequent presence of prominent star forming knots at the end of bars: these regions are significantly brighter in bluer bands, resulting in the “artificial” lengthening of the bar. The increase in bar ellipticity, on the other hand, is driven by the bulge size: the bulge, composed primarily of old/red stars, is less prominent at bluer bands, allowing for thinner ellipses to be fit within the bar region. The resulting effect is that bars appear longer and thinner at bluer bands. Although we find that ~50% of the bars disappear in the UV, the results on bar ellipticity and length extend to those cases in which the bar is still visible in the UV. These results imply that careful correction for band-shifting effects is necessary for high-z studies to reliably gauge any intrinsic evolution of the bar properties with redshift. In the light of the ample space-based optical data now available, this study may be used as a reference to implement band-shifting corrections to

  4. Bar-code automated waste tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, T.E.

    1994-10-01

    The Bar-Code Automated Waste Tracking System was designed to be a site-Specific program with a general purpose application for transportability to other facilities. The system is user-friendly, totally automated, and incorporates the use of a drive-up window that is close to the areas dealing in container preparation, delivery, pickup, and disposal. The system features ``stop-and-go`` operation rather than a long, tedious, error-prone manual entry. The system is designed for automation but allows operators to concentrate on proper handling of waste while maintaining manual entry of data as a backup. A large wall plaque filled with bar-code labels is used to input specific details about any movement of waste.

  5. Did liberalising bar hours decrease traffic accidents?

    PubMed

    Green, Colin P; Heywood, John S; Navarro, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Legal bar closing times in England and Wales have historically been early and uniform. Recent legislation liberalised closing times with the object of reducing social problems thought associated with drinking to "beat the clock." Indeed, using both difference in difference and synthetic control approaches we show that one consequence of this liberalisation was a decrease in traffic accidents. This decrease is heavily concentrated among younger drivers. Moreover, we provide evidence that the effect was most pronounced in the hours of the week directly affected by the liberalisation: late nights and early mornings on weekends. This evidence survives a series of robustness checks and suggests at least one socially positive consequence of extending bar hours.

  6. The Lifetimes of Spirals and Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellwood, J. A.

    2015-03-01

    Simulations of isolated galaxy disks that are stable against bar formation readily manifest multiple, transient spiral patterns. It therefore seems likely that some spirals in real galaxies are similarly self-excited, although others are clearly driven by tidal interactions or by bars. The rapidly changing appearance of simulated spirals does not, however imply that the patterns last only a fraction of an orbit. Power spectrum analysis reveals a few underlying, longer-lived spiral waves that turn at different rates, which when super-posed give the appearance of swing-amplified transients. These longer-lived waves are genuine unstable spiral modes; each grows vigorously, saturates and decays over a total of several orbit periods. As each mode decays, the wave action created as it grew drains away to the Lindblad resonances, where it scatters stars. The resulting changes to the disk create the conditions for a new instability, giving rise to a recurring cycle of unstable modes.

  7. [x, p] = i{h_bar} ?

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jau

    1996-03-01

    Heisenberg`s commutation relation for position x and momentum p, and its validity for relativistic harmonic oscillators are examined, using the techniques of Lie algebra and dual-bosonic representation of x, p and the Hamiltonian H. A modification with [x, p] =i{h_bar}({minus_plus} 1 + H/m{sub 0}c{sup 2}) is proposed for a particle and an antiparticle in a harmonic potential. For a 2 {times} 2 matrix representation for x, p and H operators, the quantized eigenenergy E is given by (E - m{sub 0}c{sup 2})/{h_bar}{omega} = 3/2, 5/2, 7/2, ..., where 1/2 is not allowed.

  8. ALIP with conducting bars in the channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishbergs, R.

    2009-03-01

    Electromagnetic processes in the channel of a cylindrical induction pump having longitudinal copper bars of large electric conductivity have been analyzed. The possibility to increase the pressure developed by the pump if compared to the usual pump (ALIP) is considered as well as the increase of the coefficient of pressure head weakening k_{0 c} more than unity and its effects on the efficiency coefficient. Figs 5, Refs 5.

  9. Intersite comparison of interannual nearshore bar behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruessink, B. G.; Wijnberg, K. M.; Holman, R. A.; Kuriyama, Y.; van Enckevort, I. M. J.

    2003-08-01

    Long-term (>years) bathymetric data sets collected in six multiple near-shore sandbar systems were analyzed with complex empirical orthogonal function analysis to quantify intersite differences and similarities in cyclic offshore progressive bar behavior. The observations came from a 37-year annually sampled data set of four regions along the Dutch coast (spanning 70 km of coastline), an 18-year fortnightly to monthly sampled data set at Duck, North Carolina (alongshore extent ˜1 km), and a 7-year daily sampled data set of a single cross-shore profile at the Hasaki coast of Japan. The first complex mode, typically representing 50-70% of the total depth variance, described the long-term offshore progressive behavior and allowed for an objective separation of the barred part of the profile from the shoreward- and seaward-located nonbarred parts by considering a threshold bar amplitude below which the spatial results from the first mode were not considered reliable. The sandbars at the six examined sites share common lengths and nondimensional amplitude characteristics, which can be described by a negatively skewed Gaussian function. The absolute amplitude dimensions and the cycle return intervals differ, however, considerably between the sites. The key geometric parameters that steer this intersite variation are the time-averaged mean depths at the shoreward and seaward side of the bar zone (?shore and ?sea, respectively) as well as their difference ?bz. The degree to which intersite differences in ?shore, ?sea, and ?bz are related linearly to intersite differences in bulk statistics of external forcings (wave, tide, sediment, and bed profile characteristics) is inconclusive.

  10. Simulation of BaBar Drift Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Rachel; /Wisconsin U., Eau Claire /SLAC

    2006-09-27

    The BaBar drift chamber (DCH) is used to measure the properties of charged particles created from e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions in the PEP-II asymmetric-energy storage rings by making precise measurements of position, momentum and ionization energy loss (dE/dx). In October of 2005, the PEP-II storage rings operated with a luminosity of 10 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}; the goal for 2007 is a luminosity of 20 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, which will increase the readout dead time, causing uncertainty in drift chamber measurements to become more significant in physics results. The research described in this paper aims to reduce position and dE/dx uncertainties by improving our understanding of the BaBar drift chamber performance. A simulation program--called GARFIELD--is used to model the behavior of the drift chamber with adjustable parameters such as gas mixture, wire diameter, voltage, and magnetic field. By exploring the simulation options offered in GARFIELD, we successfully produced a simulation model of the BaBar drift chamber. We compared the time-to-distance calibration from BaBar to that calculated by GARFIELD to validate our model as well as check for discrepancies between the simulated and calibrated time-to-distance functions, and found that for a 0{sup o} entrance angle there is a very good match between calibrations, but at an entrance angle of 90{sup o} the calibration breaks down. Using this model, we also systematically varied the gas mixture to find one that would optimize chamber operation, which showed that the gas mixture of 80:20 Helium:isobutane is a good operating point, though more calculations need to be done to confirm that it is the optimal mixture.

  11. Gas and Dust in the Orion Bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arab, H.; Compiègne, M.; Habart, E.; Abergel, A.

    2011-11-01

    We use the DustEM model coupled with a radiative transfer code to fit the Herschel and Spitzer emission of the Orion Bar. The thermal dust emission at the 250-μm peak position is well reproduced but we overestimate the stochastically heated grain emission. The dust model parameters are checked with the Meudon PDR code and are consistent with the spectroscopic data from the SPIRE FTS.

  12. Hadron Physics in BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Lafferty, G.D.; /Manchester U.

    2005-08-29

    Some recent results in hadron physics from the BaBar experiment are discussed. In particular, the observation of two new charmed states, the D*{sub sJ}{sup +}(2317) and the D*{sub sJ}{sup +}(2457), is described, and results are presented on the first measurement of the rare decay mode of the B meson, B{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}.

  13. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Barred Owl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the barred owl (Strix varia). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  14. Adult Books for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Considers the differences between young adult and adult books and maintains that teachers must be familiar with young adults' tastes for both. Suggests that traffic between these publishing divisions is a two-way street, with young adults reading adult books and adults reading young adult books. (TB)

  15. Proposal for a University of California/California State University and Colleges Inter-Segmental Machine-Readable Library Patron Card.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Kenneth

    It is proposed that the University of California and the California State University and College system cooperate in the development of a compatible machine-readable library patron card or badge that would meet the requirements of campuses in both systems. For discussion purposes, this report suggests the basic features to be included in such a…

  16. "Click Here to Order This Book": A Case Study of Print and Electronic Patron-Driven Acquisition in University College Dublin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Mark; McCarney, Eoin

    2014-01-01

    University College Dublin became the first library in the Republic of Ireland to trial patron-driven acquisition (PDA) as a collection development tool in 2013. A total of 42% of UCD Library's book budget was allocated to the project, which included both electronic and print books. This article describes the twelve month project from the tender…

  17. Leptonic B Decays at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Baracchini, Elisabetta; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome

    2011-11-10

    We will present the most recent results on leptonic B decays B{sup {+-}(0)} {yields} K*{sup {+-}(0)}{nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{nu}, based on the data collected by the BaBar detector at PEP-II, an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the center of mass energy of the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. Rare B decays have always been a standard probe for New Physics (NP) searches. The very low Standard Model (SM) rate of these decays often make them unaccessible with the present experimental datasets, unless NP effects enhance the rate up to the current experimental sensitivity. Moreover, as NP effects can modify the decay kinematic, particular attention must be paid in order to perform a model independent analysis. A B-Factory provides an unique environment to investigate these processes. The high number of B{bar B} pairs produced by a B-Factory often allows to approach the needed experimental sensitivity. Moreover, the clean environment and the closed kinematic of the initial state enable to obtaining a very pure sample where to look for these decays.

  18. Acceleration forces at eye level experienced with rotation on the horizontal bar.

    PubMed

    Beck, G R; Rabinovitch, P; Brown, A C

    1979-06-01

    Negative acceleration forces (-Gz) experienced at eye level have been associated with preretinal hemorrhage and headache. These signs and symptoms were found in individuals who experienced negative (toward the head) force while rotating on a horizontal bar or hanging from a trapeze. Lightweight accelerometers were used to measure -Gz experienced at eye level in children and adult gymnasts performing a single-knee backswing on a horizontal bar. Rate of onset of -Gz, peak -Gz, time experiencing -Gz, area of curve (G.second), and mean force (area/time) were calculated. There was no significant difference between the children and the adult gymnasts in any of the above parameters. The best gymnast had a maximum rate of onset of 38.15 G/s and the maximum negative force experienced was 5.52 G. The maximum rate of onset for a child was 41.56 G/s and the maximum negative force experienced was 5.73 G. Compared with -Gz tolerance curves generated on a centrifuge the best gymnast would have become symptomatic while performing this maneuver in 6 s. The best child would have become symptomatic in 25 s. These tolerance limits can be easily exceeded by gymnasts and by the monkey-bar enthusiast. PMID:468634

  19. Behavioural Indicators of Motives for Barroom Aggression: Implications for Preventing Bar Violence

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Wells, Samantha; Osgood, D. Wayne; Abbey, Antonia; Felson, Richard B.; Saltz, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction/Aims To develop new strategies for preventing violence in high risk licensed premises, we identify behavioural indicators of apparent motives for aggression in these settings and outline the implications of different motivation for prevention. Design/Methods The four types of motives for aggressive or coercive acts defined by the theory of coercive actions framed the research: gaining compliance, expressing grievances/restoring justice, attaining a favourable social identity, and pursuing fun/excitement. Incidents of aggression from the Safer Bars evaluation research [1] were analysed to identify behavioural indicators of each motivation. Results Compliance-motivated aggression typically takes the form of unwanted social overtures, third party intervention to stop conflicts or staff rule enforcement. Prevention strategies include keeping the aggressor’s focus on compliance to avoid provoking grievance and identity motives which are likely to escalate aggression. Grievance motives are typically elicited by perceived wrongdoing and, therefore, prevention should focus on eliminating sources of grievances and adopting policies/practices to resolve grievances peacefully. Social identity motives are endemic to many drinking establishments especially among male patrons and staff. Prevention involves reducing identity cues in the environment, hiring staff who do not have identity concerns, and training staff to avoid provoking identity concerns. Aggression motivated by fun/excitement often involves low-level aggression where escalation can be prevented by avoiding grievances and attacks on identity. Discussion/Conclusions Knowledge of behavioural indicators of motives can be used to enhance staff hiring and training practices, reduce environmental triggers for aggression, and develop policies to reduce motivation for aggression. PMID:21896078

  20. Using online reviews by restaurant patrons to identify unreported cases of foodborne illness - New York City, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Cassandra; Jorder, Mohip; Stern, Henri; Stavinsky, Faina; Reddy, Vasudha; Hanson, Heather; Waechter, HaeNa; Lowe, Luther; Gravano, Luis; Balter, Sharon

    2014-05-23

    While investigating an outbreak of gastrointestinal disease associated with a restaurant, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) noted that patrons had reported illnesses on the business review website Yelp (http://www.yelp.com) that had not been reported to DOHMH. To explore the potential of using Yelp to identify unreported outbreaks, DOHMH worked with Columbia University and Yelp on a pilot project to prospectively identify restaurant reviews on Yelp that referred to foodborne illness. During July 1, 2012-March 31, 2013, approximately 294,000 Yelp restaurant reviews were analyzed by a software program developed for the project. The program identified 893 reviews that required further evaluation by a foodborne disease epidemiologist. Of the 893 reviews, 499 (56%) described an event consistent with foodborne illness (e.g., patrons reported diarrhea or vomiting after their meal), and 468 of those described an illness within 4 weeks of the review or did not provide a period. Only 3% of the illnesses referred to in the 468 reviews had also been reported directly to DOHMH via telephone and online systems during the same period. Closer examination determined that 129 of the 468 reviews required further investigation, resulting in telephone interviews with 27 reviewers. From those 27 interviews, three previously unreported restaurant-related outbreaks linked to 16 illnesses met DOHMH outbreak investigation criteria; environmental investigation of the three restaurants identified multiple food-handling violations. The results suggest that online restaurant reviews might help to identify unreported outbreaks of foodborne illness and restaurants with deficiencies in food handling. However, investigating reports of illness in this manner might require considerable time and resources.

  1. The structure of the Milky Way's bar outside the bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegg, Christopher; Gerhard, Ortwin; Portail, Matthieu

    2015-07-01

    While it is incontrovertible that the inner Galaxy contains a bar, its structure near the Galactic plane has remained uncertain, where extinction from intervening dust is greatest. We investigate here the Galactic bar outside the bulge, the long bar, using red clump giant (RCG) stars from United Kingdom Infrared Deep Sky Survey, Two Micron All Sky Survey, Vista Variables in the Via Lactea and Galactic Legacy Infrared Midplane Survey Extraordinaire. We match and combine these surveys to investigate a wide area in latitude and longitude, |b| ≤ 9° and |l| ≤ 40°. We find (i) the bar extends to l ˜ 25° at |b| ˜ 5° from the Galactic plane, and to l ˜ 30° at lower latitudes; (ii) the long bar has an angle to the line-of-sight in the range (28°-33°), consistent with studies of the bulge at |l| < 10°; (iii) the scale height of RCG stars smoothly transitions from the bulge to the thinner long bar; (iv) there is evidence for two scale heights in the long bar; we find a ˜180 pc thin bar component reminiscent of the old thin disc near the Sun, and a ˜45 pc superthin bar components which exist predominantly towards the bar end; (v) constructing parametric models for the red clump magnitude distributions, we find a bar half-length of 5.0 ± 0.2 kpc for the two-component bar, and 4.6 ± 0.3 kpc for the thin bar component alone. We conclude that the Milky Way contains a central box/peanut bulge which is the vertical extension of a longer, flatter bar, similar as seen in both external galaxies and N-body models.

  2. Gas flow in barred potentials - II. Bar-driven spiral arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sormani, Mattia C.; Binney, James; Magorrian, John

    2015-08-01

    Spiral arms that emerge from the ends of a galactic bar are important in interpreting observations of our and external galaxies. It is therefore important to understand the physical mechanism that causes them. We find that these spiral arms can be understood as kinematic density waves generated by librations around underlying ballistic closed orbits. This is even true in the case of a strong bar, provided the librations are around the appropriate closed orbits and not around the circular orbits that form the basis of the epicycle approximation. An important consequence is that it is a potential's orbital structure that determines whether a bar should be classified as weak or strong, and not crude estimates of the potential's deviation from axisymmetry.

  3. Presence of ribonucleoproteins and basic proteins in the nuage and intermitochondrial bars of human spermatogonia.

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua, R; Nistal, M; Amat, P; Rodriguez, M C

    1985-01-01

    Ultrastructural cytochemical study of the nuage in the human adult testis revealed that this structure was a cytoplasmic fine fibrillar electron-dense mass, similar to the chromatoid body of spermatids, in all spermatogonial types and spermatocytes. The nuage was often observed in relation with the nucleus or mitochondria. Cytochemical techniques showed staining affinity of the nuage for both ethanolic phosphotungstic acid and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid. The intermitochondrial bars were also stained with the two procedures. The results suggest that the nuage originates from the nucleus and migrates to the cytoplasm through nuclear pores, giving rise to the intermitochondrial bars. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3870728

  4. Challenges for the smoking ban in Israeli pubs and bars: analysis guided by the behavioral ecological model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The latest amendment to the ban on smoking in public places in Israel was implemented in 2007, adding pubs and bars (P&B) to the list of public places in which smoking is prohibited. However, smoking in most P&B continued. The aim of the study was to identify the theoretically plausible reasons for the partial success of a public ban on smoking in P&B settings. Explanations provided by P&B owners were interpreted as probable causal factors based on the Behavioral Ecological Model (BEM). Methods Qualitative interviews were performed with 36 P&B owners in Tel-Aviv and 18 Israeli towns and cities of various population size. Results P&B owners reported a variety of situational factors (i.e., contingencies) and reinforcers as likely explanations of the partial failure of the legislated ban on smoking in public places, particularly P&B. The major reinforcers for non-adherence with the law were no or low frequency of inspections and low penalties from authorities. P&B owners also feared loss of customers and revenue if bans were enforced in their own establishment but not in competing establishments. Finally, owners reported social norms prevailing among some Israeli patrons supporting smoking in P&B settings, in part to express opposition to the new law. Conclusions Qualitative assessment can uncover probable social situations that operate to prevent greater adherence to smoking bans. The results warrant confirmation by quantitative analyses. Policies with mandated inspections and penalty requirements that are implemented in all bars without prejudice could lead to greater adherence to smoking bans. Positive reinforcing consequences that encourage adherence (such as publicity and support from non-smokers) would be more likely to generate both greater adherence to the policy and good will toward the government. Principles of behavior outlined in the BEM offer guidance for designing quantitative confirmation analyses of future bans. PMID:22913392

  5. Finite element analysis (FEA) studies in 2.5-mm round bar design: the effects of bar length and material composition on bar failure.

    PubMed

    Bidez, M W; Chen, Y; McLoughlin, S W; English, C E

    1992-01-01

    The round bar/overdenture prosthesis is commonly used in the restoration of the totally edentulous implant patient. The length of bar span and types of alloys used in clinical cases have raised questions related to beam flexure and its role as a possible etiology of reported clinical failures in cast alloy systems. Three-dimensional finite element analyses were thus conducted on a 2.5-mm round bar for investigation of mechanical performance with respect to failure potential as a function of bar length and bar material property. Specifically, three bar lengths (6 mm, 12 mm, and 18 mm) and three alloy materials were analyzed, representing a clinical range of usage. The ends of each bar were modeled fixed to a 2.5-mm coping which was attached to a 3.8-mm root-form-type implant. The implant was modeled rigidly fixed in a representative block of bone. A 200-N occlusal force was applied to the model, as would be transmitted through an attachment clip, 5 mm in length, for the three respective bar lengths. The results of these analyses suggested possible yielding (or failure) in the 18-mm case. Bar length was found to play a stronger role in the adequacy of the overall design as compared with changing material properties in the range of alloy stiffnesses tested. Factors of safety with respect to static yield strength ranged from 2.82 to 66.46 for the designs evaluated. Fatigue factors of safety ranged from 1.63 to 38.88. A factor of safety of 5 or greater is suggested for the design of round bar systems in order for bar failure to be prevented.

  6. Observation of B+ -> K0bar K+ and B0 -> K0 K0bar

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2006-08-16

    The authors report observations of the b {yields} d penguin-dominated decays B{sup +} {yields} {bar K}{sup 0}K{sup +} and B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup 0}{bar K}{sup 0} in approximately 350 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected with the BABAR detector. They measure the branching fractions {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {bar K}{sup 0}K{sup +}) = (1.61 {+-} 0.44 {+-} 0.09) x 10{sup -6} and {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup 0}{bar K}{sup 0}) = (1.08 {+-} 0.28 {+-} 0.11) x 10{sup -6}, and the CP-violating charge asymmetry {Alpha}{sub CP} ({bar K}{sup 0} K{sup +}) = 0.10 {+-} 0.26 {+-} 0.03. Using a vertexing technique previously employed in several analyses of all-neutral final states containing kaons, they report the first measurement of time-dependent CP-violating asymmetries in B{sup 0} {yields} K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0}, obtaining S = -1.28{sub -0.73 -0.16}{sup +0.80 +0.11} and C = -0.40 {+-} 0.41 {+-} 0.06. They also report improved measurements of the branching fraction {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} K{sup 0} {pi}{sup +}) = (23.9 {+-} 1.1 {+-} 1.0) x 10{sup -6} and CP-violating charge asymmetry {Alpha}{sub CP} (K{sup 0} {pi}{sup +}) = -0.029 {+-} 0.039 {+-} 0.010.

  7. Finite Element Simulations to Explore Assumptions in Kolsky Bar Experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Justin

    2015-08-05

    The chief purpose of this project has been to develop a set of finite element models that attempt to explore some of the assumptions in the experimental set-up and data reduction of the Kolsky bar experiment. In brief, the Kolsky bar, sometimes referred to as the split Hopkinson pressure bar, is an experimental apparatus used to study the mechanical properties of materials at high strain rates. Kolsky bars can be constructed to conduct experiments in tension or compression, both of which are studied in this paper. The basic operation of the tension Kolsky bar is as follows: compressed air is inserted into the barrel that contains the striker; the striker accelerates towards the left and strikes the left end of the barrel producing a tensile stress wave that propogates first through the barrel and then down the incident bar, into the specimen, and finally the transmission bar. In the compression case, the striker instead travels to the right and impacts the incident bar directly. As the stress wave travels through an interface (e.g., the incident bar to specimen connection), a portion of the pulse is transmitted and the rest reflected. The incident pulse, as well as the transmitted and reflected pulses are picked up by two strain gauges installed on the incident and transmitted bars as shown. By interpreting the data acquired by these strain gauges, the stress/strain behavior of the specimen can be determined.

  8. THE NATURE AND NURTURE OF BARS AND DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez-Abreu, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Zarattini, S.; Corsini, E. M.

    2012-12-10

    The effects that interactions produce on galaxy disks and how they modify the subsequent formation of bars need to be distinguished to fully understand the relationship between bars and environment. To this aim we derive the bar fraction in three different environments ranging from the field to Virgo and Coma Clusters, covering an unprecedentedly large range of galaxy luminosities (or, equivalently, stellar masses). We confirm that the fraction of barred galaxies strongly depends on galaxy luminosity. We also show that the difference between the bar fraction distributions as a function of galaxy luminosity (and mass) in the field and Coma Cluster is statistically significant, with Virgo being an intermediate case. The fraction of barred galaxies shows a maximum of about 50% at M{sub r} {approx_equal} - 20.5 in clusters, whereas the peak is shifted to M{sub r} {approx_equal} - 19 in the field. We interpret this result as a variation of the effect of environment on bar formation depending on galaxy luminosity. We speculate that brighter disk galaxies are stable enough against interactions to keep their cold structure, thus, the interactions are able to trigger bar formation. For fainter galaxies, the interactions become strong enough to heat up the disks inhibiting bar formation and even destroying the disks. Finally, we point out that the controversy regarding whether the bar fraction depends on environment could be resolved by taking into account the different luminosity ranges probed by the galaxy samples studied so far.

  9. The Nature and Nurture of Bars and Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-Abreu, J.; Sánchez-Janssen, R.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Corsini, E. M.; Zarattini, S.

    2012-12-01

    The effects that interactions produce on galaxy disks and how they modify the subsequent formation of bars need to be distinguished to fully understand the relationship between bars and environment. To this aim we derive the bar fraction in three different environments ranging from the field to Virgo and Coma Clusters, covering an unprecedentedly large range of galaxy luminosities (or, equivalently, stellar masses). We confirm that the fraction of barred galaxies strongly depends on galaxy luminosity. We also show that the difference between the bar fraction distributions as a function of galaxy luminosity (and mass) in the field and Coma Cluster is statistically significant, with Virgo being an intermediate case. The fraction of barred galaxies shows a maximum of about 50% at Mr ~= - 20.5 in clusters, whereas the peak is shifted to Mr ~= - 19 in the field. We interpret this result as a variation of the effect of environment on bar formation depending on galaxy luminosity. We speculate that brighter disk galaxies are stable enough against interactions to keep their cold structure, thus, the interactions are able to trigger bar formation. For fainter galaxies, the interactions become strong enough to heat up the disks inhibiting bar formation and even destroying the disks. Finally, we point out that the controversy regarding whether the bar fraction depends on environment could be resolved by taking into account the different luminosity ranges probed by the galaxy samples studied so far.

  10. Advances in bonding technology for high power diode laser bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingwei; Li, Xiaoning; Hou, Dong; Feng, Feifei; Liu, Yalong; Liu, Xingsheng

    2015-02-01

    Due to their high electrical-optical conversion efficiency, compact size and long lifetime, high power diode lasers have found increased applications in many fields. As the improvement of device technology, high power diode laser bars with output power of tens or hundreds watts have been commercially available. With the increase of high current and output power, the reliability and lifetime of high power diode laser bars becomes a challenge, especially under harsh working conditions and hard-pulse operations. The bonding technology is still one of the bottlenecks of the advancement of high power diode laser bars. Currently, materials used in bonding high power diode laser bars are commonly indium and goldtin solders. Experimental and field application results indicates that the lifetime and reliability of high power diode laser bars bonded by gold-tin solder is much better than that bonded by indium solder which is prone to thermal fatigue, electro-migration and oxidization. In this paper, we review the bonding technologies for high power diode laser bars and present the advances in bonding technology for single bars, horizontal bar arrays and vertical bar stacks. We will also present the challenges and issues in bonding technology for high power diode laser bars and discuss some approaches and strategies in addressing the challenges and issues.

  11. VLA continuum observations of barred spiral galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Barreto, J. Antonio; Pismis, P.

    1987-01-01

    Observations of NGC 613, NGC 1300, NGC 4314 and NGC 5383 using the VLA at frequencies of 1464.9 and 4885.1 MHz are reported. These objects are a subset of galaxies from which radio emission were searched. The selection criteria were: (1) they are barred spiral galaxies preferentially with different Hubble type; (2) they have a peculiar or hot spot nucleus; (3) they have been observed at far infrared wavelengths by IRAS; and (4) they are observable from the northern hemisphere. Their radio and far infrared properties are summarized and their composite spectra are shown.

  12. Predicting Vertical Jump Height from Bar Velocity

    PubMed Central

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s-2). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r2 = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r2 = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key points Vertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer. The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s-2 and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement. Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance. PMID:25983572

  13. Predicting Error Bars for QSAR Models

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeter, Timon; Mika, Sebastian; Ter Laak, Antonius; Suelzle, Detlev; Ganzer, Ursula; Heinrich, Nikolaus; Mueller, Klaus-Robert

    2007-09-18

    Unfavorable physicochemical properties often cause drug failures. It is therefore important to take lipophilicity and water solubility into account early on in lead discovery. This study presents log D{sub 7} models built using Gaussian Process regression, Support Vector Machines, decision trees and ridge regression algorithms based on 14556 drug discovery compounds of Bayer Schering Pharma. A blind test was conducted using 7013 new measurements from the last months. We also present independent evaluations using public data. Apart from accuracy, we discuss the quality of error bars that can be computed by Gaussian Process models, and ensemble and distance based techniques for the other modelling approaches.

  14. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    PubMed

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.

  15. CP Violation at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Yeche, Christophe; /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay

    2011-11-15

    We report recent measurements of the three CKM angles of the Unitarity Triangle using about 383 millions b{bar b} pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. The results of the angles ({beta}, {alpha}, {gamma}) of the unitarity triangle are consistent with Belle results, and with other CKM constraints such as the measurement of {epsilon}{sub K}, the length of the sides of the unitarity triangle determined from the measurements of {Delta}m{sub d}, {Delta}m{sub s}, |V{sub ub}|. This is an impressive confirmation of Standard Model in quark-flavor sector.

  16. Hadron Physics at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, David; /SLAC

    2005-10-26

    The BaBar experiment at SLAC is designed to measure CP violation in the B meson system, however the very high statistics combined with the different e{sup +} and e{sup -} beam energies, the detector design and the open trigger allow a wide variety of spectroscopic measurements. We are beginning to tap this potential via several production mechanisms. Here we present recent results from initial state radiation, hadronic jets, few body B and D hadron decays, and interactions in the detector material. We also summarize measurements relevant to D{sub s} meson spectroscopy, pentaquarks and charmonium spectroscopy from multiple production mechanisms.

  17. Failure Waves in Cylindrical Glass Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazamias, James U.; Bless, Stephan J.; Marder, Michael P.

    1997-07-01

    Failure waves, a propagating front separating virgin and comminuted material, have been receiving a fair amount of attention the last couple of years. While most scientists have been looking at failure waves in plate impact geometries, we have conducted a series of experiments on Pyrex bars. In this paper, we present two types of photographic data from a series of tests. A streak camera was used to determine velocities of the failure front as a function of impact stress. A polaroid camera and a flash lamp provide detailed pictures of the actual event. Attempts were made to observe failure waves in amorphous quartz and acrylic.

  18. Predicting Error Bars for QSAR Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeter, Timon; Schwaighofer, Anton; Mika, Sebastian; Ter Laak, Antonius; Suelzle, Detlev; Ganzer, Ursula; Heinrich, Nikolaus; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2007-09-01

    Unfavorable physicochemical properties often cause drug failures. It is therefore important to take lipophilicity and water solubility into account early on in lead discovery. This study presents log D7 models built using Gaussian Process regression, Support Vector Machines, decision trees and ridge regression algorithms based on 14556 drug discovery compounds of Bayer Schering Pharma. A blind test was conducted using 7013 new measurements from the last months. We also present independent evaluations using public data. Apart from accuracy, we discuss the quality of error bars that can be computed by Gaussian Process models, and ensemble and distance based techniques for the other modelling approaches.

  19. Queering the Adult Gaze: Young Male Hustlers and Their Alliances with Older Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raible, John

    2011-01-01

    Based on ethnographic data collected at a gay bar with sexual minority youths as dancers or strippers, this study calls attention to the gazes through which adults view and position male youths. It highlights a dancer named Austin, who at times engaged in the underground hustling economy centered in the bar. The findings suggest that the social…

  20. Automated multisyringe stir bar sorptive extraction using robust montmorillonite/epoxy-coated stir bars.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Milad; Saraji, Mohammad; Maya, Fernando; Cerdà, Víctor

    2016-05-01

    Herein we present a simple, rapid and low cost strategy for the preparation of robust stir bar coatings based on the combination of montmorillonite with epoxy resin. The composite stir bar was implemented in a novel automated multisyringe stir bar sorptive extraction system (MS-SBSE), and applied to the extraction of four chlorophenols (4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol) as model compounds, followed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. The different experimental parameters of the MS-SBSE, such as sample volume, selection of the desorption solvent, desorption volume, desorption time, sample solution pH, salt effect and extraction time were studied. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limits were between 0.02 and 0.34μgL(-1). Relative standard deviations (RSD) of the method for the analytes at 10μgL(-1) concentration level ranged from 3.5% to 4.1% (as intra-day RSD) and from 3.9% to 4.3% (as inter-day RSD at 50μgL(-1) concentration level). Batch-to-batch reproducibility for three different stir bars was 4.6-5.1%. The enrichment factors were between 30 and 49. In order to investigate the capability of the developed technique for real sample analysis, well water, wastewater and leachates from a solid waste treatment plant were satisfactorily analyzed.

  1. Bar slowdown and the distribution of dark matter in barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanassoula, E.

    2014-02-01

    `Conspiracy' between the dark and the baryonic matter prohibits an unambiguous decomposition of disc galaxy rotation curves into the corresponding components. Several methods have been proposed to counter this difficulty, but their results are widely discrepant. In this paper, I revisit one of these methods, which relies on the relation between the halo density and the decrease of the bar pattern speed. The latter is routinely characterized by the ratio R of the corotation radius RCR to the bar length Lb, R = R_CR/L_b. I use a set of N-body+SPH simulations, including subgrid physics, whose initial conditions cover a range of gas fractions and halo shapes. The models, by construction, have roughly the same azimuthally averaged circular velocity curve and halo density and they are all submaximal, i.e. according to previous works, they are expected to have all roughly the same R value, well outside the fast bar range (1.2 ± 0.2). Contrary to these expectations, however, these simulations end up having widely different R values, either within the fast bar range or well outside it. This shows that the R value cannot constrain the halo density, nor determine whether galactic discs are maximal or submaximal. I argue that this is true even for early-type discs (S0s and Sas).

  2. BARS/SSC/SPHINX4.0. BARS Bibliographic Data Retrieval System

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, W.

    1993-06-01

    BARS is a program which allows retrieval of information from suitable bibliographic databases. Two databases are included, SSC and SPHINX, which together list bibliographic information for some 12,000 references related to the fields of shock compression of condensed media, high rate deformation of solids, and detonation.

  3. $D^0 \\bar{D}^0$ Mixing at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Jonathon; /SLAC

    2011-10-26

    This article reviews the recent measurement of D{sup 0}-{bar D}{sup 0} mixing with the D{sup 0} {yields} K{pi} decay channel from the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II B-Factory. Averages from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group between this result and a previous result from BELLE are also presented.

  4. Improved specimen recovery in tensile split Hopkinson bar

    PubMed Central

    Isakov, Matti; Hiermaier, Stefan; Kuokkala, Veli-Tapani

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an improved specimen recovery method for the tensile split Hopkinson bar (TSHB) technique. The method is based on the trapping of residual stress waves with the use of momentum trap bars. As is well known, successful momentum trapping in TSHB is highly sensitive to experimental uncertainties, especially on the incident bar side of the set-up. However, as is demonstrated in this paper, significant improvement in the reliability of specimen recovery is obtained by using two momentum trap bars in contact with the incident bar. This makes the trapping of the reflected wave insensitive to striker speed and removes the need for a precision set gap between the incident bar and the momentum trap. PMID:25071235

  5. Tau Decays at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Hast, Carsten; /SLAC

    2009-01-22

    Recent results of tau lepton decay studies based on luminosities between 350 fb{sup -1} and 469 fb{sup -1} collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory are presented. The analyses reported here are Charged Current Lepton Universality and measurements of |V{sub us}| using {tau}{sup -} {yields} e{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub e}{nu}{sub {tau}}, {mu}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {mu}}{nu}{sub {tau}}, {pi}{sup -} {nu}{sub {tau}}, and K{sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}} decays, as well as searches for Second Class Currents in {tau}{sup -} {yields} {omega}{pi}{sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}} decays, studies of Lepton Flavor Violations, and a tau mass measurement and CPT-Test. If not explicitly mentioned, charge conjugate decay modes are also implied. decays, as well as searches for Second Class Currents in {tau}{sup -} {yields} {omega}{pi}{sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}} decays, studies of Lepton Flavor Violations, and a tau mass measurement and CPT-Test. If not explicitly mentioned, charge conjugate decay modes are also implied.

  6. Recent developments in stir bar sorptive extraction.

    PubMed

    He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2014-03-01

    As a crucial step in qualitative and quantitative analysis, sample pretreatment is commonly used to isolate the target analytes, concentrate them, or convert them into the forms tailored to the instrumental analysis. In recent years, there has been a trend for sample pretreatment techniques to become more miniaturized and more environmentally friendly. Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), which was developed in 1999, is such an environmentally friendly microextraction technique. Compared with other microextraction techniques, including solid phase microextraction and liquid phase microextraction, SBSE provides a higher extraction efficiency and better reproducibility owing to the much greater amount of the extraction phase, and no special skills are required. However, there are some problems associated with SBSE, such as the limited applicable coatings, coating abrasion of the laboratory-made stir bar, and the difficulty in automation, which restrict the further improvement and application of SBSE. This review focuses on the development of SBSE in the past decade, in terms of coating preparation, automated systems, novel extraction modes, its use with various instruments, and applications in food, environmental, and biological samples.

  7. Sillicon Photomultiplier and Scintillator Bar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelor, Mark; Elizondo, Leonardo; Ritt, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    To analyze extraterrestrial cosmic rays via precise measurements of airshower axes directions of penetrating particles such as muons, we constructed a model detector consisting of two 1-meter long scintillator bars. Each bar is fitted with green wavelength shifting fibers to modulate input for two silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) light detectors to record light produced by cosmic rays via scintillation. The purpose of the experiment is to determine the performance of these devices. Two makes of SiPMs were evaluated - from AdvanSiD and Hamamatsu. In order to filter out noise, timing measurements of the apparatus were performed under several trigger conditions such as coincidence trigger with 2 photomultiplier detectors, as well as SiPM detector arrays in self-triggered mode. The DRS4 Digitizer 4-channel fast waveform sampler digitized SiPM detector waveforms. Signals were analyzed with the CERN PAW package. The speed of light in the scintillator using the SiPM modules was found to be approximately 66% of the speed of light in a vacuum which is in accordance with the index of refraction for the fibers given by the manufacturer's specifications. The results of our timing measurements would be presented. Dept. of Ed. Title V Grant PO31S090007.

  8. Cereal and nut bars, nutritional quality and storage stability.

    PubMed

    Estévez, A M; Escobar, B; Vásquez, M; Castillo, E; Araya, E; Zacarías, I

    1995-06-01

    Six snack-type bars were manufactured, to contain oat and wheat germ and two different walnut levels, agglutinated with natural sweeteners and fats. Two bars also contained toasted amaranth with brown sugar cover and wheat extrudate, while two others, contained puffed instead of toasted amaranth. Water activity (Aw) and moisture were determined in the manufactured products. Quality and sensory evaluation and proximate analysis were carried out on the bars containing highest levels of walnuts (18%). The caloric contribution of the bars was computed by Atwater methods. The nutritional quality of the bars was determined by means of the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) and Net Protein Ratio (NPR), and the results were used to obtain relative PER and relative NPR. Samples of the latter bars were kept under accelerated storage for 15 days at 37 degrees C and analyzed every 5 days to determine their Aw, moisture, peroxide and sensory acceptability. The drying time for the cereal - and walnut - based bars was 45 min at 120 degrees C. All bars presented a good fiber supply and the CN1 bar, containing only oat, wheat germ and walnut, had the greatest protein content. In the sensory evaluation, the walnut level with the greatest preference was 18%. PER and NPR values of the bars did not differ significantly showing values approximately 86% that of the casein value. During storage, the moisture and Aw decreased in all the bars. Peroxides remained within the acceptable ranges; acceptability based on sensory evaluation remained best in the bar with toasted amaranth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8577648

  9. Kolkata Restaurant Problem as a Generalised El Farol Bar Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    Generalisation of the El Farol bar problem to that of many bars here leads to the Kolkata restaurant problem, where the decision to go to any restaurant or not is much simpler (depending on the previous experience of course, as in the El Farol bar problem). This generalised problem can be exactly analysed in some limiting cases discussed here. The fluctuation in the restaurant service can be shown to have precisely an inverse cubic behavior, as widely seen in the stock market fluctuations.

  10. Uncertainties in the Deprojection of the Observed Bar Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yanfei; Shen, Juntai; Li, Zhao-Yu

    2014-08-01

    In observations, it is important to deproject the two fundamental quantities characterizing a bar, i.e., its length (a) and ellipticity (e), to face-on values before any careful analyses. However, systematic estimation on the uncertainties of the commonly used deprojection methods is still lacking. Simulated galaxies are well suited in this study. We project two simulated barred galaxies onto a two-dimensional (2D) plane with different bar orientations and disk inclination angles (i). Bar properties are measured and deprojected with the popular deprojection methods in the literature. Generally speaking, deprojection uncertainties increase with increasing i. All of the deprojection methods behave badly when i is larger than 60°, due to the vertical thickness of the bar. Thus, future statistical studies of barred galaxies should exclude galaxies more inclined than 60°. At moderate inclination angles (i <= 60°), 2D deprojection methods (analytical and image stretching), and Fourier-based methods (Fourier decomposition and bar-interbar contrast) perform reasonably well with uncertainties ~10% in both the bar length and ellipticity, whereas the uncertainties of the one-dimensional (1D) analytical deprojection can be as high as 100% in certain extreme cases. We find that different bar measurement methods show systematic differences in the deprojection uncertainties. We further discuss the deprojection uncertainty factors with the emphasis on the most important one, i.e., the three-dimensional structure of the bar itself. We construct two triaxial toy bar models that can qualitatively reproduce the results of the 1D and 2D analytical deprojections; they confirm that the vertical thickness of the bar is the main source of uncertainties.

  11. Bar pattern speed evolution over the last 7 Gyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, I.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Méndez-Abreu, J.

    2012-04-01

    Context. The tumbling pattern of a bar is the main parameter characterising its dynamics. From numerical simulations, its evolution since bar formation is tightly linked to the dark halo in which the bar is formed through dynamical friction and angular momentum exchange. Observational measurements of the bar pattern speed with redshift can restrict models of galaxy formation and bar evolution. Aims: We aim to determine for the first time the bar pattern speed evolution with redshift based on morphological measurements. Methods: We have selected a sample of 44 low-inclination ringed galaxies from the SDSS and COSMOS surveys covering the redshift range 0 < z < 0.8 to investigate the evolution of the bar pattern speed. We derived morphological ratios between the deprojected outer ring radius (Rring) and the bar size (Rbar). This quantity is related to the parameter ℛ = RCR/Rbar used for classifiying bars in slow and fast rotators, and allows us to investigate possible differences with redshift. Results: We obtain a similar distribution of R at all redshifts. We do not find any systematic effect that could be forcing this result. Conclusions: The results obtained here are compatible with the main bulk of the bar population (~70%) being fast-rotators and with no evolution of the pattern speed with redshift. We argue that if bars are long-lasting structures, the results presented here imply that there has not been a substantial angular momentum exchange between the bar and halo, as predicted by numerical simulations. In consequence, this might imply that the discs of these high surface-brightness galaxies are maximal. The appendix is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgBased on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  12. Uncertainties in the deprojection of the observed bar properties

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Yanfei; Shen, Juntai; Li, Zhao-Yu

    2014-08-10

    In observations, it is important to deproject the two fundamental quantities characterizing a bar, i.e., its length (a) and ellipticity (e), to face-on values before any careful analyses. However, systematic estimation on the uncertainties of the commonly used deprojection methods is still lacking. Simulated galaxies are well suited in this study. We project two simulated barred galaxies onto a two-dimensional (2D) plane with different bar orientations and disk inclination angles (i). Bar properties are measured and deprojected with the popular deprojection methods in the literature. Generally speaking, deprojection uncertainties increase with increasing i. All of the deprojection methods behave badly when i is larger than 60°, due to the vertical thickness of the bar. Thus, future statistical studies of barred galaxies should exclude galaxies more inclined than 60°. At moderate inclination angles (i ≤ 60°), 2D deprojection methods (analytical and image stretching), and Fourier-based methods (Fourier decomposition and bar-interbar contrast) perform reasonably well with uncertainties ∼10% in both the bar length and ellipticity, whereas the uncertainties of the one-dimensional (1D) analytical deprojection can be as high as 100% in certain extreme cases. We find that different bar measurement methods show systematic differences in the deprojection uncertainties. We further discuss the deprojection uncertainty factors with the emphasis on the most important one, i.e., the three-dimensional structure of the bar itself. We construct two triaxial toy bar models that can qualitatively reproduce the results of the 1D and 2D analytical deprojections; they confirm that the vertical thickness of the bar is the main source of uncertainties.

  13. Mechanical Engineering Safety Note PEPC Spreader Bar Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, D.

    2001-08-26

    The PEPC Spreader Bar Assembly consists of a spreader bar that will be attached to the PEPC Cell Housing or the Midplane Transportation Fixture during operation. While in use in the OAB (Optics Assembly Building), the Spreader Bar Assembly will be manipulated by the NOID (New Optics Insertion Device). The other critical components of the assembly are the three angular contact bearing swivels that attach the spreader bar to the lifting mechanism and the corner clamps which are used to capture the Cell Housing.

  14. Measurement of the B0-bar Lifetime and the B0B0-bar Oscillation Frequency Using Partially Reconstructed B0-bar to D*+ l- nu-bar Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Vanderbilt U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2005-07-27

    The authors present a simultaneous measurement of the {bar B}{sup 0} lifetime {tau}{sub B{sup 0}} and B{sup 0}{bar B}{sup 0} oscillation frequency {Delta}m{sub d}. We use a sample of about 50,000 partially reconstructed {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}{ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}} decays identified with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring at SLAC. The flavor of the other B meson in the event is determined from the charge of another high-momentum lepton.

  15. On the bar formation mechanism in galaxies with cuspy bulges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyachenko, E. V.; Berczik, P.; Just, A.

    2016-08-01

    We show by numerical simulations that a purely stellar dynamical model composed of an exponential disc, a cuspy bulge, and an NFW halo with parameters relevant to the Milky Way Galaxy is subject to bar formation. Taking into account the finite disc thickness, the bar formation can be explained by the usual bar instability, in spite of the presence of an inner Lindblad resonance, that is believed to damp any global modes. The effect of replacing the live halo and bulge by a fixed external axisymmetric potential (rigid models) is studied. It is shown that while the e-folding time of bar instability increases significantly (from 250 to 500 Myr), the bar pattern speed remains almost the same. For the latter, our average value of 55 km/s/kpc agrees with the assumption that the Hercules stream in the solar neighbourhood is an imprint of the bar-disc interaction at the outer Lindblad resonance of the bar. Vertical averaging of the radial force in the central disc region comparable to the characteristic scale length allows us to reproduce the bar pattern speed and the growth rate of the rigid models, using normal mode analysis of linear perturbation theory in a razor thin disc. The strong increase of the e-folding time with decreasing disc mass predicted by the mode analysis suggests that bars in galaxies similar to the Milky Way have formed only recently.

  16. On the bar formation mechanism in galaxies with cuspy bulges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyachenko, E. V.; Berczik, P.; Just, A.

    2016-11-01

    We show by numerical simulations that a purely stellar dynamical model composed of an exponential disc, a cuspy bulge, and a Navarro-Frenk-White halo with parameters relevant to the Milky Way is subject to bar formation. Taking into account the finite disc thickness, the bar formation can be explained by the usual bar instability, in spite of the presence of an inner Lindblad resonance, that is believed to damp any global modes. The effect of replacing the live halo and bulge by a fixed external axisymmetric potential (rigid models) is studied. It is shown that while the e-folding time of bar instability increases significantly (from 250 to 500 Myr), the bar pattern speed remains almost the same. For the latter, our average value of 55 km s-1 kpc-1 agrees with the assumption that the Hercules stream in the solar neighbourhood is an imprint of the bar-disc interaction at the outer Lindblad resonance of the bar. Vertical averaging of the radial force in the central disc region comparable to the characteristic scale length allows us to reproduce the bar pattern speed and the growth rate of the rigid models, using normal mode analysis of linear perturbation theory in a razor-thin disc. The strong increase of the e-folding time with decreasing disc mass predicted by the mode analysis suggests that bars in galaxies similar to the Milky Way have formed only recently.

  17. Musculoskeletal demands of progressions for the longswing on high bar.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Gareth; Kerwin, David G

    2007-09-01

    Kinetic analyses of the chalked bar longswing on high bar and its associated progressions were used to explain musculoskeletal contributions during the performance of these skills. Data on four international male gymnasts performing three series of chalked bar longswings and eight progressions were recorded. Customized body segment inertia parameters, two-dimensional kinematics (50 Hz), and bar forces (1000 Hz) were used as input to inverse dynamic modelling. The analysis focused on the relative contributions of the knees, hips, and shoulders with root mean squared differences between the chalked bar longswing and the progressions being used to rank the progressions. Seventy per cent of the total work occurred between 200 degrees and 240 degrees of angular rotation in the longswing, 67% of which was contributed by the shoulders. The shoulders were also dominant in all progressions, with the largest such contribution occurring in the looped bar longswing with "no action". The least similar progression was the looped bar pendulum swing, while the most similar was the chalked bar bent knee longswing. This study provides a useful means for ranking progressions based on their kinetic similarity to the chalked bar longswing and builds on earlier research in identifying that progressions can be classified into those similar in physical demand (kinetics) and those similar in geometry (kinematics).

  18. Musculoskeletal demands of progressions for the longswing on high bar.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Gareth; Kerwin, David G

    2007-09-01

    Kinetic analyses of the chalked bar longswing on high bar and its associated progressions were used to explain musculoskeletal contributions during the performance of these skills. Data on four international male gymnasts performing three series of chalked bar longswings and eight progressions were recorded. Customized body segment inertia parameters, two-dimensional kinematics (50 Hz), and bar forces (1000 Hz) were used as input to inverse dynamic modelling. The analysis focused on the relative contributions of the knees, hips, and shoulders with root mean squared differences between the chalked bar longswing and the progressions being used to rank the progressions. Seventy per cent of the total work occurred between 200 degrees and 240 degrees of angular rotation in the longswing, 67% of which was contributed by the shoulders. The shoulders were also dominant in all progressions, with the largest such contribution occurring in the looped bar longswing with "no action". The least similar progression was the looped bar pendulum swing, while the most similar was the chalked bar bent knee longswing. This study provides a useful means for ranking progressions based on their kinetic similarity to the chalked bar longswing and builds on earlier research in identifying that progressions can be classified into those similar in physical demand (kinetics) and those similar in geometry (kinematics). PMID:17933198

  19. Multipacting Analysis of the Superconducting Parallel-bar Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    S.U. De Silva, J.R. Delayen,

    2011-03-01

    The superconducting parallel-bar cavity is a deflecting/crabbing cavity with attractive properties, compared to other conventional designs, that is being considered for a number of applications. Multipacting can be a limiting factor to the performance of in any superconducting structure. In the parallel-bar cavity the main contribution to the deflection is due to the transverse deflecting voltage, between the parallel bars, making the design potentially prone to multipacting. This paper presents the results of analytical calculations and numerical simulations of multipacting in the parallel-bar cavity with resonant voltage, impact energies and corresponding particle trajectories.

  20. The Dependence of Bar Fraction on Galaxy Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erwin, Peter

    2009-05-01

    I present an analysis of how the fraction of galaxies with bars depends on galaxy properties, using the optical bar classifications of the RC3 catalog and data from the literature. The most striking result is a strong anti-correlation between bars and galaxy mass: the more massive a galaxy is, the less likely it is to host a bar. The trend is strongest when rotation velocity is used, which suggests that the halo mass might be the most important factor. For example, almost 90% of early-type spirals with Vrot < 150 km/s are barred; but the fraction drops to 40% by the time Vrot > 300 km/s. Bar fractions are systematically lower for S0 galaxies, even when the mass dependence is taken into account. I find no dependence of bar fraction on gas mass fraction, which may put constraints on models where high gas fractions are either necessary for bar persistence, or enhance bar weakening and destruction.

  1. Survey of bar-lounges and restaurants regarding compliance with the current smoke-free regulation in Thulamela Municipality, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Akinsola, Henry A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Tobacco Products Control Act, No. 83 of 1993 was introduced in South Africa in 1993. Due to the shortfalls of the 1993 Act, the Tobacco Products Control Amendment Act, No. 12 of 1999 was passed in 1999. The regulation relating to smoking of tobacco products in public places was gazetted in 2000 and implemented in 2001. Setting The setting for the study was all selected registered licensed bar-lounges including restaurants within the municipality. Purpose of the study To examine compliance levels with the current smoke-free regulation at bar-lounges and restaurants in Thulamela Municipality. Objectives of the study To observe whether structural alterations had been effected to accommodate smoking patrons. To observe whether tobacco-related litter was present in non-smoking areas and in the outdoor areas within 5 meters of windows and entry ways. To observe whether individuals or groups engaged in smoking in non-smoking areas. Methods An observational survey was conducted to measure the level of compliance by lounges and restaurants in Thulamela Municipality. A convenience sampling method was used to sample 56 bar-lounges, including restaurants. Data were collected using an observation log. Collected data were analysed using SPSS 20.0. Results The study findings noted low compliance with the legislation with only one establishment (1.8%) complying with the requirements of the legislation. Conclusion The level of compliance with the legislation is in a very low state in Thulamela Municipality. Further research is needed to explore factors influencing non-compliance with the regulation. PMID:27380859

  2. Patterns and Predictors of Non-Prescription Medicine Use among Malaysian Pharmacy Patrons: A National Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Mohamad Yahaya, Abdul Haniff; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Saleem, Fahad; Chua, Gin Nie; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2013-01-01

    Objective The study aims to evaluate the predictors of non-prescription medicine purchasing patterns among pharmacy patrons in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional nationwide study was undertaken in 2011 in sixty randomly selected community pharmacies across 14 Malaysian states. A pharmacy exit survey was conducted over a 6-month period across Malaysia. A one-stage random cluster sampling technique was employed as there was no national sampling framework available for conducting this survey. Face-to-face interviews using a validated and pre-tested questionnaire were conducted by trained data collectors. The non-prescription medicine purchasing pattern was explored and analysed descriptively. Chi-square/Fisher exact test was used to determine the association between study variables. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of type of non-prescription medicine purchased. Results A total of 2729 pharmacy patrons agreed to participate in 60 selected pharmacy outlets. A total of 3462 non-prescription medicine were purchased during the study period with an average of 1.3 medicines per participant. Most of the non-prescription medicine purchased was meant for alimentary tract and metabolism (31.8%), followed by respiratory system (19.4%) and musculoskeletal system (15.8%) usage. Factors found to be associated with the choice of non-prescription medicine purchased were age group [χ2 = 170.75, (df = 57), p<0.01], locality [χ2 = 48.16, (df = 19), p<0.01], gender [χ2 = 32.93, (df = 13), p = 0.002], ethnic group [χ2 = 118.89, (df = 39), p<0.01] and type of occupation [χ2 = 222.434, (df = 117), p<0.01]. Non-prescription medicine purchased defined about 20% of the variance in the combination of predictors such as locality, gender, age, ethnicity, type of occupation and household income. Conclusion The predictors for selection of non-prescription medicine were locality (urban or rural), gender

  3. Quark mass matrices presented by a power series expansion in t bar V sub u s t bar

    SciTech Connect

    Koide, Y. ); Fusaoka, H. ); Habe, C. )

    1992-12-01

    In a general three-family Hermitian quark mass matrix model ({ital M}{sub {ital u}},{ital M}{sub {ital d}}), if we take a quark basis on which {ital M}{sub {ital u}} takes a diagonal form {ital D}{sub {ital u}}, the structure of {ital M}{sub {ital d}}{equivalent to}{ital {cflx M}} is almost determined by three down-quark masses ({ital m}{sub {ital d}},{ital m}{sub {ital s}},{ital m}{sub {ital b}}) and three Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix parameters ({vert bar}{ital V}{sub {ital u}{ital s}}{vert bar},{vert bar}{ital V}{sub {ital c}{ital b}}{vert bar},{vert bar}{ital V}{sub {ital u}{ital b}}{vert bar}), except for phases of the matrix elements {ital {cflx M}}{sub {ital i}{ital j}}. By using the experimental facts {vert bar}{ital V}{sub {ital u}{ital s}}{vert bar}{similar to}{lambda}, {vert bar}{ital V}{sub {ital c}{ital b}}{vert bar}{similar to}{lambda}{sup 2}, {vert bar}{ital V}{sub {ital u}{ital b}}{vert bar}{similar to}{lambda}{sup 3}, and {ital m}{sub {ital d}}/{ital m}{sub {ital s}}{similar to}{ital m}{sub {ital s}}/{ital m}{sub {ital b}}{similar to}{lambda}{sup 2}, the mass matrices ({ital D}{sub {ital u}},{ital {cflx M}}) are presented in terms of a power series in {lambda}.

  4. Bar formation and evolution in disc galaxies with gas and a triaxial halo: morphology, bar strength and halo properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanassoula, E.; Machado, Rubens E. G.; Rodionov, S. A.

    2013-03-01

    We follow the formation and evolution of bars in N-body simulations of disc galaxies with gas and/or a triaxial halo. We find that both the relative gas fraction and the halo shape play a major role in the formation and evolution of the bar. In gas-rich simulations, the disc stays near-axisymmetric much longer than in gas-poor ones, and, when the bar starts growing, it does so at a much slower rate. Because of these two effects combined, large-scale bars form much later in gas-rich than in gas-poor discs. This can explain the observation that bars are in place earlier in massive red disc galaxies than in blue spirals. We also find that the morphological characteristics in the bar region are strongly influenced by the gas fraction. In particular, the bar at the end of the simulation is much weaker in gas-rich cases. The quality of our simulations is such as to allow us to discuss the question of bar longevity because the resonances are well resolved and the number of gas particles is sufficient to describe the gas flow adequately. In no case did we find a bar which was destroyed. Halo triaxiality has a dual influence on bar strength. In the very early stages of the simulation it induces bar formation to start earlier. On the other hand, during the later, secular evolution phase, triaxial haloes lead to considerably less increase of the bar strength than spherical ones. The shape of the halo evolves considerably with time. We confirm previous results of gas-less simulations that find that the inner part of an initially spherical halo can become elongated and develop a halo bar. However we also show that, on the contrary, in gas-rich simulations, the inner parts of an initially triaxial halo can become rounder with time. The main body of initially triaxial haloes evolves towards sphericity, but in initially strongly triaxial cases it stops well short of becoming spherical. Part of the angular momentum absorbed by the halo generates considerable rotation of the halo

  5. Nutritional Evaluation of NASA's Rodent Food Bar Diet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joyce E.; Yu, Diane S.; Dalton, Bonnie P.

    2000-01-01

    Tests are being conducted on NASA's rodent Food Bar in preparation for long-term use as the rat and mouse diet aboard the International Space Station. Nutritional analyses are performed after the bars are manufactured and then repeated periodically to determine nutritional stability. The primary factors analyzed are protein, ash, fat, fiber, moisture, amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals. Nutrient levels are compared to values published in the National Research Council's dietary requirements for rodents, and also to those contained in several commonly used commercial rodent lab diets. The Food Bar is manufactured from a powdered diet to which moisture is added as it is processed through an extruder. The bars are dipped into potassium sorbate, vacuum-sealed, and irradiated. In order to determine nutrient changes during extrusion and irradiation, the powdered diet, the non-irradiated bars, and the irradiated bars are all analyzed. We have observed lower values for some nutrients (iodine, vitamin K, and iron) in the Food Bars compared with NRC requirements. Many nutrients in the Food Bars are contained at a higher level than levels in the NRC requirements. An additional factor we are investigating is the 26% moisture level in the Food Bars, which drops to about 15% within a week, compared to a stable 10% moisture in many standard lab chow diets. In addition to the nutritional analyses, the food bar is being fed to several strains of rats and mice, and feeding study and necropsy results are being observed (Barrett et al, unpublished data). Information from the nutritional analyses and from the rodent studies will enable us to recommend the formulation that will most adequately meet the rodent Food Bar requirements for long-term use aboard the Space Station.

  6. Charm Spectroscopy at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Poireau, Vincent; /Annecy, LAPP

    2007-12-21

    We present a mini-review on charm spectroscopy at the BABAR experiment. We first report on the c{bar s} meson spectrum, and present precise measurements of the D{sub s1}(2536) meson as well as the properties of the many new states discovered since 2003 (D*{sub s0}(2317), D{sub s1}(2460), D*{sub sJ}(2860), and D{sub sJ}(2700) mesons). We then discuss about charmed baryons observed recently in the BABAR experiment: {Omega}{sub c}{sup 0} and {Omega}*{sub c}{sup 0} css baryons, {Lambda}{sub c}(2940){sup +} udc baryon and the {Xi}{sub c} usc/dsc baryons.

  7. Symmetrical Taylor impact of glass bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, N. H.; Bourne, N. K.; Field, J. E.; Rosenberg, Z.

    1998-07-01

    Brar and Bless pioneered the use of plate impact upon bars as a technique for investigating the 1D stress loading of glass but limited their studies to relatively modest stresses (1). We wish to extend this technique by applying VISAR and embedded stress gauge measurements to a symmetrical version of the test in which two rods impact one upon the other. Previous work in the laboratory has characterised the glass types (soda-lime and borosilicate)(2). These experiments identify the failure mechanisms from high-speed photography and the stress and particle velocity histories are interpreted in the light of these results. The differences in response of the glasses and the relation of the fracture to the failure wave in uniaxial strain are discussed.

  8. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  9. /bar p/p collider physics

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1989-03-01

    This note encompasses a set of six lectures given at the summer school held at Campos Do Jordao in January of 1989 near Sao Paulo, Brazil. The intent of the lectures was to describe the physics of /bar p/p at CERN and Fermilab. Particular attention has been paid to making a self contained presentation to a prospective audience of graduate students. Since large Monte Carlo codes might not be available to all members of this audience, great reliance was placed on ''back of the envelope estimates.'' Emphasis was also placed on experimental data rather than theoretical speculation, since predictions for, for example, supersymmetric particle production are easily obtained by transcription of formulae already obtained. 9 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Anisakiasis - is the sushi bar guilty?

    PubMed

    Oshima, T

    1987-02-01

    Since 1972, Japan and some other countries such as the USA have seen a sudden increase in cases of anisakiasis (infection with Anisakis sp.) and codworm an isakiasis (infection with the codworm, Pseudoterranova [= Phocanema] decipiens). Larval stages of these nematodes occur in the muscles of a variety of fish and squid, and ingestion of raw and undercooked fish or squid is the prime route of human infection. Thus the Japanese style of eating sashimi (sliced raw fish fillet) and the increasing popularity of sushi bars where such dishes are served, has often been suggested as contributing to the spread of anisakid infections. In this article, Tomoo Oshima discusses the current status of anisakiasis and codworm anisakiasis, showing that the apparent increase in human cases is related more to advances in diagnosis than to the commercialization of sushi.

  11. Objectivity in Grading: The Promise of Bar Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jae, Haeran; Cowling, John

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes the use of a new technology to assure student anonymity and reduce bias hazards: identifying students by using bar codes. The limited finding suggests that the use of bar codes for assuring student anonymity could potentially cause students to perceive that grades are assigned more fairly and reassure teachers that they are…

  12. 27 CFR 70.266 - Credit against barred liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Credit against barred... Collection of Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Limitations § 70.266 Credit against barred liability. Any credit against a liability in respect of any taxable year shall be void if the collection of...

  13. 27 CFR 70.266 - Credit against barred liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Credit against barred... Collection of Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Limitations § 70.266 Credit against barred liability. Any credit against a liability in respect of any taxable year shall be void if the collection of...

  14. 32 CFR 1908.22 - Requests barred by res judicata.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requests barred by res judicata. 1908.22 Section 1908.22 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY... EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958 Agency Action on Mdr Requests § 1908.22 Requests barred by res judicata....

  15. 32 CFR 1908.22 - Requests barred by res judicata.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requests barred by res judicata. 1908.22 Section 1908.22 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY... EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958 Agency Action on Mdr Requests § 1908.22 Requests barred by res judicata....

  16. Researchers Misunderstand Confidence Intervals and Standard Error Bars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belia, Sarah; Fidler, Fiona; Williams, Jennifer; Cumming, Geoff

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about researchers' understanding of confidence intervals (CIs) and standard error (SE) bars. Authors of journal articles in psychology, behavioral neuroscience, and medicine were invited to visit a Web site where they adjusted a figure until they judged 2 means, with error bars, to be just statistically significantly different (p…

  17. 5 CFR 9701.305 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bar on collective bargaining. 9701.305 Section 9701.305 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration General § 9701.305 Bar on...

  18. 5 CFR 9701.205 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bar on collective bargaining. 9701.205 Section 9701.205 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification General § 9701.205 Bar on collective bargaining....

  19. Sharing the Spotlight: Humane Education and Bar Graphs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Paul

    1987-01-01

    Promotes the use of humane education as a vehicle for teaching students how to make bar graphs. Provides ideas for bar graph activities for both primary- and intermediate-grade children that focus on different kinds of domestic and wild animals. Suggests expanded types of graphing activities involving survey techniques. (TW)

  20. Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype?

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? KidsHealth > ... nutritivas: ¿Energía o mera exageración? The Buzz on Energy Foods Energy drinks and nutrition bars often make ...

  1. Nutrition Education Strategies: A Trip to the Salad Bar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, June; Kotch, Anne

    1995-01-01

    Learning activities related to visiting a salad bar can help students apply basic nutrition concepts to real-life situations and make healthier choices at restaurants and in food preparation. The paper describes a class activity involving students in setting up a salad bar, making choices among ingredients and dressings, and taking home leftovers.…

  2. 21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 610.67 Section 610.67 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.67 Bar code label...

  3. 21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 610.67 Section 610.67 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.67 Bar code label...

  4. 21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 610.67 Section 610.67 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.67 Bar code label...

  5. 21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 610.67 Section 610.67 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.67 Bar code label...

  6. Calculation of error bars for laser damage observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenberg, Jonathan W.

    2008-10-01

    The use of the error bar is a critical means of communicating the quality of individual data points and a processed result. Understanding the error bar for a processed measurement depends on the measurement technique being used and is the subject of many recent works, as such, the paper will confine its scope to the determination of the error bar on a single data point. Many investigators either ignore the error bar altogether or use a "one size error fits all" method, both of these approaches are poor procedure and misleading. It is the goal of this work to lift the veil of mysticism surrounding error bars for damage observations and make their description, calculation and use, easy and commonplace. This paper will rigorously derive the error bar size as a function of the experimental parameters and observed data and will concentrate on the dependent variable, the cumulative probability of damage. The paper will begin with a discussion of the error bar as a measure of data quality or reliability. The expression for the variance in the parameters is derived via standard methods and converted to a standard deviation. The concept of the coverage factor is introduced to scale the error bar to the desired confidence level, completing the derivation

  7. VIEW OF SHEAR (ELECTRIC POWERED), SCALE HOUSE TO LEFT. BARS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SHEAR (ELECTRIC POWERED), SCALE HOUSE TO LEFT. BARS ARE PLACED ON WEIGHING SCALE SHOWN LOWER LEFT. 15-TON CLEVELAND CRANE HANDLES BARS FOR FINAL LOADING INTO RAILROAD CARS (12" BAY) AND FOR MOVING FROM TABLE TO SHEAR TABLE. - Cambria Iron Company, Gautier Works, 12" Mill, Clinton Street & Little Conemaugh River, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  8. Morphologies introduced by bistability in barred-spiral galactic potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsigaridi, L.; Patsis, P. A.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the orbital dynamics of a barred-spiral model when the system is rotating slowly and corotation is located beyond the end of the spiral arms. In the characteristic of the central family of periodic orbits, we find a `bistable region'. In the response model, we observe a ring surrounding the bar and spiral arms starting tangential to the ring. This is a morphology resembling barred-spiral systems with inner rings. However, the dynamics associated with this structure in the case we study is different from that of a typical bar ending close to corotation. The ring of our model is round, or rather elongated perpendicular to the bar. It is associated with a folding (an `S'-shaped feature) of the characteristic of the central family, which is typical in bistable bifurcations. Along the `S' part of the characteristic, we have a change in the orientation of the periodic orbits from an x1-type to an x2-type morphology. The orbits populated in the response model change rather abruptly their orientation when reaching the lowest energy of the `S'. The spirals of the model follow a standard `precessing ellipses flow' and the orbits building them have energies beyond the `S' region. The bar is structured mainly by sticky orbits from regions around the stability islands of the central family. This leads to the appearance of X features in the bars on the galactic plane. Such a bar morphology appears in the unsharp-masked images of some moderately inclined galaxies.

  9. 49 CFR 393.90 - Buses, standee line or bar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buses, standee line or bar. 393.90 Section 393.90... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.90 Buses, standee line or bar. Except as provided below, every bus, which is designed and constructed so as to allow standees, shall...

  10. 49 CFR 393.90 - Buses, standee line or bar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Buses, standee line or bar. 393.90 Section 393.90... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.90 Buses, standee line or bar. Except as provided below, every bus, which is designed and constructed so as to allow standees, shall...

  11. 37. Tap room with bar, looking from east to west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Tap room with bar, looking from east to west showing part of the mural (on north wall) depicting nautical and whaling themes. (mural and bar were removed 1998 - 99 respectively.) - Fort Ord, Soldiers' Club, California State Highway 1 near Eighth Street, Seaside, Monterey County, CA

  12. Unitarity Triangle Angle Measurements at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Latham, Thomas E.; /SLAC

    2005-06-30

    We present recent results of measurements of the Unitarity Triangle angles alpha, beta and gamma made with the BaBar detector at the PEP-II asymmetric B factory. We present recent results of measurements of the Unitarity Triangle angles alpha, beta and gamma made with the BaBar detector at the PEP-II asymmetric B factory.

  13. 5 CFR 838.505 - Barring payment of refunds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Requirements for Court Orders Affecting Refunds of Employee Contributions § 838.505 Barring payment of refunds. A court order barring payment of a refund of employee contributions is not a court order acceptable for processing unless— (a) It...

  14. 5 CFR 838.505 - Barring payment of refunds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Requirements for Court Orders Affecting Refunds of Employee Contributions § 838.505 Barring payment of refunds. A court order barring payment of a refund of employee contributions is not a court order acceptable for processing unless— (a) It...

  15. 5 CFR 838.505 - Barring payment of refunds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Requirements for Court Orders Affecting Refunds of Employee Contributions § 838.505 Barring payment of refunds. A court order barring payment of a refund of employee contributions is not a court order acceptable for processing unless— (a) It...

  16. Detail of tension bars at end posts western truss. Shows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of tension bars at end posts western truss. Shows adjustable bars at top of structure; diagonal and vertical members on truss are not adjustable. Looking north from civilian land. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Rough & Ready Island, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  17. Detail of tension bars at end posts western truss. Shows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of tension bars at end posts western truss. Shows adjustable bars at top of structure; diagonal and vertical members on truss are not adjustable. Looking north from civilian land. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Daggett Road Bridge, Daggett Road traversing Burns Cut Off, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  18. Bar-Code System for a Microbiological Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, Jennifer; Kirschner, Larry

    2007-01-01

    A bar-code system has been assembled for a microbiological laboratory that must examine a large number of samples. The system includes a commercial bar-code reader, computer hardware and software components, plus custom-designed database software. The software generates a user-friendly, menu-driven interface.

  19. Sweet! Candy Bar Activity Teaches CAD, Math, and Graphics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granlund, George

    2009-01-01

    By far, the tastiest technology learning activity that the author's students work on is the development of the design of a chocolate candy bar. This article describes how the author implemented the candy bar activity. The activity gives students an opportunity to design a product and to take it from concept through to production.

  20. Applying Schwarzschild's orbit superposition method to barred or non-barred disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Eugene; Athanassoula, E.

    2015-07-01

    We present an implementation of the Schwarzschild orbit superposition method, which can be used for constructing self-consistent equilibrium models of barred or non-barred disc galaxies, or of elliptical galaxies with figure rotation. This is a further development of the publicly available code SMILE; its main improvements include a new efficient representation of an arbitrary gravitational potential using two-dimensional spline interpolation of Fourier coefficients in the meridional plane, as well as the ability to deal with rotation of the density profile and with multicomponent mass models. We compare several published methods for constructing composite axisymmetric disc-bulge-halo models and demonstrate that our code produces the models that are closest to equilibrium. We also apply it to create models of triaxial elliptical galaxies with cuspy density profiles and figure rotation, and find that such models can be found and are stable over many dynamical times in a wide range of pattern speeds and angular momenta, covering both slow- and fast-rotator classes. We then attempt to create models of strongly barred disc galaxies, using an analytic three-component potential, and find that it is not possible to make a stable dynamically self-consistent model for this density profile. Finally, we take snapshots of two N-body simulations of barred disc galaxies embedded in nearly-spherical haloes, and construct equilibrium models using only information on the density profile of the snapshots. We demonstrate that such reconstructed models are in near-stationary state, in contrast with the original N-body simulations, one of which displayed significant secular evolution.

  1. A Pilot Study of Bar Codes in a Canadian Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Brisseau, Lionel; Chiveri, Andrei; Lebel, Denis; Bussières, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    Background: In 2004, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a new rule requiring most prescription and some over-the-counter pharmaceutical products to carry bar codes down to the level of individual doses, with the intent of reducing the number of medication errors. Despite these regulatory changes in the United States, Health Canada has not yet adopted any mandatory bar-coding of drugs. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of using commercial bar codes for receipt and preparation of drug products and to evaluate the readability of the bar codes printed on various levels of drug packaging. Methods: This cross-sectional observational pilot study was conducted in the Pharmacy Department of a Canadian mother–child university hospital centre in July 2010. For the purposes of the study, research drugs and cytotoxic drugs in various storage areas, as well as locally compounded medications with bar codes generated in house, were excluded. For all other drug products, the presence or absence of bar codes was documented for each level of packaging, along with the trade and generic names, content (i.e., drug product), quantity of doses or level of packaging, therapeutic class (if applicable), type of bar code (1- or 2-dimensional symbology), alphanumeric value contained in the bar code, standard of reference used to generate the alphanumeric value (Universal Product Code [UPC], Global Trade Item Number [GTIN], or unknown), and readability of the bar codes by 2 scanners. Results: Only 33 (1.9%) of the 1734 products evaluated had no bar codes on any level of packaging. Of the 2875 levels of packaging evaluated, 2021 (70.3%) had at least one bar code. Of the 2384 bar codes evaluated, 2353 (98.7%) were linear (1-dimensional) and 31 (1.3%) were 2-dimensional. Well over three-quarters (2112 or 88.6%) of the evaluated bar codes were readable by at least 1 of the 2 scanners used in the study. Conclusions: On the basis of these results, bar-coding could be used for receipt

  2. Nearshore bars and the break-point hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.; Howd, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The set of hypotheses calling for bar formation at the break point was tested with field data. During two different experiments, waves were measured across the surf zone coincident with the development of a nearshore bar. We use a criterion, based on the wave height to depth ratio, to determine the offshore limit of the inner surf zone. During the first experiment, the bar became better developed and migrated offshore while remaining well within the inner surf zone. During the second experiment, the surf zone was narrower and we cannot rule out the possibility of break point processes contributing to bar development. We conclude that bars are not necessarily coupled with the break point and can become better developed and migrate offshore while being in the inner surf zone landward from initial wave breaking in the outer surf zone. ?? 1989.

  3. Study of aging and embrittlement of microalloyed steel bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campillo, B.; Perez, R.; Martinez, L.

    1996-10-01

    The aging of hooks, anchors, and other bent reinforcing steel bars in concrete structures are considered in modern international standards. Rebend test procedures have been designed in order to predict the aging embrittlement susceptibility by submerging bent reinforcing bar specimens in boiling water. Subsequently the bars are rebent or straightened in order to determine the loss of ductility or embrittlement of the aged material. The present work considers the influence of carbon, sulfur, and niobium on the performance of reinforcing bars in rebend tests of 300 heats of microalloyed steel bars with a variety of compositions. The microstructural evidence and the statistical results clearly indicate the strong influence of carbon and sulfur on rebend failure, while niobium-rich precipitates contribute to the hardening of the ferrite grains during aging.

  4. Hader bar and clip attachment retained mandibular complete denture

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kunwarjeet; Gupta, Nidhi; Kapoor, Vikram; Gupta, Ridhimaa

    2013-01-01

    Bar and clip attachments significantly improve the level of satisfaction of denture-wearing patients by enhancing the retention and stability of the prosthesis. These attachments have been most commonly used for connecting the prosthesis to implants, but they can be effectively used to retain tooth-supported prosthesis as well. The primary functions of bar attachments are splinting the abutments together, even distribution of forces to the abutments and supporting areas, guiding the prosthesis into place, improving the retention, stability, support and comfort of the patient. The primary requirement for the use of bar attachments is the availability of sufficient vertical and buccolingual space for the proper placement of the bar, sleeves, teeth arrangement and sufficient thickness of acrylic denture base to minimise incidence of denture fracture in the area of bar assembly. PMID:24145505

  5. Hydrodynamic and geomorphic controls on mouth bar evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Christopher R.; Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Kolker, Alexander S.

    2013-04-01

    While river deltas are one of the major repositories for sediments and carbon on Earth, there exists a paucity of field data on the formation of distributary mouth bars—one of their key features. Here we present results from an experiment that tested a model of mouth bar development using hydroacoustic, optical, sedimentary, and geochemical tools on a mouth bar in a crevasse splay near the mouth of the Mississippi River. Our results validate an existing model for mouth bar development, which we extend to explain mouth bar stratigraphy. We propose that changes across a hydrological cycle are important for mouth bar development, resulting in a stratigraphy that has alternating fine and coarse grain sediments. Results also indicate that sand is carried up to 6 km from the main stem of the Mississippi River, despite repeated channel bifurcations, which has important implications for our interpretation of the rock record, understanding of coastal sedimentary systems, and the restoration of large deltas.

  6. What is the Peak Stress in Ceramic Bar Impacts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoj Simha, C. Hari; Bless, Stephan; Bedford, Anthony

    1999-06-01

    The bar impact experiment has been extensively used to characterize the high strain rate properties of high strength ceramics. In particular, alumina AD-99.5 has been widely studied; both stress gauge and VISAR bar impact data are available for this material. We have performed plate-on-bar impact experiments using this material in some novel configurations. An interface was introduced in the target bar (by cutting it) in the zone where the material fails by axial splitting. Such experiments resulted in a dramatic drop in the peak stress measured in the experiment, when compared to experiments with no interface. The measured stress levels were reproduced by a model that contains no explicit 1-D strength parameter. The main conclusion is that the bar impact experiment for a ceramic is a structural measurement, so the peak stress measurement cannot be correlated to some intrinsic strength of the ceramic.

  7. New States and Charmonium Spectroscopy at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Dunwoodie, W.; /SLAC

    2011-12-06

    Several charmonium-like states above D{bar D} threshold have been discovered at the Belle and BaBar B-factories. Some are produced via Initial State Radiation (e.g. Y(4260) and Y(4350)), and some are observed in B meson decays (e.g. X(3872), Y(3940), and Z-(4430)). The Z-(4430) state has generated a great deal of interest, having minimum quark content (c{bar c}d{bar u}) and, thus, representing the unequivocal manifestation of a four-quark meson state. Here we summarize recent BaBar results on the Y(4260), X(3872), Y(3940), and on a search for the Z-(4430).

  8. Binge Drinking Associations with Patrons' Risk Behaviors and Alcohol Effects after Leaving a Nightclub: Sex Differences in the "Balada com Ciência" Portal Survey Study in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Zila M; Ribeiro, Karen J; Wagner, Gabriela A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of binge drinking detected at the exit of nightclubs and risk behaviors and alcohol effects just after leaving the venue in a representative sample of Brazilian nightclub patrons according to sex. For this purpose, a portal survey study called Balada com Ciência was conducted in 2013 in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, using a two-stage cluster sampling survey design. Individual-level data were collected in 2422 subjects at the entrance and 1822 subjects at the exit of 31 nightclubs, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) was measured using a breathalyzer. The following day, 1222 patrons answered an online follow-up survey that included questions about risk behaviors and alcohol effects practiced just after leaving the nightclub. Weighted logistic regressions were used to analyze binge drinking associated with risk behaviors by sex. For both sexes, the most prevalent risk behaviors practiced after leaving a nightclub were drinking and driving (men=27.9%; women=20.4%), the use of illicit drugs (men=15.8%; women=9.4%) and risky sexual behavior (men=11.4%; women=6.8%). The practice of binge drinking increased the behavior of illicit drug use after leaving the nightclub by 2.54 times [95% CI: 1.26-5.09] among men who drank and increased the risk of an episode of new alcohol use by 5.80 times [95% CI: 1.50-22.44] among women who drank. Alcoholic blackouts were more prevalent among men [OR=8.92; 95% CI: 3.83-20.80] and women [OR= 5.31; 95% CI: 1.68-16.84] whose BrAC was equivalent to binge drinking compared with patrons with a lower BrAC. Public policies aiming to reduce patrons' BrAC at the exit of nightclubs, such as staff training in responsible beverage service and legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals, would be useful to protect patrons from the risk behaviors associated with binge drinking in nightclubs. PMID:26287954

  9. Binge Drinking Associations with Patrons' Risk Behaviors and Alcohol Effects after Leaving a Nightclub: Sex Differences in the "Balada com Ciência" Portal Survey Study in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Zila M; Ribeiro, Karen J; Wagner, Gabriela A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of binge drinking detected at the exit of nightclubs and risk behaviors and alcohol effects just after leaving the venue in a representative sample of Brazilian nightclub patrons according to sex. For this purpose, a portal survey study called Balada com Ciência was conducted in 2013 in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, using a two-stage cluster sampling survey design. Individual-level data were collected in 2422 subjects at the entrance and 1822 subjects at the exit of 31 nightclubs, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) was measured using a breathalyzer. The following day, 1222 patrons answered an online follow-up survey that included questions about risk behaviors and alcohol effects practiced just after leaving the nightclub. Weighted logistic regressions were used to analyze binge drinking associated with risk behaviors by sex. For both sexes, the most prevalent risk behaviors practiced after leaving a nightclub were drinking and driving (men=27.9%; women=20.4%), the use of illicit drugs (men=15.8%; women=9.4%) and risky sexual behavior (men=11.4%; women=6.8%). The practice of binge drinking increased the behavior of illicit drug use after leaving the nightclub by 2.54 times [95% CI: 1.26-5.09] among men who drank and increased the risk of an episode of new alcohol use by 5.80 times [95% CI: 1.50-22.44] among women who drank. Alcoholic blackouts were more prevalent among men [OR=8.92; 95% CI: 3.83-20.80] and women [OR= 5.31; 95% CI: 1.68-16.84] whose BrAC was equivalent to binge drinking compared with patrons with a lower BrAC. Public policies aiming to reduce patrons' BrAC at the exit of nightclubs, such as staff training in responsible beverage service and legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals, would be useful to protect patrons from the risk behaviors associated with binge drinking in nightclubs.

  10. Revealing galactic scale bars with the help of Galaxy Zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Karen L.

    2015-03-01

    We use visual classifications of the brightest 250,000 galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Main Galaxy Sample provided by citizen scientists via the Galaxy Zoo project (www.galaxyzoo.org, Lintott et al. 2008) to identify a sample of local disc galaxies with reliable bar identifications. These data, combined with information on the atomic gas content from the ALFALFA survey (Haynes et al. 2011) show that disc galaxies with higher gas content have lower bar fractions. We use a gas deficiency parameter to show that disc galaxies with more/less gas than expected for their stellar mass are less/more likely to host bars. Furthermore, we see that at a fixed gas content there is no residual correlation between bar fraction and stellar mass. We argue that this suggests previously observed correlations between galaxy colour/stellar mass and (strong) bar fraction (e.g. from the sample in Masters et al. 2011, and also see Nair & Abraham 2010) could be driven by the interaction between bars and the gas content of the disc, since more massive, optically redder disc galaxies are observed to have lower gas contents. Furthermore we see evidence that at a fixed gas content the global colours of barred galaxies are redder than those of unbarred galaxies. We suggest that this could be due to the exchange of angular momentum beyond co-rotation which might stop a replenishment of gas from external sources, and act as a source of feedback to temporarily halt or reduce the star formation in the outer parts of barred discs. These results (published as Masters et al. 2012) combined with those of Skibba et al. (2012), who use the same sample to show a clear (but subtle and complicated) environmental dependence of the bar fraction in disc galaxies, suggest that bars are intimately linked to the evolution of disc galaxies.

  11. Measurement of the Semileptonic B-bar->D{sup (*)}{tau}{nu}-bar{sub {tau}} Decays at BABAR

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes Pegna, David

    2010-02-10

    Semileptonic B meson decays into final states containing the tau lepton are of interesting as they provide information on the Standard Model as well as a window on new physics effects. We present results on B-bar->D{sup (*)}taunu-bar{sub tau} decays where the second B in the event is fully reconstructed.

  12. Lawyers for Literacy. A Bar Leadership Manual. A Special Service Publication of the American Bar Association's Task Force on Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed to provide materials to help state and local bar associations become involved with the literacy issue. Chapter 1 provides an overview of illiteracy as a very serious problem. Chapter 2 describes major public and private efforts to combat illiteracy. Chapter 3 explains why the bar associations should be involved. Chapter 4…

  13. Partnering with libraries to promote walking among community-dwelling adults: a Kingston gets active pilot pedometer-lending project.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Holly H; Faloon, Kathryn J; Lévesque, Lucie; McDonald, Deanna

    2009-10-01

    Most adults do not walk enough to obtain health benefits. Pedometers have been successfully utilized to motivate and increase walking. Given that libraries are a place where community members seek health resources, they are a logical setting for increasing community accessibility to pedometers. The purpose was to examine the feasibility of lending pedometers to library patrons to increase walking. In five Canadian public libraries, 90 pedometers were made available for 6 months. A total of 41 library patrons (33 women, 8 men, age range 18 to 65 or older) completed a survey about their walking patterns and pedometer use. More than 330 loans were made. Chisquare analysis found significant associations between walking and motivation to walk more (p < .05), walking and goal setting (p < .05), and motivation to walk more and setting a walking goal (p < .001). Results provide preliminary evidence that lending pedometers through local libraries is an effective, low-cost approach to enhance walking in community members.

  14. Partnering with libraries to promote walking among community-dwelling adults: a Kingston gets active pilot pedometer-lending project.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Holly H; Faloon, Kathryn J; Lévesque, Lucie; McDonald, Deanna

    2009-10-01

    Most adults do not walk enough to obtain health benefits. Pedometers have been successfully utilized to motivate and increase walking. Given that libraries are a place where community members seek health resources, they are a logical setting for increasing community accessibility to pedometers. The purpose was to examine the feasibility of lending pedometers to library patrons to increase walking. In five Canadian public libraries, 90 pedometers were made available for 6 months. A total of 41 library patrons (33 women, 8 men, age range 18 to 65 or older) completed a survey about their walking patterns and pedometer use. More than 330 loans were made. Chisquare analysis found significant associations between walking and motivation to walk more (p < .05), walking and goal setting (p < .05), and motivation to walk more and setting a walking goal (p < .001). Results provide preliminary evidence that lending pedometers through local libraries is an effective, low-cost approach to enhance walking in community members. PMID:18349147

  15. A mathematical high bar-human body model for analysing and interpreting mechanical-energetic processes on the high bar.

    PubMed

    Arampatzis, A; Brüggemann, G P

    1998-12-01

    The aims of this study were: 1. To study the transfer of energy between the high bar and the gymnast. 2. To develop criteria from the utilisation of high bar elasticity and the utilisation of muscle capacity to assess the effectiveness of a movement solution. 3. To study the influence of varying segment movement upon release parameters. For these purposes a model of the human body attached to the high bar (high bar-human body model) was developed. The human body was modelled using a 15-segment body system. The joint-beam element method (superelement) was employed for modelling the high bar. A superelement consists of four rigid segments connected by joints (two Cardan joints and one rotational-translational joint) and springs (seven rotation springs and one tension-compression spring). The high bar was modelled using three superelements. The input data required for the high bar human body model were collected with video-kinematographic (50 Hz) and dynamometric (500 Hz) techniques. Masses and moments of inertia of the 15 segments were calculated using the data from the Zatsiorsky et al. (1984) model. There are two major phases characteristic of the giant swing prior to dismounts from the high bar. In the first phase the gymnast attempts to supply energy to the high bar-humanbody system through muscle activity and to store this energy in the high bar. The difference between the energy transferred to the high bar and the reduction in the total energy of the body could be adopted as a criterion for the utilisation of high bar elasticity. The energy previously transferred into the high bar is returned to the body during the second phase. An advantageous increase in total body energy at the end of the exercise could only be obtained through muscle energy supply. An index characterising the utilisation of muscle capacity was developed out of the difference between the increase in total body energy and the energy returned from the high bar. A delayed and initially slow but

  16. The Role of 2D Circulation in Sand Bar Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Splinter, K. D.; Holman, R. A.; Plant, N. G.; Holland, K. T.

    2006-12-01

    Models of bar dynamics typically involve moments of the cross-shore flow, with offshore movement associated with the strong offshore directed undertow and onshore migration related to wave asymmetry and skewness [Gallagher, et al., 1998]. Based on these hypotheses, models and laboratory studies have used the alongshore-mean bar position and alongshore-uniform wave conditions (a 1DH approach) to study bar response to varying wave conditions. Commonly, cases of offshore migration were reproduced with reasonable accuracy, but predictions of onshore migration were less successful. However, examination of time-exposure images of waves show that during periods of offshore migration, bars tend to be alongshore uniform and move rapidly offshore, but during onshore migration, sand bars are rarely straight, instead becoming very sinuous, violating the 1DH approach. We hypothesize that under milder wave conditions, the 2DH circulation associated with this alongshore-variable morphology is, in fact, largely responsible for increased onshore net sand transport and the resulting onshore bar movement. We extend the work of Plant et al. [in review] that relates bar position, sinuosity, and wave forcing within a dynamical feedback model. The model consists of coupled differential equations that govern the rates of change of cross-shore position and horizontal sinuosity as a function of the current cross-shore position and sinuosity and a proxy for wave forcing. Using a short data set from Duck, NC, they solve for the unknown coupling coefficients by doing a least-squares fit. They find that the coefficients for the self-interaction terms have a negative sign, indicating the overall system is stable. The coefficients of the cross-interaction terms (the effect of sinuosity on rate of change of bar position and visa versa), however, are non-zero and have opposite signs indicating the systems are coupled and stability is not affected by these terms. We expand this study, relating bar

  17. Nuss bar procedure: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Obermeyer, Robert J.; Kelly, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Repair of pectus excavatum began at the beginning of the 20th century before endotracheal intubation was standard practice. Surgeons therefore developed techniques that corrected the deformity using an open procedure via the anterior chest wall. Initial techniques were unsatisfactory, but by the 1930s the partial rib resection and sternal osteotomy technique had been developed and was used in combination with external traction post-operatively to prevent the sternum from sinking back into the chest. In 1949, Ravitch recommended complete resection of the costal cartilages and complete mobilization of the sternum without external traction, and in 1961 Adkins and Blades introduced the concept of a substernal strut for sternal support. The wide resection resulted in a very rigid anterior chest wall, and in some instances, the development of asphyxiating chondrodystrophy. The primary care physicians therefore became reluctant to refer the patients for repair. In 1987, Nuss developed a minimally invasive technique that required no cartilage or sternal resection and relied only on internal bracing by means of a sub-sternal bar, which is inserted into the chest through two lateral thoracic incisions and guided across the mediastinum with the help of thoracoscopy. After publication of the procedure in 1998, it became widely accepted and a flood of new patients suddenly started to appear, which allowed for rapid improvements and modifications of the technique. New instruments were developed specifically for the procedure, complications were recognized, and the steps taken to prevent them included the development of a stabilizer and the use of pericostal sutures to prevent bar displacement. Various options were developed for sternal elevation prior to mediastinal dissection to prevent injury to the mediastinal structures, allergy testing was implemented, and pain management improved. The increased number of patients coming for repair permitted studies of cardiopulmonary

  18. Numerical Simulations of the Kolsky Compression Bar Test

    SciTech Connect

    Corona, Edmundo

    2015-10-01

    The Kolsky compression bar, or split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB), is an ex- perimental apparatus used to obtain the stress-strain response of material specimens at strain rates in the order of 10 2 to 10 4 1/s. Its operation and associated data re- duction are based on principles of one-dimensional wave propagation in rods. Second order effects such as indentation of the bars by the specimen and wave dispersion in the bars, however, can significantly affect aspects of the measured material response. Finite element models of the experimental apparatus were used here to demonstrate these two effects. A procedure proposed by Safa and Gary (2010) to account for bar indentation was also evaluated and shown to improve the estimation of the strain in the bars significantly. The use of pulse shapers was also shown to alleviate the effects of wave dispersion. Combining the two can lead to more reliable results in Kolsky compression bar testing.

  19. Shepherding tidal debris with the Galactic bar: the Ophiuchus stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Kohei; Erkal, Denis; Sanders, Jason L.

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of stellar streams in rotating barred potentials is explained for the first time. Naturally, neighbouring stream stars reach pericentre at slightly different times. In the presence of a rotating bar, these neighbouring stream stars experience different bar orientations during pericentric passage and hence each star receives a different torque from the bar. These differing torques reshape the angular momentum and energy distribution of stars in the stream, which in turn changes the growth rate of the stream. For a progenitor orbiting in the same sense as the bar's rotation and satisfying a resonance condition, the resultant stream can be substantially shorter or longer than expected, depending on whether the pericentric passages of the progenitor occur along the bar's minor or major axis, respectively. We present a full discussion of this phenomenon focusing mainly on streams confined to the Galactic plane. In stark contrast with the evolution in static potentials, which give rise to streams that grow steadily in time, rotating barred potentials can produce dynamically old, short streams. This challenges the traditional viewpoint that the inner halo necessarily consists of well phase-mixed material whilst the tidally disrupted structures in the outer halo are more spatially coherent. We argue that this mechanism may play an important role in explaining the mysteriously short Ophiuchus stream that was recently discovered near the bulge region of the Milky Way.

  20. Alluvial Bars of the Obed Wild and Scenic River, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, W.J.; Fitch, K.C.; Ladd, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Park Service (NPS) initiated a reconnaissance study of alluvial bars along the Obed Wild and Scenic River (Obed WSR), in Cumberland and Morgan Counties, Tennessee. The study was partly driven by concern that trapping of sand by upstream impoundments might threaten rare, threatened, or endangered plant habitat by reducing the supply of sediment to the alluvial bars. The objectives of the study were to: (1) develop a preliminary understanding of the distribution, morphology, composition, stability, and vegetation structure of alluvial bars along the Obed WSR, and (2) determine whether evidence of human alteration of sediment dynamics in the Obed WSR warrants further, more detailed examination. This report presents the results of the reconnaissance study of alluvial bars along the Obed River, Clear Creek, and Daddys Creek in the Obed WSR. The report is based on: (1) field-reconnaissance visits by boat to 56 alluvial bars along selected reaches of the Obed River and Clear Creek; (2) analysis of aerial photographs, topographic and geologic maps, and other geographic data to assess the distribution of alluvial bars in the Obed WSR; (3) surveys of topography, surface particle size, vegetation structure, and ground cover on three selected alluvial bars; and (4) analysis of hydrologic records.

  1. Telescoping magnetic ball bar test gage

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, J.B.

    1982-03-15

    A telescoping magnetic ball bar test gage for determining the accuracy of machine tools, including robots, and those measuring machines having non-disengagable servo drives which cannot be clutched out. Two gage balls are held and separated from one another by a telescoping fixture which allows them relative radial motional freedom but not relative lateral motional freedom. The telescoping fixture comprises a parallel reed flexure unit and a rigid member. One gage ball is secured by a magnetic socket knuckle assembly which fixes its center with respect to the machine being tested. The other gage ball is secured by another magnetic socket knuckle assembly which is engaged or held by the machine in such manner that the center of that ball is directed to execute a prescribed trajectory, all points of which are equidistant from the center of the fixed gage ball. As the moving ball executes its trajectory, changes in the radial distance between the centers of the two balls caused by inaccuracies in the machine are determined or measured by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) assembly actuated by the parallel reed flexure unit. Measurements can be quickly and easily taken for multiple trajectories about several different fixed ball locations, thereby determining the accuracy of the machine.

  2. Telescoping magnetic ball bar test gage

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, J.B.

    1984-03-13

    A telescoping magnetic ball bar test gage for determining the accuracy of machine tools, including robots, and those measuring machines having non-disengageable servo drives which cannot be clutched out is disclosed. Two gage balls are held and separated from one another by a telescoping fixture which allows them relative radial motional freedom but not relative lateral motional freedom. The telescoping fixture comprises a parallel reed flexure unit and a rigid member. One gage ball is secured by a magnetic socket knuckle assembly which fixes its center with respect to the machine being tested. The other gage ball is secured by another magnetic socket knuckle assembly which is engaged or held by the machine in such manner that the center of that ball is directed to execute a prescribed trajectory, all points of which are equidistant from the center of the fixed gage ball. As the moving ball executes its trajectory, changes in the radial distance between the centers of the two balls caused by inaccuracies in the machine are determined or measured by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) assembly actuated by the parallel reed flexure unit. Measurements can be quickly and easily taken for multiple trajectories about several different fixed ball locations, thereby determining the accuracy of the machine. 3 figs.

  3. Telescoping magnetic ball bar test gage

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, James B.

    1984-01-01

    A telescoping magnetic ball bar test gage for determining the accuracy of machine tools, including robots, and those measuring machines having non-disengageable servo drives which cannot be clutched out. Two gage balls (10, 12) are held and separated from one another by a telescoping fixture which allows them relative radial motional freedom but not relative lateral motional freedom. The telescoping fixture comprises a parallel reed flexure unit (14) and a rigid member (16, 18, 20, 22, 24). One gage ball (10) is secured by a magnetic socket knuckle assembly (34) which fixes its center with respect to the machine being tested. The other gage ball (12) is secured by another magnetic socket knuckle assembly (38) which is engaged or held by the machine in such manner that the center of that ball (12) is directed to execute a prescribed trajectory, all points of which are equidistant from the center of the fixed gage ball (10). As the moving ball (12) executes its trajectory, changes in the radial distance between the centers of the two balls (10, 12) caused by inaccuracies in the machine are determined or measured by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) assembly (50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 60) actuated by the parallel reed flexure unit (14). Measurements can be quickly and easily taken for multiple trajectories about several different fixed ball (10) locations, thereby determining the accuracy of the machine.

  4. Dehydration kinetics of talc at 1 bar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguly, J.; Bose, K.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental results on the dehydration kinetics of talc, which is likely to be a major potential resource for water and hydrogen in carbonaceous chondrites, is presented. The rate of dehydration of an essentially pure Mg-end member natural talc, (Mg(.99)Fe(.01))3Si4O10(OH)2, was studied by measuring in situ weight change under isothermal condition at 1 bar as a function of time in the temperature range 775 to 985 C. The grain size of the starting material was 0.7 to 1 micron. It was found that the data up to 50 to 60 percent dehydration can be fitted by an equation of the form alpha = exp(-Kt(exp n)), where alpha is the weight fraction of talc remaining, K is a rate constant and n is a numerical constant for a given temperature. For any set of isothermal data, there is a major change in the value of n for larger dehydration. For up to approximately 50 percent dehydration, all rate constants can be described by an Arrheniun relation with an activation energy of 432 (+/- 30) kJ/mol; n has a nearly constant value of 0.54 between 775 and 875 C, but increases almost linearly according to n = -10.77 + 0.012T C at T greater than or equal to 875 C.

  5. When physics takes over: BAR proteins and membrane curvature

    PubMed Central

    Simunovic, Mijo; Voth, Gregory A.; Callan-Jones, Andrew; Bassereau, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Cell membranes become highly curved during membrane trafficking, cytokinesis, infection, immune response or cell motion. Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain proteins with their intrinsically curved and anisotropic shape are involved in many of these processes, but with a large spectrum of modes of action. In vitro experiments and multiscale computer simulations have contributed in identifying a minimal set of physical parameters, namely protein density on the membrane, membrane tension, and membrane shape, that control how bound BAR domain proteins behave on the membrane. In this review, we summarize the multifaceted coupling of BAR proteins to membrane mechanics and propose a simple phase diagram that recapitulates the effects of these parameters. PMID:26519988

  6. The Effect of Alternating Bars Migration on River Bifurcation Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miori, S.; Bertoldi, W.; Repetto, R.; Zanoni, L.; Tubino, M.

    2007-12-01

    Recent theoretical analysis, field and laboratory observations pointed out that fluvial bifurcation show an intrinsic instability, leading to the establishment of an unbalanced flow and sediments distribution in the downstream branches. The existence of equilibrium configurations has been proved, which mainly depend on the hydraulic and morphologic conditions of the upstream flow. However, flow and sediment transport in braided networks are highly unsteady, so that the bifurcation can hardly reach an equilibrium configuration. One of the main causes of temporal fluctuations is the migration of alternate bars in the upstream channel, that can affect and control the flow partition in the distributaries. We analysed the bar - bifurcation interactions by experimental and analytical investigations. We performed a set of flume experiments on a Y shaped fixed banks and movable bed bifurcation. Laboratory results show that bar formation in the upstream channel perturbs the discharge distribution with a series of fluctuations strictly related to the period of bar migration. Four different behaviours have been identified, characterised by small perturbations of the equilibrium state (balanced or unbalanced), by the occurrence of large fluctuations or by the closure of one of the distributaries. The character of the bifurcation is controlled by the amplitude and speed of alternate bars that directly influence the amplitude and period of discharge oscillations. Consequently, at large values of the aspect ratio (high bars) and low sediment mobility (slow bars) the bifurcation dynamics is likely to be dominated by bars migration. Extending the one-dimensional model proposed by Bolla Pittaluga et al. (2003), we introduce the effect of bars migrating in the upstream channel. In the present model, the bifurcation is forced with spatial crosswise fluctuations of feeding conditions, in order to reproduce the transverse distribution of sediment and water of an alternate bar pattern as

  7. Angular distributions in J / ψ → p p bar π0 (η) decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, V. F.; Milstein, A. I.; Salnikov, S. G.

    2016-09-01

    The differential decay rates of the processes J / ψ → p p bar π0 and J / ψ → p p bar η close to the p p bar threshold are calculated with the help of the N N bar optical potential. The same calculations are made for the decays of ψ (2 S). We use the potential which has been suggested to fit the cross sections of N N bar scattering together with N N bar and six pion production in e+e- annihilation close to the p p bar threshold. The p p bar invariant mass spectrum is in agreement with the available experimental data. The anisotropy of the angular distributions, which appears due to the tensor forces in the N N bar interaction, is predicted close to the p p bar threshold. This anisotropy is large enough to be investigated experimentally. Such measurements would allow one to check the accuracy of the model of N N bar interaction.

  8. Optical System Design For High Speed Bar Code Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellekson, Ronald; Reddersen, Brad; Campbell, Scott

    1987-04-01

    Spectra-Physics recently introduced the Model 750 SL scanner for use in the European point-of-sale market, to meet the European requirement for a scanner of less than 13 cm height. The model 750 SL uses a higher density computer designed scan pattern with a retrodirective collection system to scan and detect UPC, EAN, and JAN bar codes. The scanner "reads" these bar codes in such a way that the user need not precisely align the bar code symbol with respect to the window in the scanner even at package speeds up to 100 inches per second. By using a unique geometrical arrangement of mirrors, a polygonal mirror assembly, and a custom-designed plastic bifocal lens, a design was developed to meet these requirements. This paper describes the design of this new low cost scanner, the use of computer-aided design in the development of this scanner, and some observations on the future of bar code scanning.

  9. 44. EXTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING BARS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. EXTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING BARS LINKING SWITCH LEVERS AND PIPES LEADING TO SWITCHES - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  10. Chord, Horizontal Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Details; Crossbracing Center ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord, Horizontal Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Details; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Posts, Braces & Counterbrace Joint Detail - Brownsville Covered Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River (moved to Eagle Creek Park, Indianapolis), Brownsville, Union County, IN

  11. Application of laser bar code technology in power fitting evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaohong; Liu, Shuhuab

    2007-12-01

    In this work, an automatic encoding and management system on power fittings (PFEMS) is developed based on laser bar coding technology. The system can encode power fittings according to their types, structure, dimensions, materials, and technical characteristics. Both the character codes and the laser bar codes of power fittings can be produced from the system. The system can evaluate power fittings and search process-paper automatically. The system analyzes the historical values and technical information of congeneric fittings, and forms formulae of evaluation with recursive analytical method. And then stores the formulae and technical documents into the database for index. Scanning the bar code with a laser bar code reader, accurate evaluation and corresponding process-paper of the fittings can be produced. The software has already been applied in some power stations and worked very well.

  12. 21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... gases; (E) Radiopharmaceuticals; and (F) Low-density polyethylene form fill and seal containers that are... minimum, the appropriate National Drug Code (NDC) number in a linear bar code that meets European...

  13. 21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... gases; (E) Radiopharmaceuticals; and (F) Low-density polyethylene form fill and seal containers that are... minimum, the appropriate National Drug Code (NDC) number in a linear bar code that meets European...

  14. Confirmation of an End-On Bar in NGC-6503

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeland, Emily; Chomiuk, Laura; Keenan, Ryan; Nelson, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    The nearby isolated galaxy NGC 6503 features several characteristics that suggest the possible presence of a strong bar. These include a star-forming inner ring, circumnuclear disk, central stellar velocity dispersion decrease (σ-drop), and a surface brightness profile with a quasi-exponential central peak followed by a plateau at moderate radii. In Freeland et al. (2009, submitted) we propose the existence of a strong end-on bar in NGC 6503 as an explanation for these observables. Bureau & Athanassoula (2005) demonstrate through simulations that a strong end-on bar in a highly inclined galaxy such as NGC 6503 (incl. 74 degrees) would be hidden from view morphologically (appearing as a round bulge), but should show a strong ``double-humped'' signature in its stellar rotation curve. We propose long-slit spectroscopic observations along the major axis of the NGC 6503 to determine stellar kinematics and search for the signature of a strong end-on bar.

  15. 15. MACHINERY DETAILS: LATCH WHEEL BRACKET, LATCH POCKET, LOCK BAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. MACHINERY DETAILS: LATCH WHEEL BRACKET, LATCH POCKET, LOCK BAR, LATCH CRADLE, SPLIT COLLAR, ETC. - Niantic River Swing Bridge, Spanning Niantic River between East Lyme & Waterford, Old Lyme, New London County, CT

  16. Deficiency of "Thin" Stellar Bars in Seyfert Host Galaxies.

    PubMed

    Shlosman; Peletier; Knapen

    2000-06-01

    Using all available major samples of Seyfert galaxies and their corresponding closely matched control samples of nonactive galaxies, we find that the bar ellipticities (or axial ratios) in Seyfert galaxies are systematically different from those in nonactive galaxies. Overall, there is a deficiency of bars with large ellipticities (i.e., "thin" or "strong" bars) in Seyfert galaxies compared to nonactive galaxies. Accompanied with a large dispersion due to small number statistics, this effect is strictly speaking at the 2 sigma level. To obtain this result, the active galaxy samples of near-infrared surface photometry were matched to those of normal galaxies in type, host galaxy ellipticity, absolute magnitude, and, to some extent, redshift. We discuss possible theoretical explanations of this phenomenon within the framework of galactic evolution, and, in particular, of radial gas redistribution in barred galaxies. Our conclusions provide further evidence that Seyfert hosts differ systematically from their nonactive counterparts on scales of a few kiloparsecs.

  17. 6. Pin connection and eye bar nest, lower chord, up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Pin connection and eye bar nest, lower chord, up river truss, 321-4 Span 3. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Main Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River at mile post 3.1, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  18. 7. Pin connections and eye bar nest, lower chord, up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Pin connections and eye bar nest, lower chord, up river truss, 321-4 Span 3. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Main Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River at mile post 3.1, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  19. 8. Pin connecting and eye bar nest, lower chord, down ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Pin connecting and eye bar nest, lower chord, down river truss 132-0 Span 2 from Hot Metal Bridge. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Main Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River at mile post 3.1, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  20. What is the peak stress in ceramic bar impacts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simha, C. Hari Manoj; Bless, S. J.; Bedford, A.

    2000-04-01

    The bar impact experiment has been extensively used to characterize the high strain rate properties of high strength ceramics. In particular, alumina AD-99.5 has been widely studied; both stress gauge and VISAR bar impact data are available for this material. We have performed plate-on-bar impact experiments using this material in some novel configurations. An interface was introduced in the target bar (by cutting it) in the zone where the material fails by axial splitting. Such experiments resulted in a dramatic drop in the peak stress measured in the experiment, when compared to experiments with no interface. We show that the damage kinetics in tension influence these measurements. Since the peak stress is dependent on the damage kinetics we conclude that the measurement cannot be correlated to some intrinsic strength of the ceramic.

  1. Context matters: the educational potential of gay bars revisited.

    PubMed

    Warwick, Ian; Douglas, Nicola; Aggleton, Peter; Boyce, Paul

    2003-08-01

    Gay bars have been frequently identified as suitable environments in which to conduct HIV prevention activities among homosexually active men. In theory, they provide easy access to a relatively diverse group of men. However, gay bars are environments in which the primary purpose is a social one. Gay men use them to take time out, to socialize, and, on occasions, to find new sexual partners. They are also settings in which social reputations often have to be managed. This study examined the HIV/AIDS educational potential of four gay bars in London, Britain. Semistructured observations and interviews took place in four contrasting bars with a focus on men's perceptions of HIV/AIDS-related health promotion activities including condom promotion, the use of posters and small media, and understandings of safer sex. Respondents were ambivalent about AIDS-related health education activities being undertaken. The implications of such responses for the development of HIV primary prevention activities in such settings are discussed.

  2. Downstream-migrating fluvial point bars in the rock record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Ielpi, Alessandro; Aldinucci, Mauro; Fustic, Milovan

    2016-04-01

    Classical models developed for ancient fluvial point bars are based on the assumption that meander bends invariably increase their radius as meander-bend apices migrate in a direction transverse to the channel-belt axis (i.e., meander bend expansion). However, many modern meandering rivers are also characterized by down-valley migration of the bend apex, a mechanism that takes place without a significant change in meander radius and wavelength. Downstream-migrating fluvial point bars (DMFPB) are the dominant architectural element of these types of meander belts. Yet they are poorly known from ancient fluvial-channel belts, since their disambiguation from expansional point bars often requires fully-3D perspectives. This study aims to review DMFPB deposits spanning in age from Devonian to Holocene, and to discuss their main architectural and sedimentological features from published outcrop, borehole and 3D-seismic datasets. Fluvial successions hosting DMFPB mainly accumulated in low accommodation conditions, where channel belts were affected by different degrees of morphological (e.g., valleys) or tectonic (e.g., axial drainage of shortening basins) confinement. In confined settings, bends migrate downstream along the erosion-resistant valley flanks and little or no floodplain deposits are preserved. Progressive floor aggradation (e.g., valley filling) allow meander belts with DMFPB to decrease their degree of confinement. In less confined settings, meander bends migrate downstream mainly after impinging against older, erosion-resistant channel fill mud. By contrast, tectonic confinement is commonly associated with uplifted alluvial plains that prevented meander-bend expansion, in turn triggering downstream translation. At the scale of individual point bars, translational morphodynamics promote the preservation of downstream-bar deposits, whereas the coarser-grained upstream and central beds are less frequently preserved. However, enhanced preservation of upstream-bar

  3. Adult immunization

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Bharti; Chawla, Sumit; Kumar Dharma, Vijay; Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is recommended throughout life to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequel. The primary focus of vaccination programs has historically been directed to childhood immunizations. For adults, chronic diseases have been the primary focus of preventive and medical health care, though there has been increased emphasis on preventing infectious diseases. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains low for most of the routinely recommended vaccines. Though adults are less susceptible to fall prey to traditional infectious agents, the probability of exposure to infectious agents has increased manifold owing to globalization and increasing travel opportunities both within and across the countries. Thus, there is an urgent need to address the problem of adult immunization. The adult immunization enterprise is more complex, encompassing a wide variety of vaccines and a very diverse target population. There is no coordinated public health infrastructure to support an adult immunization program as there is for children. Moreover, there is little coordination among adult healthcare providers in terms of vaccine provision. Substantial improvement in adult vaccination is needed to reduce the health consequences of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. Routine assessment of adult patient vaccination needs, recommendation, and offer of needed vaccines for adults should be incorporated into routine clinical care of adults. PMID:24128707

  4. Bar-Chart-Monitor System For Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Oscar

    1993-01-01

    Real-time monitor system provides bar-chart displays of significant operating parameters developed for National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at Ames Research Center. Designed to gather and process sensory data on operating conditions of wind tunnels and models, and displays data for test engineers and technicians concerned with safety and validation of operating conditions. Bar-chart video monitor displays data in as many as 50 channels at maximum update rate of 2 Hz in format facilitating quick interpretation.

  5. The Pintail coal bed and barrier bar G

    SciTech Connect

    Roehler, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    Barrier bar G and the Pintail coal bed are in the Almond Formation and were deposited near the head of a shallow marine embayment that was located along the western shores of the Late Cretaceous epeiric sea. A barrier-lagoon, coal-forming model has been developed from the depositional history of barrier bar G and the Pintail coal bed. The model demonstrates that the barrier and its lagoon evolved through saltwater to brackish-water to freshwater stages.

  6. New Phenomena Observed in Plate Impacts onto Alumina Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beno, T.; Bless, S.; Nichols, S.

    2006-07-01

    Steel flyer plates were used to impact alumina bars at 275 m/s, nominally. Manganin gauges were used to monitor stress waves in the bars. Geometry of the impact was varied in an attempt to extend gauge records. Gauge life was best improved by careful alignment. The longest gauge records indicated that alumina retains a strength level of about 2 GPa after initial failure. Stress levels of over 5 GPa were obtained with impact-zone confinement.

  7. THE MASS PROFILE AND SHAPE OF BARS IN THE SPITZER SURVEY OF STELLAR STRUCTURE IN GALAXIES (S{sup 4}G): SEARCH FOR AN AGE INDICATOR FOR BARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Taehyun; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Sheth, Kartik; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Zaritsky, Dennis; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; Holwerda, Benne; Ho, Luis C.; Comerón, Sébastien; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Knapen, Johan H.; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Hinz, Joannah L.; Buta, Ronald J.; Kim, Minjin; Madore, Barry F.; and others

    2015-01-20

    We have measured the radial light profiles and global shapes of bars using two-dimensional 3.6 μm image decompositions for 144 face-on barred galaxies from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies. The bar surface brightness profile is correlated with the stellar mass and bulge-to-total (B/T) ratio of their host galaxies. Bars in massive and bulge-dominated galaxies (B/T > 0.2) show a flat profile, while bars in less massive, disk-dominated galaxies (B/T ∼ 0) show an exponential, disk-like profile with a wider spread in the radial profile than in the bulge-dominated galaxies. The global two-dimensional shapes of bars, however, are rectangular/boxy, independent of the bulge or disk properties. We speculate that because bars are formed out of disks, bars initially have an exponential (disk-like) profile that evolves over time, trapping more disk stars to boxy bar orbits. This leads bars to become stronger and have flatter profiles. The narrow spread of bar radial profiles in more massive disks suggests that these bars formed earlier (z > 1), while the disk-like profiles and a larger spread in the radial profile in less massive systems imply a later and more gradual evolution, consistent with the cosmological evolution of bars inferred from observational studies. Therefore, we expect that the flatness of the bar profile can be used as a dynamical age indicator of the bar to measure the time elapsed since the bar formation. We argue that cosmic gas accretion is required to explain our results on bar profile and the presence of gas within the bar region.

  8. Dynamics of membrane nanotubes coated with I-BAR.

    PubMed

    Barooji, Younes F; Rørvig-Lund, Andreas; Semsey, Szabolcs; Reihani, S Nader S; Bendix, Poul M

    2016-07-21

    Membrane deformation is a necessary step in a number of cellular processes such as filopodia and invadopodia formation and has been shown to involve membrane shaping proteins containing membrane binding domains from the IRSp53-MIM protein family. In reconstituted membranes the membrane shaping domains can efficiently deform negatively charged membranes into tubules without any other proteins present. Here, we show that the IM domain (also called I-BAR domain) from the protein ABBA, forms semi-flexible nanotubes protruding into Giant Unilamellar lipid Vesicles (GUVs). By simultaneous quantification of tube intensity and tubular shape we find both the diameter and stiffness of the nanotubes. I-BAR decorated tubes were quantified to have a diameter of ~50 nm and exhibit no stiffening relative to protein free tubes of the same diameter. At high protein density the tubes are immobile whereas at lower density the tubes diffuse freely on the surface of the GUV. Bleaching experiments of the fluorescently tagged I-BAR confirmed that the mobility of the tubes correlates with the mobility of the I-BAR on the GUV membrane. Finally, at low density of I-BAR the protein upconcentrates within tubes protruding into the GUVs. This implies that I-BAR exhibits strong preference for negatively curved membranes.

  9. SECULAR DAMPING OF STELLAR BARS IN SPINNING DARK MATTER HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Stacy; Shlosman, Isaac; Heller, Clayton

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate using numerical simulations of isolated galaxies that growth of stellar bars in spinning dark matter halos is heavily suppressed in the secular phase of evolution. In a representative set of models, we show that for values of the cosmological spin parameter λ ≳ 0.03, bar growth (in strength and size) becomes increasingly quenched. Furthermore, the slowdown of the bar pattern speed weakens considerably with increasing λ until it ceases completely. The terminal structure of the bars is affected as well, including extent and shape of their boxy/peanut bulges. The essence of this effect lies in the modified angular momentum exchange between the disk and the halo facilitated by the bar. For the first time we have demonstrated that a dark matter halo can emit and not purely absorb angular momentum. Although the halo as a whole is not found to emit, the net transfer of angular momentum from the disk to the halo is significantly reduced or completely eliminated. The paradigm shift implies that the accepted view that disks serve as sources of angular momentum and halos serve as sinks must be revised. Halos with λ ≳ 0.03 are expected to form a substantial fraction, based on the lognormal distribution of λ. The dependence of secular bar evolution on halo spin, therefore, implies profound corollaries for the cosmological evolution of galactic disks.

  10. Star formation in nuclear rings of barred-spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woong-Tae; Seo, Woo-Young

    2015-08-01

    Barred-spiral galaxies contain star-forming nuclear rings at their centers. Some rings show a well-defined azimuthal age gradient of star clusters along a ring, while others do not. Using hydrodynamic simulations with the prescriptions of star formation and feedback included, we study what control star formation occurring in the nuclear rings. In models without spiral arms, the star formation rate (SFR) in a ring exhibits a strong burst at early time and declines to small values at late time. The early burst is caused by a rapid gas infall along due to the bar growth, consuming most of the gas inside the bar region. On the other hand, models with spiral arms outside the bar region show multiple starburst activities at late time caused by arm-induced gas inflows, provided that the arm pattern speed is slower than that of the bar. The SFR in models with spirals is larger by a factor of ~ 1.4-4.0 than that in the bar-only models, with larger values corresponding to stronger and slower arms. In all models, young star clusters in nuclear ring show an azimuthal age gradient only when the SFR is small, such that younger clusters tend to locate closer to the contact points, since star formation occurs preferentially in the contact points between a ring and dust lanes.

  11. On backward dispersion correction of Hopkinson pressure bar signals

    PubMed Central

    Tyas, A.; Ozdemir, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Elastic theory shows that wide spectrum signals in the Hopkinson pressure bar suffer two forms of distortion as they propagate from the loaded bar face. These must be accounted for if accurate determination of the impact load is to be possible. The first form of distortion is the well-known phase velocity dispersion effect. The second form, which can be equally deleterious, is the prediction that at high frequencies, the stress and strain generated in the bar varies with radial position on the cross section, even for a uniformly applied loading. We consider the consequences of these effects on our ability to conduct accurate backward dispersion correction of bar signals, that is, to derive the impact face load from the dispersed signal recorded at some other point on the bar. We conclude that there is an upper limit on the frequency for which the distortion effects can be accurately compensated, and that this can significantly affect the accuracy of experimental results. We propose a combination of experimental studies and detailed numerical modelling of the impact event and wave propagation along the bar to gain better understanding of the frequency content of the impact event, and help assess the accuracy of experimental predictions of impact face load. PMID:25071236

  12. Introducing a New 3D Dynamical Model for Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Christof; Zotos, Euaggelos E.

    2015-11-01

    The regular or chaotic dynamics of an analytical realistic three dimensional model composed of a spherically symmetric central nucleus, a bar and a flat disk is investigated. For describing the properties of the bar, we introduce a new simple dynamical model and we explore the influence on the character of orbits of all the involved parameters of it, such as the mass and the scale length of the bar, the major semi-axis and the angular velocity of the bar, as well as the energy. Regions of phase space with ordered and chaotic motion are identified in dependence on these parameters and for breaking the rotational symmetry. First, we study in detail the dynamics in the invariant plane z = pz = 0 using the Poincaré map as a basic tool and then study the full three-dimensional case using the Smaller Alignment index method as principal tool for distinguishing between order and chaos. We also present strong evidence obtained through the numerical simulations that our new bar model can realistically describe the formation and the evolution of the observed twin spiral structure in barred galaxies.

  13. Offline detection of broken rotor bars in AC induction motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Craig Stephen

    ABSTRACT. OFFLINE DETECTION OF BROKEN ROTOR BARS IN AC INDUCTION MOTORS. The detection of the broken rotor bar defect in medium- and large-sized AC induction machines is currently one of the most difficult tasks for the motor condition and monitoring industry. If a broken rotor bar defect goes undetected, it can cause a catastrophic failure of an expensive machine. If a broken rotor bar defect is falsely determined, it wastes time and money to physically tear down and inspect the machine only to find an incorrect diagnosis. Previous work in 2009 at Baker/SKF-USA in collaboration with the Korea University has developed a prototype instrument that has been highly successful in correctly detecting the broken rotor bar defect in ACIMs where other methods have failed. Dr. Sang Bin and his students at the Korea University have been using this prototype instrument to help the industry save money in the successful detection of the BRB defect. A review of the current state of motor conditioning and monitoring technology for detecting the broken rotor bar defect in ACIMs shows improved detection of this fault is still relevant. An analysis of previous work in the creation of this prototype instrument leads into the refactoring of the software and hardware into something more deployable, cost effective and commercially viable.

  14. Hercules and Wolf 630 stellar streams and galactic bar kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobylev, V. V.; Bajkova, A. T.

    2016-04-01

    We have identified the four most significant features in the UV velocity distribution of solarneighborhood stars: H1, H2 in the Hercules stream and W1, W2 in the Wolf 630 stream. We have formulated the problemof determining several characteristics of the centralGalactic bar independently from each of the identified features by assuming that the Hercules and Wolf 630 streams are of a bar-induced dynamical nature. The problem has been solved by constructing 2: 1 resonant orbits in the rotating bar frame for each star in these streams. Analysis of the resonant orbits found has shown that the bar pattern speed is 45-55 km s-1 kpc-1, while the bar angle lies within the range 40°-60°. The results obtained are consistent with the view that the Hercules andWolf 630 streams could be formed by a long-term influence of the Galactic bar leading to a characteristic bimodal splitting of the UV velocity plane.

  15. Dynamics of membrane nanotubes coated with I-BAR.

    PubMed

    Barooji, Younes F; Rørvig-Lund, Andreas; Semsey, Szabolcs; Reihani, S Nader S; Bendix, Poul M

    2016-01-01

    Membrane deformation is a necessary step in a number of cellular processes such as filopodia and invadopodia formation and has been shown to involve membrane shaping proteins containing membrane binding domains from the IRSp53-MIM protein family. In reconstituted membranes the membrane shaping domains can efficiently deform negatively charged membranes into tubules without any other proteins present. Here, we show that the IM domain (also called I-BAR domain) from the protein ABBA, forms semi-flexible nanotubes protruding into Giant Unilamellar lipid Vesicles (GUVs). By simultaneous quantification of tube intensity and tubular shape we find both the diameter and stiffness of the nanotubes. I-BAR decorated tubes were quantified to have a diameter of ~50 nm and exhibit no stiffening relative to protein free tubes of the same diameter. At high protein density the tubes are immobile whereas at lower density the tubes diffuse freely on the surface of the GUV. Bleaching experiments of the fluorescently tagged I-BAR confirmed that the mobility of the tubes correlates with the mobility of the I-BAR on the GUV membrane. Finally, at low density of I-BAR the protein upconcentrates within tubes protruding into the GUVs. This implies that I-BAR exhibits strong preference for negatively curved membranes. PMID:27444356

  16. Dynamics of membrane nanotubes coated with I-BAR

    PubMed Central

    Barooji, Younes F.; Rørvig-Lund, Andreas; Semsey, Szabolcs; Reihani, S. Nader S.; Bendix, Poul M.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane deformation is a necessary step in a number of cellular processes such as filopodia and invadopodia formation and has been shown to involve membrane shaping proteins containing membrane binding domains from the IRSp53-MIM protein family. In reconstituted membranes the membrane shaping domains can efficiently deform negatively charged membranes into tubules without any other proteins present. Here, we show that the IM domain (also called I-BAR domain) from the protein ABBA, forms semi-flexible nanotubes protruding into Giant Unilamellar lipid Vesicles (GUVs). By simultaneous quantification of tube intensity and tubular shape we find both the diameter and stiffness of the nanotubes. I-BAR decorated tubes were quantified to have a diameter of ~50 nm and exhibit no stiffening relative to protein free tubes of the same diameter. At high protein density the tubes are immobile whereas at lower density the tubes diffuse freely on the surface of the GUV. Bleaching experiments of the fluorescently tagged I-BAR confirmed that the mobility of the tubes correlates with the mobility of the I-BAR on the GUV membrane. Finally, at low density of I-BAR the protein upconcentrates within tubes protruding into the GUVs. This implies that I-BAR exhibits strong preference for negatively curved membranes. PMID:27444356

  17. Dynamics of membrane nanotubes coated with I-BAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barooji, Younes F.; Rørvig-Lund, Andreas; Semsey, Szabolcs; Reihani, S. Nader S.; Bendix, Poul M.

    2016-07-01

    Membrane deformation is a necessary step in a number of cellular processes such as filopodia and invadopodia formation and has been shown to involve membrane shaping proteins containing membrane binding domains from the IRSp53-MIM protein family. In reconstituted membranes the membrane shaping domains can efficiently deform negatively charged membranes into tubules without any other proteins present. Here, we show that the IM domain (also called I-BAR domain) from the protein ABBA, forms semi-flexible nanotubes protruding into Giant Unilamellar lipid Vesicles (GUVs). By simultaneous quantification of tube intensity and tubular shape we find both the diameter and stiffness of the nanotubes. I-BAR decorated tubes were quantified to have a diameter of ~50 nm and exhibit no stiffening relative to protein free tubes of the same diameter. At high protein density the tubes are immobile whereas at lower density the tubes diffuse freely on the surface of the GUV. Bleaching experiments of the fluorescently tagged I-BAR confirmed that the mobility of the tubes correlates with the mobility of the I-BAR on the GUV membrane. Finally, at low density of I-BAR the protein upconcentrates within tubes protruding into the GUVs. This implies that I-BAR exhibits strong preference for negatively curved membranes.

  18. Prevalence and predictors of smoking in "smoke-free" bars. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys.

    PubMed

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Mons, Ute; Allwright, Shane; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; Fong, Geoffrey T; de Vries, Hein; Willemsen, Marc C

    2011-05-01

    National level smoke-free legislation is implemented to protect the public from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS). The first aim of this study was to investigate how successful the smoke-free hospitality industry legislation in Ireland (March 2004), France (January 2008), the Netherlands (July 2008), and Germany (between August 2007 and July 2008) was in reducing smoking in bars. The second aim was to assess individual smokers' predictors of smoking in bars post-ban. The third aim was to examine country differences in predictors and the fourth aim was to examine differences between educational levels (as an indicator of socioeconomic status). This study used nationally representative samples of 3147 adult smokers from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys who were surveyed pre- and post-ban. The results reveal that while the partial smoke-free legislation in the Netherlands and Germany was effective in reducing smoking in bars (from 88% to 34% and from 87% to 44%, respectively), the effectiveness was much lower than the comprehensive legislation in Ireland and France which almost completely eliminated smoking in bars (from 97% to 3% and from 84% to 3% respectively). Smokers who were more supportive of the ban, were more aware of the harm of SHS, and who had negative opinions of smoking were less likely to smoke in bars post-ban. Support for the ban was a stronger predictor in Germany. SHS harm awareness was a stronger predictor among less educated smokers in the Netherlands and Germany. The results indicate the need for strong comprehensive smoke-free legislation without exceptions. This should be accompanied by educational campaigns in which the public health rationale for the legislation is clearly explained. PMID:21497973

  19. Comparing the physiological and perceptual responses of construction workers (bar benders and bar fixers) in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Wong, Del Pui-Lam; Chung, Joanne Wai-Yee; Chan, Albert Ping-Chuen; Wong, Francis Kwan-Wah; Yi, Wen

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to (1) quantify the respective physical workloads of bar bending and fixing; and (2) compare the physiological and perceptual responses between bar benders and bar fixers. Field studies were conducted during the summer in Hong Kong from July 2011 to August 2011 over six construction sites. Synchronized physiological, perceptual, and environmental parameters were measured from construction rebar workers. The average duration of the 39 field measurements was 151.1 ± 22.4 min under hot environment (WBGT = 31.4 ± 2.2 °C), during which physiological, perceptual and environmental parameters were synchronized. Energy expenditure of overall rebar work, bar bending, and bar fixing were 2.57, 2.26 and 2.67 Kcal/min (179, 158 and 186 W), respectively. Bar fixing induced significantly higher physiological responses in heart rate (113.6 vs. 102.3 beat/min, p < 0.05), oxygen consumption (9.53 vs. 7.14 ml/min/kg, p < 0.05), and energy expenditure (2.67 vs. 2.26 Kcal/min, p < 0.05) (186 vs. 158 W, p < 0.05) as compared to bar bending. Perceptual response was higher in bar fixing but such difference was not statistically significant. Findings of this study enable the calculation of daily energy expenditure of rebar work.

  20. A Study of B→c$\\bar{c}$γK in the BaBar Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fulsom, Brian Gregory

    2009-04-01

    The BABAR Collaboration is a high energy physics experiment located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The primary goal of the experiment is to study charge and parity violation in the B-meson sector, however the copious production of B mesons decaying to other final states allows for a wide-ranging physics program. In particular, one can access the charmonium system via colour-suppressed b → c decays of the type B → c$\\bar{c}$K. This thesis presents a study of B →c$\\bar{c}$γK decays where c$\\bar{c}$ includes J/Ψ and Ψ(2S), and K includes K±, KS0 and K*(892). The particular emphasis is on a search for the radiative decays X(3872) → J/Ψγ and X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ. The X(3872) state is a recently-discovered resonance of undetermined quark composition, speculatively a conventional charmonium state or exotic four-quark di-meson molecule. This research is also sensitive to the well-known radiative charmonium decays B → χc1,2K, which are used as verification for the analysis technique. This dissertation sets the best B → χc1K branching fraction measurements to date, and sees the first evidence for factorization-suppressed B0 → χc2}K*0 decay at a level of 3.6σ. It also provides evidence for X(3872) → J/Ψγ and X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ with 3.6σ and 3.3σ significance, respectively. The product of branching fractions β(B± → X(3872)K±) • β(X(3872) → J/Ψγ) = (2.8 ± 0.8(stat.) ± 0.2(syst.)) x 10{sup -6} and β(B{± → X(3872)K±) → β(X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ) = (9.5 ± 2.7(stat.) ± 0.9(syst.)) x 10-6 are measured. These results improve upon previous X(3872) → J/Ψγ measurements, and represent the first evidence for X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ.

  1. Demographic response of northern spotted owls to barred owl removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diller, V. Lowell; Hamm, Keith A; Early, Desiree A; Lamphear, David W; Katie Dugger,; Yackulic, Charles B.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Carlson, Peter C.; McDonald, Trent L.

    2016-01-01

    Federally listed as threatened in 1990 primarily because of habitat loss, the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has continued to decline despite conservation efforts resulting in forested habitat being reserved throughout its range. Recently, there is growing evidence the congeneric invasive barred owl (Strix varia) may be responsible for the continued decline primarily by excluding spotted owls from their preferred habitat. We used a long-term demographic study for spotted owls in coastal northern California as the basis for a pilot barred owl removal experiment. Our demography study used capture–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected from 1990 to 2013 to evaluate trends in vital rates and populations. We used a classic before-after-control-impact (BACI) experimental design to investigate the demographic response of northern spotted owls to the lethal removal of barred owls. According to the best 2-species dynamic occupancy model, there was no evidence of differences in barred or northern spotted owl occupancy prior to the initiation of the treatment (barred owl removal). After treatment, barred owl occupancy was lower in the treated relative to the untreated areas and spotted owl occupancy was higher relative to the untreated areas. Barred owl removal decreased spotted owl territory extinction rates but did not affect territory colonization rates. As a result, spotted owl occupancy increased in the treated area and continued to decline in the untreated areas. Prior to and after barred owl removal, there was no evidence that average fecundity differed on the 2 study areas. However, the greater number of occupied spotted owl sites on the treated areas resulted in greater productivity in the treated areas based on empirical counts of fledged young. Prior to removal, survival was declining at a rate of approximately 0.2% per year for treated and untreated areas. Following treatment, estimated survival was 0.859 for

  2. Using newly-designed lint cleaner grid bars to remove seed coat fragments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to remove seed coat fragments at the saw-type lint cleaner using newly-designed grid bars. The test consisted of five experimental grid bar designs and one control. The experimental grid bars had angles from the sharp toe of the grid bar (or the angle from vertical) of ...

  3. New Patrons of Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the fact that many US researchers face increasing competition in chasing after federal support that has not kept pace with inflation, the good news is that private support is on the rise. A growing number of wealthy individuals are investing in research areas that reflect their deeply-held passions as their personal philanthropy. They typically are unafraid to take risks, abhor bureaucracy, and nimbly cross disciplinary boundaries. Many put their personal imprimatur on the direction and operation of the ventures that bear their names. However, private funding is not a replacement for federal funding. It is not coordinated. Absent adequate federal support, gaps can develop: between and within fields, in the balance of exploratory, basic, applied, and translational research, and in the support of scientific talent at different levels of training or institutions of different types. The private share remains small and cannot compensate for significant losses in federal dollars. For these reasons, it is important that scientists and philanthropists make the case to our political leadership that private funding does not replace public support. Private funding is and always has been a huge boon to the scientific enterprise. Universities and researchers have for more than a century been successfully merging public and private funds to profit from the advantages of each funding source, accelerate scientific discovery, and benefit humanity. Given the many causes that could engage the attention of these philanthropists, we are fortunate that so many have chosen to give back to society through the geosciences.

  4. Patron Online Catalog Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Rosemary; Whitlatch, Jo Bell

    1994-01-01

    Reports on studies conducted to provide an in-depth picture of online catalog use in three aspects of library research: (1) as part of the reference process; (2) as used by unassisted users; (3) as a step in obtaining documents. The research methodology is offered as a model for surveying other library services or products. (14 references) (KRN)

  5. Thermal imaging of metals in a Kolsky-bar apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Howard W.; Basak, Debasis; Rhorer, Richard L.; Whitenton, Eric; Burns, Timothy J.; Fields, Richard; Levine, Lyle

    2003-04-01

    Since the modeling of machining processes relies on high-strain-rate, high-temperature material properties, NIST has built a split-Hopkinson (or Kolsky) bar to determine the stress-strain behavior of rapidly heated materials at high temperatures. Our Kolsky bar has been constructed in the NIST high current pulse-heating facility, which enables electrically heating the samples within ~ 100 milliseconds time duration, immediately before the mechanical impact in the bar. Due to the rapid heating, we avoid possible structural changes in the sample, and a stress-strain relationship can be determined at different temperatures for various test materials. We describe the design and the development of the resistively-heated Kolsky-bar apparatus. The incident and the transmitted bars are constructed of 1.5 m long, 15 mm diameter maraging steel, and a typical sample is a 4 mm-diameter, 2 mm-long cylinder of 1045 steel. The sample is placed between the bars and held by friction. The current is transmitted through the graphite-sleeve bushings of the two bars. The non-contact temperatures are measured using an InGaAs near-infrared micro-pyrometer (NIMPY) and an InSb focal-plane (320 by 256) array (thermal camera). The NIMPY and the thermal camera are both calibrated using a variable-temperature blackbody, and the thermodynamic temperature of the metal is determined using the emissivity determined from the measured infrared spectral reflectance of the metal. Thermal videos of the electrically-heated and the room-temperature impacts will be shown with 1 kHz frame rates, and the changes in the stress-strain curves with the temperature of the samples will be discussed.

  6. Developments and trends in fruit bar production and characterization.

    PubMed

    Orrego, C E; Salgado, N; Botero, C A

    2014-01-01

    Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits of fruits. The consumers prefer fruit bars that are more tasted followed by proper textural features that could be obtained by establishing the equilibrium of ingredients, the proper choosing of manufacturing stages and the control of the product final moisture content. Fruit bar preparations may include a mixture of pulps, fresh or dried fruit, sugar, binders, and a variety of minor ingredients. Additionally to the conventional steps of manufacturing (pulping, homogenizing, heating, concentrating, and drying) there have been proposed the use of gelled fruit matrices, dried gels or sponges, and extruders as new trends for processing fruit bars. Different single-type dehydration or combined methods include, in order of increasing process time, air-infrared, vacuum and vacuum-microwave drying convective-solar drying, convective drying, and freeze drying are also suggested as alternative to solar traditional drying stage. The dehydration methods that use vacuum exhibited not only higher retention of antioxidants but also better color, texture, and rehydration capacity. Antioxidant activity resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds in the bars is well established. Besides this, fruit bars are also important sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Given the wide range of bioactive factors in fresh fruits that are preserved in fruit bars, it is plausible that their uptake consumption have a positive effect in reducing the risk of many diseases. PMID:24188234

  7. Self-Consistent Models of Barred Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, David E.

    1994-02-01

    Self-consistent models of barred spiral galaxies based on the observed properties of NGC3992, NGC1073, and NGC1398 are constructed and analyzed. The method of model construction is a slight modification of the technique developed by Contopoulos and Grosbol for the case of unbarred spirals. The main factors which influence self-consistency are the amplitude, pitch angle, scale length and z-thickness of the spirals, the mass of the bar, the angular velocity of the bar/spiral pattern, the central surface density and scale length of the disk, and the central value and slope of the velocity dispersion. Stochastic orbits whose Jacobi constants lie between the values at the Lagrange points L_1 and L_4 are found to play a significant role in supporting self-consistent spiral structure, especially in the regions just beyond the ends of the bar. Stochastic orbits whose Jacobi constants lie below this interval tend to fill more or less uniformly either rings in the outer disk or ovals in the bar region, depending on the regions to which they are confined. Stochastic orbits whose Jacobi constants lie above that of L_4 also tend not to support any imposed structure. The model bars are predominantly comprised of elongated orbits trapped around the x_1 family and terminate close to corotation. The response of gas to the forces of the most successful models is calculated using a two-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. The results confirm that a bar alone is not sufficient to drive a strong spiral response in the gas of the outer disk. An underlying spiral structure in the more massive stellar component appears to be required. If stellar spirals are present, strong gas spirals may persist for long times. (SECTION: Dissertation Summaries)

  8. Self-consistent models of barred spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, David Eugene

    1993-01-01

    Self-consistent models of barred spiral galaxies based on the observed properties of NGC 3992, NGC 1073, and NGC 1398 are constructed and analyzed. The method of model construction is a slight modification of the technique developed by Contopoulos and Grosbol for the case of unbarred spirals. The main factors which influence self-consistency are the amplitude, pitch angle, scale length and z-thickness of the spirals, the mass of the bar, the angular velocity of the bar/spiral pattern, the central surface density and scale length of the disk, and the central value and slope of the velocity dispersion. Stochastic orbits whose Jacobi constants lie between the values at the Lagrange points L1 and L4 are found to play a significant role in supporting self-consistent spiral structure, especially in the regions just beyond the ends of the bar. Stochastic orbits whose Jacobi constants lie below this interval tend to fill more or less uniformly either rings in the outer disk or ovals in the bar region, depending on the regions to which they are confined. Stochastic orbits whose Jacobi constants lie above that of L4 also tend not to support any imposed structure. The model bars are predominantly comprised of elongated orbits trapped around the chi1 family and terminate close to corotation. The response of gas to the forces of the most successful models is calculated using a two-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. The results confirm that a bar alone is not sufficient to drive a strong spiral response in the gas of the outer disk. An underlying spiral structure in the more massive stellar component appears to be required. If stellar spirals are present, strong gas spirals may persist for long times.

  9. Developments and trends in fruit bar production and characterization.

    PubMed

    Orrego, C E; Salgado, N; Botero, C A

    2014-01-01

    Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits of fruits. The consumers prefer fruit bars that are more tasted followed by proper textural features that could be obtained by establishing the equilibrium of ingredients, the proper choosing of manufacturing stages and the control of the product final moisture content. Fruit bar preparations may include a mixture of pulps, fresh or dried fruit, sugar, binders, and a variety of minor ingredients. Additionally to the conventional steps of manufacturing (pulping, homogenizing, heating, concentrating, and drying) there have been proposed the use of gelled fruit matrices, dried gels or sponges, and extruders as new trends for processing fruit bars. Different single-type dehydration or combined methods include, in order of increasing process time, air-infrared, vacuum and vacuum-microwave drying convective-solar drying, convective drying, and freeze drying are also suggested as alternative to solar traditional drying stage. The dehydration methods that use vacuum exhibited not only higher retention of antioxidants but also better color, texture, and rehydration capacity. Antioxidant activity resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds in the bars is well established. Besides this, fruit bars are also important sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Given the wide range of bioactive factors in fresh fruits that are preserved in fruit bars, it is plausible that their uptake consumption have a positive effect in reducing the risk of many diseases.

  10. Nearshore sandbar rotation at single-barred embayed beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blossier, B.; Bryan, K. R.; Daly, C. J.; Winter, C.

    2016-04-01

    The location of a shore-parallel nearshore sandbar derived from 7 years of video imagery data at the single-barred embayed Tairua Beach (NZ) is investigated to assess the contribution of barline rotation to the overall morphodynamics of sandbars in embayed environments and to characterize the process of rotation in relation to external conditions. Rotation induces cross-shore barline variations at the embayment extremities on the order of magnitude of those induced by alongshore uniform cross-shore migration of the bar. Two semiempirical models have been developed to relate the barline cross-shore migration and rotation to external wave forcing conditions. The rotation model is directly derived from the cross-shore migration model. Therefore, its formulation advocates for a primary role of cross-shore processes in the rotation of sandbars at embayed beaches. The orientation evolves toward an equilibrium angle directly related to the alongshore wave energy gradient due to two different mechanisms. Either the bar extremities migrate in opposite directions with no overall cross-shore bar migration (pivotal rotation) or the rotation relates to an overall migration of the barline which is not uniform along the beach (migration-driven rotation). Migration and rotation characteristic response times are similar, ranging from 10 to 30 days for mild and energetic wave conditions and above 200 days during very calm conditions or when the bar is located far offshore.

  11. [Amaranth bars enriched with fructans: acceptability and nutritional value].

    PubMed

    Dias Capriles, Vanessa; Gomes Arêas, José Alfredo

    2010-09-01

    There is an increasing appeal for convenience foods with potential health benefits to the consumer. Raw materials with high nutritional value and functional properties must be used on the development of these food products. Amaranth is a gluten-free grain with high nutrition value. Inulin and oligofructose are prebiotic ingredients presenting effects as the enhancement of calcium absorption. Amaranth bars enriched with inulin and oligofructose were developed in the flavors: banana, Brazilian nuts and dried grape, coconut, peach, strawberry and wall nut. The proximate composition were determined and compared to commercial cereal bars, available in traditional (n=59), light (n=60), diet (n=8), with soy (n=10) and quinoa (n=1) categories. Amaranth bars present mean global acceptance values from 6.3 to 7.6 on a 9-point hedonic scale, nutritional advantages as compared to commercial cereal bars (caloric reduction and higher levels of dietary fiber). Although amaranth is an unknown raw material in Brazil, it shows good potential to be used in the manufacturing of ready-to-eat products. As they are gluten free, these amaranth bars are also an alternative product for celiacs, also contributing to the enhancement of calcium absorption, a problem frequently observed in these patients. PMID:21614826

  12. Bar Coding Platforms for Nucleic Acid and Protein Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Uwe R.

    A variety of novel bar coding systems has been developed as multiplex testing platforms for applications in biological, chemical, and biomedical diagnostics. Instead of identifying a target through capture at a specific locus on an array, target analytes are captured by a bar coded tag, which then uniquely identifies the target, akin to putting a UPC bar code on a product. This requires an appropriate surface functionalization to ensure that the correct target is captured with high efficiency. Moreover the tag, or bar code, has to be readable with minimal error and at high speed, typically by flow analysis. For quantitative assays the target may be labeled separately, or the tag may also serve as the label. A great variety of materials and physicochemical principles has been exploited to generate this plethora of novel bar coding platforms. Their advantages compared to microarray-based assay platforms include in-solution binding kinetics, flexibility in assay design, compatibility with microplate-based assay automation, high sample throughput, and with some assay formats, increased sensitivity.

  13. Mass Distribution and Bar Formation in Growing Disk Galaxy Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrier, Joel C.; Sellwood, J. A.

    2016-11-01

    We report idealized simulations that mimic the growth of galaxy disks embedded in responsive halos and bulges. The disks manifested an almost overwhelming tendency to form strong bars that we found very difficult to prevent. We found that fresh bars formed in growing disks after we had destroyed the original, indicating that bar formation also afflicts continued galaxy evolution, and not just the early stages of disk formation. This behavior raises still more insistently the previously unsolved question of how some galaxies avoid bars. Since our simulations included only collisionless star and halo particles, our findings may apply to gas-poor galaxies only; however, the conundrum persists for the substantial unbarred fraction of those galaxies. Our original objective was to study how internal dynamics rearranged the distribution of mass in the disk as a generalization of our earlier study with rigid spherical components. With difficulty, we were able to construct some models that were not strongly influenced by bars, and found that halo compression and angular momentum exchange with the disk did not alter our earlier conclusion that spiral activity is largely responsible for creating smooth density profiles and rotation curves.

  14. Self-gravitating gas flow in barred spiral galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntley, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    A series of two-dimensional numerical experiments is performed in order to test the response of an isothermal, self-gravitating gas disk to a uniformly rotating, barlike gravitational potential. The barlike potential is an equilibrium stellar model from the n-body calculations of Miller and Smith (1979). In the bar-dominated, central regions of the disk, a gas bar whose phase depends primarily on the location of principal resonances in the disk is formed. This response can be understood in terms of orbit-crowding effects. In the gas-dominated outer regions of the disk, two-armed trailing spiral waves are formed. The local pitch angle of these waves increases with increasing fractional gas mass. These self-gravitating gas waves are not self-sustaining. They are driven from the ends of equilibrium stellar bars, and their phase does not depend on the location of resonances in the disk. The relevance of these self-gravitating waves to observations and models of barred spiral galaxies is discussed. It is concluded that these waves and their associated ringlike structures may be consistent with the morphological distribution of gas features in barred spiral galaxies.

  15. KLM's Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS): An update

    SciTech Connect

    Schuelke, D.; Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.; Brossart, M.A.; Choi, R.C.

    1987-02-01

    KLM Technologies has implemented its Department of Energy Phase II Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) demonstration program for a radioactive waste Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS). Preliminary performance indicates enhanced treatment by the BARS technique over state of the art process methods for selective removal of silica and other impurities from borated water matrices. At optimal system recovery of 96 to 97%, BARS removes nominal levels of boric acid while achieving significant rejection for soluble silica and selective radioisotopes. This is indicative of superior performance compared to existing data governing standard boric acid process treatment in the presence of silica and other contaminants. Conventional technologies have also proven to be relatively expensive, utilizing costly chemically treated disposable resins for primary waste removal. The overall BARS program indicates substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs based on reduced waste generation. Optimization of the BARS technology could have potential impact on conventional process technologies that are essentially non-selective in removal capacities. 2 figs.

  16. Magnetometry of micro-magnets with electrostatically defined Hall bars

    SciTech Connect

    Lachance-Quirion, Dany; Camirand Lemyre, Julien; Bergeron, Laurent; Sarra-Bournet, Christian; Pioro-Ladrière, Michel

    2015-11-30

    Micro-magnets are key components for quantum information processing with individual spins, enabling arbitrary rotations and addressability. In this work, characterization of sub-micrometer sized CoFe ferromagnets is performed with Hall bars electrostatically defined in a two-dimensional electron gas. Due to the ballistic nature of electron transport in the cross junction of the Hall bar, anomalies such as the quenched Hall effect appear near zero external magnetic field, thus hindering the sensitivity of the magnetometer to small magnetic fields. However, it is shown that the sensitivity of the diffusive limit can be almost completely restored at low temperatures using a large current density in the Hall bar of about 10 A/m. Overcoming the size limitation of conventional etched Hall bars with electrostatic gating enables the measurement of magnetization curves of 440 nm wide micro-magnets with a signal-to-noise ratio above 10{sup 3}. Furthermore, the inhomogeneity of the stray magnetic field created by the micro-magnets is directly measured using the gate-voltage-dependent width of the sensitive area of the Hall bar.

  17. Magnetometry of micro-magnets with electrostatically defined Hall bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachance-Quirion, Dany; Camirand Lemyre, Julien; Bergeron, Laurent; Sarra-Bournet, Christian; Pioro-Ladrière, Michel

    2015-11-01

    Micro-magnets are key components for quantum information processing with individual spins, enabling arbitrary rotations and addressability. In this work, characterization of sub-micrometer sized CoFe ferromagnets is performed with Hall bars electrostatically defined in a two-dimensional electron gas. Due to the ballistic nature of electron transport in the cross junction of the Hall bar, anomalies such as the quenched Hall effect appear near zero external magnetic field, thus hindering the sensitivity of the magnetometer to small magnetic fields. However, it is shown that the sensitivity of the diffusive limit can be almost completely restored at low temperatures using a large current density in the Hall bar of about 10 A/m. Overcoming the size limitation of conventional etched Hall bars with electrostatic gating enables the measurement of magnetization curves of 440 nm wide micro-magnets with a signal-to-noise ratio above 103. Furthermore, the inhomogeneity of the stray magnetic field created by the micro-magnets is directly measured using the gate-voltage-dependent width of the sensitive area of the Hall bar.

  18. Predictions for the $$\\bar{B}^{0}\\rightarrow \\bar{K}^{\\ast 0}$$ X(YZ) and $$\\bar{B}^{0}_{s}\\rightarrow\\phi$$ X(YZ) with X(4160), Y(3940), Z(3930)

    DOE PAGES

    Liang, Wei -Hong; Molina, R.; Xie, Ju -Jun; Doring, M.; Oset, E.

    2015-05-22

    We investigate the decay ofmore » $$\\bar B^0 \\to \\bar K^{*0} R$$ and $$\\bar B^0_s \\to \\phi R$$ with $R$ being the $X(4160)$, $Y(3940)$, $Z(3930)$ resonances. Under the assumption that these states are dynamically generated from the vector-vector interaction, as has been concluded from several theoretical studies, we use a reaction mechanism of quark production at the elementary level, followed by hadronization of one final $$q \\bar q$$ pair into two vectors and posterior final state interaction of this pair of vector mesons to produce the resonances. With this procedure we are able to predict five ratios for these decays, which are closely linked to the dynamical nature of these states, and also predict the order of magnitude of the branching ratios which we find of the order of $$10^{-4}$$, well within the present measurable range. In order to further test the dynamical nature of these resonances we study the $$\\bar B^0_s \\to \\phi D^* \\bar D^*$$ and $$\\bar B^0_s \\to \\phi D_s^* \\bar D_s^*$$ decays close to the $$D^* \\bar D^*$$ and $$D_s^* \\bar D_s^*$$ thresholds and make predictions for the ratio of the mass distributions in these decays and the $$\\bar B^0_s \\to \\phi R$$ decay widths. In conclusion, the measurement of these decays rates can help unravel the nature of these resonances.« less

  19. Predictions for the $\\bar{B}^{0}\\rightarrow \\bar{K}^{\\ast 0}$ X(YZ) and $\\bar{B}^{0}_{s}\\rightarrow\\phi$ X(YZ) with X(4160), Y(3940), Z(3930)

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Wei -Hong; Molina, R.; Xie, Ju -Jun; Doring, M.; Oset, E.

    2015-05-22

    We investigate the decay of $\\bar B^0 \\to \\bar K^{*0} R$ and $\\bar B^0_s \\to \\phi R$ with $R$ being the $X(4160)$, $Y(3940)$, $Z(3930)$ resonances. Under the assumption that these states are dynamically generated from the vector-vector interaction, as has been concluded from several theoretical studies, we use a reaction mechanism of quark production at the elementary level, followed by hadronization of one final $q \\bar q$ pair into two vectors and posterior final state interaction of this pair of vector mesons to produce the resonances. With this procedure we are able to predict five ratios for these decays, which are closely linked to the dynamical nature of these states, and also predict the order of magnitude of the branching ratios which we find of the order of $10^{-4}$, well within the present measurable range. In order to further test the dynamical nature of these resonances we study the $\\bar B^0_s \\to \\phi D^* \\bar D^*$ and $\\bar B^0_s \\to \\phi D_s^* \\bar D_s^*$ decays close to the $D^* \\bar D^*$ and $D_s^* \\bar D_s^*$ thresholds and make predictions for the ratio of the mass distributions in these decays and the $\\bar B^0_s \\to \\phi R$ decay widths. In conclusion, the measurement of these decays rates can help unravel the nature of these resonances.

  20. Newly developed high-power laser diode bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, Nobuto; Morita, Takenori; Torii, Kousuke; Takauji, Motoki; Nagakura, Takehito; Maeda, Junya; Miyajima, Hirofumi; Yoshida, Harumasa

    2012-03-01

    High Power Laser Diode (LD) modules are widely used as high-brightness light sources for pumping solid-state lasers and for direct diode laser processing utilizing a compact feature. The LD bars installed in modules are required with higher output power, efficiency and beam quality. We have optimized the LD bar structure for high output power and efficient operation. The water-cooled heat sink has been designed for excellent thermal performance as well as long-term stable cooling performance. We have also developed the thermal expansion controlled assembly technique to suppress the "smile". As a result, we have achieved an output power of over 200 W and a conversion efficiency of 58% from 940 nm LD bars under continuous wave (CW) operation with very low smile of 0.8 μm.

  1. Recent Bottomonium Results from BaBar and Belle

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, Veronique; /SLAC

    2012-06-25

    Selected studies in bottomonium physics carried out by the BaBar and Belle experiments are presented. They include a study of radiative bottomonium transitions using {gamma} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -} conversions done by BaBar, the search for the h{sub b}(1P) and h{sub b}(2P) states leading to an evidence for the h{sub b}(1P) seen by BaBar in {Upsilon}(3S) {yields} {pi}{sup 0} h{sub b} decay and to the Belle observation of both the h{sub b}(1P) and the h{sub b}(2P) in the reaction e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} h{sub b}(1P,2P) from {Upsilon}(5S) data.

  2. Study of F- Production in BaBar RPCs

    SciTech Connect

    Band, H.R.; Bellini, F.; Covarelli, R.; Di Marco, E.; D'Orazio, A.; Ferroni, F.; Li Gioi, L.; Lopez, L.; Polci, F.; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome

    2008-02-22

    The BaBar detector has operated over 200 2nd generation Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) in the forward endcap since 2002. Many chambers have increased noise rates and high voltage currents. These aging symptoms are correlated with the integrated RPC current as expected, but also depend on the rate and direction of the gas flow, indicating that pollutants produced in the gas can accelerate aging of downstream RPC surfaces. HF produced by decomposition of the Freon 134a component of the BaBar RPC gas in electric discharges has been proposed as the main pollutant. This paper presents measurements of HF production and absorption rates in BaBar RPCs. Since many of the highest rate chambers in the forward endcap were converted to avalanche mode operation, a comparison of HF production in streamer and avalanche mode RPCs is made. Correlations between the HF production rate and other chamber operating conditions were also explored.

  3. A Kolsky tension bar technique using a hollow incident tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, O.; Frew, D. J.; Chen, W.

    2011-04-01

    Load control of the incident pulse profiles in compression Kolsky bar experiments has been widely used to subject the specimen to optimal testing conditions. Tension Kolsky bars have been used to determine dynamic material behavior since the 1960s with limited capability to shape the loading pulses due to the pulse-generating mechanisms. We developed a modified Kolsky tension bar where a hollow incident tube is used to carry the incident stress waves. The incident tube also acts as a gas gun barrel that houses the striker for impact. The main advantage of this new design is that the striker impacts on an impact cap of the incident tube. Compression pulse shapers can be attached to the impact cap, thus fully utilizing the predictive compression pulse-shaping capability in tension experiments. Using this new testing technique, the dynamic tensile material behavior for Al 6061-T6511 and TRIP 800 (transformation-induced plasticity) steel has been obtained.

  4. Measurement of the $t\\bar{t}$ production cross section using dilepton events in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; Abbott, Braden Keim; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; Adams, Mark Raymond; Adams, Todd; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; Alton, Andrew K.; Alverson, George O.; Alves, Gilvan Augusto; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; /Nijmegen U. /Fermilab

    2011-05-01

    We present a measurement of the t{bar t} production cross section {sigma}{sub t{bar t}} in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using 5.4 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected with the D0 detector. We consider final states with at least two jets and two leptons (ee, e{mu}, {mu}{mu}), and events with one jet for the the e{mu} final state as well. The measured cross section is {sigma}{sub t{bar t}} = 7.36{sub -0.79}{sup +0.90} (stat + syst) pb. This result combined with the cross section measurement in the lepton + jets final state yields {sigma}{sub t{bar t}} = 7.56{sub -0.56}{sup +0.63}(stat + syst) pb, which agrees with the standard model expectation. The relative precision of 8% of this measurement is comparable to the latest theoretical calculations.

  5. Urinary tract infection - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults ... to the hospital if you: Are an older adult Have kidney stones or changes in the anatomy ...

  6. Hydrodynamical Simulations of Nuclear Rings in Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi; Shen, Juntai; Kim, Woong-Tae

    2015-08-01

    Dust lanes, nuclear rings, and nuclear spirals are typical gas structures in the inner region of barred galaxies. Their shapes and properties are linked to the physical parameters of the host galaxy. We use high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations to study 2D gas flows in simple barred galaxy models. The nuclear rings formed in our simulations can be divided into two groups: one group is nearly round and the other is highly elongated. We find that roundish rings may not form when the bar pattern speed is too high or the bulge central density is too low. We also study the periodic orbits in our galaxy models, and find that the concept of inner Lindblad resonance (ILR) may be generalized by the extent of x2 orbits. All roundish nuclear rings in our simulations settle in the range of x2 orbits (or ILRs). However, knowing the resonances is insufficient to pin down the exact location of these nuclear rings. We suggest that the backbone of round nuclear rings is the x2 orbital family, i.e. round nuclear rings are allowed only in the radial range of x2 orbits. A round nuclear ring forms exactly at the radius where the residual angular momentum of infalling gas balances the centrifugal force, which can be described by a parameter f_ring measured from the rotation curve. We find an empirical relation between the bar parameters and f_ring, and apply it to measure bar pattern speed in a sample of barred galaxies with nuclear rings.

  7. STAR FORMATION IN NUCLEAR RINGS OF BARRED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, Woong-Tae E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2013-06-01

    Nuclear rings in barred galaxies are sites of active star formation. We use hydrodynamic simulations to study the temporal and spatial behavior of star formation occurring in nuclear rings of barred galaxies where radial gas inflows are triggered solely by a bar potential. The star formation recipes include a density threshold, an efficiency, conversion of gas to star particles, and delayed momentum feedback via supernova explosions. We find that the star formation rate (SFR) in a nuclear ring is roughly equal to the mass inflow rate to the ring, while it has a weak dependence on the total gas mass in the ring. The SFR typically exhibits a strong primary burst followed by weak secondary bursts before declining to very small values. The primary burst is associated with the rapid gas infall to the ring due to the bar growth, while the secondary bursts are caused by re-infall of the ejected gas from the primary burst. While star formation in observed rings persists episodically over a few Gyr, the duration of active star formation in our models lasts for only about half of the bar growth time, suggesting that the bar potential alone is unlikely to be responsible for gas supply to the rings. When the SFR is low, most star formation occurs at the contact points between the ring and the dust lanes, leading to an azimuthal age gradient of young star clusters. When the SFR is large, on the other hand, star formation is randomly distributed over the whole circumference of the ring, resulting in no apparent azimuthal age gradient. Since the ring shrinks in size with time, star clusters also exhibit a radial age gradient, with younger clusters found closer to the ring. The cluster mass function is well described by a power law, with a slope depending on the SFR. Giant gas clouds in the rings have supersonic internal velocity dispersions and are gravitationally bound.

  8. Distributed Online Conditions Database of the BaBar Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.; Gaponenko, I.A.; Brown, D.N.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-11-21

    This paper presents CDB - The distributed Conditions Database of the BaBar Experiment. CDB is the second major iteration of the database deployed in BaBar for production use as of October 2002. It replaced the original version of the database used through the first three years of the data taking. The new design and its implementation aims to improve the performance and scalability of the original database and addresses the emerging challenges of the distributed data production and analysis system of the Experiment.

  9. KINEMATIC AND PHOTOMETRIC EVIDENCE FOR A BAR IN NGC 2683

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Zagursky, Matthew J.; McGaugh, Stacy S. E-mail: mzagursk@umd.edu

    2009-10-15

    We present optical long-slit and SparsePak Integral Field Unit emission line spectroscopy along with optical broadband and near-IR images of the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 2683. We find a multi-valued, figure-of-eight velocity structure in the inner 45'' of the long-slit spectrum and twisted isovelocity contours in the velocity field. We also find, regardless of wavelength, that the galaxy isophotes are boxy. We argue that taken together, these kinematic and photometric features are evidence for the presence of a bar in NGC 2683. We use our data to constrain the orientation and strength of the bar.

  10. Gas flow models in the Milky Way embedded bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, N. J.; Combes, F.

    2008-10-01

    Context: The gas distribution and dynamics in the inner Galaxy present many unknowns, such as the origin of the asymmetry of the lv-diagram of the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ). On the other hand, there is recent evidence in the stellar component of the presence of a nuclear bar that may be slightly lopsided. Aims: Our goal is to characterize the nuclear bar observed in 2MASS maps and to study the gas dynamics in the inner Milky Way taking into account this secondary bar. Methods: We have derived a realistic mass distribution by fitting the 2MASS star count map with a model including three components (disk, bulge and nuclear bar) and we have simulated the gas dynamics in the deduced gravitational potential using a sticky-particles code. Results: Our simulations of the gas dynamics successfully reproduce the main characteristics of the Milky Way for a bulge orientation of 20°-35°with respect to the Sun-Galactic Center (GC) line and a pattern speed of 30-40 km s-1 kpc-1. In our models the Galactic Molecular Ring (GMR) is not an actual ring but the inner parts of the spiral arms, while the 3-kpc arm and its far side counterpart are lateral arms that extend around the bar. Our simulations reproduce, for the first time, the parallelogram shape of the lv-diagram of the CMZ as the gas response to the nuclear bar. This bar should be oriented by an angle of ˜60°-75°with respect to the Sun-GC line and its mass amounts to (2-5.5) 109 M_⊙. We show that the observed asymmetry of the CMZ cannot be due to lopsidedness of the nuclear bar as suggested by the 2MASS maps. Conclusions: We do not find clear evidence of lopsidedness in the stellar potential. We propose that the observed asymmetry of the central gas layer can be due to the infalling of gas into the CMZ in the l = 1.3°-complex. Tables 3-6 are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. Ultracold elastic H(bar sign)-He scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Prabal K.; Ghosh, A. S.

    2003-08-01

    In view of the current interest in trapping antihydrogen H(bar sign) atoms below 1 K, the s-wave elastic-scattering parameters for the antihydrogen scattering off atomic helium target are calculated in the energy range 1x10{sup -16}-1x10{sup -2} a.u. using close-coupling models. The predicted cross section will help to simulate the evolution of a realistic mixture of He and H{sub 2} through the process involving ejection of H(bar sign) from the trap. The trend of the present results with different basis sets conclusively indicates the reliability of the predicted results.

  12. Metallicity and kinematics of the bar in situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babusiaux, C.; Katz, D.; Hill, V.; Royer, F.; Gómez, A.; Arenou, F.; Combes, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Gilmore, G.; Haywood, M.; Robin, A. C.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, N.; Sartoretti, P.; Schultheis, M.

    2014-03-01

    Context. Constraints on the Galactic bulge and bar structures and on their formation history from stellar kinematics and metallicities mainly come from relatively high-latitude fields (|b| > 4°) where a complex mix of stellar population is seen. Aims: We aim here to constrain the formation history of the Galactic bar by studying the radial velocity and metallicity distributions of stars in situ (|b| ≤ 1°). Methods: We observed red clump stars in four fields along the bar's major axis (l = 10°, -6°, 6° and b = 0° plus a field at l = 0°, b = 1°) with low-resolution spectroscopy from FLAMES/GIRAFFE at the VLT, observing around the Ca ii triplet. We developed robust methods for extracting radial velocity and metallicity estimates from these low signal-to-noise spectra. We derived distance probability distributions using Bayesian methods rigorously handling the extinction law. Results: We present radial velocities and metallicity distributions, as well as radial velocity trends with distance. We observe an increase in the radial velocity dispersion near the Galactic plane. We detect the streaming motion of the stars induced by the bar in fields at l = ±6°, the highest velocity components of this bar stream being metal-rich ([Fe/H] ~ 0.2 dex). Our data is consistent with a bar that is inclined at 26 ± 3° from the Sun-Galactic centre line. We observe a significant fraction of metal-poor stars, in particular in the field at l = 0°, b = 1°. We confirm the flattening of the metallicity gradient along the minor axis when getting closer to the plane, with a hint that it could actually be inverted. Conclusions: Our stellar kinematics corresponds to the expected behaviour of a bar issued from the secular evolution of the Galactic disc. The mix of several populations, seen further away from the plane, is also seen in the bar in situ since our metallicity distributions highlight a different spatial distribution between metal-poor and metal-rich stars, the more

  13. Denture bar-coding: An innovative technique in forensic dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Venkateshwaran, Rajendran; Vidhya, J.; Anuradha, R.; Mary, Gold Pealin; Pradeep, R.; Senthileagappan, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Denture markers play an important role in forensic odontology and also in identifying a person. A number of methods are there for identifying dentures from a less expensive technique to a more expensive technique. Out of different denture markers, the bar-coding system is a way of collecting data from the mobile. Even a huge amount of data can be stored in that. It can be easily incorporated during acrylization of the denture and thus could be helpful in identification. This article reviews the strengths of bar-coding and how easily it can be used in the routine procedure. PMID:26538876

  14. Spectroscopy of snake states using a graphene Hall bar

    SciTech Connect

    Milovanović, S. P. Ramezani Masir, M. Peeters, F. M.

    2013-12-02

    An approach to observe snake states in a graphene Hall bar containing a pn-junction is proposed. The magnetic field dependence of the bend resistance in a ballistic graphene Hall bar structure containing a tilted pn-junction oscillates as a function of applied magnetic field. We show that each oscillation is due to a specific snake state that moves along the pn-interface. Furthermore, depending on the value of the magnetic field and applied potential, we can control the lead in which the electrons will end up and hence control the response of the system.

  15. Photometric Surveys of the Galactic Bulge and Long Bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, O.; Wegg, C.; Portail, M.

    The Galactic bar and box/peanut bulge can be studied in an unrivaled manner, star-by-star, with detailed chemical information and full 3D kinematics. Because of intervening dust this is greatly facilitated by the availability of wide field deep NIR photometric surveys. Here we summarize recent results on the three-dimensional structure of the bulge and the long bar region, based on 2MASS, UKIDSS, and particularly the ongoing VVV survey. We also summarize results from dynamical models for the Galactic bulge constructed with the Made-to-Measure method.

  16. Submicrometer grating light bar for a color-separation backlight.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Wei; Lee, Chi-Hung; Yang, Tzu-Chun; Ting, Chia-Jen; Lin, Tsung-Hsin; Lin, Shih-Chieh

    2013-05-20

    A light bar patterned using a submicrometer grating was designed to replace conventional dye color filters for color liquid crystal displays. The light bar generates color rays by transmitting them from side-lit color light-emitting diodes through the submicrometer grating. These angular color rays are then redirected by a V-grooved light guide, and then converged by a lens array and mapped to corresponding subpixel positions to efficiently display color images. The results show that 106% of the National Television System Committee (NTSC) color space in a blue-green-red-green (B-G-R-G) repeating pattern display pixel layout can be achieved. PMID:23736248

  17. Near threshold enhancement of the p p-bar mass spectrum in J/Psi decay

    SciTech Connect

    A. Sibirtsev; J. Haidenbauer; S. Krewald; Ulf-G. Meissner; A.W. Thomas

    2004-12-01

    We investigate the nature of the near-threshold enhancement in the p {bar p} invariant mass spectrum of the reaction J/{Psi} {yields} {gamma} p {bar p} reported recently by the BES Collaboration. Using the Juelich N {bar N} model we show that the mass dependence of the p {bar p} spectrum close to the threshold can be reproduced by the S-wave p {bar p} final state interaction in the isospin I=1 state within the Watson-Migdal approach. However, because of our poor knowledge of the N {bar N} interaction near threshold and of the J/{Psi} {yields} {gamma} p {bar p} reaction mechanism and in view of the controversial situation in the decay J/{Psi} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} p {bar p}, where no obvious signs of a p {bar p} final state interaction are seen, explanations other than final state interactions cannot be ruled out at the present stage.

  18. Model-independent extraction of t bar V sub ub /V sub cb t bar from nonleptonic- B -meson-decay data

    SciTech Connect

    Koide, Y. )

    1989-09-01

    A model-independent extraction of {vert bar}{ital V}{sub {ital ub}}/V{sub cb}{vert bar} from exclusive nonleptonic-{ital B}-meson-decay data is discussed. It is noted that the ratio of the weak decay amplitudes {vert bar}{ital A}{sub {ital w}}({ital B}{sup 0}{r arrow}{ital K}{sup 0}{ital D}{sup 0})/{ital A}{sub {ital w}}({ital B}{sup 0}{r arrow}{ital K}{sup 0}{ital {bar D}} {sup 0}){vert bar} is given by the ratio {vert bar}{ital V}{sub {ital ub}}V{sub cs}{sup *}/V{sub cb}V{sub us}{sup *}{vert bar} without assuming any specific calculation methods of the weak decay amplitudes and it is discussed how to estimate {vert bar}{ital A}{sub {ital w}}({ital B}{sup 0}{r arrow}{ital K}{sup 0}{ital D}{sup 0})/{ital A}{sub {ital w}}({ital B}{sup 0}{r arrow}{ital K0}{ital {bar D}} {sup 0}){vert bar} from the exclusive nonleptonic-{ital B}-decay data under the presence of {ital B}{sup 0}-{ital {bar B}} {sup 0} mixing and final-state interaction.

  19. Impact of Partial and Comprehensive Smoke-Free Regulations on Indoor Air Quality in Bars

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeonghoon; Ban, Hyunkyung; Hwang, Yunhyung; Ha, Kwonchul; Lee, Kiyoung

    2016-01-01

    In Korea, smoke-free regulations have been gradually implemented in bars based on venue size. Smoking bans were implemented in 2013 for bars ≥150 m2, in 2014 for bars ≥100 m2, and in 2015 for bars of all sizes. The purpose of this study was to determine indoor fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations in bars before and after implementation of the smoke-free policies based on venue size. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were measured with real-time aerosol monitors at four time points: (1) pre-regulation (n = 75); (2) after implementing the ban in bars ≥150 m2 (n = 75); (3) after implementing the ban in bars ≥100 m2 (n = 107); and (4) when all bars were smoke-free (n = 79). Our results showed that the geometric mean of the indoor PM2.5 concentrations of all bars decreased from 98.4 μg/m3 pre-regulation to 79.5, 42.9, and 26.6 μg/m3 after the ban on smoking in bars ≥150 m2, ≥100 m2, and all bars, respectively. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations in bars of each size decreased only after the corresponding regulations were implemented. Although smoking was not observed in Seoul bars after smoking was banned in all bars, smoking was observed in 4 of 21 bars in Changwon. Our study concludes that the greatest decrease in PM2.5 concentrations in bars was observed after the regulation covering all bars was implemented. However, despite the comprehensive ban, smoking was observed in bars in Changwon. Strict compliance with the regulations is needed to improve indoor air quality further. PMID:27472349

  20. Impact of Partial and Comprehensive Smoke-Free Regulations on Indoor Air Quality in Bars.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeonghoon; Ban, Hyunkyung; Hwang, Yunhyung; Ha, Kwonchul; Lee, Kiyoung

    2016-07-26

    In Korea, smoke-free regulations have been gradually implemented in bars based on venue size. Smoking bans were implemented in 2013 for bars ≥150 m², in 2014 for bars ≥100 m², and in 2015 for bars of all sizes. The purpose of this study was to determine indoor fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations in bars before and after implementation of the smoke-free policies based on venue size. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were measured with real-time aerosol monitors at four time points: (1) pre-regulation (n = 75); (2) after implementing the ban in bars ≥150 m² (n = 75); (3) after implementing the ban in bars ≥100 m² (n = 107); and (4) when all bars were smoke-free (n = 79). Our results showed that the geometric mean of the indoor PM2.5 concentrations of all bars decreased from 98.4 μg/m³ pre-regulation to 79.5, 42.9, and 26.6 μg/m³ after the ban on smoking in bars ≥150 m², ≥100 m², and all bars, respectively. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations in bars of each size decreased only after the corresponding regulations were implemented. Although smoking was not observed in Seoul bars after smoking was banned in all bars, smoking was observed in 4 of 21 bars in Changwon. Our study concludes that the greatest decrease in PM2.5 concentrations in bars was observed after the regulation covering all bars was implemented. However, despite the comprehensive ban, smoking was observed in bars in Changwon. Strict compliance with the regulations is needed to improve indoor air quality further.

  1. Impact of Partial and Comprehensive Smoke-Free Regulations on Indoor Air Quality in Bars.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeonghoon; Ban, Hyunkyung; Hwang, Yunhyung; Ha, Kwonchul; Lee, Kiyoung

    2016-01-01

    In Korea, smoke-free regulations have been gradually implemented in bars based on venue size. Smoking bans were implemented in 2013 for bars ≥150 m², in 2014 for bars ≥100 m², and in 2015 for bars of all sizes. The purpose of this study was to determine indoor fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations in bars before and after implementation of the smoke-free policies based on venue size. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were measured with real-time aerosol monitors at four time points: (1) pre-regulation (n = 75); (2) after implementing the ban in bars ≥150 m² (n = 75); (3) after implementing the ban in bars ≥100 m² (n = 107); and (4) when all bars were smoke-free (n = 79). Our results showed that the geometric mean of the indoor PM2.5 concentrations of all bars decreased from 98.4 μg/m³ pre-regulation to 79.5, 42.9, and 26.6 μg/m³ after the ban on smoking in bars ≥150 m², ≥100 m², and all bars, respectively. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations in bars of each size decreased only after the corresponding regulations were implemented. Although smoking was not observed in Seoul bars after smoking was banned in all bars, smoking was observed in 4 of 21 bars in Changwon. Our study concludes that the greatest decrease in PM2.5 concentrations in bars was observed after the regulation covering all bars was implemented. However, despite the comprehensive ban, smoking was observed in bars in Changwon. Strict compliance with the regulations is needed to improve indoor air quality further. PMID:27472349

  2. Effect of Smoke-Free Laws on Bar Value and Profits

    PubMed Central

    Alamar, Benjamin; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2007-01-01

    The tobacco industry has claimed that smoke-free bar laws caused bar revenues to decline by 30%. After we controlled for economic variables, we found that bars located in areas with smoke-free laws sold for prices that were comparable to prices for similar bars in areas with no smoking restrictions. Other studies have reported that sales did not decline, and we also found that neither price nor sales declined. Therefore, bar owners’ concerns that smoke-free laws will reduce the value of their bars are unfounded. PMID:17600258

  3. Should Persons with Contagious Diseases Be Barred from School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews recent court decisions regarding whether individuals with contagious diseases may be barred from public schools. Devotes specific attention to the issue of whether certain communicable diseases such as tuberculosis and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) can be classified as handicaps and thereby qualify a person for protection…

  4. An Exploratory Study of Bar and Nightclub Expectancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reingle, Jennifer; Thombs, Dennis L.; Weiler, Robert M.; Dodd, Virginia J.; O'Mara, Ryan; Pokorny, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors identified the principal components of bar and nightclub expectancy in college students and the associations between these factors and the risk behavior of nightclubbing. Participants: A total of 4,384 undergraduates enrolled at a large, public university participated. Methods: In the first phase (July-September 2007), the…

  5. College Students' Exposure to Tobacco Marketing in Nightclubs and Bars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridner, S. Lee; Myers, John A.; Hahn, Ellen J.; Ciszewski, Tiffany N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether a college student's exposure to tobacco marketing in nightclubs and bars was affected by the presence of a smoke-free law. Participants: A random sample (N = 478) of students participated in the survey (no smoke-free law, n = 240; smoke-free law, n = 238). The analysis was limited to students who reported being in…

  6. Deficiency of ''Thin'' Stellar Bars in Seyfert Host Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlosman, Isaac; Peletier, Reynier F.; Knapen, Johan

    1999-01-01

    Using all available major samples of Seyfert galaxies and their corresponding control samples of closely matched non-active galaxies, we find that the bar ellipticities (or axial ratios) in Seyfert galaxies are systematically different from those in non-active galaxies. Overall, there is a deficiency of bars with large ellipticities (i.e., 'fat' or 'weak' bars) in Seyferts, compared to non-active galaxies. Accompanied with a large dispersion due to small number statistics, this effect is strictly speaking at the 2 sigma level. To obtain this result, the active galaxy samples of near-infrared surface photometry were matched to those of normal galaxies in type, host galaxy ellipticity, absolute magnitude, and, to some extent, in redshift. We discuss possible theoretical explanations of this phenomenon within the framework of galactic evolution, and, in particular, of radial gas redistribution in barred galaxies. Our conclusions provide further evidence that Seyfert hosts differ systematically from their non-active counterparts on scales of a few kpc.

  7. Using a Spreadsheet Scroll Bar to Solve Equilibrium Concentrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raviolo, Andres

    2012-01-01

    A simple, conceptual method is described for using the spreadsheet scroll bar to find the composition of a system at chemical equilibrium. Simulation of any kind of chemical equilibrium can be carried out using this method, and the effects of different disturbances can be predicted. This simulation, which can be used in general chemistry…

  8. 32 CFR 1907.22 - Challenges barred by res judicata.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 1907.22 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO § 1.9 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958 Action on Challenges § 1907.22 Challenges barred by res judicata. The Executive Secretary...

  9. 32 CFR 1907.22 - Challenges barred by res judicata.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 1907.22 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO § 1.9 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958 Action on Challenges § 1907.22 Challenges barred by res judicata. The Executive Secretary...

  10. 14. Typical pin connection of eye bars, diagonal tension members ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Typical pin connection of eye bars, diagonal tension members and vertical beam found at 2nd and 3rd spans. View is of north side of 2nd span. - Cleves Bridge, Spanning Great Miami River on U.S. Highway 50, Cleves, Hamilton County, OH

  11. 1. View looking east from sand bar on west side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View looking east from sand bar on west side of bridge, upstream in the bed of Sugar Creek. West elevation of the bridge - Vigo County Bridge No. 139, Spanning Sugar Creek at Seventy-fourth Place, Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  12. A cationic gold complex cleaves BArF24.

    PubMed

    Weber, Simone G; Zahner, David; Rominger, Frank; Straub, Bernd F

    2012-11-28

    A sterically shielded cationic NHC gold complex IPr**Au-BArF(24) without solvent coordination has been prepared in situ in CH(2)Cl(2). The monovalent transition metal electrophile, a "soft proton", heterolytically activates the C-B bond of the weakly coordinating counterion tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate at room temperature. PMID:23073224

  13. Prospects for X(3872) Detection at P-barANDA

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, Jens Soeren; Galuska, Martin; Gessler, Thomas; Kuehn, Wolfgang; Kuenze, Stephanie; Liang, Yutie; Muenchow, David; Spruck, Bjoern; Ullrich, Matthias; Werner, Marcel

    2011-10-24

    Monte-Carlo simulations for a resonance scan of the charmonium-like state X(3872) at P-barANDA are performed. Final state radiation hadronic background reactions are taken into account. The signal reconstruction uses a realistic pattern recognition (track finder and track fitter) and electron/pion discrimination.

  14. Bar-Halo Friction in Galaxies. I. Scaling Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellwood, J. A.

    2006-02-01

    It has been known for some time that rotating bars in galaxies slow due to dynamical friction against the halo. However, recent attempts to use this process to place constraints on the dark matter density in galaxies and possibly also to drive dark matter out of the center have been challenged. This paper uses simplified numerical experiments to clarify several aspects of the friction mechanism. I explicitly demonstrate the Chandrasekhar scaling of the friction force with bar mass, halo density, and halo velocity dispersion. I present direct evidence that exchanges between the bar and halo orbits at major resonances are responsible for friction and study both individual orbits and the net changes at these resonances. I also show that friction alters the phase space density of particles in the vicinity of a major resonance, which is the reason the magnitude of the friction force depends on the prior evolution. I demonstrate that bar slowdown can be captured correctly in simulations having modest spatial resolution and a practicable numbers of particles. Subsequent papers in this series delineate the dark matter density that can be tolerated in halos of different density profiles.

  15. Stress tracking in thin bars by eigenstrain actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeftner, J.; Irschik, H.

    2016-11-01

    This contribution focuses on stress tracking in slender structures. The axial stress distribution of a linear elastic bar is investigated, in particular, we seek for an answer to the following question: in which manner do we have to distribute eigenstrains, such that the axial stress in a bar is equal to a certain desired stress distribution, despite external forces or support excitations are present? In order to track a certain time- and space-dependent stress function, smart actuators, such as piezoelectric actuators, are needed to realize eigenstrains. Based on the equation of motion and the constitutive relation, which relate stress, strain, displacement and eigenstrains, an analytical solution for the stress tracking problem is derived. The starting point for the derivation of a solution for the stress tracking problem is a semi-positive definite integral depending on the error stress which is the difference between the actual stress and the desired stress. Our derived stress tracking theory is verified by two examples: first, a clamped-free bar which is harmonically excited is investigated. It is shown under which circumstances the axial stress vanishes at every location and at every time instant. The second example is a support-excited bar with end mass, where a desired stress profile is prescribed.

  16. Measuring Legal Research Skills on a Bar Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stephen P.

    Based on the importance for newly licensed attorneys to conduct legal research, this study assessed the relationship between bar exam scores and scores on a test designed to measure certain important legal research skills. It also investigated whether differences in performance level among racial groups on the Research Test paralleled differences…

  17. Bar morphodynamics in the tidally-influenced fluvial zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Daniel; Ashworth, Philip; Best, James; Nicholas, Andrew; Prokocki, Eric; Sambrook-Smith, Greg; Keevil, Claire; Sandbach, Steve

    2015-04-01

    The hydrodynamics and deposits of the Tidally-Influenced Fluvial Zone (TIFZ) are complex because it experiences competing fluvial and tidal flows and spatially and temporally variable rates of sediment transport and deposition. This paper presents a new integrated field dataset from the Columbia River Estuary, USA, that quantifies the morphodynamic response the bed morphology and bar stratigraphy to fluvial-tidal flows. A 3-year, field and modelling program that started in 2011, has been monitoring the dynamics and deposits of a 40 km-reach of the Columbia River Estuary. Data obtained so far throughout the TIFZ include: bathymetry using MBES, flow using ADCP, subsurface sedimentology using GPR and shallow coring to 5 m. Initial results from the programme suggest there is a complex spatial and temporal lag in the response of the bed morphology and deposits to the fluvial-tidal flows. Zones of strong ebb and flood flow do not necessarily produce channel beds dominated by bi-directional bedforms. Many mid-channel bars are stable over decadal time periods. This paper will illustrate the variety in bar morphologies and channel change throughout the fluvial-tidal zone and contrast these bar dynamics with examples from purely fluvial environments.

  18. Bar morphodynamics in the fluvial-tidal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, P. J.; Best, J. L.; Nicholas, A.; Parsons, D. R.; Prokocki, E.; Sambrook Smith, G.; Simpson, C.

    2012-12-01

    The hydrodynamics and deposits of the Tidally-Influenced Fluvial Zone (TIFZ) are complex because it experiences competing fluvial and tidal flows, sometimes moderated by waves, and spatially and temporally variable rates of sediment transport and deposition. This paper presents a new integrated field dataset from the Columbia River Estuary, USA, that quantifies the response of the flow structure, bed morphology and bar stratigraphy to fluvial-tidal flows. A new 3-year, field and modelling program that started in 2011, has been monitoring the dynamics and deposits of a 40 km-reach of the Columbia River Estuary. Data obtained so far throughout the TIFZ include: bathymetry using MBES, flow using ADCP, subsurface sedimentology using GPR and shallow coring to 5 m. First results suggest there is a complex spatial and temporal lag in the response of the bed morphology and deposits to the fluvial-tidal flows. Zones of strong ebb and flood flow do not necessarily produce channel beds dominated by bi-directional bedforms. Many mid-channel bars are stable over decadal time periods. This paper will illustrate the variety in bar morphologies and channel change throughout the fluvial-tidal zone and contrast these bar dynamics with examples from purely fluvial environments.

  19. A Multivariate Generalizability Analysis of the Multistate Bar Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Ping

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to examine the content structure of the Multistate Bar Examination (MBE) using the "table of specifications" model from the perspective of multivariate generalizability theory. Specifically, using MBE data collected over different years (six administrations: three from the February test and three from July test),…

  20. Recent Results From BaBar in Tau Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Lewczuk, Mateusz; /Victoria U.

    2009-06-25

    The BaBar collaboration has accumulated over 400 million {tau}-pairs which can be used to study charged leptonic and hadronic weak currents to unprecedented precision. This note presents results on lepton universality, measurements of |V{sub us}|, and searches for {tau} decays which violate lepton flavour conservation, or {tau} decays that proceed through a suppressed second class current.

  1. The So-called ``Bar'' in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, HongSheng; Evans, N. Wyn

    2000-12-01

    We propose that the off-centered ``bar'' in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is an unvirialized structure slightly misaligned with, and offset from, the plane of the LMC disk. The small displacement and misalignment are consequences of recent tidal interactions with the Small Magellanic Cloud and the Galaxy. This proposal, although radical, is consistent with the kinematics of the LMC and the near-infrared star count maps from the Deep Near-Infrared Survey and the 2 Micron All-Sky Survey and, in particular, with the reported 25°-50° inclination range of the LMC and the east-west gradient of distance moduli of standard candles. Contributions to LMC microlensing come mainly from the mutual lensing of stars in the disk and the ``bar.'' The predicted microlensing optical depth is at levels comparable to observation, even without including contributions from MACHOs. Observational tests are suggested to discriminate between our misaligned offset ``bar'' model and the conventional picture of an off-centered planar bar.

  2. The Inner Galactic Bulge: Evidence for a Nuclear Bar?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, Ortwin; Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma

    2012-01-01

    Recent data from the VVV survey have strengthened evidence for a structural change in the Galactic bulge inward of |l| <= 4°. Here we show with an N-body barred galaxy simulation that a boxy bulge formed through the bar and buckling instabilities effortlessly matches measured bulge longitude profiles for red clump stars. The same simulation snapshot was earlier used to clarify the apparent boxy bulge—long bar dichotomy, for the same orientation and scaling. The change in the slope of the model longitude profiles in the inner few degrees is caused by a transition from highly elongated to more nearly axisymmetric isodensity contours in the inner boxy bulge. This transition is confined to a few degrees from the Galactic plane; thus the change of slope is predicted to disappear at higher Galactic latitudes. We also show that the nuclear star count map derived from this simulation snapshot displays a longitudinal asymmetry similar to that observed in the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) data, but is less flattened to the Galactic plane than the 2MASS map. These results support the interpretation that the Galactic bulge originated from disk evolution and question the evidence advanced from star count data for the existence of a secondary nuclear bar in the Milky Way.

  3. Adolescent Student Use of School-Based Salad Bars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lori; Myers, Leann; O'Malley, Keelia; Mundorf, Adrienne R.; Harris, Diane M.; Johnson, Carolyn C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity continues to be a public health problem in the United States. Increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables (F/V) is one strategy for decreasing high consumption of energy-dense, high-fat foods, thereby improving weight status. Many Orleans Parish public schools were provided with salad bars (SBs) to augment school…

  4. Fishery status assessment of Watts Bar Reservoir with management recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C.M.

    1987-09-01

    Watts Bar Reservior was impounded in 1942 and has been inventoried 16 of the following 44 years. The previous inventory was 1980. Fish biomass has increased over the years, most noticeably in prey and commercial species. Sport fish biomass has been the most stable overall. However, creel data indicate some important sport species numbers have had extreme fluctuations. 21 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. 5 CFR 9701.305 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bar on collective bargaining. 9701.305 Section 9701.305 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  6. 5 CFR 9701.205 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bar on collective bargaining. 9701.205 Section 9701.205 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  7. 5 CFR 9701.205 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bar on collective bargaining. 9701.205 Section 9701.205 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  8. 5 CFR 9701.305 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bar on collective bargaining. 9701.305 Section 9701.305 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  9. Biomechanical similarities of progressions for the longswing on high bar.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Gareth; Kerwin, David G

    2005-07-01

    Based on specificity of training and biomechanical analysis, the aim of this study was to develop a method to rank selected progressions for learning the longswing on high bar. Four members of the Men's National Gymnastics Squad were recorded (50 Hz) performing three series of five longswings and eight progressions. Real world co-ordinates from the digitized data were determined using two-dimensional direct linear transformation. Biomechanical similarity between the functional phases of the longswing and the corresponding phases of the progressions were calculated. The functional phases were described as a hyperextension to flexion of the hip and hyperflexion to extension of the shoulder joints as the gymnast passed underneath the bar. Using a combined score of 'Difference' and movement 'Variability' a 'Specificity score' was calculated for hip and shoulder angular displacements and velocities. An overall score based on the average of the four scores provided a ranked list of progressions based on their similarity to the target skill. The progression that showed the greatest similarity to the biomechanics of the longswing, and was therefore ranked first, was the chalked bar pendulum swing. The least similar progression, and, therefore, eighth ranked, was the chalked bar bent knee longswing. The hip kinematics were found to contribute most to the overall differences because the performance requirements of these progressions emphasize an increase in hip flexion during the ascending phase. The method described provides a means to quantify and rank progressions based on their kinematic similarity to the longswing.

  10. THE INNER GALACTIC BULGE: EVIDENCE FOR A NUCLEAR BAR?

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard, Ortwin; Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma

    2012-01-15

    Recent data from the VVV survey have strengthened evidence for a structural change in the Galactic bulge inward of |l| {<=} 4 Degree-Sign . Here we show with an N-body barred galaxy simulation that a boxy bulge formed through the bar and buckling instabilities effortlessly matches measured bulge longitude profiles for red clump stars. The same simulation snapshot was earlier used to clarify the apparent boxy bulge-long bar dichotomy, for the same orientation and scaling. The change in the slope of the model longitude profiles in the inner few degrees is caused by a transition from highly elongated to more nearly axisymmetric isodensity contours in the inner boxy bulge. This transition is confined to a few degrees from the Galactic plane; thus the change of slope is predicted to disappear at higher Galactic latitudes. We also show that the nuclear star count map derived from this simulation snapshot displays a longitudinal asymmetry similar to that observed in the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) data, but is less flattened to the Galactic plane than the 2MASS map. These results support the interpretation that the Galactic bulge originated from disk evolution and question the evidence advanced from star count data for the existence of a secondary nuclear bar in the Milky Way.

  11. INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUE TO EVALUATE LINT CLEANER GRID BAR DESIGNS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Photographic techniques were used to show the path that fibers attached to a gin saw take as they are drawn over a lint cleaner cleaning grid bar. A 1979 study showed that fibers were swept backwards, closer to the saw, as saw speed increased. The angle between the tip of the saw tooth and the fib...

  12. 5 CFR 9701.305 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration General § 9701.305 Bar on collective... design of pay structures, the setting and adjustment of pay levels, pay administration rules and policies... Section 9701.305 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES...

  13. On wave dark matter in spiral and barred galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Medina, Luis A.; Matos, Tonatiuh; Bray, Hubert L. E-mail: bray@math.duke.edu

    2015-12-01

    We recover spiral and barred spiral patterns in disk galaxy simulations with a Wave Dark Matter (WDM) background (also known as Scalar Field Dark Matter (SFDM), Ultra-Light Axion (ULA) dark matter, and Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) dark matter). Here we show how the interaction between a baryonic disk and its Dark Matter Halo triggers the formation of spiral structures when the halo is allowed to have a triaxial shape and angular momentum. This is a more realistic picture within the WDM model since a non-spherical rotating halo seems to be more natural. By performing hydrodynamic simulations, along with earlier test particles simulations, we demonstrate another important way in which wave dark matter is consistent with observations. The common existence of bars in these simulations is particularly noteworthy. This may have consequences when trying to obtain information about the dark matter distribution in a galaxy, the mere presence of spiral arms or a bar usually indicates that baryonic matter dominates the central region and therefore observations, like rotation curves, may not tell us what the DM distribution is at the halo center. But here we show that spiral arms and bars can develop in DM dominated galaxies with a central density core without supposing its origin on mechanisms intrinsic to the baryonic matter.

  14. State and Local Bar Associations Law-Related Education Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Special Committee on Youth Education for Citizenship.

    This document is a listing of the law-related education activities of state and local bar associations grouped by state. Under each state, the state association and often one or more local association are listed. Information on each association includes committees relating to law related education, a listing of law related education activities,…

  15. Let's go bananas: revisiting the endocytic BAR code.

    PubMed

    Qualmann, Britta; Koch, Dennis; Kessels, Michael Manfred

    2011-08-31

    Against the odds of membrane resistance, members of the BIN/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain superfamily shape membranes and their activity is indispensable for a plethora of life functions. While crystal structures of different BAR dimers advanced our understanding of membrane shaping by scaffolding and hydrophobic insertion mechanisms considerably, especially life-imaging techniques and loss-of-function studies of clathrin-mediated endocytosis with its gradually increasing curvature show that the initial idea that solely BAR domain curvatures determine their functions is oversimplified. Diagonal placing, lateral lipid-binding modes, additional lipid-binding modules, tilde shapes and formation of macromolecular lattices with different modes of organisation and arrangement increase versatility. A picture emerges, in which BAR domain proteins create macromolecular platforms, that recruit and connect different binding partners and ensure the connection and coordination of the different events during the endocytic process, such as membrane invagination, coat formation, actin nucleation, vesicle size control, fission, detachment and uncoating, in time and space, and may thereby offer mechanistic explanations for how coordination, directionality and effectiveness of a complex process with several steps and key players can be achieved. PMID:21878992

  16. Dynamic high-temperature Kolsky tension bar techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Bo; Nelson, Kevin; Lipinski, Ronald; Bignell, John; Ulrich, George B; George, Easo P

    2015-01-01

    Kolsky tension bar techniques were modified for dynamic high-temperature tensile characterization of thin-sheet alloys. An induction coil heater was used to heat the specimen while a cooling system was applied to keep the bars at room temperature during heating. A preload system was developed to generate a small pretension load in the bar system during heating in order to compensate for the effect of thermal expansion generated in the high-temperature tensile specimen. A laser system was applied to directly measure the displacements at both ends of the tensile specimen in order to calculate the strain in the specimen. A pair of high-sensitivity semiconductor strain gages was used to measure the weak transmitted force due to the low flow stress in the thin specimen at elevated temperatures. As an example, the high-temperature Kolsky tension bar was used to characterize a DOP-26 iridium alloy in high-strain-rate tension at 860 s(-1)/1030 degrees C.

  17. Optimization of backward giant circle technique on the asymmetric bars.

    PubMed

    Hiley, Michael J; Yeadon, Maurice R

    2007-11-01

    The release window for a given dismount from the asymmetric bars is the period of time within which release results in a successful dismount. Larger release windows are likely to be associated with more consistent performance because they allow a greater margin for error in timing the release. A computer simulation model was used to investigate optimum technique for maximizing release windows in asymmetric bars dismounts. The model comprised four rigid segments with the elastic properties of the gymnast and bar modeled using damped linear springs. Model parameters were optimized to obtain a close match between simulated and actual performances of three gymnasts in terms of rotation angle (1.5 degrees ), bar displacement (0.014 m), and release velocities (<1%). Three optimizations to maximize the release window were carried out for each gymnast involving no perturbations, 10-ms perturbations, and 20-ms perturbations in the timing of the shoulder and hip joint movements preceding release. It was found that the optimizations robust to 20-ms perturbations produced release windows similar to those of the actual performances whereas the windows for the unperturbed optimizations were up to twice as large. It is concluded that robustness considerations must be included in optimization studies in order to obtain realistic results and that elite performances are likely to be robust to timing perturbations of the order of 20 ms. PMID:18089928

  18. Observation of Exclusive barB → D^(*) K^*- Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng

    2002-04-01

    We report the first observation of the exclusive decays bar B→ D^(*)K^*-, using 9.66 × 10^6 B\\overlineB pairs collected at the Υ(4S) with the CLEO detector. We measure the following branching fractions: B(B^- → D^0 K^*- ) = (6.1 ± 1.6 ± 1.7)× 10-4, B(barB^0→ D^+K^*-) = (3.7 ± 1.5 ± 1.0)× 10-4, B(barB^0→ D^*+K^*-) = (3.8 ± 1.3 ± 0.8)× 10-4 and B(B^- → D^*0 K^*- ) = (7.7 ± 2.2 ± 2.6)× 10-4. The bar B → D^*K^*- branching ratios are the averages of those corresponding to the 00 and 11 helicity states. The errors shown are statistical and systematic, respectively.

  19. Recent Measurements of sin2beta at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Sciolla, Gabriella; /MIT

    2005-12-14

    The angle {beta} is the most accurately measured quantity that determines the Unitarity Triangle. In this article I review the various measurements of this angle performed by the BaBar Collaboration, and discuss their implications in the search for new physics.

  20. 8. Photocopied August 1978. BREAKING CONCRETE BARS, JULY 1898. TESTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopied August 1978. BREAKING CONCRETE BARS, JULY 1898. TESTING MACHINE USED BY VON SCHON IN EXPERIMENTS ON METHODS OF MIXING CONCRETE AND ON CONCRETE AGGREGATES WHICH USED LOCAL MATERIALS. (4) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI