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Sample records for adult beagle dogs

  1. Penis Allotransplantation in Beagle Dog.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongbin; Hu, Weilie; Zhang, Lichao; Guo, Fei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Bangqi; Zhang, Changzheng

    2016-01-01

    This is an original research of penis allotransplantation. The paper presents an experiment allogenic penis transplantation model in Beagles, with a focus on recovery of blood supply and changes in tissue architecture. Twenty adult Beagles were allocated to 10 pairs for penile transplantation. After operation, the skin and glans were observed. If adverse symptoms occurred, the transplanted penis was resected and pathologically examined. Frequency of urination, urinary stream, and patency level were recorded 7 days after transplantation. Cystourethrography was performed on Day 10. The transplanted penises were resected on Day 14 for pathological examination. The research showed that transplanted penises survived after allotransplantation, and the dogs regained urination ability. Penis autotransplantation in Beagles is feasible. This preliminary study shows a potential for application of this new procedure for penis transplantation in humans. PMID:26977412

  2. Penis Allotransplantation in Beagle Dog

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This is an original research of penis allotransplantation. The paper presents an experiment allogenic penis transplantation model in Beagles, with a focus on recovery of blood supply and changes in tissue architecture. Twenty adult Beagles were allocated to 10 pairs for penile transplantation. After operation, the skin and glans were observed. If adverse symptoms occurred, the transplanted penis was resected and pathologically examined. Frequency of urination, urinary stream, and patency level were recorded 7 days after transplantation. Cystourethrography was performed on Day 10. The transplanted penises were resected on Day 14 for pathological examination. The research showed that transplanted penises survived after allotransplantation, and the dogs regained urination ability. Penis autotransplantation in Beagles is feasible. This preliminary study shows a potential for application of this new procedure for penis transplantation in humans. PMID:26977412

  3. Dietary Mannoheptulose Increases Fasting Serum Glucagon Like Peptide-1 and Post-Prandial Serum Ghrelin Concentrations in Adult Beagle Dogs

    PubMed Central

    McKnight, Leslie L.; Eyre, Ryan; Gooding, Margaret A.; Davenport, Gary M.; Shoveller, Anna Kate

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary There is increased interest in the use of nutraceuticals for weight management in companion animals. A nutraceutical can broadly be considered a food (or a part of) that provides a health benefit. Mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar found in avocados, is being investigated as a nutraceutical for dogs. In this study, dogs fed a diet containing MH had increased concentrations of blood biomarkers related to energy intake. In addition, dogs fed MH were less physically active than dogs fed a control diet. These findings suggest that dietary MH has the ability to alter energy intake and lower daily energy expenditure. Abstract There is a growing interest in the use of nutraceuticals for weight management in companion animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar in avocados that inhibits glycolysis, on energy metabolism in adult Beagle dogs. The study was a double-blind, randomized controlled trial where dogs were allocated to a control (CON, n = 10, 10.1 ± 0.4 kg) or MH containing diet (168 mg/kg, n = 10, 10.3 ± 0.4 kg). Blood was collected after an overnight fast and 1 h post-feeding (week 12) to determine serum satiety related hormones and biochemistry. Resting and post-prandial energy expenditure and respiratory quotient were determined by indirect calorimetry (weeks 4 and 8). Physical activity was measured using an accelerometer (weeks 3, 7, 11). Body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry (week 12). MH significantly (p < 0.05) increased fasting serum glucagon-like peptide-1 and post-prandial serum ghrelin. MH tended (p < 0.1) to increase fasting serum gastric inhibitory peptide and decrease physical activity. Together, these findings suggest that dietary MH has the ability to promote satiation and lowers daily energy expenditure. PMID:26479244

  4. Dietary Mannoheptulose Increases Fasting Serum Glucagon Like Peptide-1 and Post-Prandial Serum Ghrelin Concentrations in Adult Beagle Dogs.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Leslie L; Eyre, Ryan; Gooding, Margaret A; Davenport, Gary M; Shoveller, Anna Kate

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of nutraceuticals for weight management in companion animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar in avocados that inhibits glycolysis, on energy metabolism in adult Beagle dogs. The study was a double-blind, randomized controlled trial where dogs were allocated to a control (CON, n = 10, 10.1 ± 0.4 kg) or MH containing diet (168 mg/kg, n = 10, 10.3 ± 0.4 kg). Blood was collected after an overnight fast and 1 h post-feeding (week 12) to determine serum satiety related hormones and biochemistry. Resting and post-prandial energy expenditure and respiratory quotient were determined by indirect calorimetry (weeks 4 and 8). Physical activity was measured using an accelerometer (weeks 3, 7, 11). Body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry (week 12). MH significantly (p < 0.05) increased fasting serum glucagon-like peptide-1 and post-prandial serum ghrelin. MH tended (p < 0.1) to increase fasting serum gastric inhibitory peptide and decrease physical activity. Together, these findings suggest that dietary MH has the ability to promote satiation and lowers daily energy expenditure. PMID:26479244

  5. Occurrence of mitral valve insufficiency in clinically healthy Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Vörös, Károly; Szilvási, Viktória; Manczur, Ferenc; Máthé, Ákos; Reiczigel, Jenő; Nolte, Ingo; Hungerbühler, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Chronic degenerative valve disease (CDVD) is the most common cardiac disease in dogs, usually resulting in mitral valve insufficiency (MVI). The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence of MVI in clinically healthy Beagle populations. A total of 79 adult healthy Beagles (41 females and 38 males; age: 5.6 ± 2.7 years, range 1.4 to 11.7 years) were examined. The diagnosis of MVI was based on the detection of a systolic murmur heard above the mitral valve, and was confirmed by colour flow Doppler (CFD) echocardiography. Systolic mitral valve murmurs were detected in 20/79 dogs (25.3%), of them 11 males and 9 females with no statistically significant gender difference (P = 0.6059). The strength of the murmur on the semi-quantitative 0/6 scale yielded intensity grade 1/6 in 10 dogs, grade 2/6 in 4 dogs, and grade 3/6 in 6 dogs. Mild to moderate MVI was detected by CFD in all these 20 dogs with systolic murmurs. Of them, 17 dogs had mild and 3 demonstrated moderate MVI, showing 10-30% and 30-50% regurgitant jets compared to the size of the left atrium, respectively. The age of dogs with MVI was 7.1 ± 2.3 years, which was significantly different from that of dogs without MVI (5.1 ± 2.7 years, P = 0.0029). No significant differences in body weight (P = 0.1724) were found between dogs with MVI (13.8 ± 2.8 kg) and those without MVI (12.8 ± 3.0 kg). Mitral valve disease causing MVI is relatively common in Beagle dogs, just like in other small breed dogs reported in the literature. PMID:26599093

  6. Microdosimetry of plutonium in beagle dog lung

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Roesch, W.C.

    1980-08-01

    A better understanding of the microdosimetry of internally-deposited radionuclides should provide new clues to the complex relationships between organ dose distribution and early or late biological effects. Our current interest is the microdosimetry of plutonium and other alpha emitters in the lung. Since the lung is an inhomogeneous tissue, it was necessary to characterize the microscopic distributions of alveolar tissue, air space, and epithelial cell nuclei to define source-target parameters. A statistical representation of the microstructure of beagle dog lung was developed from automated image analysis of specimens from three healthy adult male dogs. The statistical distributions obtained constituted a data base from which it was possible to calculate both the energy dissipation of an alpha particle as it traversed a straight line path through pulmonary tissue, and the probability of intersecting a potentially sensitive biological site in the cell. Computer methods were modified to accomodate tissues with air space regions such as one finds in lung tissue. With the lung model description, these methods were used to determine probability density curves in specific energy for inhaled plutonium aerosols. It was assumed that the activity was randomly distributed on alveolar walls. Calculated examples are given for various activities of inhaled plutonium point sources deposited in lung tissue.

  7. Response and adaptation of Beagle dogs to hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oyama, J.

    1975-01-01

    Eight male Beagle dogs, five months old, were centrifuged continuously for three months at progressively increasing loads. Heart rate and deep body temperature were monitored continuously by implant biotelemetry. Initially, centrifuged dogs showed transient decreases in heart rate and body temperature along with changes in their diurnal rhythm patterns. Compared with normal gravity controls, exposed dogs showed a slower growth rate and a reduced amount of body fat. Blood protein, total lipids, cholesterol, calcium, packed cell volume, red blood cell count, and hemoglobin were also decreased significantly. Absolute weights of the leg bones of centrifuged dogs were significantly greater than controls. Photon absorptiometry revealed significant density increases in selective regions of the femur and humerus of centrifuged dogs. In spite of the various changes noted, results from this and other studies affirm the view that dogs can tolerate and adapt to sustained loads as high as 2.5 g without serious impairment of their body structure and function.

  8. Biological effects of {sup 137}CsCl injected in beagle dogs of different dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Nikula, K.J.; Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C.

    1996-11-01

    The toxicity of {sup 137}Cs in the beagle dog was investigated at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of programs to evaluate the biological effects of both radionuclides in atomic bomb fallout and internally deposited fission-product radionuclides. In the ITRI study, young adult dogs were exposed once by intravenous injection to a range of {sup 137}Cs concentrations; the results have recently been published. The purpose of the present report is to summarize the ANL study and to compare the results of the two studies. At ANL, 63 dogs in three age groups (15 juveniles, 142-151 days old; 38 young adults, 388-427 days old; and 10 middle-aged dogs, 1387-2060 days old) were given {sup 137}Cs intravenously at levels (61-162f MBq/kg) near those expected to be lethal within 30 days after injection. There were 17 control dogs from the same colony. Twenty-three of the dogs injected with {sup 137}Cs, including all middle-aged dogs, died within 52 days after injection due to hematopoietic cell damage resulting in severe pancytopenia that led to fatal hemorrhage and/or septicemia. The other significant early effect was damage to the germinal epithelium of the seminiferous tubules. The design of the ANL study revealed an age- and gender-related differential radiosensitivity for early effects. The middle-aged dogs died significantly earlier due to complications of hematological dyscrasia compared to the juvenile and young adult dogs, and the middle-aged females died significantly earlier than the middle-aged males. The most significant non-neoplastic late effects in the {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs from ANL and ITRI were atrophy of the germinal epithelium of seminiferous tubules with azoospermia, and a significant dose-dependent decrease in survival. The survival of the ANL dogs was decreased more than that of the ITRI dogs at similar radiation doses from {sup 137}Cs. 19 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Electroretinography recordings using a light emitting diode active corneal electrode in healthy beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Yoshiki; Maehara, Seiya; Yamashita, Kazuto; Izumisawa, Yasuharu

    2013-01-01

    Electroretinography (ERG) is a well-established diagnostic procedure for objectively evaluating retinal function. In this study, ERG in beagle dogs, which are a popular experimental animal, was performed to determine the normal range of ERG variables and assess differences between the left and right eyes. ERG findings including rod, combined rod-cone, single-flash cone, and 30-Hz flicker responses were recorded with an LED-electrode in 43 sedated beagle dogs. The subjects were divided into young (< 1 year old), adult (1~5 years old), and senile animals (≥ 6 years old). Normal ERG ranges were obtained. Significant differences in b-wave amplitude along with b/a ratio of the combined rod-cone response were found between the young and adult animals as well as young and senile dogs. No significant differences were observed between the left and right eyes. ERG variables in beagle dogs differed by age due to age-related retinal changes. Thus, we propose that normal ERG ranges should be determined according to age in each clinic and laboratory using its own equipment because each institution usually has different systems or protocols for ERG testing. PMID:23388429

  10. Sulfur dioxide-induced chronic bronchitis in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, S.A.; Wolff, R.K.; Hahn, F.F.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This study was done to produce a model of chronic bronchitis. Twelve beagle dogs were exposed to 500 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 2 h/d, 5d/wk for 21 wk and 4 dogs were sham-exposed to filtered ambient air for the same period. Exposure effects were evaluated by periodically examining the dogs using chest radiographs, pulmonary function, tracheal mucous clearance, and the cellular and soluble components of bronchopulmonary lavage fluids. Dogs were serially sacrificed after 13 and 21 wk of exposure and after 6 and 14 wk of recovery. Clinical signs produced in the SO/sub 2/-exposed dogs included mucoid nasal discharge, productive cough, moist rales on auscultation, tonsilitis, and conjunctivitis. Chest radiographs revealed mild peribronchiolar thickening. Histopathology, tracheal mucous clearance measurements, and lavage cytology were consistent with a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. It is concluded that repeated exposure to 500 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 21 wk produced chronic bronchitis in the beagle dog. Complete recovery occurred within 5 wk following cessation of SO/sub 2/ exposure. 43 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Biological effects of cesium-137 injected in beagle dogs of different ages

    SciTech Connect

    Nikula, K.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C.

    1995-12-01

    The toxicity of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) in the Beagle dog was investigated at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of a program to evaluate the biological effects of internally deposited radionuclides. The toxicity and health effects of {sup 137}Cs are important to understand because {sup 137}Cs is produced in large amounts in light-water nuclear reactors. Large quantities of cesium radioisotopes have entered the human food chain as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons test, and additional cesium radioisotopes were released during the Chernobyl accident. Although the final analyses are not complete, three findings are significant: older dogs dies significantly earlier than juvenile and young adult dogs; greater occurrence of sarcomas in the cesium-137 injected dogs; the major nonneoplastic effect in dogs surviving beyond 52 d appears to be testicular atrophy.

  12. Toxicity of inhaled plutonium dioxide in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Muggenburg, M.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1996-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the biological effects of inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} over the life spans of 144 beagle dogs. The dogs inhaled one of two sizes of monodisperse aerosols of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} to achieve graded levels of initial lung burden (ILB). The aerosols also contained {sup 169}Yb to provide a {gamma}-ray-emitting label for the {sup 238}Pu inhaled by each dog. Excreta were collected periodically over each dog`s life span to estimate plutonium excretion; at death, the tissues were analyzed radiochemically for plutonium activity. The tissue content and the amount of plutonium excreted were used to estimate the ILB. These data for each dog were used in a dosimetry model to estimate the ILB. These data for each dog were used in a dosimetry model to estimate tissue doses. The lung, skeleton and liver received the highest {alpha}-particle doses, ranging from 0.16-68 Gy for the liver. At death, all dogs were necropsied, and all organs and lesions were sampled and examined by histopathology. Findings of non-neoplastic changes included neutropenia and lymphopenia that developed in a dose-related fashion soon after inhalation exposure. These effects persisted for up to 5 years in some animals, but no other health effects could be related to the blood changes observed. Radiation pneumonitis was observed among the dogs with the highest ILBs. Deaths from radiation pneumonitis occurred from 1.5 to 5.4 years after exposure. Tumors of the lung, skeleton and liver occurred beginning at about 3 years after exposure. These findings in dogs suggest that similar dose-related biological effects could be expected in humans accidentally exposed to {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}. 89 refs., 10 figs., 11 tab.

  13. Atlas of experimentally-induced neoplasia in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, G.E.; Watson, C.R.

    1996-10-01

    Beagle dogs have been utilized extensively in biomedical research. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) has sponsored life-span dose-effect radiation studies in beagles at various laboratories. Because results from studies in the various laboratories were to be compared, all the investigators strove to use similar nomenclature and criteria to describe biological effects. For this reason, pathologists from these laboratories met on five occasions between 1976 and 1977 to discuss nomenclature and histologic criteria for diagnoses. At these meeting, criteria were discussed for histopathologic description of lesions in bone, liver, lung, hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues, mammary gland, pituitary, testis, and thyroid. To provide further assurance of cooperation among the DOE laboratories involved, DOE organized several Task Groups in 1985, composed of staff members from the laboratories. The Task Group on Biological Effects was asked to standardize nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for pathology; this beagle pathology atlas is the result of that request. The atlas describes target organs of particular interest: lungs for radionuclides delivered by inhalation; bones for bone-seeking radionuclides; and hematopoietic and other soft tissues for external irradiation.

  14. Diversity of Antibody Responses to Borrelia burgdorferi in Experimentally Infected Beagle Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Grosenbaugh, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a common infection of domestic dogs in areas where there is enzootic transmission of the agent Borrelia burgdorferi. While immunoassays based on individual subunits have mostly supplanted the use of whole-cell preparations for canine serology, only a limited number of informative antigens have been identified. To more broadly characterize the antibody responses to B. burgdorferi infection and to assess the diversity of those responses in individual dogs, we examined sera from 32 adult colony-bred beagle dogs that had been experimentally infected with B. burgdorferi through tick bites and compared those sera in a protein microarray with sera from uninfected dogs in their antibody reactivities to various recombinant chromosome- and plasmid-encoded B. burgdorferi proteins, including 24 serotype-defining OspC proteins of North America. The profiles of immunogenic proteins for the dogs were largely similar to those for humans and natural-reservoir rodents; these proteins included the decorin-binding protein DbpB, BBA36, BBA57, BBA64, the fibronectin-binding protein BBK32, VlsE, FlaB and other flagellar structural proteins, Erp proteins, Bdr proteins, and all of the OspC proteins. In addition, the canine sera bound to the presumptive lipoproteins BBB14 and BB0844, which infrequently elicited antibodies in humans or rodents. Although the beagle, like most other domestic dog breeds, has a small effective population size and features extensive linkage disequilibrium, the group of animals studied here demonstrated diversity in antibody responses in measures of antibody levels and specificities for conserved proteins, such as DbpB, and polymorphic proteins, such as OspC. PMID:24695775

  15. Diversity of antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi in experimentally infected beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Baum, Elisabeth; Grosenbaugh, Deborah A; Barbour, Alan G

    2014-06-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a common infection of domestic dogs in areas where there is enzootic transmission of the agent Borrelia burgdorferi. While immunoassays based on individual subunits have mostly supplanted the use of whole-cell preparations for canine serology, only a limited number of informative antigens have been identified. To more broadly characterize the antibody responses to B. burgdorferi infection and to assess the diversity of those responses in individual dogs, we examined sera from 32 adult colony-bred beagle dogs that had been experimentally infected with B. burgdorferi through tick bites and compared those sera in a protein microarray with sera from uninfected dogs in their antibody reactivities to various recombinant chromosome- and plasmid-encoded B. burgdorferi proteins, including 24 serotype-defining OspC proteins of North America. The profiles of immunogenic proteins for the dogs were largely similar to those for humans and natural-reservoir rodents; these proteins included the decorin-binding protein DbpB, BBA36, BBA57, BBA64, the fibronectin-binding protein BBK32, VlsE, FlaB and other flagellar structural proteins, Erp proteins, Bdr proteins, and all of the OspC proteins. In addition, the canine sera bound to the presumptive lipoproteins BBB14 and BB0844, which infrequently elicited antibodies in humans or rodents. Although the beagle, like most other domestic dog breeds, has a small effective population size and features extensive linkage disequilibrium, the group of animals studied here demonstrated diversity in antibody responses in measures of antibody levels and specificities for conserved proteins, such as DbpB, and polymorphic proteins, such as OspC.

  16. Pathologic features of naturally occurring juvenile polyarteritis in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Snyder, P W; Kazacos, E A; Scott-Moncrieff, J C; HogenEsch, H; Carlton, W W; Glickman, L T; Felsburg, P J

    1995-07-01

    Eighteen young Beagle dogs (eight males and 10 females), ages 6-40 months, with canine juvenile polyarteritis syndrome (CJPS), a naturally occurring vasculitis and perivasculitis of unknown etiology, were necropsied, and their tissues were examined by histopathologic and histochemical methods. The condition is characterized by recurring episodes of an acute onset of fever (> 40 C) and neck pain that persist for 3-7 days. The major histopathologic alterations were a systemic vasculitis and perivasculitis. During the febrile, painful period of CJPS, the vascular lesions ranged from a histiocytic-lymphocytic periarterial infiltration to transmural arterial inflammation with concomitant fibrinoid necrosis and vascular thrombosis. Massive periarterial accumulations of inflammatory cells were common and often extended into adjacent tissues. The small- to medium-sized muscular arteries of the heart, cranial mediastinum, and cervical spinal meninges were consistently involved. Vasculitis occasionally occurred in other organ systems. The vascular lesions in dogs examined during clinically normal periods consisted of intimal and medial fibrosis, ruptured elastic laminae, and mild perivasculitis; these lesions were probably related to previous episodes of vasculitis. Eight dogs that had experienced repeated acute episodes also developed splenic, hepatic, and renal amyloidosis. The clinical signs, laboratory abnormalities, and the vascular lesions suggest that the condition may be immune-system mediated. CJPS may serve as a naturally occurring animal model of human immune-system-mediated vasculitides such as polyarteritis nodosa, infantile polyarteritis, and Kawasaki disease.

  17. Artifactual Stratum Corneum Calcification of the Beagle Dog Tongue.

    PubMed

    Glover, Christiana; Ochoa, Ricardo

    2015-07-01

    Examination of H&E-stained tongue samples from a 26-week intravenous infusion study of Beagle dogs, utilizing a compound with no recognized effect on mineral metabolism, exhibited superficial stratum corneum calcification in both treated and control animals. This resulted in the search for possible causes of the finding to help clarify confounding issues. Retrospective examination of 11 studies performed before the signal case indicated that the problem existed in the testing facility but was not recognized. Prior to 2008, this finding was not observed, perhaps indicating the requirement for a change in procedures or suppliers. Based on the hypothesis that the calcium salts were deposited from bone during processing, a series of tests was performed by fixing tongue and femur along with different tissues, processed routinely to slide, and stained with H&E and von Kossa stains. We conclude that the presence of superficial stratum corneum calcification of the tongue in dogs demonstrated in toxicology studies is an artifactual change related to the processing of tissues, specifically the fixation of tongue in the same container as bone and stomach. This change should not be confused with compound-related effects, even when the incidence varies between controls and treated animals.

  18. [Values of acido-basic balance in the blood of the beagle breed dog in comparison with the German shepherd dog].

    PubMed

    Komárek, J; Jadrný, L; Sýkora, I

    1975-01-01

    The values of acidobasic balance were examined in 101 dogs of the Beagle breed and in 20 German Sheep-Dogs. The Beagle dogs were divided into five age groups. A difference was found between the values obtained in the group of the youngest dogs and those in older age groups. In comparison with Beagle dogs, the values were higher in German Sheep-Dogs (pH, base excess). A figure is attached representing the deviations of the values of acidobasic balance of blood in the two breeds.

  19. Quantification of brown dog tick repellents, 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde, and release from tick-resistant beagles, Canis lupus familiaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have recently shown that repellency of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato by the tick resistant dog breed Beagle is mediated by volatile organic compounds 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde present in Beagle dog odour. Ectoparasite location on animal hosts is affected by variation in odour com...

  20. Impact of the advances in age on the gastrointestinal microflora of beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Benno, Y; Nakao, H; Uchida, K; Mitsuoka, T

    1992-08-01

    The gastrointestinal microflora of male beagle dogs in two different age groups; I) less than month 12 of age, and II) more than year 11 of age, was compared. No detectable difference occurred on the microflora of stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum in both dogs. Large bowel (cecum, colon and rectum) microflora in both dogs yielded the different microbial populations. In all regions of large bowel, the levels of bacteroides, eubacteria, peptostreptococci, bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, and staphylococci in the elderly dogs were lower than those in the younger animals, whereas the numbers of Clostridium perfringens and streptococci in the elderly animals were higher than those in the youngers. The high incidence of lecithinase-negative clostridia was observed with advances in age, but not that of spiral shaped rods. The result of this study shows that the advances in age of beagle dogs yield some changes in the microbial population of large bowel in the animals.

  1. Renal Function and Morphology in Aged Beagle Dogs Before and after Hydrocortisone Administration

    PubMed Central

    Smets, Pascale M. Y.; Lefebvre, Hervé P.; Aresu, Luca; Croubels, Siska; Haers, Hendrik; Piron, Koen; Meyer, Evelyne; Daminet, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to evaluate glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal structural changes and proteinuria in aged Beagle dogs before and after hydrocortisone (HC) administration. Eleven Beagle dogs ≥10 years old were treated with either hydrocortisone (HC group, n = 6) or placebo (control group, n = 5). Urinary markers, GFR and kidney biopsies were evaluated before (T0), during (T16 wks) and after discontinuing HC administration (T24 wks). Results indicate that HC administration causes a significant increase in GFR. At all time points except T16 wks, proteinuria was higher in the control group than in the HC group, and there was no significant difference in urinary markers between groups. At T16 wks, proteinuria, urinary albumin-to-creatinine (c) ratio, immunoglobulin G/c and retinol-binding protein/c were higher compared to baseline in the HC group. At T0, rare to mild renal lesions were detected in all HC dogs and rare to moderate changes in all control dogs. Glomerulosclerosis progressed in both groups until T24 wks. Tubular atrophy was detected in three HC dogs at T16 wks and T24 wks, but also in five control dogs throughout the study. At every time point, five HC dogs and all control dogs had rare to moderate interstitial inflammation. Rare to mild interstitial fibrosis was found in up to three HC dogs at T16 wks and T24 wks, and severe fibrosis in one HC dog at T24 wks. Up to four control dogs had rare to mild fibrosis at all time points. These findings indicate that clinically healthy, aged Beagle dogs may have considerable renal lesions and proteinuria, which could have implications for experimental or toxicological studies. Additional research is needed to elucidate glucocorticoid effects on renal structure, but functional changes such as hyperfiltration and proteinuria warrant attention to kidney function of canine patients with Cushing's syndrome or receiving exogenous glucocorticoids. PMID:22393368

  2. Lung, liver and bone cancer mortality after plutonium exposure in beagle dogs and nuclear workers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Dulaney A; Mohr, Lawrence C; Frey, G Donald; Lackland, Daniel; Hoel, David G

    2010-01-01

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) worker registry has shown evidence of plutonium-induced health effects. Workers were potentially exposed to plutonium nitrate [(239)Pu(NO(3))(4)] and plutonium dioxide ((239)PuO(2)). Studies of plutonium-induced health effects in animal models can complement human studies by providing more specific data than is possible in human observational studies. Lung, liver, and bone cancer mortality rate ratios in the MPA worker cohort were compared to those seen in beagle dogs, and models of the excess relative risk of lung, liver, and bone cancer mortality from the MPA worker cohort were applied to data from life-span studies of beagle dogs. The lung cancer mortality rate ratios in beagle dogs are similar to those seen in the MPA worker cohort. At cumulative doses less than 3 Gy, the liver cancer mortality rate ratios in the MPA worker cohort are statistically similar to those in beagle dogs. Bone cancer mortality only occurred in MPA workers with doses over 10 Gy. In dogs given (239)Pu, the adjusted excess relative risk of lung cancer mortality per Gy was 1.32 (95% CI 0.56-3.22). The liver cancer mortality adjusted excess relative risk per Gy was 55.3 (95% CI 23.0-133.1). The adjusted excess relative risk of bone cancer mortality per Gy(2) was 1,482 (95% CI 566.0-5686). Models of lung cancer mortality based on MPA worker data with additional covariates adequately described the beagle dog data, while the liver and bone cancer models were less successful.

  3. Elimination Half-Lives of Acute Phase Proteins in Rats and Beagle Dogs During Acute Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kuribayashi, Takashi; Seita, Tetsuro; Momotani, Eiichi; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Hagimori, Kohei; Yamamoto, Shizuo

    2015-08-01

    The half-lives of typical acute phase proteins in rats and beagle dogs during acute inflammation were investigated. Acute inflammation was induced by injection of turpentine oil in rats and administration of indomethacin in beagle dogs. Serum concentrations of α2-macroglobulin (α2M) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and α1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) was measured by single radial immunodiffusion. Half-life was calculated as 0.693/elimination rate constant (K). The mean half-lives in the terminal elimination phase of α2M and AAG were 68.1 and 164.8 h, respectively. The half-life of AAG was significantly longer than that of α2M. Mean half-lives in the terminal elimination phase of CRP and AAG were 161.9 and 304.4 h, respectively. The half-life of AAG was significantly longer than that of CRP in beagle dogs. No significant differences in the half-life of AAG were observed between rats and beagle dogs. Furthermore, serum concentrations in the terminal elimination phase could be simulated with the K data acquired in this study.

  4. Enantioselective HPLC determination of oxiracetam enantiomers and application to a pharmacokinetic study in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiuyang; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Yue; Li, Junxiu; Lu, Yang; Zheng, Yi; He, Jiake; Zhao, Di; Chen, Xijing

    2015-07-01

    An enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the determination of oxiracetam enantiomers, a cognition and memory enhancer, in beagle dog plasma. The plasma samples were prepared by methanol extraction from 200μL plasma, and then the baseline resolution was achieved on a Chiralpak ID column (250mm×4.6mm, 5μm) with mobile phase of hexane-ethanol-trifluoroacetic acid (78:22:0.1, v/v/v) at flow rate of 1.0mL/min. The column elute was monitored using ultraviolet detection at 214nm. The method was linear over concentration range 0.50-100μg/mL for both enantiomers. The relative standard deviation values for intra- and inter-day precision were 0.78-13.61 and 0.74-8.92% for (R)- and (S)-oxiracetam, respectively. The relative error values of accuracy ranged from -4.74 to 10.48% for (R)-oxiracetam and from -0.19 to 11.48% for (S)-oxiracetam. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of individual enantiomer and racemic oxiracetam in beagle dogs after oral administration. The disposition of the two enantiomers was not stereoselective and chiral inversion was not observed in beagle dogs. The pharmacokinetic profiles of (S)-oxiracetam were similar with racemic oxiracetam in beagle dogs.

  5. The SNPs of Melanocortin 4 Receptor (MC4R) Associated with Body Weight in Beagle Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ruixia; Zhang, YiBo; Du, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), which is associated with inherited human obesity, is involoved in food intake and body weight of mammals. To study the relationships between MC4R gene polymorphism and body weight in Beagle dogs, we detected and compared the nucleotide sequence of the whole coding region and 3′- and 5′- flanking regions of the dog MC4R gene (1214 bp). In 120 Beagle dogs, two SNPs (A420C, C895T) were identified and their relation with body weight was analyzed with RFLP-PCR method. The results showed that the SNP at A420C was significantly associated with canine body weight trait when it changed amino acid 101 of the MC4R protein from asparagine to threonine,while canine body weight variations were significant in female dogs when MC4R nonsense mutation at C895T. It suggested that the two SNPs might affect the MC4R gene’s function which was relative to body weight in Beagle dogs. Therefore, MC4R was a candidate gene for selecting different size dogs with the MC4R SNPs (A420C, C895T) being potentially valuable as a genetic marker. PMID:24521865

  6. Effects of whole-body, ionizing radiation on the semen in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Day, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    Six beagle dogs were exposed to a total dose of 183 R of gamma radiation at a dose rate of 1 R/day, while three other dogs were exposed to a single dose of 100 R. Weekly semen analysis was performed on all irradiated dogs plus four nonirradiated dogs. Semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm motility and sperm head morphometry were examined. Dogs exposed to chronic radiation showed a severe decline in sperm numbers, detected after seven weeks of exposure. Sperm concentration and total sperm count were the first parameters affected and were the only parameters consistently affected. The dogs exposed to 100 R as a single dose, did not show a significant decline in sperm numbers. During a 36 week recovery period, the chronically irradiated dogs did show a slight increase in sperm numbers, but they never approached pre-exposure levels.

  7. Hyperhidrosis in Naïve Purpose-Bred Beagle Dogs (Canis familiaris)

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, Catherine A; Seeman, Jennifer L; Hoffmann, Guenther

    2011-01-01

    This case study details the unusual clinical findings in a unique paw-pad disorder that recently emerged among 2 male and 1 female naïve purpose-bred beagle dogs (Canis familiaris) newly received into our facility. During acclimation period physical examinations, the affected dogs demonstrated constantly moist, soft paw pads on all 4 feet. No information was available regarding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this pad condition in beagle dogs. Here, we report the results of physical examination, clinical chemistry analysis, hematology, histopathology, detailed observations, and novel testing techniques performed during the acclimation period. Histopathology of several sections of affected footpads was compared with that of an age-matched dog with clinically normal paw pads. We describe the morphologic features of a distinctive cutaneous canine footpad condition and discuss the possible differential diagnoses. The histologic and clinical features were most consistent with those of hyperhidrosis; to our knowledge, this report is the first description of hyperhidrosis as a distinct condition in purpose-bred beagle dogs. PMID:21640037

  8. Spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of experimental Wistar rats and beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Nataraju, G J; Ranvir, Ramchandra K; Kothule, Viren R; Kadam, Shekhar B; Ravichandra, B V; Bhatnagar, Upendra; Jain, Mukul R

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was undertaken at Zydus Research Centre to understand the incidences of spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of Wistar rats and beagle dogs. The data from a total of 841 Wistar rats (418 males and 423 females) and 144 beagle dogs (72 males and 72 females) was used from placebo/vehicle treated control group of different non-clinical toxicity studies. The lesions in various endocrine glands were classified according to the species and age of the animals at termination of study. Among the endocrine glands, the highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were observed in adrenal glands followed in descending order by pituitary, thyroid, endocrine pancreas and parathyroid glands in Wistar rats. In beagle dogs, highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were seen in adrenals followed by thyroid, endocrine pancreas, pituitary and parathyroid gland. In adrenal glands of Wistar rats, the incidences of cortical cell vacuolation, hemorrhages and hemangiectasis/peliosis were increased with age. Incidence of peliosis at ∼110 weeks of age was higher in female rats. Among the proliferative lesions in rats, higher incidences of cortical cell hyperplasia was observed followed by medullary hyperplasia, complex pheochromocytoma, cortical cell adenoma and cortical adenocarcinoma. In beagle dogs, the incidences of hemangiectasis and cortical cell vacuolation in adrenal glands were higher in 18-21 months aged dogs in both the sexes as compared to 10-12 months of age. In pituitary gland, the incidences of cystic changes were higher in older rats and dogs and the incidences were more in beagles as compared to rats. In thyroid glands, C-cell (parafollicular cells) hyperplasia/complex was observed more frequently in both the species. Few incidences of cystic changes were observed in parathyroid of 18-21 months aged beagle dogs. In endocrine pancreas, few incidences of islet-cell vacuolation, atrophy and hyperplasia were observed in both the species. The

  9. Proliferation capacity of T-lymphocytes is affected transiently after a long-term weight gain in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Van de Velde, H; Janssens, G P J; Rochus, K; Duchateau, L; Scharek-Tedin, L; Zentek, J; Nguyen, P; Cox, E; Buyse, J; Biourge, V; Hesta, M

    2013-04-15

    Across species obesity is associated with several disorders but in companion animals little information is available on the impact of chronic obesity on immune competence. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether weight gain and stable obese bodyweight affects the immune cell response. Obesity was induced in eight adult healthy beagle dogs (weight gain group; WGG) by a weight gain period (WGP) of 47 weeks, which was immediately followed by a period (stable period: SP) of stable obesity of 26 weeks. Eight adult healthy beagle dogs were included as a control group (CG) and remained at their ideal bodyweight throughout the entire study. Body composition was measured at five intervening time-points. Concentration of serum leptin and inflammatory cytokines, functionality of lymphocytes and phagocytic activity of neutrophils and monocytes were evaluated at ten intervening time-points. Serum leptin concentration was rising during the WGP in the WGG but went to lower concentrations during the SP. At the end of long-term weight gain, a decreased mitogen-induced proliferation of T-lymphocytes was noted but this alteration seemed to be transient after stabilization of bodyweight. This finding may imply an altered immune response for dogs with different energy balances. However, no systemic low grade inflammation or alteration in other immune cell functions was observed. Consequently it is suggested that the change in energy balance during the onset of obesity (becoming obese versus being obese), evokes an additional obesity-related disorder in dogs, i.e. impaired T-lymphocyte immune function.

  10. [Relationship between MC4R gene polymorphyism and body weight trait in beagle dogs].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Bo; Ba, Cai-Feng; Su, Yu-Hong; Zeng, Rui-Xia

    2006-10-01

    The relationship between MC4R gene polymorphism and body weight in beagle dogs was analyzed. Using gene-specific primers based on canine MC4R exonic sequences a gene fragment was PCR amplified, cloned and sequenced to identify potential polymorphisms. The relationship between a MC4R gene polymorphism detected by PCR-RFLP and canine body weight was analyzed. Three variants were found in beagle dog MC4R DNA sequence, of which two were deletions and one was a transversion which created a PshA I site that could be detected by PCR-RFLP. A statistically significant relationship between this polymorphism and body weight was found. MC4R gene could be a candidate modifier gene for canine body weight. PMID:17035178

  11. Spontaneous and bilateral necrosis of the femoral head in a young experimental beagle dog.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Kurotaki, Tetsuro; Yamada, Naoaki; Kumabe, Shino; Doi, Takuya; Wako, Yumi; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2015-04-01

    This report describes the pathological characterizations of a rare case of necrosis of the femoral head that was spontaneous, bilateral, avascular and nontraumatic. A 14-month-old beagle dog was presented with pain in the hind limbs. At necropsy, the articular surface in the bilateral femoral head was markedly irregular. There were no gross abnormalities other than in the hip joints. Microscopically, a wide range of trabecular bone necrosis localized in the subchondral area was observed in both femoral heads. In the right femoral head, fibrosis and proliferative vessels were noted in the subchondral area. The articular cartilage was thickened irregularly, but there was no evidence of cartilage necrosis. The bone marrow adjacent to the affected area showed severe depression. In the metaphysis, atrophic bone marrow, but not bone necrosis, was observed. This was a rare case of spontaneous necrosis of the femoral head in an experimental beagle dog. PMID:26028821

  12. Spontaneous and bilateral necrosis of the femoral head in a young experimental beagle dog

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Kurotaki, Tetsuro; Yamada, Naoaki; Kumabe, Shino; Doi, Takuya; Wako, Yumi; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the pathological characterizations of a rare case of necrosis of the femoral head that was spontaneous, bilateral, avascular and nontraumatic. A 14-month-old beagle dog was presented with pain in the hind limbs. At necropsy, the articular surface in the bilateral femoral head was markedly irregular. There were no gross abnormalities other than in the hip joints. Microscopically, a wide range of trabecular bone necrosis localized in the subchondral area was observed in both femoral heads. In the right femoral head, fibrosis and proliferative vessels were noted in the subchondral area. The articular cartilage was thickened irregularly, but there was no evidence of cartilage necrosis. The bone marrow adjacent to the affected area showed severe depression. In the metaphysis, atrophic bone marrow, but not bone necrosis, was observed. This was a rare case of spontaneous necrosis of the femoral head in an experimental beagle dog. PMID:26028821

  13. Identification of non-host semiochemicals for the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae), from tick-resistant beagles, Canis lupus familiaris.

    PubMed

    Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; de Oliveira Filho, Jaires Gomes; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Studies have shown that the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, when fed on the beagle breed of dog, Canis lupus familiaris, development negatively affected in comparison with tick development after feeding on the English cocker spaniel breed. Thus leading to the suggestion that beagle dogs are be tick-resistant dogs. Behavioural studies have demonstrated that more ticks are attracted by extracts from cocker spaniels than from beagles and that the odour of beagles is a repellent. To test the hypothesis that resistant hosts produce repellent compounds, we undertook comparative chemical analysis on beagle odour and cocker spaniel extracts using coupled high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also used Petri-dish and olfactometer behavioural assays to assess the response of ticks to identified non-host compounds. The beagle odour extracts contained almost three times as many chemical compounds as cocker spaniel samples. Several non-host compounds were identified, i.e. 2-hexanone, benzaldehyde, nonane, decane and undecane. In Petri-dish assays, 2-hexanone was repellent at 30 min at concentrations of 0.200 and 0.050 mg cm(-2), whilst at 10 min, the 0.100 mg cm(-2) concentration was repellent. Benzaldehyde repelled ticks at 30 min (0.200 mg cm(-2)) and at 5 min (0.050 mg cm(-2)). Undecane was repellent for R. sanguineus s.l. ticks for the first 5 min at the highest concentration tested. Nonane and decane did not show any significant repellency at any concentration or time evaluated. When 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde were combined, an increase in the repellency rate was observed, with activity comparable or better than N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). In olfactometer bioassays, a 1:1 mixture of 2-hexanone:benzaldehyde and DEET were repellent for R. sanguineus s.l. adults at the concentration of 0.200 mg cm(-2). This study identified non-host semiochemicals that mediate avoidance of the beagle dog breed by R. sanguineus s

  14. Identification of non-host semiochemicals for the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae), from tick-resistant beagles, Canis lupus familiaris.

    PubMed

    Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; de Oliveira Filho, Jaires Gomes; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Studies have shown that the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, when fed on the beagle breed of dog, Canis lupus familiaris, development negatively affected in comparison with tick development after feeding on the English cocker spaniel breed. Thus leading to the suggestion that beagle dogs are be tick-resistant dogs. Behavioural studies have demonstrated that more ticks are attracted by extracts from cocker spaniels than from beagles and that the odour of beagles is a repellent. To test the hypothesis that resistant hosts produce repellent compounds, we undertook comparative chemical analysis on beagle odour and cocker spaniel extracts using coupled high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also used Petri-dish and olfactometer behavioural assays to assess the response of ticks to identified non-host compounds. The beagle odour extracts contained almost three times as many chemical compounds as cocker spaniel samples. Several non-host compounds were identified, i.e. 2-hexanone, benzaldehyde, nonane, decane and undecane. In Petri-dish assays, 2-hexanone was repellent at 30 min at concentrations of 0.200 and 0.050 mg cm(-2), whilst at 10 min, the 0.100 mg cm(-2) concentration was repellent. Benzaldehyde repelled ticks at 30 min (0.200 mg cm(-2)) and at 5 min (0.050 mg cm(-2)). Undecane was repellent for R. sanguineus s.l. ticks for the first 5 min at the highest concentration tested. Nonane and decane did not show any significant repellency at any concentration or time evaluated. When 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde were combined, an increase in the repellency rate was observed, with activity comparable or better than N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). In olfactometer bioassays, a 1:1 mixture of 2-hexanone:benzaldehyde and DEET were repellent for R. sanguineus s.l. adults at the concentration of 0.200 mg cm(-2). This study identified non-host semiochemicals that mediate avoidance of the beagle dog breed by R. sanguineus s

  15. Clinical Efficacy of Sustained-Release Buprenorphine with Meloxicam for Postoperative Analgesia in Beagle Dogs Undergoing Ovariohysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Stolarik, DeAnne F; Ma, Junli; Wilsey, Amanda S; Jenkins, Gary J; Medina, Chris L

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to compare the efficacy, adverse effects, and plasma buprenorphine concentrations of sustained-release buprenorphine (SRB) and buprenorphine after subcutaneous administration in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. In a prospective, randomized, blinded design, 20 healthy adult female Beagle dogs underwent routine ovariohysterectomy and received multimodal analgesia consisting of meloxicam and one of two buprenorphine formulations. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive either SRB (0.2 mg/kg SC, once) or buprenorphine (0.02 mg/kg SC every 12 h for 3 d). Blinded observers assessed all dogs by using sedation scores, pain scores, temperature, HR, RR, and general wellbeing. Dogs were provided rescue analgesia with 0.02 mg/kg buprenorphine SC if the postoperative pain score exceeded a predetermined threshold. Blood samples were collected, and mass spectrometry was used to determine plasma buprenorphine concentrations. Data were analyzed with a linear mixed model and Tukey–Kramer multiple comparison. Age, body weight, anesthetic duration, surgical duration, sevoflurane concentration, and cardiorespiratory variables did not differ significantly between groups. Dogs in both formulation groups had comparable postoperative sedation and pain scores. One dog from each formulation group had breakthrough pain requiring rescue analgesia. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations remained above a hypothesized therapeutic concentration of 0.6 ng/mL for 136.0 ± 11.3 and 10.67 ± 0.84 h for SRB and buprenorphine, respectively. Based on the results of this study, multimodal analgesic regimens consisting of meloxicam and either buprenorphine or SRB are equally efficacious in managing pain associated with an ovariohysterectomy and show comparable side effects. PMID:25255072

  16. Beagle Dog Tissue Archive (previously part of National Radiobiology Archives): from the Janus Tissue Archive at Northwestern University

    DOE Data Explorer

    Watson, Charles R.

    Following the advent of the atomic age, many nations have investigated the effects of radioactive exposure in animal models. Some of these investigations involved costly and unique experiments that produced tissue and data archives which are unlikely to be reproduced. In an effort to extract the value from these collections, programs have started in Japan, Europe, and America to preserve and make public the data and tissues from these studies for further investigation. The Beagle Dog Experiments, carried out at Argonne National Laboratory from 1952 to 1991 by Thomas Fritz, William Norris, and Tom Seed and supported by grants from the Atomic Energy Commission, investigated the effects of Cobalt-60 radiation on beagle dogs. Documentation from these studies is availible in pdf form. This web portal seeks to make accessible the animal tissues and study data from the Beagle Dog Experiments using data organized by Charles Watson. Use the search form to the left to look for dog data from particular experimental conditions. Click a dog number to return the full dog record. Use the dog record to find tissues of interest and make a sample tissue request. These tissue samples and the data were known until recently as the the U.S. National Radiobiology Archives (NRA) and were maintained as the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) at Washington State University. Life-span studies using beagle dogs were done at the Argonne National Laboratory, University of California at Davis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, and the University of Utah. The results and many microscope slides from these life-span studies, totaling some 6000 dogs, are now available to researchers. A seminal work included in the Archive is The Atlas of Experimentally-Induced Neoplasia in the Beagle Dog (Watson et al, 1997).

  17. The ERG of the beagle dog: evidence associating a post b-wave negativity with the Tapetum lucidum.

    PubMed

    Rosolen, Serge G; Chalier, Catherine; Rigaudière, Florence; Lachapelle, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    As previously reported in the literature, the electroretinogram (ERG) of the Beagle dog includes a large post b-wave negativity, the origin of which is not yet established. In the course of our investigations on the electroretinogram in dogs, we examined two Beagle dogs (2 years apart) who had one eye devoid of a Tapetum Lucidum (TL). Photopic (cone-mediated) and scotopic (rod-mediated) ERGs were obtained according to the guidelines for clinical electroretinography in dog. In both dogs the short-latency ERG components (i.e. a- and b-waves) were found to be within the normal range in amplitude, peak time and morphology O.U. However, the large negative component that, in Beagle dogs, normally follow the b-wave was absent from the photopic as well as the scotopic signals obtained from the TL-free eye. Our results thus suggest a possible contribution of the TL to the ERG of Beagle dogs. PMID:16328922

  18. Primary liver tumors in beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to aerosols of plutonium-238 dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Gillett, N.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Seiler, F.A.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1988-11-01

    Primary liver tumors developed in Beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to aerosols of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/. Initial deposition of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in the respiratory tract was followed by translocation of a portion of the /sup 238/Pu to the liver and skeleton, which resulted in a large dose commitment and tumor risk to all three tissues. In a population of 144 dogs exposed to /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/, 112 dogs died or were killed 4000 days after /sup 238/Pu exposure, 100 dogs had osteosarcoma, and 28 dogs had lung cancers. At increasing times after exposure, however, liver lesions have become more pronounced. Ten primary liver tumors in nine animals were diagnosed in the dogs dying before 4000 days after exposure. An additional five primary liver tumors in three dogs occurred in 9 animals killed after 4000 days after exposure. The majority of these tumors have been fibrosarcomas. The liver tumors were usually not the cause of death, and rarely metastasized. The occurrence of liver tumors in this study indicates that /sup 238/Pu is an effective hepatic carcinogen. Liver carcinogenesis is assuming an increasing importance in this study at late times after inhalation exposure. These results suggest that the liver may be an important organ at risk for the development of neoplasia in humans at time periods long after inhalation of /sup 238/Pu.

  19. Effect of road transportation on the serum biochemical parameters of cynomolgus monkeys and beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    OCHI, Takehiro; YAMADA, Azusa; NAGANUMA, Yuki; NISHINA, Noriko; KOYAMA, Hironari

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of long-distance (approximately 600 km) road transportation on the blood biochemistry of laboratory animals, we investigated the changes in serum biochemical parameters in healthy cynomolgus monkeys and beagle dogs transported by truck from Osaka to Tsukuba, Japan. The concentrations of serum cortisol, total bilirubin and aspartate aminotransferase in monkeys increased during transportation. Serum cortisol and total bilirubin levels in dogs also increased during transportation, but serum triglyceride decreased. Serum parameter values in truck-transported monkeys and dogs returned to baseline levels within two weeks following arrival. Taken together, these results suggest that a two-week acclimation period is the minimum duration required for adaptation following road transportation. PMID:26833142

  20. Cardiorespiratory and anesthetic effects produced by the combination of butorphanol, medetomidine and alfaxalone administered intramuscularly in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongsung; Suh, Sangil; Choi, Ran; Hyun, Changbaig

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated anesthesia quality, degree of analgesia and cardiorespiratory parameters after intramuscular (IM) injection of a combination of butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg), medetomidine (10 µg/kg) and alfaxalone (1.5 mg/kg) in ten healthy adult Beagle dogs. Rectal temperature (T), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (fR), arterial pressure, arterial blood gases and M-mode echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) indices were measured before drug administration and every 10 min thereafter until extubation. Mean duration of anesthesia, recovery and analgesia were 89 ± 17, 6 ± 1 and 80 ± 12 min. HR, fR, partial pressure of arterial CO2 and O2, arterial pressure, and LV contractility were significantly altered during anesthesia. IM administration of the drug combination provided acceptable anesthesia, but produced substantial cardiorespiratory suppression. PMID:26256405

  1. Adrafinil disrupts performance on a delayed nonmatching-to-position task in aged beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Siwak, Christina T; Tapp, P Dwight; Milgram, Norton W

    2003-08-01

    Previous studies in humans and dogs have reported beneficial effects of adrafinil on specific cognitive functions. The effects in dogs are limited to a single study examining discrimination learning. We wanted to further explore the cognitive effects of adrafinil in dogs. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of oral administration of adrafinil on visuospatial function in dogs. Eighteen aged beagle dogs were tested on a delayed nonmatching-to-position (DNMP) task 2 h following one of three possible treatments; 20 mg/kg of adrafinil, 10 mg/kg of adrafinil or a placebo control. All dogs were tested under each treatment for eight test sessions. A 2-day washout period was given between treatments and the order of treatments was varied. Treatment with 20 mg/kg of adrafinil produced a significant impairment in working memory as indicated by an increase in the number of errors over the 8-day test period. The disturbance of memory functions from adrafinil could be a result of increased noradrenergic transmission in the prefrontal cortex. PMID:13679229

  2. Maternal placenta-like endometrial hyperplasia in a beagle dog (Canine deciduoma).

    PubMed

    Koguchi, A; Nomura, K; Fujiwara, T; Kawai, Y; Okaniwa, A

    1995-07-01

    Three thumb-sized segmental swellings were found in both uterine horns of a 15 month-old, non-pregnant and non-pseudopregnant female beagle dog. Histopathological examination of the uterus revealed a marked proliferation of the endometrium that was characterized by two distinct parts, an inner tightly-folded banded layer and an outer dilated spongy layer, quite similar to the maternal placenta except for the fetus and chorion in the lumen. Because the plasma level of progesterone was unusually high at autopsy, this hormonal disorder might be related to the pathogenesis of the endometrial hyperplasia in the present case.

  3. Protective Effects of Polysaccharides from Sipunculus nudus on Beagle Dogs Exposed to γ-Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Fengmei; Li, Ming; Chen, Yuejin; Liu, Yuming; He, Yin; Jiang, Dingwen; Tong, Jian; Li, Jianxiang; Shen, Xianrong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the radioprotective effect of polysaccharide extract from Sipunculus nudus (SNP). Beagle dogs were randomly divided into the following six groups. Group-1: Un-treated and un-irradiated controls. Group-2: Exposed to a single acute dose of 2 Gy γ-radiation alone. Groups-3, 4 and 5: Oral administration of SNP at 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight once a day for 7 days followed by a single acute whole body exposure to 2 Gy γ-radiation. The same doses of SNP were administered for further 27 days. Group-6: Positive controls treated with 1.6 mg/kg Nilestriol by gavage after radiation. Blood parameters including white/red cells and platelet counts, as well as hemoglobin level, were assessed every other day for 34 days (7 days before and 27 days of experiment). Serum separated from aliquots of the same blood sample was used to estimate enzyme activity of antioxidant superoxide-dismutase, and to determine levels of free radical, nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide anion. At the end of the experiment, all dogs were euthanized to weigh the organs for organ co-efficient calculation. Pathological changes were assessed in the bone marrow. The results showed that the dogs exposed to γ-radiation alone exhibited a typical hematopoietic syndrome. In contrast, at the end of 27 days experiment, dogs received oral administration of SNP+γ-radiation showed: (i) a much improved blood picture as indicated by shorter duration of leucopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia (platelet counts), as well as hemoglobin levels, (ii) significantly improved hematopoietic activity in the bone marrow, (iii) substantial decrease in nitric oxide levels, and notable increase in activity of antioxidant superoxide dismutase. The results suggested that oral administration of SNP in Beagle dogs was effective in facilitating the recovery of hematopoietic bone marrow damage induced by γ-radiation. PMID:25093861

  4. Artificial periodontal defects and frequency of tooth brushing in beagle dogs (II). Clinical findings after a period of healing.

    PubMed

    Corba, N H; Jansen, J; Pilot, T

    1986-03-01

    This investigation was designed to determine the influence of different frequencies of tooth brushing on artificial periodontal defects in the beagle dog after a period of healing. In 12 beagle dogs, periodontal defects were created using elastic bands placed in the sulci below the gingival margin after having cut the dento-gingival fibres to the level of the alveolar bone crest. This active phase of creating defects lasted for 6 weeks. After removal of the elastic bands, the created defects were left undisturbed during the remainder of the pre-experimental period (12 weeks). 6 premolars in the lower jaw were used (2P2, 3P3, 4P4). After the pre-experimental period, the 12 dogs were distributed into 3 groups of 4 dogs each. Each group was brushed with a certain frequency, i.e., 7 times, 3 times or once a week. Registrations of plaque index, gingival index and probing depth using a constant force probe were carried out on approximal surfaces. The experiment lasted for 24 weeks. A brushing effect was calculated for each dog to include information on all within-dog and between-dog variations. It was shown in relation to artificially-induced periodontal defects in beagle dogs that after a period of healing, brushing 7 times a week is superior to brushing 3 times a week in establishing and maintaining gingival health.

  5. Effects of live yeast dietary supplementation on nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Stercova, E; Kumprechtova, D; Auclair, E; Novakova, J

    2016-07-01

    The effects of live yeast (strain CNCM I-4407; Actisaf Sc 47; Phileo Lesaffre Animal Care, Marcq-en-Baroeul, France) administration on nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora in dogs were investigated. The study included 24 young beagle dogs. They were allocated in control and live yeast (LY) groups (6 males and 6 females in each). During the Adaptation (d 1 to 28) and Trial (d 29 to 70) periods, the dogs received a standard dry pelleted diet. In the Trial period, the LY dogs were given capsuled Actisaf Sc 47 at 1 g/kg live weight with at 2.9 × 10 cfu/g. The control dogs received empty capsules. Live weight and feed consumption were recorded. Blood samples for complete blood count (CBC) and serum biochemistry (urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase) and fecal samples for pH, microbiology, DM, lactic acid, and ammonia and digestibility evaluation were collected during the Trial period from each dog. The LY dogs had a higher ( < 0.05) weight gain during the Trial period than the control ones. Feed consumption was not adversely affected by LY. The CBC values and urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase were not adversely affected by LY. Live yeast did not significantly influence pH of fresh feces. Fecal lactic acid and ammonia concentrations were not affected. The LY dogs showed lower ( < 0.05) Escherichia coli and fecal enterococci counts in feces than the control ones. Lactic acid bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, and total coliforms did not show any significant differences between the treatments. The LY dogs showed a higher ( < 0.05) apparent digestibility of NDF. Digestibilities of DM, ash, crude fiber, CP, and fat were not influenced. PMID:27482677

  6. [Plasma ibuprofen enantiomers and their pharmacokinetics in Beagle dogs determined by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-yan; Kong, Ai-ying; Yang, Bo; Yan, Liang-ping; Di, Xin

    2015-12-01

    A chiral high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of ibuprofen enantiomers in dog plasma. It was used to study the pharmacokinetics in the Beagle dog after intravenous administration of racemic-ibuprofen, S-ibuprofen and R-ibuprofen. Ketoprofen was chosen as the internal standard. After a simple precipitation using methanol as the precipitating solvent, both analytes and IS were separated on a Kromasil 100-5CHI-TBB chiral column (250 mm x4.6 mm, 5 μm) with isocratic elution using acetonitrile - 20 mmol x L(-1) phosphate buffer (pH 3.0, containing 5% methanol) (6 : 4) as the mobile phase. The detection wavelength was 220 nm. Liner calibration curves for both of the ibuprofen enantiomers were over the concentration range from 0.5 to 50 μg x mL(-1) with a lower limit of quantification of 0.5 μg x mL(-1), the accuracies were all in standard ranges. The intra- and inter- assay precisions were all below 7%. The recovery rate was 93.1% to 100.4%. The experiments proved that the method was simple, rapid and sensitive. It can be used in the quantitative determination of ibuprofen enantiomers in dog plasma. The method was used to determine the concentration of ibuprofen enantiomers in Beagle dog plasma after a single intravenous administration of racemic-ibuprofen, S-ibuprofen and R-ibuprofen (9 mg x kg(-1)) and the pharmacokinetics parameters were calculated based on the concentration-time curves. The C(max) of S-ibuprofen in Beagle dog plasma after a single intravenous administration of racemic-ibuprofen, S-ibuprofen and R-ibuprofen were 30.8 ± 4.7, 46.1 ± 5.9 and 20.0 ± 2.6 μg x mL(-1), respectively. In terms of the exposure of active ingredient, it revealed a significant difference between the administration of S-ibuprofen and the other two groups. The systematical R- to S- chiral inversion was discussed. Comparing the pharmacokinetic parameters at different doses, chiral inversion were 70.1% ± 36.6% and 76

  7. [Plasma ibuprofen enantiomers and their pharmacokinetics in Beagle dogs determined by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-yan; Kong, Ai-ying; Yang, Bo; Yan, Liang-ping; Di, Xin

    2015-12-01

    A chiral high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of ibuprofen enantiomers in dog plasma. It was used to study the pharmacokinetics in the Beagle dog after intravenous administration of racemic-ibuprofen, S-ibuprofen and R-ibuprofen. Ketoprofen was chosen as the internal standard. After a simple precipitation using methanol as the precipitating solvent, both analytes and IS were separated on a Kromasil 100-5CHI-TBB chiral column (250 mm x4.6 mm, 5 μm) with isocratic elution using acetonitrile - 20 mmol x L(-1) phosphate buffer (pH 3.0, containing 5% methanol) (6 : 4) as the mobile phase. The detection wavelength was 220 nm. Liner calibration curves for both of the ibuprofen enantiomers were over the concentration range from 0.5 to 50 μg x mL(-1) with a lower limit of quantification of 0.5 μg x mL(-1), the accuracies were all in standard ranges. The intra- and inter- assay precisions were all below 7%. The recovery rate was 93.1% to 100.4%. The experiments proved that the method was simple, rapid and sensitive. It can be used in the quantitative determination of ibuprofen enantiomers in dog plasma. The method was used to determine the concentration of ibuprofen enantiomers in Beagle dog plasma after a single intravenous administration of racemic-ibuprofen, S-ibuprofen and R-ibuprofen (9 mg x kg(-1)) and the pharmacokinetics parameters were calculated based on the concentration-time curves. The C(max) of S-ibuprofen in Beagle dog plasma after a single intravenous administration of racemic-ibuprofen, S-ibuprofen and R-ibuprofen were 30.8 ± 4.7, 46.1 ± 5.9 and 20.0 ± 2.6 μg x mL(-1), respectively. In terms of the exposure of active ingredient, it revealed a significant difference between the administration of S-ibuprofen and the other two groups. The systematical R- to S- chiral inversion was discussed. Comparing the pharmacokinetic parameters at different doses, chiral inversion were 70.1% ± 36.6% and 76

  8. Oral administration of adrafinil improves discrimination learning in aged beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Milgram, N W; Siwak, C T; Gruet, P; Atkinson, P; Woehrlé, F; Callahan, H

    2000-06-01

    Aged beagle dogs were trained on either a size or intensity discrimination task 2 h following treatment with either 20 mg/kg of adrafinil or a placebo control. Training continued until the dogs reached a predetermined criterion level of performance, or failed to acquire the task after 40 sessions. The treatments and tasks were then reversed, with both the test order and treatment order counterbalanced. Thus, half of the animals were first tested on the intensity discrimination, and half of these were first tested under adrafinil. Treatment with adrafinil produced significant improvement in learning, as indicated by a decrease in both errors and trials to criterion. An effect of adrafinil on motivation may partially account for these findings; however, adrafinil did not significantly affect response latency. Adrafinil is believed to serve as an alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonist. The improved learning may also result from enhancement of vigilance due to facilitation of noradrenergic transmission in the central nervous system. PMID:10880682

  9. Biological effects of {sup 137}CsCl injected in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Nikula, K.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C.

    1995-06-01

    The toxicity of intravenously administered {sup 137}CsCl in the beagle dog was investigated as part of a program to evaluate the biological effects of internally deposited fission-product radionuclides. The intravenous route of exposure was chosen for simplicity and accuracy because it was known that after intravenous injection, inhalation or ingestion, internally deposited {sup 137}CsCl is rapidly absorbed and distributed throughout the body, exposing the whole body to {beta}-particle and {gamma} radiations. Fifty-four dogs were injected intravenously with {sup 137}Cs to provide one group of six dogs with mean initial body burdens of 141 MBq {sup 137}Cs/kg body mass and four groups of 12 dogs each with mean initial body burdens of 104, 72, 52 and 36 MBq {sup 137}Cs/kg. Twelve dogs were injected with isotonic saline as study controls. Because the number of study controls dogs was small, data from an additional 49 control dogs from other studies at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute that were performed over a similar span of years were also used. There was a significant, dose-dependent decrease in survival of the {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs. Eleven {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs, including all six in the highest initial body burden group, died within 81 days after injection, primarily due to hematopoietic cell damage resulting in severe pancytopenia. An additional 25 dogs had transient hematological dyscrasia but survived for long times. All {sup 137}Cs-injected male dogs had marked damage to the germinal epithelium of the testicular seminiferous tubules with azoospermia in the long-term survivors. benign and malignant neoplasms occurred in a variety of organs in {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs, rather than in a single target organ. When individual organs were considered, the incidence of malignant neoplasms was increased in the liver and in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of the {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs. 34 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Development of novel bepotastine salicylate salt bioequivalent to the commercial bepotastine besilate in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kwan Hyung; Choi, Han-Gon

    2013-06-01

    To develop a novel salt form of bepotastine with bioequivalent to the commericial bepostastine besilate, bepostastine salicylate was prepared and its physicochemical properties were investigated. Furthermore, the bepotastine salicylate-loaded tablet was prepared by the wet granulation method, and the dissolution and bioavailability in beagle dogs were evaluated compared to the bepotastine besilate-loaded commercial product. Bepotastine salicylate improved the solubility of bepotastine, and the extent of solubility improvement by salicylate form was similar to that by besilate form. However, this novel salt exhibited negligible hygroscopicity similar to besilate form, and showed slightly higher melting point than besilate form. It was stable in various pH solutions. Furthermore, the bepotastine salicylate-loaded tablet composed of bepotastine salicylate, microcrystalline cellulose, D-mannitol, povidone, sodium starch glycolate and sodium stearyl fumarate at the weight ratio of 9.63/60.97/38/3.6/6/1.8 showed similar dissolution to the bepotastine besilate-loaded commercial product in water, pH 1.2, pH 4.0 and pH 6.8 and was bioequivalent to the commercial product in beagle dogs. Thus, this bepotastine salicylate-loaded tablet would be a promising candidate with bioequivalence to the bepotastine besilate-loaded commercial product.

  11. Preparation and pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs of ganershu sustained-release pellets

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jin-huo; Wang, Jian-chun; Jiang, Zhi-tao; Zhang, Ting; Ge, Shao-bo; Zhang, Ye-xia; Jin, Xin; Yan, Guo-jun

    2014-01-01

    Background: The active ingredients of Ganershu compound recipe, which are effective for hepatitis treatment in liver protection and transaminase reduction. However, the active ingredients of Ganershu compound recipe are poor absorption, which conduct it has a low oral bioavailability. Objective: We prepared Ganershu sustained-release pellets (GSPs) by fluidized-bed on central composite design-response surface methodology and increase its bioavailability in beagle dogs. Materials and Methods: In this study, GSPs were successfully prepared. The Drug-loaded pellets and sustained-release coated were carried out in fluidized-bed machine. GSP was optimized for fitting release, roundness, and the overall desirability by central composite design-response surface methodology. Results: To optimize cumulative release profile, the outermost ethyl cellulose coating layer and the hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) swelling layer were employed, which were respectively given coating levels in terms of weight gain of 22% and 6%, the concentration of HPMC is 4.5% (g/ml). The pharmacokinetics of Ganershu normal pellets (GNPs) and GSP was studied in beagle dogs after oral administration. The naringenin as an index, the area under the curve0-∞ of naringenin in GSP was 1.38 times greater than that of GNP. Meanwhile, Tmax of GSP was prolonged for about 74%. Conclusion: This study can clearly indicate that we enhanced the oral bioavailability of Ganershu by preparing the GSP, which had the sustained dissolution and improved the potential of it for clinical application. PMID:25210307

  12. Bilateral Ovotestes in a 78, XX SRY-Negative Beagle Dog.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gutiérrez, José F; Monteagudo, Luís V; Rodríguez-Bertos, Antonio; García-Pérez, Enrique; Sánchez-Calabuig, María J; García-Botey, Concepción; Whyte, Ana; de la Muela, Mercedes Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a disorder of the sexual development in a beagle dog resulting in an intersex condition. A 6 mo old beagle was presented for evaluation of a protruding structure from the vulva consistent with an enlarged clitoris. Ultrasonographic examination revealed the presence of both gonadal and uterine structures. Retrograde cystourethrovaginogram showed the presence of an os clitoris and severe vaginal stenosis. Histological studies revealed the presence of bilateral ovotestes and uterus. The gonad had interstitial cells within seminiferous-like tubules lined only with Sertoli cells and abundant interstitial cells among primordial, primary, and secondary follicles. Hormone assays completed before and after gonadohysterectomy showed an elevation in the levels of progesterone and dihydrotestosterone that returned to baseline 3 mo after surgery. Testosterone levels that were within the male reference ranges before surgery decreased to basal levels postsurgically. 17-β-Estradiol levels showed little variation and values were always within the reference ranges for a male. Cytogenetic analysis showed a normal female karyotype (2n = 78, XX) and polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed the absence of the sex-determining region Y gene. In summary, the dog presented bilateral ovotestes and a 2n = 78, XX chromosomal complement lacking the sex determining region Y gene, consistent with a diagnosis of true hermaphroditism.

  13. Synthesis of a highly water-soluble acacetin prodrug for treating experimental atrial fibrillation in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Ya-Jing; Yang, Lei; Zhou, Mei; Jin, Man-Wen; Xiao, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Yan; Sun, Hai-Ying; Li, Gui-Rong

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that duodenal administration of the natural flavone acacetin can effectively prevent the induction of experimental atrial fibrillation (AF) in canines; however, it may not be used intravenously to terminate AF due to its poor water-solubility. The present study was to design a water-soluble prodrug of acacetin and investigate its anti-AF effect in beagle dogs. Acacetin prodrug was synthesized by a three-step procedure. Aqueous solubility, bioconversion and anti-AF efficacy of acacetin prodrug were determined with different methodologies. Our results demonstrated that the synthesized phosphate sodium salt of acacetin prodrug had a remarkable increase of aqueous solubility in H2O and clinically acceptable solution (5% glucose or 0.9% NaCl). The acacetin prodrug was effectively converted into acacetin in ex vivo rat plasma and liver microsome, and in vivo beagle dogs. Intravenous infusion of acacetin prodrug (3, 6 and 12 mg/kg) terminated experimental AF without increasing ECG QTc interval in beagle dogs. The intravenous LD50 of acacetin prodrug was 721 mg/kg in mice. Our preclinical study indicates that the synthesized acacetin prodrug is highly water-soluble and safe; it effectively terminates experimental AF in beagle dogs and therefore may be a promising drug candidate for clinical trial to treat patients with acute AF. PMID:27160397

  14. Artificial periodontal defects and frequency of tooth brushing in beagle dogs (I). Clinical findings after creation of the defects.

    PubMed

    Corba, N H; Jansen, J; Fidler, V

    1986-02-01

    This investigation was designed to determine the influence of different frequencies of tooth brushing on artificial periodontal defects in the beagle dog shortly after creation. In 12 beagle dogs, periodontal defects were created using elastic bands placed in the sulci below the gingival margin after having cut the dento-gingival fibres to the level of the alveolar bone. This active phase of creating defects lasted for 6 weeks. 6 premolars in the lower jaw were used (2P2, 3P3, 4P4). After removal of the elastic bands, the 12 dogs were distributed into 3 groups of 4 dogs each. Each group was brushed with a certain frequency, i.e., 7 times, 3 times or once a week. Plaque index, gingival index and probing depth, using a constant force probe, were assessed interproximally. The experiment lasted for 24 weeks. For hypothesis testing, a brushing effect was calculated for each dog. Furthermore, an analysis was performed based on the absolute scores at week 24. From the statistical analysis, it was concluded that in artificially-induced periodontal defects in beagle dogs immediately after creation, brushing 7 times a week is superior to brushing 3 times a week to establish and maintain gingival health.

  15. Osteosarcoma development following single inhalation exposure to americium-241 in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Gillett, N.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Muggenberg, B.A.

    1985-10-01

    Young, mature Beagle dogs underwent single inhalation exposure to respirable aerosols of SU AmO2 to determine the radiation dose distribution to tissues. The dogs were serially sacrificed to assess the clearance of SU Am from the lung, the rate of translocation to internal organs, the pattern of retention in the organs, and the rates and modes of excretion. Americium dioxide was relatively soluble in the lung, leading to the translocation of significant quantities of SU Am to bone and liver, thus delivering radiation doses to these tissues nearly equal to that received by the lung. Osteoblastic osteosarcomas developed in four dogs surviving more than 1000 days after exposure. Histologically, all of the osteosarcomas were associated with areas of radiation osteodystrophy characterized by bone infarction, peritrabecular new bone formation, marrow fibrosis, and microresorptive cavities. The retention and translocation of inhaled SU Am in dogs is similar to that of man, indicating that 241Am inhaled by humans may potentially result in significant risk of bone tumor development.

  16. Quantification of brown dog tick repellents, 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde, and release from tick-resistant beagles, Canis lupus familiaris.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Filho, Jaires Gomes; Sarria, André Lucio Franceschini; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Caulfield, John C; Powers, Stephen J; Pickett, John A; de León, Adalberto A Pérez; Birkett, Michael A; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    We have recently shown that repellency of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato by the tick resistant dog breed, the beagle, is mediated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde present in beagle odour. Ectoparasite location of animal hosts is affected by variation in these odour components and their ratios. The aim of this study was to quantify the release rate, and the ratio, of 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde from beagles. The odour of three beagles was collected, for four days, over one week (day 0, day 1, day 4 and day 7). The compounds were identified using coupled high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and authentic standards of compounds were used to generate external calibration curves for quantification. Both compounds were found in all dogs on all days. The amount of benzaldehyde was always higher than that of 2-hexanone and so their ratio varied from unity, on average (over time) being 3.128±0.365, 1.902±0.390, 1.670±0.671ngmL(-1) for beagle 1, 2 and 3, respectively. There was no significant (p<0.05, F-test) effect of time. The overall mean was 2.233±0.387ngmL(-1). These results further previous findings by documenting the presence of 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde in beagle odour samples covering a 7-day period. This knowledge enables development of repellents to protect dogs from R. sanguineus s. l. infestation.

  17. Quantification of brown dog tick repellents, 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde, and release from tick-resistant beagles, Canis lupus familiaris.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Filho, Jaires Gomes; Sarria, André Lucio Franceschini; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Caulfield, John C; Powers, Stephen J; Pickett, John A; de León, Adalberto A Pérez; Birkett, Michael A; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    We have recently shown that repellency of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato by the tick resistant dog breed, the beagle, is mediated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde present in beagle odour. Ectoparasite location of animal hosts is affected by variation in these odour components and their ratios. The aim of this study was to quantify the release rate, and the ratio, of 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde from beagles. The odour of three beagles was collected, for four days, over one week (day 0, day 1, day 4 and day 7). The compounds were identified using coupled high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and authentic standards of compounds were used to generate external calibration curves for quantification. Both compounds were found in all dogs on all days. The amount of benzaldehyde was always higher than that of 2-hexanone and so their ratio varied from unity, on average (over time) being 3.128±0.365, 1.902±0.390, 1.670±0.671ngmL(-1) for beagle 1, 2 and 3, respectively. There was no significant (p<0.05, F-test) effect of time. The overall mean was 2.233±0.387ngmL(-1). These results further previous findings by documenting the presence of 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde in beagle odour samples covering a 7-day period. This knowledge enables development of repellents to protect dogs from R. sanguineus s. l. infestation. PMID:27085013

  18. Dog-appeasing pheromone collars reduce sound-induced fear and anxiety in beagle dogs: a placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Landsberg, G M; Beck, A; Lopez, A; Deniaud, M; Araujo, J A; Milgram, N W

    2015-09-12

    The objective of the study was to assess the effects of a dog-appeasing pheromone (DAP) collar in reducing sound-induced fear and anxiety in a laboratory model of thunderstorm simulation. Twenty-four beagle dogs naïve to the current test were divided into two treatment groups (DAP and placebo) balanced on their fear score in response to a thunderstorm recording. Each group was then exposed to two additional thunderstorm simulation tests on consecutive days. Dogs were video-assessed by a trained observer on a 6-point scale for active, passive and global fear and anxiety (combined). Both global and active fear and anxiety scores were significantly improved during and following thunder compared with placebo on both test days. DAP significantly decreased global fear and anxiety across 'during' and 'post' thunder times when compared with baseline. There was no significant improvement in the placebo group from baseline on the test days. In addition, the DAP group showed significantly greater use of the hide box at any time with increased exposure compared with the placebo group. The DAP collar reduced the scores of fear and anxiety, and increased hide use in response to a thunder recording, possibly by counteracting noise-related increased reactivity. PMID:26311736

  19. Dog-appeasing pheromone collars reduce sound-induced fear and anxiety in beagle dogs: a placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Landsberg, G. M.; Beck, A.; Lopez, A.; Deniaud, M.; Araujo, J. A.; Milgram, N. W.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the effects of a dog-appeasing pheromone (DAP) collar in reducing sound-induced fear and anxiety in a laboratory model of thunderstorm simulation. Twenty-four beagle dogs naïve to the current test were divided into two treatment groups (DAP and placebo) balanced on their fear score in response to a thunderstorm recording. Each group was then exposed to two additional thunderstorm simulation tests on consecutive days. Dogs were video-assessed by a trained observer on a 6-point scale for active, passive and global fear and anxiety (combined). Both global and active fear and anxiety scores were significantly improved during and following thunder compared with placebo on both test days. DAP significantly decreased global fear and anxiety across ‘during’ and ‘post’ thunder times when compared with baseline. There was no significant improvement in the placebo group from baseline on the test days. In addition, the DAP group showed significantly greater use of the hide box at any time with increased exposure compared with the placebo group. The DAP collar reduced the scores of fear and anxiety, and increased hide use in response to a thunder recording, possibly by counteracting noise-related increased reactivity. PMID:26311736

  20. Dog-appeasing pheromone collars reduce sound-induced fear and anxiety in beagle dogs: a placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Landsberg, G M; Beck, A; Lopez, A; Deniaud, M; Araujo, J A; Milgram, N W

    2015-09-12

    The objective of the study was to assess the effects of a dog-appeasing pheromone (DAP) collar in reducing sound-induced fear and anxiety in a laboratory model of thunderstorm simulation. Twenty-four beagle dogs naïve to the current test were divided into two treatment groups (DAP and placebo) balanced on their fear score in response to a thunderstorm recording. Each group was then exposed to two additional thunderstorm simulation tests on consecutive days. Dogs were video-assessed by a trained observer on a 6-point scale for active, passive and global fear and anxiety (combined). Both global and active fear and anxiety scores were significantly improved during and following thunder compared with placebo on both test days. DAP significantly decreased global fear and anxiety across 'during' and 'post' thunder times when compared with baseline. There was no significant improvement in the placebo group from baseline on the test days. In addition, the DAP group showed significantly greater use of the hide box at any time with increased exposure compared with the placebo group. The DAP collar reduced the scores of fear and anxiety, and increased hide use in response to a thunder recording, possibly by counteracting noise-related increased reactivity.

  1. Uranium skeletal dosimetry and distribution in young adult beagles: A guide for calculating uranium skeletal doses in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Miller, S.C.

    1996-03-01

    Uranium isotopes were given via single intravenous injection into 22 young adult beagle dogs of both sexes to determine the metabolism of this element. Animals were given either {sup 232}U, {sup 233}U, {sup 238}U, or a combination of {sup 232+233}U. Calculations to assign a value of skeletal dose for each dog were performed using published radioactive properties of each uranium isotope and the metabolic data (including measured retention and skeletal distribution) derived from this study during a period of up to 2 y after injection. We believe that the procedures illustrated in this communication can serve as a useful pattern for estimating skeletal radiation doses to humans contaminated with {sup 232}U, {sup 233}U, or {sup 238}U. 13 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Contrast enhanced ultrasonography of kidney in conscious and anesthetized beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    CHOI, Soo-Young; JEONG, Woo-Chang; LEE, Young-Won; CHOI, Ho-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is useful to evaluate tissue perfusion in the kidney. In veterinary medicine, sedation or anesthesia may be required in uncooperative or panting patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the normal kidney perfusion patterns in conscious and anesthetized dogs using CEUS. Eight healthy beagles were used in this study. Scanning was performed in conscious dogs using manual restraint (conscious group), or under general anesthesia using tiletamine-zolazepam and medetomidine (TZM group) or medetomidine (M group). The contrast agent (Sonovue®) was administered as an IV bolus. The peak intensity (PI), time to peak enhancement from injection (TTP0) and the time to peak enhancement from the initial rise (TTPup), upslope, downslope and area under the curve (AUC) were analyzed. Compared to the cortical values in the conscious group, TTP0 was significantly delayed in the TZM group, and upslope, TTP0 and TTPup were significantly different in the M group. The AUCs in the TZM and M groups were not different from those in the conscious group. The upslope of renal medullary perfusion was significantly decreased in the TZM and M groups. TTP0 and TTPup were also significantly delayed in these groups. The AUC of the medulla was significantly decreased in the M group. Therefore, TZM is useful as an anesthetic protocol when performing CEUS, and the obtained data may serve as reference values in the evaluation of renal perfusion using CEUS in dogs under anesthesia. PMID:26412201

  3. Omental leiomyosarcoma with unusual giant cells in a Beagle dog - Short communication.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Jun; Toyoshima, Megumi; Okamura, Yasuhiko; Goryo, Masanobu

    2016-06-01

    A 10-year-old castrated male Beagle dog was presented with a 2-month history of intermittent vomiting and abdominal pain. The dog was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Iwate University for further evaluation, and a splenic tumour was suspected on the basis of ultrasonography and computed tomography. Surgery identified a large, solid, light-pink mass on the greater omentum with blood-coloured ascites in the abdominal cavity, and resection was performed. Microscopically, the mass comprised spindle-shaped tumour cells and scattered osteoclast-like giant cells. Most spindle-shaped cells were positive for vimentin, desmin, and smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), whereas osteoclast-like giant cells were positive only for vimentin. On the basis of histopathological and immunohistochemical findings, a diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma was made. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first report of leiomyosarcoma associated with osteoclast-like giant cells developing from the greater omentum in a dog. PMID:27342093

  4. Lifetime tumor risk coefficients for beagle dogs that inhaled cerium-144 chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.

    1995-12-01

    Reported here is one of the life-span radionuclide toxicology studies being conducted at ITRI in Beagle dogs. These studies are examining the life-span health risks of inhaled {Beta}-, {gamma}- and {alpha}-emitting radionuclides to expand available knowledge on these risks especially for the many cases for which human data are not available. The outcomes of these studies are providing important information on dosimetry and dose-response relationships for these inhaled radionuclides and the relative importance of a broad range of dose- and effect-modifying factors. A number of these studies are currently coming to completion. Much of the ITRI effort is being directed to final reviews of the dosimetric, clinical, and pathologic results and writing summary manuscripts. Radiation doses and effects in tissues adjacent to bone, specifically those of epithelial or marrow origin, should be considered when determining risks from internally deposited, bone-seeking radionuclides such as {sup 144}Ce.

  5. Bioavailability of water-soluble CoQ10 in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Prosek, Mirko; Butinar, Janos; Lukanc, Barbara; Fir, Maja Milivojevic; Milivojevic, Luka; Krizman, Mitja; Smidovnik, Andrej

    2008-08-01

    The bioavailability of a novel water-soluble inclusion complex of CoQ10, prepared in our laboratory was determined and compared with the bioavailability of commercially available oil-based form of CoQ10. Experimental work consisted of single dose comparative bioavailability study on seven beagle dogs, with a 14-day washout period between treatments. Identification and quantification of CoQ10 was done with HPLC-MS method using positive APCI ionization and SIM mode, M+ m/z 863.4. The bioavailability results confirm that the water-soluble formulation has nearly three times higher AUC(0-48 h), two times higher Cmax, and Tmax is shortened from 6 to 4 h. PMID:18495407

  6. Study on toxicity of danshensu in beagle dogs after 3-month continuous intravenous infusion.

    PubMed

    Li, Guisheng; Gao, Yonglin; Li, Shenjun; Li, Chunmei; Zhu, Xiaoyin; Li, Min; Liu, Zhifeng

    2009-09-01

    Danshensu (3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) lactic acid), a natural phenolic acid, is isolated from root of Salvia miltiorrhiza, and is widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of various cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, toxicity of danshensu was evaluated in male and female dogs after 3-month continuous intravenous infusion. Beagle dogs were treated with danshensu at doses of 17, 50, and 150 mg/kg/day, and observed for 90 days followed by recovery periods. Measurements included clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, temperature, electro-cardiography (EGC), hematology, blood chemistry, urinalysis, gross necropsy, organ weight, and histopathology. No significant adverse effects on these parameters were observed. The only treatment-related finding was a hard knot at injection site observed in the 150 mg/kg group after 2-3 weeks continuous administration, and returned to normal after 3-4 days withdrawal. From these results, it might be concluded that danshensu did not produce any significant cumulative toxicity at the doses administered, as reflected by the various parameters investigated. PMID:19778246

  7. Neurohormonal and metabolic effects of medetomidine compared with xylazine in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Ambrisko, T. D.; Hikasa, Y.

    2002-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate and compare the effects of medetomidine and xylazine on the blood level of some stress-related neurohormonal and metabolic variables in clinically normal dogs, especially focusing on time and dose relations of the effects. A total of 9 beagle dogs were used for 9 groups, which were treated with physiological saline solution (control), 10, 20, 40, and 80 μg/kg medetomidine, and 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg xylazine, intramuscularly. Blood samples were taken at 10 times during 24 h from a central venous catheter. Plasma norepinephrine, epinephrine, cortisol, glucose, insulin, glucagon, and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations were determined. Both medetomidine and xylazine similarly and dose-dependently inhibited norepinephrine release and lipolysis. Medetomidine suppressed epinephrine release dose-dependently with greater potency than xylazine. Xylazine also tended to decrease epinephrine levels dose-dependently. The cortisol and glucagon levels did not change significantly in any treatment group. Both drugs suppressed insulin secretion with similar potency. Both medetomidine and xylazine increased glucose levels. The hyperglycemic effect of medetomidine, in contrast with xylazine, was not dose-dependent at the tested dosages. The results suggested that the effect of medetomidine on glucose metabolism may not be due only to α2-adrenoceptor-mediated actions. PMID:11858648

  8. Investigation of bone formation using calcium phosphate glass cement in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Bum; Jung, Ui-Won; Choi, Youna; Jamiyandorj, Otgonbold; Kim, Chang-Sung; Lee, Yong-Keun; Chai, Jung-Kiu

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Among available biomaterials, bioceramics have drawn special interest due to their bioactivity and the possibility of tailoring their composition. The degradation rate and formulation of bioceramics can be altered to mimic the compositions of the mineral phase of bone. The aim of this study was to investigate the bone formation effect of amorphous calcium phosphate glass cement (CPGC) synthesized by a melting and quenching process. Methods In five male beagle dogs, 4 × 4 mm 1-wall intrabony defects were created bilaterally at the mesial or distal aspect of the mandibular second and fourth premolars. Each of the four defects was divided according to graft materials: CPGC with collagen membrane (CM), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with CM, CM alone, or a surgical flap operation only. The dogs were sacrificed 8 weeks post-surgery, and block sections of the defects were collected for histologic and histometric analysis. Results There were significant differences in bone formation and cementum regeneration between the experimental and control groups. In particular, the CPGC and BCP groups showed greater bone formation than the CM and control groups. Conclusions In conclusion, CPGC was replaced rapidly with an abundant volume of new bone; CPGC also contributed slightly to regeneration of the periodontal apparatus. PMID:20607057

  9. Histological response of soda-lime glass-ceramic bactericidal rods implanted in the jaws of beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Moya, José S; Martínez, Arturo; López-Píriz, Roberto; Guitián, Francisco; Díaz, Luis A; Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Cabal, Belén; Sket, Federico; Fernández-García, Elisa; Tomsia, Antoni P; Torrecillas, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal infections remain a major clinical challenge. Implant infections very often require complicated revision procedures that are troublesome to patients and costly to the healthcare system. Innovative approaches to tackle infections are urgently needed. We investigated the histological response of novel free P2O5 glass-ceramic rods implanted in the jaws of beagle dogs. Due to the particular percolated morphology of this glass-ceramic, the dissolution of the rods in the animal body environment and the immature bone formation during the fourth months of implantation maintained the integrity of the glass-ceramic rod. No clinical signs of inflammation took place in any of the beagle dogs during the four months of implantation. This new glass-ceramic biomaterial with inherent bactericidal and fungicidal properties can be considered as an appealing candidate for bone tissue engineering. PMID:27515388

  10. Histological response of soda-lime glass-ceramic bactericidal rods implanted in the jaws of beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Moya, José S.; Martínez, Arturo; López-Píriz, Roberto; Guitián, Francisco; Díaz, Luis A.; Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Cabal, Belén; Sket, Federico; Fernández-García, Elisa; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Torrecillas, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal infections remain a major clinical challenge. Implant infections very often require complicated revision procedures that are troublesome to patients and costly to the healthcare system. Innovative approaches to tackle infections are urgently needed. We investigated the histological response of novel free P2O5 glass-ceramic rods implanted in the jaws of beagle dogs. Due to the particular percolated morphology of this glass-ceramic, the dissolution of the rods in the animal body environment and the immature bone formation during the fourth months of implantation maintained the integrity of the glass-ceramic rod. No clinical signs of inflammation took place in any of the beagle dogs during the four months of implantation. This new glass-ceramic biomaterial with inherent bactericidal and fungicidal properties can be considered as an appealing candidate for bone tissue engineering. PMID:27515388

  11. Stochastic resonance is applied to quantitative analysis for weak chromatographic signal of roxithromycin in beagle dog plasma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Xiang, Bingren; Wu, Yanwei; Shang, Erxin

    2006-02-01

    Based on the theory of stochastic resonance, the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of HPLC/UV chromatographic signal of roxithromycin is enhanced by cooperation of signal, noise and nonlinear system. A simple new method for the determination of low concentration of roxithromycin in beagle dog plasma is presented. Using signal enhancement by stochastic resonance, this method extends the limit of quantitation from the reported 0.5 to 0.1 microg/ml. During validation of the new method, HPLC/MS was used as a comparison technique. The results indicate that the recovery and low concentrations of roxithromycin in beagle dog plasma were equivalent between the two methods (P>0.05). Stochastic resonance may be a promising tool for improving detection limits in trace analysis.

  12. Histological response of soda-lime glass-ceramic bactericidal rods implanted in the jaws of beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Moya, José S; Martínez, Arturo; López-Píriz, Roberto; Guitián, Francisco; Díaz, Luis A; Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Cabal, Belén; Sket, Federico; Fernández-García, Elisa; Tomsia, Antoni P; Torrecillas, Ramón

    2016-08-12

    Bacterial and fungal infections remain a major clinical challenge. Implant infections very often require complicated revision procedures that are troublesome to patients and costly to the healthcare system. Innovative approaches to tackle infections are urgently needed. We investigated the histological response of novel free P2O5 glass-ceramic rods implanted in the jaws of beagle dogs. Due to the particular percolated morphology of this glass-ceramic, the dissolution of the rods in the animal body environment and the immature bone formation during the fourth months of implantation maintained the integrity of the glass-ceramic rod. No clinical signs of inflammation took place in any of the beagle dogs during the four months of implantation. This new glass-ceramic biomaterial with inherent bactericidal and fungicidal properties can be considered as an appealing candidate for bone tissue engineering.

  13. Novel phenotype in beagle dogs characterized by skin response to compound 48/80 focusing on skin mast cell degranulation.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Mitsuhiro; Ito, Fumi; Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki; Shoji, Yoko; Kurosawa, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Beagle dogs have long been employed in toxicology studies and as skin disease models. Compared with other experimental animal species, they are known to be susceptible to skin responses, such as rashes, from exposure to various chemical compounds. Here, a unique dog phenotype was identified that showed no skin response to compound 48/80, a mast cell degranulating agent. Although the skin responses to intradermal injection of polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative (HCO-60, a nonionic detergent), histamine dihydrochloride, concanavalin A (IgE receptor-mediated stimuli), or calcium ionophore A23187 were comparable in wild-type (WT) dogs and these nonresponder (NR) dogs, only the response to compound 48/80 was entirely absent from NR dogs. The skin mast cell density and histamine content per mast cell were histologically comparable between WT and NR dogs. By checking for skin responses to compound 48/80, NR dogs were found to exist at the proportion of 17-20% among four animal breeders. From retrospective analysis of in-house breeding histories, the NR phenotype appears to conform to the Mendelian pattern of recessive inheritance. The standard skin response in WT dogs developed at 2-4 months of age. In conclusion, this unique phenotype, typified by insensitivity in the compound 48/80-induced degranulation pathway in mast cells, has been widely retained by recessive inheritance in beagle dogs among general experimental animal breeders. The knowledge concerning this phenotype could lead to better utilization of dogs in studies and aid in model development. PMID:26062768

  14. Increased type 1 chemokine expression in experimental Chagas disease correlates with cardiac pathology in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Paulo M M; Veloso, Vanja M; Talvani, André; Diniz, Livia F; Caldas, Ivo S; Do-Valle-Matta, Maria A; Santiago-Silva, Juliana; Chiari, Egler; Galvão, Lucia M C; Silva, João S; Bahia, Maria T

    2010-11-15

    Chemokines and chemokine receptors interaction have presented important role in leukocyte migration to specific immune reaction sites. Recently, it has been reported that chemokine receptors CXC (CXCR3) and CC (CCR5) were preferentially expressed on Th1 cells while CCR3 and CCR4 were preferentially expressed on Th2 cells. This study evaluated the mRNA expression of type 1 and type 2 chemokine and chemokine receptors in the cardiac tissue of Beagle dogs infected with distinct genetic groups of Trypanosoma cruzi (Y, Berenice-78 and ABC strains) during acute and chronic phases. To analyze the correlation between chemokine and chemokine receptors expression and the development of heart pathology, the chronic infected animals were divided into groups, according to the parasite strain and based on the degree of heart damage: cardiac and indeterminate form of Chagas disease. Our results indicated that cardiac type1/2 chemokines and their receptors were partially dependent on the genetic diversity of parasites as well as the polarization of clinical forms. Also, dogs presenting cardiac form showed lower heart tissue mRNA expression of CCL24 (type 2) and higher expression of CCL5, CCL4 and CXCR3 (type 1) when compared with those with indeterminate form of disease. Together, these data reinforce a close-relation between T. cruzi genetic population and the host specific type 1 immune response and, for the first time, we show the distribution of type 1/2 chemokines associated with the development of cardiac pathology using dogs, a well similar model to study human Chagas disease.

  15. The impact of weight loss on circulating cytokines in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Bastien, Berenice C; Patil, Avinash; Satyaraj, Ebenezer

    2015-02-15

    Chronic low-grade inflammation in obesity is characterized by an increased production of pro-inflammatory and chemotactic cytokines that are contributing to insulin resistance and related co-morbidities. Cytokines act in networks and exhibit pleiotropic effects so we investigated the circulating levels of a wide array of cytokines (pro and anti-inflammatory, chemotactic and growth factors) in a canine model of weight loss. The dogs served as their own control in order to study the impact of weight loss independent of potential confounding factors, such as history of excess weight or gender. While low-grade inflammation had been previously investigated in obese dogs by measuring changes in adipokines, acute phase proteins and key pro-inflammatory cytokines, to the best of our knowledge this is the first study to evaluate how weight loss impacts a wide array of circulating cytokines. Eighteen overweight Beagle dogs were recruited (six spayed females and 12 neutered males), and none of them were grossly obese according to the body condition score (BCS). All the dogs reached an ideal weight by the end of the program. Parameters were assessed before (baseline), at mid-point (month 3) and at end-point (month 6). Plasma GM-CSF, IL-2, Il-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-18, IFNγ, IP-10, TNFα, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), keratinocyte chemokine (KC) were measured with canine multiplex immunoassays. Fat mass was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorption (DEXA). Several cytokines decreased throughout the weight loss program (p<0.01) and were correlated with the percentage of fat measured by DEXA (p<0.05): chemotactic (MCP-1), growth factors (GM-CSF, IL-7 and IL-2), and pro-inflammatory (KC and IL-18). We could not show trends for several cytokines, possibly because their level may be lower than the assay sensitivity: anti-inflammatory (IL-4 and IL-10), and pro-inflammatory (IL-6 and TNFα). In conclusion, while our findings for several pro-inflammatory and

  16. Impact of release characteristics of sinomenine hydrochloride dosage forms on its pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jin; Shi, Jie-Ming; Zhang, Tian-Hong; Gao, Kun; Mao, Jing-Jing; Li, Bing; Sun, Ying-Hua; He, Zhong-Gui

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of release behavior of sustained-release dosage forms of sinomenine hydrochloride (SM•HCl) on its pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs. METHODS: The in vitro release behavior of two SM•HCl dosage forms, including commercial 12-h sustained-release tablets and 24-h sustained-release pellets prepared in our laboratory, was examined. The two dosage forms were orally administrated to beagle dogs, and then the in vivo SM•HCl pharmacokinetics was investigated and compared. RESULTS: The optimal SM•HCl sustained-release formulation was achieved by mixing slow- and rapid-release pellets (9:1, w/w). The SM•HCl release profiles of the sustained-release pellets were scarcely influenced by the pH of the dissolution medium. Release from the 12-h sustained-release tablets was markedly quicker than that from the 24-h sustained-release pellets, the cumulative release up to 12-h was 99.9% vs 68.7%. From a pharmacokinetic standpoint, the 24-h SM•HCl sustained-release pellets had longer tmax and lower Cmax compared to the 12-h sustained-release tablets, the tmax being 2.67×0.52 h vs 9.83×0.98 h and the Cmax being 1 334.45±368.76 ng/mL vs 893.12±292.55 ng/mL, respectively. However, the AUC0-tn of two SM•HCl dosage forms was comparable and both preparations were statistically bioequivalent. Furthermore, the two preparations had good correlations between SM•HCl percentage absorption in vivo and the cumulative percentage release in vitro. CONCLUSION: The in vitro release properties of the dosage forms strongly affect their pharmacokinetic behavior in vivo. Therefore, managing the in vitro release behavior of dosage forms is a promising strategy for obtaining the optimal in vivo pharmacokinetic characteristics and safe therapeutic drug concentration-time curves. PMID:16052686

  17. An evaluation of the safety of cefuroxime axetil during six months oral administration to beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Spurling, N W; Harcourt, R A; Hyde, J J

    1986-11-01

    The effects of repeated oral administration of cefuroxime axetil were assessed in Beagles. The test material, an ester, is hydrolysed following absorption from the intestine to yield the therapeutically active moiety, cefuroxime, together with acetic acid and acetaldehyde; in this study cefuroxime and unhydrolyzed cefuroxime axetil were detected in the blood. Cefuroxime axetil was administered twice daily during 27 weeks by gavage of aqueous, suspensions, total daily doses were equivalent to 100, 400 or 1600 mg cefuroxime/kg/day. Apart from three cases of intercurrent illness, unrelated to treatment, the dogs remained in good health. Effects observed in the 1600 mg/kg group included vomiting and slight suppression of body weight gain. Minor variations in haematological measurements included rather low haemoglobin levels, packed cell volumes and erythrocyte counts. Slightly smaller numbers of neutrophils were thought to reflect reduced demand on normal defensive mechanisms due to continued antibiotic treatment. Prolongation of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time is attributed to disturbance of the intestinal microbial flora and reduced synthesis of vitamin K, on which the dog is highly dependent. Cefuroxime does not have the N-methylthiotetrazole side chain thought to be responsible for inhibition by other cephalosporins of the vitamin K-dependent step in the synthesis of clotting factors. Variations in plasma chemistry included rather low levels of plasma protein. Electrophoresis showed this to be a generalised reduction; only gamma globulins were proportionally decreased and this finding, like the low neutrophil counts, is attributed to the protective action of the antibiotic. Minor metabolic adjustments to the compound are reflected in plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. This spectrum of findings was seen only to a very limited extent in the 400 mg/kg group; the 100 mg/kg group was, with very few exceptions, unaffected by the

  18. Effects of lifetime ingestion of /sup 90/Sr in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Book, S.A.; Spangler, W.L.; Swartz, L.A.

    1982-05-01

    To investigate the effects of lifetime /sup 90/Sr ingestion, fifteen beagle dogs were fed the equivalent of 1.3, 4.0, and 12.0 ..mu..Ci /sup 90/Sr. Exposures prior to weaning were made by maternal administration of one of the same /sup 90/Sr levels, begining at 21 days of gestation. Median survival was 12.5 years for the 1.3 ..mu..Ci/day group, 6.5 years for the 4 ..mu..Ci/day group, and 5.2 years of the 12 ..mu..Ci/day group, compared to unirradiated control values of 14.5 to 15 years. The normal life span of more than half of the 1.3 ..mu..Ci/day group is remarkable, considering they ingested 5900 to 7500 ..mu..Ci /sup 90/Sr during their lifetimes. One of seven 1.3 ..mu..Ci/day dogs died of mycloproliferative syndrome (MPS), while one of four 4 ..mu..Ci/day and one of four 12 ..mu..Ci/day dogs died from MPS. In addition, another 12 ..mu..Ci/day dog died of osteosarcoma and two others in the same group showed skeletal changes related to /sup 90/Sr exposure. Other deaths were as could be expected in normal canine populations. Lifetime skeletal doses, determined by periodic whole-body counting, were 1990-3750, 1880-9230, and 6360-14,680 rad for the 1.3, 4, and 12 ..mu..Ci/day groups, respectively. Comparison of these values with those from the large /sup 90/Sr toxicity study at Davis in which /sup 90/Sr feeding ended at 18 months of age indicates similar average skeletal doses from the two types of feeding regimens. The similarity of the skeletal doses may relate to the inability of /sup 90/Sr to be incorporated to any great extent into a mature skeleton that no longer has the high calcium turnover associated with early life. As a result, deaths from lifetime /sup 90/Sr ingestion appeared no earlier than when /sup 90/Sr ingestion ended in early adulthood.

  19. Use of the carbon dioxide laser in guided tissue regeneration wound healing in the beagle dog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossmann, Jeffrey A.; Parlar, Ates; Abdel-Ghaffar, Khaled A.; El-Khouli, Amr M.; Israel, Michael

    1996-04-01

    The concept of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) allowing cells from the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone to repopulate the treated root surface has shown the ability to obtain periodontal new attachment. Healing studies have also shown that conventional GTR therapy still does not exclude all the epithelium. This epithelial proliferation apically interferes with the establishment of the new connective tissue attachment to the root surface. The objective of this research study was to examine whether controlled de-epithelialization with the carbon dioxide laser during the healing phase after periodontal surgery, would retard the apical migration of the epithelium and thereby enhance the results obtained through guided tissue regeneration. Eight beagle dogs were used, the experimental side received de-epithelialization with the CO2 laser in conjunction with flap reflection and surgically created buccal osseous defects. Selected defects on each side were treated with ePTFE periodontal membranes. The laser de-epithelialization was repeated every 10 days until removal of the membranes. The control side received the same surgical treatment without laser application. This experimental design allowed histologic study of the new attachment obtained in defects treated with flap debridement with or without laser de-epithelialization and with or without ePTFE membranes. A statistical analysis was performed on the histometric data from 48 teeth in the 8 dogs after 4 months of healing. The results showed significant amounts of new attachment obtained from all four treatment modalities with no statistically significant differences for any one treatment. However, the trend towards enhanced regeneration with the combined treatment of laser and membrane vs. membrane alone or debridement alone was evident. The histologic analysis revealed a significant amount of newly formed `fat cementum' seen only on the laser treated teeth. This feature was the most remarkable finding of the

  20. Effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on orthodontically induced root resorption in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Al-Daghreer, Saleh; Doschak, Michael; Sloan, Alastair J; Major, Paul W; Heo, Giseon; Scurtescu, Cristian; Tsui, Ying Y; El-Bialy, Tarek

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption in vivo. Ten beagle dogs were treated with an orthodontic appliance to move the mandibular fourth premolars bodily. The orthodontic movement was carried out for 4 wk with a continuous force of 1 N/side; using a split-mouth model, LIPUS was applied daily for 20 min. Fourth premolar and surrounding periodontal tissue were evaluated with micro-computed tomography and hematoxylin and eosin and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. We calculated the number, volume and distribution of root resorption lacunae and their percentage relative to total root volume, orthodontic tooth movement and periodontal ligament space. There was no significant difference in orthodontic tooth movement between the two sides. LIPUS significantly reduced the number of orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption initiation areas by 71%, reduced their total volume by 68% and reduced their volume relative to the affected root total volume by 70%. LIPUS induced the formation of a precementum layer, thicker cementum and reparative cellular cementum.

  1. Myenteric plexus is differentially affected by infection with distinct Trypanosoma cruzi strains in Beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira-Paiva, Nívia Carolina; Fonseca, Kátia da Silva; Vieira, Paula Melo de Abreu; Diniz, Lívia Figueiredo; Caldas, Ivo Santana; de Moura, Sandra Aparecida Lima; Veloso, Vanja Maria; Guedes, Paulo Marcos da Matta; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Bahia, Maria Terezinha; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins

    2013-01-01

    Chagasic megaoesophagus and megacolon are characterised by motor abnormalities related to enteric nervous system lesions and their development seems to be related to geographic distribution of distinct Trypanosoma cruzi subpopulations. Beagle dogs were infected with Y or Berenice-78 (Be-78) T. cruzi strains and necropsied during the acute or chronic phase of experimental disease for post mortem histopathological evaluation of the oesophagus and colon. Both strains infected the oesophagus and colon and caused an inflammatory response during the acute phase. In the chronic phase, inflammatory process was observed exclusively in the Be-78 infected animals, possibly due to a parasitism persistent only in this group. Myenteric denervation occurred during the acute phase of infection for both strains, but persisted chronically only in Be-78 infected animals. Glial cell involvement occurred earlier in animals infected with the Y strain, while animals infected with the Be-78 strain showed reduced glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive area of enteric glial cells in the chronic phase. These results suggest that although both strains cause lesions in the digestive tract, the Y strain is associated with early control of the lesion, while the Be-78 strain results in progressive gut lesions in this model. PMID:24271001

  2. Invivo absorption behaviour of theophylline from starch-methyl methacrylate matrix tablets in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Campos, F; Ferrero, C; Colom, H; Jiménez-Castellanos, M R

    2015-01-30

    This study evaluates in vivo the drug absorption profiles from potato starch-methyl methacrylate matrices(*) using theophylline as a model drug. Healthy beagle dogs under fasting conditions were used for in vivo studies and plasma samples were analyzed by a fluorescence polarization immunoassay analysis (FPIA method). Non-compartmental and compartmental (population approach) analysis was performed to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters. The principle of superposition was applied to predict multiple dose plasma concentrations from experimental single dose data. An in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) was also assessed. The sustained absorption kinetics of theophylline from these formulations was demonstrated by comparison with two commercially available oral sustained-release theophylline products (Theo-Dur(®) and Theolair(®)). A one-compartment model with first order kinetics without lag-time best describes the absorption/disposition of theophylline from the formulations. Results revealed a theophylline absorption rate in the order FD-HSMMA≥Theo-Dur(®)≥OD-CSMMA>Theolair(®)≥FD-CSMMA. On the basis of simulated plasma theophylline levels, a twice daily dosage (every 12h) with the FD-CSMMA tablets should be recommended. A Level C IVIVC was found between the in vitrot50% and the in vivo AUC/D, although further optimization of the in vitro dissolution test would be needed to adequately correlate with in vivo data.

  3. Carcinogenesis and Inflammatory Effects of Plutonium-Nitrate Retention in an Exposed Nuclear Worker and Beagle Dogs.

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Christopher E.; Wang, Xihai; Robinson, Robert J.; Brooks, Antone L.; Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Patton, Kristin M.; McComish, Stacey; Tolmachev, Sergei Y.; Morgan, William F.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic and inflammatory response pathways elicited following plutonium exposure in archival lung tissue of an occupationally exposed human and experimentally exposed beagle dogs were investigated. These pathways include: tissue injury, apoptosis and gene expression modifications related to carcinogenesis and inflammation. In order to determine which pathways are involved, multiple lung samples from a plutonium exposed worker (Case 0269), a human control (Case 0385), and plutonium exposed beagle dogs were examined using histological staining and immunohistochemistry. Examinations were performed to identify target tissues at risk of radiation-induced fibrosis, inflammation, and carcinogenesis. Case 0269 showed interstitial fibrosis in peripheral and subpleural regions of the lung, but no pulmonary tumors. In contrast, the dogs with similar and higher doses showed pulmonary tumors primarily in brochiolo-alveolar, peripheral and subpleural alveolar regions. The TUNEL assay showed slight elevation of apoptosis in tracheal mucosa, tumor cells, and nuclear debris was present in the inflammatory regions of alveoli and lymph nodes of both the human and the dogs. The expression of apoptosis and a number of chemokine/cytokine genes was slightly but not significantly elevated in protein or gene levels compared to that of the control samples. In the beagles, mucous production was increased in the airway epithelial goblet cells and glands of trachea, and a number of chemokine/cytokine genes showed positive immunoreactivity. This analysis of archival tissue from an accidentally exposed worker and in a large animal model provides valuable information on the effects of long-term retention of plutonium in the respiratory tract and the histological evaluation study may impact mechanistic studies of radiation carcinogenesis.

  4. Effects of magnesium deficiency on joint cartilage in immature beagle dogs: immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and mineral concentrations.

    PubMed

    Stahlmann, R; Kühner, S; Shakibaei, M; Flores, J; Vormann, J; van Sickle, D C

    2000-01-01

    Quinolone-induced chondrotoxicity is possibly associated with the magnesium-chelating properties of quinolones. This toxic effect seems to be restricted to a rather short time period during postnatal development as shown in rats and dogs. We studied developmental changes of the integrin pattern on canine chondrocytes (e.g. the alpha(v)beta(3)- or alpha(5)beta(1)-integrin), because integrin function depends on divalent cations, as well as the matrix composition (e.g., collagen type II, fibronectin), in 11-, 18-, and 55-week-old Beagles (n=8) by immunohistochemistry. We also analyzed the magnesium and calcium content by atomic absorption spectroscopy in cartilage and bone and studied the effects of a magnesium-deficient diet on joint cartilage in four immature Beagles (18 weeks old at necropsy). The dogs were fed the magnesium-deficient diet for 40 to 46 days. All dogs exhibited gait alterations ('limping') after 4 weeks on the magnesium-deficient diet. Male, magnesium-deficient dogs exhibited pronounced weakness in their front legs; in one of these dogs the front legs were hyperextended to a 90 degrees angle. We observed no significant differences in the integrin pattern in samples from dogs at different developmental stages or in magnesium-deficient dogs in comparison to age-matched controls. Localization of fibronectin in the joint cartilage was found to vary with the age of the dogs as well as with the site of collection. In the middle zone of immature joint cartilage, corresponding to the predilective site of quinolone-induced cartilage lesions, we observed a slight increase in staining with the fibronectin antibody in some samples from magnesium-deficient dogs. Electron microscopy revealed alterations in chondrocytes from the magnesium-deficient dogs (e.g., swollen mitochondria and enlarged endoplasmic reticulum) which are also seen after treatment with quinolones. In summary, we found no significant differences of the integrin pattern on chondrocytes from

  5. Why do adult dogs 'play'?

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, John W S; Pullen, Anne J; Rooney, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Among the Carnivora, play behaviour is usually made up of motor patterns characteristic of predatory, agonistic and courtship behaviour. Domestic dogs are unusual in that play is routinely performed by adults, both socially, with conspecifics and with humans, and also asocially, with objects. This enhanced playfulness is commonly thought to be a side effect of paedomorphosis, the perpetuation of juvenile traits into adulthood, but here we suggest that the functions of the different types of play are sufficiently distinct that they are unlikely to have arisen through a single evolutionary mechanism. Solitary play with objects appears to be derived from predatory behaviour: preferred toys are those that can be dismembered, and a complex habituation-like feedback system inhibits play with objects that are resistant to alteration. Intraspecific social play is structurally different from interspecific play and may therefore be motivationally distinct and serve different goals; for example, dogs often compete over objects when playing with other dogs, but are usually more cooperative when the play partner is human. The majority of dogs do not seem to regard competitive games played with a human partner as "dominance" contests: rather, winning possession of objects during games appears to be simply rewarding. Play may be an important factor in sociality, since dogs are capable of extracting social information not only from games in which they participate, but also from games that they observe between third parties. We suggest that the domestic dog's characteristic playfulness in social contexts is an adaptive trait, selected during domestication to facilitate both training for specific purposes, and the formation of emotionally-based bonds between dog and owner. Play frequency and form may therefore be an indicator of the quality of dog-owner relationships. PMID:25251020

  6. Effect of a botanical composition, UP446, on respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous systems in beagle dogs and rats.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young Chul; Jia, Qi

    2016-06-01

    Extensive safety evaluation of UP446, a botanical composition comprised of standardized extracts from roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and heartwoods of Acacia catechu, has been reported previously. Here we carried out additional studies to assess the effect of UP446 on respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous (CNS) systems. A Functional observational battery (FOB) and whole body plethysmography system in rats and implanted telemetry in dogs were utilized to evaluate the potential CNS, respiratory and cardiovascular toxicity, respectively. UP446 was administered orally at dose levels of 800, 2000 and 5000 mg/kg to SpragueDawley rats and at 4 ascending dose levels (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) to beagle dogs. No abnormal effects were observed on the cage side, open field, hand held, and sensori-motor observations suggestive of toxicity in respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous (CNS) systems. Rectal temperatures were comparable for each treatment groups. Similarly, respiratory rate, tidal volume and minute volume were unaffected by any of the treatment groups. No UP446 related changes were observed on blood pressure, heart rate and electrocardiogram in beagle dogs at dose levels of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg. Some minor incidental, non-dose correlated changes were observed in the FOB assessment. These data suggest that UP446 has minimal or no pharmaco-toxicological effect on the respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous systems. PMID:27012374

  7. Accelerated blood clearance phenomenon upon cross-administration of PEGylated nanocarriers in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunling; Cheng, Xiaobo; Su, Yuqing; Pei, Ying; Song, Yanzhi; Jiao, Jiao; Huang, Zhenjun; Ma, Yanfei; Dong, Yinming; Yao, Ying; Fan, Jingjing; Ta, Han; Liu, Xinrong; Xu, Hui; Deng, Yihui

    2015-01-01

    The cross-administration of nanocarriers modified by poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), named PEGylated nanocarriers, a type of combination therapy, is becoming an increasingly important method of long-term drug delivery, to decrease side effects, avoid multidrug resistance, and increase therapeutic efficacy. However, repeated injections of PEGylated nanocarriers induces the accelerated blood clearance (ABC) phenomenon, prevents long circulation, and can cause adverse effects owing to alterations in the biodistribution of the drug. Although the nature of the ABC phenomenon that is induced by repeated injections of PEGylated nanocarriers has already been studied in detail, there are few reports on the immune response elicited by the cross-administration of PEGylated nanocarriers. In this study, we investigated the ABC phenomenon induced by the intravenous cross-administration of various PEGylated nanocarriers, including PEGylated liposomes (PL), PEG micelles (PM), PEGylated solid lipid nanoparticles (PSLN), and PEGylated emulsions (PE), in beagle dogs. The results indicated that the magnitude of the immune response elicited by the cross-administration was in the following order (from the strongest to the weakest): PL, PE, PSLN, PM. It is specifically PEG in the brush structure that elicits a significant immune response, in both the induction phase and the effectuation phase. Furthermore, the present study suggests that there is a considerable difference between the effect of repeated injections and cross-administration, depending on the colloidal structure. This work is a preliminary investigation into the cross-administration of PEGylated nanocarriers, and our observations can have serious implications for the design of combination therapies that use PEGylated vectors. PMID:25999716

  8. Guided bone regeneration for immediate non-submerged implant placement using bioabsorbable materials in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Brunel, G; Benqué, E; Elharar, F; Sansac, C; Duffort, J F; Barthet, P; Baysse, E; Miller, N

    1998-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the combined application of different bioabsorbable materials for healing of residual peri-implant defects after placement of non-submerged implants into fresh extraction sockets. Second and third mandibular premolars were extracted from 10 Beagle dogs, the coronal part of the distal sockets were surgically enlarged and this was followed by immediate placement of specially designed hollow-screw non-submerged dental implants. For each animal, the coronal peri-implant defects were further treated with one of the 4 following procedures: 1) no treatment, control site; 2) grafting with porous hydroxyapatite (HA); 3) collagen membrane tightly secured around the implant and over the defect and 4) grafting with HA covered with a collagen membrane. After 16 weeks of healing, specimens were removed from the mandibule and prepared for a histomorphometric evaluation. The bone-to-implant contact length (BIC) was measured and compared amongst the different treatment modalities. In the defect area, the irregular bone regeneration was similar between all the treatment procedures (P > 0.10). In the sites covered with a collagen membrane alone, the total BIC (47%) was greater than in control sites (28.7%, P < 0.05) or sites grafted with HA (22.2%, P < 0.02). Total BIC in sites treated with the HA-membrane combination (43%) was only significantly different from sites treated with HA (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the use of bioabsorbable materials results in a limited increase of osseointegration when used in conjunction with immediate placement of non-submerged implants, although the principle of the one stage surgical approach can be maintained.

  9. Influence of the suprastructure on the peri-implant tissues in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Hürzeler, M B; Quiñones, C R; Schüpbach, P; Vlassis, J M; Strub, J R; Caffesse, R G

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare clinical, radiographic and histological differences around titanium oral implants loaded with either acrylic-veneered metal or ceramo-metal fixed prostheses. Five beagle dogs were used in this investigation. At the beginning of the study, all mandibular premolars and first molars were extracted. After 3 months of healing, 2 Brånemark implants were installed on each side of the mandibles. Three months later, abutments were inserted on each implant and a daily oral hygiene regime was initiated. One month after abutment connection, the implants on one side of the mandible were restored with an acrylic-veneered metal fixed prosthesis, whereas, on the other side a ceramo-metal fixed prosthesis was inserted. The prostheses were constructed in occlusion with the maxillary first molars. The following clinical parameters were measured around each implant at this time (i.e., baseline), and thereafter, at monthly intervals up to 5 months: Plaque Index; Gingival Index; implant mobility (using the Periotest); probing depth and clinical attachment level (using the Florida Probe). In addition, standardized radiographs were taken at baseline and 5 months after insertion of the prostheses and evaluated by subtraction radiography. Another Brånemark fixture was installed on each side of the mandibles 3 months before the end of the study. These implants remained unloaded and submerged for the entire study period. Five months after prosthesis insertion, the animals were killed, and implants with their supporting peri-implant tissues were processed for histological evaluation. Analyses of the clinical, radiographic and histometric parameters revealed no significant differences between the acrylic-veneered and ceramometal loaded implants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7578789

  10. Pulmonary and percutaneous absorption of 2-propoxyethyl acetate and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Guest, D.; Hamilton, M.L.; Deisinger, P.J.; DiVincenzo, G.D.

    1984-08-01

    A comparison was made of the absorption and elimination rates of 2-propoxyethyl acetate (PEA) and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate (EEA) following inhalation, dermal application of IV administration. Male beagle dogs were exposed to 50 ppm PEA or EEA for 5 hr, and breath samples were collected during the exposure and a 3-hr recovery period. Both compounds were rapidly absorbed through the lungs. After 10 min of exposure, the concentrations of the parent compounds in the expired breath were 5 to 10 ppm (80-90% absorption) and reached plateau values at about 3 hr of 13 ppm for PEA (74% absorption) and 16 ppm for EEA (68% absorption). Post-exposure breath samples declined exponentially to 0.5 ppm and 2 ppm after 3 hr for PEA and EEA, respectively. Expired concentrations of PEA were slightly, but significantly (p < 0.025), lower than those of EEA at corresponding times during the exposure. After IV dosing with 1 mg/kg (ethyl-1,2-/sup 14/C)PEA, the urine contained 61% and 88% of the dose in 4 and 24 hr, respectively. (/sup 14/C)EEA was eliminated more slowly, with 20% and 61% of the dose appearing in the urine in 4 and 24 hr, respectively. Blood elimination half-lives were 1.6 hr for (/sup 14/C)PEA and 7.9 hr for (/sup 14/C)EEA. Only trace amounts of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ (<1%) or volatile materials (<0.1%) were detected in the expired air with either compound. For studies of percutaneous absorption, (/sup 14/C)PEA or (/sup 14/C)EEA was added to undiluted compounds and applied in a glass cell to a shaved area on a dog's thorax for 30 or 60 min. Blood and expired air were collected for 8 hr and urine for 24 hr. The pattern of urinary elimination for each compound was similar to that seen after IV dosing with (/sup 14/C)PEA being excreted more rapidly than (/sup 14/C)EEA. 15 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  11. Distribution of fibre types and fibre sizes in the tibialis cranialis muscle of beagle dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Newsholme, S J; Lexell, J; Downham, D Y

    1988-01-01

    The percentages of Type I muscle fibres were measured systematically in ATPase-stained, transverse cryostat sections of whole tibialis cranialis muscles from 8 young, adult beagles. The distance of the section from the origin of the muscle does not significantly affect the mean percentage. There are no identifiable differences in mean percentages between right and left muscles. Differences in mean percentages between individuals are significant when sexes are combined (P less than 0.01) and within sexes (males: P less than 0.01; females: P less than 0.05). Within sections, the percentage tends to be lowest at the superficial (craniolateral) border and to vary less from site to site deeper within the muscle. Fibre cross sectional areas were measured systematically in the same sections of the right muscle from 3 males and 3 females. Mean areas for each section were greater for Type II than for Type I fibres. Mean areas for each fibre-type varied moderately and non-systematically between the sample sites within sections. A needle biopsy taken from deep within this muscle should provide a more consistent and reliable estimate of fibre-type proportion in the whole muscle than a superficial specimen. Proportions are not affected by the distance of the sample site from the muscle origin, and left or right muscles are suitable for sequential samples. PMID:3253248

  12. Effect of biphasic calcium phosphate nanocomposite on healing of surgically created alveolar bone defects in beagle dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lanlei; Guan, Aizhong; Shi, Han; Chen, Yangxi; Liao, Yunmao

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of porous biphasic calcium phosphate nanocomposite (nanoBCP) scaffolds bioceramic. Alveolar bone defects were surgically created bilaterally at the buccal aspects of the upper second premolar in fourteen beagle dogs. After root conditioning with ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), nanoBCP was randomly filled in the defects and nothing was put into the contralaterals as controls. Dogs were killed at the 12th weeks. Histological observations were processed through a light microscopy. The results revealed that a great amount of functional periodontal fissures formed in the defects in the nanoBCP groups while minimal bone took shape in the controls. In this study, nanoBCP has proved to work well as a biocompatible and osteoconductive scaffold material to promote periodontal regeneration effectively.

  13. Scintigraphic tracking of mesenchymal stem cells after portal, systemic intravenous and splenic administration in healthy beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Spriet, Mathieu; Hunt, Geraldine B; Walker, Naomi J; Borjesson, Dori L

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells have been proposed to treat liver disease in the dog. The objective of this study was to compare portal, systemic intravenous and splenic injections for administration of mesenchymal stem cells to target the liver in healthy beagle dogs. Four healthy beagle dogs were included in the study. Each dog received mesenchymal stem cells via all three delivery methods in randomized order, 1 week apart. Ten million fat-derived allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells labeled with Technetium-99m (99mTc)-hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime(HMPAO) were used for each injection. Right lateral, left lateral, ventral, and dorsal scintigraphic images were obtained with a gamma camera equipped with a low-energy all-purpose collimator immediately after injection and 1, 6, and 24 h later. Mesenchymal stem cells distribution was assessed subjectively using all four views. Pulmonary, hepatic, and splenic uptake was quantified from the right lateral view, at each time point. Portal injection resulted in diffuse homogeneous high uptake through the liver, whereas the systemic intravenous injection led to mesenchymal stem cell trapping in the lungs. After splenic injection, mild splenic retention and high homogeneous diffuse hepatic uptake were observed. Systemic injection of mesenchymal stem cells may not be a desirable technique for liver therapy due to pulmonary trapping. Splenic injection represents a good alternative to portal injection. Scintigraphic tracking with 99mTc-HMPAO is a valuable technique for assessing mesenchymal stem cells distribution and quantification shortly after administration. Data obtained at 24 h should be interpreted cautiously due to suboptimal labeling persistence. PMID:25582730

  14. Single inhalation exposure to /sup 90/SrCl/sub 2/ in the beagle dog: late biological effects

    SciTech Connect

    Gillett, N.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C.; Hahn, F.F.; McClellan, R.O.

    1987-08-01

    Late-occurring biologic effects were studied in beagle dogs that were given graded levels of /sup 90/SrCl/sub 2/ via single brief inhalation exposures and were subsequently observed for their life-span. Due to the soluble chemical form of the aerosol, /sup 90/Sr was rapidly translocated from lung and deposited in bone where it was subsequently retained for a long period of time. Radiation-induced lesions were confined to the bone, bone marrow, and adjacent soft tissue. Forty-five primary bone tumors occurred in 31 of 66 exposed dogs. Metastasis occurred from 21 tumors, with the lung being the most frequent site of metastasis (76%). Twenty-seven tumors were classified as different subtypes of osteosarcoma, 14 as hemangiosarcomas, 3 as fibrosarcomas, and 1 as a myxosarcoma. Four carcinomas arising from soft tissues adjacent to bone were also considered to be /sup 90/Sr induced. In contrast to bone tumors arising in beagles chronically exposed to 90Sr through ingestion, histologic lesions of radiation osteodystrophy were minimal in this study, indicating that these lesions are not a necessary precursor of osteosarcoma development. The incidences of hemangiosarcomas (31%) and telangiectatic osteosarcomas (11%) in addition to osteosarcomas suggest that the cell of origin for all of these neoplasms is a multipotent mesenchymal cell with the potential for various morphologic expressions dependent on local environmental factors.

  15. Increased bioavailability of primaquine using poly(ethylene oxide) matrix extended-release tablets administered to beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bertol, C D; Oliveira, P R; Kuminek, G; Rauber, G S; Stulzer, H K; Silva, M A S

    2011-01-01

    Primaquine (PQ) is used for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria and can cause serious side effects in some individuals. The development of an extended-release dosage with poly(ethylene oxide) as a hydrophilic polymer has been investigated to improve drug efficacy and tolerability. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo a new extended-release formulation of PQ (60 mg). The formulation was administered to beagle dogs and plasma PQ concentrations were compared to a conventional immediate-release formulation of PQ (60 mg). The evaluation was carried out using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method using solid-phase extraction. Total PQ exposure in beagle dogs was 2.2 times higher (area under curve of 12 193 versus 5678 ng h/ml) and the elimination half-life of PQ was a 19-fold greater (12.95 hours versus 0.68 hours) with the extended-release tablets compared with the immediate-release tablets. These findings suggest that the extended-release formulation of PQ merits further evaluation for the treatment of P. vivax malaria and/or chemoprophylaxis. PMID:22185941

  16. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic integration of marbofloxacin after intravenous and intramuscular administration in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Yohannes, Sileshi; Awji, Elias Gebru; Lee, Seung-Jin; Park, Seung-Chun

    2015-03-01

    1.The aim of the present study was to determine the PKs of marbofloxacin in beagle dogs after intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration, the ex vivo and in vitro PK/PD indices of marbofloxacin against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, and the ex vivo AUC/MIC ratios associated with different levels of antibacterial activity. 2.After i.v. of marbofloxacin (2 mg/kg), the mean ± SEM values of AUC, t1/2β, Vss, and CL were 8.47 ± 3.51 h µg/mL, 8.08 ± 6.25 h, 2.32 ± 1.00 L/kg and 0.23 ± 0.06 L/kg/h and corresponding values after intramuscular injection were 11.37 ± 3.07 h µg/mL, 7.51 ± 3.70, 1.80 ± 0.90 L/kg and 0.17 ± 0.04 L/kg/h. After i.m. administration, a Cmax of 1.76 ± 0.09 µg/mL was achieved at Tmax of 0.47 ± 0.08 h. The ex-vivo AUC/MIC ratios required to produce bacteriostasis, bactericidal action and elimination of S. pseudintermedius were 65.03, 97.02 and 136.84 h. 3.The in vivo AUC/MIC ratios obtained after i.v. and i.m. administration of 2 mg/kg marbofloxacin (67.76 ± 1.23 and 91.18 ± 2.61) were below the ex vivo AUC/MIC ratios required for bactericidal activity and bacterial elimination (97.02 ± 9.24 2 mg/kg and 136.21 ± 7.58), suggesting that the recommended daily dosage (2 mg/kg) may not suffice to kill and eradicate S. pseudintermedius strains encountered in clinical area.

  17. The effect of imepitoin, a recently developed antiepileptic drug, on thyroid parameters and fat metabolism in healthy Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Bossens, K; Daminet, S; Duchateau, L; Rick, M; Van Ham, L; Bhatti, S

    2016-07-01

    Since early 2013, imepitoin has been used in most European countries for the management of recurrent single generalised epileptic seizures in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. It has been reported that imepitoin is as effective as phenobarbital (PB) in controlling seizures in dogs with newly diagnosed idiopathic epilepsy and it has a clinically superior safety profile. As the use of imepitoin gains popularity, its effect on serum thyroid parameters warrants further investigation since long-term PB administration influences thyroid parameters in dogs, which could lead to misinterpretation of laboratory results and incorrect diagnosis of thyroidal illness. A prospective study was conducted to compare the effect of orally administered PB and imepitoin on serum concentrations of total thyroxine (TT4), triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, thyroglobulin autoantibodies, thyroid-stimulating hormone, cholesterol and triglycerides in healthy Beagle dogs. These parameters were determined prior to and at 6, 12 and 18 weeks after antiepileptic drug administration. The starting dose of PB (5 mg/kg PO twice daily; range, 4.4-6.0 mg/kg) was monitored and adjusted to obtain optimal therapeutic serum concentrations (30-35 g/mL). Imepitoin was administered at 30 mg/kg PO twice daily (range, 29.2-35.7 mg/kg). Imepitoin administration did not affect any of the thyroid parameters over an 18-week period. In contrast, serum TT4 concentrations decreased significantly over time in dogs receiving PB (P <0.05). Serum cholesterol concentrations increased significantly over time in dogs in the imepitoin group, but not to the same extent as commonly seen in dogs with primary hypothyroidism.

  18. The effect of imepitoin, a recently developed antiepileptic drug, on thyroid parameters and fat metabolism in healthy Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Bossens, K; Daminet, S; Duchateau, L; Rick, M; Van Ham, L; Bhatti, S

    2016-07-01

    Since early 2013, imepitoin has been used in most European countries for the management of recurrent single generalised epileptic seizures in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. It has been reported that imepitoin is as effective as phenobarbital (PB) in controlling seizures in dogs with newly diagnosed idiopathic epilepsy and it has a clinically superior safety profile. As the use of imepitoin gains popularity, its effect on serum thyroid parameters warrants further investigation since long-term PB administration influences thyroid parameters in dogs, which could lead to misinterpretation of laboratory results and incorrect diagnosis of thyroidal illness. A prospective study was conducted to compare the effect of orally administered PB and imepitoin on serum concentrations of total thyroxine (TT4), triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, thyroglobulin autoantibodies, thyroid-stimulating hormone, cholesterol and triglycerides in healthy Beagle dogs. These parameters were determined prior to and at 6, 12 and 18 weeks after antiepileptic drug administration. The starting dose of PB (5 mg/kg PO twice daily; range, 4.4-6.0 mg/kg) was monitored and adjusted to obtain optimal therapeutic serum concentrations (30-35 g/mL). Imepitoin was administered at 30 mg/kg PO twice daily (range, 29.2-35.7 mg/kg). Imepitoin administration did not affect any of the thyroid parameters over an 18-week period. In contrast, serum TT4 concentrations decreased significantly over time in dogs receiving PB (P <0.05). Serum cholesterol concentrations increased significantly over time in dogs in the imepitoin group, but not to the same extent as commonly seen in dogs with primary hypothyroidism. PMID:27240915

  19. Radiation-induced quantitative alterations in prenatal thymic development in the beagle dog

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.K.; Benjamin, S.A.

    1985-02-01

    Quantitative morphology of the canine fetal thymus was studied to evaluate the age-dependent radiosensitivity of the developing immune system. Pregnant beagle dams received abdominal /sup 60/Co gamma exposures (200 R) or were sham irradiated at one of three ages in gestation, 30, 40, or 45 days. The mean calculated dose to each fetus was 1.5 Gray. One-half of the fetuses in each litter were harvested by hysterotomy at 5 days and one-half at 10 days post-irradiation (PI). The volumes of the thymic lobules and lobular cortices were significantly reduced at 5 and 10 days PI when compared with age-matched controls. Thymic cortical volumes in irradiated fetuses were reduced between 13 and 29% from control volumes by 5 days PI and 8 and 13% by 10 day PI. Thymic medullary volumes in irradiated fetuses were reduced 18 to 23% by 5 days PI and 27 to 54% by 10 days PI. The reductions in medullary volumes in fetuses irradiated at 35, 40, and 45 days of gestation and evaluated at 10 days PI were 54, 38, and 27%, respectively. Although injury to both thymic cortices and medullas was greater following exposures earlier in gestation, damage to medullas was relatively more severe than in cortices following exposure at any one age. The degree of reduction of medullary volume reflects thymic epithelial injury and is surprising since thymic epithelium is considered to be radioresistant in the adult. Such injury may have serious consequences postnatally as normal differentiation of T cell subpopulations is dependent upon the integrity of the thymic microenvironment. Damage to the thymic microenvironment could result in defects in immunologic regulation and in immune deficiencies.

  20. Age-related pharmacokinetic changes of acetaminophen, antipyrine, diazepam, diphenhydramine, and ofloxacin in male cynomolgus monkeys and beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Koyanagi, Takashi; Yamaura, Yoshiyuki; Yano, Koji; Kim, Soonih; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen (marker of gastric emptying), antipyrine (marker of hepatic metabolic activity and total body water), diazepam (lipophilic and highly distributed), diphenhydramine (hepatic blood flow-limited and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein bound) and ofloxacin (renally eliminated) were evaluated in cynomolgus monkeys (3-18 years old) and beagle dogs (2-11 years old) as models in elderly persons. 2. Gastric pH fluctuated with aging in monkeys and dogs. The concentration of alpha-1 acid glycoprotein appeared to be increased by aging. There were no age-related differences in the absorption rates of the drugs under the conditions used in the study. Total body fat increased and water decreased in monkeys, but these parameters did not change in dogs. 3. Hepatic blood flow decreased in both species, but a significant decrease of hepatic clearance was only seen in monkeys. Renal clearance decreased significantly with age in monkeys and showed a tendency to decrease in dogs. 4. Age-related alterations of physiological parameters in monkeys are in agreement with clinical observations in humans, except for the lack of a change in the plasma albumin concentration. Therefore, this study suggests that monkey might be a suitable animal model for prediction of age-related changes in pharmacokinetics in humans.

  1. Learning ability in aged beagle dogs is preserved by behavioral enrichment and dietary fortification: a two-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Milgram, N W; Head, E; Zicker, S C; Ikeda-Douglas, C J; Murphey, H; Muggenburg, B; Siwak, C; Tapp, D; Cotman, C W

    2005-01-01

    The effectiveness of two interventions, dietary fortification with antioxidants and a program of behavioral enrichment, was assessed in a longitudinal study of cognitive aging in beagle dogs. A baseline protocol of cognitive testing was used to select four cognitively equivalent groups: control food-control experience (C-C), control food-enriched experience (C-E), antioxidant fortified food-control experience (A-C), and antioxidant fortified food-enriched experience(A-E). We also included two groups of young behaviorally enriched dogs, one receiving the control food and the other the fortified food. Discrimination learning and reversal was assessed after one year of treatment with a size discrimination task, and again after two years with a black/white discrimination task. The four aged groups were comparable at baseline. At one and two years, the aged combined treatment group showed more accurate learning than the other aged groups. Discrimination learning was significantly improved by behavioral enrichment. Reversal learning was improved by both behavioral enrichment and dietary fortification. By contrast, the fortified food had no effect on the young dogs. These results suggest that behavioral enrichment or dietary fortification with antioxidants over a long-duration can slow age-dependent cognitive decline, and that the two treatments together are more effective than either alone in older dogs.

  2. Age-related pharmacokinetic changes of acetaminophen, antipyrine, diazepam, diphenhydramine, and ofloxacin in male cynomolgus monkeys and beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Koyanagi, Takashi; Yamaura, Yoshiyuki; Yano, Koji; Kim, Soonih; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen (marker of gastric emptying), antipyrine (marker of hepatic metabolic activity and total body water), diazepam (lipophilic and highly distributed), diphenhydramine (hepatic blood flow-limited and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein bound) and ofloxacin (renally eliminated) were evaluated in cynomolgus monkeys (3-18 years old) and beagle dogs (2-11 years old) as models in elderly persons. 2. Gastric pH fluctuated with aging in monkeys and dogs. The concentration of alpha-1 acid glycoprotein appeared to be increased by aging. There were no age-related differences in the absorption rates of the drugs under the conditions used in the study. Total body fat increased and water decreased in monkeys, but these parameters did not change in dogs. 3. Hepatic blood flow decreased in both species, but a significant decrease of hepatic clearance was only seen in monkeys. Renal clearance decreased significantly with age in monkeys and showed a tendency to decrease in dogs. 4. Age-related alterations of physiological parameters in monkeys are in agreement with clinical observations in humans, except for the lack of a change in the plasma albumin concentration. Therefore, this study suggests that monkey might be a suitable animal model for prediction of age-related changes in pharmacokinetics in humans. PMID:24650193

  3. Hematological responses after inhaling {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}: An extrapolation from beagle dogs to humans

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, B.R.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Welsh, C.A.; Angerstein, D.A.

    1994-11-01

    The alpha emitter plutonium-238 ({sup 238}Pu), which is produced in uranium-fueled, light-water reactors, is used as a thermoelectric power source for space applications. Inhalation of a mixed oxide form of Pu is the most likely mode of exposure of workers and the general public. Occupational exposures to {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} have occurred in association with the fabrication of radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Organs and tissue at risk for deterministic and stochastic effects of {sup 238}Pu-alpha irradiation include the lung, liver, skeleton, and lymphatic tissue. Little has been reported about the effects of inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} on peripheral blood cell counts in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate hematological responses after a single inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to alpha-emitting {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} particles and to extrapolate results to humans.

  4. Histology of tissues surrounding single crystal sapphire endosseous dental implants: an experimental study in the beagle dog.

    PubMed

    Fartash, B; Arvidson, K; Ericsson, I

    1990-12-01

    9 single crystal sapphire dental implants were installed bilaterally into pre-extracted areas in the lower jaw of two beagle dogs and histologically analysed after 180 days in situ. 8 implants were stable and radiographs disclosed complete bone healing. Light-, scanning- and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the stable implants were surrounded by a mineralizing bone boundary and a mucosa nearly free from inflammatory cell infiltrations. The 9th implant was mobile and surrounded by a non-mineralized connective tissue capsule containing bundles of collagen. The ultrastructure of the mucosa surrounding the implants closely resembled the mucosa surrounding the tooth. Histometric analysis of the alveolar bone surrounding the stable implants revealed that the value of the bone contact surface ranged from 37.1% to 86.9% (mean value 61.8%) at the light microscopic level.

  5. Novel fenofibric acid-loaded controlled release pellet bioequivalent to choline fenofibrate-loaded commercial product in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Soo; Jin, Sung Giu; Mustapha, Omer; Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Young Hun; Kim, Jong Oh; Yong, Chul Soon; Woo, Jong Soo; Choi, Han-Gon

    2015-07-25

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel fenofibric acid-loaded controlled release pellet showing enhanced, or equivalent to, bioavailability compared with two commercially available products containing fenofibrate or choline fenofibrate. The effect of solubilizing agents on drug solubility and the impact of fillers on core properties were investigated. Among them, magnesium carbonate most improved drug solubility, and κ-carrageenan provided the best spherical cores. The fenofibric acid-loaded pellet was prepared with magnesium carbonate and κ-carrageenan employing the extrusion/spheronizing technique followed by coating with ethylcellulose. Furthermore, dissolution and pharmacokinetic study in beagle dogs were performed compared to the fenofibrate-loaded commercial tablet (FCT) and choline fenofibrate-loaded commercial mini-tablet (CFCM). This fenofibric acid-loaded pellet showed controlled release of the drug in phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) and 0.025 M sodium laurylsulfate within 4h. Furthermore, this pellet and CFCM exhibited similar dissolution profiles. Plasma concentrations greater than 1,000 ng/ml were maintained from 30 min to 8h, suggesting a sustained release pattern. Also, the fenofibric acid-loaded pellet gave significantly higher AUC and Cmax values than FCT, indicating that it improved the bioavailability of fenofibrate due to enhanced solubility and sustained release. In addition, this pellet and CFCM were not significantly different in terms of pharmacokinetic parameters including AUC, Cmax and Tmax. Thus, this pellet was bioequivalent to CFCM in beagle dogs. In conclusion, this fenofibric acid-loaded controlled release pellet would be a potential alternative to the choline fenofibrate-loaded commercial product.

  6. The Association of Inbreeding With Lung Fibrosis Incidence in Beagle Dogs That Inhaled 238PuO2 or 239PuO2.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Dulaney A.; Brigantic, Andrea M.; Morgan, William F.

    2011-09-12

    Studies of health effects in animals after exposure to internally deposited radionuclides were intended to supplement observational studies in humans. Both nuclear workers and Beagle dogs have exhibited plutonium associated lung fibrosis; however, the dogs smaller gene pool may limit the applicability of findings to humans. Data on Beagles that inhaled either plutonium-238 dioxide (238PuO2) or plutonium-239 dioxide (239PuO2) were analyzed. Wright's Coefficient of Inbreeding was used to measure genetic or familial susceptibility and was assessed as an explanatory variable when modeling the association between lung fibrosis incidence and plutonium exposure. Lung fibrosis was diagnosed in approximately 80% of the exposed dogs compared with 23.7% of the control dogs. The maximum degree of inbreeding was 9.4%. Regardless of isotope, the addition of inbreeding significantly improved the model in female dogs but not in males. In female dogs an increased inbreeding coefficient predicted decreased hazard of a lung fibrosis diagnosis. Lung fibrosis was common in these dogs with inbreeding affecting models of lung fibrosis incidence in females but not in males. The apparent protective effect in females predicted by these models of lung fibrosis incidence is likely to be minimal given the small degree of inbreeding in these groups.

  7. Effects of Nigella sativa, Lepidium sativum and Trigonella foenum-graecum on sildenafil disposition in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Ahad, Abdul; El-Maghraby, Gamal M; Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I; AlKharfy, Khalid M; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A

    2015-06-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of some commonly used herbs namely Nigella sativa, Lepidium sativum and Trigonella foenum-graecum on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil in beagle dogs. The study design involved four treatments in a non-balanced crossover design. Sildenafil was given one tablet 100 mg orally to each dog and blood samples were obtained. After a suitable washout period, animals were commenced on a specific herb treatment for 1 week. Blood samples were withdrawn at different time intervals and sildenafil was analyzed by HPLC method. Oral administration of Nigella sativa resulted in reduction of AUC0-∞, C max and t 1/2 as compared to the control. Treatment of Lepidium sativum resulted in a significant reduction in the C max and AUC. There were no significant differences between the rests of the pharmacokinetic parameters relative to those of the control. For Trigonella foenum-graecum, the effects were similar to those obtained in case of Lepidium sativum. It was concluded that concurrent use of investigated herbs alters the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil. Co-administration of investigated herbs should be cautious since their concomitant use might result in decrease in sildenafil bioavailability.

  8. Integration of Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Indices of Orbifloxacin in Beagle Dogs after a Single Intravenous and Intramuscular Administration▿

    PubMed Central

    Gebru, Elias; Lee, Joong-Su; Chang, Zhi-Qiang; Hwang, Mi-Hyun; Cheng, Henrique; Park, Seung-Chun

    2009-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of orbifloxacin were studied in beagle dogs after intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight. An absolute bioavailability of 100.1% ± 4.76%, a terminal half-life of 4.23 ± 0.2 h and 3.95 ± 0.15 h after i.v. and i.m. administration, a steady-state volume of distribution of 1.61 ± 0.13 liters/kg, and clearance of 0.31 ± 0.03 liters/h/kg were observed. Orbifloxacin showed rapid, concentration-dependent killing against the Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus intermedius, and Proteus mirabilis clinical isolates. Computations based on PK-PD analysis indicated that the recommended dose is unlikely to be clinically effective against some strains like S. intermedius. Therefore, a higher dose of orbifloxacin would be worthy of consideration for treatment of certain bacterial infections in dogs. PMID:19398644

  9. Integration of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic indices of orbifloxacin in beagle dogs after a single intravenous and intramuscular administration.

    PubMed

    Gebru, Elias; Lee, Joong-Su; Chang, Zhi-Qiang; Hwang, Mi-Hyun; Cheng, Henrique; Park, Seung-Chun

    2009-07-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of orbifloxacin were studied in beagle dogs after intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight. An absolute bioavailability of 100.1% +/- 4.76%, a terminal half-life of 4.23 +/- 0.2 h and 3.95 +/- 0.15 h after i.v. and i.m. administration, a steady-state volume of distribution of 1.61 +/- 0.13 liters/kg, and clearance of 0.31 +/- 0.03 liters/h/kg were observed. Orbifloxacin showed rapid, concentration-dependent killing against the Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus intermedius, and Proteus mirabilis clinical isolates. Computations based on PK-PD analysis indicated that the recommended dose is unlikely to be clinically effective against some strains like S. intermedius. Therefore, a higher dose of orbifloxacin would be worthy of consideration for treatment of certain bacterial infections in dogs.

  10. RBC-/Cr-51/ half-life and albumin turnover in growing Beagle dogs during chronic radial acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, D. A.; Evans, J. W.; Oyama, J.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of chronic centrifugation on growing Beagle dogs exposed to -2 or -2.6 Gx on albumin and RBC turnover rates, albumin concentration and space, and total blood volume were determined and compared with caged and run control of animals. Albumin-(I-125) and autologous RBC-(Cr-51) preparations were injected into all dogs at day 82 of the centrifugation periods, and the disappearance curves were determined by successive bleedings of the animals over the next 35 d, during which the centrifugation was continued. There were no differences in albumin turnover rates or space. Two populations of RBCs were found in both centrifugated groups, one with a normal half-life of 27 + or - 1 S.E.M. d, and one with a significantly (p less than 0.01) shorter half-life of 15 + or - 2 S.E.M. d. An absolute polycythemia was also observed in both centrifuged groups. The results suggest that chronic centrifugation acts through some as-yet unknown mechanism to affect RBC population kinetics.

  11. Determination of andrograpolide sodium bisulphite in Beagle dog plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang-Qing; Fan, Yu-Ming

    2012-10-15

    A sensitive and reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for the determination of andrographolide sodium bisulphite (ASB) in dog plasma using dehydroandrographolide (DAG) as an internal standard. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Hypersil Gold C(18) column (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.9 μm) with gradient elution that consisted of methanol and water at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. Quantification was done using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode to monitor precursor-product ion transitions of m/z 413.2→287.2 for ASB and 331.2→303.3 for DAG at negative ionization mode. Good linearity was obtained over the range of 10-1000 ng/mL and the correlation coefficient was better than 0.99. The intra- and inter-day accuracies ranged from 97.2% to 107.8% and precisions (RSD) were within 13.9%. ASB was found stable under three freeze-thaw cycles, short-term temperature, post-preparative and long-term temperature conditions. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of ASB intravenously administered to Beagle dogs.

  12. Non-clinical safety and pharmacokinetic evaluations of propylene glycol aerosol in Sprague-Dawley rats and Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Werley, Michael S; McDonald, Paddy; Lilly, Patrick; Kirkpatrick, Daniel; Wallery, Jeffrey; Byron, Peter; Venitz, Jürgen

    2011-09-01

    Aerosolized propylene glycol (PG) was generated as log-normally distributed particulate clouds in different concentrations using a novel capillary aerosol generator (CAG) and evaluated in a battery of non-clinical studies intended to assess its potential inhalation and systemic toxicity in 2 species before ICH-compliant "first-time-in-man" studies. Exposures were nose-only in rats, and via face mask with oropharyngeal tube in dogs. The CAG-generated PG aerosol had a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 2.29μm, with a 1.56 geometric standard deviation (GSD) in the rat studies, and a MMAD of 1.34μm (1.45 GSD) in the dog studies, consistent with expected particle size exposures in man. International Congress on Harmonization (ICH) Guidelines were followed, which recommend preliminary non-clinical safety studies using the vehicle and device (CAG-PG) prior to the first human exposure including safety pharmacology, pharmacokinetic (PK) studies, single dose toxicity studies, and repeated dose toxicity studies in two species. In the rat, the only biologically relevant findings included clinical signs of ocular and nasal irritation indicated by minor bleeding around the eyes and nose, and minimal laryngeal squamous metaplasia. This finding is commonly observed in inhalation studies in the rat, and likely related to the unique sensitivity of the tissue, as well as the circuitous airflow pathway through the larynx which increases particle deposition. In the female Beagle dog, treatment-related decreases in hemoglobin, red blood cells and hematocrit were observed in the two highest exposure groups, equivalent to approximately 18 and 60mg/kg/day. In male dogs from the high dose group, similar small decreases, albeit, non-statistically significant decreases were observed in these hematological markers as well. PK studies in rats and dogs showed that the absorption of PG following pulmonary inhalation exposure occurs rapidly, and equilibrium between lung tissue and plasma

  13. Microdistribution and long-term retention of 239Pu (NO3)4 in the respiratory tracts of an acutely exposed plutonium worker and experimental beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Christopher E; Wilson, Dulaney A; Brooks, Antone L; McCord, Stacey L; Dagle, Gerald E; James, Anthony C; Tolmachev, Sergei Y; Thrall, Brian D; Morgan, William F

    2012-11-01

    The long-term retention of inhaled soluble forms of plutonium raises concerns as to the potential health effects in persons working in nuclear energy or the nuclear weapons program. The distributions of long-term retained inhaled plutonium-nitrate [(239)Pu (NO(3))(4)] deposited in the lungs of an accidentally exposed nuclear worker (Human Case 0269) and in the lungs of experimentally exposed beagle dogs with varying initial lung depositions were determined via autoradiographs of selected histologic lung, lymph node, trachea, and nasal turbinate tissue sections. These studies showed that both the human and dogs had a nonuniform distribution of plutonium throughout the lung tissue. Fibrotic scar tissue effectively encapsulated a portion of the plutonium and prevented its clearance from the body or translocation to other tissues and diminished dose to organ parenchyma. Alpha radiation activity from deposited plutonium in Human Case 0269 was observed primarily along the subpleural regions while no alpha activity was seen in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of this individual. However, relatively high activity levels in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of the beagles indicated the lymphatic system was effective in clearing deposited plutonium from the lung tissues. In both the human case and beagle dogs, the appearance of retained plutonium within the respiratory tract was inconsistent with current biokinetic models of clearance for soluble forms of plutonium. Bound plutonium can have a marked effect on the dose to the lungs and subsequent radiation exposure has the potential to increase cancer risk. PMID:22962267

  14. Microdistribution and Long-Term Retention of 239Pu (NO3)4 in the Respiratory Tracts of an Acutely Exposed Plutonium Worker and Experimental Beagle Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Christopher E.; Wilson, Dulaney A.; Brooks, Antone L.; McCord, Stacey; Dagle, Gerald E.; James, Anthony C.; Tolmachev, Sergei Y.; Thrall, Brian D.; Morgan, William F.

    2012-11-01

    The long-term retention of inhaled soluble forms of plutonium raises concerns as to the potential health effects in persons working in nuclear energy or the nuclear weapons program. The distributions of long-term retained inhaled plutonium-nitrate [239Pu (NO3)4] deposited in the lungs of an accidentally exposed nuclear worker (Human Case 0269) and in the lungs of experimentally exposed beagle dogs with varying initial lung depositions were determined via autoradiographs of selected histological lung, lymph node, trachea, and nasal turbinate tissue sections. These studies showed that both the human and dogs had a non-uniform distribution of plutonium throughout the lung tissue. Fibrotic scar tissue effectively encapsulated a portion of the plutonium and prevented its clearance from the body or translocation to other tissues and diminished dose to organ parenchyma. Alpha radiation activity from deposited plutonium in Human Case 0269 was observed primarily along the sub-pleural regions while no alpha activity was seen in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of this individual. However, relatively high activity levels in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of the beagles indicated the lymphatic system was effective in clearing deposited plutonium from the lung tissues. In both the human case and beagle dogs, the appearance of retained plutonium within the respiratory tract was inconsistent with current biokinetic models of clearance for soluble forms of plutonium. Bound plutonium can have a marked effect on the dose to the lungs and subsequent radiation exposure has the potential increase in cancer risk.

  15. Microdistribution and long-term retention of 239Pu (NO3)4 in the respiratory tracts of an acutely exposed plutonium worker and experimental beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Christopher E; Wilson, Dulaney A; Brooks, Antone L; McCord, Stacey L; Dagle, Gerald E; James, Anthony C; Tolmachev, Sergei Y; Thrall, Brian D; Morgan, William F

    2012-11-01

    The long-term retention of inhaled soluble forms of plutonium raises concerns as to the potential health effects in persons working in nuclear energy or the nuclear weapons program. The distributions of long-term retained inhaled plutonium-nitrate [(239)Pu (NO(3))(4)] deposited in the lungs of an accidentally exposed nuclear worker (Human Case 0269) and in the lungs of experimentally exposed beagle dogs with varying initial lung depositions were determined via autoradiographs of selected histologic lung, lymph node, trachea, and nasal turbinate tissue sections. These studies showed that both the human and dogs had a nonuniform distribution of plutonium throughout the lung tissue. Fibrotic scar tissue effectively encapsulated a portion of the plutonium and prevented its clearance from the body or translocation to other tissues and diminished dose to organ parenchyma. Alpha radiation activity from deposited plutonium in Human Case 0269 was observed primarily along the subpleural regions while no alpha activity was seen in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of this individual. However, relatively high activity levels in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of the beagles indicated the lymphatic system was effective in clearing deposited plutonium from the lung tissues. In both the human case and beagle dogs, the appearance of retained plutonium within the respiratory tract was inconsistent with current biokinetic models of clearance for soluble forms of plutonium. Bound plutonium can have a marked effect on the dose to the lungs and subsequent radiation exposure has the potential to increase cancer risk.

  16. 26-week repeated oral dose toxicity study of UP446, a combination of defined extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu, in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young Chul; Jia, Qi

    2016-07-01

    The needs for relatively safe botanical alternatives to relieve symptoms associated to arthritis have continued to grow in parallel with the ageing population. UP446, a standardized bioflavonoid composition from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and the heartwoods of Acacia catechu, has been used as over the counter joint care dietary supplements and a prescription medical food. Significant safety data have been documented in rodents and human for this composition. Here we evaluated the potential adverse effects of orally administered UP446 in beagle dogs following a 26-week repeated oral dose toxicity study. UP446 at doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered orally to beagle dogs for 26 weeks. A 4-week recovery group from the high dose (1000 mg/kg) and vehicle treated groups were included. No morbidity or mortality was observed for the duration of the study. No significant differences between groups in body weights, food consumption, ophthalmological examinations, electrocardiograms, urinalysis, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weights, gross pathology and histopathology were documented. Emesis, loose feces and diarrhea were noted in both genders at the 1000 mg/kg treatment groups. These clinical signs were considered to be reversible as they were not evident in the recovery period. In conclusion, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) of UP446 was considered to be 500 mg/kg/day both in male and female beagle dogs. PMID:27125835

  17. Tissue distribution of (Lipocurc™) liposomal curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin following two- and eight-hour infusions in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Matabudul, Dharmendr; Pucaj, Kresimir; Bolger, Gordon; Vcelar, Brigitta; Majeed, Muhammed; Helson, Lawrence

    2012-10-01

    This study interrogated whether different durations of intravenous infusions of lipocurc™ would alter curcumin metabolism, tissue distribution and whether treating necropsied tissues of Beagle dogs with phosphoric acid prior to measuring curcumin and its metabolite, tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), would stabilize the compounds allowing for accurate analytic measurements. Two cohorts comprising two male and two female dogs were infused each intravenously with 10 mg/kg lipocurc™, either over two hours or over eight hours. Tissue data from each cohort was averaged from four dogs. Curcumin and THC distributed among all 13 tissues were examined at necropsy. The highest curcumin level was observed in the lungs followed by the liver. Tissue levels of curcumin in the lung, spleen and liver increased substantially following the eight-hour infusion compared to the two-hour infusion. The pancreas, kidney and urinary bladder also contained relatively high curcumin levels. Tissue partition coefficients for curcumin and THC were also higher for the eight-hour infusion than the two-hour infusion. The tissue THC/curcumin ratio varied in a tissue-specific manner and was lower for the eight-hour compared to the two-hour infusion. In conclusion, this raised the possibility that prolonged infusion of curcumin may facilitate distribution into tissues via a transporter-dependent mechanism and elevated tissue concentrations of curcumin may inhibit or saturate a putative reductase enzyme converting curcumin to THC. The addition of phosphoric acid stabilized the levels of curcumin and THC in some but not all the examined tissues, raising issues of tissue-specific curcumin and THC stability.

  18. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of aspirin with warfarin in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chenlin; Huang, Xiaohui; Li, Jun; Zhang, Ping; Li, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Tingting; Pappoe, Faustina; Huang, Jihan; Tang, Haiqin

    2016-01-01

    1. Warfarin and aspirin are widely used in a wide spectrum of thromboembolic and atherothrombotic diseases. Despite the potential efficacy of warfarin-aspirin therapy, the safety and side effect of combined therapy remains unclear. 2. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between warfarin and aspirin in beagles after single and multiple doses. 3. Coadministration of aspirin had no significant effects on the area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC(0-t)) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of R- and S-warfarin after a single dose of warfarin, but significantly increase the AUC(0-t) and Cmax and dramatically decrease the clearance (CL) of R- and S-warfarin after multiple dose of warfarin. Accordingly, there was a slight increase in the AUEC(0-t) and Emax of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT) and international normalized ratio (INR) after multiple dose of warfarin. 4. Coadministration of warfarin had no markedly effects on the AUC(0-t) and Cmax of aspirin and its metabolite salicylic acid after single or multiple dose of aspirin. Meanwhile, the AUEC(0-t) and Emax of inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) were not significantly affected by warfarin. 5. Our animal study indicated that coadministration of aspirin with warfarin can cause significant pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug-drug interactions in beagles. However, more studies are urgently needed to assess related information of warfarin-aspirin drug interactions in healthy volunteers or patients. PMID:26548565

  19. Efficacy of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene combination spot-on for dogs against adult dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis, Curtis, 1826).

    PubMed

    Bouhsira, Emilie; Yoon, Stephen S; Roques, Martine; Manavella, Coralie; Vermot, Solange; Cramer, Luiz G; Ollagnier, Catherine; Franc, Michel

    2011-07-15

    A novel spot-on formulation combining fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene (CERTIFECT™, Merial Limited, GA, USA) was evaluated in adult Beagle dogs in a study to determine its adulticidal efficacy against the dog flea (Ctenocephalides canis, Curtis, 1826). Sixteen dogs were randomly allocated to treatment groups: 8 dogs served as untreated controls, and 8 dogs were treated once. Treatment consisted of applying a new combination formulation to deliver at least 6.7mg fipronil/kg body weight (bw), 8.0mg amitraz/kg bw, and 6.0mg (S)-methoprene/kg bw. The combination was designed to enhance the efficacy against ticks of the original fipronil/(S)-methoprene combination. Each dog was infested with 100 adult unfed dog fleas within 24h prior to treatment and then at weekly intervals for 8 weeks after treatment. At 24h after treatment or after each subsequent infestation, each dog was combed thoroughly to remove live fleas to be counted. A single treatment with CERTIFECT provided excellent knock-down of fleas within 24h after treatment and controlled re-infestations for up to 7 weeks (efficacy ≥96.5%, p<0.05).

  20. Preformulation characterization and in vivo absorption in beagle dogs of JFD, a novel anti-obesity drug for oral delivery.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yunzhou; Yang, Meiyan; Wang, Yuli; Li, Yanyou; Zhou, Yuanda; Chen, Xiaoping; Shan, Li; Wei, Jun; Gao, Chunsheng

    2015-05-01

    JFD (N-isoleucyl-4-methyl-1,1-cyclopropyl-1-(4-chlorine)phenyl-2-amylamine·HCl) is a novel investigational anti-obesity drug without obvious cardiotoxicity. The objective of this study was to characterize the key physicochemical properties of JFD, including solution-state characterization (ionization constant, partition coefficient, aqueous and pH-solubility profile), solid-state characterization (particle size, thermal analysis, crystallinity and hygroscopicity) and drug-excipient chemical compatibility. A supporting in vivo absorption study was also carried out in beagle dogs. JFD bulk powders are prismatic crystals with a low degree of crystallinity, particle sizes of which are within 2-10 μm. JFD is highly hygroscopic, easily deliquesces to an amorphous glass solid and changes subsequently to another crystal form under an elevated moisture/temperature condition. Similar physical instability was also observed in real-time CheqSol solubility assay. pK(a) (7.49 ± 0.01), log P (5.10 ± 0.02) and intrinsic solubility (S0) (1.75 μg/ml) at 37 °C of JFD were obtained using potentiometric titration method. Based on these solution-state properties, JFD was estimated to be classified as BCS II, thus its dissolution rate may be an absorption-limiting step. Moreover, JFD was more chemically compatible with dibasic calcium phosphate, mannitol, hypromellose and colloidal silicon dioxide than with lactose and magnesium stearate. Further, JFD exhibited an acceptable pharmacokinetic profiling in beagle dogs and the pharmacokinetic parameters T(max), C(max), AUC(0-t) and absolute bioavailability were 1.60 ± 0.81 h, 0.78 ± 0.47 μg/ml, 3.77 ± 1.85 μg·h/ml and 52.30 ± 19.39%, respectively. The preformulation characterization provides valuable information for further development of oral administration of JFD. PMID:24694186

  1. Preformulation characterization and in vivo absorption in beagle dogs of JFD, a novel anti-obesity drug for oral delivery.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yunzhou; Yang, Meiyan; Wang, Yuli; Li, Yanyou; Zhou, Yuanda; Chen, Xiaoping; Shan, Li; Wei, Jun; Gao, Chunsheng

    2015-05-01

    JFD (N-isoleucyl-4-methyl-1,1-cyclopropyl-1-(4-chlorine)phenyl-2-amylamine·HCl) is a novel investigational anti-obesity drug without obvious cardiotoxicity. The objective of this study was to characterize the key physicochemical properties of JFD, including solution-state characterization (ionization constant, partition coefficient, aqueous and pH-solubility profile), solid-state characterization (particle size, thermal analysis, crystallinity and hygroscopicity) and drug-excipient chemical compatibility. A supporting in vivo absorption study was also carried out in beagle dogs. JFD bulk powders are prismatic crystals with a low degree of crystallinity, particle sizes of which are within 2-10 μm. JFD is highly hygroscopic, easily deliquesces to an amorphous glass solid and changes subsequently to another crystal form under an elevated moisture/temperature condition. Similar physical instability was also observed in real-time CheqSol solubility assay. pK(a) (7.49 ± 0.01), log P (5.10 ± 0.02) and intrinsic solubility (S0) (1.75 μg/ml) at 37 °C of JFD were obtained using potentiometric titration method. Based on these solution-state properties, JFD was estimated to be classified as BCS II, thus its dissolution rate may be an absorption-limiting step. Moreover, JFD was more chemically compatible with dibasic calcium phosphate, mannitol, hypromellose and colloidal silicon dioxide than with lactose and magnesium stearate. Further, JFD exhibited an acceptable pharmacokinetic profiling in beagle dogs and the pharmacokinetic parameters T(max), C(max), AUC(0-t) and absolute bioavailability were 1.60 ± 0.81 h, 0.78 ± 0.47 μg/ml, 3.77 ± 1.85 μg·h/ml and 52.30 ± 19.39%, respectively. The preformulation characterization provides valuable information for further development of oral administration of JFD.

  2. Evaluation of the usefulness of novel biomarkers for drug-induced acute kidney injury in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xiaobing; Ma, Ben; Lin, Zhi; Qu, Zhe; Huo, Yan; Wang, Jufeng; Li, Bo

    2014-10-01

    As kidney is a major target organ affected by drug toxicity, early detection of renal injury is critical in preclinical drug development. In past decades, a series of novel biomarkers of drug-induced nephrotoxicity were discovered and verified in rats. However, limited data regarding the performance of novel biomarkers in non-rodent species are publicly available. To increase the applicability of these biomarkers, we evaluated the performance of 4 urinary biomarkers including neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), clusterin, total protein, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), relative to histopathology and traditional clinical chemistry in beagle dogs with acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by gentamicin. The results showed that urinary NGAL and clusterin levels were significantly elevated in dogs on days 1 and 3 after administration of gentamicin, respectively. Gene expression analysis further provided mechanistic evidence to support that NGAL and clusterin are potential biomarkers for the early assessment of drug-induced renal damage. Furthermore, the high area (both AUCs = 1.000) under receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve also indicated that NGAL and clusterin were the most sensitive biomarkers for detection of gentamicin-induced renal proximal tubular toxicity. Our results also suggested that NAG may be used in routine toxicity testing due to its sensitivity and robustness for detection of tissue injury. The present data will provide insights into the preclinical use of these biomarkers for detection of drug-induced AKI in non-rodent species. - Highlights: • Urinary NGAL, clusterin and NAG levels were significantly elevated in canine AKI. • NGAL and clusterin gene expression were increased following treatment with gentamicin. • NGAL and clusterin have high specificity and sensitivity for detection of AKI.

  3. Absorption, elimination and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of nimodipine in healthy beagle dogs receiving human intravenous and oral formulation.

    PubMed

    Koskimäki, Janne; Tarkia, Miikka; Ahtola-Sätilä, Tuula; Saloranta, Lasse; Laakso, Aki; Frantzén, Janek

    2016-06-01

    Nimodipine is an L-type calcium channel blocker and is used to treat vasospasm in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Its putative mechanism of action is relaxation of smooth muscle cells in cerebral arteries. In addition, nimodipine may have pleiotropic effects against vasospasm. Systemic hypotension is an adverse effect when patients are treated with oral or intravenous nimodipine. Intracranial administration of nimodipine formulations may produce higher concentration of nimodipine in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) than is possible to achieve orally or intravenously, while resulting in lower incidence of systemic hypotension. The aim of this study was to provide information on plasma and CSF levels of nimodipine in beagle dogs as a comparative data for development of experimental intracranial treatment modalities. Plasma levels of nimodipine were measured after current 30 and 60 mg single oral dose of nimodipine (Nimotop(®) 30 mg tablets), a single intravenous bolus 0.72 mg/dog of nimodipine (Nimotop(®) 0.2 mg/ml infusion solution) and CSF levels after 60 mg single oral dose of nimodipine. CSF/Plasma concentration ratio of nimodipine after oral administration of 60 mg at 1 h was 0.013 ± 0.0005. The mean terminal elimination half-life of nimodipine after i.v. bolus dose 0.72 mg was 1.8 h and mean plasma clearance was 40.3 and 3.4 l/h/kg. Absolute bioavailability was 22 %. Maximum plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time of administration until the last measurable plasma concentration increased in a dose-proportional manner comparing the exposure parameters at oral doses of 30 and 60 mg. Individual variation in the kinetic profile of nimodipine was measured.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide in beagle dogs following intravenous and topical routes of administration.

    PubMed

    Qiu, H; Jun, H W; Tao, J

    1997-04-01

    The common topical insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) has caused serious adverse effects in the users of DEET products due to its high skin permeability. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of DEET following i.v. and dermal routes of administration in beagle dogs. The pharmacokinetics of DEET was linear over the dose range of 2.5-6.0 mg/kg. Following the i.v. dosing, plasma DEET concentrations declined biexponentially with an elimination half-life of 2.56 h. Volume of distribution at steady-state, systematic clearance, and mean residence time were estimated as 6.21 L/kg, 2.66 L/h/kg, and 2.34 h, respectively, indicating that DEET underwent extensive extravascular distribution and rapid elimination. After the dermal application of a commercial lotion and a new DEET lotion at 15 mg of DEET/kg, plasma DEET concentrations peaked at 1-2 h postdose. The DEET transdermal bioavailability and mean absorption time were 18.3% and 2.05 h, respectively, for the commercial lotion and 14.0% and 2.66 h, respectively, for the new lotion. The difference in DEET transdermal absorption between the two lotions suggested that commercial DEET products could be optimized for reduced DEET absorption for safer use.

  5. Relationship between dose of injected /sup 239/Pu and bone sarcoma mortality in young adult beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, A.V.; Prentice, R.L.; Marek, P.

    1982-04-01

    The effect of /sup 239/Pu on bone sarcoma mortality in young adult beagles is examined using data from a follow-up study conducted at the Radiobiology Laboratory at the University of Utah. A (proportional-hazards) model, which specifies that bone sarcoma mortality depends on both dose of injected plutonium and time since injection as the product of a dose factor and a time factor, is used both for describing the data and for performing inference about the relationship between dose of plutonium and bone sarcoma mortality. Relative bone sarcoma mortality rates are found to be approximately linear as a function of dose. There is evidence that relative bone sarcoma mortality decreases with time since injection.

  6. Urinary recovery of orally administered chromium 51-labeled EDTA, lactulose, rhamnose, d-xylose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and sucrose in healthy adult male Beagles.

    PubMed

    Frias, Rafael; Steiner, Jörg M; Williams, David A; Sankari, Satu; Westermarck, Elias

    2012-05-01

    Objective-To provide values for gastrointestinal permeability and absorptive function tests (GIPFTs) with chromium 51 ((51)Cr)-labeled EDTA, lactulose, rhamnose, d-xylose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and sucrose in Beagles and to evaluate potential correlations between markers. Animals-19 healthy adult male Beagles. Procedures-A test solution containing 3.7 MBq of (51)Cr-labeled EDTA, 2 g of lactulose, 2 g of rhamnose, 2 g of d-xylose, 1 g of 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and 8 g of sucrose was administered intragastrically to each dog. Urinary recovery of each probe was determined 6 hours after administration. Results-Mean ± SD (range) percentage urinary recovery was 6.3 ± 1.6% (4.3% to 9.7%) for (51)Cr-labeled EDTA, 3.3 ± 1.1% (1.7% to 5.3%) for lactulose, 25.5 ± 5.0% (16.7% to 36.9%) for rhamnose, and 58.8% ± 11.0% (40.1% to 87.8%) for 3-O-methyl-d-glucose. Mean (range) recovery ratio was 0.25 ± 0.06 (0.17 to 0.37) for (51)Cr-labeled EDTA to rhamnose, 0.13 ± 0.04 (0.08 to 0.23) for lactulose to rhamnose, and 0.73 ± 0.09 (0.60 to 0.90) for d-xylose to 3-O-methyl-d-glucose. Median (range) percentage urinary recovery was 40.3% (31.6% to 62.7%) for d-xylose and 0% (0% to 0.8%) for sucrose. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Reference values in healthy adult male Beagles for 6 of the most commonly used GIPFT markers were determined. The correlation between results for (51)Cr-labeled EDTA and lactulose was not as prominent as that reported for humans and cats; thus, investigators should be cautious in the use and interpretation of GIPFTs performed with sugar probes in dogs with suspected intestinal dysbiosis.

  7. Application of autologous periosteal cells for the regeneration of class III furcation defects in Beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jun; Wu, Xiaohong; Lin, Minkui; Doan, Nghiem; Xiao, Yin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing of class III furcation defects following transplantation of autogenous periosteal cells combined with β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP). Periosteal cells obtained from Beagle dogs’ periosteum explant cultures, were inoculated onto the surface of β-TCP. Class III furcation defects were created in the mandibular premolars. Three experimental groups were used to test the defects’ healing: group A, β-TCP seeded with periosteal cells were transplanted into the defects; group B, β-TCP alone was used for defect filling; and group C, the defect was without filling materials. Twelve weeks post surgery, the tissue samples were collected for histology, immunohistology and X-ray examination. It was found that both the length of newly formed periodontal ligament and the area of newly formed alveolar bone in group A, were significantly increased compared with both group B and C. Furthermore, both the proportion of newly formed periodontal ligament and newly formed alveolar bone in group A were much higher than those of group B and C. The quantity of cementum and its percentage in the defects (group A) were also significantly higher than those of group C. These results indicate that autogenous periosteal cells combined with β-TCP application can improve periodontal tissue regeneration in class III furcation defects. PMID:20582491

  8. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of Cyadox and Its Main Metabolites in Beagle Dogs Following Oral, Intramuscular, and Intravenous Administration

    PubMed Central

    Sattar, Adeel; Xie, Shuyu; Huang, Lingli; Iqbal, Zahid; Qu, Wei; Shabbir, Muhammad A.; Pan, Yuanhu; Hussain, Hafiz I.; Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Liu, Zhenli; Iqbal, Mujahid; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    Cyadox (Cyx) is an antibacterial drug of the quinoxaline group that exerts markedly lower toxicity in animals, compared to its congeners. Here, the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of Cyx after oral (PO), intramuscular (IM), and intravenous (IV) routes of administration were studied to establish safety criteria for the clinical use of Cyx in animals. Six beagle dogs (3 males, 3 females) were administered Cyx through PO (40 mg kg−1 b.w.), IM (10 mg kg−1 b.w.), and IV (10 mg kg−1 b.w.) routes with a washout period of 2 weeks in a crossover design. Highly sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was employed for determination of Cyx and its main metabolites, 1, 4-bisdesoxycyadox (Cy1), cyadox-1-monoxide (Cy2), N-(quinoxaline-2-methyl)-cyanide acetyl hydrazine (Cy4), and quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (Cy6) in plasma, urine and feces of dogs. The oral bioavailability of Cyx was 4.75%, suggesting first-pass effect in dogs. The concentration vs. time profile in plasma after PO administration indicates that Cyx is rapidly dissociated into its metabolites and eliminated from plasma earlier, compared to its metabolites. The areas under the curve (AUC) of Cyx after PO, IM and IV administration were 1.22 h × μg mL−1, 6.3 h × μg mL−1, and 6.66 h × μg mL−1, while mean resident times (MRT) were 7.32, 3.58 and 0.556 h, respectively. Total recovery of Cyx and its metabolites was >60% with each administration route. In feces, 48.83% drug was recovered after PO administration, while 18.15% and 17.11% after IM and IV injections, respectively, suggesting renal clearance as the major route of excretion with IM and IV administration and feces as the major route with PO delivery. Our comprehensive evaluation of Cyx has uncovered detailed information that should facilitate its judicious use in animals by improving understanding of its pharmacology. PMID:27536243

  9. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of Cyadox and Its Main Metabolites in Beagle Dogs Following Oral, Intramuscular, and Intravenous Administration.

    PubMed

    Sattar, Adeel; Xie, Shuyu; Huang, Lingli; Iqbal, Zahid; Qu, Wei; Shabbir, Muhammad A; Pan, Yuanhu; Hussain, Hafiz I; Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Liu, Zhenli; Iqbal, Mujahid; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    Cyadox (Cyx) is an antibacterial drug of the quinoxaline group that exerts markedly lower toxicity in animals, compared to its congeners. Here, the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of Cyx after oral (PO), intramuscular (IM), and intravenous (IV) routes of administration were studied to establish safety criteria for the clinical use of Cyx in animals. Six beagle dogs (3 males, 3 females) were administered Cyx through PO (40 mg kg(-1) b.w.), IM (10 mg kg(-1) b.w.), and IV (10 mg kg(-1) b.w.) routes with a washout period of 2 weeks in a crossover design. Highly sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was employed for determination of Cyx and its main metabolites, 1, 4-bisdesoxycyadox (Cy1), cyadox-1-monoxide (Cy2), N-(quinoxaline-2-methyl)-cyanide acetyl hydrazine (Cy4), and quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (Cy6) in plasma, urine and feces of dogs. The oral bioavailability of Cyx was 4.75%, suggesting first-pass effect in dogs. The concentration vs. time profile in plasma after PO administration indicates that Cyx is rapidly dissociated into its metabolites and eliminated from plasma earlier, compared to its metabolites. The areas under the curve (AUC) of Cyx after PO, IM and IV administration were 1.22 h × μg mL(-1), 6.3 h × μg mL(-1), and 6.66 h × μg mL(-1), while mean resident times (MRT) were 7.32, 3.58 and 0.556 h, respectively. Total recovery of Cyx and its metabolites was >60% with each administration route. In feces, 48.83% drug was recovered after PO administration, while 18.15% and 17.11% after IM and IV injections, respectively, suggesting renal clearance as the major route of excretion with IM and IV administration and feces as the major route with PO delivery. Our comprehensive evaluation of Cyx has uncovered detailed information that should facilitate its judicious use in animals by improving understanding of its pharmacology. PMID:27536243

  10. Development of novel prasugrel base microsphere-loaded tablet with enhanced stability: Physicochemical characterization and in vivo evaluation in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeong Soo; Kim, Jin Cheul; Jin, Sung Giu; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Dong Shik; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh; Youn, Yu Seok; Oh, Kyung Taek; Woo, Jong Soo; Choi, Han-Gon

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel prasugrel base microsphere-loaded tablet (PBMST) with enhanced stability as a bioequivalent to the commercial prasugrel hydrochloride-loaded tablet. Numerous prasugrel base-loaded microspheres were prepared with hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), colloidal silica and various acidifying agents using a spray-drying process, and the physicochemical properties, solubility and stability were investigated. The PBMSTs were prepared and their dissolution, pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs and stability were evaluated compared to commercial prasugrel hydrochloride-loaded tablets. Among the acidifying agents tested, phosphoric acid provided the greatest increase in drug solubility, by as much as 110-fold. The prasugrel base-loaded microspheres composed of prasugrel base, HPMC, colloidal silica and phosphoric acid at a weight ratio of 10/10/5/2.5 provided an amorphous drug and reduced particle size of about 11.3μm. Moreover, it exhibited excellent solubility and improved stability compared to prasugrel base and hydrochloride. Moreover, PBMST drug dissolution was improved in comparison to the prasugrel base-loaded tablet (PBT), with similar dissolution to the commercial prasugrel hydrochloride-loaded tablet at pH 1.2 and 4.0. PBMST provided significantly higher plasma concentrations of AUC and Cmax in beagle dogs compared to PBT. In particular, the AUC of PBMST was approximately four times greater than PBT, leading to improved oral bioavailability. There were no significant differences observed for all pharmacokinetic parameters between PBMST and the commercial prasugrel hydrochloride-loaded tablet, suggesting their bioequivalence in beagle dogs. Furthermore, the prepared PBMSTs were stable for at least six months. Therefore, this novel prasugrel base microsphere-loaded tablet could be a potential alternative for enhancing the stability and bioavailability of prasugrel. PMID:27451362

  11. Pharmacokinetics and enhanced oral bioavailability in beagle dogs of cyclosporine A encapsulated in glyceryl monooleate/poloxamer 407 cubic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jie; Lu, Yi; Yin, Zongning; Hu, Fuqiang; Wu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to improve the oral bioavailability of cyclosporine A (CyA) remains a challenge in the field of drug delivery. In this study, glyceryl monooleate (GMO)/poloxamer 407 cubic nanoparticles were evaluated as potential vehicles to improve the oral bioavailability of CyA. Cubic nanoparticles were prepared via the fragmentation of a bulk GMO/poloxamer 407 cubic phase gel by sonication and homogenization. The cubic inner structure formed was verified using Cryo-TEM. The mean diameters of the nanoparticles were about 180 nm, and the entrapment efficiency of these particles for CyA was over 85%. The in vitro release of CyA from these nanoparticles was less than 5% at 12 h. The results of a pharmacokinetic study in beagle dogs showed improved absorption of CyA from cubic nanoparticles as compared to microemulsion-based Neoral((R)); higher C(max) (1371.18 +/- 37.34 vs 969.68 +/- 176.3 ng mL(-1)), higher AUC(0-t) (7757.21 +/- 1093.64 vs 4739.52 +/- 806.30 ng h mL(-1)) and AUC(0-infinity) (9004.77 +/- 1090.38 vs 5462.31 +/- 930.76 ng h mL(-1)). The relative oral bioavailability of CyA cubic nanoparticles calculated on the basis of AUC(0-infinity) was about 178% as compared to Neoral((R)). The enhanced bioavailability of CyA is likely due to facilitated absorption by cubic nanoparticles rather than improved release.

  12. Long-term Observation of Regenerated Periodontium Induced by FGF-2 in the Beagle Dog 2-Wall Periodontal Defect Model

    PubMed Central

    Anzai, Jun; Nagayasu-Tanaka, Toshie; Terashima, Akio; Asano, Taiji; Yamada, Satoru; Nozaki, Takenori; Kitamura, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    The long-term stability and qualitative characteristics of periodontium regenerated by FGF-2 treatment were compared with normal physiological healing tissue controls in a Beagle dog 2-wall periodontal defect model 13 months after treatment by assessing tissue histology and three-dimensional microstructure using micro-computed tomography (μCT). After FGF-2 (0.3%) or vehicle treatment at the defect sites, serial changes in the bone mineral content (BMC) were observed using periodic X-ray imaging. Tissues were harvested at 13 months, evaluated histomorphometrically, and the cortical bone volume and trabecular bone structure of the newly formed bone were analyzed using μCT. FGF-2 significantly increased the BMC of the defect area at 2 months compared with that of the control group, and this difference was unchanged through 13 months. The cortical bone volume was significantly increased by FGF-2, but there was no difference between the groups in trabecular bone structure. Bone maturation was occurring in both groups because of the lower cortical volume and denser trabecular bone than what is found in intact bone. FGF-2 also increased the area of newly formed bone as assessed histomorphometrically, but the ratios of trabecular bone in the defect area were similar between the control and FGF-2 groups. These results suggest that FGF-2 stimulates neogenesis of alveolar bone that is of similar quality to that of the control group. The lengths of the regenerated periodontal ligament and cementum, measured as the distance from the defect bottom to the apical end of the gingival epithelium, and height and area of the newly formed bone in the FGF-2 group were larger than those in the control group. The present study demonstrated that, within the limitation of artificial periodontal defect model, the periodontal tissue regenerated by FGF-2 was maintained for 13 months after treatment and was qualitatively equivalent to that generated through the physiological healing process

  13. Decorporation of systemically distributed americium by a novel orally administered diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) formulation in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James P; Cobb, Ronald R; Dungan, Nathanael W; Matthews, Laura L; Eppler, Bärbel; Aiello, Kenneth V; Curtis, Shiro; Boger, Teannetta; Guilmette, Raymond A; Weber, Waylon; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Talton, James D

    2015-03-01

    Novel decorporation agents are being developed to protect against radiological accidents and terrorists attacks. Radioactive americium is a significant component of nuclear fallout. Removal of large radioactive materials, such as 241Am, from exposed persons is a subject of significant interest due to the hazards they pose. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dose-related efficacy of daily doses of NanoDTPA™ Capsules for decorporating Am administered intravenously as a soluble citrate complex to male and female beagle dogs. In addition, the efficacy of the NanoDTPA™ Capsules for decorporating 241Am was directly compared to intravenously administered saline and DTPA. Animals received a single IV administration of 241Am(III)-citrate on Day 0. One day after radionuclide administration, one of four different doses of NanoDTPA™ Capsules [1, 2, or 6 capsules d(-1) (30 mg, 60 mg, or 180 mg DTPA) or 2 capsules BID], IV Zn-DTPA (5 mg kg(-1) pentetate zinc trisodium) as a positive control, or IV saline as a placebo were administered. NanoDTPA™ Capsules, IV Zn-DTPA, or IV saline was administered on study days 1-14. Animals were euthanized on day 21. A full necropsy was conducted, and liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs and trachea, tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN), muscle samples (right and left quadriceps), gastrointestinal (GI) tract (stomach plus esophagus, upper and lower intestine), gonads, two femurs, lumbar vertebrae (L1-L4), and all other soft tissue remains were collected. Urinary and fecal excretion profiles were increased approximately 10-fold compared to those for untreated animals. Tissue contents were decreased compared to untreated controls. In particular, liver content was decreased by approximately eightfold compared to untreated animals. The results from this study further demonstrate that oral NanoDTPA™ Capsules are equally efficient compared to IV Zn-DTPA in decorporation of actinides. PMID:25627942

  14. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a new reformulated microemulsion and the long-chain triglyceride emulsion of propofol in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S-H; Ghim, J-L; Song, M-H; Choi, H-G; Choi, B-M; Lee, H-M; Lee, E-K; Roh, Y-J; Noh, G-J

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Microemulsion propofol was developed to eliminate lipid solvent-related adverse events of long-chain triglyceride emulsion (LCT) propofol. We compared dose proportionality, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of both formulations. Experimental approach: The study was a randomized, two-period and crossover design with 7-day wash-out period. Microemulsion and LCT propofol were administered by zero-order infusion (0.75, 1.00 and 1.25 mg·kg−1·min−1) for 20 min in 30 beagle dogs (male/female = 5/5 for each rate). Arterial samples were collected at preset intervals. The electroencephalographic approximate entropy (ApEn) was used as a measure of propofol effect. Dose proportionality, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic bioequivalence were evaluated by non-compartmental analyses. Population analysis was performed using nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Key results: Both formulations showed dose proportionality at the applied dose range. The ratios of geometric means of AUClast and AUCinf between both formulations were acceptable for bioequivalence, whereas that of Cmax was not. The pharmacodynamic bioequivalence was indicated by the arithmetic means of AAC (areas above the ApEn time curves) and E0 (baseline ApEn)–Emax (maximally decreased ApEn) between both formulations. The pharmacokinetics of both formulations were best described by three compartment models. Body weight was a significant covariate for V1 of both formulations and sex for k21 of microemulsion propofol. The blood-brain equilibration rate constants (ke0, min−1) were 0.476 and 0.696 for microemulsion and LCT propofol respectively. Conclusions and implications: Microemulsion propofol was pharmacodynamically bioequivalent to LCT propofol although pharmacokinetic bioequivalence was incomplete, and demonstrated linear pharmacokinetics at the applied dose ranges. PMID:19925493

  15. Action Mechanism of Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (FGF-2) in the Promotion of Periodontal Regeneration in Beagle Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Nagayasu-Tanaka, Toshie; Anzai, Jun; Takaki, Shu; Shiraishi, Noriko; Terashima, Akio; Asano, Taiji; Nozaki, Takenori; Kitamura, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) enhances the formation of new alveolar bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament (PDL) in periodontal defect models. However, the mechanism through which FGF-2 acts in periodontal regeneration in vivo has not been fully clarified yet. To reveal the action mechanism, the formation of regenerated tissue and gene expression at the early phase were analyzed in a beagle dog 3-wall periodontal defect model. FGF-2 (0.3%) or the vehicle (hydroxypropyl cellulose) only were topically applied to the defect in FGF-2 and control groups, respectively. Then, the amount of regenerated tissues and the number of proliferating cells at 3, 7, 14, and 28 days and the number of blood vessels at 7 days were quantitated histologically. Additionally, the expression of osteogenic genes in the regenerated tissue was evaluated by real-time PCR at 7 and 14 days. Compared with the control, cell proliferation around the existing bone and PDL, connective tissue formation on the root surface, and new bone formation in the defect at 7 days were significantly promoted by FGF-2. Additionally, the number of blood vessels at 7 days was increased by FGF-2 treatment. At 28 days, new cementum and PDL were extended by FGF-2. Moreover, FGF-2 increased the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and osteoblast differentiation markers (osterix, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin) in the regenerated tissue. We revealed the facilitatory mechanisms of FGF-2 in periodontal regeneration in vivo. First, the proliferation of fibroblastic cells derived from bone marrow and PDL was accelerated and enhanced by FGF-2. Second, angiogenesis was enhanced by FGF-2 treatment. Finally, osteoblastic differentiation and bone formation, at least in part due to BMP-2 production, were rapidly induced by FGF-2. Therefore, these multifaceted effects of FGF-2 promote new tissue formation at the early regeneration phase, leading to enhanced formation of new bone, cementum, and PDL. PMID

  16. The Osteogenesis Effect and Underlying Mechanisms of Local Delivery of gAPN in Extraction Sockets of Beagle Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hongcheng; Pu, Yinfei; Lu, Songhe; Zhang, Kuo; Guo, Yuan; Lu, Hui; Li, Deli; Li, Xuefen; Li, Zichen; Wu, Yuwei; Tang, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    A plastic and biodegradable bone substitute consists of poly (l-lactic-co-glycolic) acid and 30 wt % β-tricalcium phosphate has been previously fabricated, but its osteogenic capability required further improvement. We investigated the use of globular adiponectin (gAPN) as an anabolic agent for tissue-engineered bone using this scaffold. A qualitative analysis of the bone regeneration process was carried out using μCT and histological analysis 12 weeks after implantation. CBCT (Cone Beam Computed Tomography) superimposition was used to characterise the effect of the different treatments on bone formation. In this study, we also explored adiponectin’s (APN) influence on primary cultured human jaw bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells gene expressions involved in the osteogenesis. We found that composite scaffolds loaded with gAPN or bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) exhibited significantly increased bone formation and mineralisation following 12 weeks in the extraction sockets of beagle dogs, as well as enhanced expression of osteogenic markers. In vitro investigation revealed that APN also promoted osteoblast differentiation of primary cultured human jaw bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (h-JBMMSCs), accompanied by increased activity of alkaline phosphatase, greater mineralisation, and production of the osteoblast-differentiated genes osteocalcin, bone sialoprotein and collagen type I, which was reversed by APPL1 siRNA. Therefore, the composite scaffold loaded with APN exhibited superior activity for guided bone regeneration compared with blank control or Bio-Oss® (a commercially available product). The composite scaffold with APN has significant potential for clinical applications in bone tissue engineering. PMID:26492241

  17. Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Nitrosylcobalamin, an Antitumor Agent, in Healthy Beagle Dogs: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sysel, Annette M.; Horne, Walter I.; Steiner, Jörg M.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Bauer, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim Nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl) is a cobalamin-based anti-tumor agent. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetic parameters of NO-Cbl following intravenous administration in dogs. Materials and Methods Four dogs received 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg intravenous bolus doses of NO-Cbl, with a 14-day washout period between doses. Blood samples were collected at baseline and post-dosing, and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. Results Average peak serum concentrations of 2265, 5523 and 13,866 pg/mL were achieved following single-dose bolus intravenous administration of 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg of NO-Cbl respectively. The average area under the curve was 12,697 h × pg/mL, 24,497 h × pg/mL and 44,976 h × pg/mL respectively, with an average elimination half-life of 16.2 h, 13.5 h and 13.1 h respectively. Conclusion These results can be used to determine the dose and dosing intervals for clinical trials evaluating NO-Cbl in humans and companion animals. PMID:22993315

  18. Safety and pharmacokinetic studies of liposomal antioxidant formulations containing N-acetylcysteine, α-tocopherol or γ-tocopherol in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Misagh; Mitsopoulos, Panagiotis; Smith, Milton G; Bolger, Gordon; Pucaj, Kresimir; Suntres, Zacharias E

    2013-07-01

    The safety and pharmacokinetic profile of liposomal formulations containing combinations of the antioxidants α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol or N-acetylcysteine in beagle dogs was examined. Each group consisted of beagle dogs of both genders with a control group receiving empty dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes (330 mg/kg DPPC, EL), and test groups receiving liposomes prepared from DPPC lipids with (i) N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (60 mg/kg NAC [L-NAC]); (ii) NAC and α-tocopherol (αT) (60 mg/kg NAC and 25 mg/kg α-tocopherol [L-αT-NAC]) and (iii) NAC and γ-tocopherol (60 mg/kg NAC and 25 mg/kg γ-tocopherol (γT) [L-γT-NAC]). The dogs in the control group (EL) and three test groups exhibited no signs of toxicity during the dosing period or day 15 post treatment. Weight gain, feed consumption and clinical pathology findings (hematology, coagulation, clinical chemistry, urinalysis) were unremarkable in all dogs and in all groups. Results from the pharmacokinetic study revealed that the inclusion of tocopherols in the liposomal formulation significantly increased the area under the curve (AUC) and β-half life for NAC; the tocopherols had greater impact on the clearance of NAC, where reductions of central compartment clearance (CL) ranged from 56% to 60% and reductions of tissue clearance (CL2) ranged from 73% to 77%. In conclusion, there was no treatment-related toxicity in dogs at the maximum feasible dose level by a single bolus intravenous administration while the addition of tocopherols to the liposomal formulation prolonged the circulation of NAC in plasma largely due to a decreased clearance of NAC.

  19. Safety and pharmacokinetic studies of liposomal antioxidant formulations containing N-acetylcysteine, α-tocopherol or γ-tocopherol in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Misagh; Mitsopoulos, Panagiotis; Smith, Milton G; Bolger, Gordon; Pucaj, Kresimir; Suntres, Zacharias E

    2013-07-01

    The safety and pharmacokinetic profile of liposomal formulations containing combinations of the antioxidants α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol or N-acetylcysteine in beagle dogs was examined. Each group consisted of beagle dogs of both genders with a control group receiving empty dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes (330 mg/kg DPPC, EL), and test groups receiving liposomes prepared from DPPC lipids with (i) N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (60 mg/kg NAC [L-NAC]); (ii) NAC and α-tocopherol (αT) (60 mg/kg NAC and 25 mg/kg α-tocopherol [L-αT-NAC]) and (iii) NAC and γ-tocopherol (60 mg/kg NAC and 25 mg/kg γ-tocopherol (γT) [L-γT-NAC]). The dogs in the control group (EL) and three test groups exhibited no signs of toxicity during the dosing period or day 15 post treatment. Weight gain, feed consumption and clinical pathology findings (hematology, coagulation, clinical chemistry, urinalysis) were unremarkable in all dogs and in all groups. Results from the pharmacokinetic study revealed that the inclusion of tocopherols in the liposomal formulation significantly increased the area under the curve (AUC) and β-half life for NAC; the tocopherols had greater impact on the clearance of NAC, where reductions of central compartment clearance (CL) ranged from 56% to 60% and reductions of tissue clearance (CL2) ranged from 73% to 77%. In conclusion, there was no treatment-related toxicity in dogs at the maximum feasible dose level by a single bolus intravenous administration while the addition of tocopherols to the liposomal formulation prolonged the circulation of NAC in plasma largely due to a decreased clearance of NAC. PMID:23384394

  20. Clinical and clinicopathologic effects of samarium-153-EDTMP administered intravenously to normal beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Lattimer, J.C.; Corwin, L.A. Jr.; Stapleton, J.; Volkert, W.A.; Ehrhardt, G.J.; Ketring, A.R.; Hewett, J.E.; Simon, J.; Goeckeler, W.F. )

    1990-05-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the degree of acute bone marrow and vital organs injury sustained when dogs were administered doses of 153Sm-EDTMP calculated to irradiate an acute bone lesion arising from cancer metastasis to a dose considered palliative or even therapeutic (20-160 Gy). The study revealed significant (p less than 0.05) temporary depression of the bone marrow in all doses in the therapeutic (greater than 40 Gy) range. Palliative (20 Gy) doses caused significant leukocyte depression but insignificant (p greater than 0.05) depression of platelet and packed cell volumes when compared to control animals. A mild transient rise in the levels of serum alkaline phosphatase occurred immediately following radioisotope administration. All hematologic parameters had returned to normal by six weeks after the last injection of radioisotope. The study indicates potential for this compound as a safe, therapeutic radiopharmaceutical for treatment of cancer bone metastasis.

  1. Simultaneous determination of codeine, ephedrine, guaiphenesin and chlorpheniramine in beagle dog plasma using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometric detection: application to a bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ziyan; Zou, Qiaogen; Tian, Jixin; Sun, Lili; Zhang, Zunjian

    2011-12-15

    A rapid and sensitive method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of codeine, ephedrine, guaiphenesin and chlorpheniramine in beagle dog plasma has been developed and validated. Following liquid-liquid extraction, the analytes were separated on a reversed-phase C(18) column (150 mm × 2.0 mm, 3 μm) using formic acid:10 mM ammonium acetate:methanol (0.2:62:38, v/v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min and analyzed by a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The method was linear for all analytes over the following concentration (ng/mL) ranges: codeine 0.08-16; ephedrine 0.8-160; guaiphenesin 80-16,000; chlorpheniramine 0.2-40. Acceptable precision and accuracy were obtained for concentrations over the standard curve range. It is the first time that the validated HPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study in 6 healthy beagle dogs. PMID:22119507

  2. Simultaneous determination of codeine, ephedrine, guaiphenesin and chlorpheniramine in beagle dog plasma using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometric detection: application to a bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ziyan; Zou, Qiaogen; Tian, Jixin; Sun, Lili; Zhang, Zunjian

    2011-12-15

    A rapid and sensitive method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of codeine, ephedrine, guaiphenesin and chlorpheniramine in beagle dog plasma has been developed and validated. Following liquid-liquid extraction, the analytes were separated on a reversed-phase C(18) column (150 mm × 2.0 mm, 3 μm) using formic acid:10 mM ammonium acetate:methanol (0.2:62:38, v/v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min and analyzed by a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The method was linear for all analytes over the following concentration (ng/mL) ranges: codeine 0.08-16; ephedrine 0.8-160; guaiphenesin 80-16,000; chlorpheniramine 0.2-40. Acceptable precision and accuracy were obtained for concentrations over the standard curve range. It is the first time that the validated HPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study in 6 healthy beagle dogs.

  3. Comparison of miRNA expression profiles in pituitary-adrenal axis between Beagle and Chinese Field dogs after chronic stress exposure.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Fang, Meixia; Xu, Haiping; Xing, Huijie; Fu, Jiangnan; Nie, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    MicoRNAs (miRNAs), usually as gene regulators, participate in various biological processes, including stress responses. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) is an important pathway in regulating stress response. Although the mechanism that HPA axis regulates stress response has been basically revealed, the knowledge that miRNAs regulate stress response within HPA axis, still remains poor. The object of this study was to investigate the miRNAs in the pituitary and adrenal cortex that regulate chronic stress response with high-throughput sequencing. The pituitary and adrenal cortex of beagles and Chinese Field dogs (CFD) from a stress exposure group (including beagle pituitary 1 (BP1), CFD pituitary 1 (CFDP1), beagle adrenal cortex 1 (BAC1), CFD adrenal cortex 1 (CFDAC1)) and a control group (including beagle pituitary 2 (BP2), CFD pituitary 2 (CFDP2), beagle adrenal cortex 2 (BAC2), CFD adrenal cortex 2 (CFDAC2)), were selected for miRNA-seq comparisons. Comparisons, that were made in pituitary (including BP1 vs. BP2, CFDP1 vs. CFDP2, BP1 vs. CFDP1 and BP2 vs. CFDP2) and adrenal cortex (including BAC1 vs. BAC2, CFDAC1 vs. CFDAC2, BAC1 vs. CFDAC1 and BAC2 vs. CFDAC2), showed that a total of 39 and 18 common differentially expressed miRNAs (DE-miRNAs) (Total read counts > 1,000, Fold change > 2 & p-value < 0.001), that shared in at least two pituitary comparisons and at least two adrenal cortex comparisons, were detected separately. These identified DE-miRNAs were predicted for target genes, thus resulting in 3,959 and 4,010 target genes in pituitary and adrenal cortex, respectively. Further, 105 and 10 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (Fold change > 2 & p-value < 0.05) from those target genes in pituitary and adrenal cortex were obtained separately, in combination with our previous corresponding transcriptome study. Meanwhile, in line with that miRNAs usually negatively regulated their target genes and the dual luciferase reporter assay, we finally

  4. Comparison of miRNA expression profiles in pituitary–adrenal axis between Beagle and Chinese Field dogs after chronic stress exposure

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haiping; Xing, Huijie

    2016-01-01

    MicoRNAs (miRNAs), usually as gene regulators, participate in various biological processes, including stress responses. The hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis) is an important pathway in regulating stress response. Although the mechanism that HPA axis regulates stress response has been basically revealed, the knowledge that miRNAs regulate stress response within HPA axis, still remains poor. The object of this study was to investigate the miRNAs in the pituitary and adrenal cortex that regulate chronic stress response with high-throughput sequencing. The pituitary and adrenal cortex of beagles and Chinese Field dogs (CFD) from a stress exposure group (including beagle pituitary 1 (BP1), CFD pituitary 1 (CFDP1), beagle adrenal cortex 1 (BAC1), CFD adrenal cortex 1 (CFDAC1)) and a control group (including beagle pituitary 2 (BP2), CFD pituitary 2 (CFDP2), beagle adrenal cortex 2 (BAC2), CFD adrenal cortex 2 (CFDAC2)), were selected for miRNA-seq comparisons. Comparisons, that were made in pituitary (including BP1 vs. BP2, CFDP1 vs. CFDP2, BP1 vs. CFDP1 and BP2 vs. CFDP2) and adrenal cortex (including BAC1 vs. BAC2, CFDAC1 vs. CFDAC2, BAC1 vs. CFDAC1 and BAC2 vs. CFDAC2), showed that a total of 39 and 18 common differentially expressed miRNAs (DE-miRNAs) (Total read counts > 1,000, Fold change > 2 & p-value < 0.001), that shared in at least two pituitary comparisons and at least two adrenal cortex comparisons, were detected separately. These identified DE-miRNAs were predicted for target genes, thus resulting in 3,959 and 4,010 target genes in pituitary and adrenal cortex, respectively. Further, 105 and 10 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (Fold change > 2 & p-value < 0.05) from those target genes in pituitary and adrenal cortex were obtained separately, in combination with our previous corresponding transcriptome study. Meanwhile, in line with that miRNAs usually negatively regulated their target genes and the dual luciferase reporter assay, we

  5. Bioequivalence and population pharmacokinetic modeling of two forms of antibiotic, cefuroxime lysine and cefuroxime sodium, after intravenous infusion in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Longshan; Li, Qing; Li, Xingang; Yin, Ran; Chen, Xiaohui; Geng, Lulu; Bi, Kaishun

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the bioequivalence and the population pharmacokinetics of cefuroxime lysine and cefuroxime sodium in healthy beagle dogs. A randomized 2-period crossover design in 18 healthy beagle dogs after receiving 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg of cefuroxime lysine or cefuroxime sodium was conducted. A 3-compartment open model was used as the basic model for the population pharmacokinetic study. Both of the antibiotics exhibited dose-proportional pharmacokinetics over the dose range of 20-80 mg/kg. The mean relative bioavailability of cefuroxime lysine versus cefuroxime sodium was 1.05 (range, 0.71 to 1.42), with a significant difference between males and females. The estimates of population pharmacokinetic of CL, V(1), Q(2), V(2), Q(3), V(3) were 3.74 mL/h, 1.70 mL, 29.5 mL/min, 3.58 mL, 0.31 mL/min, and 158 mL for cefuroxime lysine and 4.10 mL/h, 1.00 mL, 38.5 mL/min, 4.19 mL, 0.06 mL/min, and 13.6 mL for cefuroxime sodium, respectively. The inter-individual variability was determined to be less than 29.1%. A linear pharmacokinetic was revealed for cefuroxime lysine and cefuroxime sodium in dogs after intravenous infusion, and the bioequivalence of these forms of the antibiotic was observed with the significant gender-related differences in mean relative bioavailability of cefuroxime lysine versus cefuroxime sodium.

  6. Protective effects of kojic acid on the periphery blood and survival of beagle dogs after exposure to a lethal dose of gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Li, Peng-Fei; Han, Chun-Guang; Du, Li; Liu, Chao; Hu, Ming; Lian, Shi-Jie; Liu, Yong-Xue

    2014-12-01

    In previous studies, it has been shown that pretreatment with kojic acid (KA) not only increased the 30 day survival rate of mice after exposed to a lethal dose of gamma radiation but also had significant radioprotective effects on the hematopoietic system, the immune system and DNA of mice exposed to a 4 Gy sublethal dose of radiation. Furthermore, pretreatment with KA has also been shown to protect Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells against ionizing radiation-induced damage. In this investigation, beagle dogs were used to evaluate whether KA could also be radioprotective in a large animal model. Dogs in the group pretreated with kojic acid after whole-body exposure to a lethal dose of 3 Gy gamma radiation had a 51 day survival rate of 66.7% versus the dogs in the 3 Gy irradiation only group, which all died within 16 days of postirradiation. General vital signs (body weight or temperature) of animals in the kojic acid pretreated group reduced and increased maximally at day 14 postirradiation and then reverted to normal levels gradually. The hematopoiesis studies indicated that the white blood cells/red blood cells, hemoglobin content and hematocrit of dogs pretreated with kojic acid decreased sharply at day 23/day 21 postirradiation, and then gradually elevated. In addition, the DNA content of dogs pretreated with KA were significantly increased compared with that of dogs in the irradiation group at day 4 postirradiation and the number of micronuclei in the group pretreated with kojic acid declined sharply compared with that of the irradiation only group. KA appears to possess marked protective effects from radiation-induced damage and therefore, may be a promising novel radioprotective agent.

  7. Preparation of codeine-resinate and chlorpheniramine-resinate sustained-release suspension and its pharmacokinetic evaluation in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huan-Xiang; Cheng, Gang; Pan, Wei-San; Zhong, Guo-Ping; Huang, Min

    2007-06-01

    the release rate of both drugs. But the release of codeine from its resinate beads was much more rapid than chlorpheniramine released from its resinate beads in the same ionic strength release medium. The drug release specification of the CCSS, where release mediums were 0.05 M KCl solution for codeine and 0.5 M KCl solution for chlorpheniramine, was established to be in conformance with in vivo performance. Relative bioavailability and pharmacokinetics evaluation of the CCSS, using commercial immediate-release tablets as the reference preparation, were performed following a randomized two-way crossover design in beagle dogs. The drug concentrations in plasma were measured by a validated LC-MS/MS method to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of CCSS. This LC-MS/MS method demonstrated high accuracy and precision for bioanalysis, and was proved quick and reliable for the pharmacokinetic studies. The results showed that the CCSS had the longer value of Tmax and the lower value of Cmax, which meant an obviously sustained release effect, and its relative bioavailability of codeine and chlorpheniramine were (103.6 +/- 14.6)% and (98.1 +/- 10.3)%, respectively, compared with the reference preparation. These findings indicated that a novel liquid sustained release suspension made by using IERs as carriers and subsequent fluidized bed coating might provide a constant plasma level of the active pharmaceutical ingredient being highly beneficial for various therapeutic reasons.

  8. Simultaneous determination of leucine, isoleucine and valine in Beagle dog plasma by HPLC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Xie, Huiru; Chen, Xu; Jiang, Xuehua; Wang, Ling

    2015-10-10

    Leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) are three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), which have been widely used as dietary supplements for professional athletes and patients with liver failure or catabolic diseases. To date, no pharmacokinetic studies of BCAAs in vivo useful for the assessment of clinical effect following daily intake has been reported. Thus in this study, an HPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of Leu, Ile and Val in Beagle dog plasma using homoarginine as the internal standard was developed and validated in terms of specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, and stability. This assay method was then applied to a pharmacokinetic study of BCAAs in dogs following oral administration of 0.25 g/kg and 0.50 g/kg BCAAs. The HPLC-MS/MS method was found to be sensitive and reproducible for quantification of BCAAs in dog plasma and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study. All these BCAAs were well absorbed with a substantial increase in the plasma concentration after a baseline modification. No statistical significance was identified in different gender group and no drug accumulation was observed following multiple doses.

  9. Diffusion tensor imaging of white and grey matter within the spinal cord of normal Beagle dogs: Sub-regional differences of the various diffusion parameters.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hakyoung; Park, Noh-Won; Ha, Yun-Mi; Kim, Jaehwan; Moon, Won-Jin; Eom, Kidong

    2016-09-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an advanced diffusion weighted imaging technique that can identify early stage lesions and Wallerian degeneration within the spinal cord; these changes are difficult to recognise on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The only DTI parameters previously investigated in dogs are fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity (MD). The aim of this study was to evaluate multiple DTI parameters in sub-regional areas of the spinal cord in normal Beagles. All imaging data were obtained from the lumbar spinal cord (L1-L3) of ten normal dogs using a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Transverse multi-shot echo planar imaging sequences (b values = 0 and 800 s/mm(2); 12 directions) were used for DTI. Regions of interest were selected from sub-regions of the white and grey matter, and from the whole spinal cord, in the transverse plane in all DTI maps. The DTI parameters in spinal cord sub-regions in the transverse plane were significantly different amongst the white matter, grey matter and whole spinal cord (P < 0.05 for all DTI parameters except MD), as well as between white matter sub-regions (P < 0.05 for most DTI parameters except radial diffusivity, MD and planar index). DTI-based sub-regional analysis of white and grey matter may be useful for regional evaluation of the dog spinal cord.

  10. Subchronic safety evaluation of CMS-1 (a botanical antihypertensive product derived from Semen Cnidium monnieri) in Sprague-Dawley rats and beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xue-Lian; Gao, Ting-Ting; Zhao, Li-Jun; Zhu, Hai; Xia, Zhen-Na; Lu, Wen; Lu, Guo-Cai

    2014-08-01

    CMS-1, mainly composed of imperatorin as its active compound, is a partially purified fraction of a Chinese herbal medicine, Semen Cnidium monnieri. CMS-1 has the potential to be further developed as a new treatment for hypertension. Thus, we studied its toxicity in both Sprague-Dawley rats and beagle dogs. Rats (0-900mg/kg/day) and dogs (0-450mg/kg/day) received CMS-1 orally for 30 consecutive days, followed by a 15-day recovery period. The major target organs of CMS-1 toxicity are the GI (inappetence), liver (hepatocellular necrosis, enzyme elevation), thymus (atrophy), cardiovascular (hypotension), changes in ECG T and P waveforms, elevation of nitrous oxide levels and hematological (RBC parameters disturbances) systems. Most treatment-induced adverse effects were reversible or showed a progressive recovery upon discontinuation of the treatment. The No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) was 100mg/kg/day for rats and 50mg/kg/day for dogs. This non-clinical study suggests that clinical monitoring of CMS-1 in patients should focus on the gastrointestinal system, blood tests for liver functions, electrolytes, and blood homeostasis, cardiovascular functions, and immune functions.

  11. Intra-epithelial vaccination with COPV L1 DNA by particle-mediated DNA delivery protects against mucosal challenge with infectious COPV in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Stanley, M A; Moore, R A; Nicholls, P K; Santos, E B; Thomsen, L; Parry, N; Walcott, S; Gough, G

    2001-04-01

    Protection against viral challenge with canine oral papillomavirus (COPV) was achieved by immunisation via particle-mediated DNA delivery (PMDD) of a plasmid encoding the COPV L1 gene to cutaneous and oral mucosal sites in beagle dogs. The initial dose of approximately 9 microg of DNA was followed by two booster doses at 6 week intervals. A similar approach was used to vaccinate a control group of animals with plasmid DNA encoding the Hepatitis B virus S gene. Following challenge at the oral mucosa with COPV all animals vaccinated with the COPV L1 gene were protected against disease. However five of six animals in the control group developed COPV induced papillomas at the oral mucosa. Both cell-mediated lymphoproliferative and humoral antibody responses to the DNA vaccine were observed. Our data indicate that PMDD of plasmid DNA can protect against mucosal challenge with papillomavirus. PMID:11282188

  12. Simulation of Low-Intensity Ultrasound Propagating in a Beagle Dog Dentoalveolar Structure to Investigate the Relations between Ultrasonic Parameters and Cementum Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Vafaeian, Behzad; Al-Daghreer, Saleh; El-Rich, Marwan; Adeeb, Samer; El-Bialy, Tarek

    2015-08-01

    The therapeutic effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption is believed to be brought about through mechanical signals induced by the low-intensity pulsed ultrasound. However, the stimulatory mechanism triggering dental cell response has not been clearly identified yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible relations between the amounts of new cementum regeneration and ultrasonic parameters such as pressure amplitude and time-averaged energy density. We used the finite-element method to simulate the previously published experiment on ultrasonic wave propagation in the dentoalveolar structure of beagle dogs. Qualitative relations between the thickness of the regenerated cementum in the experiment and the ultrasonic parameters were observed. Our results indicated that the areas of the root surface with greater ultrasonic pressure were associated with larger amounts of cementum regeneration. However, the establishment of reliable quantitative correlations between ultrasound parameters and cementum regeneration requires more experimental data and simulations. PMID:25957755

  13. In vivo gastric residence and gastroprotective effect of floating gastroretentive tablet of DA-9601, an extract of Artemisia asiatica, in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Soo; Cha, Kwang Ho; Kang, Seung Yeob; Won, Donghan; Jang, Sun Woo; Son, Miwon; Son, Moon Ho; Choi, Ho Jung; Lee, Young Won; Kang, Myung Joo

    2016-01-01

    Objective DA-9601, an extract of Artemisia asiatica containing eupatilin and jaceosidin as active compounds, has been prescribed to treat gastritis in Asia. In recent times, sustained-release, floating gastroretentive (GR) tablets of DA-9601 are available on the market. In the present study, the physical properties and in vitro drug release profile, in vivo gastric residence time, and gastroprotective effect of GR tablet were compared to those of immediate release (IR) tablets of DA-9601. Method In vitro buoyancy behavior (floating lag time and duration) and release profile of eupatilin were assessed in acidic medium. The in vivo intragastric behaviors of the barium sulfate-loaded IR and GR tablets were evaluated in beagle dogs by radiographic studies. Local gastroprotective effect was compared in an experimentally induced gastric lesion in beagle dogs after oral administration of IR (three times per day) or GR (twice daily) tablets for 15 days. Results Upon contact with gastric juice, a low-density floating tablet (apparent density of 0.93 g/cm3) was buoyant on the medium and was upheld for 14 hours, providing sustained drug release profile, whereas the IR tablet disintegrated within 10 minutes, showing complete drug release within 2 hours. In vivo radiographic studies showed that the GR tablet was retained for >4 hours in the stomach. Both DA-9601 formulations remarkably alleviated gastric mucosal injury compared to placebo group, when observed by gastric endoscopy. Conclusion Twice-daily GR tablets exhibited a prolonged gastric residence time and a remarkable mucosal restoration effect in animal models. Therefore, the GR system of DA-9601 could be a substitute dosage form for the treatment of gastritis, while reducing the dosing frequency and thus improving patient compliance. PMID:27354765

  14. Effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 with beta-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) on the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model

    SciTech Connect

    Anzai, Jun; Kitamura, Masahiro; Nozaki, Takenori; Nagayasu, Toshie; Terashima, Akio; Asano, Taiji; Murakami, Shinya

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP (an osteo-conductive scaffold) significantly promotes periodontal regeneration in the severe periodontitis model (1-wall defect model) of beagle dog. {yields} FGF-2 enhanced new bone formation via {beta}-TCP at the defects. {yields} In particular, FGF-2 dramatically regenerated new periodontal ligament and cementum formations at the defects, that is one of the most important healing outcomes during the process of periodontal regeneration. {yields} Epithelial downgrowth (undesirable wound healing) was decreased by administration of FGF-2. {yields} This manuscript indicates for the first time that concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP is efficacious in regenerating periodontal tissue following severe destruction of the tissue by progression of periodontitis. -- Abstract: The effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and beta-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) on periodontal regeneration were investigated in the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model. One-wall periodontal defects were created in the mesial portion of both sides of the mandibular first molars, and 0.3% FGF-2 plus {beta}-TCP or {beta}-TCP alone was administered. Radiographic evaluation was performed at 0, 3, and 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the periodontium with the defect site was removed and histologically analyzed. Radiographic findings showed that co-administration of FGF-2 significantly increased bone mineral contents of the defect sites compared with {beta}-TCP alone. Histologic analysis revealed that the length of the regenerated periodontal ligament, the cementum, distance to the junctional epithelium, new bone height, and area of newly formed bone were significantly increased in the FGF-2 group. No abnormal inflammatory response or ankylosis was observed in either group. These findings indicate the efficacy of concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP as an osteoconductive material for periodontal

  15. A comparison of the natural survival of beagle dogs injected intravenously with low levels of 239Pu, 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, or 90Sr.

    PubMed

    Bruenger, F W; Miller, S C; Lloyd, R D

    1991-06-01

    The natural survival, relative to properly chosen controls, of 26 beagle dogs injected once intravenously with an average of 0.58 +/- 0.04 kBq 239Pu/kg, 23 dogs injected with 2.31 +/- 0.43 kBq 226Ra/kg, 13 dogs injected with 1.84 +/- 0.26 kBq 228Ra/kg, 12 dogs injected with 0.56 +/- 0.030 kBq 228Th/kg, and 12 dogs injected with 21.13 +/- 1.74 kBq 90Sr/kg was evaluated statistically. The amounts of these radionuclides are related directly to the estimated maximum permissible body burdens for humans suggested in ICRP II (1959). They constitute a level of exposure that initially was assumed to cause no deleterious effects in dogs. This study had two objectives: (1) identification of homogeneous control groups against which to evaluate the survival of the irradiated groups and (2) comparison of the survival characteristics and estimation of mortality or hazard rate ratios for control dogs vs dogs injected with the baseline dosages given above. It was shown, by goodness-of-fit plots, that the Cox proportional hazards model was an appropriate method of analysis. Therefore, covariates that possibly could influence survival were tested for significance. Only the effects of grand mal seizure, which is caused in epileptic dogs by an external stimulus and can be fatal if untreated, were significant (P less than 0.0001). Consequently, in the final model, death from grand mal seizure was considered as accidental. After censoring the dogs dying from grand mal seizure, it was established that the data for the control groups from previous and contemporary experiments could be pooled. The change in hazard rates relative to controls resulting from exposure to the baseline radionuclide level was modest, 1.6 times for 239Pu (P = 0.033), 1.0(4) for 226Ra (P = 0.86), 1.9 for 228Ra (P = 0.035), 2.5 for 228Th (P less than 0.001), and 0.52 for 90Sr (P = 0.041). Bone tumor induction was clearly elevated in dogs injected with 239Pu and 228Th. When the effect of these bone tumors on survival

  16. Computed tomographic findings of pulmonary atelectasis in healthy anesthetized Beagles.

    PubMed

    le Roux, Christelle; Cassel, Nicolette; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Zwingenberger, Allison L; Kirberger, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize the extent and location of atelectasis in healthy anesthetized dogs positioned in lateral recumbency and to determine whether repositioning dogs in sternal recumbency would resolve atelectasis. ANIMALS 6 healthy adult Beagles. PROCEDURES Each dog was anesthetized and underwent a CT examination twice with a 2-week interval between examinations. Once anesthetized, each dog was positioned in sternal recumbency, and a breath-hold helical transverse thoracic CT scan was acquired. The dog was then positioned in lateral recumbency for 30 minutes, and images were obtained at 5 preselected sites at 3, 8, 13, 20, and 30 minutes after repositioning (phase 1). Then, the dog was repositioned in sternal recumbency, and CT images were obtained at the 5 preselected sites at 5, 10, and 20 minutes after repositioning (phase 2). The protocol for the second examination was the same as the first except the dog was positioned in the opposite lateral recumbency during phase 1. The attenuation and cross-sectional area of the lung lobes at the preselected sites were measured and compared over time. RESULTS Lateral recumbency did not cause atelectasis in any of the dogs. Patchy areas of abnormally increased attenuation were infrequently detected in the left cranial lung lobe when dogs were positioned in left lateral recumbency, and those areas failed to resolve when dogs were positioned in sternal recumbency. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that the extent of lung attenuation changes was minimal in healthy anesthetized Beagles positioned in lateral recumbency and should not preclude CT examination. PMID:27668579

  17. Safety assessment of 4'-thio-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine in the beagle dog suggests a drug-induced centrally mediated effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    PubMed

    Colagiovanni, Dorothy B; Drolet, Daniel W; Dihel, Larry; Meyer, Dennis J; Hart, Karen; Wolf, Julie

    2006-01-01

    4'-Thio-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (OSI-7836) is a nucleoside analogue with structural similarity to gemcitabine and cytarabine (ara-C). Myelosuppression, reversible transaminase elevations, and flu-like symptoms are common side effects associated with human use of gemcitabine and ara-C. Fatigue is also associated with the use of gemcitabine and OSI-7836 in humans. To better understand the toxicity of OSI-7836, subchronic studies were conducted in dogs. OSI-7836 was administered on days 1 and 8 or on days 1, 2, and 3 of a 21-day dose regimen. These schedules attempted to match clinical trial dosing regimens. Routine toxicity study end points demonstrated that OSI-7836 was primarily cytotoxic to the gastrointestinal tract, bone marrow, and testes; the myelotoxicity was mild and reversible. Plasma pharmacokinetics were dose-linear with an elimination half-life of 2.2 h. Follow-up single dose experiments in dogs assessed drug effects on lymphocyte subpopulations and on adrenal and thyroid function. Populations of T and B cells were equally reduced following OSI-7836 administration. There were no adverse effects on thyroid function, but there were marked reductions in circulating cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone concentrations suggesting a centrally mediated impairment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. These findings show a toxicological profile with OSI-7836 similar to other nucleoside analogues and suggest that the beagle is a model for studying one possible cause of OSI-7836-related fatigue, impaired function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  18. Evaluation of three different dental implants in ligature-induced peri-implantitis in the beagle dog. Part I. Clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tillmanns, H W; Hermann, J S; Cagna, D R; Burgess, A V; Meffert, R M

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clinically evaluate experimental peri-implant breakdown. Hydroxyapatite-coated, titanium plasma-sprayed, and machined titanium-alloy surfaces were investigated. Eighty-four implants were placed in 14 beagle dogs. Pocket probing depths and clinical attachment level and mobility measurements were made. Dogs were sacrificed at 3 and 6 months. All experimental implants showed a significant loss in clinical attachment level (P < .05). Increased pocket probing depths for experimental implants occurred during the first 2 months, after which a plateau was reached. At the 3- and 6-month evaluation, pocket probing depths at experimental implants were significantly increased (P < .05). No differences among the three implant types were noted for clinical attachment levels and pocket probing depths. In general, greater mobility was found with the titanium-alloy implants than with hydroxyapatite-coated and titanium plasma-sprayed implants (P < .025). In addition, mobility measurements were significantly greater for experimental titanium-alloy implants during the first 3 months (P < .05). Clinical attachment level measurements were most sensitive to peri-implant status. All implants were equally susceptible to ligature-induced peri-implant breakdown. Consequently, meticulous oral hygiene and regular maintenance care are prerequisites for successful implantology.

  19. Protection of beagle dogs from mucosal challenge with canine oral papillomavirus by immunization with recombinant adenoviruses expressing codon-optimized early genes.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Kimberly B; Monteiro, Juanita M; Schultz, Loren D; Chen, Ling; Wang, Fubao; Ausensi, Virginia A; Dell, Elayne C; Santos, Elmer B; Moore, Richard A; Palker, Thomas J; Stanley, Margaret A; Jansen, Kathrin U

    2005-06-01

    Replication-deficient adenoviral (rAd5) vaccines containing codon-optimized E1, E2, E4, and E7 genes of canine oral papillomavirus (COPV) were tested singly or in combination to determine which vaccines could protect against mucosal challenge with COPV. In three studies, groups of 4-6 beagle dogs were immunized subcutaneously (s.c.) with 10(11) rAd5 at 8-10 weeks and 4-6 weeks prior to challenge with infectious COPV particles at multiple oral mucosal sites. Control dogs were immunized with equivalent doses of rAd5 expressing human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 L1 (rAd5-HPV-16 L1). In the first study, complete protection from COPV-induced papillomas was achieved by immunization with rAd5 vaccine combinations expressing either E1 + E2 or E1 + E2 + E4 + E7; whereas two of six dogs immunized with rAd5-E4 + rAd5-E7 and six of six rAd5-HPV16-L1-immunized control dogs developed oral papillomas. In two subsequent studies, rAd5-E1 and rAd5-E2 vaccines were tested singly or in combination to assess levels of protective immunity to COPV challenge. Subcutaneous immunization with either one or two doses of rAd5 expressing the COPV E1 and E2 genes could protect > 90% of challenged dogs from wart formation. In contrast, all eight dogs immunized with rAd5-HPV-16 L1 developed papillomas at multiple sites. Protection was accompanied by significant IFN-gamma responses to COPV E1 and E2 peptides. Partial protection was conferred by two immunizations with either rAd5-E1 (6 of 9 protected) or rAd5-E2 (8 of 9 protected). These data indicate that rAd5 expressing papillomavirus E1 and E2 proteins can induce strong protective responses even in outbred populations under practical immunization conditions. PMID:15892962

  20. Comparative toxicity of strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs. Report of second year, December 16, 1990--December 15, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Raabe, O.G.; Culbertson, M.R.; White, R.G.; Spangler, W.L.; Cain, G.R.; Parks, N.J.; Samuels, S.J.

    1991-12-31

    The authors are completing a 30-year study of the biological effects of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra in the beagle in order to predict the possible long-term hazards to people from chronic exposure to low levels of irradiation. Animals received either radionuclide by several means of administration: (a) continual ingestion of {sup 90}Sr, (b) a single intravenous injection of {sup 90}Sr, or (c) a series of eight intravenous injections of {sup 226}Ra. Although administration of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra ended at 540 days of age, the animals continued to receive chronic, low-level radiation doses from these bone-seeking radionuclides throughout life. This project is the largest single cohort study in beagles of internally deposited radionuclides. It is unique in use of the ingestion route for {sup 90}Sr and in exposures that began before birth and continued throughout development to adulthood with uniform labeling of the skeletons with {sup 90}Sr. The last of the dogs died in 1986 at age 18.5 years, but the authors are continuing to investigate the significance of these long-term exposures given at low dose rates with regard to cancer production, physiologic well-being, and shortening of life through the detailed records that were kept and by study of preserved materials. All the data have been successfully accumulated and entered into a main-frame computer data base management system. Current work is exclusively directed at preparing research papers summarizing the results and the associated biostatistical and survival analyses.

  1. Comparative toxicity of strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs. Progress report of second year, December 16, 1990--December 15, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Raabe, O.G.; Culbertson, M.R.; White, R.G.; Spangler, W.L.; Cain, G.R.; Parks, N.J.; Samuels, S.J.

    1991-12-01

    We are completing a 30-year study of the biological effects of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra in the beagle in order to predict the possible long-term hazards to people from chronic exposure to low levels of irradiation. Animals received either radionuclide by several means of administration: (a) continual ingestion of {sup 90}Sr, (b) a single intravenous injection of {sup 90}Sr, or (c) a series of eight intravenous injections of {sup 226}Ra. Although administration of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra ended at 540 days of age, the animals continued to receive chronic, low-level radiation doses from these bone-seeking radionuclides throughout life. This project is the largest single cohort study in beagles of internally deposited radionuclides. It is unique in use of the ingestion route for {sup 90}Sr and in exposure that began before birth and continued throughout development to adulthood with uniform labeling of the skeletons with {sup 90}Sr. The last of the dogs died in 1986 at age 18.5 years, but we are continuing to investigate the significance of these long-term exposures given at low dose rates with regard to cancer production, physiologic well-being, and shortening of life through the detailed records that were kept and by study of preserved materials. All the data have been successfully accumulated and entered into a main-frame computer data base management system. Current work is exclusively directed at preparing research papers summarizing the results and the associated biostatistical and survival analyses. 15 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  2. Comparative toxicity of strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs. Report of first year, December 16, 1989--December 15, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Raabe, O.G.; Culbertson, M.R.; White, R.G.; Spangler, W.L.; Cain, G.R.; Parks, N.J.; Samuels, S.J.

    1990-12-31

    The authors are completing a 30-year study of the biologic effects of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra in the beagle in order to predict the possible long-term hazards to people from chronic exposure to low levels of irradiation. Animals received either radionuclide by several means of administration: (a) continual ingestion of {sup 90}Sr, (b) a single intravenous injection of {sup 90}Sr, or (c) a series of eight intravenous injections of {sup 226}Ra. Although administration of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra ended at 540 days of age, the animals continued to receive chronic, low-level radiation doses from these bone-seeking radionuclides throughout life. This project is the largest single cohort study in beagles of internally deposited radionuclides. It is unique in use of the ingestion route for {sup 90}Sr and in exposures that began before birth and continued throughout development to adulthood with uniform labeling of the skeletons with {sup 90}Sr. The last of the dogs died in 1986 at age 18.5, but the authors are continuing to investigate the significance of these long-term exposures given at low dose rates with regard to cancer production, physiologic well-being, and shortening of life through the detailed records that were kept and by study of preserved materials. All the data have been successfully accumulated and entered into a main-frame computer data base management system. Current work is exclusively directed at preparing research papers summarizing the results and the associated biostatistical and survival analyses.

  3. Ontogenetic allometry of the Beagle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mammalian juveniles undergo dramatic changes in body conformation during development. As one of the most common companion animals, the time line and trajectory of a dog’s development and its body’s re-proportioning is of particular scientific interest. Several ontogenetic studies have investigated the skeletal development in dogs, but none has paid heed to the scapula as a critical part of the mammalian forelimb. Its functional integration into the forelimb changed the correspondence between fore- and hindlimb segments and previous ontogenetic studies observed more similar growth patterns for functionally than serially homologous elements. In this study, the ontogenetic development of six Beagle siblings was monitored between 9 and 51 weeks of age to investigate their skeletal allometry and compare this with data from other lines, breeds and species. Results Body mass increased exponentially with time; log linear increase was observed up to the age of 15 weeks. Compared with body mass, withers and pelvic height as well as the lengths of the trunk, scapula, brachium and antebrachium, femur and crus exhibited positive allometry. Trunk circumference and pes showed negative allometry in all, pelvis and manus in most dogs. Thus, the typical mammalian intralimb re-proportioning with the proximal limb elements exhibiting positive allometry and the very distal ones showing negative allometry was observed. Relative lengths of the antebrachium, femur and crus increased, while those of the distal elements decreased. Conclusions Beagles are fully-grown regarding body height but not body mass at about one year of age. Particular attention should be paid to feeding and physical exertion during the first 15 weeks when they grow more intensively. Compared with its siblings, a puppy’s size at 9 weeks is a good indicator for its final size. Among siblings, growth duration may vary substantially and appears not to be related to the adult size. Within breeds, a longer

  4. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism studies on the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-derived metabolite GLP-1(9-36)amide in male Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Eng, Heather; Sharma, Raman; McDonald, Thomas S; Landis, Margaret S; Stevens, Benjamin D; Kalgutkar, Amit S

    2014-09-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)(7-36)amide is a 30-amino acid peptide hormone that is secreted from intestinal enteroendocrine L-cells in response to nutrients. GLP-1(7-36)amide possesses potent insulinotropic actions in the augmentation of glucose-dependent insulin secretion. GLP-1(7-36)amide is rapidly metabolized by dipeptidyl peptidase-IV to yield GLP-1(9-36)amide as the principal metabolite. Contrary to the earlier notion that peptide cleavage products of native GLP-1(7-36)amide [including GLP-1(9-36)amide] are pharmacologically inactive, recent studies have demonstrated cardioprotective and insulinomimetic effects with GLP-1(9-36)amide in mice, dogs and humans. In the present work, in vitro metabolism and pharmacokinetic properties of GLP-1(9-36)amide have been characterized in dogs, since this preclinical species has been used as an animal model to demonstrate the in vivo vasodilatory and cardioprotective effects of GLP-1(9-36)amide. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay was developed for the quantitation of the intact peptide in hepatocyte incubations as opposed to a previously reported enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Although GLP-1(9-36)amide was resistant to proteolytic cleavage in dog plasma and bovine serum albumin (t1/2>240 min), the peptide was rapidly metabolized in dog hepatocytes with a t1/2 of 110 min. Metabolite identification studies in dog hepatocytes revealed a variety of N-terminus cleavage products, most of which, have also been observed in human and mouse hepatocytes. Proteolysis at the C-terminus was not observed in GLP-1(9-36)amide. Following the administration of a single intravenous bolus dose (20 µg/kg) to male Beagle dogs, GLP-1(9-36)amide exhibited a mean plasma clearance of 15 ml/min/kg and a low steady state distribution volume of 0.05 l/kg, which translated into a short elimination half life of 0.05 h. Following subcutaneous administration of GLP-1(9-36)amide at 50 µg/kg, systemic exposure of

  5. Acute toxicity of sodium formononetin-3'-sulphonate (Sul-F) in Sprague-Dawley rats and Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Li, Guisheng; Yang, Menglin; Hao, Xinmiao; Li, Chunmei; Gao, Yonglin; Tao, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Sodium formononetin-3'-sulphonate (Sul-F, C16H12O7SNa), a water-soluble derivate of formononetin, provided significant neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to evaluate acute toxicity of Sul-F after intravenous administration in rats and dogs. Animals were intravenously administered Sul-F at the maximum dosage of 2000 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg in rats and dogs, respectively. After treatment, rats and dogs were monitored for 14 days. Body weight, clinical signs, the hematological and biochemical findings, and pathological examination were performed. The results showed that no Sul-F related clinical signs of toxicity or mortality were observed in rats. Of note, the transient vomiting was found in dogs after Sul-F administration 15-20 min. In addition, a white crystal, non-metabolic Sul-F, was found after urine volatilization in Sul-F treated animals (rats and dogs). However, neither biochemical findings nor histopathological changes due to Sul-F treatment were found in tests. In summary, the present study results provided practical guidance for selecting a safe dosage for Sul-F further studies and clinical trials in the future.

  6. Solid dispersion tablets of breviscapine with polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 for improved dissolution and bioavailability to commercial breviscapine tablets in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wenjuan; Shen, Lan; Xu, Desheng; Zhao, Lijie; Ruan, Kefeng; Feng, Yi

    2014-09-01

    Breviscapine, one of cardiovascular drugs extracted from a Chinese herb Erigeron breviscapinus, has been frequently used to treat cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, angina pectoris, coronary heart disease and stroke. However, its poor water solubility and low bioavailability in vivo severely restrict the clinical application. To overcome these drawbacks, breviscapine solid dispersion tablets consisting of breviscapine, polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP K30), microcrystalline cellulose and crospovidone were appropriately prepared. In vitro dissolution profiles showed that breviscapine released percentage of solid dispersion tablets reached 90 %, whereas it was only 40 % for commercial breviscapine tablets. Comparative pharmacokinetic study between solid dispersion tablets and commercial products was investigated on the normal beagle dogs after oral administration. Results showed that the bioavailability of breviscapine was greatly increased by 3.45-fold for solid dispersion tablets. The greatly improved dissolution rate and bioavailability might be attributed to intermolecular hydrogen bonding reactions between PVP K30 and scutellarin. These findings suggest that our solid dispersion tablets can greatly improve the bioavailability as well as the dissolution rate of breviscapine.

  7. Energy Requirements of Adult Dogs: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bermingham, Emma N.; Thomas, David G.; Cave, Nicholas J.; Morris, Penelope J.; Butterwick, Richard F.; German, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the maintenance energy requirements of adult dogs. Suitable publications were first identified, and then used to generate relationships amongst energy requirements, husbandry, activity level, methodology, sex, neuter status, dog size, and age in healthy adult dogs. Allometric equations for maintenance energy requirements were determined using log-log linear regression. So that the resulting equations could readily be compared with equations reported by the National Research Council, maintenance energy requirements in the current study were determined in kcal/kg0.75 body weight (BW). Ultimately, the data of 70 treatment groups from 29 publications were used, and mean (± standard deviation) maintenance energy requirements were 142.8±55.3 kcal.kgBW−0.75.day−1. The corresponding allometric equation was 81.5 kcal.kgBW−0.93.day−1 (adjusted R2 = 0.64; 70 treatment groups). Type of husbandry had a significant effect on maintenance energy requirements (P<0.001): requirements were greatest in racing dogs, followed by working dogs and hunting dogs, whilst the energy requirements of pet dogs and kennel dogs were least. Maintenance energy requirements were less in neutered compared with sexually intact dogs (P<0.001), but there was no effect of sex. Further, reported activity level tended to effect the maintenance energy requirement of the dog (P = 0.09). This review suggests that estimating maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be accurate, but that predictions that factor in husbandry, neuter status and, possibly, activity level might be superior. Additionally, more information on the nutrient requirements of older dogs, and those at the extremes of body size (i.e. giant and toy breeds) is needed. PMID:25313818

  8. Energy requirements of adult dogs: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, Emma N; Thomas, David G; Cave, Nicholas J; Morris, Penelope J; Butterwick, Richard F; German, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the maintenance energy requirements of adult dogs. Suitable publications were first identified, and then used to generate relationships amongst energy requirements, husbandry, activity level, methodology, sex, neuter status, dog size, and age in healthy adult dogs. Allometric equations for maintenance energy requirements were determined using log-log linear regression. So that the resulting equations could readily be compared with equations reported by the National Research Council, maintenance energy requirements in the current study were determined in kcal/kg(0.75) body weight (BW). Ultimately, the data of 70 treatment groups from 29 publications were used, and mean (± standard deviation) maintenance energy requirements were 142.8±55.3 kcal·kgBW(-0.75)·day(-1). The corresponding allometric equation was 81.5 kcal·kgBW(-0.9)·day(-1) (adjusted R2 = 0.64; 70 treatment groups). Type of husbandry had a significant effect on maintenance energy requirements (P<0.001): requirements were greatest in racing dogs, followed by working dogs and hunting dogs, whilst the energy requirements of pet dogs and kennel dogs were least. Maintenance energy requirements were less in neutered compared with sexually intact dogs (P<0.001), but there was no effect of sex. Further, reported activity level tended to effect the maintenance energy requirement of the dog (P = 0.09). This review suggests that estimating maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be accurate, but that predictions that factor in husbandry, neuter status and, possibly, activity level might be superior. Additionally, more information on the nutrient requirements of older dogs, and those at the extremes of body size (i.e. giant and toy breeds) is needed.

  9. Energy requirements of adult dogs: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, Emma N; Thomas, David G; Cave, Nicholas J; Morris, Penelope J; Butterwick, Richard F; German, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the maintenance energy requirements of adult dogs. Suitable publications were first identified, and then used to generate relationships amongst energy requirements, husbandry, activity level, methodology, sex, neuter status, dog size, and age in healthy adult dogs. Allometric equations for maintenance energy requirements were determined using log-log linear regression. So that the resulting equations could readily be compared with equations reported by the National Research Council, maintenance energy requirements in the current study were determined in kcal/kg(0.75) body weight (BW). Ultimately, the data of 70 treatment groups from 29 publications were used, and mean (± standard deviation) maintenance energy requirements were 142.8±55.3 kcal·kgBW(-0.75)·day(-1). The corresponding allometric equation was 81.5 kcal·kgBW(-0.9)·day(-1) (adjusted R2 = 0.64; 70 treatment groups). Type of husbandry had a significant effect on maintenance energy requirements (P<0.001): requirements were greatest in racing dogs, followed by working dogs and hunting dogs, whilst the energy requirements of pet dogs and kennel dogs were least. Maintenance energy requirements were less in neutered compared with sexually intact dogs (P<0.001), but there was no effect of sex. Further, reported activity level tended to effect the maintenance energy requirement of the dog (P = 0.09). This review suggests that estimating maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be accurate, but that predictions that factor in husbandry, neuter status and, possibly, activity level might be superior. Additionally, more information on the nutrient requirements of older dogs, and those at the extremes of body size (i.e. giant and toy breeds) is needed. PMID:25313818

  10. Pathologic changes in the hearts of beagles irradiated with fractionated fast neutrons or photons

    SciTech Connect

    Zook, B.C.; Bradley, E.W.; Casarett, G.W.; Rogers, C.C.

    1981-12-01

    Thirty-nine adult male purebred beagles received either fast-neutron or photon irradiation to the right thorax to determine the effects on pulmonary tissue. The right atrium, a small portion of the right ventricle, and the right anterior abdomen were included in the field. Twenty-four dogs (six/group) received fast neutrons with a mean energy of 15 MeV to doses of 1000, 1500, 2250, or 3375 rad in four fractions per week for 6 weeks. Fifteen dogs received 3000, 4500, or 6750 rad of photons (five/group) in an identical fractionation pattern. Fourteen dogs died or were euthanatized in extremis between 47 and 708 days after radiation because of radiation damage to digestive organs. Six other dogs died of anesthetic accidents between 196 and 1144 days after radiation; these deaths were probably related to hepatic dysfunction. Two neutron-irradiated dogs developed cardiac neoplasms after 396 and 1624 days. One dog died of a myocardial infarct and one died of an unrelated infection. The major atrial lesions were hemorrhage and necrosis of myocardial cells in dogs that died 47-109 days postirradiation. Myocardial and endocardial fibrosis were most extensive in dogs that died 84 or more days following irradiation. All beagles had degenerative and occlusive vascular changes associated with atrial lesions. The relative biological effectiveness of fast neutrons for pathologic injury of the heart was estimated to be between 4 and 5.

  11. Effects of Solutol (Kolliphor) and cremophor in polyethylene glycol 400 vehicle formulations in Sprague-Dawley rats and beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Alan H; Kemp, Daniel C; Faiola, Brenda; Jordan, Holly L; Merrill, Christine L; Hailey, James R; Brown, Randy E; Bailey, David W

    2013-01-01

    When conventional vehicles (eg, methylcellulose and water) impart inadequate physical, chemical, and/or biological properties for proper toxicological assessment of test article formulations, nonconventional vehicles may be considered. Often toxicity data for nonconventional vehicle formulations are limited. Studies were conducted to collect toxicity data from a rodent and a non-rodent species given 2 nonconventional vehicles, Solutol HS15/polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 and Cremophor RH40/PEG 400, with differing formulations and dose volumes (10 mL/kg for rats; 2 or 5 mL/kg for dogs). In rats, both vehicles caused increase in kidney weights (males only) and decrease in thymic weights (males only) without concurrent microscopic findings; altered urine electrolytes, minimally decreased serum electrolytes (males only), and increased serum total cholesterol (females only) were also present. The Cremophor formulation was also associated with increased serum urea (males only) and urine phosphorus: creatinine. For rats given the Solutol formulation, both genders had decreased urine glucose parameters and males had increased urine volume. In dogs, loose/watery feces and emesis were present given either vehicle, and mucus-cell hyperplasia of the ileum was present given the Solutol formulation. Increased red blood cell mass and decreased urine volume in dogs given 30% Solutol/70% PEG 400 (5 mL/kg/d) were likely due to subclinical dehydration and hemoconcentration. For the Cremophor formulations, dose volume-dependent increased incidence of minimal subepithelial gastric hemorrhage was noted in dogs, and dogs given 5 mL/kg/d showed increased serum urea nitrogen. Overall, regardless of the formulation or dose volume, neither vehicle produced overt toxicity in either species, but the Solutol formulation produced fewer effects in rats. Generally, lower dose volumes minimized the severity and/or incidence of findings.

  12. Efficacy of selamectin against adult flea infestations (Ctenocephalides felis felis and Ctenocephalides canis) on dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    McTier, T L; Jones, R L; Holbert, M S; Murphy, M G; Watson, P; Sun, F; Smith, D G; Rowan, T G; Jernigan, A D

    2000-08-23

    Selamectin was evaluated in eight controlled studies (4 in dogs, 4 in cats) to determine the efficacy of a single topical unit dose providing the recommended minimum dosage of 6mgkg(-1) against Ctenocephalides felis felis and Ctenocephalides canis fleas on dogs and against C. felis on cats. In addition, the effect of bathing on the efficacy of selamectin against C. felis was evaluated. Identical studies were performed in Beagles and domestic shorthaired cats. For each study, animals were allocated randomly to treatments of 8-12 animals each. All studies (dog studies A, B, C, and D and cat studies A, B, C, and D) evaluated the efficacy of selamectin without bathing. In addition, study C in both dogs and cats evaluated efficacy with a shampoo bath at 24h after dosing, and study D evaluated the efficacy of selamectin with water soaking at 2h after dosing or with a shampoo bath at 2-6h after dosing. Dog study B evaluated efficacy against C. canis, whereas all other studies used C. felis. In each study, selamectin was administered on day 0 as a topical dose that was applied directly to the skin in a single spot at the base of the neck in front of the scapulae. Dogs and cats were infested with approximately 100 viable unfed C. felis or C. canis on days 4, 11, 18, and 27. On days 7, 14, 21, and 30, approximately 72h after infestation, a comb count of the number of viable fleas present on each animal was made. For C. felis and C. canis for dogs and cats, compared with controls, selamectin achieved significant reductions in geometric mean adult flea comb counts of > or =98.9% on days 7, 14, and 21 in all eight studies. On day 30, the reduction for C. felis remained at or above 98.0%. This included the dogs and cats that were soaked with water or bathed with shampoo at 2, 6, or 24h after treatment. There were no significant (P>0.05) differences between the flea counts from selamectin-treated animals in these studies, regardless of bathing status. On day 30, a significant

  13. Determination of the Tissue Distribution and Excretion by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry of the Nonadecapeptide 14C-Moli1901 in Beagle dogs after Intratracheal Instillation

    SciTech Connect

    Rickert, D E; Dingley, K H; Ubick, E; Dix, K J; Molina, L

    2004-07-02

    Administration of {sup 14}C-Moli1901 (duramycin, 2622U90), a 19 amino acid polycyclic peptide by intratracheal instillation (approximately 100 {micro}g) into the left cranial lobe of the lung of beagle dogs resulted in retention of 64% of the dose in the left cranial lobe for up to 28 days. In this study, we used accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify Moli901 following administration of only 0.045 {micro}Ci of {sup 14}C-Moli901 per dog. Limits of quantitation of AMS were 0.03 (urine) to 0.3 (feces) ng equiv. Moli1901/g. Whole blood and plasma concentrations of {sup 14}C were <5ng/ml at all times after the dose. Concentrations of {sup 14}C in whole blood and plasma declined over the first day after the dose and rose thereafter, with the rise in plasma concentrations lagging behind those in whole blood. During the first 3 days after the dose, plasma accounted for the majority of {sup 14}C in whole blood, but after that time, plasma accounted for only 25-30% of the {sup 14}C in whole blood. Tissue (left and right caudal lung lobe, liver, kidney, spleen, brain) and bile concentrations were low, always less than 0.25% the concentrations found in the left cranial lung lobe. Approximately 13% of the dose was eliminated in urine and feces in 28 days, with fecal elimination accounting for about 10% of the dose. The data presented here are consistent with that obtained in other species. Moli1901 is slowly absorbed and excreted from the lung, and it does not accumulate in other tissues. Moli1901 is currently in the clinic and has proven to be safe in single dose studies in human volunteers and cystic fibrosis patients by the inhalation route. No information on the disposition of the compound in humans is available. This study in dogs demonstrates the feasibility of obtaining that information using {sup 14}C-Moli1901 and AMS.

  14. Two Realistic Beagle Models for Dose Assessment.

    PubMed

    Stabin, Michael G; Kost, Susan D; Segars, William P; Guilmette, Raymond A

    2015-09-01

    Previously, the authors developed a series of eight realistic digital mouse and rat whole body phantoms based on NURBS technology to facilitate internal and external dose calculations in various species of rodents. In this paper, two body phantoms of adult beagles are described based on voxel images converted to NURBS models. Specific absorbed fractions for activity in 24 organs are presented in these models. CT images were acquired of an adult male and female beagle. The images were segmented, and the organs and structures were modeled using NURBS surfaces and polygon meshes. Each model was voxelized at a resolution of 0.75 × 0.75 × 2 mm. The voxel versions were implemented in GEANT4 radiation transport codes to calculate specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) using internal photon and electron sources. Photon and electron SAFs were then calculated for relevant organs in both models. The SAFs for photons and electrons were compatible with results observed by others. Absorbed fractions for electrons for organ self-irradiation were significantly less than 1.0 at energies above 0.5 MeV, as expected for many of these small-sized organs, and measurable cross irradiation was observed for many organ pairs for high-energy electrons (as would be emitted by nuclides like 32P, 90Y, or 188Re). The SAFs were used with standardized decay data to develop dose factors (DFs) for radiation dose calculations using the RADAR Method. These two new realistic models of male and female beagle dogs will be useful in radiation dosimetry calculations for external or internal simulated sources. PMID:26222214

  15. Beagle 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, D. S.; Pillinger, C. T.; Sims, M. R.; Pullan, D.; Whitehead, S.; Thatcher, J.; Clemmet, J.; Linguard, S.; Underwood, J.; Richter, L.

    2000-07-01

    Beagle 2 is the British-led lander of the ESA Mars Express mission. The prime objectives of Beagle 2 are to (1) search for criteria relating to past life on Mars, (2) seek trace atmospheric species indicative of extant life, (3) measure the detailed atmospheric composition to establish the geological history of the planet and to document the processes involved in seasonal climatic changes or diurnal cycling, (4) investigate the oxidative state of the Martian surface, rock interiors and beneath boulders, (5) examine the geological nature of the rocks, their chemistry, mineralogy, petrology and age, (6) characterise the geomorphology of the landing site, and (7) appraise the environmental conditions including temperature, pressure, wind speed, UV flux, etc. The entry system comprises a front shield/aeroshell, a back cover/bioshield and release mechanisms. The descent system depends on a mortar, pilot chute, main parachute and main parachute release mechanism. The Lander itself has a clam-like structure and lands cocooned within gas-filled airbags. The outer shell provides energy absorption and thermal insulation within a casing that must spread the impact loads and resists tearing. Many of the Beagle 2 science instruments are integrated with a robotic arm that transports them to deploy them in positions where they can study or obtain samples of the rocks and soil. Sub-surface samples are obtained using a Pluto (PLanetary Undersurface TOol) which has the ability to crawl across, and burrow below the planetary surface. The constraints placed on Beagle 2 by mass restrictions of the Mars Express mission has meant that many innovations are necessary to ensure delivery of a sufficient science payload mass capable of the full range of measurements necessary to achieve the mission objectives. In particular a highly integrated approach to lander sytems and science instruments has been essential. This approach and the necessary technology developments have important

  16. Duration-dependent effects of clinically relevant oral alendronate doses on cortical bone toughness in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Burr, David B.; Liu, Ziyue; Allen, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) have been shown to significantly reduce bone toughness in vertebrae within one year when given at clinical doses to dogs. Although BPs also reduce toughness in cortical bone when given at high doses, their effect on cortical bone material properties when given at clinical doses is less clear. In part, this may be due to the use of small sample sizes that were powered to demonstrate differences in bone mineral density rather than bone’s material properties. Our lab has conducted several studies in which dogs were treated with alendronate at a clinically relevant dose. The goal of this study was to examine these published and unpublished data collectively to determine whether there is a significant time-dependent effect of alendronate on toughness of cortical bone. This analysis seemed particularly relevant given the recent occurrence of atypical femoral fractures in humans. Differences in the toughness of ribs taken from dogs derived from five separate experiments were measured. The dogs were orally administered saline (CON, 1 ml/kg/day) or alendronate (ALN) at a clinical dose (0.2 mg/kg/day). Treatment duration ranged from 3 months to 3 years. Groups were compared using ANOVA, and time trends analyzed with linear regression analysis. Linear regressions of the percent difference in toughness between CON and ALN at each time point revealed a significant reduction in toughness with longer exposure to ALN. The downward trend was primarily driven by a downward trend in post-yield toughness, whereas toughness in the pre-yield region was not changed relative to CON. These data suggest that a longer duration of treatment with clinical doses of ALN results in deterioration of cortical bone toughness in a time-dependent manner. As the duration of treatment is lengthened, the cortical bone exhibits increasingly brittle behavior. This may be important in assessing the role that long-term BP treatments play in the risk of atypical fractures of femoral

  17. Histologic evaluation of probe penetration during clinical assessment of periodontal attachment levels. An investigation of experimentally induced periodontal lesions in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Jansen, J; Pilot, T; Corba, N

    1981-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate histologically the extent and characteristics of the penetration of a periodontal probe during clinical assessment of loss of periodontal attachment in three different situations: (1) experimental mild gingivitis, (2) experimental severe periodontal inflammation and (3) experimental moderate periodontal inflammation. Mild gingivitis was obtained by merely allowing plaque to accumulate on the teeth. Severe periodontal inflammation was created using copper bands for a period of 3 weeks followed by placement of cotton ligatures for another 11 weeks. Moderate periodontal inflammation group was obtained by allowing the experimental defects to recover for a period of 3 to 31 weeks. At different times gutta percha imitations of a thin periodontal probe were inserted into the pockets using a gentle but unknown force. Histologic observation in 30 specimens showed that epithelium was always present around the probe tip, in most instances forming a continuous layer of epithelial cells. Histometrical analysis showed that in mild gingivitis the probe tip failed to reach the apical termination of the junctional epithelium (mean = -0.84 mm). In severe periodontal inflammation the tip of the probe went past this point (mean = +0.50 mm), while in moderate periodontal inflammation the probe tip came closest to the apical termination of the junctional epithelium (mean = -0.05 mm). It is concluded that the epithelial lining of a pocket stays intact, even in severe periodontal inflammation where the probe tip is situated apical to the apical termination of the junctional epithelium, indicating that during clinical probing the periodontal tissues are compressed and displaced but not perforated. It is also concluded that in beagle dogs the extent of probe penetration in experimentally inflamed periodontal tissues is dependent upon the degree of inflammation.

  18. VTX-1463, a novel TLR-8 agonist, attenuates nasal congestion after ragweed challenge in sensitized beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Royer, Christopher M; Rudolph, Karin; Dietsch, Gregory N; Hershberg, Robert M; Barrett, Edward G

    2016-03-01

    VTX-1463 is a selective toll-like receptor (TLR) 8 agonist that activates a subset of innate immune cells to produce a unique cytokine profile. Delivery of VTX-1463 via nasal spray may modulate the nasal response in allergic rhinitis. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of VTX-1463 on the nasal response in a dog model of allergic rhinitis. Ragweed (RW)-sensitized dogs were pretreated with increasing doses of VTX-1463 1 day prior to RW challenge or with two doses (4 or 8 days and 1 day prior to RW). Changes in nasal cavity volume (NV) were determined by acoustic rhinometry and nasal lavage fluid was assessed for histamine, lipid mediators, and cellular infiltrates at sequential times following RW challenge. VTX-1463 pretreatment significantly preserved NV during the acute response to RW challenge for all doses tested. The area under the curve (AUC) for NV over the 1.5 h assessment period in RW challenged vehicle controls averaged 51.5% (SEM: ±2.12%) of the baseline NV over all studies. A single 100 µg dose of VTX-1463 given 1 day prior to RW yielded an AUC for NV of 69.3% (±6.59%) of baseline, while a 1000 µg dose administered twice (8 days and 1 day prior to RW) resulted in an AUC for NV of 85.4% (±4.74%, P < 0.05) of baseline. For a single 1000 µg VTX-1463 dose 1 day prior to RW, multiple mediators produced by mast cells, including histamine, PGE2, PGD2, and cysteinyl LTs, were significantly reduced relative to the vehicle control. The selective TLR8 agonist, VTX-1463, preserved NV in a dose-dependent manner in the acute phase of a nasal allergic response. The therapeutic effect appears to result from attenuated mast cell mediator release. Modulating the local cytokine response via TLR8 agonism appears to have a therapeutic effect on the acute allergic nasal response. PMID:27042301

  19. Effects of Lepidium sativum, Nigella sativa and Trigonella foenum-graceum on phenytoin pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Alkharfy, Khalid M; Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Khan, Rao M A; Ahmad, Ajaz

    2013-12-01

    The present work was designed to evaluate the effect of some commonly used herbs viz. garden cress (Lepidium sativum), black seed (Nigella sativa) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum) on the disposition of phenytoin after oral administration in a dog model. Phenytoin was given orally at a dose of 50 mg, and blood samples were obtained for the determination of drug's pharmacokinetic parameters. After a suitable washout period, animals were commenced on a specific herb treatment for one week. Garden cress treatment caused a modest increase in maximum observed concentration (Cmax ) and terminal half-life (T1/2λ ) of phenytoin with a reduction in clearance by 33%. The effect of black seed therapy was more drastic on drug elimination and to a lesser extent on its volume of distribution at steady state (Vss ) with a consequent reduction in systemic exposure measured by area under the curve (AUC0-∞ ) by about 87%. The effect of fenugreek therapy resembled, albeit to a lesser extent, that of black seed with a significant reduction in AUC0-∞ by ~72%. In addition, there was a 73% increase in Vss . Our findings suggest that the phenytoin disposition can be significantly altered by the concurrent consumption of tested herbal products.

  20. Age and distraction are determinants of performance on a novel visual search task in aged Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Snigdha, Shikha; Christie, Lori-Ann; De Rivera, Christina; Araujo, Joseph A; Milgram, Norton W; Cotman, Carl W

    2012-02-01

    Aging has been shown to disrupt performance on tasks that require intact visual search and discrimination abilities in human studies. The goal of the present study was to determine if canines show age-related decline in their ability to perform a novel simultaneous visual search task. Three groups of canines were included: a young group (N = 10; 3 to 4.5 years), an old group (N = 10; 8 to 9.5 years), and a senior group (N = 8; 11 to 15.3 years). Subjects were first tested for their ability to learn a simple two-choice discrimination task, followed by the visual search task. Attentional demands in the task were manipulated by varying the number of distracter items; dogs received an equal number of trials with either zero, one, two, or three distracters. Performance on the two-choice discrimination task varied with age, with senior canines making significantly more errors than the young. Performance accuracy on the visual search task also varied with age; senior animals were significantly impaired compared to both the young and old, and old canines were intermediate in performance between young and senior. Accuracy decreased significantly with added distracters in all age groups. These results suggest that aging impairs the ability of canines to discriminate between task-relevant and -irrelevant stimuli. This is likely to be derived from impairments in cognitive domains such as visual memory and learning and selective attention.

  1. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament

    PubMed Central

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs. PMID:26758076

  2. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament.

    PubMed

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs. PMID:26758076

  3. Simultaneous determination of paeoniflorin, albiflorin, ferulic acid, tetrahydropalmatine, protopine, typhaneoside, senkyunolide I in Beagle dogs plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after Oral Administration of Shaofu Zhuyu Decoction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaochen; Su, Shulan; Cui, Wenxia; Liu, Pei; Duan, Jin-ao; Guo, Jianming; Li, Zhenhao; Shang, Erxin; Qian, Dawei; Huang, Zhijun

    2014-07-01

    In this present study, a sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous quantification of paeoniflorin, albiflorin, ferulic acid, tetrahydropalmatine, protopine, typhaneoside and senkyunolide I in Beagle dog plasma after oral administration of the Shao-Fu-Zhu-Yu Decoction. Chloramphenicol and clarithromycin were used as internal standards. Plasma samples were processed by protein precipitation with methanol. The separation was performed on an Acquity BEH C18 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.7μm) at a flow-rate of 0.4mL/min, using 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile as mobile phase. Method validation was performed as per Food and Drug Administration guidelines and the results met the acceptance criteria. After validation, this method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study. The results showed that the apparent plasma clearance of paeoniflorin, albiflorin, typhaneoside and senkyunolide I were significantly higher than others. Double peak was observed in plasma concentration curves of tetrahydropalmatine, the ferulic acid had a good absorption in Beagle dog plasma, and senkyunolide I was detected in plasma from the first blood sampling time (15min) and rapidly reached Tmax. The compound of typhaneoside has a low bioavailability according to the results. PMID:24907546

  4. Simultaneous quantitation of polygalaxanthone III and four ginsenosides by ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in rat and beagle dog plasma after oral administration of Kai-Xin-San: application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Lv, Chunxiao; Li, Qing; Zhang, Xiaowen; He, Bosai; Xu, Huarong; Yin, Yidi; Liu, Ran; Liu, Jingjing; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun

    2014-05-01

    A fast, selective, and quantitative ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of polygalaxanthone III, ginsenoside Rb1, ginsenoside Rd, ginsenoside Re, and ginsenoside Rg1 in the plasma of rat and beagle dog after oral administration of Kai-Xin-San. After addition of the internal standard, salidroside, the plasma samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and separated on a Venusil MP C18 column with methanol/0.01% acetic acid water as mobile phase. The tandem mass spectrometric detection was performed in the multiple reaction monitoring with turbo ion spray source in a switching ionization mode. The method was examined, and found to be precise and accurate with the linearity range of the compounds. The intra- and interday precision and accuracy of the analytes were well within acceptance criteria (±15%). The mean extraction recoveries of analytes and internal standard were all >75.0%. The validated method has been successfully applied to comparing pharmacokinetic profiles of analytes in rat and beagle dog plasma. The results indicated that no significant differences were observed in pharmacokinetic parameters of ginsenoside Rg1, while the others had significant differences, which may due to the different mechanisms of absorption and metabolism.

  5. Assessment of low-dose cisplatin as a model of nausea and emesis in beagle dogs, potential for repeated administration.

    PubMed

    Kenward, Hannah; Pelligand, Ludovic; Elliott, Jonathan

    2014-08-01

    Cisplatin is a highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy agent, which is often used to induce nausea and emesis in animal models. The cytotoxic properties of cisplatin also cause adverse events that negatively impact on animal welfare preventing repeated administration of cisplatin. In this study, we assessed whether a low (subclinical) dose of cisplatin could be utilized as a model of nausea and emesis in the dog while decreasing the severity of adverse events to allow repeated administration. The emetic, nausea-like behavior and potential biomarker response to both the clinical dose (70 mg/m2) and low dose (15 mg/m2) of cisplatin was assessed. Plasma creatinine concentrations and granulocyte counts were used to assess adverse effects on the kidneys and bone marrow, respectively. Nausea-like behavior and emesis was induced by both doses of cisplatin, but the latency to onset was greater in the low-dose group. No significant change in plasma creatinine was detected for either dose groups. Granulocytes were significantly reduced compared with baseline (P = 0.000) following the clinical, but not the low-dose cisplatin group. Tolerability of repeated administration was assessed with 4 administrations of an 18 mg/m2 dose cisplatin. Plasma creatinine did not change significantly. Cumulative effects on the granulocytes occurred, they were significantly decreased (P = 0.03) from baseline at 3 weeks following cisplatin for the 4th administration only. Our results suggest that subclinical doses (15 and 18 mg/m2) of cisplatin induce nausea-like behavior and emesis but have reduced adverse effects compared with the clinical dose allowing for repeated administration in crossover studies.

  6. Periodontal regeneration in class III furcation defects of beagle dogs using guided tissue regenerative therapy with platelet-derived growth factor.

    PubMed

    Park, J B; Matsuura, M; Han, K Y; Norderyd, O; Lin, W L; Genco, R J; Cho, M I

    1995-06-01

    We developed an effective regenerative therapy, referred to as platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-modulated guided tissue regenerative (GTR) therapy (P-GTR), capable of achieving periodontal regeneration of horizontal (Class III) furcation defects in the beagle dog. To determine its efficacy, repair and regeneration of horizontal furcation defects by P-GTR therapy and GTR therapy were compared. Chronically inflamed horizontal furcation defects were created around the second (P2) and fourth mandibular premolars (P4). After demineralization of the root surfaces with citric acid, the surfaces of left P2 and P4 were treated with PDGF-BB (P-GTR therapy) and those of contralateral teeth were treated with vehicle only (GTR therapy). Periodontal membranes were placed and retained 0.5 mm above the cemento-enamel junction for both groups. The mucoperiosteal flap was sutured in a coronal position and plaque control was achieved by daily irrigation with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate. At 5, 8, and 11 weeks, two animals each were sacrificed by perfusion with 2.5% glutaraldehyde through the carotid arteries, and the lesions were sliced mesio-distally, demineralized, dehydrated, and embedded. Periodontal healing and regeneration after GTR and P-GTR therapy were compared by histomorphometric as well as morphological analysis. Morphometric analysis for each time period was performed on the pooled samples of P2 and P4. Five weeks after both therapies, the lesions were filled primarily by tissue-free area, epithelium, inflamed tissue, and a small amount of newly formed fibrous connective tissue. At 8 and 11 weeks after P-GTR therapy, there was a statistically greater amount of bone and periodontal ligament formed in the lesions. The newly formed bone filled 80% of the lesion at 8 weeks and 87% at 11 weeks with P-GTR therapy, compared to 14% of the lesion at 8 weeks and 60% at 11 weeks with GTR therapy. Also, with P-GTR therapy there was less epithelium and tissue-free area, less

  7. Ectopic Migration of an Adult Heartworm in a Dog with Dirofilariasis

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hyun-Wook; Jun, Hyung-Kyou; You, Myung-Jo; Hayasaki, Mineo

    2008-01-01

    A 3-yr-old female mongrel dog was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Chungnam National University in the Republic of Korea. An adult heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, was found in the abdominal cavity of the dog during spaying. Dirofilariasis in this dog was also diagnosed by modified Knott's test, ELISA test, and PCR analysis. The present case is the first report on the migration of an adult dog heartworm to the abdominal cavity of a dog in the Republic of Korea. PMID:18830057

  8. Prussian Blue decorporation of {sup 137}Cs in beagles of different ages

    SciTech Connect

    Melo, D.R.; Lundgren, D.L.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmette, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    A 6-wk study was conducted using immature (4.7 mo), young adult (2.4 y), and aged (13.5 y) male beagles to determine the modifying effect of age on the effectiveness of Prussian Blue decorporation therapy for the removal of injected {sup 137}Cs. Whole-body clearance rates for injected {sup 137}Cs decreased with increasing age in the dogs. Treatment with Prussian Blue changed the ratio of fecal to urinary {sup 137}Cs excretion from 0.8 in untreated dogs to 2.2 in treated animals. The {sup 137}Cs concentrations in tissues of untreated and Prussian Blue-treated dogs at the end of the 6-wk study were similar, with the greatest concentrations in the skeletal muscle tissue, spleen, and kidneys. There was a lower concentration of {sup 137}Cs in the livers of the treated dogs. The reductions in the average total whole-body doses resulting from Prussian Blue treatment during the course of this study were 51% in the immature, 31% in the young adult, and 38% in the aged dogs. Because of the differences in the intake of Prussian Blue by the dogs in the different groups relative to their body weight, it is unclear as to the relative effectiveness of Prussian Blue in dogs of different ages. 33 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  9. Surgical transplantation of adult Dirofilaria immitis to study heartworm infection and disease in dogs.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, C A; McCall, J W

    1985-01-01

    Heartworm infections were established in dogs by surgical transplantation of adult heartworms into the external jugular vein. The heartworms were obtained from donor dogs that had been infected with large numbers of infective larvae. This heartworm model standardized the infection with a known number of heartworms of a known age and sex. This paper presents the methods for obtaining heartworms from donor dogs, for selection of recipient dogs, and for transplantation of heartworms.

  10. Influence of feeding a fish oil-containing diet to young, lean, adult dogs: effects on lipid metabolites, postprandial glycaemia and body weight.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, Maria R C; Conway, Charlotte E; Mcleod, Kyle R; Harmon, David L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a fish oil (FO)-containing diet on lipid and protein metabolism, postprandial glycaemia and body weight in young, lean, adult dogs. Eight female Beagles were randomly assigned to one of two isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, Control or FO, in a crossover design. At the beginning of the experiment and at 30 and 60 d, a baseline blood sample was collected and the dogs then were fed their daily ration. Nitrogen balance began at 07:00 h on day 63 of each experimental period and ended at 07:00 h on day 69. On day 66 of each period, a single dose (7.5 mg/kg) of (15)N-glycine was administered orally to each dog via gelatin capsule. Postprandial glycaemia did not differ between treatments or among sampling days within treatment. Cholesterol concentration was increased (p<0.05) on the Control treatment throughout the experiment when compared to values of day 0. Dogs fed the FO treatment had higher plasma triglyceride and ghrelin concentrations than those fed the Control treatment. Body weight and food intake did not differ between dietary treatments. Faecal excretion was increased (p<0.05) in the FO treatment. Dry matter digestibility was decreased (p<0.05) and fat digestibility tended (p<0.10) to decrease in the FO treatment. Overall, feeding a FO-containing diet showed a protective effect against the rise of plasma cholesterol and it increased plasma ghrelin concentration. However, FO supplementation did not appear to affect protein metabolism or postprandial glycaemia in adult lean dogs. PMID:26490201

  11. Influence of feeding a fish oil-containing diet to young, lean, adult dogs: effects on lipid metabolites, postprandial glycaemia and body weight.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, Maria R C; Conway, Charlotte E; Mcleod, Kyle R; Harmon, David L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a fish oil (FO)-containing diet on lipid and protein metabolism, postprandial glycaemia and body weight in young, lean, adult dogs. Eight female Beagles were randomly assigned to one of two isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, Control or FO, in a crossover design. At the beginning of the experiment and at 30 and 60 d, a baseline blood sample was collected and the dogs then were fed their daily ration. Nitrogen balance began at 07:00 h on day 63 of each experimental period and ended at 07:00 h on day 69. On day 66 of each period, a single dose (7.5 mg/kg) of (15)N-glycine was administered orally to each dog via gelatin capsule. Postprandial glycaemia did not differ between treatments or among sampling days within treatment. Cholesterol concentration was increased (p<0.05) on the Control treatment throughout the experiment when compared to values of day 0. Dogs fed the FO treatment had higher plasma triglyceride and ghrelin concentrations than those fed the Control treatment. Body weight and food intake did not differ between dietary treatments. Faecal excretion was increased (p<0.05) in the FO treatment. Dry matter digestibility was decreased (p<0.05) and fat digestibility tended (p<0.10) to decrease in the FO treatment. Overall, feeding a FO-containing diet showed a protective effect against the rise of plasma cholesterol and it increased plasma ghrelin concentration. However, FO supplementation did not appear to affect protein metabolism or postprandial glycaemia in adult lean dogs.

  12. Relative radiosensitivity of bone tumor induction among beagles as a function of age at injection of {sup 239}Pu or {sup 226}Ra

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Jee, W.S.S.; Miller, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison was made of the response to induction of skeletal malignancy from exposure of beagles to monomeric {sup 239}Pu or to {sup 226}Ra as juveniles (3 mo of age), young adults (1.5 y of age), or mature adults (5 y of age). This indicated that of these age groups, animals injected as young adults are most sensitive per Gy of average skeletal dose evaluated at 1 y before death. Dogs exposed either as juveniles or as mature adults appeared to be less sensitive. Relative radiosensitivities (RRS) of juvenile and mature beagles ranged between about 0.3 and 0.7 that of dogs injected as young adults. Mean values of RRS for both radionuclides were about 0.5, but RRS values derived from dogs given monomeric {sup 239}Pu appeared to be most reliable and were 0.27 {+-} 0.09 for dogs injected as juveniles and 0.41 {+-} 0.13 for animals exposed as mature adults.

  13. The efficacy of milbemycin oxime against pre-adult Spirocerca lupi in experimentally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Kok, D J; Schenker, R; Archer, N J; Horak, I G; Swart, P

    2011-04-19

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of milbemycin oxime in preventing the oesophageal encapsulation of Spirocerca lupi, following the experimental infection of dogs. Two studies were conducted which involved a total of 21 purpose-bred Beagles. Each dog was infected with approximately 40, third stage infective S. lupi larvae. The larvae were dissected from scarabaeid beetles that had been collected from areas endemic for spirocercosis. In the first study, milbemycin oxime (minimum dose 0.5mg/kg body weight) was administered to seven dogs on day 30 post-infection. Seven other dogs served as untreated controls. In the second study, milbemycin oxime (also at a minimum dose of 0.5mg/kg body weight) was administered to four of seven infected dogs on day 28 post-infection. Treatment was repeated at 14- or 28-day intervals. All of the dogs, from both studies, were euthanized 168 or 169 days after infection. All S. lupi were recovered, and lesions in the thoracic aorta and oesophagus were described and quantified. A single treatment with milbemycin oxime was 79.8% effective in preventing the establishment of S. lupi in the oesophagus. This treatment significantly (p<0.05) reduced both the number of S. lupi within the oesophagus and the size of the oesophageal nodules. The efficacy of anthelmintic treatment was increased to 100% when repeat doses of milbemycin oxime were administered at 14- or 28-day intervals. These repeat treatments completely prevented the establishment of S. lupi within the oesophagus and thereby averted the development of oesophageal nodules. As expected, none of the treatment protocols reduced S. lupi related damage within the aorta because the administration of milbemycin oxime only began after the larvae had completed their first stage of migration. PMID:21168275

  14. Life-span effects of ionizing radiation in the beagle dog: A summary account of four decades of research funded by the US Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Nearly 40 years ago, the US Atomic Energy Commission made a far- reaching commitment to the support of life-span radiation-effects studies in a relatively long-lived animal, the beagle dog. Something in the range of 200 million dollars has already been spent on a group of closely related experiments, many of which are only now coming to fruition. Responsible fiscal management of these studies, directed toward securing an optimum return from past investments, and toward creative planning of future directions, requires a comprehensive view of this total effort. This report is designed to provide that comprehensive view. This is primarily intended as a research management document. Evaluation and interpretation are tasks for those directly involved in conducting these experiments. The limited objective of the present document is to describe what has been done, to give some of the background for why it was done, to describe results already realized and applications that have been made of these results -- all in a manner designed to display the total effort rather than piecemeal details. While proposing no specific answers to the questions ''Where do we go from here.''it is hoped that the document will provide a basis for approaching that question in an informed manner. The maintenance of a continuity of scientific understanding and direction in these experiments, which often continue beyond the initiating investigators' working life, is no small part of the problem involved in conducting these experiments.

  15. Effects of doxycycline on heartworm embryogenesis, transmission, circulating microfilaria, and adult worms in microfilaremic dogs.

    PubMed

    McCall, J W; Kramer, L; Genchi, C; Guerrero, J; Dzimianski, M T; Mansour, A; McCall, S D; Carson, B

    2014-11-15

    Tetracycline treatment of animals or humans infected with filariae that harbor Wolbachia endosymbionts blocks further embryogenesis, and existing microfilariae gradually die. This treatment also kills developing larvae and has a slow-kill effect on adult filariae, all presumably due to elimination of the Wolbachia. Also, Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae in blood collected from dogs up to 25 days after the last dose of doxycycline developed to infective L3 that were normal in appearance and motility in mosquitoes but did not continue to develop or migrate normally after subcutaneous (SC) injection into dogs. The present study was designed to determine whether heartworm microfilariae collected at later times after treatment would regain the ability to continue normal development in a dog. The study also was expected to yield valuable data on the effects of treatment on microfilariae and antigen levels and adult worms. The study was conducted in 16 dogs as two separate replicates at different times. A total of five dogs (two in Replicate A and three in Replicate B) infected either by SC injection of L3 or intravenous transplantation of adult heartworms were given doxycycline orally at 10mg/kg twice daily for 30 days, with three untreated controls. Microfilarial counts in the five treated dogs gradually declined during the 12-13 months after treatment initiation. Two dogs were amicrofilaremic before necropsy and three had 13 or fewer microfilariae/ml. Only one treated dog was negative for heartworm antigen before necropsy. Overall, treated dogs generally had fewer live adult heartworms than controls, and most of their live worms were moribund. All three control dogs remained positive for microfilariae and antigen and had many live worms. L3 from mosquitoes fed on blood collected 73-77 or 161-164 days after initiation of doxycycline treatments were injected SC into five dogs. None of the dogs injected with L3 from mosquitoes fed on blood from doxycycline-treated dogs

  16. PK/PD Modelling of the QT Interval: a Step Towards Defining the Translational Relationship Between In Vitro, Awake Beagle Dogs, and Humans.

    PubMed

    Marostica, Eleonora; Van Ammel, Karel; Teisman, Ard; Gallacher, David; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; De Ridder, Filip; Boussery, Koen; Vermeulen, An

    2016-07-01

    Inhibiting the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG)-encoded potassium ion channel is positively correlated with QT-interval prolongation in vivo, which is considered a risk factor for the occurrence of Torsades de Pointes (TdP). A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model was developed for four compounds that reached the clinic, to relate drug-induced QT-interval change in awake dogs and humans and to derive a translational scaling factor a 1. Overall, dogs were more sensitive than humans to QT-interval change, an a 1 of 1.5 was found, and a 10% current inhibition in vitro produced a higher percent QT-interval change in dogs as compared to humans. The QT-interval changes in dogs were predictive for humans. In vitro and in vivo information could reliably describe the effects in humans. Robust translational knowledge is likely to reduce the need for expensive thorough QT studies; therefore, expanding this work to more compounds is recommended.

  17. Treatment of Baylisascaris procyonis infections in dogs with milbemycin oxime.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Dwight D; Ulrich, Michael A; Gregory, Dawn E; Neumann, Norwood R; Legg, Walter; Stansfield, David

    2005-05-15

    An examination was made as to the ability of Sentinel Flavor Tabs (milbemycin oxime/lufenuron) to treat Baylisascaris procyonis infections in dogs. The study was designed as a critical trial and included five naturally infected dogs and two dogs that were experimentally infected. Another dog from a prior clinical trial that was treated with Sentinel Flavor Tabs as part of the original FDA submission package for intestinal nematode infections was also included with the treated dogs. Of the five naturally infected dogs treated as part of the critical trial, three were cleared of their infections. These five dogs passed a total of 52 worms after treatment; one dog retained 23 worms and the other retained 1 worm at necropsy 7 days after treatment. Two of five experimentally infected Beagle dogs that had been given mice that had been fed 200 infectious eggs, developed patent infections with the parasite. These dogs were treated, and one of the dogs passed one worm and the other passed two worms after treatment with no worms being detected at necropsy 7 days after treatment. The one dog that was treated with milbemycin oxime as part of the FDA submission was clear of worms at necropsy. Overall, the mean efficacy of Sentinel Flavor Tabs was found to be 91.0%. Of the eight dogs that were treated, six were totally cleared of their infections, a cure rate of 75%. The two dogs that did not clear their infections had very large numbers of adult B. procyonis within their intestinal tracts at the time of treatment, one dog had 40 worms (23 remaining) and the other had 26 worms (1 remaining). It is suggested that the treatment of dogs with monthly Sentinel Flavor Tabs could markedly reduce the chance of infected dogs contaminating the environment. Also, additional monthly treatments are highly likely to clear dogs of any worms not killed with the initial treatment. PMID:15845284

  18. Extended acclimatization is required to eliminate stress effects of periodic blood-sampling procedures on vasoactive hormones and blood volume in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, M R; Birmingham, J M; Patel, B; Whelan, G A; Krebs-Brown, A J; Hockings, P D; Osborne, J A

    2002-10-01

    Important in all experimental animal studies is the need to control stress stimuli associated with environmental change and experimental procedures. As the stress response involves alterations in levels of vasoactive hormones, ensuing changes in cardiovascular parameters may confound experimental outcomes. Accordingly, we evaluated the duration required for dogs (n = 4) to acclimatized to frequent blood sampling that involved different procedures. On each sampling occasion during a 6-week period, dogs were removed from their pen to a laboratory area and blood was collected either by venepuncture (days 2, 15, 34, 41) for plasma renin activity (PRA), epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine, aldosterone, insulin, and atrial natriuretic peptide, or by cannulation (dogs restrained in slings; days 1, 8, 14, 22, 30, 33, 37, 40) for determination of haematocrit (HCT) alone (days 1 to 22) or HCT with plasma volume (PV; days 30 to 40). PRA was higher on days 2 and 15 compared with days 34 and 41 and had decreased by up to 48% by the end of the study (day 41 vs day 15; mean/SEM: 1.18/0.27 vs 2.88/0.79 ng ANG I/ml/h, respectively). EPI showed a time-related decrease from days 2 to 34, during which mean values had decreased by 51% (mean/SEM: 279/29 vs 134/20.9 pg/ml for days 2 and 34, respectively), but appeared stable from then on. None of the other hormones showed any significant variability throughout the course of the study. HCT was relatively variable between days 1 to 22 but stabilized from day 30, after which all mean values were approximately 6% lower than those between days 1 and 8. We conclude that an acclimatization period of at least 4 weeks is required to eliminate stress-related effects in dogs associated with periodic blood sampling. PMID:12396283

  19. Exchange of potassium and strontium in adult bone. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Maltby, B.; Lemon, G.J.; Bassingthwaighte, J.B.; Kelly, P.J.

    1982-04-01

    The kinetics of exchange of strontium (/sup 85/Sr) and potassium (/sup 42/K) were studied in the midtibial cortical bone of 37 adult dogs. After injection of these two tracer cations and tracer-labeled albumin into the tibial nutrient artery, two types of observations were made: 1) collection of sequential venous samples to provide the outflow indicator-dilution curves and to calculate the extraction and retention at early times; and 2) detection of energy-selected gamma emissions via a detector over the tibia to give the time course of content of /sup 42/K and /sup 85/Sr in the tibia. Extractions of K/sup +/ and Sr/sup 2 +/ were 50 and 60% during a single transcapillary passage. More Sr/sup 2 +/ than K/sup +/ was retained in the first minutes. Their rates of washout over a 3-h period were similar. The interpretation is that the rate of uptake at extravascular sites is faster for Sr/sup 2 +/ than for K/sup +/, as is the rate of release, and that the extravascular volume of distribution for Sr/sup 2 +/ (adsorption sites in the interstitium or on bone) is much larger than that for K/sup +/ (intracellular).

  20. Soft tissue tumors among beagles injected with {sup 90}Sr, {sup 228}Ra, or {sup 228}Th

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Angus, W.; Taylor, G.N.

    1995-08-01

    The occurrence of soft-tissue tumors in beagles given {sup 90}Sr (88 dogs), {sup 228}Ra (76 dogs), or {sup 228}Th (81 dogs) as young adults and followed throughout their lifespans was compared with that of 133 control beagles given no radioactivity. For animals injected with {sup 228}Ra, tumors of the eye were more prominent (p<0.05) than in the controls, and soft-tissue tumors of cavities in the head (excluding the brain, mouth, and eye) were more prominent in dogs given {sup 90}Sr than in the controls (p<0.05). There was some indication that eye tumors in animals given about 0.56 kBq {sup 228}Th kg{sup {minus}1} were associated with their radionuclide exposure. For tumors at a few other locations, the relative occurrence was greater (p<0.05) in the controls. These included malignant tumors of the testis, and malignant plus benign tumors of the mammae and vagina in {sup 228}Ra dogs; and malignant plus benign tumors of the mammae in {sup 90}Sr dogs (p>0.05 by Odds Ratio Chi Square analysis but p<0.05 by Fiosher`s Exact Test). Differences in relative occurrence between radioactive dogs and controls of all other tumor types that appeared in any of the animals (notably lymphosarcoma, lymph node tumors, leukemia, mast cell tumors, liver tumors, etc.) were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Intercurrent mortality, mainly from bone cancer, was higher in the radioactive dogs than in the controls. Mean survival was reduced in the dogs given {sup 90}Sr, {sup 228}Ra, or {sup 228}Th(13.17 {plus_minus} 2.64 y in controls, 10.95 {plus_minus} 4.06 y in {sup 90}Sr dogs, 9.07 {plus_minus} 3.61 y in {sup 228}Ra dogs, and 9.20 {plus_minus}4.15 y in {sup 228}Th dogs). Attenuated lifespans could account, at least in part, for the relative paucity of soft-tissue tumors not induced by radiation among the groups of dogs given radioactivity and occurring near the end of life for control animals. 24 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. Preclinical toxicity evaluation of tepoxalin, a dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase, in Sprague-Dawley rats and beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Knight, E V; Kimball, J P; Keenan, C M; Smith, I L; Wong, F A; Barrett, D S; Dempster, A M; Lieuallen, W G; Panigrahi, D; Powers, W J; Szot, R J

    1996-09-01

    Tepoxalin [5- (4-chlorophenyl)-N-hydroxy-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-methyl-1H-pyrazole -3-propanamide] is an orally active anti-inflammatory agent, which inhibits both cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase activities. The oral toxicity of tepoxalin was evaluated in 1- and 6-month rat (up to 50 mg/kg/day) and dog (up to 150 mg/kg bid) studies. In rats, increased liver weight, centrilobular hypertrophy, and hepatic necrosis were observed at dosages >/=20 mg/kg/day. Renal changes indicative of analgesic nephropathy syndrome (i.e., papillary edema or necrosis, cortical tubular dilatation) were seen at >/=15 mg/kg. In rats treated for 1 month, these hepatic and renal effects were largely reversible after a 1-month recovery period. Gastrointestinal erosions and ulcers were seen in female rats given 40 mg/kg/day for 6 months. Changes in clinical pathology parameters included decreases in red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit mean values; elevation in platelet counts; and an increase in prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin times. Mild increases in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and cholesterol were also noted in rats. Decreased erythrocyte parameters, increased leukocyte counts, and decreased total protein, albumin, and/or calcium were noted in some dogs in the 300 mg/kg/day group following 6 months of dosing. Small pyloric ulcerations were seen at 100 and 300 mg/kg/day dosages for up to 6 months. In both rats and dogs, no accumulation of tepoxalin or its carboxylic acid metabolite was detected in plasma following multiple dosing over a range of 5 to 50 mg/kg/day for rats and 20 to 300 mg/kg/day for dogs. Plasma concentrations of the carboxylic acid metabolite were severalfold higher than those of the parent compound. The no-effect dosages in rats (5 mg/kg/day) and dogs (20 mg/kg/day) were approximately one and six times the ED50 (3.5 mg/kg), respectively, for inhibition of inflammatory effects in the adjuvant arthritic rat without

  2. Pet dogs as attachment figures for adult owners.

    PubMed

    Kurdek, Lawrence A

    2009-08-01

    This study assessed the extent to which, and under what conditions, owners turn to their pet dogs in times of emotional distress. This feature of an attachment figure-safe haven-is a key characteristic of an attachment bond. Participants (N = 975, mean age = 47.95 years, 789 women and 186 men) were relatively dedicated dog owners who completed an online survey. Relative to other features of an attachment figure, safe haven was the least salient. Nonetheless, participants were more likely to turn to their dogs than they were to turn to their mothers, fathers, brothers, sisters, best friends, and children but less likely to turn to their dogs than to their romantic partners. Characteristics of both owners (being male, widowed, highly involved in the care of the dog, and uncomfortable with self-disclosure) and dogs (strongly meeting owner's needs regarding relatedness) heightened the likelihood that dogs were turned to rather than some humans. It is concluded that some owners develop attachment bonds with their pet dogs. PMID:19685978

  3. Adult heartworms in arteries and veins of a dog.

    PubMed

    Slonka, G F; Castleman, W; Krum, S

    1977-04-01

    A 5-year-old terrier-type dog with a 3-week history of progressive lameness, swelling, and pain in the left hindlimb suddenly became paralyzed in the right hindlimb. Because of a poor prognosis, the dog was euthanatized. Necropsy revealed mature heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) in the femoral arteries as well as in the right side of the heart and pulmonary arteries. Extensive ischemic necrosis in the muscles of the hindlimbs was attributed to occlusion of the femoral arteries by heartworms.

  4. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis and pharmacokinetics of luteoloside, a potential anticarcinogenic component isolated from Lonicera japonica, in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Feng; Li, Zhaoxia; He, Lang; Wang, Dan

    2013-03-01

    Luteoloside is a potential anticarcinogenic component isolated from Lonicera japonica, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This study details the development and validation of a sensitive and accurate HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for the quantification of luteoloside in dog plasma. Sample pretreatment includes simple protein precipitation using methanol-acetonitrile (1:1, v/v). A Phenomenex Gemini C(18) column (2.0 × 50 mm, i.d., 3.5 µm) was used to separate luteoloside and internal standard by gradient mode with mobile phase consisting of water containing 0.1% formic acid and methanol containing 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.40 mL/min with a column temperature of 25°C. The detection was performed by positive ion electrospray ionization (ESI) in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The calibration curves were linear (R > 0.995) over the concentration range 1.0-2000 ng/mL and the lower limit of quantification was 1.0 ng/mL. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (RSD) were all <15%, accuracies (RE) were within the range of ±15%, and recoveries were between 85.0 and 115%. The validated HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was successfully applied to determine plasma concentrations of luteoloside after intravenous administration of luteoloside at a dose level of 20 mg/kg.

  5. In Vivo Performance of Fenofibrate Formulated With Ordered Mesoporous Silica Versus 2-Marketed Formulations: A Comparative Bioavailability Study in Beagle Dogs.

    PubMed

    Bukara, Katarina; Schueller, Laurent; Rosier, Jan; Daems, Tinne; Verheyden, Loes; Eelen, Siemon; Martens, Johan A; Van den Mooter, Guy; Bugarski, Branko; Kiekens, Filip

    2016-08-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo performance of ordered mesoporous silica (OMS) as a carrier for the poorly water-soluble compound fenofibrate. Fenofibrate was loaded into OMS via incipient wetness impregnation to obtain a 29% drug load and formulated into capsules. Two capsule dosage forms (containing 33.5 and 16.75 mg fenofibrate, respectively) were compared with the commercially available forms-Lipanthyl(®) (fenofibrate microcrystals) and Tricor(®) (fenofibrate nanocrystals). In vitro dissolution tests showed that the amount of fenofibrate released from Lipanthyl(®) and Tricor(®) was approximately 30%, whereas approximately 66% and 60% of the drug was released from OMS capsules containing 33.5 and 16.75 mg of fenofibrate, respectively. Storage of OMS capsules loaded with 33.5 mg of fenofibrate at 25°C/60% relative humidity (RH) or 40°C/75% RH did not alter the release kinetics, nor the physical state of the compound, pointing the stability of the present formulation. The in vivo study in dogs confirmed satisfying level of safety and tolerability of fenofibrate-OMS formulation (eq. 33.5 mg) with the potential to improve the absorption of fenofibrate. Though some variability in the data, this formulation is promising to be further investigated in a clinical trial setting. PMID:27364460

  6. Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... found on the skin of people and animals. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the same bacterium that has become resistant to some antibiotics. Dogs and other animals often can carry MRSA ...

  7. Oral and dental conditions in adult African wild dog skulls: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Steenkamp, G; Gorrel, C

    1999-06-01

    Skulls of 29 adult African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) originating from museum collections were examined for evidence of oral pathology. A wide variety of conditions similar to those seen in the domestic dog were detected. Although other reports suggest that captive African wild dogs suffer more extensively from dental disease than those in the wild, we conclude that these wild carnivores suffer from the same oral diseases as their domestic relatives, suggesting that a natural diet does not protect against these diseases. As the African wild dog is threatened by extinction, further investigation of the incidence and development of oral and dental disease in this species may be of value. Preventive measures could be instituted leading to improved health for those held in captivity.

  8. Experimental Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs: effects of doxycycline and Advantage Multi® administration on immature adult parasites.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, R; Beall, M J; Saucier, J; O'Connor, T; McCall, J W; McCall, S D

    2014-11-15

    To better understand the efficacy of doxycycline and 10% imidacloprid+2.5% moxidectin (Advantage Multi(®); Bayer Animal Health, Shawnee Mission, Kansas) on immature adult Dirofilaria immitis parasites and the results of antigen tests, 12 healthy, randomly selected dogs were experimentally infected with D. immitis and monitored for 407 days. Two dogs in each of three subgroups of four dogs were each infected with six (total of 6 dogs) or 12 (total of 6 dogs) D. immitis infective third-stage larvae (L3) obtained from infected mosquitoes. Doxycycline (10mg/kg per os twice daily×30 days) and 10% imidacloprid+2.5% moxidectin (1ml/kg by topical application every 30 days) treatment was initiated at 105 (Group A) and 149 (Group B) days post infection (PI) in two groups. One subgroup of two dogs given 6 L3 and one subgroup of two dogs given 12 L3 remained as untreated controls (GroupC). Serum obtained regularly throughout the study was evaluated by ELISA (PetChek(®) Heartworm-PF Antigen Test, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc.) for D. immitis adult circulating antigens. Six of the eight dogs in the treated groups had detectable antigenemia starting between 148 and 240 days post infection, but antigen was not detected in any treated dog at the end of the study. In the control subgroups, the dogs that received 6 L3 had no detectable antigen while the two dogs that received 12 L3 had detectable antigen beginning on Day 180 that persisted until the end of the study. None of the infected dogs had evidence of circulating microfilariae. At necropsy, no heartworms were recovered from the treated dogs, but all dogs in the untreated group had viable adult heartworms. These results indicate that early immature adult worms (3.5 and 5 months of age) of D. immitis were susceptible to a combined treatment regimen of doxycycline and 10% imidacloprid+2.5% moxidectin.

  9. Effects of treatment with ticlopidine in heartworm-negative, heartworm-infected, and embolized heartworm-infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Boudreaux, M K; Dillon, A R; Sartin, E A; Ravis, W R; Spano, J S

    1991-12-01

    Ticlopidine hydrochloride was evaluated for its effectiveness in inhibiting platelet aggregation and serotonin release in 5 laboratory Beagles before and after heartworm implantation with 7 adult Dirofilaria immitis, and after embolization with 7 dead heartworms to mimic what happens after heartworm adulticide treatment. Five other laboratory Beagles, similarly implanted and embolized with heartworms, were used as nonmedicated controls. During the heartworm-negative stage, the dosage of ticlopidine that inhibited adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation in 5 dogs by at least 50% after 5 days of treatment was 62 mg/kg of body weight once a day. In the same dogs implanted with 7 adult heartworms 21 days previously, mean (+/- SD) ticlopidine dosage required to obtain similar results was 71 (+/- 13) mg/kg given once daily. During the 21 days after dead heartworms were implanted in heartworm-infected dogs, mean ticlopidine dosage was 108 (+/- 35) mg/kg (range, 62 to 150 mg/kg). Ticlopidine treatment was associated with increased platelet numbers in all 5 dogs during the heartworm-negative stage and in 4 of 5 dogs during the heartworm implantation and heartworm embolization stages. Mean platelet volume tended to decrease as platelet numbers increased. At necropsy, gross and histologic pulmonary lesions were less severe in ticlopidine-treated dogs than in nonmedicated control dogs.

  10. Old Dogs, Children, and Watermelon Wine: Focus on the Older Adult Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasworm, Carol E.

    1978-01-01

    Three significant elements should be considered in offering educational programs for the older learner: acceptance (old dogs); support (God bless little children while they're too young to hate); and dependability (watermelon wine). Guidelines are offered for the teacher entering the classroom composed of adult learners. (KC)

  11. Use of a fiberoptic accessory for retrieval of adult heartworms in a dog with postcaval syndrome.

    PubMed

    Howard, P E; Pitts, R P

    1986-11-15

    Use of a spiral fiberoptic basket for the removal of adult heartworms from the vena cava and right atrium of a dog with postcaval syndrome is described. Complications reported with the use of alligator forceps were not encountered with the basket.

  12. Heart-function studies in dogs after acute gamma irradiation of the precordium

    SciTech Connect

    Durakovic

    1986-05-01

    In order to study the development of post-irradiation cardiac dysfunction, we irradiated the precordia of 18 adult beagle dogs were irradiated with 30, 60, or 100 Gy of Co-60 photons, and cardiac histology, electrocardiograms, Tc-99, pyrophosphate cardiac tissue distribution, and serial left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were measured. Although the electrocardiograms and tissue distribution of Tc-99m were unaffected by these dose levels, the LVEF was reduced by day 58 for all the irradiated dogs. The delay in the onset of cardiac-function impairment parallels the delay in the onset of fibrosis in irradiated hearts.

  13. Nedocromil sodium inhibits canine adenovirus bronchiolitis in beagle puppies.

    PubMed

    Anderson, K A; Lemen, R J; Weger, N S; Chen, H; Bowers, M C; Witten, M L; Lantz, R C; Bice, D E; Muggenburg, B A

    2000-01-01

    Nedocromil sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used to control asthmatic attacks. Our hypothesis is that nedocromil sodium inhibits virus-induced airway inflammation, a common trigger of asthma. We nebulized nedocromil sodium into beagle dogs (n = 10, mean +/- SEM ages: 149 +/- 13 days) before and after inoculation with canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2). Control dogs (n = 10) received saline aerosols and were either infected with CAV2 (Sal/CAV2, n = 7, mean +/- SEM ages: 140 +/- 11 days) or were not infected (Sal/Sal, n = 3, ages: 143 +/- 0 days). All dogs were anesthetized with choralose (80 mg/kg i.v.), intubated, and mechanically ventilated. Pulmonary function tests and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were performed using standard techniques. Pulmonary function tests revealed no significant change between the nedocromil sodium and non-nedocromil-treated groups. The percentage of infected bronchioles was quantitated as the number of inflamed airways of 40 bronchioles examined times 100 for each dog. Nedocromil-treated dogs had significantly (p < 0.05) less mucosal inflammation (mean +/- SEM, 39% +/- 5%), epithelial denudation (36% +/- 5%), and BAL neutrophilia (11 +/- 3) than did Sal/CAV2 dogs (51% +/- 6%, 57% +/- 4%, and 33% +/- 8%, respectively). We concluded that pretreatment with nedocromil sodium aerosols attenuated CAV2-induced airway inflammation in these beagle puppies.

  14. Adventures in neural plasticity, aging, and neurodegenerative disorders aboard the CWC beagle.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Mark P

    2003-11-01

    This article recounts some of the scientific endeavors of Carl W. Cotman (CWC) during his journeys through the cellular circuitry of the mammalian brain. I have selected for consideration his findings that have been an important impetus for my own research; in several cases our different experiments have provided complementary data to support an hypothesis. Three examples are (i) Carl's studies of the roles of glutamate in synaptic transmission and plasticity in the adult brain and my studies of how glutamate regulates neurite outgrowth and cell survival in brain development; (ii) his and our studies of the mechanisms whereby amyloid beta-peptide damages and kills neurons; and (iii) Carl's evidence that physical activity regulates neurotrophin levels in the brain and our evidence that dietary restriction has similar effects and is neuroprotective. In case you have not yet realized how I chose a title for this article it is because Carl has a (very distant) connection with Charles Darwin-Darwin sailed on a vessel called the Beagle and Carl has studied beagle dogs, establishing them as a model for understanding the neurobiology of human brain aging.

  15. Why do adult dogs (Canis familiaris) commit the A-not-B search error?

    PubMed

    Sümegi, Zsófia; Kis, Anna; Miklósi, Ádám; Topál, József

    2014-02-01

    It has been recently reported that adult domestic dogs, like human infants, tend to commit perseverative search errors; that is, they select the previously rewarded empty location in Piagetian A-not-B search task because of the experimenter's ostensive communicative cues. There is, however, an ongoing debate over whether these findings reveal that dogs can use the human ostensive referential communication as a source of information or the phenomenon can be accounted for by "more simple" explanations like insufficient attention and learning based on local enhancement. In 2 experiments the authors systematically manipulated the type of human cueing (communicative or noncommunicative) adjacent to the A hiding place during both the A and B trials. Results highlight 3 important aspects of the dogs' A-not-B error: (a) search errors are influenced to a certain extent by dogs' motivation to retrieve the toy object; (b) human communicative and noncommunicative signals have different error-inducing effects; and (3) communicative signals presented at the A hiding place during the B trials but not during the A trials play a crucial role in inducing the A-not-B error and it can be induced even without demonstrating repeated hiding events at location A. These findings further confirm the notion that perseverative search error, at least partially, reflects a "ready-to-obey" attitude in the dog rather than insufficient attention and/or working memory.

  16. Demonstration of uniformity of calcium absorption in adult dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Mack, J K; Alexander, L G; Morris, P J; Dobenecker, B; Kienzle, E

    2015-10-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to understand quantitative aspects of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) absorption in adult dogs and cats. 34 studies in dogs and 14 studies in cats met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Intake and faecal excretion values of Ca and P were subjected to a modified Lucas test and subsequent regression analyses. According to the current scientific consensus, Ca true digestibility (absorption) should increase at low Ca intake and decrease at high Ca intake. If true, this should result in a nonlinear relationship between the percentage of Ca excreted and dietary Ca intake. The present meta-analysis showed a highly significant linear relationship (p < 0.0001) between Ca intake and Ca excretion suggesting a lack of systematic quantitative adaptation in true Ca digestibility. This finding suggests either that the time period covered by standard digestion trials is too short to induce adaptation mechanisms or that dogs and cats at maintenance will not efficiently alter quantitative Ca absorption percentage according to the amount ingested. If the latter is true, a dietary Ca supply differing greatly from the recommended dietary intake might impair the health of cats and dogs when fed long term. The data plots for P intake and faecal excretion were less uniform suggesting other factors not just dietary intake influence faecal P excretion. In adult cats, the dietary Ca:P ratio strongly influenced the true digestibility of P, whereas this effect was less marked in adult dogs. Faecal P excretion was significantly correlated to faecal Ca excretion in both species (p < 0.0001), and surprisingly, the level of P intake did not appear to be an important determinant of true digestibility of P. PMID:25808498

  17. Demonstration of uniformity of calcium absorption in adult dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Mack, J K; Alexander, L G; Morris, P J; Dobenecker, B; Kienzle, E

    2015-10-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to understand quantitative aspects of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) absorption in adult dogs and cats. 34 studies in dogs and 14 studies in cats met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Intake and faecal excretion values of Ca and P were subjected to a modified Lucas test and subsequent regression analyses. According to the current scientific consensus, Ca true digestibility (absorption) should increase at low Ca intake and decrease at high Ca intake. If true, this should result in a nonlinear relationship between the percentage of Ca excreted and dietary Ca intake. The present meta-analysis showed a highly significant linear relationship (p < 0.0001) between Ca intake and Ca excretion suggesting a lack of systematic quantitative adaptation in true Ca digestibility. This finding suggests either that the time period covered by standard digestion trials is too short to induce adaptation mechanisms or that dogs and cats at maintenance will not efficiently alter quantitative Ca absorption percentage according to the amount ingested. If the latter is true, a dietary Ca supply differing greatly from the recommended dietary intake might impair the health of cats and dogs when fed long term. The data plots for P intake and faecal excretion were less uniform suggesting other factors not just dietary intake influence faecal P excretion. In adult cats, the dietary Ca:P ratio strongly influenced the true digestibility of P, whereas this effect was less marked in adult dogs. Faecal P excretion was significantly correlated to faecal Ca excretion in both species (p < 0.0001), and surprisingly, the level of P intake did not appear to be an important determinant of true digestibility of P.

  18. The effect of 48-hour fasting on taurine status in healthy adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Gray, K; Alexander, L G; Staunton, R; Colyer, A; Watson, A; Fascetti, A J

    2016-06-01

    Low circulating taurine concentrations may be a risk factor for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in dogs. Circulating taurine is typically measured in the clinic 4-5 h after feeding, largely because the impact of later sampling is not known. The objective of this study was to measure taurine in the blood during a 48-h fast in 12 healthy adult Labrador Retrievers to refine sampling methodology for determination of taurine status. Plasma and whole blood (WB) taurine concentrations did not fall to levels indicative of clinical deficiency throughout fasting; WB was the more reliable indicator of taurine status. This study shows that blood samples can be taken for assessment of taurine status any time up to 48 h after ingestion of a meal in healthy adult dogs. PMID:26250395

  19. Evidence for unapparent Brucella canis infections among adults with occupational exposure to dogs.

    PubMed

    Krueger, W S; Lucero, N E; Brower, A; Heil, G L; Gray, G C

    2014-11-01

    Human serological assays designed to detect brucellosis will miss infections caused by Brucella canis, and low levels of periodic bacteremia limit diagnosis by blood culture. Recent B. canis outbreaks in dogs and concomitant illnesses in caretakers suggest that unapparent human infections may be occurring. With more than a quarter of a million persons in occupations involving dogs, and nearly 80 million dog owners in the United States, this pathogen is an under-recognized human health threat. To investigate occupational exposure to B. canis, we adapted a commercial canine serological assay and present the first controlled seroepidemiological study of human B. canis infections in recent years. 306 adults with occupational exposure to dogs and 101 non-matched, non-canine-exposed subjects were enrolled. Antibodies were detected using the canine D-Tec(®) CB rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT) kit with a secondary 2-mercaptoethanol (ME)-RSAT. Results were validated on a blinded subset of sera with an additional RSAT and indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay at the National Administration of Laboratories and Health Institutes (ANLIS) in Argentina. Seroprevalence ranged from 10.8% (RSAT) to 3.6% (ME-RSAT) among canine-exposed subjects. Kennel employees were more likely to test RSAT seropositive compared with other canine exposures (OR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.8); however, low seroprevalence limited meaningful occupational risk factor analyses. Two seropositive participants reported experiencing symptoms consistent with brucellosis and having exposure to B. canis-infected dogs; however, temporality of symptom onset with reported exposure could not be determined. D-Tec(®) CB results had substantial agreement with ANLIS assays (Cohen's kappa = 0.60-0.68). These data add to a growing body of literature suggesting that people occupationally exposed to dogs may be at risk of unapparent B. canis infection. It seems prudent to consider B. canis as an occupational public health

  20. [Postnatal skeletal and body weight in beagles].

    PubMed

    Salomon, F V; Schulze, A; Böhme, U; Arnold, U; Gericke, A; Gille, U

    1999-08-01

    Growth of beagles is described on the basis of body weight and 14 bone measures. Eighteen male and 19 female dogs were investigated at 14 different ages from birth to the 13th month of life. Characteristics of the growth curves were evaluated using the modified Janoschek growth curve. For the classification into dwarfish, low, normal, big and gigantic growth, the growth curves are presented with percentiles. The arithmetic means and standard deviations for both sexes are presented in tables. Additionally, the degrees of maturity at birth (relative proportion of final weight or bone measure), the point of inflection for the growth curve, the times to grow to 50 and 95% of the final measures, and the asymptotic measures are also presented in tables. Sex differences in growth for the body weight and bone measures are discussed. Growth differences between large and small dog breeds are considered. The conclusion is drawn that the feeding of dogs has to be adapted to the growth course. PMID:10488625

  1. One-month comparative efficacy of three topical ectoparasiticides against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on mixed-bred dogs in controlled environment.

    PubMed

    Varloud, Marie; Fourie, Josephus J

    2015-05-01

    This study was designed to compare the therapeutic and residual efficacy for 1 month of three topical ectoparasiticides on mixed-bred dogs against the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Adult dogs (n = 32, 10.8-18.4 kg BW) were allocated to 4 groups (n = 8) and infested with 50 adult ticks on days -8, -2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Within each group, dogs were treated topically on day 0 with a control solution (CS), Vectra 3D (DPP), Frontline Plus (FM), or K9 Advantix (IP). Ticks were enumerated on dogs 24 h after treatment and each subsequent tick infestation by in situ thumb count assessment without removal and at 48 h by combing and removal. Acaricidal efficacy was calculated using arithmetic means for all 24 and 48 h tick count assessments. From 42 to 56% of the total, infested ticks were found on dogs 48 h post-challenge in the CS group. Therapeutic efficacy for all treatments ranged from 45.5 to 64.6% after 48 h of infestation. Residual efficacy after FM treatment was consistently lower compared to DPP or IP treatments at the 24 h assessments on days 8, 22, 23, and 29. Residual efficacy measured at this last time point was 94.8% for DPP, 83.1% for IP, and 46.9% for FM. This study demonstrates that permethrin-based formulations (DPP and IP) provided a quicker onset of residual protection against brown dog ticks compared to FM. Although DPP and IP are both permethrin-based formulations, DPP exhibited consistently higher residual acaricidal efficacies and was the only treatment that provided >90% protection for 1 month at 24 h post challenge.

  2. One-month comparative efficacy of three topical ectoparasiticides against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on mixed-bred dogs in controlled environment.

    PubMed

    Varloud, Marie; Fourie, Josephus J

    2015-05-01

    This study was designed to compare the therapeutic and residual efficacy for 1 month of three topical ectoparasiticides on mixed-bred dogs against the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Adult dogs (n = 32, 10.8-18.4 kg BW) were allocated to 4 groups (n = 8) and infested with 50 adult ticks on days -8, -2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Within each group, dogs were treated topically on day 0 with a control solution (CS), Vectra 3D (DPP), Frontline Plus (FM), or K9 Advantix (IP). Ticks were enumerated on dogs 24 h after treatment and each subsequent tick infestation by in situ thumb count assessment without removal and at 48 h by combing and removal. Acaricidal efficacy was calculated using arithmetic means for all 24 and 48 h tick count assessments. From 42 to 56% of the total, infested ticks were found on dogs 48 h post-challenge in the CS group. Therapeutic efficacy for all treatments ranged from 45.5 to 64.6% after 48 h of infestation. Residual efficacy after FM treatment was consistently lower compared to DPP or IP treatments at the 24 h assessments on days 8, 22, 23, and 29. Residual efficacy measured at this last time point was 94.8% for DPP, 83.1% for IP, and 46.9% for FM. This study demonstrates that permethrin-based formulations (DPP and IP) provided a quicker onset of residual protection against brown dog ticks compared to FM. Although DPP and IP are both permethrin-based formulations, DPP exhibited consistently higher residual acaricidal efficacies and was the only treatment that provided >90% protection for 1 month at 24 h post challenge. PMID:25656465

  3. Fecal microbial communities of healthy adult dogs fed raw meat-based diets with or without inulin or yeast cell wall extracts as assessed by 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Beloshapka, Alison N; Dowd, Scot E; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M; Duclos, Laura; Swanson, Kelly S

    2013-06-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of feeding raw meat-based diets with or without inulin or yeast cell wall extract (YCW) on fecal microbial communities of dogs using 454 pyrosequencing. Six healthy female adult beagles (5.5 ± 0.5 years; 8.5 ± 0.5 kg) were randomly assigned to six test diets using a Latin square design: (1) beef control; (2) beef + 1.4% inulin; (3) beef + 1.4% YCW; (4) chicken control; (5) chicken + 1.4% inulin; and (6) chicken + 1.4% YCW. Following 14 days of adaptation, fresh fecal samples were collected on day 15 or day 16 of each period. Fecal genomic DNA was extracted and used to create 16S rRNA gene amplicons, which were subjected to 454 pyrosequencing and qPCR. Predominant fecal bacterial phyla included Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. Beef-based diets increased (P < 0.05) Escherichia, but decreased (P < 0.05) Anaerobiospirillum vs. chicken-based diets. Inulin decreased (P < 0.05) Enterobacteriaceae. Inulin increased (P < 0.05) Megamonas vs. control. Inulin also decreased (P < 0.05) Escherichia vs. YCW. qPCR data showed that YCW increased (P < 0.05) Bifidobacterium vs. inulin and control and inulin increased (P < 0.05) Lactobacillus vs. YCW. Although a few changes in fecal microbiota were observed with inulin or YCW consumption, a strong prebiotic effect was not observed.

  4. Maintenance energy requirements of odor detection, explosive detection and human detection working dogs.

    PubMed

    Mullis, Rebecca A; Witzel, Angela L; Price, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Despite their important role in security, little is known about the energy requirements of working dogs such as odor, explosive and human detection dogs. Previous researchers have evaluated the energy requirements of individual canine breeds as well as dogs in exercise roles such as sprint racing. This study is the first to evaluate the energy requirements of working dogs trained in odor, explosive and human detection. This retrospective study evaluated twenty adult dogs who maintained consistent body weights over a six month period. During this time, the average energy consumption was [Formula: see text] or two times the calculated resting energy requirement ([Formula: see text]). No statistical differences were found between breeds, age or sex, but a statistically significant association (p = 0.0033, R-square = 0.0854) was seen between the number of searches a dog performs and their energy requirement. Based on this study's population, it appears that working dogs have maintenance energy requirements similar to the 1974 National Research Council's (NRC) maintenance energy requirement of [Formula: see text] (National Research Council (NRC), 1974) and the [Formula: see text] reported for young laboratory beagles (Rainbird & Kienzle, 1990). Additional research is needed to determine if these data can be applied to all odor, explosive and human detection dogs and to determine if other types of working dogs (tracking, search and rescue etc.) have similar energy requirements.

  5. Adult-onset nemaline myopathy in a dog presenting with persistent atrial standstill and primary hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, R K; Russell, N J; Shelton, G D

    2012-06-01

    A nine-year-old neutered female mixed breed dog presented for evaluation following a five-day history of lethargy, inappetence, weakness, abdominal distension and generalised muscle atrophy. Persistent vatrial standstill with a junctional rhythm was identified on electrocardiogram. Echocardiogram identified moderate dilation of all cardiac chambers and mild thickening of the mitral and tricuspid valves. Serology was negative for Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii. Permanent pacemaker implantation was performed in addition to endomyocardial and skeletal muscle biopsies. Cryosections from the biceps femoris muscle showed numerous nemaline rod bodies while endomyocardial biopsies were possibly consistent with end-stage myocarditis. Rod bodies have rarely been reported in the veterinary literature. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of adult-onset nemaline rod myopathy and hypothyroidism with concurrent cardiac disease in a dog. PMID:22647214

  6. The Predictive Value of Early Behavioural Assessments in Pet Dogs – A Longitudinal Study from Neonates to Adults

    PubMed Central

    Riemer, Stefanie; Müller, Corsin; Virányi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike

    2014-01-01

    Studies on behavioural development in domestic dogs are of relevance for matching puppies with the right families, identifying predispositions for behavioural problems at an early stage, and predicting suitability for service dog work, police or military service. The literature is, however, inconsistent regarding the predictive value of tests performed during the socialisation period. Additionally, some practitioners use tests with neonates to complement later assessments for selecting puppies as working dogs, but these have not been validated. We here present longitudinal data on a cohort of Border collies, followed up from neonate age until adulthood. A neonate test was conducted with 99 Border collie puppies aged 2–10 days to assess activity, vocalisations when isolated and sucking force. At the age of 40–50 days, 134 puppies (including 93 tested as neonates) were tested in a puppy test at their breeders' homes. All dogs were adopted as pet dogs and 50 of them participated in a behavioural test at the age of 1.5 to 2 years with their owners. Linear mixed models found little correspondence between individuals' behaviour in the neonate, puppy and adult test. Exploratory activity was the only behaviour that was significantly correlated between the puppy and the adult test. We conclude that the predictive validity of early tests for predicting specific behavioural traits in adult pet dogs is limited. PMID:25003341

  7. The predictive value of early behavioural assessments in pet dogs--a longitudinal study from neonates to adults.

    PubMed

    Riemer, Stefanie; Müller, Corsin; Virányi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike

    2014-01-01

    Studies on behavioural development in domestic dogs are of relevance for matching puppies with the right families, identifying predispositions for behavioural problems at an early stage, and predicting suitability for service dog work, police or military service. The literature is, however, inconsistent regarding the predictive value of tests performed during the socialisation period. Additionally, some practitioners use tests with neonates to complement later assessments for selecting puppies as working dogs, but these have not been validated. We here present longitudinal data on a cohort of Border collies, followed up from neonate age until adulthood. A neonate test was conducted with 99 Border collie puppies aged 2-10 days to assess activity, vocalisations when isolated and sucking force. At the age of 40-50 days, 134 puppies (including 93 tested as neonates) were tested in a puppy test at their breeders' homes. All dogs were adopted as pet dogs and 50 of them participated in a behavioural test at the age of 1.5 to 2 years with their owners. Linear mixed models found little correspondence between individuals' behaviour in the neonate, puppy and adult test. Exploratory activity was the only behaviour that was significantly correlated between the puppy and the adult test. We conclude that the predictive validity of early tests for predicting specific behavioural traits in adult pet dogs is limited.

  8. Pilot biomonitoring of adults and children following use of chlorpyrifos shampoo and flea collars on dogs.

    PubMed

    Dyk, Melinda Bigelow; Chen, Zhenshan; Mosadeghi, Sasan; Vega, Helen; Krieger, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Pesticide handlers and pet owners who use products such as shampoos and dips and insecticide-impregnated collars to treat and control fleas on companion animals are exposed to a variety of active ingredients. Chlorpyrifos exposures of adults and children were measured using urine biomonitoring following use of over-the-counter products on dogs. Age and gender-specific measurements of urinary 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) revealed modest elevations of biomarker excretion following shampoo/dips. Smaller TCPy increments were measured following application of impregnated dog collars. The extent of indoor activity and potential pet contact were important determinants of urine biomarker level. Children without direct pet contact excreted more TCPy following collar application. Pet collars may be a source of indoor surface contamination and human exposure. Children excreted up to 4 times more TCPy than adults when urine volumes were adjusted using age-specific creatinine excretion levels. Although chlorpyrifos is no longer used in the United States in pet care products, results of this research provide perspective on the extent of human exposure from similar pet care products. These pilot studies demonstrated that pet care products such as insecticidal shampoos and dips and impregnated collars may expose family members to low levels of insecticide relative to toxic levels of concern.

  9. Five-month comparative efficacy evaluation of three ectoparasiticides against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on dogs housed outdoors.

    PubMed

    Varloud, Marie; Hodgkins, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of three topical combinations on dogs in outdoor conditions against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato). Treatment was performed on day 0 with a placebo; dinotefuran, pyriproxifen and permethrin (DPP); fipronil and (S)-methoprene (FM) or imidacloprid and permethrin (IP). Dogs (n = 32), housed outdoors for 7 months, were treated monthly for four consecutive months (on days 0, 30, 60 and 90) and infested with ~100 unfed adult fleas on days 14, 55, 74, 115 and 150 and with ~50 unfed adult ticks on days 28, 44, 88 and 104. Adult fleas were counted and removed 24 h after infestation. Immediately after flea removal, dogs were reinfested with ~100 new adult fleas 72 h prior to egg collection for up to 48 h. Flea eggs were incubated for 32 days, and newly emerged adults were counted. Ticks were counted and removed 48 h after each infestation. FM had >90 % efficacy against fleas at each time point and variable efficacy against ticks (38.0-99.6 %). Efficacy of IP was <90 % against fleas at day 64 and against ticks at day 30 of the first post-treatment. No flea eggs were laid in the treated groups until infestation was carried out >60 days after the last treatment. Despite challenging weather conditions, DPP was highly effective, providing >90 % efficacy against adult ticks as well as adult and immature fleas at every time point of the study. PMID:25547077

  10. Five-month comparative efficacy evaluation of three ectoparasiticides against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on dogs housed outdoors.

    PubMed

    Varloud, Marie; Hodgkins, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of three topical combinations on dogs in outdoor conditions against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato). Treatment was performed on day 0 with a placebo; dinotefuran, pyriproxifen and permethrin (DPP); fipronil and (S)-methoprene (FM) or imidacloprid and permethrin (IP). Dogs (n = 32), housed outdoors for 7 months, were treated monthly for four consecutive months (on days 0, 30, 60 and 90) and infested with ~100 unfed adult fleas on days 14, 55, 74, 115 and 150 and with ~50 unfed adult ticks on days 28, 44, 88 and 104. Adult fleas were counted and removed 24 h after infestation. Immediately after flea removal, dogs were reinfested with ~100 new adult fleas 72 h prior to egg collection for up to 48 h. Flea eggs were incubated for 32 days, and newly emerged adults were counted. Ticks were counted and removed 48 h after each infestation. FM had >90 % efficacy against fleas at each time point and variable efficacy against ticks (38.0-99.6 %). Efficacy of IP was <90 % against fleas at day 64 and against ticks at day 30 of the first post-treatment. No flea eggs were laid in the treated groups until infestation was carried out >60 days after the last treatment. Despite challenging weather conditions, DPP was highly effective, providing >90 % efficacy against adult ticks as well as adult and immature fleas at every time point of the study.

  11. Comparative acaricidal efficacy of the topically applied combinations fipronil/(S)-methoprene, permethrin/imidacloprid and metaflumizone/ amitraz against Dermacentor reticulatus, the European dog tick (ornate dog tick, Fabricius, 1794) in dogs.

    PubMed

    Tielemans, E; Manavella, C; Pollmeier, M; Chester, T; Murphy, M; Gale, B

    2010-12-01

    The acaricidal efficacy against Dermacentor reticulatus in dogs of the commercial topical combinations fipronil/(S)-methoprene (FRONTLINE Combo spot-on dog), imidacloprid/permethrin (Advantix) and metaflumizone/amitraz (ProMeris Duo) was evaluated and compared. Three treatment groups and one untreated control group of six adult Beagle dogs each were randomly formed. Each treatment was administered topically once on Day-0, according to the recommended label dose and instructions for use. All dogs were infested weekly with approximately 50 adult unfed D. reticulatus over a period of seven weeks. Ticks were removed and counted approximately 48 hours after each infestation. The percent reduction in numbers of ticks for fipronil/(S)-methoprene was > or = 97% compared to untreated controls for all seven weekly infestations. The percent reductions for imidacloprid/permethrin and metaflumizone/amitraz were satisfactory initially but fell and stayed below 90 % after three weeks. From the third week onwards, fipronil/(S)-methoprene treated dogs had significantly fewer ticks than imidacloprid/permethrin or metaflumizone/amitraz treated dogs (p < 0.05).

  12. Effects of doxycycline on early infections of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    McCall, J W; Kramer, L; Genchi, C; Guerrero, J; Dzimianski, M T; Supakorndej, P; Mansour, A; McCall, S D; Supakorndej, N; Grandi, G; Carson, B

    2011-03-22

    The antifilarial effects of tetracycline drugs were first demonstrated when they were found to be highly effective against L(3) and L(4) of Brugia pahangi and Litomosoides sigmodontis in rodent models. Tetracyclines are also now known to have activity against microfilariae and adult Dirofilaria immitis, but assessment of their activity against larval and juvenile heartworms has not been reported previously. This study assessed the effects of doxycycline administered orally at 10mg/kg twice daily for 30-day periods at selected times during the early part of the life cycle of D. immitis in dogs with dual infections of D. immitis and B. pahangi. Twenty beagles were randomly allocated by weight to four groups of five dogs each. On Day 0, each dog was given 50 D. immitis L(3) and 200 B. pahangi L(3) by SC injection. Dogs received doxycycline on Days 0-29 (Group 1); Days 40-69 (Group 2); or Days 65-94 (Group 3). Group 4 served as untreated controls. Blood samples were collected for microfilariae counting and antigen testing. Necropsy for collection of adult heartworms and selected tissues were performed Days 218-222. Heartworms recovered were examined by immunohistology, conventional microscopy/transmission electron microscopy, and molecular biology techniques. No live heartworms were recovered from dogs in Group 1; dogs in Group 2 had 0 to 2 live worms (98.4% efficacy), and dogs in Group 3 had 0-36 live worms (69.6% efficacy). All control dogs had live adult heartworms (25-41). The live worms recovered from dogs in Groups 2 and 3 were less developed and smaller that worms from control dogs. Microfilariae were not detected in any dogs in Groups 1 and 2; one dog in Group 3 had 1 microfilariae/ml at necropsy. All control dogs had microfilariae at necropsy. One dog in Group 1 was antigen positive at one sampling (Day 166). One dog in Group 2 was antigen positive Days 196 and 218-222 and three dogs in Group 3 were antigen positive at one or more samplings All five control

  13. The Legacy of Beagle 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillinger, Judith; Bridges, John; Sims, Mark; Clemmet, Jim; Wright, Ian

    2015-04-01

    The Beagle 2 lander spun off from the ESA Mars Express spacecraft on 19 December 2003 and headed off towards Isidis Planitia on Mars. The scheduled landing of the 60 kg lander was 6 days later on Christmas morning, 25 December. It is universally known that no signal was received from the lander and its fate remained unknown. What is not questioned is the impact that the mission, and not least its charismatic leaders headed by the late Professor Colin Pillinger, had on the general public of the UK, Europe and worldwide. More than a decade after Beagle 2 was last seen, we review the legacy of the mission on the public perception of the value of space exploration, economically, commercially and cultural, and look forward to an expanding programme. The spin off from Beagle 2 science and technology into terrestrial applications will be addressed as will the ongoing career destinations of many of the original team; both supporting the significance that the mission had on determining the future pathway of space science and exploration in Europe and beyond. The ongoing search for evidence that Beagle 2 did in fact land as planned on Mars will be addressed and images from Mars orbiting spacecraft assessed.

  14. Liver biomarker and in vitro assessment confirm the hepatic origin of aminotransferase elevations lacking histopathological correlate in beagle dogs treated with GABA{sub A} receptor antagonist NP260

    SciTech Connect

    Harrill, Alison H.; Eaddy, John S.; Rose, Kelly; Cullen, John M.; Ramanathan, Lakshmi; Wanaski, Stephen; Collins, Stephen; Ho, Yu; Watkins, Paul B.; LeCluyse, Edward L.

    2014-06-01

    NP260 was designed as a first-in-class selective antagonist of α4-subtype GABA{sub A} receptors that had promising efficacy in animal models of pain, epilepsy, psychosis, and anxiety. However, development of NP260 was complicated following a 28-day safety study in dogs in which pronounced elevations of serum aminotransferase levels were observed, although there was no accompanying histopathological indication of hepatocellular injury. To further investigate the liver effects of NP260, we assayed stored serum samples from the 28-day dog study for liver specific miRNA (miR-122) as well as enzymatic biomarkers glutamate dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase, which indicate liver necrosis. Cytotoxicity assessments were conducted in hepatocytes derived from dog, rat, and human liver samples to address the species specificity of the liver response to NP260. All biomarkers, except ALT, returned toward baseline by Day 29 despite continued drug treatment, suggesting adaptation to the initial injury. In vitro analysis of the toxicity potential of NP260 to primary hepatocytes indicated a relative sensitivity of dog > human > rat, which may explain, in part, why the liver effects were not evident in the rodent safety studies. Taken together, the data indicate that a diagnostic biomarker approach, coupled with sensitive in vitro screening strategies, may facilitate interpretation of toxicity potential when an adaptive event masks the underlying toxicity. - Highlights: • NP260 caused ALT elevations in dogs without evidence of hepatocellular injury. • SDH, GLDH, and miRNA-122 elevations occurred, confirming hepatocellular necrosis. • NP260 toxicity is greater in dog and human hepatocytes than in rat hepatocytes. • Species sensitivity may explain why the rodent studies failed to indicate risk. • Diagnostic biomarkers and hepatocyte studies aid interpretation of hepatotoxicity.

  15. Serological and virological detection of canine herpesvirus-1 in adult dogs with and without reproductive disorders.

    PubMed

    Pratelli, A; Colao, V; Losurdo, M

    2014-05-01

    Canine herpesvirus 1 (CaHV-1) is known to cause reproductive disorders in adult dogs and neonatal mortality in puppies. The seroprevalence of CaHV-1 has not been documented in Italy. Sera from 865 dogs were screened for CaHV-1 using a serum neutralization assay (SN). All CaHV-1 positive sera and 100 CaHV-1 negative sera were also tested using an in-house immunofluorescence (IF) test. Thirteen bitches with reproductive disorders and three bitches with no history of reproductive diseases were also examined clinically so that lesions associated with CaHV-1 and CaHV-1 DNA could be identified using PCR analysis of vaginal swabs. An overall seroprevalence of 14.6% was observed using SN, and 18.6% using IF. The correlation between SN and IF was moderate. The SN assay demonstrated a greater sensitivity than IF, with a few exceptions. None of the vaginal swabs tested positive for CaHV-1 DNA. The differences in the seropositivity rates between SN and IF were not statistically significant (P = 0.16). Using the SN test as the reference standard, the sensitivity and specificity of IF were 29% and 95%, respectively. These results suggest that CaHV-1 is common in canine populations and could pose a threat to neonatal survival and canine fertility in breeding kennels in Italy. Vaccination of breeding bitches should be recommended if there is a history of reproductive disorders.

  16. A pharmacokinetic study of Isatin in Beagles' bodies

    PubMed Central

    REN, AILING; SU, BENHUA; YE, SIYONG; WEI, XIA; FANG, ZHAOGUO; WANG, QIAN; ZHANG, JIAN; XU, WEN; YUE, WANG; YIN, LEI; LIU, ZHANTAO; LI, XIAOLING; DING, BO

    2016-01-01

    Isatin are marine active drugs that exert anti-cancer effects, have a cancer-prevention function, and possess many pharmacological activities. The study aimed to examine the pharmacokinetics of a single intravenous injection and oral medication of Isatin given to Beagles. Nine male and nine female Beagles were injected with 30 mg/kg of 2,3-indole quinones. The animals were divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group) and lavaged with a dose of 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg, respectively. Blood samples were collected prior to the medicine delivery (0 h) and 0.083, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 h post-medicine delivery. The blood plasma samples were analyzed using the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS method following pretreatment for the protein precipitation. Pharmacokinetics software was applied to calculate relevant pharmacokinetic parameters through the atrioventricular model. The drug concentration in plasma decreased rapidly following the intravenous injection of Isatin. After 8 h, the prototype drugs could not be tested in the plasma and only trace amounts of drugs were tested in one dog, which was considered to be an endogenous drug. Indole quinone was absorbed following lavage into Beagles and peaked in <1 h, and the drug concentration in the plasma decreased rapidly. After 8 h, the prototype drugs could not be tested in the plasma. The elimination of the two drugs in the body had no evident gender differences. In conclusion, Isatin is rapidly absorbed in bodies of Beagles. Within the dose range of 15–60 mg/kg, no linear relationship was observed for the increase in Cmax and AUC0-t values with the increased dose. PMID:27284305

  17. Experimental infection of adult and juvenile coyotes with domestic dog and wild coyote isolates of Hepatozoon americanum (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina).

    PubMed

    Garrett, Jennifer Jane; Kocan, A Alan; Reichard, Mason V; Panciera, Roger J; Bahr, Robert J; Ewing, Sidney A

    2005-07-01

    Each of five adult and four juvenile coyotes (Canis latrans) was exposed to an oral dose of 50 Hepatozoon americanum oocysts recovered from Amblyomma maculatum ticks that previously fed on either naturally infected domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) or naturally infected wild coyotes. All coyotes exposed to H. americanum became infected, regardless of isolate source, and all exhibited mild to moderate clinical disease that simulated American canine hepatozoonosis in naturally infected dogs. At 100 days postexposure, parasitemia was greater in juvenile than adult coyotes (0.9% and 0.3%, respectively); radiographic imaging of femurs revealed moderate exostosis in all juveniles and mild to moderate new bone growth in four of five (80%) adult coyotes. Gross postmortem analysis of bone lesions demonstrated variation between age groups of coyotes but not between isolates of H. americanum. Microscopic evaluation of skeletal muscle revealed that parasite-induced lesions were significantly more numerous (t = 5.0, df = 7, P = 0.001) in juvenile than adult coyotes. Results of this study indicate that juvenile and adult coyotes are equally susceptible to experimental infection with H. americanum isolated from domestic dog and wild coyote sources. The age of coyotes at the time of exposure, and possibly the number of H. americanum oocysts ingested, might influence morbidity and mortality, but it appears that both adult and juvenile coyotes could be reservoirs of H. americanum.

  18. Investigating the function of play bows in adult pet dogs (Canis lupus familiaris).

    PubMed

    Byosiere, Sarah-Elizabeth; Espinosa, Julia; Smuts, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Play bows are a common, highly stereotyped canine behavior widely considered to be a 'play signal,' but only one study has researched their function. Bekoff (1995) found that play bows function as behavioral modifiers to help clarify playful intent before or after easily misinterpretable behaviors, such as bite-shakes. To further examine the function of play bows, the current study analyzed five types of behaviors displayed by the bower and the partner immediately before and after a play bow during dyadic play. We found that play bows most often occurred after a brief pause in play. Synchronous behaviors by the bower and the partner, or vulnerable/escape behaviors by the bower (such as running away) and complementary offensive behaviors by the partner (such as chasing) occurred most often after the play bow. These results indicate that during adult dog dyadic play, play bows function to reinitiate play after a pause rather than to mediate offensive or ambiguous actions. PMID:26923096

  19. Pathologic effects of fractionated fast neutrons or photons on the pancreas, pylorus and duodenum of dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Zook, B.C.; Bradley, E.W.; Casarett, G.W.; Rogers, C.C.

    1983-10-01

    Thirty-nine adult male Beagles received either fast neutron or photon irradiation to the right thorax to determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of fast neutrons on normal pulmonary tissue. The right anterior abdomen was included in the field of radiation. Twenty-four dogs (six/group) received fast neutrons with an average energy of 15 MeV to total doses of 1000, 1500, 2250 or 3375 rad in four fractions per week for six weeks. Fifteen dogs received 3000, 4500, or 6750 rad of photons (five/group) in an identical fractionation pattern. All neutron irradiated dogs receiving 3375 and 2250 rad and one receiving 1500 rad developed clinical signs of pancreatic, hepatic and gastrointestinal disturbances. The liver enzymes of these dogs became elevated and they died or were euthanized in extremis 47-367 days after irradiation. Only one 6750 rad photon dog developed similar signs and died 708 days post-irradiation. Five neutron and 10 photon exposed dogs died of other causes. Neutron-induced lesions in the stomach and duodenum included hemorrhages, erosions, ulcerations and fibrosis. Ulcers perforated the GI tract of five dogs. Pancreatic lesions included degranulation and necrosis of acinar cells, fibrosis and atrophy. Islet cells were not obviously damaged. All lesions were associated with degenerative and occlusive vascular changes. The RBE of fast neutrons, assessed by clinical signs, gross and microscopic pathology, is approximately 3-4.5 for pancreas and about 4.5 for pylorus and duodenum.

  20. Safe and bodywide muscle transduction in young adult Duchenne muscular dystrophy dogs with adeno-associated virus.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yongping; Pan, Xiufang; Hakim, Chady H; Kodippili, Kasun; Zhang, Keqing; Shin, Jin-Hong; Yang, Hsiao T; McDonald, Thomas; Duan, Dongsheng

    2015-10-15

    The ultimate goal of muscular dystrophy gene therapy is to treat all muscles in the body. Global gene delivery was demonstrated in dystrophic mice more than a decade ago using adeno-associated virus (AAV). However, translation to affected large mammals has been challenging. The only reported attempt was performed in newborn Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) dogs. Unfortunately, AAV injection resulted in growth delay, muscle atrophy and contracture. Here we report safe and bodywide AAV delivery in juvenile DMD dogs. Three ∼2-m-old affected dogs received intravenous injection of a tyrosine-engineered AAV-9 reporter or micro-dystrophin (μDys) vector at the doses of 1.92-6.24 × 10(14) viral genome particles/kg under transient or sustained immune suppression. DMD dogs tolerated injection well and their growth was not altered. Hematology and blood biochemistry were unremarkable. No adverse reactions were observed. Widespread muscle transduction was seen in skeletal muscle, the diaphragm and heart for at least 4 months (the end of the study). Nominal expression was detected in internal organs. Improvement in muscle histology was observed in μDys-treated dogs. In summary, systemic AAV gene transfer is safe and efficient in young adult dystrophic large mammals. This may translate to bodywide gene therapy in pediatric patients in the future. PMID:26264580

  1. Safe and bodywide muscle transduction in young adult Duchenne muscular dystrophy dogs with adeno-associated virus.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yongping; Pan, Xiufang; Hakim, Chady H; Kodippili, Kasun; Zhang, Keqing; Shin, Jin-Hong; Yang, Hsiao T; McDonald, Thomas; Duan, Dongsheng

    2015-10-15

    The ultimate goal of muscular dystrophy gene therapy is to treat all muscles in the body. Global gene delivery was demonstrated in dystrophic mice more than a decade ago using adeno-associated virus (AAV). However, translation to affected large mammals has been challenging. The only reported attempt was performed in newborn Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) dogs. Unfortunately, AAV injection resulted in growth delay, muscle atrophy and contracture. Here we report safe and bodywide AAV delivery in juvenile DMD dogs. Three ∼2-m-old affected dogs received intravenous injection of a tyrosine-engineered AAV-9 reporter or micro-dystrophin (μDys) vector at the doses of 1.92-6.24 × 10(14) viral genome particles/kg under transient or sustained immune suppression. DMD dogs tolerated injection well and their growth was not altered. Hematology and blood biochemistry were unremarkable. No adverse reactions were observed. Widespread muscle transduction was seen in skeletal muscle, the diaphragm and heart for at least 4 months (the end of the study). Nominal expression was detected in internal organs. Improvement in muscle histology was observed in μDys-treated dogs. In summary, systemic AAV gene transfer is safe and efficient in young adult dystrophic large mammals. This may translate to bodywide gene therapy in pediatric patients in the future.

  2. Beta 3-adrenergic receptor stimulation restores message and expression of brown-fat mitochondrial uncoupling protein in adult dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Champigny, O; Ricquier, D; Blondel, O; Mayers, R M; Briscoe, M G; Holloway, B R

    1991-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is present throughout life in rodents and plays an important role in energy balance. However, whereas BAT is clearly recognizable in the neonates of larger mammals (including dogs, cats, sheep, cattle, and humans), it is undetectable or present in only small quantities in adults of these species and is replaced by a tissue with the gross characteristics of white adipose tissue. Here we provide evidence that treatment of adult dogs with a beta 3-adrenergic receptor agonist (ICI D7114) that has thermogenic and antiobesity properties leads to the appearance of BAT at several anatomical sites. The presence of BAT was primarily demonstrated by monitoring the inner mitochondrial membrane uncoupling protein and its mRNA, which are unique to the tissue. Neither message nor protein was detected in adipose tissue samples from control dogs but both were detected in samples from dogs treated with ICI D7114. The data suggest that stimulation of beta 3-adrenergic receptors can reactivate nascent BAT (which has the appearance of white adipose tissue) by increasing expression of the gene coding for uncoupling protein or lead to the recruitment of fully differentiated BAT from preadipocyte precursor cells. Images PMID:1720550

  3. Beta 3-adrenergic receptor stimulation restores message and expression of brown-fat mitochondrial uncoupling protein in adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Champigny, O; Ricquier, D; Blondel, O; Mayers, R M; Briscoe, M G; Holloway, B R

    1991-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is present throughout life in rodents and plays an important role in energy balance. However, whereas BAT is clearly recognizable in the neonates of larger mammals (including dogs, cats, sheep, cattle, and humans), it is undetectable or present in only small quantities in adults of these species and is replaced by a tissue with the gross characteristics of white adipose tissue. Here we provide evidence that treatment of adult dogs with a beta 3-adrenergic receptor agonist (ICI D7114) that has thermogenic and antiobesity properties leads to the appearance of BAT at several anatomical sites. The presence of BAT was primarily demonstrated by monitoring the inner mitochondrial membrane uncoupling protein and its mRNA, which are unique to the tissue. Neither message nor protein was detected in adipose tissue samples from control dogs but both were detected in samples from dogs treated with ICI D7114. The data suggest that stimulation of beta 3-adrenergic receptors can reactivate nascent BAT (which has the appearance of white adipose tissue) by increasing expression of the gene coding for uncoupling protein or lead to the recruitment of fully differentiated BAT from preadipocyte precursor cells. PMID:1720550

  4. Quantitation of uveoscleral outflow in normotensive and glaucomatous Beagles by /sup 3/H-labeled dextran

    SciTech Connect

    Barrie, K.P.; Gum, G.G.; Samuelson, D.A.; Gelatt, K.N.

    1985-01-01

    In uveoscleral outflow, aqueous humor leaves the anterior chamber and passes caudally through the trabecular meshwork and the sclerociliary cleft to enter the supraciliary and suprachoroidal spaces. The fluid is then absorbed by choroidal and scleral circulations. Using /sup 3/H-labeled dextran, uveoscleral outflow was quantitated in normotensive and glaucomatous Beagles under general anesthesia. The intrascleral plexus was isolated and /sup 3/H-labeled dextran was injected into the anterior chamber. Intrascleral plexus contents were sampled every 5 minutes over a 30- to 60-minute period. The eyes were enucleated, sectioned, and prepared for scintillation counting. Uveoscleral outflow accounted for 15% and 3% of the total aqueous humor outflow in the normotensive dogs and in the advanced glaucomatous dogs, respectively. In the advanced glaucomatous Beagle, conventional and uveoscleral outflow pathways were reduced and contributed to the etiopathogenesis of glaucoma.

  5. Temperature induced variation in oxygen consumption of juvenile and adult stage of the dog conch Laevistrombus canarium (Linnaeus 1758)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Wan Nurul Husna Wan; Amin, S. M. Nurul; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2015-09-01

    Laevistrombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the important edible sea snail within the western Johor Straits, Malaysia. In this study, the impact of temperature on oxygen consumption (MO2) of L. canarium based on their ontogenetic changes (juvenile and adult) was measured in the laboratory condition at 22.0, 26.0, 30.0 and 34.0°C. Measurement of MO2 were taken every 1 s for 60 min on 4.20 - 34.00 g dog conch using respirometry chamber. All experiments were carried out in static conditions in five replicates with one snail per chambers. The results of oxygen consumption showed that juvenile dog conch respired at the rate of 0.163 ml h-1 and adult respired at the rate of 0.119 ml h-1. Consequently, the oxygen consumption in juvenile and adult dog conch was expressed as a total energy spends. The results indicates that total energy spend for oxygen consumed (ml h-1) of L. canarium at different temperature regimes (22.0 to 34.0°C) slightly increased over time period (0.63 ± 0.12 to 3.24 ± 0.05 J h-1) respectively. This finding of the present study suggested L. canarium is well adapted for life in high temperature environment.

  6. Oral bioavailability of quercetin from different quercetin glycosides in dogs.

    PubMed

    Reinboth, Marianne; Wolffram, Siegfried; Abraham, Getu; Ungemach, Fritz R; Cermak, Rainer

    2010-07-01

    Although the flavonol quercetin is used as a supplement in commercial dog food, data on quercetin bioavailability in dogs are not available. Thus, we investigated quercetin bioavailability (measured as area under the concentration-time curve) in nine adult beagle dogs at an oral dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). The major fraction (>80 %) of flavonols circulating in blood plasma were conjugated metabolites of quercetin. The absolute bioavailability of quercetin (i.e. the fraction that reaches the systemic circulation) was only about 4 %. We also compared the oral bioavailability between the aglycone quercetin and its more often used glucorhamnoside (rutin) and 3-O-glucoside (isoquercitrin) at an equimolar dose of 30 mumol/kg b.w. (corresponding to 10 mg quercetin/kg). Quercetin and isoquercitrin were mainly absorbed in the small intestine with isoquercitrin being one and a half times more bioavailable than quercetin. Maximal plasma concentration after isoquercitrin treatment was 0.89 (sem 0.07) mumol/l. Although quercetin absorption from rutin was delayed, relative bioavailability was not lower than from the aglycone itself. The latter observation is in clear contrast to findings in human subjects, pigs or rats and might indicate that rutin is a better source of quercetin in dogs than in other species. However, potential in vivo quercetin effects beyond the gastrointestinal tract are limited by the intensive metabolism as well as by the rather low bioavailability of this flavonol.

  7. Semen quality and onset of sterility following administration of a 4.7-mg deslorelin implant in adult male dogs.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, S; Siminica, A; Sontas, B H; Milani, C; Mollo, A; Stelletta, C

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to define (i) the interval between treatment and sterility, and (ii) semen quality in male dogs administered a 4.7-mg deslorelin implant. Six healthy, adult dogs of various breeds and body weights were implanted with deslorelin (Suprelorin, Virbac) and followed every 2 weeks with semen and blood collections. Semen quality remained stable or even improved during the first month following treatment and then showed a progressive decline until the end of the study, except for sperm morphology, which was unaffected by the treatment. Complete sterility was achieved on post-treatment days 70, 84, 60, 23, 51 and 40 for dogs 1 to 6, respectively. The 4.7 mg deslorelin implant caused a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in serum testosterone as well as sperm motility. Our results (i) confirm the efficacy of deslorelin in causing reversible sterility in male dogs, (ii) confirm and provide details about endocrine and seminal parameters involved in this process and (iii) contribute to define the interval between treatment and achievement of complete sterility. Practitioners should be aware that such interval may be longer than 2 months in some cases, and that fertility may actually be increased during the first 2-4 weeks post-treatment.

  8. The Effect of a Therapy Dog on the Communication Skills of an Adult with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFrance, Caroline; Garcia, Linda J.; Labreche, Julianne

    2007-01-01

    Little evidence-based research has been published within the field of communication disorders on the role of dogs as catalysts for human communication. This single participant study, a point of entry into this realm of research, explores the effects of a therapy dog on the communication skills of a patient with aphasia receiving intensive speech…

  9. Tooth brushing inhibits oral bacteria in dogs.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Kotaro; Kijima, Saku; Nonaka, Chie; Yamazoe, Kazuaki

    2015-10-01

    In this study, scaling, polishing and daily tooth brushing were performed in 20 beagle dogs, and the number of oral bacteria was determined using a bacterial counter. The dogs were randomized into the scaling (S), scaling + polishing (SP), scaling + tooth daily brushing (SB) and scaling + polishing + tooth daily brushing (SPB) groups. Samples were collected from the buccal surface of the maxillary fourth premolars of the dogs immediately after scaling and every week thereafter from weeks 1 to 8. Throughout the study, the number of bacteria was significantly lower in the SB and SPB groups compared with the S group. The findings suggest that daily tooth brushing inhibited oral bacterial growth in the dogs.

  10. The effect of perinatal sup 60 Co gamma radiation on brain weight in beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, B.F.; Benjamin, S.A.; Angleton, G.M.; Lee, A.C. )

    1989-08-01

    Beagle dogs were given single, whole-body {sup 60}Co gamma-radiation exposures at one of three prenatal (8, 28, or 55 days postcoitus) or three postnatal (2, 70, or 365 days postpartum) ages to evaluate the relative radiosensitivity of various stages of brain development. A total of 387 dogs received mean doses ranging from 0.16 to 3.83 Gy, and 120 dogs were sham-irradiated. Groups of dogs were sacrificed at preselected times from 70 days to 11 years of age. Brain weight decreased significantly with increasing dose in dogs irradiated at 28 or 55 days postcoitus or at 2 days postpartum. Irradiations at 28 days postcoitus were dramatically more effective in causing a reduction in brain weight than those at 55 days postcoitus or 2 days postpartum. Among dogs given 1.0 Gy or more and followed for up to 4 years, there was a radiation effect evident at all three sensitive exposure ages. Among dogs given lower doses and followed for up to 11 years, there was a significant decrease in brain weight in dogs given 0.80-0.88 Gy at 28 days postcoitus. All decreases in brain weight were present after normalization for radiation-induced reductions in skeletal (body) size. No specific morphologic changes were noted in the brains which showed the radiation-related reductions in size.

  11. Epihyoid bone fracture associated with tongue deviation in an adult dog.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Marcelo; Kani, Yukitaka; Mieres, Marcelo; Mansilla, Miguel

    2016-09-01

    An 8-month-old male Rhodesian ridgeback dog was evaluated for right lingual deviation, mild dysphagia, and inability to retract the tongue. Transverse and three-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction images revealed a transverse fracture of the left epihyoid bone. After 4 months of conservative management, that included assisted feeding of a semi-liquid diet or small volumes of food and analgesics, the dog recovered. PMID:27587884

  12. Biokinetics and dosimetry of inhaled Cm aerosols in beagles: effect of aerosol chemical form.

    PubMed

    Guilmette, R A; Kanapilly, G M

    1988-12-01

    This study was designed to provide tissue distribution data of 244Cm that was inhaled by beagle dogs. Two chemical forms that were presumed to bracket the solubility of pure Cm compounds in vivo were used: 244Cm2O3 (oxide) and 244Cm(NO3)3 (nitrate). Adult dogs of both sexes received a single brief pernasal exposure to either a monodisperse aerosol of 244Cm2O3 (1.4 micron activity median aerodynamic diameter, AMAD, and 1.16 geometric standard deviation, sigma g) or a polydisperse aerosol of 244Cm(NO3)3 (1.1 micron AMAD, 1.74 sigma g). The resulting initial pulmonary burdens (IPB) were 1.5 and 1.7 kBq kg-1 body mass for the oxide and nitrate groups, respectively. The tissue distribution data obtained from the dogs that were serially sacrificed from 4 h to 2 y after exposure showed that both chemical forms were very soluble in vivo. For the oxide group, 78% IPB was cleared from the lung with a T 1/2 of 7.6 d, whereas for the nitrate group, 42% IPB cleared with a T 1/2 of 0.6 d. The lung retention for each group was described by three-component exponential functions. Most of the Cm that cleared the lung was redeposited in the liver (37% IPB) and skeleton (27% IPB), with lesser amounts in the muscle, fat and connective tissue (3.5% IPB) and kidney (approximately 2% IPB). The only significant difference noted in the biokinetics of Cm for the two exposure groups was a more rapid translocation of Cm from the lung to liver and bone during the first 10-20 d after exposure to the nitrate compared to the oxide chemical form. Extrapolation of these data to obtain estimates of committed dose equivalents for man indicate substantial agreement with the limits for occupational exposure specified by ICRP 30 (1979). PMID:3198400

  13. Evaluation of nanoparticle delivered cisplatin in beagles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldhaeusser, Brittany; Platt, Simon R.; Marrache, Sean; Kolishetti, Nagesh; Pathak, Rakesh K.; Montgomery, David J.; Reno, Lisa R.; Howerth, Elizabeth; Dhar, Shanta

    2015-08-01

    Intracranial neoplasia is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in both human and veterinary patients, and is difficult to treat with traditional therapeutic methods. Cisplatin is a platinum (Pt)-containing chemotherapeutic agent approved by the Food and Drug Administration; however, substantial limitations exist for its application in canine brain tumor treatment due to the difficulty in crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB), development of resistance, and toxicity. A modified Pt(iv)-prodrug of cisplatin, Platin-M, was recently shown to be deliverable to the brain via a biocompatible mitochondria-targeted lipophilic polymeric nanoparticle (NP) that carries the drug across the BBB and to the mitochondria. NP mediated controlled release of Platin-M and subsequent reduction of this prodrug to cisplatin allowed cross-links to be formed with the mitochondrial DNA, which have no nucleotide excision repair system, forcing the overactive cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. Here, we report in vitro effects of targeted Platin-M NPs (T-Platin-M-NPs) in canine glioma and glioblastoma cell lines with results indicating that this targeted NP formulation is more effective than cisplatin. In both the cell lines, T-Platin-M-NP was significantly more efficacious compared to carboplatin, another Pt-based chemotherapy, which is used in the settings of recurrent high-grade glioblastoma. Mitochondrial stress analysis indicated that T-Platin-M-NP is more effective in disrupting the mitochondrial bioenergetics in both the cell types. A 14-day distribution study in healthy adult beagles using a single intravenous injection at 0.5 mg kg-1 (with respect to Platin-M) of T-Platin-M-NPs showed high levels of Pt accumulation in the brain, with negligible amounts in the other analyzed organs. Safety studies in the beagles monitoring physical, hematological, and serum chemistry evaluations were within the normal limits on days 1, 7, and 14 after injection of either 0.5 mg kg-1 or 2 mg kg

  14. Pharmacokinetics and dose selection of a novel, long-acting transdermal fentanyl solution in healthy laboratory Beagles.

    PubMed

    Freise, K J; Savides, M C; Riggs, K L; Owens, J G; Newbound, G C; Clark, T P

    2012-08-01

    A novel, transdermal fentanyl solution (TFS) was developed that delivers sustained concentrations of fentanyl for days following a single application. The pharmacokinetics following a single topical dose was examined. Eighteen adult Beagle dogs were divided into three groups of six dogs (3M, 3F). Each group was administered a single dose of 1.3 (25), 2.6 (50), or 5.2 mg/kg (100 μL/kg) of TFS. The dose was applied to the clipped, ventral abdominal skin using a 1-mL tuberculin syringe. Immediately following dosing, collars were placed on each dog through 72 h to prevent direct licking of the application site. Serial jugular venous blood samples were collected at 0 (predosing), 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96, 108, 120, 144, 168, 240, 336, 408, and 504 h after dosing and assayed for plasma fentanyl concentration. Fentanyl was rapidly detected following application with a mean absorption lag time (t(lag) ) of 0.333 h in the 1.3 mg/kg group and 0 in the other two groups. The mean C(max) increased with dose and were 2.28, 2.67, and 4.71 ng/mL in the 1.3, 2.6 and 5.2 mg/kg dose groups, respectively. Mean terminal half-lives were 53.7, 69.6, and 103 h in the 1.3, 2.6, and 5.2 mg/kg dose groups, respectively. The mean AUC(0-LLOQ) from lowest to highest dose groups were 157, 268, and 645 ng·h/mL and were dose proportional with a R(2) value of 0.9818. Adverse reactions were limited to the highest dose group and included sedation (four of six dogs) and decreased food and water intake (one dog). A dose of 2.6 mg/kg (50 μL/kg) is proposed for further development studies based on the lack of adverse events that were observed compared to the 5.2 mg/kg group and a more rapid onset of action and longer duration of action compared to the 1.3 mg/kg group.

  15. Extrinsic cardiac nerve segments in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris- Linnaeus, 1758). Comparative study in young and adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Brugnaro, M; De Souza, R R; Ribeiro, A A C M

    2003-08-01

    In this paper, important connections between the two main contingents of the autonomic nervous system, intrinsic and extrinsic visceral plexus were analysed. Concerning heart innervation, the territories of extrinsic innervation are very important in the treatment of congenital or acquired cardiopathy, thoracic neoplasia and aortic arch persistence, among others. This research compared young and adult extrinsic cardiac innervation and described the surgical anatomic nerve segments. Animals were perfused with a 10% formaldehyde solution in PBS (0.1 m) (pH 7.4) and submitted to macro- and meso-scopic dissection immersed in 60% acetic acid alcoholic solution and 20% hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution. The nerve segments were assigned as: right vagus nerve segment, left vagus nerve segment, right middle cervical ganglion segment, left middle cervical ganglion segment, right caudal laryngeal nerve segment, left caudal laryngeal nerve segment, right phrenic nerve segment and left phrenic nerve segment.

  16. Anatomical evaluation of hepatic vascular system in healthy beagles using X-ray contrast computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Yasuhisa; Tani, Kenji; Nakazawa, Hiroshi; Itamoto, Kazuhito; Haraguchi, Tomoya; Taura, Yasuho

    2015-08-01

    Liver contrast X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been used for evaluation of hepatic vessels for liver transplantation, liver lobectomy, interventional radiology and diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in humans. However, there remains scant available anatomical information on normal hepatic vessels in the veterinary field. In this study, visualization of hepatic vessels was evaluated in 32 normal beagle dogs by X-ray contrast CT using triple phase images. The following hepatic vessels were clearly visualized: arterial, portal and hepatic veins. With regards to the running patterns of the portal vein and hepatic vein, there were no significant differences between the dogs. However, the hepatic artery exhibited some differences in each dog. In particular, the hepatic artery of the quadrate lobe and the right lateral lobe had many running patterns. The results of the present study could be useful for veterinary diagnosis, surgery and interventional radiology. PMID:25843113

  17. The effects of feeding resistant starch on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, faecal characteristics and faecal fermentative end-products in healthy adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Beloshapka, Alison N; Alexander, Lucille G; Buff, Preston R; Swanson, Kelly S

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of whole grain consumption have been studied in human subjects, but little research exists on their effects in dogs. The objective of the present study was to test the effects of resistant starch (RS) in the diet of healthy adult dogs. Twelve adult Miniature Schnauzer dogs (eight males, four females; mean age: 3·3 (1·6) years; mean body weight: 8·4 (1·2) kg; mean body condition score: D/ideal) were randomly allotted to one of three treatment groups, which consisted of different amounts of RS supplied in a biscuit format. Dogs received either 0, 10 or 20 g biscuits per d (estimated to be 0, 2·5 or 5 g RS per d) that were fed within their daily energetic allowance. A balanced Latin square design was used, with each treatment period lasting 21 d (days 0-17 adaptation; days 18-21 fresh and total faecal collection). All dogs were fed the same diet to maintain body weight throughout the study. Dogs fed 5 g RS per d had lower (P = 0·03) fat digestibility than dogs fed 0 gRS per d, but DM, organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were not affected. Faecal fermentative end-products, including SCFA and branched-chain fatty acids, ammonia, phenols and indoles, and microbial populations were not affected. The minor changes observed in the present study suggest the RS doses provided to the dogs were too low. Further work is required to assess the dose of RS required to affect gut health. PMID:26101607

  18. The effects of feeding resistant starch on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, faecal characteristics and faecal fermentative end-products in healthy adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Beloshapka, Alison N; Alexander, Lucille G; Buff, Preston R; Swanson, Kelly S

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of whole grain consumption have been studied in human subjects, but little research exists on their effects in dogs. The objective of the present study was to test the effects of resistant starch (RS) in the diet of healthy adult dogs. Twelve adult Miniature Schnauzer dogs (eight males, four females; mean age: 3·3 (1·6) years; mean body weight: 8·4 (1·2) kg; mean body condition score: D/ideal) were randomly allotted to one of three treatment groups, which consisted of different amounts of RS supplied in a biscuit format. Dogs received either 0, 10 or 20 g biscuits per d (estimated to be 0, 2·5 or 5 g RS per d) that were fed within their daily energetic allowance. A balanced Latin square design was used, with each treatment period lasting 21 d (days 0-17 adaptation; days 18-21 fresh and total faecal collection). All dogs were fed the same diet to maintain body weight throughout the study. Dogs fed 5 g RS per d had lower (P = 0·03) fat digestibility than dogs fed 0 gRS per d, but DM, organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were not affected. Faecal fermentative end-products, including SCFA and branched-chain fatty acids, ammonia, phenols and indoles, and microbial populations were not affected. The minor changes observed in the present study suggest the RS doses provided to the dogs were too low. Further work is required to assess the dose of RS required to affect gut health.

  19. Beagle 2: Mission to Mars - Current Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Morgan, G. H.; Yau, D.; Stewart, J. L. C.; Leese, M. R.; Praine, I. J.; Sheridan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Beagle 2 is a 72 kg probe (with a 32 kg lander) developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on the European Space Agency's 2003 Mars Express. Beagle 2 was launched on June 2, 2003 with Mars Express on a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Beagle 2 landed on Mars on December 25th, 2003 in Isidis Planitia (approx. 10.7 N and 268.6 W), a large sedimentary basin that overlies the boundary between ancient highlands and northern plains. Isidis Planitia, the third largest impact basin on Mars, which is possibly filled with sediment deposited at the bottom of long-standing lakes or seas, offers an ideal environment for preserving traces of life. The team is awaiting signals from the Beagle 2 lander at the time when this abstract was written. Current status of the mission will be reported. Beagle 2 was developed to search for organic material and other volatiles on and below the surface of Mars in addition to the study of the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy. Several fundamental properties can be used to determine the existence of an active or past biology on any planet, Earth or Mars. Beagle 2's targets for investigation included: (a) The presence of water, or the existence of minerals deposited from water to show that water was present, even if only transiently; (b) The detection of carbonaceous debris, the remains of organisms that might have lived in water or were washed to a final resting place by the action of water; (c) The structure of organic matter, to demonstrate that it might have been synthesized for a biological purpose; (d) The recognition of isotopic fractionation between carbonaceous phases (organic vs inorganic carbon phases), a condition which on Earth suggests that life emerged nearly 4 billion years ago.

  20. Evaluation of nanoparticle delivered cisplatin in beagles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldhaeusser, Brittany; Platt, Simon R.; Marrache, Sean; Kolishetti, Nagesh; Pathak, Rakesh K.; Montgomery, David J.; Reno, Lisa R.; Howerth, Elizabeth; Dhar, Shanta

    2015-08-01

    Intracranial neoplasia is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in both human and veterinary patients, and is difficult to treat with traditional therapeutic methods. Cisplatin is a platinum (Pt)-containing chemotherapeutic agent approved by the Food and Drug Administration; however, substantial limitations exist for its application in canine brain tumor treatment due to the difficulty in crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB), development of resistance, and toxicity. A modified Pt(iv)-prodrug of cisplatin, Platin-M, was recently shown to be deliverable to the brain via a biocompatible mitochondria-targeted lipophilic polymeric nanoparticle (NP) that carries the drug across the BBB and to the mitochondria. NP mediated controlled release of Platin-M and subsequent reduction of this prodrug to cisplatin allowed cross-links to be formed with the mitochondrial DNA, which have no nucleotide excision repair system, forcing the overactive cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. Here, we report in vitro effects of targeted Platin-M NPs (T-Platin-M-NPs) in canine glioma and glioblastoma cell lines with results indicating that this targeted NP formulation is more effective than cisplatin. In both the cell lines, T-Platin-M-NP was significantly more efficacious compared to carboplatin, another Pt-based chemotherapy, which is used in the settings of recurrent high-grade glioblastoma. Mitochondrial stress analysis indicated that T-Platin-M-NP is more effective in disrupting the mitochondrial bioenergetics in both the cell types. A 14-day distribution study in healthy adult beagles using a single intravenous injection at 0.5 mg kg-1 (with respect to Platin-M) of T-Platin-M-NPs showed high levels of Pt accumulation in the brain, with negligible amounts in the other analyzed organs. Safety studies in the beagles monitoring physical, hematological, and serum chemistry evaluations were within the normal limits on days 1, 7, and 14 after injection of either 0.5 mg kg-1 or 2 mg kg

  1. Epigenetic conversion of adult dog skin fibroblasts into insulin-secreting cells.

    PubMed

    Brevini, T A L; Pennarossa, G; Acocella, F; Brizzola, S; Zenobi, A; Gandolfi, F

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes is among the most frequently diagnosed endocrine disorder in dogs and its prevalence continues to increase. Medical management of this pathology is lifelong and challenging because of the numerous serious complications. A therapy based on the use of autologous viable insulin-producing cells to replace the lost β cell mass would be very advantageous. A protocol to enable the epigenetic conversion of canine dermal fibroblasts, obtained from a skin biopsy, into insulin-producing cells (EpiCC) is described in the present manuscript. Cells were briefly exposed to the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine (5-aza-CR) in order to increase their plasticity. This was followed by a three-step differentiation protocol that directed the cells towards the pancreatic lineage. After 36 days, 38 ± 6.1% of the treated fibroblasts were converted into EpiCC that expressed insulin mRNA and protein. Furthermore, EpiCC were able to release insulin into the medium in response to an increased glucose concentration. This is the first evidence that generating a renewable autologous, functional source of insulin-secreting cells is possible in the dog. This procedure represents a novel and promising potential therapy for diabetes in dogs. PMID:27033591

  2. Hypoadrenocorticism in beagles exposed to aerosols of plutonium-238 dioxide by inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Dagle, G.E.

    1996-12-01

    Hypoadrenocorticism, known as Addison`s disease in humans, was diagnosed in six beagles after inhalation of at least 1.7 kBq/g lung of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}. Histological examination of adrenal gland specimens obtained at necropsy revealed marked adrenal cortical atrophy in all cases. Autoadiographs showed only slight {alpha}-particle activity. Although the pathogenesis of adrenal cortical atrophy in these dogs is unclear, there is evidence to suggest an automimmune disorder linked to damage resulting from {alpha}-particle irradiation to the lymphatic system.

  3. Efficacy of a novel oral formulation of sarolaner (Simparica™) against five common tick species infesting dogs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Six, Robert H; Everett, William R; Young, David R; Carter, Lori; Mahabir, Sean P; Honsberger, Nicole A; Myers, Melanie R; Holzmer, Susan; Chapin, Sara; Rugg, Jady J

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of a single oral treatment with sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), a novel isoxazoline compound, was evaluated against five tick species known to infest dogs in the United States. A total of 10 laboratory studies, two against each species, were conducted using adult purpose-bred mongrels or Beagle dogs. In each study, 16 dogs were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups based on pre-treatment host-suitability tick counts. Dogs were infested with approximately 50 unfed adult Amblyomma americanum, Amblyomma maculatum, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis or Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks on Days -2, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33. On Day 0, dogs were treated with a placebo or a sarolaner tablet providing a minimum dose of 2 mg/kg. Tick counts were conducted 48h after treatment and after each subsequent weekly re-infestation. There were no treatment-related adverse reactions during any of the studies. Dogs in the placebo-treated group maintained tick infestations throughout the studies. Geometric mean live tick counts were significantly lower (P≤0.0001) in the sarolaner-treated group compared to the tick counts in the placebo group at all timepoints. Treatment with sarolaner resulted in ≥99.6% efficacy against existing infestations of all five tick species within 48h. The efficacy against weekly post-treatment re-infestations of all tick species was ≥96.9% for at least 35 days after treatment. Thus, a single dose of sarolaner administered orally at the minimum dosage of 2mg/kg, resulted in excellent efficacy within 48h against existing tick infestations, and against weekly re-infestations for 35 days after treatment. These studies confirmed that administration of the minimum dose of sarolaner will provide rapid treatment of existing infestations and give at least one month of control against re-infestation by the common tick species affecting dogs in the US. PMID:26935819

  4. SU-C-303-03: Dosimetric Model of the Beagle Needed for Pre-Clinical Testing of Radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, M; Sands, M; Bolch, W

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Large animal models, most popularly beagles, have been crucial surrogates to humans in determining radiation safety levels of radiopharmaceuticals. This study aims to develop a detailed beagle phantom to accurately approximate organ absorbed doses for therapy nuclear medicine preclinical studies. Methods: A 3D NURBS model was created subordinate to a whole body CT of an adult beagle. Bones were harvested and CT imaged to offer macroscopic skeletal detail. Samples of trabecular spongiosa were cored and imaged to offer microscopic skeletal detail for bone trabeculae and marrow volume fractions. Results: Organ masses in the model are typical of an adult beagle. Trends in volume fractions for skeletal dosimetry are fundamentally similar to those found in existing models of other canine species. Conclusion: This work warrants its use in further investigations of radiation transport calculation for electron and photon dosimetry. This model accurately represents the anatomy of a beagle, and can be directly translated into a useable geometry for a voxel-based Monte Carlo radiation transport program such as MCNP6. Work supported by a grant from the Hyundai Hope on Wheels Foundation for Pediatric Cancer Research.

  5. The prevention of attachment and the detachment effects of a novel combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene for Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor variabilis on dogs.

    PubMed

    Prullage, Joseph B; Hair, Jakie A; Everett, William R; Yoon, Stephen S; Cramer, Luiz G; Franke, Shawn; Cornelison, Katie; Hunter, James S

    2011-07-15

    A novel combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene (CERTIFECT™, Merial Limited, GA, USA) was evaluated for the prevention of attachment of ticks and its ability to cause detachment of ticks. For the two prevention of attachment studies, 20 purpose-bred beagles were allocated each to two equal groups based on pretreatment tick counts (treated and untreated). Each dog was exposed to 50 adult Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor variabilis weekly starting 24h after treatment. In study 1 infestations with R. sanguineus were discontinued after Day 7 but continued to Day 28 for D. variabilis in both studies. Counts of ticks by species were made 2, 4 and 24h after exposure to ticks. Ticks not attaching to dogs were evaluated for viability. For the evaluation of detachment study, 16 purpose-bred beagles were allocated each to two equal groups based on pretreatment tick counts (treated and untreated). Each dog was infested with 50 unfed R. sanguineus and D. variabilis adults on Day -2. Ticks were thumb counted without removal on all dogs on Day -1, and at 4, 12, and 24h after treatment. Ticks were counted and removed at 48 h after treatment. Dogs treated with the novel combination had significantly (p<0.05) lower total numbers of attached R. sanguineus and D. variabilis than untreated controls at 4h through Day 7. For R. sanguineus, percent reduction of attachment at 24h after infestation through Day 29 ranged from 94.5% to 100%. For D. variabilis, the percent reduction of attachment at 24h through Day 22 was above 98.0%. These studies demonstrate that novel combination can disrupt attachment of R. sanguineus and D. variabilis for up to 28 days following treatment. Of those ticks that are exposed to the treatment, even if they do not attach to the dog and remain in the environment, greater than 90% (p<0.05) die within 24h for 2-3 weeks following treatment. Also, for those dogs infested with ticks at the time of treatment, the novel combination causes

  6. Booster effect of canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and infectious canine hepatitis combination vaccine in domesticated adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Tsuchiya, Ryo; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2012-08-01

    Domesticated adult dogs with antibody titer classified as below 'high' to one or more of canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAdV-1) were then given an additional inoculation, and the effectiveness of this booster evaluated 2 months later. Consequently, CDV and CAdV-1 antibody titer experienced a significant increase, but the same effect was not observed in the antibody titer of CPV-2. These findings suggest that with additional inoculation, a booster effect may be expected in increasing antibody titers for CDV and CAdV-1, but it is unlikely to give an increase in CPV-2 antibody titer.

  7. Hepatic fungal infection in a young beagle with unrecognised hereditary cobalamin deficiency (Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome).

    PubMed

    Kook, P H; Drögemüller, M; Leeb, T; Hinden, S; Ruetten, M; Howard, J

    2015-02-01

    A 12-month-old beagle presented for anorexia, pyrexia and vomiting. The dog had been treated intermittently with antibiotics and corticosteroids for inappetence and lethargy since five months of age. Previous laboratory abnormalities included macrocytosis and neutropenia. At presentation, the dog was lethargic, febrile and thin. Laboratory examination findings included anaemia, a left shift, thrombocytopenia, hypoglycaemia and hyperbilirubinaemia. Multiple, small, hypoechoic, round hepatic lesions were observed on abdominal ultrasound. Cytological examination of hepatic fine needle aspirates revealed a fungal infection and associated pyogranulomatous inflammation. The dog's general condition deteriorated despite supportive measures and treatment with fluconazole, and owners opted for euthanasia before hypocobalaminaemia was identified. Subsequent genomic analysis revealed a CUBN:c.786delC mutation in a homozygous state, confirming hereditary cobalamin malabsorption (Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome). Similar to human infants, dogs with Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome may rarely be presented for infectious diseases, distracting focus from the underlying primary disorder. PMID:25131805

  8. Canid herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1)-related disease in older puppies and CHV-1 shedding in the vagina of adult pregnant dogs.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Sanjay

    2015-11-01

    A large breeding kennel of Bulldogs (n = 57) experienced several Canid herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1)-related diseases in older puppies (9 weeks of age) in Arkansas. CHV-1 has been repeatedly confirmed in the kennel in several animals for 3 years (January 2012-February 2015) using various virology tests. I was able to detect a partial sequence of CHV DNA (~120 bp) in archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks after 3 years of storage. CHV-1 is persistently circulating in this kennel in spite of high serum antibody titers in the adult dogs. The dogs were negative for canine brucellosis antibodies based on Brucella canis rapid card test.

  9. Canid herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1)-related disease in older puppies and CHV-1 shedding in the vagina of adult pregnant dogs.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Sanjay

    2015-11-01

    A large breeding kennel of Bulldogs (n = 57) experienced several Canid herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1)-related diseases in older puppies (9 weeks of age) in Arkansas. CHV-1 has been repeatedly confirmed in the kennel in several animals for 3 years (January 2012-February 2015) using various virology tests. I was able to detect a partial sequence of CHV DNA (~120 bp) in archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks after 3 years of storage. CHV-1 is persistently circulating in this kennel in spite of high serum antibody titers in the adult dogs. The dogs were negative for canine brucellosis antibodies based on Brucella canis rapid card test. PMID:26450840

  10. Efficacy of Milbemax (milbemycin oxime + praziquantel) in the treatment of dogs experimentally infected with Crenosoma vulpis.

    PubMed

    Conboy, G; Bourque, A; Miller, L; Seewald, W; Schenker, R

    2013-12-01

    Crenosoma vulpis, the fox lungworm, infects wild and domestic canids and is a cause of chronic respiratory disease in dogs in North America and Europe. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of milbemycin oxime (0.5mg/kg)/praziquantel (5mg/kg) (Milbemax; Novartis Animal Health, Inc.) against C. vulpis infection in a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study using experimentally infected dogs. Sixteen beagles (8 males, 8 females) were each given 100 infective third-stage larvae of C. vulpis. Fecal samples were examined for first-stage larvae by quantitative Baermann examination pre-exposure and at days 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49 post-infection (PI). All of the dogs were shedding larvae in the feces at 21 days PI. The dogs were randomly assigned to one of two groups. At 28 days PI, Group 1 (4 males, 4 females) received placebo only while Group 2 (4 males, 4 females) received a single treatment of milbemycin oxime (0.5mg/kg) and praziquantel (5mg/kg). The 16 dogs were euthanized and necropsied at 49 days PI. Lungs were removed, assessed for gross lesions (graded on a subjective scale 0-3 with 0 being normal) and C. vulpis were collected by lung-flush and counted. Samples of lung tissue were preserved for evaluation of histopathology and the lesions graded on a subjective scale (0-3 with 0 being normal). Gross and histopathology lesions were detected in all 8 untreated Group 1 dogs with mean subjective lesion scores of 1.8 ± 0.7 (range 1-3) and 3.0 ± 0.0 (range 3), respectively. Gross lesions were observed in 3/8 and histopathology lesions in all 8 of the treated Group 2 dogs with mean subjective lesion scores of 0.4 ± 0.5 (range 0-1) and 1.3 ± 0.4 (range 1-2), respectively. The mean (geometric) number for adult C. vulpis recovered in untreated dogs was 48.3 (range 25-70) compared with 0.65 (range 0-2) in animals treated with Milbemax. The resulting efficacy against C. vulpis was 98.7%. The number of C. vulpis was significantly lower for treated

  11. A frameshift mutation in the cubilin gene (CUBN) in Beagles with Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (selective cobalamin malabsorption).

    PubMed

    Drögemüller, Michaela; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Howard, Judith; Bruggmann, Rémy; Drögemüller, Cord; Ruetten, Maja; Leeb, Tosso; Kook, Peter H

    2014-02-01

    Mammals are unable to synthesize cobalamin or vitamin B12 and rely on the uptake of dietary cobalamin. The cubam receptor expressed on the intestinal endothelium is required for the uptake of cobalamin from the gut. Cubam is composed of two protein subunits, amnionless and cubilin, which are encoded by the AMN and CUBN genes respectively. Loss-of-function mutations in either the AMN or the CUBN gene lead to hereditary selective cobalamin malabsorption or Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (IGS). We investigated Beagles with IGS and resequenced the whole genome of one affected Beagle at 15× coverage. The analysis of the AMN and CUBN candidate genes revealed a homozygous deletion of a single cytosine in exon 8 of the CUBN gene (c.786delC). This deletion leads to a frameshift and early premature stop codon (p.Asp262Glufs*47) and is, thus, predicted to represent a complete loss-of-function allele. We tested three IGS-affected and 89 control Beagles and found perfect association between the IGS phenotype and the CUBN:c.786delC variant. Given the known role of cubilin in cobalamin transport, which has been firmly established in humans and dogs, our data strongly suggest that the CUBN:c.786delC variant is causing IGS in the investigated Beagles.

  12. When the Black Dog Barks: An Autoethnography of Adult Learning in and on Clinical Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. government's National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) estimates that in any given year, 14.8 million American adults (about 6.7 percent of the adult population) suffer from clinical depression or major depressive disorder, as it is sometimes called (NIMH, n.d.). In Canada, a recent study projected the estimate of sufferers much higher…

  13. Changes in glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus and hippocampus proper of adult and aged dogs.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Koo; Choi, Jung Hoon; Li, Hua; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Kim, Dae Won; Lee, Choong Hyun; Yi, Sun Shin; Seong, Je Kyung; Lee, In Se; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Won, Moo-Ho

    2008-09-01

    Astrocytes perform neuron-supportive tasks, repair and scarring process in the central nervous system. In this study, we observed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker for astrocytes, immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus and hippocampus proper (CA1-3 region) of adult (2-3 years of age) and aged (10-12 years of age) dogs. In the adult group, GFAP immunoreactive astrocytes were distributed in all layers of the dentate gyrus and CA1-3 region, except in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1-3 region. In the aged group, GFAP immunoreactivity decreased markedly in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. However, GFAP immunoreactivity in the CA1-3 region increased in all layers, and the cytoplasm of GFAP immunoreactive astrocytes was hypertrophied. GFAP protein levels in the aged dentate gyrus decreased; however, GFAP levels in the CA1-3 region increased. These results suggest that the morphology of astrocytes and GFAP protein levels in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and CA1 region are changed, respectively, with age.

  14. Safety and biodistribution of a double-deleted oncolytic vaccinia virus encoding CD40 ligand in laboratory Beagles.

    PubMed

    Autio, Karoliina; Knuuttila, Anna; Kipar, Anja; Pesonen, Sari; Guse, Kilian; Parviainen, Suvi; Rajamäki, Minna; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Akseli

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated adverse events, biodistribution and shedding of oncolytic vaccinia virus encoding CD40 ligand in two Beagles, in preparation for a phase 1 trial in canine cancer patients. Dog 1 received one dose of vaccinia virus and was euthanized 24 hours afterwards, while dog 2 received virus four times once weekly and was euthanized 7 days after that. Dogs were monitored for adverse events and underwent a detailed postmortem examination. Blood, saliva, urine, feces, and organs were collected for virus detection. Dog 1 had mild fever and lethargy while dog 2 experienced a possible seizure 5.5 hours after first virus administration. Viral DNA declined quickly in the blood after virus administration in both dogs but was still detectable 1 week later by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Only samples taken directly after virus infusion contained infectious virus. Small amounts of viral DNA, but no infectious virus, were detected in a few saliva and urine samples. Necropsies did not reveal any relevant pathological changes and virus DNA was detected mainly in the spleen. The dogs in the study did not have cancer, and thus adverse events could be more common and viral load higher in dogs with tumors which allow viral amplification.

  15. Safety and biodistribution of a double-deleted oncolytic vaccinia virus encoding CD40 ligand in laboratory Beagles

    PubMed Central

    Autio, Karoliina; Knuuttila, Anna; Kipar, Anja; Pesonen, Sari; Guse, Kilian; Parviainen, Suvi; Rajamäki, Minna; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Akseli

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated adverse events, biodistribution and shedding of oncolytic vaccinia virus encoding CD40 ligand in two Beagles, in preparation for a phase 1 trial in canine cancer patients. Dog 1 received one dose of vaccinia virus and was euthanized 24 hours afterwards, while dog 2 received virus four times once weekly and was euthanized 7 days after that. Dogs were monitored for adverse events and underwent a detailed postmortem examination. Blood, saliva, urine, feces, and organs were collected for virus detection. Dog 1 had mild fever and lethargy while dog 2 experienced a possible seizure 5.5 hours after first virus administration. Viral DNA declined quickly in the blood after virus administration in both dogs but was still detectable 1 week later by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Only samples taken directly after virus infusion contained infectious virus. Small amounts of viral DNA, but no infectious virus, were detected in a few saliva and urine samples. Necropsies did not reveal any relevant pathological changes and virus DNA was detected mainly in the spleen. The dogs in the study did not have cancer, and thus adverse events could be more common and viral load higher in dogs with tumors which allow viral amplification. PMID:27119092

  16. Safety and biodistribution of a double-deleted oncolytic vaccinia virus encoding CD40 ligand in laboratory Beagles.

    PubMed

    Autio, Karoliina; Knuuttila, Anna; Kipar, Anja; Pesonen, Sari; Guse, Kilian; Parviainen, Suvi; Rajamäki, Minna; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Akseli

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated adverse events, biodistribution and shedding of oncolytic vaccinia virus encoding CD40 ligand in two Beagles, in preparation for a phase 1 trial in canine cancer patients. Dog 1 received one dose of vaccinia virus and was euthanized 24 hours afterwards, while dog 2 received virus four times once weekly and was euthanized 7 days after that. Dogs were monitored for adverse events and underwent a detailed postmortem examination. Blood, saliva, urine, feces, and organs were collected for virus detection. Dog 1 had mild fever and lethargy while dog 2 experienced a possible seizure 5.5 hours after first virus administration. Viral DNA declined quickly in the blood after virus administration in both dogs but was still detectable 1 week later by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Only samples taken directly after virus infusion contained infectious virus. Small amounts of viral DNA, but no infectious virus, were detected in a few saliva and urine samples. Necropsies did not reveal any relevant pathological changes and virus DNA was detected mainly in the spleen. The dogs in the study did not have cancer, and thus adverse events could be more common and viral load higher in dogs with tumors which allow viral amplification. PMID:27119092

  17. Validation of MRI measurement of cardiac output in the dog: the effects of dobutamine and minoxidil.

    PubMed

    Hockings, Paul D; Busza, Albert L; Byrne, Joanne; Patel, Bela; Smart, Sean C; Reid, David G; Lloyd, Heather L; White, Alan; Pointing, Karen; Farnfield, Belinda A; Criado-Gonzalez, Ana; Whelan, Greg A; Taylor, Gemma L; Birmingham, Jeffrey M; Slaughter, Mark R; Osborne, Janette A; Krebs-Brown, Axel; Templeton, David

    2003-01-01

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the measurement of cardiac output parameters in anesthetized adult male beagle dogs has been validated against a widely accepted thermodilution method. Using a multislice cine gradient echo MRI method to acquire images of the entire heart, left ventricular lumen volumes were measured at systole and diastole in seven animals. Cardiac output correlated well (R 2 = 0.88) with thermodilution measurements made in a parallel manner, both before and during acute stimulation with the inotrope dobutamine. In a chronic study of changes in cardiac morphology and function brought about by the antihypertensive minoxidil, MRI reliably detected the expected increases in stroke volume (28%) and cardiac output (58%) resulting from neural reaction to decreased blood pressure. Left ventricular lumen enlarged as well in response to fluid retention and plasma volume increase. Two in four minoxidil-treated animals also developed clear MRI-visible pericardial effusion. PMID:20021181

  18. Modulation of the faecal microbiome of healthy adult dogs by inclusion of potato fibre in the diet.

    PubMed

    Panasevich, Matthew R; Kerr, Katherine R; Dilger, Ryan N; Fahey, George C; Guérin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Lynch, Gary L; Wils, Daniel; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steer, Jörg M; Dowd, Scot E; Swanson, Kelly S

    2015-01-14

    Inclusion of fermentable fibres in the diet can have an impact on the hindgut microbiome and provide numerous health benefits to the host. Potato fibre (PF), a co-product of potato starch isolation, has a favourable chemical composition of pectins, resistant and digestible starch, cellulose, and hemicelluloses. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary PF concentrations on the faecal microbiome of healthy adult dogs. Fresh faecal samples were collected from ten female dogs with hound bloodlines (6·13 (SEM 0·17) years; 22·0 (SEM 2·1) kg) fed five test diets containing graded concentrations of PF (0, 1·5, 3, 4·5 or 6% as-fed; Roquette Frères) in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design. Extraction of DNA was followed by amplification of the V4-V6 variable region of the 16S rRNA gene using barcoded primers. Sequences were classified into taxonomic levels using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn) against a curated GreenGenes database. Inclusion of PF increased (P< 0·05) the faecal proportions of Firmicutes, while those of Fusobacteria decreased (P< 0·05). Similar shifts were observed at the genus level and were confirmed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. With increasing concentrations of PF, faecal proportions of Faecalibacterium increased (P< 0·05). Post hoc Pearson's correlation analysis showed positive (P< 0·05) correlations with Bifidobacterium spp. and butyrate production and Lactobacillus spp. concentrations. Overall, increases in the proportion of Faecalibacterium (not Lactobacillus/Bifidobacterium, as confirmed by qPCR analysis) and faecal SCFA concentrations with increasing dietary PF concentrations suggest that PF is a possible prebiotic fibre. PMID:25418803

  19. Modulation of the faecal microbiome of healthy adult dogs by inclusion of potato fibre in the diet.

    PubMed

    Panasevich, Matthew R; Kerr, Katherine R; Dilger, Ryan N; Fahey, George C; Guérin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Lynch, Gary L; Wils, Daniel; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steer, Jörg M; Dowd, Scot E; Swanson, Kelly S

    2015-01-14

    Inclusion of fermentable fibres in the diet can have an impact on the hindgut microbiome and provide numerous health benefits to the host. Potato fibre (PF), a co-product of potato starch isolation, has a favourable chemical composition of pectins, resistant and digestible starch, cellulose, and hemicelluloses. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary PF concentrations on the faecal microbiome of healthy adult dogs. Fresh faecal samples were collected from ten female dogs with hound bloodlines (6·13 (SEM 0·17) years; 22·0 (SEM 2·1) kg) fed five test diets containing graded concentrations of PF (0, 1·5, 3, 4·5 or 6% as-fed; Roquette Frères) in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design. Extraction of DNA was followed by amplification of the V4-V6 variable region of the 16S rRNA gene using barcoded primers. Sequences were classified into taxonomic levels using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn) against a curated GreenGenes database. Inclusion of PF increased (P< 0·05) the faecal proportions of Firmicutes, while those of Fusobacteria decreased (P< 0·05). Similar shifts were observed at the genus level and were confirmed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. With increasing concentrations of PF, faecal proportions of Faecalibacterium increased (P< 0·05). Post hoc Pearson's correlation analysis showed positive (P< 0·05) correlations with Bifidobacterium spp. and butyrate production and Lactobacillus spp. concentrations. Overall, increases in the proportion of Faecalibacterium (not Lactobacillus/Bifidobacterium, as confirmed by qPCR analysis) and faecal SCFA concentrations with increasing dietary PF concentrations suggest that PF is a possible prebiotic fibre.

  20. Effects of cooked navy bean powder on apparent total tract nutrient digestibility and safety in healthy adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Forster, G M; Hill, D; Gregory, G; Weishaar, K M; Lana, S; Bauer, J E; Ryan, E P

    2012-08-01

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae) are a low glycemic index food containing protein, fiber, minerals, essential vitamins, and bioactive compounds and have not been evaluated for inclusion in commercial canine diets. The objective of this study was to establish the apparent total tract digestibility and safety of cooked navy bean powder when incorporated into a canine diet formulation at 25% (wt/wt) compared with a macro- and micro-nutrient matched control. Twenty-one healthy, free-living, male and female adult dogs of different breeds were used in a randomized, blinded, placebo controlled, 28-d dietary intervention study. Apparent total tract energy and nutrient digestibility of the navy bean powder diet were compared with the control diet. Digestibilities and ME content were 68.58 and 68.89% DM, 78.22 and 79.49% CP, 77.57 and 74.91% OM, 94.49 and 93.85% acid hydrolyzed fat, and 3,313 and 3,195 kcal ME/kg for the navy bean diet and control diet, respectively. No differences were observed between the groups. No increased flatulence or major change in fecal consistency was observed. Navy bean powder at 25% (wt/wt) of total diet was determined to be palatable (on the basis of intake and observation) and digestible in a variety of dog breeds. No changes were detected in clinical laboratory values, including complete blood counts, blood biochemical profiles, and urinalysis in either the bean or control diet groups. These results indicate that cooked navy bean powder can be safely included as a major food ingredient in canine diet formulations and provide a novel quality protein source, and its use warrants further investigation as a functional food for chronic disease control and prevention.

  1. Effects of cooked navy bean powder on apparent total tract nutrient digestibility and safety in healthy adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Forster, G M; Hill, D; Gregory, G; Weishaar, K M; Lana, S; Bauer, J E; Ryan, E P

    2012-08-01

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae) are a low glycemic index food containing protein, fiber, minerals, essential vitamins, and bioactive compounds and have not been evaluated for inclusion in commercial canine diets. The objective of this study was to establish the apparent total tract digestibility and safety of cooked navy bean powder when incorporated into a canine diet formulation at 25% (wt/wt) compared with a macro- and micro-nutrient matched control. Twenty-one healthy, free-living, male and female adult dogs of different breeds were used in a randomized, blinded, placebo controlled, 28-d dietary intervention study. Apparent total tract energy and nutrient digestibility of the navy bean powder diet were compared with the control diet. Digestibilities and ME content were 68.58 and 68.89% DM, 78.22 and 79.49% CP, 77.57 and 74.91% OM, 94.49 and 93.85% acid hydrolyzed fat, and 3,313 and 3,195 kcal ME/kg for the navy bean diet and control diet, respectively. No differences were observed between the groups. No increased flatulence or major change in fecal consistency was observed. Navy bean powder at 25% (wt/wt) of total diet was determined to be palatable (on the basis of intake and observation) and digestible in a variety of dog breeds. No changes were detected in clinical laboratory values, including complete blood counts, blood biochemical profiles, and urinalysis in either the bean or control diet groups. These results indicate that cooked navy bean powder can be safely included as a major food ingredient in canine diet formulations and provide a novel quality protein source, and its use warrants further investigation as a functional food for chronic disease control and prevention. PMID:22367072

  2. Conjugated and unconjugated bilirubins in bile of humans and rhesus monkeys. Structure of adult human and rhesus-monkey bilirubins compared with dog bilirubins.

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, S G; Taggart, D B; Ikeda, R; Ruebner, B; Bergstrom, D E

    1977-01-01

    1. Bilirubin-IXalpha, -IXalpha diglucuronide, -IXalpha monoglucuronide, -IXalpha monoglucoside -IXalpha monoxyloside, a bilirubin-IXalpha diconjugate containing glucose and another unknown compound, and bilirubin-IXbeta are present in gall-bladder bile of adult human, rhesus monkey and dog. Dog bile normally also contains other bilirubin-IXalpha diconjugates, i.e. compounds containing two conjugating sugars such as glucuronic acid and glucose, glucuronic acid and xylose and glucose xylose. 2. Azopigments alphaF, alphaO, alpha2, alpha3, betax and delta derived from human and rhesus-monkey bilirubins are identical in their chemical composition with those obtained from the dog. 3. Azopigments alphaF and betax found in diazotized biles of adult humans, rhesus monkeys and dogs are products of unconjugated bilirubin-IXbeta. 4. Technical modifications of previously published procedures [Heirwegh, Fevery, Michiels, Van Hees & Compernolle, (1975) Biochem. J. 145, 185-199] were introduced which make it possible to separate the bilirubins, diazotize the separated bilirubins, extract the azopigments and chromatograph them in one working day (6-8h). Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:414741

  3. Effects of body weight on antibody titers against canine parvovirus type 2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type 1 in vaccinated domestic adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Saito, Miyoko; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether post-vaccination antibody titers vary according to body weight in adult dogs. Antibody titers against canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV), and canine adenovirus type 1 (CAdV-1) were measured for 978 domestic adult dogs from 2 to 6 y of age. The dogs had been vaccinated approximately 12 mo earlier with a commercial combination vaccine. The dogs were divided into groups according to their weight. It was found that mean antibody titers in all weight groups were sufficient to prevent infection. Intergroup comparison, however, revealed that CPV-2 antibody titers were significantly higher in the Super Light (< 5 kg) group than in the Medium (10 to 19.9 kg) and Heavy (> 20 kg) groups and were also significantly higher in the Light (5 to 9.9 kg) group than in the Heavy group. Antibody titers against CDV were significantly higher in the Super Light, Light, and Medium groups than in the Heavy group. There were no significant differences among the groups for the CAdV-1 antibody titers.

  4. Immunoglobulin G responses to Malassezia pachydermatis in healthy dogs and dogs with Malassezia dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bond, R; Lloyd, D H

    2002-04-20

    Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses of healthy dogs and dogs with Malasseziapachydermatis dermatitis were compared by Western immunoblotting. M pachydermatis CBS 1879 was disrupted mechanically and its proteins were separated and blotted on to nitrocellulose membranes before being incubated with sera from eight healthy beagles, eight Irish setters with gluten-sensitive enteropathy, 15 healthy basset hounds, and 30 dogs with Mpachydermatis-associated dermatitis, 20 of which were basset hounds. The mean (se) numbers of bands of immunoreactivity observed in the seborrhoeic basset hounds (10.7 [0.4]) and affected mixed-breed dogs (9.4 [0.9]) were significantly greater than in the beagles (3-0 [1.0]), Irish setters (5.5 [1.1]) and healthy basset hounds (5.6 [0.7]). The number of bands identified was correlated (r(s) = 0.76, P < 0.001) with the anti-M pachydermatis IgG values measured by ELISA in a previous study. Most of the dogs were immunoreactive towards the 132, 66 and 50 to 54 kDa proteins and the affected dogs were also usually reactive towards the 219, 110, 71 and 42 kDa proteins. PMID:12017525

  5. Efficacy of a single dose of milbemycin oxime/praziquantel combination tablets, Milpro(®), against adult Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs and both adult and immature E. multilocularis in young cats.

    PubMed

    Cvejic, Dejan; Schneider, Claudia; Fourie, Josephus; de Vos, Christa; Bonneau, Stephane; Bernachon, Natalia; Hellmann, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    Two single-site, laboratory, negatively controlled, masked, randomised dose confirmation studies were performed: one in dogs, the other in cats. After a period of acclimatisation, both the dogs and cats were orally infected with Echinococcus multilocularis protoscoleces. In the dog study, 10 dogs received a single dose of Milpro® tablets at a minimum dose of 0.5 mg/kg milbemycin oxime and 5 mg/kg praziquantel 18 days post-infection and 10 dogs received no treatment. In the cat study, 10 cats received a single dose of Milpro® tablets at a minimum dose of 2 mg/kg milbemycin oxime and 5 mg/kg praziquantel 7 days post-infection, 10 cats received a single dose of the treatment 18 days post-infection and 10 cats remained untreated. In both studies, intestinal worm counts were performed 23 days post-infection at necropsy. No worms were retrieved from any of the 30 treated animals. Nine of 10 control dogs had multiple worms (geometric mean 91, arithmetic mean 304) and all 10 control cats had multiple worms (geometric mean 216, arithmetic mean 481). The difference in worm counts between all three treated groups and their controls was highly significant (ANOVA p values of log transformed data <0.0001). Efficacy of 100 % was demonstrated for the elimination of adult E. multilocularis in dogs and cats as well as for elimination of immature E. multilocularis in cats as evidenced by the effectiveness of treatment 7 days post-infection. The treatments were well accepted and tolerated, and there were no adverse drug reactions observed.

  6. Efficacy of a single dose of milbemycin oxime/praziquantel combination tablets, Milpro(®), against adult Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs and both adult and immature E. multilocularis in young cats.

    PubMed

    Cvejic, Dejan; Schneider, Claudia; Fourie, Josephus; de Vos, Christa; Bonneau, Stephane; Bernachon, Natalia; Hellmann, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    Two single-site, laboratory, negatively controlled, masked, randomised dose confirmation studies were performed: one in dogs, the other in cats. After a period of acclimatisation, both the dogs and cats were orally infected with Echinococcus multilocularis protoscoleces. In the dog study, 10 dogs received a single dose of Milpro® tablets at a minimum dose of 0.5 mg/kg milbemycin oxime and 5 mg/kg praziquantel 18 days post-infection and 10 dogs received no treatment. In the cat study, 10 cats received a single dose of Milpro® tablets at a minimum dose of 2 mg/kg milbemycin oxime and 5 mg/kg praziquantel 7 days post-infection, 10 cats received a single dose of the treatment 18 days post-infection and 10 cats remained untreated. In both studies, intestinal worm counts were performed 23 days post-infection at necropsy. No worms were retrieved from any of the 30 treated animals. Nine of 10 control dogs had multiple worms (geometric mean 91, arithmetic mean 304) and all 10 control cats had multiple worms (geometric mean 216, arithmetic mean 481). The difference in worm counts between all three treated groups and their controls was highly significant (ANOVA p values of log transformed data <0.0001). Efficacy of 100 % was demonstrated for the elimination of adult E. multilocularis in dogs and cats as well as for elimination of immature E. multilocularis in cats as evidenced by the effectiveness of treatment 7 days post-infection. The treatments were well accepted and tolerated, and there were no adverse drug reactions observed. PMID:26660919

  7. Hypertonic Saline Dextran Ameliorates Organ Damage in Beagle Hemorrhagic Shock

    PubMed Central

    You, Guo-xing; Wang, Ying; Chen, Gan; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Xi-gang; Zhao, Lian; Zhou, Hong; He, Yue-zhong

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of hypertonic saline with 6% Dextran-70 (HSD) resuscitation on organ damage and the resuscitation efficiency of the combination of HSD and lactated ringers (LR) in a model of hemorrhage shock in dogs. Methods Beagles were bled to hold their mean arterial pressure (MAP) at 50±5 mmHg for 1 h. After hemorrhage, beagles were divided into three groups (n = 7) to receive pre-hospital resuscitation for 1 h (R1): HSD (4 ml/kg), LR (40 ml/kg), and HSD+LR (a combination of 4 ml/kg HSD and 40 ml/kg LR). Next, LR was transfused into all groups as in-hospital resuscitation (R2). After two hours of observation (R3), autologous blood was transfused. Hemodynamic responses and systemic oxygenation were measured at predetermined phases. Three days after resuscitation, the animals were sacrificed and tissues including kidney, lung, liver and intestinal were obtained for pathological analysis. Results Although the initial resuscitation with HSD was shown to be faster than LR with regard to an ascending MAP, the HSD group showed a similar hemodynamic performance compared to the LR group throughout the experiment. Compared with the LR group, the systemic oxygenation performance in the HSD group was similar but showed a lower venous-to-arterial CO2 gradient (Pv-aCO2) at R3 (p < 0.05). Additionally, the histology score of the kidneys, lungs and liver were significantly lower in the HSD group than in the LR group (p < 0.05). The HSD+LR group showed a superior hemodynamic response but higher extravascular lung water (EVLW) and lower arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) than the other groups (p < 0.05). The HSD+LR group showed a marginally improved systemic oxygenation performance and lower histology score than other groups. Conclusions Resuscitation after hemorrhagic shock with a bolus of HSD showed a similar hemodynamic response compared with LR at ten times the volume of HSD, but HSD showed superior efficacy in organ protection

  8. Experimental infection of dogs with various Bartonella species or subspecies isolated from their natural reservoir.

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B; Ermel, Richard W; Kasten, Rickie W; Henn, Jennifer B; Fleischman, Drew A; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2014-01-10

    Dogs can be infected by a wide variety of Bartonella species. However, limited data is available on experimental infection of dogs with Bartonella strains isolated from domestic animals or wildlife. We report the inoculation of six dogs with Bartonella henselae (feline strain 94022, 16S rRNA type II) in three sets of two dogs, each receiving a different inoculum dose), four dogs inoculated with B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii type I (ATCC strain, one mongrel dog) or type II (coyote strain, two beagles and one mongrel) and B. rochalimae (coyote strain, two beagles). None of the dogs inoculated with B. henselae became bacteremic, as detected by classical blood culture. However, several dogs developed severe necrotic lesions at the inoculation site and all six dogs seroconverted within one to two weeks. All dogs inoculated with the B. v. berkhoffii and B. rochalimae strains became bacteremic at levels comparable to previous experimental infections with either a dog isolate or a human isolate. Our data support that dogs are likely accidental hosts for B. henselae, just like humans, and are efficient reservoirs for both B. v. berkhoffii and B. rochalimae.

  9. Dietary macronutrients and feeding frequency affect fasting and postprandial concentrations of hormones involved in appetite regulation in adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Lubbs, D C; Vester Boler, B M; Ridge, T K; Spears, J K; Graves, T K; Swanson, K S

    2010-12-01

    Identifying dietary effects on appetite-regulating hormones will enhance our understanding of appetite control. Before complex diets are tested, effects of specific macronutrients or feeding frequency should be identified. The objectives of this nutrition study were to identify differences in endocrine response with feeding frequency (Exp. 1) and after a single dose of a sole macronutrient (Exp. 2). A control diet supplying similar energy content from carbohydrate, protein, and fat was fed to maintain ideal BW. In Exp. 1, 8 healthy adult (1.9 ± 0.1 yr old) female hound cross dogs with an average BW of 22 kg (4.8 ± 0.8 BCS based on a 9-point scale) were randomly allotted to 1 of 2 treatments (fed once or twice daily) in a crossover design. After a 14-d adaptation period, a blood sample was taken (10 mL) before feeding, and samples were collected every 2 h postprandially for 24 h. In Exp. 2, dogs were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. After a 6-d adaptation period, the normal meal on d 7 was replaced with a bolus of maltodextrin (50 g in water; CARB), canned chicken (50 g; PROT), lard (25 g; fat), or water (200 mL). A blood sample (10 mL) was taken at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300, and 360 min postprandial. Total ghrelin, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin, and glucose concentrations were measured. Data were analyzed to compare changes from baseline and area under the curve (AUC) among treatments. In Exp. 1, all hormones were quite variable throughout the day, with a few insulin and GLP-1 differences because of feeding frequency. In Exp. 2, CARB produced a marked peak in glucose and insulin concentrations compared with PROT, fat, or water, resulting in increased glucose (P < 0.001) and insulin (P = 0.07) incremental AUC values. On the other hand, the fat treatment led to increased GLP-1 concentrations over time. Ghrelin AUC was not different among treatments. The circulating hormone data were highly

  10. Soft tissue tumors in beagles injected with {sup 241}Am citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Angus, W.

    1995-02-01

    The occurrence of soft tissue tumors has been studied in 117 beagles assigned to 8 dosage groups of between 2 and 26 animals each and injected with 0.07 to 104 kBq {sup 241}Am kg{sup -1} as the citrate. In addition, 133 control beagles given no radioactivity were used as a comparison group. All 250 dogs were maintained under identical conditions and were observed for their entire lifespans. An important competing risk for the appearance of soft tissue tumors appeared to be the occurrence of skeletal malignancy, and at the highest injected activity (104) kBq kg{sup -1}, kidney and liver failure brought about the death of both of the two dogs in this group. Thyroid and liver were the only soft tissues that exhibited greater concentrations of {sup 241}Am than the skeleton. Liver tumors were associated {sup 241}Am exposure (p < 0.001), but the thyroid tumor rate was not increased significantly in the irradiated animals (p > 0.10) as compared with the occurrence in controls. There was a greater relative occurrence of all vaginal tumors in control animals than in dogs given {sup 241}Am, a situation also found for all tumors of the pancreas, skin, testis, and mammary glands and for malignant ovarian tumors. All of these differences were statistically significant. The survival of animals given 0.07 to 0.59 kBq {sup 241}Am Kg{sup -1} could not be established (p > 0.10) as significantly different from controls, but the survival of all groups given 1.8 to 104 kBq kg{sup -1} was decreased (p < 0.05). There was no indication in our studies of a positive association between relative exposure to {sup 241}Am and the occurrence of mammary tumors, mast cell sarcomas originating outside the liver, lymphosarcoma or tumors of marrow, including leukemia. 20 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  11. Beagle 2: Seeking the Signatures of Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Wright, Ian P.; Morse, Andy; Stewart, Jenny; Morgan, G.; Praine, Ian; Leigh, Dennis; Sims, Mark R.; Pullan, Derek

    2003-01-01

    Beagle 2 is a 60 kg probe (with a 30 kg lander) developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on the European Space Agency s 2003 Mars Express. Beagle 2 will deliver to the Martian surface a payload which consists of a high percentage of science instruments to landed spacecraft mass. Beagle 2 will be launched in June 2003 with Mars Express on a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Beagle 2 will land on Mars in December 2003 in Isidis Planitia (approx. 11.5 deg.N and 275 deg.W), a large sedimentary basin that overlies the boundary between ancient highlands and northern plains. Isidis Planitia, the third largest basin on Mars, which is possibly filled with sediment deposited at the bottom of long-standing lakes or seas, offers an ideal environment for preserving traces of life. Beagle 2 is completed and undergoing integration with the Mars Express orbiter prior to launch.

  12. Kicking the digital dog: a longitudinal investigation of young adults' victimization and cyber-displaced aggression.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2012-09-01

    Using the general strain theory as a theoretical framework, the present longitudinal study investigated both face-to-face and cyber victimization in relation to cyber-displaced aggression. Longitudinal data were collected from 130 (70 women) young adults who completed measures assessing their victimization (face-to-face and cyber), cyber aggression, and both face-to-face and cyber-displaced aggression. Findings indicated that victimization in both social contexts (face-to-face and cyber) contributed to cyber-displaced aggression 6 months later (Time 2), after controlling for gender, cyber aggression, face-to-face displaced aggression, and cyber-displaced aggression at Time 1. A significant two-way interaction revealed that Time 1 cyber victimization was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber-displaced aggression when young adults had higher levels of face-to-face victimization at Time 1. Implications of these findings are discussed as well as a call for more research investigating displaced aggression in the cyber context.

  13. [Dog bites].

    PubMed

    Horn, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland 10'000 people are bitten by a dog annualy. Dog bites are notifiable incidents. Defensive and offensive aggression of dogs (why does a dog bite?), history, signs, treatment and prevention are discussed. Finally a short psychogram of dog owner and victim emphasizes the role of avoiding any escalation. PMID:25533260

  14. Effects of melatonin implants on winter fur growth and testicular recrudescence in adult male raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Y; Forsberg, M; Laitinen, J T; Valtonen, M

    1996-04-01

    The effects of melatonin implants were investigated on winter fur growth, monitored by counting growing and mature hairs per bundle and testicular recrudescence, judged by testis width, score count of spermatogenesis, and serum testosterone in the adult male raccoon dogs. Melatonin administration in July highly elevated melatonin concentrations in serum and urine and induced an earlier decrease in prolactin secretion (August in the treated group vs September in the control group), winter fur growth (July-beginning of November in the treated group vs. August-end of November in the control group) and testicular recrudescence (October in the treated group vs. November in the control group). In the control animals, urinary excretion of melatonin between 1500-0900 hr increased during autumn followed by a rapid fall in winter. The increase from July (1.8 +/- 0.4 ng) to August (3.9 +/- 0.5 ng) and the subsequent unchanged levels until October coincided with the period of winter fur growth. The further increase in November (6.5 +/- 1.2 ng) coincided with the significant elevation in both testis width and score count of spermatogenesis. These results suggest a role of the increase in endogenous melatonin secretion during autumn in the growth of winter fur and testicular recrudescence in this species under natural conditions. Relatively high serum concentrations of prolactin were shown in two animals, one in the control group and another in the treated group. However, the parameters for testis and winter fur growth in the two cases were similar to those in the remainder of the animals. Thereby, the role of prolactin in the winter fur growth and the initiation of testicular recrudescence, if it is truly involved, is manifested through its decreasing secretion rather than the actual blood concentrations. PMID:8797182

  15. Minipig and beagle animal model genomes aid species selection in pharmaceutical discovery and development

    SciTech Connect

    Vamathevan, Jessica J.; Hall, Matthew D.; Hasan, Samiul; Woollard, Peter M.; Xu, Meng; Yang, Yulan; Li, Xin; Wang, Xiaoli; Kenny, Steve; Brown, James R.; Huxley-Jones, Julie; Lyon, Jon; Haselden, John; Min, Jiumeng; Sanseau, Philippe

    2013-07-15

    Improving drug attrition remains a challenge in pharmaceutical discovery and development. A major cause of early attrition is the demonstration of safety signals which can negate any therapeutic index previously established. Safety attrition needs to be put in context of clinical translation (i.e. human relevance) and is negatively impacted by differences between animal models and human. In order to minimize such an impact, an earlier assessment of pharmacological target homology across animal model species will enhance understanding of the context of animal safety signals and aid species selection during later regulatory toxicology studies. Here we sequenced the genomes of the Sus scrofa Göttingen minipig and the Canis familiaris beagle, two widely used animal species in regulatory safety studies. Comparative analyses of these new genomes with other key model organisms, namely mouse, rat, cynomolgus macaque, rhesus macaque, two related breeds (S. scrofa Duroc and C. familiaris boxer) and human reveal considerable variation in gene content. Key genes in toxicology and metabolism studies, such as the UGT2 family, CYP2D6, and SLCO1A2, displayed unique duplication patterns. Comparisons of 317 known human drug targets revealed surprising variation such as species-specific positive selection, duplication and higher occurrences of pseudogenized targets in beagle (41 genes) relative to minipig (19 genes). These data will facilitate the more effective use of animals in biomedical research. - Highlights: • Genomes of the minipig and beagle dog, two species used in pharmaceutical studies. • First systematic comparative genome analysis of human and six experimental animals. • Key drug toxicology genes display unique duplication patterns across species. • Comparison of 317 drug targets show species-specific evolutionary patterns.

  16. The ontogeny of expression of communicative genes in coyote-beagle hybrids.

    PubMed

    Moon-Fanelli, Alice

    2011-11-01

    Although there are minimal genetic differences between the coyote (Canis latrans), the gray wolf (Canis lupus), and the domestic dog (Canis familiaris), these three species are extremely different in numerous aspects of their physiology, morphology, and behavior. In particular, the threat display of coyotes differs markedly from dogs and wolves. Coyotes display a wide open mouth gape-threat with attendant arched back defensive posture, and hiss vocalization. In our experience, this threat display is absent from the repertoire of the domestic dog and the gray wolf. We hypothesized that the foundation of these differences in species-typical threat displays is genetic. The threat displays of coyote-beagle crosses (F1's, F2's, F3's, F1F2's and beagle backcrosses), included the following phenotypes: that of each parental species, that of the domestic dog during pre-pubertal development switching spontaneously to the coyote gape-threat following sexual maturation; and a comparable phenotype requiring exposure to post-pubertal social stress-priming to bring the encoded genetic potential for the gape-threat to expression. The changeover from the dog snarl-threat to the coyote gape-threat was accompanied by a precipitous rise in endogenous cortisol levels over baseline. We hypothesized that where alternative genetic systems are physically available, their selective expression in development may depend on environmental events, such as social stress, to affect internal mechanisms that ultimately control the phenotype. Exogenously elevated cortisol levels, in the absence of the subjective experience of social stress, were associated with the onset of the expression of the coyote threat pattern in an F1 hybrid possessing a full haploid complement of coyote genes and his backcross offspring resulting from a breeding to his F2 daughter. With oral doses of hydrocortisone, the cortisol levels were substantially elevated over basal levels. With endogenous cortisol priming, an

  17. Comparison of the expression, activity, and fecal concentration of intestinal alkaline phosphatase between healthy dogs and dogs with chronic enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Ide, Kaori; Kato, Kazuki; Sawa, Yuki; Hayashi, Akiko; Takizawa, Rei; Nishifuji, Koji

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare expression, activity, and fecal concentration of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) between healthy dogs and dogs with chronic enteropathy (CE). ANIMALS 9 healthy university-owned Beagles and 109 healthy client-owned dogs (controls) and 28 dogs with CE (cases). PROCEDURES Cases were defined as dogs with persistent (> 3 weeks) gastrointestinal signs that failed to respond to antimicrobials and anti-inflammatory doses of prednisolone or dietary trials, did not have mechanical gastrointestinal abnormalities as determined by abdominal radiography and ultrasonography, and had a diagnosis of lymphoplasmacytic enteritis or eosinophilic gastroenteritis on histologic examination of biopsy specimens. Duodenal and colonic mucosa biopsy specimens were obtained from the 9 university-owned Beagles and all cases for histologic examination and determination of IAP expression (by real-time quantitative PCR assay) and activity (by enzyme histochemical analysis). Fecal samples were obtained from all dogs for determination of fecal IAP concentration by a quantitative enzyme reaction assay. RESULTS For dogs evaluated, IAP expression and activity were localized at the luminal side of epithelial cells in the mucosa and intestinal crypts, although both were greater in the duodenum than in the colon. Active IAP was detected in the feces of all dogs. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase expression and activity were lower for cases than for controls, and fecal IAP concentration for dogs with moderate and severe CE was lower than that for dogs with mild CE. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that dogs with CE had impaired IAP expression and activity. Additional research is necessary to elucidate the role of IAP in the pathogenesis of CE. PMID:27347825

  18. Ovariectomy-induced changes in aged beagles: Histomorphometry and mineral content of the rib

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.K.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Hurst, D.; Miller, S.; Sacco-Gibson, N.

    1997-08-01

    The effects of ovariectomy on the aged beagle skeleton were studied by histomorphometric analysis of the cortical bone in sequential rib biopsies. Biopsies were taken from each ovariectomized (OV) or sham-operated (SO) dog at the time of surgery and at 1, 4, and 8.5 months after surgery. Tetracycline, calcein, and xylenol orange, respectively, were administered by a fluorochrome labeling procedure (2d-10d-2d) just prior to each postoperative biopsy to provide markers of bone formation. Analysis of sequential biopsies provided a means to follow the response to ovariectomy over time and compare each animal against its own baseline. Examination of sequential biopsies indicated that cortical porosity increased by the fourth month after ovariectomy and remained high at 8.5 months. Ovariectomy did not influence histomorphometric indices at one month after surgery, but substantial differences were observed at later times. Ovariectomy stimulated a transient increase in bone formation and was increased six-fold over that of SO dogs at four months. Ribs were also analyzed for mineral content at necropsy. The rib was heterogeneous along its length for calcium content and concentration. In the midrib where biopsies for histomorphometric analysis were taken, ovariectomy induced a decrease in mass and mineral content; total calcium was decreased by approximately 31%. These data demonstrate that the rib cortical bone is a responsive site for the effects of ovariectomy in female dogs.

  19. Occurrence of metastases in beagles with skeletal malignancies induced by internal irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Angus, W.; Taylor, G.N.

    1994-03-01

    Metastases from malignant bone tumors often are responsible for the fatal effects of these cancers. Characteristics of primary skeletal malignancies in beagles injected with bone-seeking radionuclides were studied by Thurman (1971) and summarized by Thurman et al. (1971). There were 212 tumors in 186 of these dogs for which we subsequently received information on bone tumor metastases. Evaluation of bone and soft tissue slides from these animals allowed us to compare parameters reported previously with the occurrence of grossly apparent bone tumor metastases. Data included growth-rate of the primary tumor, volume of the primary tumor at death, sex of the animal, growth period of the primary tumor, degree of calcification of the primary tumor, skeletal location of the primary tumor, cumulative radiation dose to the skeleton, dose equivalent to the skeleton, and year of death. For most of the comparisons, no significant differences could be established between dogs with and without metastases. However, tumor volume at death appeared to be correlated with probability of metastasis (p < 0.05), with the larger tumors being associated with higher rates of metastasis. Comparisons of dogs with and without metastases as a function of tumor growth-rate did not, for the most part, yield significantly different results between groups. 10 refs., 11 tabs.

  20. Intra- and interobserver variability of ultrasonographic measurements of the adrenal glands in healthy Beagles.

    PubMed

    Barberet, Virginie; Pey, Pascaline; Duchateau, Luc; Combes, Anais; Daminet, Sylvie; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish which adrenal gland measurement was characterized by the least variations. To do this, we quantified the variability of seven different size measurements of the canine adrenal gland (maximal length, maximal height at the cranial and caudal poles on longitudinal and transverse images, and maximal width of the cranial and caudal poles) within observer, between observer, and between dogs based on three different measurements made by each of the three observers in six healthy Beagle dogs. The height of the caudal pole of both adrenal glands measured on longitudinal images had the lowest intra- and interobserver variability, while measurements of the length had the highest intra- and interobserver variability. Other measurements that were characterized by low intra- and interobserver variability were: height and width of the caudal pole on transverse images and height of the cranial pole on longitudinal images only. These results provide a basis for further study of the changes in adrenal gland size in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism.

  1. Studies on the erythron and the ferrokinetic responses in beagles adapted to hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, D. A.; Evans, J. W.; Oyama, J.

    1978-01-01

    Red cell survival, ferrokinetics, and hematologic parameters were investigated in beagle dogs exposed to chronic hypergravity (2.6 Gx). Ineffective erythropoiesis, red cell mass, plasma volume, and Cr-51-elution were significantly increased; maximum Fe-59 incorporation was decreased; and there was no change in the mean erythrocyte life span following autologous injection of Cr-51-labeled red cells and Fe-59-labeled transferrin. Red cell count, F(cells), total body hemoglobin (Hb), susceptability to osmotic lysis, and differential reticulocyte count were increased. White blood cell count, venous blood %Hb, mean cell volume, mean cell Hb, mean cell Hb concentration, and serum iron were decreased. No changes were observed for body mass, mg Fe per g Hb, iron binding capacity, percent saturation of iron carrying capacity, or the electrophoretic mobility of purified Hb. This study indicated that chronic exposure to hypergravity induced changes in red cell size, volume, total mass, and membrane permeability.

  2. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a novel oral formulation of sarolaner (Simparica™) for the treatment and control of fleas on dogs.

    PubMed

    Six, Robert H; Geurden, Thomas; Packianathan, Raj; Colgan, Sally; Everett, William R; Grace, Sarah; Hodge, Andrew; Mahabir, Sean P; Myers, Melanie R; Slootmans, Nathalie; Davis, Kylie

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of a single oral dose of a novel isoxazoline, sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), for the treatment and control of flea infestations on dogs was confirmed in five laboratory studies. The studies were conducted using adult purpose-bred Beagles and/or mixed breed dogs. All animals were individually identified and housed, and were allocated randomly to treatment with either placebo or sarolaner (eight to 10 per group) based on pretreatment parasite counts. Three studies used cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis felis) strains recently isolated from the field from the US, EU, or Australia; in the fourth study a laboratory strain (KS1) with documented tolerance to a number of insecticides such as fipronil, imidacloprid, and permethrin was used. In the fifth study, dogs were infested with dog fleas, Ctenocephalides canis. Dogs were treated orally on Day 0 with a placebo or a sarolaner tablet providing a minimum dose of 2mg/kg. Dogs were infested with approximately 100 unfed, adult fleas prior to treatment and at weekly intervals post-treatment. Comb counts were conducted to determine the numbers of viable fleas at 24h after treatment and after each subsequent infestation. Efficacy against C. felis and C. canis was 99.8-100% from treatment through Day 35. In all five studies, elimination of existing infestations was achieved within 24h after dosing, with only a single live C. felis found on one dog on Day 1. Similarly, control of flea challenges was achieved within 24h after infestation throughout the 35day study periods, with only single live C. felis found on two dogs on Day 28 in one study, and on a single dog on Day 35 in another study. There were no adverse reactions to treatment with sarolaner. These studies confirmed that a single oral dose of sarolaner at 2mg/kg provided highly effective treatment of existing C. felis infestations and persistent control of C. felis on dogs for 35days after treatment. Efficacy equivalent to that seen with C. felis was

  3. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a novel oral formulation of sarolaner (Simparica™) for the treatment and control of fleas on dogs.

    PubMed

    Six, Robert H; Geurden, Thomas; Packianathan, Raj; Colgan, Sally; Everett, William R; Grace, Sarah; Hodge, Andrew; Mahabir, Sean P; Myers, Melanie R; Slootmans, Nathalie; Davis, Kylie

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of a single oral dose of a novel isoxazoline, sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), for the treatment and control of flea infestations on dogs was confirmed in five laboratory studies. The studies were conducted using adult purpose-bred Beagles and/or mixed breed dogs. All animals were individually identified and housed, and were allocated randomly to treatment with either placebo or sarolaner (eight to 10 per group) based on pretreatment parasite counts. Three studies used cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis felis) strains recently isolated from the field from the US, EU, or Australia; in the fourth study a laboratory strain (KS1) with documented tolerance to a number of insecticides such as fipronil, imidacloprid, and permethrin was used. In the fifth study, dogs were infested with dog fleas, Ctenocephalides canis. Dogs were treated orally on Day 0 with a placebo or a sarolaner tablet providing a minimum dose of 2mg/kg. Dogs were infested with approximately 100 unfed, adult fleas prior to treatment and at weekly intervals post-treatment. Comb counts were conducted to determine the numbers of viable fleas at 24h after treatment and after each subsequent infestation. Efficacy against C. felis and C. canis was 99.8-100% from treatment through Day 35. In all five studies, elimination of existing infestations was achieved within 24h after dosing, with only a single live C. felis found on one dog on Day 1. Similarly, control of flea challenges was achieved within 24h after infestation throughout the 35day study periods, with only single live C. felis found on two dogs on Day 28 in one study, and on a single dog on Day 35 in another study. There were no adverse reactions to treatment with sarolaner. These studies confirmed that a single oral dose of sarolaner at 2mg/kg provided highly effective treatment of existing C. felis infestations and persistent control of C. felis on dogs for 35days after treatment. Efficacy equivalent to that seen with C. felis was

  4. Reconstruction of Beagle Hemi-Mandibular Defects with Allogenic Mandibular Scaffolds and Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, JinChao; Liu, HuaWei; Hu, Min; Yue, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Objective Massive bone allografts are frequently used in orthopedic reconstructive surgery, but carry a high failure rate of approximately 25%. We tested whether treatment of graft with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can increase the integration of massive allografts (hemi-mandible) in a large animal model. Methods Thirty beagle dogs received surgical left-sided hemi-mandibular defects, and then divided into two equal groups. Bony defects of the control group were reconstructed using allografts only. Those of the experimental group were reconstructed using allogenic mandibular scaffold-loaded autologous MSCs. Beagles from each group were killed at4 (n = 4), 12 (n = 4), 24 (n = 4) or 48 weeks (n = 3) postoperatively. CT and micro-CT scans, histological analyses and the bone mineral density (BMD) of transplants were used to evaluate defect reconstruction outcomes. Results Gross and CT examinations showed that the autologous bone grafts had healed in both groups. At 48 weeks, the allogenic mandibular scaffolds of the experimental group had been completely replaced by new bone, which has a smaller surface area to that of the original allogenic scaffold, whereas the scaffold in control dogs remained the same size as the original allogenic scaffold throughout. At 12 weeks, the BMD of the experimental group was significantly higher than the control group (p<0.05), and all micro-architectural parameters were significantly different between groups (p<0.05). Histological analyses showed almost all transplanted allogeneic bone was replaced by new bone, principally fibrous ossification, in the experimental group, which differed from the control group where little new bone formed. Conclusions Our study demonstrated the feasibility of MSC-loaded allogenic mandibular scaffolds for the reconstruction of hemi-mandibular defects. Further studies are needed to test whether these results can be surpassed by the use of allogenic mandibular scaffolds loaded with a

  5. The effects of repeated intravenous iohexol administration on renal function in healthy beagles – a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Contrast induced nephrotoxicity (CIN) is a well described syndrome in humans undergoing contrast medium examinations. To date CIN has received minimal attention in the veterinary literature despite increasing use of contrast medium examinations in computed tomographic studies. Methods This prospective study evaluated the effect of 1290 mg/kg iohexol given intravenously to 5 normal beagle dogs in a divided dose at an interval of 6–8 weeks. Renal function was evaluated by means of scintigraphically determined glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and a variety of laboratory assays. Results Only GFR showed a significant decrease (17%) after the second injection but not to a clinically or pathologically significant level. Conclusions No clinically significant effect of repeated contrast medium administration was determined in this limited study. However in dogs with reduced renal function the risk of CIN is likely to increase dramatically post contrast administration. PMID:22892108

  6. Periapical inflammation after coronal microbial inoculation of dog roots filled with gutta-percha or resilon.

    PubMed

    Shipper, Guy; Teixeira, Fabricio B; Arnold, Roland R; Trope, Martin

    2005-02-01

    A dog model was used to assess and compare in vivo the efficacy of gutta-percha and AH26 sealer versus Resilon with Epiphany primer and sealer [Resilon "Monoblock" System (RMS)] filled roots in preventing apical periodontitis subsequent to coronal inoculation with oral microorganisms. There were 56 vital roots in the premolars of seven adult beagle dogs aseptically instrumented, filled, and temporized. The roots were randomly divided into four experimental groups (Coronal Leakage Model) and one negative control group and filled as follows: group 1-lateral condensation of gutta-percha and AH26 sealer (n=12); group 2-vertical condensation of gutta-percha and AH26 sealer (n=12); group 3-lateral condensation of RMS (n=12); group 4-vertical condensation of RMS (n=10); negative control (n=10)-gutta-percha and AH26 sealer or RMS root fillings using lateral or vertical condensation techniques as in groups 1 to 4. Positive control-57 additional premolar roots were instrumented, infected and not filled (beginning of the Entombment Model experiment). The premolars in groups 1 to 4 were accessed again, inoculated with dental plaque scaled from the dog's teeth, and temporized. This fresh innoculum of microorganisms was repeated on two more occasions at monthly intervals. The teeth in the negative control group were not accessed again and remained undisturbed. On the 14-wk postcoronal inoculation, dogs were euthanized, and jaw blocks prepared for histologic evaluation under a light microcope. Mild inflammation was observed in 82% (18 of 22) of roots filled with gutta-percha and AH26 sealer that was stastistically more than roots filled with RMS (19% or 4 of 21) and roots in the negative control (22% or 2 of 9) (McNemar paired analysis, p < 0.05). The Resilon "Monoblock" System was associated with less apical periodontitis, which may be because of its superior resistance to coronal microleakage. PMID:15671816

  7. [Effect of rhG-CSF on blood coagulation in beagles irradiated by 2.3 Gy neutron].

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Han, Qin-Fang; Liu, Xiao-Lan; Xing, Shuang; Xiong, Guo-Lin; Xie, Ling; Zhao, Yan-Fang; Yu, Zu-Yin; Ding, Yi-Bo; Zhao, Zhen-Hu; Cong, Yu-Wen; Luo, Qing-Liang

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of recombinant human granulocyte stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) on blood coagulation of beagles irradiated by 2.3 Gy neutron so as to provide new therapy for blood coagulation disorder after neutron irradiation. 10 beagles were exposed to 2.3 Gy neutron, and then randomly assigned into supportive care group and rhG-CSF-treated group. The rhG-CSF-treated cohorts were injected subcutaneously with rhG-CSF (10 µg/kg·d) beginning at the day of exposure for 21 consecutive days. Peripheral blood platelet counts were examined once every two days. In vitro platelet aggregation test, thromboelastography and blood clotting tetrachoric tests were also performed. The results indicated that the blood clotting system of irradiated dogs was in hypercoagulable state in the early days after 2.3 Gy neutron irradiation, and became hypocoagulable at crisis later and were mainly on intrinsic coagulation pathway. Blood fibrinogen increased markedly during the course of disease, while platelet counts and aggregation function were decreased remarkably. rhG-CSF administered daily could correct hypercoagulable state induced by 2.3 Gy neutron irradiation at the early time post exposure, shortened the thromboplastin generation time and clotting formation, down-regulated the abnormal high fibrinogen in blood, and improved platelet aggregation function. It is concluded that rhG-CSF can improve coagulation disorders of irradiated dogs.

  8. Modelling and interpreting spectral energy distributions of galaxies with BEAGLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevallard, Jacopo; Charlot, Stéphane

    2016-10-01

    We present a new-generation tool to model and interpret spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies, which incorporates in a consistent way the production of radiation and its transfer through the interstellar and intergalactic media. This flexible tool, named BEAGLE (for BayEsian Analysis of GaLaxy sEds), allows one to build mock galaxy catalogues as well as to interpret any combination of photometric and spectroscopic galaxy observations in terms of physical parameters. The current version of the tool includes versatile modelling of the emission from stars and photoionized gas, attenuation by dust and accounting for different instrumental effects, such as spectroscopic flux calibration and line spread function. We show a first application of the BEAGLE tool to the interpretation of broad-band SEDs of a published sample of ˜ 10^4 galaxies at redshifts 0.1 ≲ z ≲ 8. We find that the constraints derived on photometric redshifts using this multipurpose tool are comparable to those obtained using public, dedicated photometric-redshift codes and quantify this result in a rigorous statistical way. We also show how the post-processing of BEAGLE output data with the PYTHON extension PYP-BEAGLE allows the characterization of systematic deviations between models and observations, in particular through posterior predictive checks. The modular design of the BEAGLE tool allows easy extensions to incorporate, for example, the absorption by neutral galactic and circumgalactic gas, and the emission from an active galactic nucleus, dust and shock-ionized gas. Information about public releases of the BEAGLE tool will be maintained on http://www.jacopochevallard.org/beagle.

  9. Welcoming max: Increasing pediatric provider knowledge of service dogs.

    PubMed

    Stace, Laura Britton

    2016-08-01

    Service dogs have been used in the adult population for decades. Recently, there has been a diversification in types of service dogs, specifically for the pediatric population. Although guide dogs and mobility dogs are accepted in society, autism assistance dogs, seizure alert and response dogs and diabetic alert dogs are relatively new. As pediatric service dogs attract more attention, pediatric providers need to be prepared to answer parental inquires regarding service dog use. The pediatric provider is well equipped to identify children who could benefit from a service dog intervention and should be able to make a referral to a reputable service dog provider. This article presents guidance on appropriate patient selection, making a service dog referral, and risks and benefits involved. Pediatric providers are ideally positioned to be leaders in implementing this evolving new assistive technology that can help to alleviate pediatric disabilities for both the patient and family. PMID:27502802

  10. Welcoming max: Increasing pediatric provider knowledge of service dogs.

    PubMed

    Stace, Laura Britton

    2016-08-01

    Service dogs have been used in the adult population for decades. Recently, there has been a diversification in types of service dogs, specifically for the pediatric population. Although guide dogs and mobility dogs are accepted in society, autism assistance dogs, seizure alert and response dogs and diabetic alert dogs are relatively new. As pediatric service dogs attract more attention, pediatric providers need to be prepared to answer parental inquires regarding service dog use. The pediatric provider is well equipped to identify children who could benefit from a service dog intervention and should be able to make a referral to a reputable service dog provider. This article presents guidance on appropriate patient selection, making a service dog referral, and risks and benefits involved. Pediatric providers are ideally positioned to be leaders in implementing this evolving new assistive technology that can help to alleviate pediatric disabilities for both the patient and family.

  11. Antibody responses to Bordetella bronchiseptica in vaccinated and infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Ellis, John; Rhodes, Carrie; Lacoste, Stacey; Krakowka, Steven

    2014-09-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb) whole cell bacterins have been replaced with acelluar vaccines. We evaluated the response to the acellular Bb vaccines in Bb-seropositive commingled laboratory beagles and client-owned dogs with various lifestyles and vaccination histories. A single parenteral dose of the acellular Bb vaccine resulted in consistent anamnestic IgG, and to a lesser, but notable extent, IgA, Bb-reactive antibody responses in the seropositive beagles. Associated with the increase in antibodies measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was an increase in the complement (C)-dependent IgG antibody mediated bactericidal effect on Bb in vitro. Antibody responses in client-owned dogs were more variable and were dependent upon the vaccination history and serological evidence of previous Bb exposure. Antibodies from vaccinated dogs recognized several Bb proteins, notably P68 (pertactin) and P220 (fimbrial hemagglutinin), the response to which has been shown to be disease-sparing in Bp infections. These antibody responses were similar to those in experimentally infected dogs and in dogs that had received a widely used whole cell bacterin.

  12. Antibody responses to Bordetella bronchiseptica in vaccinated and infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Ellis, John; Rhodes, Carrie; Lacoste, Stacey; Krakowka, Steven

    2014-09-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb) whole cell bacterins have been replaced with acelluar vaccines. We evaluated the response to the acellular Bb vaccines in Bb-seropositive commingled laboratory beagles and client-owned dogs with various lifestyles and vaccination histories. A single parenteral dose of the acellular Bb vaccine resulted in consistent anamnestic IgG, and to a lesser, but notable extent, IgA, Bb-reactive antibody responses in the seropositive beagles. Associated with the increase in antibodies measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was an increase in the complement (C)-dependent IgG antibody mediated bactericidal effect on Bb in vitro. Antibody responses in client-owned dogs were more variable and were dependent upon the vaccination history and serological evidence of previous Bb exposure. Antibodies from vaccinated dogs recognized several Bb proteins, notably P68 (pertactin) and P220 (fimbrial hemagglutinin), the response to which has been shown to be disease-sparing in Bp infections. These antibody responses were similar to those in experimentally infected dogs and in dogs that had received a widely used whole cell bacterin. PMID:25183893

  13. Histopathology of Incidental Findings in Beagles Used in Toxicity Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Junko; Doi, Takuya; Wako, Yumi; Hamamura, Masao; Kanno, Takeshi; Tsuchitani, Minoru; Narama, Isao

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our publication is to widely communicate the pictures of spontaneous findings occurring in beagles. Spontaneous arteritis occurs commonly in beagles. Frequent sites of arteritis are the heart, spleen, pancreas, epididymis and spinal cord. Morphological similarities between spontaneous and drug-induced arterial lesions may cause confusion when evaluating vascular toxicity of chemicals such as vasodilating agents. Focal and minimal inflammatory lesions are occasionally seen in the lung and may be associated with aspiration of food particles or of unknown causes. A cystic change with copious mucin production occurs occasionally in the mucosal epithelium of the gall bladder. Nesidioblastosis is seen rarely in the pancreas of beagles. C-cell complex and lymphocytic thyroiditis are common thyroid lesions. Spontaneous focal hypospermatogenesis and lobular Sertoli-cell-only seminiferous tubules occurring frequently in beagles must be distinguished from drug-induced damage of the seminiferous tubules in toxicity studies. The morphological differences of the female genital system in each cycle need to be understood; therefore, we present the normal features of the cyclic changes of the female genital organs. Further, we provide more information on spontaneous findings in beagles for exact diagnoses in toxicity studies. PMID:22481862

  14. The Effect of Laser-Etched Surface Design on Soft Tissue Healing of Two Different Implant Abutment Systems: An Experimental Study in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Neiva, Rodrigo; Tovar, Nick; Jimbo, Ryo; Gil, Luiz F; Goldberg, Paula; Barbosa, Joao Pm; Lilin, Thomas; Coelho, Paulo G

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the early soft tissue morphology around two different implant systems that received either smooth or laser-etched abutments in a beagle dog model. Implants were placed in the healed mandibular molar region of eight beagle dogs and allowed to heal for 7 weeks. When the most apical aspect of the junctional epithelium (JE) was above or within the upper half of the laser-etched region, fibers were oriented perpendicular to the abutment surface. In contrast, JE positioned within the lower half of the laser-etched region or within or below the implant-abutment gap level presented fibers oriented parallel to the abutment surface. PMID:27560671

  15. Plasma relaxin levels in pregnant and lactating dogs.

    PubMed

    Steinetz, B G; Goldsmith, L T; Lust, G

    1987-10-01

    The pattern of plasma relaxin has been studied during pregnancy and following parturition in two breeds of dogs, Labrador retrievers and beagle hounds. Blood samples were collected at weekly intervals following mating and during pregnancy, parturition, and lactation. Relaxin, progesterone, and estradiol-17 beta were determined by specific double antibody radioimmunoassays. Immunoreactive relaxin (IR) was not detectable in plasma of male dogs, bitches in anestrous, or pseudopregnant bitches that had undergone an infertile mating. IR was first detectable in plasma in the third or fourth week of gestation in retrievers and beagles. IR levels rose to a peak of 4-5 ng/ml in both breeds. The peak plasma levels were reached 2-3 wk before whelping and declined significantly prior to that event. IR then persisted during lactation at a level of 0.5-2 ng/ml for 4-9 wk, but was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) at all time periods and persisted longer in labradors than in beagles. The secretion of relaxin did not parallel that of progesterone, which was highly elevated in the first samples drawn (during the first week of pregnancy), remained high through 5 or 6 wk of gestation, then slowly declined until the time of parturition, becoming undetectable during lactation. Plasma estradiol-17 beta was low after the second week of pregnancy in both breeds of dogs and became undetectable during lactation. The source of relaxin in the dog is not known currently, and its sites of secretion and role in pregnancy are currently under investigation in our laboratories. The dog is the first species in which plasma IR is detectable during lactation using antibody R6.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Serum glial fibrillary acidic protein as a specific marker for necrotizing meningoencephalitis in Pug dogs.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Hizuru; Inoue, Akiko; Tanaka, Miho; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the ability of serum glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) concentration as a diagnostic marker for canine central nervous system (CNS) disorders, sera from dogs with various CNS (n=47) and non-CNS (n=56) disorders were measured for GFAP by using an ELISA kit. Healthy Beagles (n=15) and Pug dogs (n=12) were also examined as controls. Interestingly, only Pug dogs with necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME) showed elevated serum GFAP concentrations (<0.01 to 1.14 ng/ml), while other breeds of dogs with NME did not. Among the Pug dogs with NME, serum GFAP concentrations did not correlate with their clinical features, such as ages or survival times. Our data indicate the usefulness of serum GFAP as a novel marker for Pug dogs with NME.

  17. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-12-31

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with {sup 45}Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total {sup 45}Ca content and {sup 45}Ca/dry and {sup 45}Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region ({minus}36 to {minus}46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss.

  18. Obtaining an isolate of Ancylostoma braziliense from dogs without the need for necropsy.

    PubMed

    Liotta, Janice L; Lee, Alice C Y; Aksel, Sarp; Alkhalife, Ibrahim; Cruz-Reyes, Alejandro; Youn, HeeJeong; Bienhoff, Stephen E; Bowman, Dwight D

    2012-10-01

    Isolation of a specific Ancylostoma species typically requires death of the source animal, or holding an animal long enough to collect feces after treatment, for worm recovery and identification. The reason for collecting worms is that the eggs are not easy to distinguish morphologically. In keeping with the 3 Rs of laboratory animal research (reduction, refinement, replacement), the objective of this study was to obtain an isolate of Ancylostoma braziliense from 1-time field-collected samples of canine feces without the need for killing the host. During a collection trip to Florida, fecal samples (n  =  148) were collected and identified as containing eggs of Ancylostoma species (n  =  64) using centrifugal sugar flotation. Eggs from hookworm-positive slides were washed into tubes, DNA was extracted, and 2 samples were identified as A. braziliense using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with Hinf1. Larval cultures were initiated from these samples, and larvae from the cultures were returned to New York and used to inoculate a purpose-bred kitten with the goal of inhibiting the growth of any contaminating Ancylostoma caninum that might be present in the culture. The infection was patent at 15 days, and eggs were identified as A. braziliense by RFLP and DNA sequencing. Using forceps during endoscopy, 2 adult worms (1 male, 1 female) were recovered from the cat and identified morphologically as A. braziliense . Larvae were cultured from the feces of this cat and used to infect a laboratory-reared beagle dog. Additionally, worms recovered from the feces of the cat post-treatment were confirmed to be A. braziliense , except for 1 female A. caninum containing infertile eggs. The dog (patent 14 days post-infection) was also infected with A. braziliense as determined by RFLP and DNA sequencing of eggs and cultured larvae. Both the cat and dog were treated, verified to be no longer shedding eggs, and then placed into adoptive homes.

  19. Bone sarcoma characteristics and distribution in beagles injected with radium-226

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.G.; Raabe, O.G.; Culbertson, M.R.; Parks, N.J.; Samuels, S.J.; Rosenblatt, L.S. )

    1994-03-01

    A total of 155 primary bone sarcomas were found in 131 of the 246 beagles injected with [sup 226]Ra and 5 primary bone sarcomas were found in 4 of the 158 unexposed controls. Of these 155 bone sarcomas, 146 (94%) were osteosarcomas and 9 were nonosteosarcomas. An additional 31 primary bone sarcomas (28 osteosarcomas) developed in 44 dogs terminated from the main study because of limb amputation for bone sarcoma. Nonosteosarcomas predominated in both the controls and the second lowest of six logarithmically increasing dose levels (there were no bone sarcomas in the lowest dose group). Osteosarcomas predominated at the higher dose levels, and incidence tended to increase as dose increased. The 146 osteosarcomas were distributed quite evenly between males and females (72:74). Of the 9 nonosteosarcomas, 6 occurred in males and 3 in females. The ratio of bone sarcomas of the appendicular skeleton to those in the axial skeleton was 110:45, with osteosarcomas occurring more often in the appendicular skeleton (108:38). Cases of multiple primary bone sarcomas in dogs injected with [sup 226]Ra were found only in the four highest dose groups. Amputations were performed on 44 of the 96 dogs (94 injected and 2 unexposed) that developed appendicular bone sarcomas. A statistical study of the distribution of bone sarcomas among 16 separate bone groups showed a statistically significant correlation to cancellous skeletal surface, but the variability among bone groups was too large for this relationship to be of real predictive value. it is postulated that the distribution of bone sarcomas reflects primarily the relative cell division rates in the bone groups and secondarily the radiation dose distribution, with the highest occurrence of bone sarcoma in the humeri, pelvis, femora and tibiae/fibular tarsal, and no occurrence in the coccygeal vertebrae, sternum, forepaws or hindpaws. 16 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Carcinogenesis From Inhaled (PuO2)-Pu-239 in Beagles: Evidence for Radiation Homeostasis at Low Doses?

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Darrell R.; Weller, Richard E.

    2010-09-01

    From the early 1970s to the late 1980s, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted life-span studies in beagle dogs on the biological effects of inhaled plutonium (239PuO2, 238PuO2, and 239Pu[NO3]4) to help predict risks associated with accidental intakes in workers. Years later, the purpose of the present follow-up study is to reassess the dose-response relationship for lung cancer induction in the 239PuO2 dogs compared to controls, with particular focus on the dose-response at low lung doses. A 239PuO2 aerosol (2.3 μm AMAD, 1.9 μm GSD) was administered to six groups of 20 young (18-month old) beagle dogs (10 males and 10 females) by inhalation at six different activity levels, as previously described in Laboratory reports. Control dogs were sham-exposed. In dose level 1, initial pulmonary lung depositions were 130 ± 48 Bq (3.5 ± 1.3 nCi), corresponding to 1 Bq g-1 lung tissue (0.029 ± 0.001 nCi g-1. Groups 2 through 6 received initial lung depositions (mean values) of 760, 2724, 10345, 37900, and 200000 Bq (22, 79, 300, 1100, and 5800 nCi) 239PuO2, respectively. For each dog, the absorbed dose to lungs was calculated from the initial lung burden and the final lung burden at time of death and lung mass, assuming a single, long-term retention function. Insoluble plutonium oxide exhibited long retention times in the lungs. Increased dose-dependent mortality due to lung cancer (bronchiolar-alveolar carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, epidermoid carcinoma) and radiation pneumonitis (highest exposures group) was observed in dogs exposed to 239PuO2. Calculated lung doses ranged from a few cGy in early-sacrificed dogs to 7764 cGy in dogs that experienced early deaths from radiation pneumonitis. Data were regrouped by lifetime lung dose and plotted as a function of lung tumor incidence. Lung tumor incidence in controls and zero-dose exposed dogs was 18% (5/28). However, no lung tumors were observed in 16 dogs with the lowest lung doses (8 to 22 cGy, mean 14.4 ± 7.6 c

  1. Experimental infection of dogs with the nasal mite Pneumonyssoides caninum.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, L; Zakrisson, G; Lilliehook, I; Christensson, D; Rehbinder, C; Uggla, A

    1998-06-15

    A successful experimental transmission of the canine nasal mite, Pneumonyssoides caninum, is described. Some 11 weeks after repeated systemic ivermectin treatment, four Beagles were inoculated via the right nostril with 20 P. caninum mites of different sexes and life stages, obtained at the necropsy of an infected dog. The inoculated dogs and a matching uninoculated control were observed for clinical signs for 14 weeks and then euthanised. Vague upper respiratory signs and a transient minor increase in the number of eosinophils in peripheral blood were recorded in the inoculated dogs. At necropsy 4-12 P. caninum mites were found in the nasal cavities and sinuses of the inoculated dogs, but none in the control. In three out of the four infected dogs mites were found in both the right and left nasal cavities and sinuses of the skull. Since in no case more mites than the number used for inoculation were detected it is not clear if the mites managed to reproduce in the dogs. Inflammatory lesions were seen most consistently in the olfactory mucosa, respiratory mucosa and tonsils, and growth of opportunistic bacteria was observed in the tonsils of the infected dogs. The inflammatory lesions seen in the olfactory mucosa may explain why dogs infected with P. caninum sometimes appear to suffer from impaired scenting ability.

  2. Comparison of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase and melatonin receptor type 1B immunoreactivity between young adult and aged canine spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Park, Joon Ha; Kim, In Hye; Lee, Jae-Chul; Yan, Bing Chun; Yong, Min Sik; Lee, Choong Hyun; Choi, Jung Hoon; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Hwang, In Koo; Moon, Seung Myung

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin affects diverse physiological functions through its receptor and plays an important role in the central nervous system. In the present study, we compared immunoreactivity patterns of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), an enzyme essential for melatonin synthesis, and melatonin receptor type 1B (MT2) in the spinal cord of young adult (2~3 years) and aged (10~12 years) beagle dogs using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. AANAT-specific immunoreactivity was observed in the nuclei of spinal neurons, and was significantly increased in aged dog spinal neurons compared to young adult spinal neurons. MT2-specific immunoreactivity was found in the cytoplasm of spinal neurons, and was predominantly increased in the margin of the neuron cytoplasm in aged spinal cord compared to that in the young adult dogs. These increased levels of AANAT and MT2 immunoreactivity in aged spinal cord might be a feature of normal aging and associated with a feedback mechanism that compensates for decreased production of melatonin during aging. PMID:24962405

  3. Efficacy of a novel oral formulation of sarolaner (Simparica™) against four common tick species infesting dogs in Europe.

    PubMed

    Geurden, Thomas; Becskei, Csilla; Grace, Sarah; Strube, Christina; Doherty, Padraig; Liebenberg, Julian; Mahabir, Sean P; Slootmans, Nathalie; Lloyd, Anne; Six, Robert H

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of single oral treatment of sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), a novel isoxazoline compound, was evaluated against four tick species known to commonly infest dogs in Europe. Eight laboratory studies were conducted using adult purpose-bred Beagle dogs. In each study, 16 animals were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups based on pre-treatment host-suitability tick counts. Dogs were infested with 50 unfed adult Dermacentor reticulatus (two studies), Ixodes hexagonus (three studies), Ixodes ricinus (two studies) or Rhipicephalus sanguineus (one study) ticks on Days -2, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33. On Day 0, dogs were treated orally with placebo or sarolaner tablets providing the minimum dose of 2.0mg/kg bodyweight and tick counts were conducted 48h after treatment and after each subsequent weekly re-infestation. There were no treatment-related adverse reactions in any of the studies. Dogs in the placebo-treated group maintained tick infestations throughout the studies. Geometric mean live tick counts were significantly (P≤0.0001) lower in the sarolaner-treated group compared to the tick counts in the placebo group at all time-points. A single oral administration of sarolaner resulted in 100% efficacy against existing infestations of all tick species except R. sanguineus, for which the efficacy was 99.7%, within 48h. Efficacy against weekly re-infestations was ≥97.5% for all tick species for 35 days. Thus, a single dose of sarolaner administered orally at the minimum dosage of 2 mg/kg, resulted in ≥99.7% efficacy within 48h against existing tick infestations, and in ≥97.5% efficacy against weekly re-infestations, for at least 35 days after treatment. These studies confirmed that administration of the minimum dose of sarolaner will provide treatment of existing infestations and give at least one month of control against re-infestation by the common tick species affecting dogs in Europe. PMID:27068640

  4. Acute phase protein and antioxidant responses in dogs with experimental acute monocytic ehrlichiosis treated with rifampicin.

    PubMed

    Karnezi, Dimitra; Ceron, Jose J; Theodorou, Konstantina; Leontides, Leonidas; Siarkou, Victoria I; Martinez, Silvia; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Harrus, Shimon; Koutinas, Christos K; Pardali, Dimitra; Mylonakis, Mathios E

    2016-02-29

    There is currently lack of information on the changes of acute phase proteins (APP) and antioxidant markers and their clinical relevance as treatment response indicators in canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). The objective of this study was to investigate the patterns of C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), ferritin and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) during treatment of dogs with acute CME with rifampicin. Blood serum samples from ten Beagle dogs with experimental acute CME were retrospectively examined. Five dogs (Group A) were treated with rifampicin (10mg/Kg/24h), per os, for 3 weeks and 5 dogs (Group B) received no treatment (infected controls). Two Beagle dogs served as uninfected controls. Blood serum samples were serially examined prior to Ehrlichia canis inoculation and on post-inoculation days 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. Significant changes of CRP, Hp, ferritin and PON-1 values were found in the majority of infected dogs. However, their concentrations did not differ between the two groups during the treatment observation period. The results of this study indicate that although several APP and PON-1 tend to significantly change in the majority of dogs with acute CME, they were of limited clinical relevance as treatment response indicators in this experimental setting.

  5. Acute phase protein and antioxidant responses in dogs with experimental acute monocytic ehrlichiosis treated with rifampicin.

    PubMed

    Karnezi, Dimitra; Ceron, Jose J; Theodorou, Konstantina; Leontides, Leonidas; Siarkou, Victoria I; Martinez, Silvia; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Harrus, Shimon; Koutinas, Christos K; Pardali, Dimitra; Mylonakis, Mathios E

    2016-02-29

    There is currently lack of information on the changes of acute phase proteins (APP) and antioxidant markers and their clinical relevance as treatment response indicators in canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). The objective of this study was to investigate the patterns of C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), ferritin and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) during treatment of dogs with acute CME with rifampicin. Blood serum samples from ten Beagle dogs with experimental acute CME were retrospectively examined. Five dogs (Group A) were treated with rifampicin (10mg/Kg/24h), per os, for 3 weeks and 5 dogs (Group B) received no treatment (infected controls). Two Beagle dogs served as uninfected controls. Blood serum samples were serially examined prior to Ehrlichia canis inoculation and on post-inoculation days 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. Significant changes of CRP, Hp, ferritin and PON-1 values were found in the majority of infected dogs. However, their concentrations did not differ between the two groups during the treatment observation period. The results of this study indicate that although several APP and PON-1 tend to significantly change in the majority of dogs with acute CME, they were of limited clinical relevance as treatment response indicators in this experimental setting. PMID:26854345

  6. Introducing Students to Darwin via the Voyage of HMS "Beagle"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swab, Janice C.

    2010-01-01

    I use the diary that Darwin wrote during the voyage of HMS Beagle and recent images of a few of the places he visited to illustrate some comparisons between Darwin's world and ours. For today's students, increasingly committed to environmental issues, this may be an especially promising way to introduce Darwin.

  7. Deep depression: mapping, weather forecasting and The Beagle.

    PubMed

    Beasley, A W

    2005-05-01

    This paper traces the voyage of HMS Beagle under the command of Robert FitzRoy, in which Charles Darwin travelled as naturalist. It examines FitzRoy's subsequent career and the coincidence that he, and two other hydrographers connected with the vessel, fell prey to depression.

  8. Evaluation of the speed of kill, effects on reproduction, and effectiveness in a simulated infested-home environment of sarolaner (Simparica™) against fleas on dogs.

    PubMed

    Six, Robert H; Becskei, Csilla; Carter, Lori; Gale, Boyd; Young, David R; Mahabir, Sean P; Chapin, Sara; Myers, Melanie R

    2016-05-30

    Four studies were conducted to evaluate the speed of kill, effect on egg production, and efficacy in a simulated infested-home environment of a novel isoxazoline, sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), against fleas on dogs. Individually identified and housed, purpose-bred Beagles were used in each study and were allocated randomly to groups based on pretreatment parasite counts. In two speed of kill studies, groups of dogs infested with 100 fleas prior to treatment were treated orally with placebo or sarolaner tablets providing the minimum dose of 2mg/kg and then re-infested with fleas weekly for five weeks post-treatment. Comb counts were conducted to determine the numbers of viable fleas at one to three, four, eight and 12h after treatment and each subsequent infestation. In the egg production study, sarolaner- and placebo-treated dogs were similarly challenged with fleas and at 48h after each infestation the dogs were housed for 20h in cages allowing the collection and counting of all flea eggs produced during this period. Collected eggs were incubated to evaluate hatch and development to adults. The last study used dogs housed in a flea-infested simulated-home environment. Dogs were allocated to treatment with either placebo or sarolaner tablets providing a dose of 2mg/kg once a month for three treatments. Flea infestations were assessed by comb counts (fleas were replaced on the dogs) on Days 14, 30, 44, 60, 74 and 90. The speed of kill studies demonstrated that a single 2mg/kg oral dose of sarolaner started killing fleas within three to four hours after treatment or subsequent re-infestations for up to a month, and achieved ≥98% control of fleas by eight hours after treatment or re-infestation for 28 days. In the study to assess effects on flea reproduction, a single oral treatment of sarolaner resulted in the complete cessation of egg-laying for 35 days. This rapid kill of fleas and inhibition of reproduction were confirmed in a simulated-home environment

  9. Evaluation of the speed of kill, effects on reproduction, and effectiveness in a simulated infested-home environment of sarolaner (Simparica™) against fleas on dogs.

    PubMed

    Six, Robert H; Becskei, Csilla; Carter, Lori; Gale, Boyd; Young, David R; Mahabir, Sean P; Chapin, Sara; Myers, Melanie R

    2016-05-30

    Four studies were conducted to evaluate the speed of kill, effect on egg production, and efficacy in a simulated infested-home environment of a novel isoxazoline, sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), against fleas on dogs. Individually identified and housed, purpose-bred Beagles were used in each study and were allocated randomly to groups based on pretreatment parasite counts. In two speed of kill studies, groups of dogs infested with 100 fleas prior to treatment were treated orally with placebo or sarolaner tablets providing the minimum dose of 2mg/kg and then re-infested with fleas weekly for five weeks post-treatment. Comb counts were conducted to determine the numbers of viable fleas at one to three, four, eight and 12h after treatment and each subsequent infestation. In the egg production study, sarolaner- and placebo-treated dogs were similarly challenged with fleas and at 48h after each infestation the dogs were housed for 20h in cages allowing the collection and counting of all flea eggs produced during this period. Collected eggs were incubated to evaluate hatch and development to adults. The last study used dogs housed in a flea-infested simulated-home environment. Dogs were allocated to treatment with either placebo or sarolaner tablets providing a dose of 2mg/kg once a month for three treatments. Flea infestations were assessed by comb counts (fleas were replaced on the dogs) on Days 14, 30, 44, 60, 74 and 90. The speed of kill studies demonstrated that a single 2mg/kg oral dose of sarolaner started killing fleas within three to four hours after treatment or subsequent re-infestations for up to a month, and achieved ≥98% control of fleas by eight hours after treatment or re-infestation for 28 days. In the study to assess effects on flea reproduction, a single oral treatment of sarolaner resulted in the complete cessation of egg-laying for 35 days. This rapid kill of fleas and inhibition of reproduction were confirmed in a simulated-home environment

  10. Patch test responses to Malassezia pachydermatis in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Bond, R; Habibah, A; Patterson-Kane, J C; Lloyd, D H

    2006-03-01

    The effects of the patch test application of Malassezia pachydermatis extracts to normal canine skin were evaluated in eight healthy beagle dogs. Antigens (4 and 0.4 mg/ml) and saline controls were applied for 48 h using filter paper discs in Finn chambers. At the first test, two dogs showed patch test reactivity 20 min and 24 h after patch removal. Four out of six dogs that did not react to the first patch test showed reactivity when re-tested on day 8. Two remaining dogs were patch tested for a third time on day 15, after 7 days of cutaneous challenge with suspensions of M. pachydermatis cells, but failed to display reactivity. Positive patch test reactions were characterized histologically by mild epidermal hyperplasia, superficial dermal oedema and mild to moderate perivascular, periadnexal and interstitial infiltrates of neutrophils and CD3+ lymphocytes. Four dogs showed delayed intradermal test reactivity to M. pachydermatis antigens but intradermal and patch test reactivity did not correlate. This study indicates that patch test reactivity to M. pachydermatis antigen occurs in some healthy dogs exposed to the yeast, or may develop after a short period of antigen exposure. Further studies of patch test reactivity are warranted in dogs with disease associated with this cutaneous yeast. PMID:16519021

  11. Adult-onset demodicosis in two dogs due to Demodex canis and a short-tailed demodectic mite.

    PubMed

    Saridomichelakis, M; Koutinas, A; Papadogiannakis, E; Papazachariadou, M; Liapi, M; Trakas, D

    1999-11-01

    Infestation with a short-tailed demodectic mite and Demodex canis was diagnosed in both a six-and-a-half-year-old and a four-year-old dog. The clinical picture was compatible with generalised demodicosis complicated by staphylococcal pyoderma (case 1), or localised demodicosis (case 2). In both cases, the short-tailed demodectic mite outnumbered D canis in superficial skin scrapings. The laboratory findings (lymphopenia, eosinopenia, increased serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase activities, diluted urine and proteinuria) and the results of a low dose dexamethasone suppression test were suggestive of underlying hyperadrenocorticism in the first case. Hypothyroidism was considered a possibility in the second case, owing to the sustained bradycardia and the extremely low basal total thyroxine value. Systemic treatment with ivermectin and cephalexin (case 1), or topical application of an amitraz solution in mineral oil, along with sodium levothyroxine replacement therapy (case 2), resulted in a complete resolution of the skin lesions and the disappearance of both types of demodectic mite after two and one and a half months, respectively.

  12. Effect of a prolonged stay in a locked environment on the microbial flora in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balish, E.; Shih, C.-N.; Yale, C. E.; Mandel, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    Ten purebred Beagle dogs (all males) were used to determine the effect of a prolonged stay in a locked environment (i.e., no exogenous microbial contamination) on the microbial flora. At monthly intervals the microbial profile (feces, nose, and throat) of each dog was assessed. After 12 months it was found there was no drastic alteration or simplification of the microbial profile of isolated or control dogs. Although isolated dogs had slightly higher levels of anaerobic bacteria and somewhat lower levels of enterococci, the major groups of anaerobic, aerobic, and facultative bacteria remained qualitatively and quantitatively similar for the 12-month study period. Although they were only minor components of the fecal flora, Candida albicans and Shigella sonnei were consistently isolated in larger numbers from the dogs in the locked environment.

  13. Progression of sugar cataract in the dog.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Takahashi, Y; Wyman, M; Kador, P F

    1991-05-01

    Young beagle dogs were fed a 30% galactose diet, with or without the aldose reductase inhibitors sorbinil or M79175. Cataract formation was monitored by indirect ophthalmoscope and hand-held slit-lamp microscopy and documented by retroillumination photography. In these dogs, the first sign of cataract development was an accentuation of the anterior and posterior lens sutures (1 month after feeding), then the appearance of cortical vacuoles (3 months after feeding), and finally, the formation of predominantly equatorial cortical opacities toward the posterior cortices (4-6 months after feeding). After long-term galactose feeding, a progressive, irregular, clear zone formed at the cortical equatorial regions. Light microscopic examination of these lenses shows that the cataracts are osmotic, many of the lens fibers appear to be swollen or ruptured, and vacuoles are seen near the bow region. Moreover, these histologic changes were reduced in a dose-dependent manner in galactose-fed dogs concomitantly treated with the aldose reductase inhibitors sorbinil or M79175. The osmotic nature of these cataracts and the observation that their formation can be reduced in a dose-dependent manner by aldose reductase inhibitors are consistent with the concept that the aldose-reductase catalyzed formation of polar sugar alcohols (polyols) initiates sugar cataract formation in the dog.

  14. Dose confirmation and non-interference evaluations of the oral efficacy of a combination of milbemycin oxime and spinosad against the dose limiting parasites, adult cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) and hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum), in dogs.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Daniel E; Wiseman, Scott

    2012-03-23

    Two separate controlled and blinded studies were conducted to confirm the dose and non-interference of spinosad and milbemycin oxime (MO) administered orally in combination or alone to dogs for the treatment and control of experimentally induced flea infestations (Ctenocephalides felis) and adult hookworm infections (Ancylostoma caninum). For each study, dogs were allocated randomly based on pre-treatment adult flea and hookworm egg counts to one of four treatment groups of 10 animals each. In each study, spinosad and MO in combination, using the lower half (30-45 mg/kg spinosad; 0.5-0.75 mg/kg MO) of the US commercial dose band (30-60 mg/kg spinosad; 0.5-1.0mg/kg MO) of each active ingredient, or individually alone using the full dose range, were given orally to dogs on Day 0 using a tablet formulation. A placebo control was treated similarly. In one study, on Days -1, 5, 12, 19, 28 and 35 each dog was infested with approximately 100 unfed adult C. felis obtained from the investigator's established flea colony. All dogs were infested via the same method. Forty-eight hour post-infestation flea comb counts were conducted on Days 1, 7, 14, 21, 30 and 37 and were used to determine the knockdown and residual flea activity. In the second study, on Day -27 each of 48 dogs were experimentally inoculated with 100 third-stage infective larvae of the hookworm, A. caninum. Dogs were treated on Day 0 and necropsied on Day 7 or Day 8. All nematodes in the intestinal tract were collected on Day 7 or Day 8, identified and counted by species and stage. Post-treatment, the geometric mean live flea counts were significantly different (p-value<0.0001) between the spinosad/MO combination and the spinosad only treatment groups as compared to the vehicle control group. The flea counts in the MO only group and the control group were not statistically different. The spinosad and MO combination group and the spinosad only treatment group demonstrated significantly different knockdown (100

  15. [Histopathology of meibomian gland abnormalities in experimental PenCB intoxicated beagle treated with squalane].

    PubMed

    Kohno, T; Ohnishi, Y

    1989-05-01

    In order to examine the effect of squalane to excrete PCB from the intoxicated animals, histopathological studies of Meibomian gland abnormalities were carried out in experimental PenCB (3,4,5,3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl) intoxicated beagles treated with squalane. All experimental animals except a control group showed characteristic changes of Meibomian glands: dilation of the duct and squamous metaplasia of the alveolar cells. According to the degree of these findings, five stages were divided in the processes of Medibomian gland changes. The PenCB intoxicated dogs initially showed mild pathological changes of the glands and later moderate to severe degrees of findings. In the PenCB intoxicated animals treated with squalane, severe degree of Meibomian gland findings were found in the early stage and mild to moderate abnormalities in the late stage. The concentration of PenCB in blood varied in each animal, and the animals with advanced Medibomian gland abnormalities tended to have high level of PenCB concentration in blood. In conclusion, the effect of squalane to excrete PCB from the intoxicated animals were not determined in this study.

  16. Histological Evaluation of Nano-Micro Titanium Implant Surface Treatment in Beagle Humerus.

    PubMed

    Yun, Kwidug; Kang, Seongsoo; Oh, Gyejeong; Lim, Hyunpil; Lee, Kwangmin; Yang, Hongso; Vang, Mongsook; Park, Sangwon

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of nano-micro titanium implant surface using histology in beagle dogs. A total of 48 screw-shaped implants (Megagen, Daegu, Korea) which dimensions were 4 mm in diameter and 8.5 mm in length, were used. The implants were classified into 4 groups (n = 12): machined surface (M group), RBM (Resorbable Blasting Media) surface (R group), nano surface which is nanotube formation on the machined surface (MA group) and nano-micro surface which is nanotube formation on the RBM surface (RA group). Anodic oxidation was performed at a constant voltage of 20 V for 10 min using a DC power supply (Fine Power F-3005; SG EMD, Anyang, Korea). The bone blocks were investigated using histology. There was no inflammation around implants, and new bone formation was shown along with the nano-micro titanium implant surfaces. The amount of bone formation was increased depending on time comparing 4 weeks and 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, lamellar bone was more formed along with the nano-micro titanium implant surfaces than 4 weeks. It indicated that nano-micro surface showed good result in terms of osseointegration.

  17. Histological Evaluation of Nano-Micro Titanium Implant Surface Treatment in Beagle Humerus.

    PubMed

    Yun, Kwidug; Kang, Seongsoo; Oh, Gyejeong; Lim, Hyunpil; Lee, Kwangmin; Yang, Hongso; Vang, Mongsook; Park, Sangwon

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of nano-micro titanium implant surface using histology in beagle dogs. A total of 48 screw-shaped implants (Megagen, Daegu, Korea) which dimensions were 4 mm in diameter and 8.5 mm in length, were used. The implants were classified into 4 groups (n = 12): machined surface (M group), RBM (Resorbable Blasting Media) surface (R group), nano surface which is nanotube formation on the machined surface (MA group) and nano-micro surface which is nanotube formation on the RBM surface (RA group). Anodic oxidation was performed at a constant voltage of 20 V for 10 min using a DC power supply (Fine Power F-3005; SG EMD, Anyang, Korea). The bone blocks were investigated using histology. There was no inflammation around implants, and new bone formation was shown along with the nano-micro titanium implant surfaces. The amount of bone formation was increased depending on time comparing 4 weeks and 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, lamellar bone was more formed along with the nano-micro titanium implant surfaces than 4 weeks. It indicated that nano-micro surface showed good result in terms of osseointegration. PMID:27433693

  18. Characterization of semen collected from beagles and captive Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Kojima, E; Tsuruga, H; Komatsu, T; Murase, T; Tsubota, T; Kita, I

    2001-02-01

    This study characterized semen collected from the Japanese black bear, Ursus thibetanus aponicus, to provide information on semen cryopreservation for artificial breeding. Preliminary studies using a beagle dog as the model species showed that sperm concentration and total sperm count were lower in semen collected by electroejaculation than in semen collected by digital manipulation, but that sperm motility, viability and morphology were similar. Characterization of semen obtained from Japanese black bears by electroejaculation under general anesthesia revealed that semen volume and total number of spermatozoa collected were lower; but that sperm concentration, motility, viability and morphology were equivalent to those reported in other ursids. When semen was collected via a catheter inserted into the urethra during the stimulation for ejaculation, the sperm concentration, total sperm count and motility were relatively higher than when semen was collected directly in a test tube. Specific normal semen characteristics (mean +/- SEM) were pH, 7.6 +/- 0.0; volume, 0.212 +/- 0.038 mL; sperm concentration, 361 +/- 100 x 10(6)/mL; total sperm count, 84.0 +/- 32.2 x 106; +++ motility, 30 +/- 5%; motility, 77 +/- 3%; viability 77 +/- 2%; and abnormal morphology, 11+/- 2%. These results suggest that semen can be collected from Japanese black bears by electroejaculation. PMID:11245261

  19. Regional effects of ovariectomy and cadmium on bone mineral in ribs from aged female beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, D.R. . Dept. of Zoology)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of estrogen depletion and cadmium (Cd) on bone calcium and to determine if these effects were localized in specific regions of ribs. Fourteen female beagles with {sup 45}Ca labeled skeletons were divided into four groups: sham controls (SO{minus}); ovariectomized (OV{minus}); shams exposed to Cd (SO+); ovariecomized exposed to Cd (OV+). Total Cd exposure period was 7 months, including 1 month by capsules and 6 months by drinking H{sub 2}O. Ribs were taken at necropsy from 12 of the 14 dogs, and each rib was quartered. Wet, dry, and ash weights, as well as total Ca and {sup 45}Ca content, were determined for each quarter. Analysis of ribs from control animals demonstrated that a given rib is heterogeneous in composition. One end appears to be less mineralized and more metabolically active than other regions. The OV{minus} and OV+ mid-rib regions had significantly lower dry and ash weights than SO{minus}. Total Ca contents of these same regions were also decreased in the OV{minus} and OV+. The only significant change in Ca/dry and Ca/ash was observed when comparing OV+ to SO{minus}. Analysis of treatment suggests that there are regional effects following ovariectomy increased the loss of bone mineral occurring as a result of ovariectomy. 30 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Effect of 30 months in a locked environment on the microbial flora of dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balish, E.; Shih, C.-N.; Yale, C. E.; Mandel, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    It has been proposed that the microbial flora of mammals would simplify to a few microbial species if the host animal was confined to a 'locked' environment and provided with sterile food, water, and air. This paper updates information on the microbial profile (feces, nose and throat) of purebred beagles housed in the above-mentioned conditions through a 30-month study period and demonstrates that no drastic decrease or simplification of the microbial profile occurred in isolated or control dogs.

  1. Bone implant sockets made using three different procedures: a stability study in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Julián

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the effects of three different methods of preparing bone implant sockets (drilling, osteotomes, and piezoelectric device) on osseointegration using resonance frequency analysis (RFA). Study Design: An experimental prospective study was designed. Material and Methods: Ten adult beagle dogs were studied. After 5 weeks, 23 out of 28 initially placed implants in the iliac crest were evaluated, comparing these three different procedures of bone implant socket. Student’s t-test (paired, two-tailed) was used to reveal differences among the three groups at each time point (SPSS 16.0, IL, USA). Results: After a 5-week healing period, the implants placed in sockets that were made using an osteotome or piezoelectric device were slightly more stable than those made by drilling. Reduced mechanical and heat injury to the bone is beneficial for maintaining and improving stability during the critical early healing period. Conclusion: Using RFA, there was evidence of a slight increase in implant stability in the iliac crest after 5 weeks of healing when the implant socket was made using a piezoelectric device or expansion procedure as compare with the drilling method. Key words:Bone implant sockets, drilling, osteotomes, piezoelectric, resonance frequency analysis, stability. PMID:24558558

  2. How Dogs Know when Communication Is Intended for Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski, Juliane; Schulz, Linda; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Domestic dogs comprehend human gestural communication in a way that other animal species do not. But little is known about the specific cues they use to determine when human communication is intended for them. In a series of four studies, we confronted both adult dogs and young dog puppies with object choice tasks in which a human indicated one of…

  3. Prenatal and neonatal radiation injury and lymphohematopoietic development in the dog

    SciTech Connect

    Nold, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    Immunologic and hematopoietic responses were studied in beagle dogs following prenatal or neonatal irradiation to evaluate the effects of ionizing radiation on the developing lymphohematopoietic system. In prenatally-irradiated dogs thymic medullary volumes were significantly reduced at birth, but had returned to control levels by 12 weeks of age. Irradiated dogs exhibited a significant reduction in primary humoral antibody responses and showed a concurrent decrease in T helper lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. In neonatally-irradiated dogs lymphocyte blastogenic responses were sharply decreased at 8 weeks, but returned to control levels by 12 weeks of age. Contact sensitivity to dinitrochlorobenzene was decreased, indicating reduced cell-mediated immune responses. Alterations in peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations included decreases in B cells and increases in T cells, possibly due to increased numbers of T suppressor cells. There were significant reductions in body size and body tissue weights in all irradiated dogs, although these were more severe and persistent in the prenatally-irradiated dogs. These data show that prenatally or neonatally-irradiated dogs have significantly postnatal immunologic and hematopoietic defects. The effect on bone marrow function in prenatally-irradiated dogs was more severe and persistent than in neonatally-irradiated animals; however, the neonatally-irradiated dogs exhibited more severe alterations in lymphocyte subpopulations than did the prenatally-irradiated dogs. The observation of altered lymphocyte subpopulations suggests altered immunoregulation and raises some important questions relating to radiation-induced immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to clinical disease, including neoplasia.

  4. Efficacy of sarolaner in the prevention of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum transmission from infected Ixodes scapularis to dogs.

    PubMed

    Honsberger, Nicole A; Six, Robert H; Heinz, Thomas J; Weber, Angela; Mahabir, Sean P; Berg, Thomas C

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis) to prevent transmission primarily of Borrelia burgdorferi and secondarily of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from infected wild-caught Ixodes scapularis to dogs was evaluated in a placebo-controlled laboratory study. Twenty-four purpose-bred laboratory Beagles seronegative for B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum antibodies were allocated randomly to one of three treatment groups: placebo administered orally on Days 0 and 7, or sarolaner at 2mg/kg administered orally on Day 0 (28 days prior to tick infestation) or on Day 7 (21 days prior to tick infestation). On Day 28, each dog was infested with approximately 25 female and 25 male wild caught adult I. scapularis that were determined to have prevalence of 57% for B. burgdorferi and 6.7% for A. phagocytophilum by PCR. In situ tick counts were conducted on Days 29 and 30. On Day 33, all ticks were counted and removed. Acaricidal efficacy was calculated based on the reduction of geometric mean live tick counts in the sarolaner-treated groups compared to the placebo-treated group for each tick count. Blood samples collected from each dog on Days 27, 49, 63, 77, 91 and 104 were tested for the presence of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum antibodies using the SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) Plus Test, and quantitatively assayed for B. burgdorferi antibodies using an ELISA test. Skin biopsies collected on Day 104 were tested for the presence of B. burgdorferi by bacterial culture and PCR. Geometric mean live tick counts for placebo-treated dogs were 14.8, 12.8, and 19.1 on Days 29, 30, and 33, respectively. The percent reductions in mean live tick counts at 1, 2, and 5 days after infestation were 86.3%, 100%, and 100% for the group treated with sarolaner 21 days prior to infestation, and 90.9%, 97.1%, and 100% for the group treated with sarolaner 28 days prior to infestation. Geometric mean live tick counts for both sarolaner-treated groups were significantly lower than those for the

  5. Humoral and cell-mediated responses to Malassezia pachydermatis in healthy dogs and dogs with Malassezia dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bond, R; Elwood, C M; Littler, R M; Pinter, L; Lloyd, D H

    1998-10-01

    The in vitro proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from seven healthy basset hounds exposed to Malassezia pachydermatis antigen (500 micrograms/ml) exceeded (P < 0.05) those of seborrhoeic basset hounds with high populations of M pachydermatis and eight Irish setters with gluten-sensitive enteropathy. The stimulation indices in the latter two groups and in eight healthy beagles were comparable. The stimulation indices of the four groups after exposure to phytohaemaglutinin did not differ significantly. The serum titres of M pachydermatis-specific IgG and IgA measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in 21 seborrhoeic basset hounds and 11 affected dogs of various breeds exceeded those of 14 healthy basset hounds and eight healthy beagles (P < 0.01 for IgG, P < 0.05 for IgA). Total serum IgA concentrations measured by ELISA in the affected dogs were not lower than those of healthy dogs. PMID:9802194

  6. The effect of water and shampooing on the efficacy of a pyriprole 12.5% topical solution against brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) and cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) infestations on dogs.

    PubMed

    Schuele, G; Barnett, S; Bapst, B; Cavaliero, T; Luempert, L; Strehlau, G; Young, D R; Moran, C; Junquera, P

    2008-02-14

    The efficacy of a single treatment with a 12.5% pyriprole spot-on formulation against induced infestations with R. sanguineus ticks and cat fleas (C. felis) as well as its persistence after repeated washing and shampooing was investigated in four separate studies. In a first study on R. sanguineus involving 32 beagle dogs, the efficacy at various time-points during the 30 days that followed treatment assessed 48 h after re-infestation ranged from 100% to 99.3%. No engorged ticks, alive or dead, were found in the treated animals. Shampooing 2 days after treatment and weekly washings did not affect the efficacy. In a second study on R. sanguineus involving 32 beagle dogs, the efficacy at various time-points during the 30 days that followed treatment assessed 48 h after re-infestation ranged from 100% to 96.8%. Single washing 8h after treatment and single shampooing 24 h after treatment had no negative impact on the efficacy of the product. In a third study on C. felis involving 28 beagle dogs, the efficacy at various time-points during the 30 days that followed treatment assessed 48 h after re-infestation was always 100% and weekly washings did not diminish the efficacy. In a last study on C. felis involving 24 beagle dogs, the efficacy at various time-points during the 5 weeks that followed treatment assessed 48 h after re-infestation ranged from 100% to 99.8%, and shampooing 24 h after treatment did not reduce the efficacy. The product was well tolerated by the dogs.

  7. Subchronic oral administration of acemannan in the rat and dog.

    PubMed

    Fogleman, R W; Shellenberger, T E; Balmer, M F; Carpenter, R H; McAnalley, B H

    1992-04-01

    Acemannan is the USAN-accepted name for long-chain polydispersed beta-(1,4)-acetylated polymannose with interspersed O-acetyl groups, with a mannose monomer/acetyl ratio of approximately 1:1. This complex polysaccharide is extracted from Aloe vera (barbadensis Miller); the technical material contains approximately 78% acemannan. Technical grade acemannan was administered po to rats for 14 d at 5% of the diet and for 6 mo at up to 2,000 mg/kg/d, and to beagle dogs for 90 d at up to 1,500 mg/kg/d without significant effect on any parameter measured in either species.

  8. K9 Buddies: A Program of Guide Dogs for the Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    Today, exceptional dogs that have been specially bred and socialized are paired with children who are blind or visually impaired. These dogs, called "K9 Buddies," are from Guide Dogs for the Blind, a national nonprofit organization with a mission to offer skilled mobility dogs and training free-of-charge to adults with visual impairments…

  9. Catecholaminergic amacrine cells in the dog and wolf retina.

    PubMed

    Peichl, L

    1991-12-01

    Catecholaminergic (presumed dopaminergic) amacrine cells in the retinae of Beagle dogs (canis lupus f. familiaris) and wolves (canis lupus) were visualized with an antiserum against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). In both species, TH immunoreactivity is found in a population of amacrine cells with large somata (about 14 microns diameter) and large, moderately branched dendritic trees. Somata are located in the proximal inner nuclear layer (normal amacrines) or in the ganglion cell layer (displaced amacrines). Most dendrites stratify in a narrow band in the inner plexiform layer close to the inner nuclear layer, where they form a dense plexus with the characteristic pattern of "dendritic rings." The displaced cells have some of their dendrites in a proximal stratum of the inner plexiform layer. A few immunopositive processes are found in the outer plexiform layer (interplexiform processes). In Beagle dogs, the cell density of catecholaminergic amacrines varies from less than 1/mm2 in far periphery to 40-55/mm2 in central retina (mean density 21/mm2). The proportion of displaced amacrines varies locally from 10 to 85% (overall proportion 41% in one retina). In the wolf, densities of catecholaminergic cells range between about 3/mm2 in peripheral and up to 35/mm2 in central retina. The proportion of displaced cells is somewhat lower than in dogs, varying between 11 and 31% across the retina. The morphology and density distribution of canine catecholaminergic amacrines resemble that of other mammalian retinae. A marked difference, however, is the high percentage of displaced cells in both dog and wolf retina; it is the highest found in any mammal so far. The displaced and normal cells appear to be members of a single functional population. A comparison of the topographic distributions of catecholaminergic amacrines, rods, and ganglion cells in the dog retina shows no consistent density correlations between these neurons that are all part of the rod pathway. PMID:1685328

  10. The pharmacological effects of intramuscular administration of alfaxalone combined with medetomidine and butorphanol in dogs

    PubMed Central

    TAMURA, Jun; HATAKEYAMA, Naohiro; ISHIZUKA, Tomohito; ITAMI, Takaharu; FUKUI, Sho; MIYOSHI, Kenjiro; SANO, Tadashi; PASLOSKE, Kirby; YAMASHITA, Kazuto

    2016-01-01

    The pharmacological effects of intramuscular (IM) administration of alfaxalone combined with medetomidine and butorphanol were evaluated in 6 healthy beagle dogs. Each dog received three treatments with a minimum 10-day interval between treatments. The dogs received an IM injection of alfaxalone 2.5 mg/kg (ALFX), medetomidine 2.5 µg/kg and butorphanol 0.25 mg/kg (MB), or their combination (MBA) 1 hr after the recovery from their instrumentation. Endotracheal intubation was attempted, and dogs were allowed to breath room air. Neuro-depressive effects (behavior changes and subjective scores) and cardiorespiratory parameters (rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, direct blood pressure, central venous pressure and blood gases) were evaluated before and at 2 to 120 min after IM treatment. Each dog became lateral recumbency, except for two dogs administered the MB treatment. The duration was longer in the MBA treatment compared with the ALFX treatment (100 ± 48 min vs 46 ± 13 min). Maintenance of the endotracheal tube lasted for 60 ± 24 min in five dogs administered the MBA treatment and for 20 min in one dog administered the ALFX treatment. Cardiorespiratory variables were maintained within clinically acceptable ranges, although decreases in heart and respiratory rates, and increases in central venous pressure occurred after the MBA and MB treatments. The MBA treatment provided an anesthetic effect that permitted endotracheal intubation without severe cardiorespiratory depression in healthy dogs. PMID:26875835

  11. The pharmacological effects of intramuscular administration of alfaxalone combined with medetomidine and butorphanol in dogs.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Jun; Hatakeyama, Naohiro; Ishizuka, Tomohito; Itami, Takaharu; Fukui, Sho; Miyoshi, Kenjiro; Sano, Tadashi; Pasloske, Kirby; Yamashita, Kazuto

    2016-07-01

    The pharmacological effects of intramuscular (IM) administration of alfaxalone combined with medetomidine and butorphanol were evaluated in 6 healthy beagle dogs. Each dog received three treatments with a minimum 10-day interval between treatments. The dogs received an IM injection of alfaxalone 2.5 mg/kg (ALFX), medetomidine 2.5 µg/kg and butorphanol 0.25 mg/kg (MB), or their combination (MBA) 1 hr after the recovery from their instrumentation. Endotracheal intubation was attempted, and dogs were allowed to breath room air. Neuro-depressive effects (behavior changes and subjective scores) and cardiorespiratory parameters (rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, direct blood pressure, central venous pressure and blood gases) were evaluated before and at 2 to 120 min after IM treatment. Each dog became lateral recumbency, except for two dogs administered the MB treatment. The duration was longer in the MBA treatment compared with the ALFX treatment (100 ± 48 min vs 46 ± 13 min). Maintenance of the endotracheal tube lasted for 60 ± 24 min in five dogs administered the MBA treatment and for 20 min in one dog administered the ALFX treatment. Cardiorespiratory variables were maintained within clinically acceptable ranges, although decreases in heart and respiratory rates, and increases in central venous pressure occurred after the MBA and MB treatments. The MBA treatment provided an anesthetic effect that permitted endotracheal intubation without severe cardiorespiratory depression in healthy dogs. PMID:26875835

  12. Effect of recombinant human TSH on the uptake of radioactive iodine ((123)I) by the thyroid gland in healthy beagles.

    PubMed

    Campos, M; Peremans, K; Duchateau, L; Dobbeleir, A; Vandermeulen, E; van Hoek, I; Paes, G; Daminet, S

    2010-11-01

    In human medicine, recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) increases thyroid radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU), allowing radioiodine-131 ((131)I) dose reduction and greater efficacy in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer and multinodular goiter. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of rhTSH, administered 24 h and 48 h before radioiodine-123 ((123)I), on the thyroid RAIU in healthy dogs. Seven healthy euthyroid beagles were randomly allocated to 3 groups (2 groups of 2 dogs and 1 group of 3 dogs) in a prospective, blinded, crossover study. At Week 1, 1 group received (123)I for a baseline RAIU; 1 group received 100 μg of rhTSH IV 24 h before (123)I, and 1 group received 100 μg of rhTSH IV 48 h before (123)I. All dogs received 37 MBq of radioactive (123)I IV, and thyroid RAIU was determined 8 h, 24 h, and 48 h thereafter. The study was designed in such a manner that each dog received the 3 treatments and a wash-out period of 3 wk was respected in between. Blood samples were taken for measurement of serum total thyroxine (TT4) and thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations at baseline and 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h after rhTSH administration. Recombinant human TSH caused no significant change on thyroid RAIU. The overall mean thyroid RAIU significantly decreased during the study independent of the treatment. Recombinant human TSH significantly increased serum TT4 concentration, which peaked 6 h after rhTSH administration. Compared to baseline, serum TSH concentration remained higher at 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h. However, a statistically significant difference was reached only at 6 h and 12 h after rhTSH administration. No adverse effects of rhTSH were observed during the study. Further studies are needed to determine the best timing and dosage of administration of rhTSH in healthy and thyroid carcinoma dogs.

  13. Serial plasma glucose changes in dogs suffering from severe dog bite wounds.

    PubMed

    Schoeman, J P; Kitshoff, A M; du Plessis, C J; Thompson, P N

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the changes in plasma glucose concentration in 20 severely injured dogs suffering from dog bite wounds over a period of 72 hours from the initiation of trauma. Historical, signalment, clinical and haematological factors were investigated for their possible effect on plasma glucose concentration. Haematology was repeated every 24 hours and plasma glucose concentrations were measured at 8-hourly intervals post-trauma. On admission, 1 dog was hypoglycaemic, 8 were normoglycaemic and 11 were hyperglycaemic. No dogs showed hypoglycaemia at any other stage during the study period. The median blood glucose concentrations at each of the 10 collection points, excluding the 56-hour and 64-hour collection points, were in the hyperglycaemic range (5.8- 6.2 mmol/l). Puppies and thin dogs had significantly higher median plasma glucose concentrations than adult and fat dogs respectively (P < 0.05 for both). Fifteen dogs survived the 72-hour study period. Overall 13 dogs (81.3 %) made a full recovery after treatment. Three of 4 dogs that presented in a collapsed state died, whereas all dogs admitted as merely depressed or alert survived (P = 0.004). The high incidence of hyperglycaemia can possibly be explained by the "diabetes of injury" phenomenon. However, hyperglycaemia in this group of dogs was marginal and potential benefits of insulin therapy are unlikely to outweigh the risk of adverse effects such as hypoglycaemia.

  14. Erythrocytic Pyruvate Kinase Mutations Causing Hemolytic Anemia, Osteosclerosis, and Secondary Hemochromatosis in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Gultekin, G. Inal; Raj, K.; Foureman, P.; Lehman, S.; Manhart, K.; Abdulmalik, O.; Giger, U.

    2013-01-01

    Background Erythrocytic pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency, first documented in Basenjis, is the most common inherited erythroenzymopathy in dogs. Objectives To report 3 new breed-specific PK-LR gene mutations and a retrospective survey of PK mutations in a small and selected group of Beagles and West Highland White Terriers (WHWT). Animals Labrador Retrievers (2 siblings, 5 unrelated), Pugs (2 siblings, 1 unrelated), Beagles (39 anemic, 29 other), WHWTs (22 anemic, 226 nonanemic), Cairn Terrier (n = 1). Methods Exons of the PK-LR gene were sequenced from genomic DNA of young dogs (<2 years) with persistent highly regenerative hemolytic anemia. Results A nonsense mutation (c.799C>T) resulting in a premature stop codon was identified in anemic Labrador Retriever siblings that had osteosclerosis, high serum ferritin concentrations, and severe hepatic secondary hemochromatosis. Anemic Pug and Beagle revealed 2 different missense mutations (c.848T>C, c.994G>A, respectively) resulting in intolerable amino acid changes to protein structure and enzyme function. Breed-specific mutation tests were developed. Among the biased group of 248 WHWTs, 9% and 35% were homozygous (affected) and heterozygous, respectively, for the previously described mutation (mutant allele frequency 0.26). A PK-deficient Cairn Terrier had the same insertion mutation as the affected WHWTs. Of the selected group of 68 Beagles, 35% were PK-deficient and 3% were carriers (0.37). Conclusions and Clinical Importance Erythrocytic PK deficiency is caused by different mutations in different dog breeds and causes chronic severe hemolytic anemia, hemosiderosis, and secondary hemochromatosis because of chronic hemolysis and, an as yet unexplained osteosclerosis. The newly developed breed-specific mutation assays simplify the diagnosis of PK deficiency. PMID:22805166

  15. Oral absorption and bioavailability of fenbendazole in the dog and the effect of concurrent ingestion of food.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Q A; Galbraith, E A; Baxter, P

    1993-06-01

    Fenbendazole was administered orally without food to six beagle dogs at 2.5, 5.0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg of body weight. Increasing the dose rate did not significantly increase the amount of fenbendazole absorbed. In a separate study fenbendazole was administered to the same six beagle dogs at a dose rate of 20 mg/kg of bodyweight in food with high, medium and low fat content. The food provided 1.52, 0.70 or 0.34 g of fat per kg of body weight. Administration of fenbendazole in food with different fat contents did not affect its relative bioavailability. Administration of fenbendazole at a dose rate of 20 mg/kg in food, irrespective of fat content, did however significantly increase its bioavailability when compared to administration of the same dose as a bolus on an empty stomach.

  16. Dog Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2010-01-01

    Bringing service animals into schools raises serious questions about how to meet one student's special needs while ensuring the educational well-being of all. This article discusses how schools grapple with the practical and legal questions involved in allowing service dogs on campus. The author cites a case in 2009 called "Kalbfleisch v. Columbia…

  17. Relative effectiveness of {sup 239}Pu and some other internal emitters for bone cancer induction in beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Miller, S.C.; Taylor, G.N.; Bruenger, F.W.; Jee, W.S.S.; Angus, W.

    1994-10-01

    The toxicity ratio (relative effectiveness per gray of average skeletal dose) has been estimated for bone cancer induction in beagles injected as young adults with a number of bone-seeking internal emitters. These experiments yielded calculated toxicity ratios ({+-} SD) relative to {sup 226}Ra = 1.0 of {sup 239}Pu = 16 {+-} 5 (single exposure to monomeric Pu) and 32 {+-} 10 (continuous exposure from an extraskeletal deposit in the body), {sup 224}Ra = 16 {+-} 5 (chronic exposure) and approximately 6 {+-} 2 (single exposure), {sup 228}Th = 8.5 {+-} 2.3, {sup 241}Am = 6 {+-} 0.8, {sup 228}Ra = 2.0 {+-} 0.5, {sup 249}Cf = 6 {+-} 3, {sup 252}Cf = 4 {+-}2, {sup 90}Sr = 1.0 {+-} 0.5 (for high doses) and 0.05 {+-} 0.03 (for low doses) and 0.01 {+-} 0.01 (for extremely low doses). Because no skeletal malignancies were observed among beagles given only {sup 253}Es, the toxicity ratio is undefined. 43 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Dog bites: how big a problem?

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, J. J.; Kresnow, M.; Houston, B.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the magnitude of the dog bite problem in the US. METHODS: Data on dog bites were gathered as part of a 1994 national telephone survey of 5,238 randomly dialed households. Data were weighted to provide national estimates. RESULTS: The weighted total number of dog bites was 4,494,083 (estimated incidence = 18/1,000 population); of these, 756,701 persons sustained bites necessitating medical attention (incidence rate = 3/1,000). Children had 3.2 times higher medically attended bite rates than adults (6.4/1,000 children v 2/1,000 adults). CONCLUSIONS: More attention and research needs to be devoted to the prevention of dog bites. Potential prevention strategies include: educational programs on canine behavior, especially directed at children; laws for regulating dangerous or vicious dogs; enhanced animal control programs; and educational programs regarding responsible dog ownership and training. Unfortunately, the relative or absolute effectiveness of any of these strategies has not been assessed. Continuing surveillance for dog bites will be needed if we are to better understand how to reduce the incidence of dog bites and evaluate prevention efforts. Images PMID:9346056

  19. A practical method to obtain reproducible binocular electroretinograms in dogs.

    PubMed

    Rosolen, Serge Georges; Rigaudiere, Florence; Lachapelle, Pierre

    2002-09-01

    We present a simple method to record highly reproduciblebinocular electroretinograms in dogs. Rod and cone electroretinograms were elicited in 60 Beagle dogs, with the use of two adjustable photostimulators, one directed at each eye, and maintained in position with the use of a special device. Data analysis revealed no significant differences in amplitudes between the right and the left eye for each animal and each recording session, thus attesting to the high reliability of our approach. In a few instances, however, small interocular timing differences were noted. The proposed approach could therefore be used not only in a clinical setup where the functional status of the two eyes is often needed to reach a diagnosis butalso in research projects, such as toxicological assays, where the experimentation is performed on one eye while the other is kept as control. PMID:12462439

  20. The biological effects of radium-224 injected into dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.

    1996-08-01

    A life-span study was conducted in 128 beagle dogs to determine the biological effects of intravenously injected {sup 224}Ra chloride. The {sup 224}Ra chloride was prepared by the same method used for intravenous injections in humans who were treated for ankylosing spondylitis and tuberculosis. Thus the results obtained from dogs can be compared directly to the population of treated humans, both for the elucidation of the effect of exposure rate and for comparison with other radionuclides for which data for humans are unavailable. Using equal numbers of males and females, the dogs were injected with one of four levels of {sup 224}Ra resulting in initial body burdens of approximately 13, 40, 120 or 350 kBq of {sup 224}Ra kg{sup -1} body mass. A control group of dogs was injected with diluent only. All dogs were divided further into three groups for which the amount of injected {sup 224}Ra (half-life of 3.62 days) or diluent was given in a single injection or divided equally into 10 or 50 weekly injections. As a result of these three injection schedules, the accumulation of dose from the injected {sup 224}Ra was distributed over approximately 1, 3 or 12 months. Each injection schedule included four different injection levels resulting in average absorbed {alpha}-particle doses to bone of 0.1, 0.3, 1 and 3 Gy, respectively. The primary early effect observed was a hematological dyscrasia in the dogs receiving either of the two highest injection levels. The effect was most severe in the dogs receiving a single injection of {sup 224}Ra and resulted in the death of three dogs injected at the highest level. The late-occurring biological effects were tumors. Bone tumors were the most common followed by tumors in the nasal mucosa. 52 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Multifocal retinopathy of Great Pyrenees dogs.

    PubMed

    Grahn, B.H.; Philibert, H.; Cullen, C.L.; Houston, D.M.; Semple, H.A.; Schmutz, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Forty-four related Great Pyrenees dogs were examined ophthalmoscopically. Focal retinal elevations, multiple gray-tan-pink subretinal patches, and discrete areas of tapetal hyper-reflectivity were seen in 19 dogs, ranging from 13 weeks to 10 years of age. These lesions varied in size from focal spots that were barely visible with the indirect ophthalmoscope to areas that were larger than the optic disc. Complete blood cell counts, serum biochemical profiles, urinalyses, and blood pressure measurements were completed on four affected dogs and all were within normal reference ranges. Photopic and scotopic electroretinography was completed and the a-wave and b-wave amplitudes and latencies were similar for affected and age-matched nonaffected Great Pyrenees and other normal dogs. Electroretinograms that were examined twice during a 3-year period on three affected adult dogs did not reveal significant progressive deterioration of the a or b-wave parameters. Fluorescein angiography was completed on four affected dogs of ages 1 (n = 2), 5, and 6 years. These angiograms were repeated in three of these dogs 1 year later. The blood ocular barrier was intact in these dogs but there was blocked choroidal fluorescence. Postmortem examination, light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were performed on three affected puppies and two affected adult dogs. These examinations revealed that the lesions in the puppies were limited to bilateral multiple areas of retinal pigment epithelial vacuolation, hypertrophy, and apparent separation from Bruch's membrane, and multiple serous retinal detachments. The affected adult dogs had focal retinal degeneration and retinal pigment epithelial hypertrophy, hyperplasia and pigmentation. Pedigree analysis and test mating confirm that this condition is inherited, probably as an autosomal recessive trait. This condition develops at approximately 13 weeks of age and the focal areas of retinal detachment and retinal pigment

  2. Duration of opioid antagonism by nalmefene and naloxone in the dog: an integrated pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic comparison.

    PubMed

    Veng-Pedersen, P; Wilhelm, J A; Zakszewski, T B; Osifchin, E; Waters, S J

    1995-09-01

    A continuous fentanyl infusion was administered to eight adult, male beagle dogs for a duration of approximately 400 min at a rate of 30 micrograms/kg/h. The extent of respiratory depression was quantified by continuous, noninvasive, transcutaneous pCO2 recordings. Upon reaching a pseudosteady-state of respiratory depression at approximately 120 min of fentanyl infusion, the animals then received, in a 2 x 2 crossover fashion separated by approximately 3 weeks, 30-minute equiefficacious infusions of nalmefene (12 micrograms/kg/h) or naloxone (48 micrograms/kg/h). Multiple venous blood samples were taken throughout the dosing regimen, and the resulting fentanyl, nalmefene, or naloxone plasma concentrations were determined. The concentration-time data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods and subsequently linked to the pharmacodynamic effect data by a competitive antagonism link model. Separately, the biophase concentrations were linked to the plasma concentration-time profiles through a single-exponential conduction function. The various pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters resulting from this semiparametric analysis were analyzed by ANOVA, using a statistical model that considers carryover effects. The results of these analyses indicate that several pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters of the two antagonists were comparable. However, nalmefene had a significantly more protracted terminal disposition and a significantly greater persistency in the biophase evaluated over the experimental time frame from 0 to 450 min.

  3. PULMONARY IMMUNITY TO RAGWEED IN A BEAGLE DOG MODEL OF ALLERGIC ASTHMA. (R826442)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  4. Computed tomography (CT) observation of pulmonary emboli caused by long-term administration of ivermectin in dogs experimentally infected with heartworms.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ayuto; Yamada, Kazutaka; Kishimoto, Miori; Shimizu, Junichiro; Maeda, Ryuichiro

    2008-08-17

    Some studies have reported the adulticidal effect of long-term ivermectin (IVM) administration on adult heartworms in canines; however, there are no detailed reports on the course of the pulmonary artery embolism caused by the bodies of dead heartworms during the administration period. In this study, the pulmonary embolism caused over time by the dead worms was observed using computed tomography (CT). We subcutaneously inoculated 2 beagles with 100 infective third-stage larvae (L3) of Dirofilaria immitis. The dogs were orally administered a formulation containing 272 microg of IVM and 652 mg of pyrantel pamoate (Panamectin Chewables P272; Meiji Seika, Tokyo, Japan) at monthly intervals, beginning from 10 months after the subcutaneous inoculation. Along with IVM administration, periodic CT examination of the chest was performed. At 15 months after the initiation of IVM administration, the dogs were euthanized, the living heartworms were collected, and histopathological examination was performed. Starting from 1 month after the IVM administration, peripheral dilation of the pulmonary artery (suspected to be pulmonary embolism) and pneumonia were observed in the CT images; however, these findings improved over time. The appearance and disappearance of these lesions were observed in all the lobes during the IVM administration period. During this period, the clinical symptoms of pulmonary embolism were not recognized. After 1 month of IVM administration, chest radiographic examination revealed radiopaque lesions in 1 dog. Only some of the lesions detected by CT could be detected by radiography. Using echocardiography, heartworms were observed in the pulmonary arteries of both dogs from 6 months after subcutaneous inoculation to the end of the study period. Microfilaria disappeared from the peripheral blood at 1 month after IVM administration in 1 dog, and at 7 months in the other dog. The adult heartworm antigen test yielded positive results starting from 6 months after

  5. A new Wind Sensor for the Beagle 2 Mars Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C. F.; Calcutt, S. B.; Jones, T. V.

    2001-12-01

    A hot-film anemometer has been developed for Beagle2, a British Mars lander to be launched in 2003. The sensor will measure wind speed (up to 30 m/s) and horizontal component of wind direction. The position of the wind sensor position at the end of Beagle2's motorised arm allows several new possibilities for wind measurement on Mars that were unavailable in previous missions. The height of the wind sensor can be adjusted to any height between ~20 cm and ~110 cm above the lander body, or can be moved laterally at a given height to study the effects of lander interference. Alternatively, the wind sensor may be positioned with its axis horizontal, thus allowing measurements of vertical wind speed. The wind sensor was calibrated in a new wind tunnel facility, in which Martian surface wind conditions are simulated. Wind speeds of 0.5 - 60 m/s can be created in a CO2 or air atmosphere at pressures of 5 - 10 mbar and temperatures of 200 - 300 K. The facility can also be used in its current configuration to simulate stratospheric winds on Earth. >http://www.atm.ox.ac.uk/user/wilson/matacf.html

  6. Beagle 2: The Next Exobiology Mission to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Wright, Ian P.; Morse, Andy; Stewart, Jenny; Morgan, G.; Praine, Ian; Leigh, Dennis; Sims, Mark R.

    2001-01-01

    Beagle 2 is a 60 kg probe (with a 30 kg lander) developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on the European Space Agency's 2003 Mars Express. Beagle 2 will deliver to the Martian surface a payload which consists of a high percentage of science instruments to landed spacecraft mass. Beagle 2 will be launched in June, 2003 with Mars Express on a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Beagle 2 will land on Mars on December 26, 2003 in the Isidis Planitia basin (approximately 10 degrees N and 275 degrees W), a large sedimentary basin that overlies the boundary between ancient highlands and northern plains. Isidis Planitia, the third largest basin on Mars, which is possibly filled with sediment deposited at the bottom of long-standing lakes or seas, offers an ideal environment for preserving traces of life. Beagle 2 was developed to search for organic material and other volatiles on and below the surface of Mars in addition to the study of the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy. Beagle 2 will utilize a mechanical mole and grinder to obtain samples from below the surface, under rocks and inside rocks. A pair of stereo cameras will image the landing site along with a microscope for examination of surface and rock samples. Analyses will include both rock and soil samples at various wavelengths, X-ray spectrometer and Mossbauer spectrometer as well as a search for organics and other light element species (e.g. carbonates and water) and measurement of their isotopic compositions. Beagle 2 has as its focus the goal of establishing whether evidence for life existed in the past on Mars at the Isidis Planitia site or at least establishing if the conditions were ever suitable. Carbonates and organic components were first recognized as existing on Mars when they were found in the Martian meteorite Nakhla. Romanek et al showed the carbonates in ALH84001 were formed at low temperatures. McKay et al noted possible evidence of early life on Mars within the

  7. Intraepithelial DNA immunisation with a plasmid encoding a codon optimised COPV E1 gene sequence, but not the wild-type gene sequence completely protects against mucosal challenge with infectious COPV in beagles.

    PubMed

    Moore, Richard A; Santos, Elmer B; Nicholls, Philip K; White, Kate L; Anderson, Davina M; Lloyd, Andrew; Topley, Peter; Romanos, Michael; Thomsen, Lindy; Parmar, Vanita; Walcott, Sarah; Gough, Gerald W; Stanley, Margaret A

    2002-12-20

    DNA plasmids encoding the open reading frames of canine oral papillomavirus (COPV) nonstructural early genes E1, E2, or E7 protein were delivered into both oral mucosal and cutaneous epithelial sites in beagle dogs using particle-mediated immunotherapeutic delivery (PMID) technology. Control dogs were vaccinated with plasmid encoding either hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBVs) or COPV L1. Using a prophylactic immunisation protocol, a priming dose of plasmid DNA was followed by a booster dose 6 weeks later. Four weeks after boost, all dogs were challenged with infectious COPV particles. Following viral challenge, as shown previously (M. A. Stanley et al., 2001, Vaccine 19, 2783-2792), mucosal papillomas developed in the negative-control HBVs vaccinated dogs, but all animals in the COPV L1 group were fully protected from disease development. In the early gene-vaccinated groups five of six in the E1-vaccinated dogs, two of six in E2-vaccinated dogs, and three of six in the E7-vaccinated beagles developed oral papillomas. Compared to the HBVs negative-control group the oral papillomas that did develop in the early-gene vaccinated beagles were significantly smaller, shorter in duration, and fewer in number. Taken together the disease burden was markedly reduced and this was statistically significant. In a second experiment one group of animals was vaccinated with plasmid encoding the wild-type COPV E1 gene, and a separate group was vaccinated with plasmid encoding a synthetic codon-optimised COPV E1 gene sequence. None of the codon-optimised E1-vaccinated animals developed papillomas at any challenge site. However, all animals vaccinated with wild-type E1 had papillomas. These data suggest that immunisation by PMID with papillomavirus early genes can significantly impact upon subsequent disease development and that full protection can be achieved using improved vectors encoding codon-optimised gene sequences perhaps emphasizing the importance of antigen load in the

  8. Sulfur-containing amino acid requirements of growing dogs.

    PubMed

    Blaza, S E; Burger, I H; Holme, D W; Kendall, P T

    1982-11-01

    Three experiments were undertaken to establish the total sulfur-containing amino acid requirement of growing dogs. In experiment 1, six Labradors failed to grow normally when fed a soy isolate diet of 0.28% methionine with 0.18% cystine but grow well when the food was supplemented to either 0.57% or 0.74% methionine. In the next experiment, 12 Labradors and 21 beagles were fed the soy isolate diet containing either 0.39%, 0.57% or 0.74% methionine in the presence of 0.15% cystine for 12 weeks. Dogs fed 0.39% methionine had significantly lower body weights, nitrogen retentions, food intakes and feed efficiencies than their littermates fed the two higher levels. This diet provided 468 kcal metabolizable energy (ME) per 100 g, therefore a level of 116 mg total sulfur-containing amino acids (TSAA)/100 kcal ME was not adequate for growth. The lowest level found to be adequate was 0.57% methionine, or 154 mg TSAA/100 kcal ME, which is similar to the requirement of other young omnivores. A final experiment with a free amino acid diet indicated that a level of 117 mg TSAA/100 kcal ME while inadequate for Labradors, may be sufficient for some beagles, highlighting differences between intact protein and free amino acid diets and suggesting possible breed differences.

  9. Dog ownership and dog walking to promote physical activity and health in patients.

    PubMed

    Epping, Jacqueline N

    2011-07-01

    Lack of physical activity is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases and conditions and is associated with significant medical costs. Approximately half of adults and more than a third of adolescents and youth in the United States do not achieve recommended levels of physical activity. Effective population-level strategies are needed to promote activities that are practical, accessible, and sustainable and that can reach a large proportion of the population. Dog walking may be such a strategy. Walking is popular, easy, and sustainable and has a low risk of injury. Owning dogs confers many health benefits, and dog walking, in particular, can help promote physical activity and improve health. Physicians and other health care providers can play a unique and integral role in promoting physical activity among patients by recommending dog walking both to dog owners and to non-dog owners as a purposeful, enjoyable, and sustainable form of regular physical activity. PMID:23531898

  10. Evaluation of the effects of hypergravity exposure and caging restraint on bone mineralization in the Beagle by in vivo photon absorptiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, G. L.; Berding, K. L.; Goldman, M.

    1975-01-01

    Photon absorptiometry was used to evaluate bone mineral kinetics associated with normal development and the possible perturbations to bone development resulting from hypergravity exposure over a period of six months in developing Beagles. A series of seven measurements were performed at specific times with the first measurement prior to treatment and subsequent measurements at 2, 5, 9, 14, 20 and 26 weeks from the onset of the experiment. Four groups of six male Beagle pups, ranging in age from 85 to 92 days were studied. Two groups were chronically exposed to hypergravity treatments by centrifugation of 2.0 G (18.0 RPM, 11.7 ft radius) and 2.6 G (18.0 RPM, 19.8 ft radius) for the 26 week period. A third group of six dogs served as a caged control to evaluate possible changes due to confinement in small plexiglass cages similar to those of the centrifuge. Thus this control group was subjected to limited exercise due to caging restraint. The fourth group of animals was housed in open runs to allow exercise without the spatial confinement of the smaller plexiglass cages. Results show highly significant differences in body weight, bone length, increase in bone density of control group relative to other groups, and a decrease in bone mineral content in the two gravity treated groups.

  11. The Beagle 2 Effect - public response to the UK Mars lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillinger, J. M.; Pillinger, C. T.

    As a prerequisite for understanding science, the target audience must first be aware of an issue and then continue to maintain interest. We discuss the impact of the Beagle 2 mission to Mars on raising awareness amongst the general public as the first step to increasing understanding of the scientific and technological challenges and solutions such a mission addresses. The massive amount of public interest created is now being ttributed to the so-called "Beagle 2 Effect". We consider the reasons why the public, particularly, but not exclusively, in the UK took Beagle 2 to heart. Initially our strategy, as part of the PR plan for Beagle 2, was to collate media coverage for various stages and discrete campaigns in particular to use press cuttings to determine the level of recognition of Beagle 2 as a brand. At the start of the project this information was to support sponsorship bids, latterly the intrinsic value of media, and hence public, awareness was recognised by the major partners in the project. Much of the subsequent public awareness resulted from the comprehensive coverage in all branches of the media. A second opportunity to evaluate the response to the mission was presented to us as it became increasingly clear that Beagle 2 was able to engage an audience much wider than that typically interested in space, or science in general. We highlighted how far mention of Beagle 2 has spread. Additionally numerous unsolicited letters have been received from the public and these have been collated to indicate the factors which appear to have contributed to the widespread interest in Beagle 2. It is not clear whether the "Beagle 2 Effect" can, or will, be transferred to subsequent space missions.

  12. Genomic Regions Associated With Interspecies Communication in Dogs Contain Genes Related to Human Social Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Mia E.; Wright, Dominic; Roth, Lina S. V.; Batakis, Petros; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Unlike their wolf ancestors, dogs have unique social skills for communicating and cooperating with humans. Previously, significant heritabilities for human-directed social behaviors have been found in laboratory beagles. Here, a Genome-Wide Association Study identified two genomic regions associated with dog’s human-directed social behaviors. We recorded the propensity of laboratory beagles, bred, kept and handled under standardized conditions, to initiate physical interactions with a human during an unsolvable problem-task, and 190 individuals were genotyped with an HD Canine SNP-chip. One genetic marker on chromosome 26 within the SEZ6L gene was significantly associated with time spent close to, and in physical contact with, the human. Two suggestive markers on chromosome 26, located within the ARVCF gene, were also associated with human contact seeking. Strikingly, four additional genes present in the same linkage blocks affect social abilities in humans, e.g., SEZ6L has been associated with autism and COMT affects aggression in adolescents with ADHD. This is, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide study presenting candidate genomic regions for dog sociability and inter-species communication. These results advance our understanding of dog domestication and raise the use of the dog as a novel model system for human social disorders. PMID:27685260

  13. Dose determination of a novel formulation of metaflumizone plus amitraz for control of cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis felis) and brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) on dogs.

    PubMed

    Rugg, D; Hair, J A

    2007-12-15

    A novel spot-on formulation containing metaflumizone and amitraz (ProMeris/ProMeris Duo for Dogs, Fort Dodge Animal Health, Overland Park, KS) was evaluated in a laboratory study to determine the appropriate dose for efficacy against fleas and ticks on dogs for 1 month. Thirty-six Beagles were randomly allocated to six equal groups and individually housed. One group remained nontreated. Another was treated with a placebo formulation (solvents with no active ingredients). Three groups of dogs were treated topically with the metaflumizone plus amitraz formulation (150mg of each of metaflumizone and amitraz/ml), at volumes providing doses of 10, 20 and 40mgeachactive/kg. The final group was treated with a commercial spot-on providing 6.7mgfipronil/kg. All treatments were applied to the skin at a single spot between the scapulae on Day 0. Dogs were infested with 50 adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) on each of Days -2, 5, 12, 19, 26, 33 and 40, and with 100 cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis felis) on Days -1, 6, 13, 20, 27, 34 and 41. Dogs were examined and parasites "finger counted" on Day 1 to estimate knock down efficacy, and all animals were comb counted to determine the numbers of viable fleas and ticks on Days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. There were no significant differences in parasite counts between the nontreated control and the placebo-treated control groups for either fleas or ticks (P>0.05) except for very slight reductions on Day 7 for fleas and Day 14 for ticks, demonstrating that the formulation excipients had no activity. The qualitative finger counts on Day 1 indicated that all of the insecticidal treatments resulted in a noticeable reduction in flea and tick numbers within 1 day of treatment. All of the metaflumizone and amitraz treatments and fipronil resulted in significantly lower flea and tick numbers relative to nontreated controls on all posttreatment count days (P<0.05). For the metaflumizone plus amitraz treatments, mean flea and

  14. Will breed-specific legislation reduce dog bites?

    PubMed

    Bandow, J H

    1996-08-01

    So how do we deal with biting dogs? To start with, we must remind ourselves that biting is a natural activity of all dogs, and that there is potential for injury. All dog owners must understand this and must be made aware that they are fully responsible for the actions of their dogs. I am not convinced that this is universally understood by dog owners, nor am I satisfied that every dog owner takes the necessary steps to train and socialize their dog. Owners need to be encouraged to actively work at inhibiting biting behaviour when dogs are young. As well, all dogs should be socialized to accept children, regardless of whether or not there are children living with the dog. Adults without dogs need to learn that dogs don't understand "people's rights," and that dogs should not be expected to act differently with different people. Adults also need to understand that young children should never be left alone with a dog (or a cat) without supervision, and that all children should be taught how to behave around dogs, particulary around dogs they don't know. So long as we have dogs living with us there will be people who get bitten. The most effective way to prevent bites is to encourage dog owners to become knowledgeable about their animals and to train and socialize them so that they can become good dog neighbours. Many municipalities already have by-laws that deal with animal bites, and in Ontario the Dog Owners Liability Act has proven to be effective in confining, restraining or disposing of biting or attacking dogs judged to be a definite threat to public health and safety, and when evidence warrants, there is always Section #221 of the Criminal Code of Canada. Most legislation deals with bites after the fact. If we want to prevent all bites, there is only one sure way and that is to ban all dogs. That is of course as unrealistic as trying to prevent bites by enacting breed specific legislation.

  15. Effects of magnesium sulfate and propofol on the minimum alveolar concentration preventing motor movement in sevoflurane-anesthetized dogs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Alanna N; Seddighi, Reza; Rohrbach, Barton W; Cox, Sherry K; Egger, Christine M; Martin-Flores, Manuel; Doherty, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of MgSO4, alone and in combination with propofol, on the minimum alveolar concentration preventing motor movement (MACNM) in sevoflurane-anesthetized dogs. ANIMALS 6 healthy purpose-bred adult male Beagles (least squares mean ± SEM body weight, 12.0 ± 1.1 kg). PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized 3 times at weekly intervals. The MACNM was measured 45 minutes after induction of anesthesia (baseline; MACNM-B) and was determined each time by use of a noxious electrical stimulus. Treatments were administered as a loading dose and constant rate infusion (CRI) as follows: treatment 1, MgSO4 loading dose of 45 mg/kg and CRI of 15 mg/kg/h; treatment 2, propofol loading dose of 4 mg/kg and CRI of 9 mg/kg/h; and treatment 3, MgSO4 and propofol combination (same doses used previously for each drug). A mixed-model ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer tests were used to determine effects of each treatment on the percentage decrease from MACNM-B. Data were reported as least squares mean ± SEM values. RESULTS Decrease from MACNM-B was 3.4 ± 3.1%, 48.3 ± 3.1%, and 50.3 ± 3.1%, for treatments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The decrease for treatments 2 and 3 was significantly different from that for treatment 1; however, no significant difference existed between results for treatments 2 and 3. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE MgSO4 did not affect MACNM, nor did it potentiate the effects of propofol on MACNM. Administration of MgSO4 in this study appeared to provide no clinical advantage as an anesthetic adjuvant.

  16. Selective recording of electroneurograms from the left vagus nerve of a dog during stimulation of cardiovascular or respiratory systems.

    PubMed

    Rozman, Janez; Ribaric, Samo

    2007-10-31

    Selective electroneurograms (ENGs) from superficial regions of the left vagus nerve of a dog were recorded with a 33-electrode spiral cuff (cuff) implanted on the nerve at the neck in an adult Beagle dog. The electrodes in the cuff were arranged in thirteen groups of three electrodes (GTE 1-13). To identify the relative positions of the particular nerve regions that innervated the heart and lungs, stimulating pulses (2 mA, 200 micros, 20 Hz) were individually delivered to all thirteen GTEs. It was shown that by delivering stimulating pulses to GTEs 4 and 9, heart rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate were modulated. Precisely, only when the stimuli were delivered to GTE 9, the heart rate began to fall and only when the stimuli were delivered to GTE 4 the rate of breathing decreased. To test the selectivity of recording the above-defined groups GTEs 4 and 9 and randomly chosen GTEs 1 and 7 were simultaneously used as recording GTEs while cardio-vascular or respiratory systems were stimulated by carotid artery compression, epinephrine injection and non-invasive, positive end-pressure ventilation. Results showed that stimulations elicited site-specific changes in ENG power spectra recorded from the superficial regions of the vagus nerve. Power spectrum of the ENG recorded with GTE 9, contained frequencies belonging to the neural activity elicited by compression of the carotid artery and injection of epinephrine. The power spectrum of the ENG recorded with GTE 4, contained frequencies belonging to the neural activity elicited by non-invasive, positive end-expiratory pressure ventilation. We concluded that the multi-electrode nerve cuff enables selective stimulation and recording of nerve activity from internal organs.

  17. Neurophysiological assessment of the sedative and analgesic effects of a constant rate infusion of dexmedetomidine in the dog.

    PubMed

    van Oostrom, Hugo; Doornenbal, Arie; Schot, Arend; Stienen, Peter J; Hellebrekers, Ludo J

    2011-12-01

    The sedative and analgesic effects of continuous rate infusion (CRI) of dexmedetomidine (DEX) were investigated in Beagle dogs (n=8) using auditory and somatosensory evoked potentials (AEPs and SEPs) recorded before, during and after a CRI of saline or DEX (1.0, 3.0, 5.0 μg/kg bolus, followed by 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 μg/kg/h CRI, respectively). The results showed a significant reduction in AEP at doses of 1.0 μg/kg/h and above and a significant reduction of the SEP at doses of 3.0 and 5.0 μg/kg/h. Neither the AEP nor the SEP was further reduced at 5.0 μg/kg/h when compared to 3.0 μg/kg/h, although a slower return towards baseline values was observed at 5.0 μg/kg/h. The mean plasma levels (±SEM) of DEX during infusion were 0.533±0.053 ng/mL for the 1.0 μg/kg/h dose, 1.869±0.063 ng/mL for the 3.0 μg/kg/h dose and 4.017±0.385 for the 5.0 μg/kg/dose. It was concluded that in adult dogs, a CRI of DEX had a sedative and analgesic effect that could be described quantitatively using neurophysiological parameters. Sedation was achieved at lower plasma levels than required for analgesia, and DEX had a longer (but not larger) effect with infusion rates above 3.0 μg/kg/h.

  18. The effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of oral fluralaner in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fluralaner is a novel systemic ectoparasiticide for dogs providing long-acting flea- and tick-control after a single oral dose. The pharmacokinetics of orally administered drugs may be influenced by feeding. This study investigated the influence of concurrent feeding on fluralaner pharmacokinetics. Methods Twelve fasted or fed beagles received a single oral administration of 25 mg fluralaner/kg body weight in a chewable tablet. Plasma samples were collected at multiple post-treatment time points for fluralaner concentration analysis. Clinical observations were performed on all dogs at regular intervals throughout the study. Results Fluralaner was readily absorbed in fasted and fed dogs administered at a dose of 25 mg/kg BW with a similar mean tmax for both groups. In fed dogs, AUC and Cmax were increased compared to fasted dogs by a factor of 2.5 and 2.1 respectively. The difference in AUC and Cmax between the fed and fasted groups was statistically significant. No adverse events were observed following oral fluralaner administration to fasted and fed dogs. Conclusions Fluralaner is absorbed to a considerable extent in fasted and fed dogs. Administration of fluralaner chewable tablets with food significantly increases bioavailability. PMID:24598049

  19. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in radiation-induced dog lung tumors by immunocytochemical localization

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, F.L.; Park, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.

    1993-06-01

    In studies to determine the role of growth factors in radiation-induced lung cancer, epidermal growth factor (EGFR) expression was examined by immunocytochemistry in 51 lung tumors from beagle dogs exposed to inhaled plutonium; 21 of 51 (41%) tumors were positive for EGFR. The traction of tumors positive for EGFR and the histological type of EGFR-positive tumors in the plutonium-exposed dogs were not different from spontaneous dog lung tumors, In which 36% were positive for EGFR. EGFR involvement in Pu-induced lung tumors appeared to be similar to that in spontaneous lung tumors. However, EGFR-positive staining was observed in only 1 of 16 tumors at the three lowest Pu exposure levels, compared to 20 of 35 tumors staining positive at the two highest Pu exposure levels. The results in dogs were in good agreement with the expression of EGFR reported in human non-small cell carcinoma of the lung, suggesting that Pu-induced lung tumors in the dog may be a suitable animal model to investigate the role of EGFR expression in lung carcinogenesis. In humans, EGFR expression in lung tumors has been primarily related to histological tumor types. In individual dogs with multiple primary lung tumors, the tumors were either all EGFR positive or EGFR negative, suggesting that EGFR expression may be related to the response of the individual dog as well as to the histological type of tumor.

  20. Effect of Frequency of Brushing Teeth on Plaque and Calculus Accumulation, and Gingivitis in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Colin; Serfilippi, Laurie; Barnvos, Donald

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of brushing the teeth of beagle dogs in a randomized, controlled, blinded study design using a clearly-defined brushing technique was evaluated for 4 brushing frequencies: brushing daily, brushing every other day, brushing weekly and brushing every other week, compared with no brushing in a control group of dogs. All dogs were fed a standard dry kibble diet during the study. Standard plaque, calculus, and gingivitis indices were used to score the teeth. A 'clean tooth' model was used. No gingival or non-gingival lacerations or other signs of injury to oral tissues were found at the end of the 28 day trial period. Brushing more frequently had greater effectiveness in retarding accumulation of plaque and calculus, and reducing the severity of pre-existing gingivitis. Brushing daily or every other day produced statistically significant improved results compared with brushing weekly or every other week. Based on the results of this study, daily brushing is recommended.

  1. Absence of lymphatic vessels in the dog dental pulp: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Anna; Gasse, Hagen; Staszyk, Carsten

    2010-11-01

    In spite of numerous investigations it has not been precisely determined whether lymphatic vessels are present in the dental pulp of dogs. Therefore, this study attempted a specific immunohistochemical detection of lymphatic endothelium. The canine teeth of 19 healthy beagle dogs were dissected into three segments (apical, intermediate and occlusal). After decalcification, specimens were embedded in paraffin wax and histologic cross-sections were stained immunohistochemically using a reliable antibody (anti-Prox-1) against the homeobox transcription factor Prox-1, which is located within the nucleus of lymphatic endothelium. Anti-Prox-1 reacted positively with canine control tissues (lymph nodes, gingiva, nasal mucosa), but showed no staining in tissue sections of the dental pulp. The dog dental pulp contained no vascular structures lined with lymphatic endothelium. This suggests that drainage of interstitial fluid makes use of other routes, i.e. extravascular pathways.

  2. Effect of Frequency of Brushing Teeth on Plaque and Calculus Accumulation, and Gingivitis in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Colin; Serfilippi, Laurie; Barnvos, Donald

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of brushing the teeth of beagle dogs in a randomized, controlled, blinded study design using a clearly-defined brushing technique was evaluated for 4 brushing frequencies: brushing daily, brushing every other day, brushing weekly and brushing every other week, compared with no brushing in a control group of dogs. All dogs were fed a standard dry kibble diet during the study. Standard plaque, calculus, and gingivitis indices were used to score the teeth. A 'clean tooth' model was used. No gingival or non-gingival lacerations or other signs of injury to oral tissues were found at the end of the 28 day trial period. Brushing more frequently had greater effectiveness in retarding accumulation of plaque and calculus, and reducing the severity of pre-existing gingivitis. Brushing daily or every other day produced statistically significant improved results compared with brushing weekly or every other week. Based on the results of this study, daily brushing is recommended. PMID:26197686

  3. Cat and Dog Bites

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites How should I take care of a bite from a cat or a dog? Whether from a family pet or a neighborhood stray, cat and dog bites are common. Here are some ...

  4. Age-dependent lens changes in galactose-fed dogs.

    PubMed

    Lackner, P A; Rodriguez, L; Sato, S; Lizak, M J; Wyman, M; Kador, P F

    1997-03-01

    Aldose reductase initiated sugar cataract formation in 9-month old galactose-fed dogs has been documented to progress from an accentuation of lens sutures (1 month after initial feeding) to the appearance of cortical vacuoles (3 months), cortical opacities (4-6 months) and eventually the progressive formation of a clear zone at the cortical equatorial regions of the cataractous lenses (> 12 months). Here, the effect of age on the onset and degree of sugar cataract formation has been investigated in beagles fed a 30% galactose diet starting at 2, 6, and 24 months of age. Cataract formation was monitored by slit lamp and retroillumination microscopy. Compared to 9-month old dogs, cataract formation in the younger dogs was more rapid and the lens changes were more severe. In the 2-month old group of dogs, galactose-feeding resulted in a rapid formation of dense cataracts which began to resorb after 106 days of galactose feeding with only opaque nuclear remnants remaining after eight months. These changes were mirrored by age-dependent reductions of lenticular NADPH-dependent reductase activity.

  5. Activity of a deltamethrin shampoo against Ctenocephalides felis and Rhipicephalus sanguineus in dogs.

    PubMed

    Franc, M; Cadiergues, M C

    1999-03-15

    A controlled clinical trial was undertaken to assess the efficacy of an application of a 0.07% deltamethrin shampoo against fleas and ticks in dogs. Twenty beagles, housed in separate cages, were randomly allocated into two groups of 10. The dogs were infested with 50 Ctenocephalides felis and 50 Rhipicephalus sanguineus each, and parasites were counted 24 h (fleas) and 72 h (ticks) later (Day 0). Dogs, when state, were then treated with 25 ml of a shampoo containing 0.07% deltamethrin (Group 1). Dogs in Group 2 were the controls. Fleas and ticks were counted 24 h (Day 1) and 48 h (Day 2) after the shampoo was applied, and the parasites were then removed. All the dogs were reinfested with fleas and ticks on Days 2, 7, 9, 14, 16 and 20. Parasites were counted 24 and 48 h after each reinfestation. Effectiveness against fleas was calculated 24 h after infestation, and against ticks 48 h after infestation. This study showed that the application of 25 ml of shampoo containing 0.07% deltamethrin to beagle dogs weighing between 10.2 and 12 kg was very well tolerated. It controlled the parasites present on the animals at the time of application: with an efficacy of 100% against fleas 24 h after treatment and an efficacy of 95% against ticks 48 h after treatment. The treatment protected against flea reinfestations with an efficacy of 100% during the first week, >98% in the second week and >95% in the third week. It also gave >99% protection against tick reinfestations in the first week and >96% in the second week.

  6. Age, sex and reproductive status affect boldness in dogs.

    PubMed

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-09-01

    Boldness in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies have found that boldness is affected by breed and breed groups, influences performance in sporting dogs, and is affected in some cases by the sex of the dogs. This study investigated the effects of dog age, sex and reproductive status on boldness in dogs by way of a dog personality survey circulated amongst Australian dog owners. Age had a significant effect on boldness (F=4.476; DF=16,758; P<0.001), with boldness decreasing with age in years. Males were bolder than females (F=19.219; DF=1,758; P<0.001) and entire dogs were bolder than neutered dogs (F=4.330; DF=1,758; P<0.038). The study indicates how behaviour may change in adult dogs as they age and adds to the literature on how sex and reproductive status may affect personality in dogs. PMID:23778256

  7. Failure to thrive and life-threatening complications due to inherited selective cobalamin malabsorption effectively managed in a juvenile Australian shepherd dog

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Ashley J.; Scott, Michael A.; Fyfe, John C.

    2015-01-01

    A juvenile Australian shepherd dog exhibited failure to grow, inappetence, weakness, nonregenerative anemia, neutropenia, and cobalamin deficiency. DNA testing confirmed homozygosity of an amnionless mutation (AMN c.3G > A). Clinical signs resolved with supportive care and parenteral cobalamin supplementation. Inherited selective intestinal cobalamin malabsorption requiring lifelong parenteral supplementation should be considered in Australian shepherds, giant schnauzers, border collies, and beagles that fail to thrive. PMID:26483576

  8. Influence of pneumoperitoneum and postural change on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems in dogs.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Tae; Okano, Shozo

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the influence of pneumoperitoneum#(PP) and postural change under inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane, which is routinely used in dogs, on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. As test animals, 6 adult beagles were used. To induce anesthesia, atropine, butorphanol and propofol were intravenously injected. Anesthesia was maintained with 1.3 MAC (1.7%) isoflurane. The following were the experiment conditions: I:E ratio, 1:1.9; tidal air exchange, 20 ml/kg; and ventilation frequency, 14 times/min. Respiration was regulated so that the PaCO2 was approximately 35 to 40 mmHg before the start of the experiment. PP with CO2 (intraperitoneal pressure 15 mmHg) and a postural change (15°C) was performed during the experiment. As parameters of circulatory kinetics, heart rate (HR), mean aortic pressure (MAP), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP), central venous pressure (CVP), femoral venous pressure (FVP) and cardiac output (CO) were measured. As parameters of respiratory kinetics, airway pressure (PAW) and blood gas (BG) were measured. There were significant increases in HR, MAP, MPAP, CVP, FVP, CO, PAW and PaCO2 after PP in the horizontal position. There were significant increases in CVP, FVP, PAW and PaCO2 after PP in the Trendelenburg position. There were significant increases in the MPAP, CVP, FVP, PAW and PaCO2 after PP in the inverse Trendelenburg position. There was a significant difference in FVP after PP between the Trendelenburg position and inverse Trendelenburg position. The results of this experiment suggest that appropriate anesthesia control, such as changing the ventilation conditions after PP, is required for laparoscopic surgery under inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane. PMID:26027843

  9. Prophylactic efficacy of four antibacterial shampoos against Staphylococcus intermedius in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kwochka, K W; Kowalski, J J

    1991-01-01

    Prophylactic efficacy of 4 antibacterial shampoos against Staphylococcus intermedius in dogs was determined by use of a controlled quantitative technique. Ten adult Beagles were used in the study. The antibacterial agents in the shampoos were 3.0% benzoyl peroxide, 0.5% chlorhexidine acetate, 1.0% available iodine as a polyalkyleneglycol-iodine complex, and a combination of 0.5% triclosan, 2.0% sulfur, and 2.0% salicylic acid. Treated and control sites were challenge exposed with 5.30 +/- 0.10 (log10) S intermedius colony-forming units (CFU)/cm2 of skin and occluded for 5 hours. At the end of the test period, remaining bacteria were removed with a detergent cup-scrub technique and the total number of S intermedius CFU/cm2 skin was calculated for each treated and control site. Nontreated bacteria-challenged control sites yielded 5.62 +/- 0.65 S intermedius CFU/cm2 of skin. Staphylococcus intermedius recovery (CFU/cm2) from the treated sites was 0.94 +/- 0.76 for benzoyl peroxide, 1.96 +/- 1.33 for chlorhexidine acetate, 3.11 +/- 0.48 for organic iodine, and 4.69 +/- 0.23 for triclosan-sulfur-salicylic acid. Each S intermedius recovery value from the 4 treated sites was significantly (P less than 0.05) lower than that from the nontreated S intermedius challenge-exposed control site. Bacteria recovery values were also significantly (P less than 0.05) different among the 4 shampoo-treated sites. We concluded that all shampoos had significant (P less than 0.05) prophylactic activity against S intermedius over 5 hours. The shampoo containing benzoyl peroxide was determined to have the greatest efficacy among the products tested.

  10. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection in association with acute gastroenteritis in 7 dogs from Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Kjaergaard, Astrid B; Carr, Anthony P; Gaunt, M Casey

    2016-09-01

    Seven dogs diagnosed with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection in association with acute gastroenteritis are described. Disease severity ranged from mild in adults to fatal disease in young dogs. Enteropathogenic E. coli infection should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis in dogs with diarrhea. PMID:27587889

  11. Evaluating the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) to Assess the Bond between Dogs and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rehn, Therese; McGowan, Ragen T. S.; Keeling, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) is increasingly being used to study attachment between dogs and humans. It has been developed from the Ainsworth Strange Situation Procedure, which is used extensively to investigate attachment between children and their parents. In this experiment, 12 female beagle dogs were tested in two treatments to identify possible order effects in the test, a potential weakness in the SSP. In one treatment (FS), dogs participated together with a ‘familiar person’ and a ‘stranger’. In a control treatment (SS), the same dogs participated together with two unfamiliar people, ‘stranger A’ and ‘stranger B’. Comparisons were made between episodes within as well as between treatments. As predicted in FS, dogs explored more in the presence of the familiar person than the stranger. Importantly, they also explored more in the presence of stranger A (who appeared in the same order as the familiar person and followed the same procedure) than stranger B in SS. Furthermore, comparisons between treatments, where a familiar person was present in FS and stranger A was present in SS, showed no differences in exploration. In combination, these results indicate that the effect of a familiar person on dogs' exploratory behaviour, a key feature when assessing secure attachment styles, could not be tested reliably due to the order in which the familiar person and the stranger appear. It is proposed that in the future only counterbalanced versions of the SSP are used. Alternatively, since dogs reliably initiated more contact with the familiar person compared to the strangers, it is suggested that future studies on attachment in dogs towards humans should focus either on the behaviour of the dog in those episodes of the SSP when the person returns, or on reunion behaviour in other studies, specially designed to address dog-human interactions at this time. PMID:23437277

  12. Clinical effects of computed tomography-guided lumbosacral facet joint, transforaminal epidural, and translaminar epidural injections of methylprednisolone acetate in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Liotta, Annalisa P; Girod, Maud; Peeters, Dominique; Sandersen, Charlotte; Couvreur, Thierry; Bolen, Géraldine

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine clinical effects of CT-guided lumbosacral facet joint, transforaminal epidural, and translaminar epidural injections of methylprednisolone acetate in healthy dogs. ANIMALS 15 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to 3 groups (5 dogs/group) and received a single CT-guided lumbosacral facet joint, transforaminal epidural, or translaminar epidural injection of methylprednisolone acetate (0.1 mg/kg). Contrast medium was injected prior to injection of methylprednisolone to verify needle placement. Neurologic examinations were performed 1, 3, 7, and 10 days after the injection. In dogs with neurologic abnormalities, a final neurologic examination was performed 24 days after the procedure. RESULTS Methylprednisolone injections were successfully performed in 14 of the 15 dogs. In 1 dog, vascular puncture occurred, and the methylprednisolone injection was not performed. No major or minor complications were identified during or immediately after the procedure, other than mild transient hyperthermia. During follow-up neurologic examinations, no motor, sensory, or postural deficits were identified, other than mild alterations in the patellar, withdrawal, cranial tibial, and perineal reflexes in some dogs. Overall, altered reflexes were observed in 11 of the 14 dogs, during 27 of 65 neurologic examinations. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that CT-guided lumbosacral facet joint, transforaminal epidural, and translaminar epidural injections of methylprednisolone acetate were associated with few complications in healthy dogs. However, the number of dogs evaluated was small, and additional studies are needed to assess clinical efficacy and safety of these procedures. PMID:27668585

  13. Pediatric seizure disorders in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Lavely, James A

    2014-03-01

    Seizure disorders in young animals pose different considerations as to cause and therapeutic decisions compared with adult animals. Infectious diseases of the nervous system are more likely in puppies and kittens compared with adults. The diagnosis of canine distemper is often based on clinical signs. Idiopathic epilepsy typically occurs in dogs between 1 and 5 years of age; however, inflammatory brain diseases such as necrotizing encephalitis and granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis also commonly occur in young to middle-aged small-breed dogs. The choice of which anticonvulsant to administer for maintenance therapy is tailored to each individual patient.

  14. Extending the BEAGLE library to a multi-FPGA platform

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maximum Likelihood (ML)-based phylogenetic inference using Felsenstein’s pruning algorithm is a standard method for estimating the evolutionary relationships amongst a set of species based on DNA sequence data, and is used in popular applications such as RAxML, PHYLIP, GARLI, BEAST, and MrBayes. The Phylogenetic Likelihood Function (PLF) and its associated scaling and normalization steps comprise the computational kernel for these tools. These computations are data intensive but contain fine grain parallelism that can be exploited by coprocessor architectures such as FPGAs and GPUs. A general purpose API called BEAGLE has recently been developed that includes optimized implementations of Felsenstein’s pruning algorithm for various data parallel architectures. In this paper, we extend the BEAGLE API to a multiple Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based platform called the Convey HC-1. Results The core calculation of our implementation, which includes both the phylogenetic likelihood function (PLF) and the tree likelihood calculation, has an arithmetic intensity of 130 floating-point operations per 64 bytes of I/O, or 2.03 ops/byte. Its performance can thus be calculated as a function of the host platform’s peak memory bandwidth and the implementation’s memory efficiency, as 2.03 × peak bandwidth × memory efficiency. Our FPGA-based platform has a peak bandwidth of 76.8 GB/s and our implementation achieves a memory efficiency of approximately 50%, which gives an average throughput of 78 Gflops. This represents a ~40X speedup when compared with BEAGLE’s CPU implementation on a dual Xeon 5520 and 3X speedup versus BEAGLE’s GPU implementation on a Tesla T10 GPU for very large data sizes. The power consumption is 92 W, yielding a power efficiency of 1.7 Gflops per Watt. Conclusions The use of data parallel architectures to achieve high performance for likelihood-based phylogenetic inference requires high memory bandwidth and a design

  15. Personality Consistency in Dogs: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fratkin, Jamie L.; Sinn, David L.; Patall, Erika A.; Gosling, Samuel D.

    2013-01-01

    Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that ‘puppy tests’ measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., ‘puppy tests’) versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed. PMID:23372787

  16. Generation of pure cultures of autologous Schwann cells by use of biopsy specimens of the dorsal cutaneous branches of the cervical nerves of young adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ji-Hey; Olby, Natasha J

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify an optimal technique for isolation, purification, and amplification of Schwann cells (SCs) from biopsy specimens of the dorsal cutaneous branches of the cervical nerves of dogs. SAMPLE Biopsy specimens of dorsal cervical cutaneous nerves from the cadavers of three 1- to 2-year-old dogs. PROCEDURES Nerve specimens were dissected, predegenerated, and dissociated to isolate single cells. After culture to enhance SC growth, cells were immunopurified by use of magnetic beads. Cell purity was evaluated by assessing expression of cell surface antigens p75 (to detect SCs) and CD90 (to detect fibroblasts). Effects of various concentrations of recombinant human glial growth factor 2 (rhGGF2) on SC proliferation were tested. Cell doubling time was assessed in SC cultures with selected concentrations of rhGGF2. RESULTS Mean ± SD wet weight of nerve fascicles obtained from the biopsy specimens was 16.8 ± 2.8 mg. A mean predegeneration period of 8.6 days yielded approximately 6,000 cells/mg of nerve tissue, and primary culture yielded 43,000 cells/mg of nerve tissue in a mean of 11 days, of which 39.9 ± 9.1% expressed p75. Immunopurification with magnetic beads yielded a mean of 85.4 ± 1.9% p75-positive cells. Two passages of subculture with 10μM cytosine arabinoside further enhanced SC purity to a mean of 97.8 ± 1.2% p75-positive cells. Finally, rhGGF2 supplementation at a range of 40 to 100 ng/mL increased the SC proliferation rate up to 3-fold. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE SCs could be cultured from biopsy specimens of dorsal cervical cutaneous nerves and purified and expanded to generate adequate numbers for autologous transplants to treat dogs with spinal cord and peripheral nerve injuries. PMID:27668589

  17. Social referencing in dog-owner dyads?

    PubMed

    Merola, I; Prato-Previde, E; Marshall-Pescini, S

    2012-03-01

    Social referencing is the seeking of information from another individual to form one's own understanding and guide action. In this study, adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving their owner and a potentially scary object. Dogs received either a positive or negative message from the owner. The aim was to evaluate the presence of referential looking to the owner, behavioural regulation based on the owner's (vocal and facial) emotional message and observational conditioning following the owner's actions towards the object. Most dogs (83%) looked referentially to the owner after looking at the strange object, thus they appear to seek information about the environment from the human, but little differences were found between dogs in the positive and negative groups as regards behavioural regulation: possible explanations for this are discussed. Finally, a strong effect of observational conditioning was found with dogs in the positive group moving closer to the fan and dogs in the negative group moving away, both mirroring their owner's behaviour. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment and social learning.

  18. Distribution and retention of hexavalent /sup 233/U in the beagle

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, W.; Bruenger, F.W.; Atherton, D.R.; Smith, J.M.; Taylor, G.N

    1980-07-01

    The distribution, retention, and excretion of /sup 233/U were measured in seven beagles injected intravenously with 2.8 ..mu..Ci /sup 233/U(VI)/kg (approx. 3 mg/dog) in citrate buffer and sacrificed at times ranging from 1 to 726 days postinjection (PI). The concentration of U in plasma decreased rapidly, and for the first 24 h PI could be described by triphasic exponential equation with half-times of 0.92, 46, and 315 min. The uranium in the blood at 5 min PI was present as either a protein (transferrin-albumin) or a carbonate/bicarbonate complex. Up to 60% of the injected U was excreted during the first day, most of it in the urine. Whole-body retention was 17% at 7 days, 10% at 94 days, 7.6% at 1 year, and less than 5% at 2 years PI. Except for the kidney, only a small fraction of the injected U was retained in soft tissues. At 1 day PI, the liver contained 1.1% of the injected U and its subcellular distribution was similar to that seen with Pu(IV). At 1 day PI, 7.7% of the U was found in the skeleton; this amount decreased with a biological half-life of 883 days. Initially, U was deposited nonuniformly on bone surfaces with areas of intense hot spots adjacent to areas with intermediate and low concentrations. At later times redistribution and/or diffusion of U into the bone volume produced a deposition pattern intermediate to that of /sup 239/Pu (surface) and /sup 226/Ra (volume). The heterogeneit of surface deposits persisted, and isolated segments of the trabecular bone showed intense surface deposits at times greater than 1 year PI. Twnety-two percent of the injected U was found in the kidneys at 1 day PI with high concentrations localized in the proximal tubules. The initially high concentration of U in this organ was correlated with extensive diuresis and a persistent elevation in blood urea nitrogen. Damage to proximal tubules was attributed primarily to chemical toxicity but was aggravated by simultaneous ..cap alpha.. irradiation.

  19. An investigation of the association between socio-demographic factors, dog-exercise requirements, and the amount of walking dogs receive.

    PubMed

    Degeling, Chris; Burton, Lindsay; McCormack, Gavin R

    2012-07-01

    Risk factors associated with canine obesity include the amount of walking a dog receives. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between canine exercise requirements, socio-demographic factors, and dog-walking behaviors in winter in Calgary. Dog owners, from a cross-sectional study which included a random sample of adults, were asked their household income, domicile type, gender, age, education level, number and breed(s) of dog(s) owned, and frequency and time spent dog-walking in a usual week. Canine exercise requirements were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) positively associated with the minutes pet dogs were walked, as was the owner being a female. Moreover, dog walking frequency, but not minutes of dog walking, was significantly associated with residing in attached housing (i.e., apartments). Different types of dogs have different exercise requirements to maintain optimal health. Understanding the role of socio-demographic factors and dog-related characteristics such as exercise requirements on dog-walking behaviors is essential for helping veterinarians and owners develop effective strategies to prevent and manage canine obesity. Furthermore, encouraging regular dog-walking has the potential to improve the health of pet dogs, and that of their owners.

  20. Human perception of fear in dogs varies according to experience with dogs.

    PubMed

    Wan, Michele; Bolger, Niall; Champagne, Frances A

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the role of experience in humans' perception of emotion using canine visual signals, we asked adults with various levels of dog experience to interpret the emotions of dogs displayed in videos. The video stimuli had been pre-categorized by an expert panel of dog behavior professionals as showing examples of happy or fearful dog behavior. In a sample of 2,163 participants, the level of dog experience strongly predicted identification of fearful, but not of happy, emotional examples. The probability of selecting the "fearful" category to describe fearful examples increased with experience and ranged from.30 among those who had never lived with a dog to greater than.70 among dog professionals. In contrast, the probability of selecting the "happy" category to describe happy emotional examples varied little by experience, ranging from.90 to.93. In addition, the number of physical features of the dog that participants reported using for emotional interpretations increased with experience, and in particular, more-experienced respondents were more likely to attend to the ears. Lastly, more-experienced respondents provided lower difficulty and higher accuracy self-ratings than less-experienced respondents when interpreting both happy and fearful emotional examples. The human perception of emotion in other humans has previously been shown to be sensitive to individual differences in social experience, and the results of the current study extend the notion of experience-dependent processes from the intraspecific to the interspecific domain.

  1. Influence of owners' attachment style and personality on their dogs' (Canis familiaris) separation-related disorder.

    PubMed

    Konok, Veronika; Kosztolányi, András; Rainer, Wohlfarth; Mutschler, Bettina; Halsband, Ulrike; Miklósi, Ádám

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that owners' attitude to their family dogs may contribute to a variety of behaviour problems in the dog, and authors assume that dogs with separation-related disorder (SRD) attach differently to the owner than typical dogs do. Our previous research suggested that these dogs may have an insecure attachment style. In the present study we have investigated whether owners' attachment style, personality traits and the personality of the dog influence the occurrence of SRD in the dog. In an internet-based survey 1508 (1185 German and 323 Hungarian) dog-owners filled in five questionnaires: Demographic questions, Separation Behaviour Questionnaire (to determine SRD), Human and Dog Big Five Inventory and Adult Attachment Scale. We found that with owners' higher score on attachment avoidance the occurrence of SRD in the dog increases. Dogs scoring higher on the neuroticism scale were more prone to develop SRD. Our results suggest that owners' attachment avoidance may facilitate the development of SRD in dogs. We assume that avoidant owners are less responsive to the dog's needs and do not provide a secure base for the dog when needed. As a result dogs form an insecure attachment and may develop SRD. However, there may be alternative explanations of our findings that we also discuss. PMID:25706147

  2. Influence of owners' attachment style and personality on their dogs' (Canis familiaris) separation-related disorder.

    PubMed

    Konok, Veronika; Kosztolányi, András; Rainer, Wohlfarth; Mutschler, Bettina; Halsband, Ulrike; Miklósi, Ádám

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that owners' attitude to their family dogs may contribute to a variety of behaviour problems in the dog, and authors assume that dogs with separation-related disorder (SRD) attach differently to the owner than typical dogs do. Our previous research suggested that these dogs may have an insecure attachment style. In the present study we have investigated whether owners' attachment style, personality traits and the personality of the dog influence the occurrence of SRD in the dog. In an internet-based survey 1508 (1185 German and 323 Hungarian) dog-owners filled in five questionnaires: Demographic questions, Separation Behaviour Questionnaire (to determine SRD), Human and Dog Big Five Inventory and Adult Attachment Scale. We found that with owners' higher score on attachment avoidance the occurrence of SRD in the dog increases. Dogs scoring higher on the neuroticism scale were more prone to develop SRD. Our results suggest that owners' attachment avoidance may facilitate the development of SRD in dogs. We assume that avoidant owners are less responsive to the dog's needs and do not provide a secure base for the dog when needed. As a result dogs form an insecure attachment and may develop SRD. However, there may be alternative explanations of our findings that we also discuss.

  3. Selecting shelter dogs for service dog training.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Emily

    2002-01-01

    Service dogs are an essential aid to persons with disabilities, providing independence, mobility, and improved self-esteem. Because of these proven benefits, the growing se of service dogs is creating a demand and supply crisis. One major cause is the 50% verage dropout rate for dogs selected for training. Weiss and Greenber (1997) re-cently found that a dog, successful on the most commonly used selection test items, was as likely to be either a poor or a good candidate for service work. The experiment presented here evaluated test items developed by the author in 15 years of experience with dogs. The test items were administered to 75 dogs from the Kansas Humane So-ciety. Once tested, the dogs received obedience and retrieval training. The experiment assessed each dog on behavior over 5 weeks of training versus performance on each selection test item. A subset of the selection items, combined in a regression analysis, accounted for 36.4% of the variance with R = 0.603. This research also revealed a reli-able test for dog aggression without risking injury to dog or tester. Items for testing in-cluded fear, motivation, and submission. Another set of selection items reliably pre-dicted the trait of "high energy" commonly described as "high strung." Future research should involve investigating the effectiveness of both cortisol levels and blood pressure in predicting traits to help strengthen the predictive value of the tool and then testing on dogs trained to be full service dogs. PMID:12738588

  4. Determination of anthelmintic efficacy against Toxocara canis in dogs by use of capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alice C Y; Epe, Christian; Bowman, Dwight D

    2015-09-15

    Industry guidelines for anthelmintic testing call for postmortem inspection of animals to verify treatment efficacy. A previous study showed that capsule endoscopy (CE) can be performed on dogs in vivo to quantify hookworms in the small intestine. Adoption of a minimally invasive procedure such as this could reduce the need for necropsy in efficacy trials. The present study employed CE to enumerate Toxocara canis in dogs, with two main goals: to determine if multiple capsule examinations improves the accuracy of worm counts compared to a single examination, and to establish if the efficacy of an anthelmintic compound is the same whether calculated using CE or necropsy data. To avoid needless animal sacrifice, the study was carried out on beagle dogs already in a product development trial with a planned terminal endpoint. Dogs were infected by oral inoculation with T. canis eggs. Untreated control dogs (n=8) were evaluated by CE three times while dogs treated with test compounds (3 groups of 4) were examined only once. Utilizing either the average count or just the last complete capsule examination, a robust correlation was found between CE and postmortem numbers (r=0.94, p<0.001). Calculated anthelmintic efficacy was essentially identical for the two enumeration methods, ranging from 94% to 100% for the three research compounds. CE may therefore be a viable alternative to necropsy for T. canis parasiticide trials. PMID:26321133

  5. Osteosarcomas among beagles exposed to /sup 239/Pu

    SciTech Connect

    Whittemore, A.S.; McMillan, A.

    1982-04-01

    A Weibull distribution was fit to the osteosarcoma death times of beagles given single intravenous injections of /sup 239/Pu. For injected doses in the range 0-1..mu..Ci/kg the osteosarcoma incidence rate h(t) at t days after injection can be fit by a quadratic function of injected dose d: h(t) = 2.61 X 10/sup -18/ d/sup 2/t/sup 4.91/. The best-fitting linear function was rejected by the data (P < 0.001). A different formula for h(t), derived from a multistage theory for osteosarcoma induction, was also fit to these data. For this purpose microdosimetry calculations were used to estimate the dose to the cells at risk in the endosteal layer (endosteal dose). According to the best fit, h(t) is a quadratic function of endosteal dose at low doses. A linear dose-response relationship was again rejected. The absence of a linear component at low doses might be explained by the fact that 108 of the 185 animals injected at the lowest doses (<0.02 ..mu..Ci/kg) were still alive at the time these data were collected.

  6. [Gynaecological complications following ovariohysterectomy in dogs, due to: (1) Partial removal of the ovaries. (2) Inflammation of the uterocervical stump (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Okkens, A C; Dieleman, S J; v d Gaag, I

    1981-11-15

    Of the total number of dogs with complications following ovario-hysterectomy submitted during the period from January 1977 to July 1979 (109), fifty-five showed gynaecological symptoms such as discharge of the vulva (28), attractiveness to male dogs (37), periods of heat (28) and pseudopregnancy (14). In addition to a general clinical examination, the dogs (forty-two of these fifty-five weighing more than 20 kg) underwent a selective gynaecological examination usually consisting in clinical, cytological and bacteriological studies and estimation of the progesterone level of the peripheral blood. At the same time, the progesterone levels of the peripheral blood of six beagles were studied for comparative purposes during pro-oestrus, oestrus and metoestrus; the maximum progesterone level was recorded about day 20 and varied from 35 to 60 ng/ml. The average progesterone level was determined in thirty-nine beagles during anoestrus and found to be 0.24 +/- 0.02 SEM ng/ml. The basal progesterone level was determined in eight dogs in which total ovariohysterectomy had been performed (0.14 +/- 0.02 SEM ng of progesterone /ml). When a cytological study was done in the dogs with residual ovarian tissue, an oestrus pattern was observed in 39 per cent of the cases, the progesterone level of the peripheral blood being above the basal level in 70 per cent of the cases. Remnants of ovarian tissue were removed during laparotomy in forty-seven dogs, on the right side in forty-one cases and on the left in twenty-two cases. The uterocervical stump was shortened when uterine tissue was probably or obviously present. The uterine stump was more or less severely inflamed in nineteen cases. The procedure was confined to shortening of the uterocervical stump in eight dogs in which ovarian tissue was not found to be present. The inflamed stump contained an unabsorbable ligature in seven dogs, the uterocervical stump of the eighth dog not being examined.

  7. Beagle 2 and NASA's Mars 2003 Orbiter: A Unique Exobiology Opportunity with an Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Thatcher, John; Westall, Frances

    2000-01-01

    With the exploration strategy for Mars undergoing reexamination, the opportunity exists for the incorporation of the 60 kg Beagle 2 lander, developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on ESA's 2003 Mars Express mission, with NASA's Mars 2003 orbiter derived from the Mars Global Orbiter. The combination of Beagle 2 with a Mars orbiter would result in a unique mission which could obtain information on Mars' life, climate and resources both from orbit as well as on the surface of the planet. Beagle 2 has been developed in the LJK for ESA as a low-cost opportunity to study the exobiology of Mars and the spacecraft is in its final stages of manufacture. Only limited modifications to the Beagle 2 package would be required for inclusion on NASA's Mars 2003 orbiter. With the ESA Mars Express mission launch in 2003 and a potential NASA Mars orbiter in 2003, both Beagle 2 landers on Mars would offer a low-cost, decreased risk and increased science return opportunity for the exploration of Mars at two distinct geologically interesting sites.

  8. Evaluation of the efficacy of monthly oral administration of afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime (NexGard Spectra(®), Merial) in the prevention of adult Spirocerca lupi establishment in experimentally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frederic; Crafford, Dionne; de Vos, Christa; Kok, Dawid; Larsen, Diane; Fourie, Josephus

    2016-08-15

    The nematode Spirocerca lupi (Rudolphi, 1809) is widely distributed but mostly occurs sporadically with stable populations only in certain geographic areas. This helminth mainly infects dogs and wild canids. Primary pathology relates to migration of third stage larvae (L3) damaging the thoracic aorta and establishment of adults in nodules in the oesophagus. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of milbemycin oxime in combination with afoxolaner (NexGard Spectra(®), Merial), administered monthly, in preventing establishment of adult worms after experimental infection. Two groups consisting of eight animals each were experimentally infected with 15 L3 on Days -28, -14 and -2, respectively (45 L3 per animal in total). Group 1 dogs served as untreated (negative) control, whereas animals in group 2 were treated with NexGard Spectra(®) at a minimum dose of 0.5mg/kg milbemycin oxime on Day 0 and from then onwards every 28 days up to Day 140 (six treatment occasions). Endoscopy was performed on Day 112 and for some animals also Day 140. Necropsy for worm recovery and nodule/lesion scoring was performed on Day 168. All eight animals in the control group (group 1) presented with 1-3 nodules and worm counts ranging from 9 to 41. Six animals in the NexGard Spectra(®) group presented with 1-4 nodules and worm counts ranging from 1 to 5. Significantly (p<0.05) fewer worms were collected from treated animals in the treated group (geometric mean 1.7) versus the negative control group (geometric mean 22.0) with 92.3% efficacy calculated. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference between groups with reference to number of nodules in the oesophagus. However, nodules in the control group were significantly (p<0.05) larger than those in the treated group. Number and size of lesions in the dorsal aorta did not differ statistically between groups 1 and 2. Because NexGard Spectra(®) was administered 28 days after onset of inoculation, migrating and

  9. Consecutive CT-guided core needle tissue biopsy of lung lesions in the same dog at different phases of radiation-induced lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zhongyuan; Deng, Sisi; Liang, Zhiwen; Wang, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    This project aimed to set up a Beagle dog model of radiation-induced lung injury in order to supply fresh lung tissue samples in the different injury phases for gene and protein research. Three dogs received 18 Gy X-ray irradiation in one fraction, another three dogs received 8 Gy in each of three fractions at weekly intervals, and one control dog was not irradiated. Acute pneumonitis was observed during the first 3 months after radiation, and chronic lung fibrosis was found during the next 4–12 months in all the dogs exposed to radiation. CT-guided core needle lung lesion biopsies were extracted from each dog five times over the course of 1 year. The dogs remained healthy after each biopsy, and 50–100 mg fresh lung lesion tissues were collected in each operation. The incidence of pneumothorax and hemoptysis was 20% and 2.8%, respectively, in the 35 tissue biopsies. A successful and stable radiation-induced lung injury dog model was established. Lung lesion tissue samples from dogs in acute stage, recovery stage and fibrosis stage were found to be sufficient to support cytology, genomics and proteomics research. This model safely supplied fresh tissue samples that would allow future researchers to more easily explore and develop treatments for radiation-induced lung injury. PMID:27422930

  10. Diabeteslike preproliferative retinal changes in galactose-fed dogs.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y; Wyman, M; Ferris, F; Kador, P F

    1992-09-01

    Retinal vessel changes were experimentally investigated by a combination of color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and histologic studies in beagles that were fed a 30% galactose diet for up to 66 months. Previously, we have described the appearance of pericyte ghosts, microaneurysms, acellular capillaries, and intraretinal hemorrhages in dogs fed a galactose diet for up to 36 months. These disorders were similar to those observed in humans with background diabetic retinopathy. We report herein that dogs fed galactose for 48 to 60 months experience retinal changes associated with the chronic occlusion of capillary beds and subsequent ischemia of the retina. These changes included the appearance of broad areas of nonperfusion, soft exudates (cytoid bodies), intraretinal microvascular abnormalities, occluded arterioles, preretinal and intravitreal hemorrhages, and apparent new vessel growth around the optic disc. The present study clearly demonstrates that the galactose-fed dog is an animal model in which advanced retinal changes develop, and these changes are similar to those associated with preproliferative human diabetic retinopathy.

  11. Antinociceptive efficacy and plasma concentrations of transdermal buprenorphine in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Korbinian; Schuster, Tibor; Levionnois, Olivier; Matis, Ulrike; Bergadano, Alessandra

    2011-03-01

    To assess the antinociceptive efficacy of transdermal (TD) buprenorphine (B) in dogs, a prospective, positive-controlled experimental study was performed in 10 healthy Beagles. In an open label crossover design, the dogs initially received intravenous B (IVB, 0.02 mg kg(-1)) as a positive control, followed by TDB (52.5 μg h(-1)) 4 months later. Blood was collected at regular intervals for determination of the plasma concentrations of B ([B]) and its metabolite norbuprenorphine. The antinociceptive efficacy was assessed using thermal and mechanical models of nociception. The peak concentration [B] was 1.54 ng mL(-1) (±1.98) 60 h after TDB application, although three dogs had no measurable [B] after TDB. Maximum thermal threshold (TT) was 52.6 °C (±0.48) at 1h after IVB administration and 51.63 °C (±1.01) 72 h after TDB application. The significant increase in TT indicated that effective antinociception was achieved beyond 36 h after the application of TDB, lasting until patch removal. There was hysteresis between [B] and the antinociceptive effect. PMID:20206560

  12. [sup 222]Rn dosimetry in the dog lung

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, N.H.; Meyers, O.A.; Robbins, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The alpha dose to cells in bronchial airways in the beagle dog during historical exposures to [sup 222]Rn decay products is calculated using updated information on airway morphometry, call nucleus depth, mucus thickness, physical dosimetry and atmospheric characteristics. The alpha dose per unit exposure to basal call nuclei in the upper airways ranges from 2 to 7 mGy WLM[sup [minus]1] (excluding the trachea) depending upon the exposure protocol used. The dose to alveolar tissue is 3 mGy WLM[sup [minus]1]. In the human lung, the dose factor for the bronchial airways is 9 mGy WLM[sub [minus]1] and for the pulmonary parenchyma 0.5 mGy WLM[sup [minus]1] The human tumors appear primarily in the first few branching airway generations while the only tumors observed in the animals were in the bronchioloalveolar region suggesting a difference in cell sensitivity to alpha radiation.

  13. {sup 222}Rn dosimetry in the dog lung

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, N.H.; Meyers, O.A.; Robbins, E.S.

    1991-12-31

    The alpha dose to cells in bronchial airways in the beagle dog during historical exposures to {sup 222}Rn decay products is calculated using updated information on airway morphometry, call nucleus depth, mucus thickness, physical dosimetry and atmospheric characteristics. The alpha dose per unit exposure to basal call nuclei in the upper airways ranges from 2 to 7 mGy WLM{sup {minus}1} (excluding the trachea) depending upon the exposure protocol used. The dose to alveolar tissue is 3 mGy WLM{sup {minus}1}. In the human lung, the dose factor for the bronchial airways is 9 mGy WLM{sub {minus}1} and for the pulmonary parenchyma 0.5 mGy WLM{sup {minus}1} The human tumors appear primarily in the first few branching airway generations while the only tumors observed in the animals were in the bronchioloalveolar region suggesting a difference in cell sensitivity to alpha radiation.

  14. Human-directed social behaviour in dogs shows significant heritability.

    PubMed

    Persson, M E; Roth, L S V; Johnsson, M; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2015-04-01

    Through domestication and co-evolution with humans, dogs have developed abilities to attract human attention, e.g. in a manner of seeking assistance when faced with a problem solving task. The aims of this study were to investigate within breed variation in human-directed contact seeking in dogs and to estimate its genetic basis. To do this, 498 research beagles, bred and kept under standardized conditions, were tested in an unsolvable problem task. Contact seeking behaviours recorded included both eye contact and physical interactions. Behavioural data was summarized through a principal component analysis, resulting in four components: test interactions, social interactions, eye contact and physical contact. Females scored significantly higher on social interactions and physical contact and age had an effect on eye contact scores. Narrow sense heritabilities (h(2) ) of the two largest components were estimated at 0.32 and 0.23 but were not significant for the last two components. These results show that within the studied dog population, behavioural variation in human-directed social behaviours was sex dependent and that the utilization of eye contact seeking increased with age and experience. Hence, heritability estimates indicate a significant genetic contribution to the variation found in human-directed social interactions, suggesting that social skills in dogs have a genetic basis, but can also be shaped and enhanced through individual experiences. This research gives the opportunity to further investigate the genetics behind dogs' social skills, which could also play a significant part into research on human social disorders such as autism.

  15. Human-directed social behaviour in dogs shows significant heritability.

    PubMed

    Persson, M E; Roth, L S V; Johnsson, M; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2015-04-01

    Through domestication and co-evolution with humans, dogs have developed abilities to attract human attention, e.g. in a manner of seeking assistance when faced with a problem solving task. The aims of this study were to investigate within breed variation in human-directed contact seeking in dogs and to estimate its genetic basis. To do this, 498 research beagles, bred and kept under standardized conditions, were tested in an unsolvable problem task. Contact seeking behaviours recorded included both eye contact and physical interactions. Behavioural data was summarized through a principal component analysis, resulting in four components: test interactions, social interactions, eye contact and physical contact. Females scored significantly higher on social interactions and physical contact and age had an effect on eye contact scores. Narrow sense heritabilities (h(2) ) of the two largest components were estimated at 0.32 and 0.23 but were not significant for the last two components. These results show that within the studied dog population, behavioural variation in human-directed social behaviours was sex dependent and that the utilization of eye contact seeking increased with age and experience. Hence, heritability estimates indicate a significant genetic contribution to the variation found in human-directed social interactions, suggesting that social skills in dogs have a genetic basis, but can also be shaped and enhanced through individual experiences. This research gives the opportunity to further investigate the genetics behind dogs' social skills, which could also play a significant part into research on human social disorders such as autism. PMID:25703740

  16. Development and application of a LC-MS/MS assay for the simultaneous quantification of edaravone and taurine in beagle plasma.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yan-yan; Zheng, Xiao-xiao; Bian, Ting-ting; Li, Yin-jie; Wu, Xiao-wen; Yang, Dong-zhi; Jiang, Shui-shi; Tang, Dao-quan

    2013-12-01

    An LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of edaravone and taurine in beagle plasma. The plasma sample was deproteinized using acetonitrile containing formic acid. Chromatographic separations were achieved on an Agilent Zorbax SB-Aq (100 × 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) column, with a gradient of water (containing 0.03% formic acid) and methanol as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The analyte detection was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring mode and the optimized precursor-to-product transitions of m/z [M+H](+) 175.1 → 133.0 (edaravone), m/z [M+H](+) 189.1 → 147.0 (3-methyl-1-p-tolyl-5-pyrazolone, internal standard, IS), m/z [M-H](-) 124.1→80.0 (taurine), and m/z [M-H](-) 172.0 → 80.0 (sulfanilic acid, IS) were employed to quantify edaravone, taurine, and their corresponding ISs, respectively. The LOD and the lower LOQ were 0.01 and 0.05 μg/mL for edaravone and 0.66 and 2 μg/mL for taurine, respectively. The calibration curves of these two analytes demonstrated good linearity (r > 0.99). All the validation data including the specificity, precision, recovery, and stability conformed to the acceptable requirements. This validated method has successfully been applied in the pharmacokinetic study of edaravone and taurine mixture in beagle dogs.

  17. Domestic dogs (Canus familiaris) as sentinels of environmental health hazards: The use of canine bioassays to determine alterations in immune system function following exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl aroclor 1248

    SciTech Connect

    Fadden, M.F.K.

    1994-12-31

    The principle objective of this study was to determine if domestic dogs could be used as human surrogates to monitor the immunotoxic effects of environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Our first objective was to determine if PCBs, which are commonly found as pollutants in the environment, have specific and identifiable effects on the function of immunocompetent cells in the dog. Our second aim was to explore the pathogenesis of any defects and to determine the cellular and molecular basis for observed changes. Our third objective was to compare immune function in normal laboratory beagles to dogs living contiguous to a US EPA Superfund site located near the Mohawk Nation community of Akwesasne and to correlate any observed immunologic abnormalities to plasma levels of specific congeners of PCBs. To elucidate the effects of PCBs on the canine immune system, laboratory beagles were fed 20 ppm (n = 2), 25 ppm (n =9) and 50 ppm (n = 2) PCB Aroclor 1248 in their diet and compared with age/sex matched controls (n = 8). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from all dogs and submitted to in vitro testing. Within 8 weeks, many significant changes were seen in PCB fed dogs including: excessive lacrimation (p < .001), weight loss, decreased serum thyroxine (p < .004), increased serum alkaline phosphatase and increased blood leukocyte count (p < .01). In addition, PCB fed dogs had altered in vitro T and B cell proliferative response (p < .004) and serum immunoglobulin levels (p < .01). Following thyroxine supplementation (wk 8-16) many, but not all, immunologic abnormalities improved. Necropsy examination revealed decreased thymus (p < .02) and lymph node (p < .004) weight; all other organs appeared normal. Many of the immunologic abnormalities documented in PCB fed beagles were similar to those observed in dogs residing in the Mohawk Nation Community of Akwesasne.

  18. Heterogeneity of hunting ability and nutritional status among domestic dogs in lowland Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Koster, Jeremy M; Tankersley, Kenneth B

    2012-02-21

    In past and modern human societies, dogs have played an important role as hunting companions. Given considerable ethnographic evidence that dogs vary in their hunting abilities, this paper addresses the effects of key demographic variables, namely age and sex, on the amount of harvested game that dogs contribute in an indigenous Nicaraguan community. Controlling for variation in the time spent potentially hunting, male dogs and older dogs are significantly associated with greater harvests. These results may account for documented preferences for males in both archaeological and ethnographic contexts. Among societies in which dogs are used both as hunting companions and sources of food, the age-related delay in peak hunting ability also suggests a tradeoff that might explain the consumption of dogs shortly after they have reached adult size. Informant rankings of two cohorts of dogs indicate that residents of the community exhibit high agreement about the relative abilities of the dogs, and the rankings indicate that dogs from the same household exhibit comparable skill. There is little evidence that talented, highly-ranked dogs are provided a more nutritious diet, as measured by nitrogen-based and carbon-based isotopic analysis of hair samples. Overall, although dogs can be quite advantageous as hunting companions, this research suggests that the heterogeneity of hunting ability combines with the high mortality of dogs to impose risks on households that depend on dogs as a source of harvested meat.

  19. Heavy metal concentrations in litteral sediments from the Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Amin, O; Ferrer, L; Marcovecchio, J

    1996-07-01

    For the first time the concentration of trace metals (Fe, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd and total Hg) of sediments from the coastal zone of the Beagle Channel (Tierra del Fuego, in Southern Argentina) were measured. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was utilized in order to determine the metal contents. The level of metals as observed in the sediments was recognized as the natural background, even though the use of normalization of lead, copper, and zinc to iron allowed the identification of the main sources of metal pollution for this environment. In order to develop future environmental monitoring programmes for the area of Ushuaia city and the Beagle Channel, the present results need to be considered.

  20. In vivo and in vitro metabolism of aspirin eugenol ester in dog by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shen, Youming; Liu, Xiwang; Yang, Yajun; Li, Jianyong; Ma, Ning; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin eugenol ester (AEE) is a promising drug candidate for treatment of inflammation, pain and fever and prevention of cardiovascular diseases with fewer side effects than its precursor, aspirin. Investigation into its metabolic process in target animal species will help to illustrate its mechanism of action and to establish its residual mark compound to formulate its dosage. Six beagle dogs were orally given a dose of 20 mg kg(-1) of AEE and one dog was used to prepare blank liver microsomes. Their liver microsomes were prepared for in vitro study and their plasma and urine were collected for in vivo metabolic analysis using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. In this study we identified 10 metabolites, M1, M2, M3, M4, M5 in phase I and M6, M7, M8, M9, M10 in phase II. Based on the metabolites of AEE, the pathways of AEE metabolism in dog were demonstrated.

  1. Evaluation of heart rate variability in dogs during standard and microburst vagus nerve stimulation: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Martlé, Valentine; Bavegems, Valérie; Van Ham, Luc; Boon, Paul; Vonck, Kristl; Raedt, Robrecht; Sys, Stanislas; Bhatti, Sofie

    2014-12-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an established treatment for epilepsy and depression in human patients, but in both humans and dogs, optimal stimulation parameters remain unknown. Delivering afferent bursts of stimulation may be promising as a means of increasing efficacy, but evaluation of potential effects on the heart due to unavoidable efferent stimulation is required. The present study investigated heart rate variability (HRV) in healthy Beagle dogs treated with 1 h of sham, standard or microburst left-sided VNS in a crossover design. No significant differences were found between the stimulation paradigms for any of the cardiac parameters. Short-term left-sided VNS, including a novel bursting pattern (microburst VNS), had no statistically significant effect on HRV in ambulatory healthy dogs. Studies in a larger number of animals with long-term VNS are recommended.

  2. In vivo and in vitro metabolism of aspirin eugenol ester in dog by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shen, Youming; Liu, Xiwang; Yang, Yajun; Li, Jianyong; Ma, Ning; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin eugenol ester (AEE) is a promising drug candidate for treatment of inflammation, pain and fever and prevention of cardiovascular diseases with fewer side effects than its precursor, aspirin. Investigation into its metabolic process in target animal species will help to illustrate its mechanism of action and to establish its residual mark compound to formulate its dosage. Six beagle dogs were orally given a dose of 20 mg kg(-1) of AEE and one dog was used to prepare blank liver microsomes. Their liver microsomes were prepared for in vitro study and their plasma and urine were collected for in vivo metabolic analysis using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. In this study we identified 10 metabolites, M1, M2, M3, M4, M5 in phase I and M6, M7, M8, M9, M10 in phase II. Based on the metabolites of AEE, the pathways of AEE metabolism in dog were demonstrated. PMID:24935248

  3. High prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus (CAV) type 2 in domestic dog populations in South Africa precludes the use of CAV-based recombinant rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Wright, N; Jackson, F R; Niezgoda, M; Ellison, J A; Rupprecht, C E; Nel, L H

    2013-08-28

    Rabies in dogs can be controlled through mass vaccination. Oral vaccination of domestic dogs would be useful in the developing world, where greater vaccination coverage is needed especially in inaccessible areas or places with large numbers of free-roaming dogs. From this perspective, recent research has focused on development of new recombinant vaccines that can be administered orally in a bait to be used as adjunct for parenteral vaccination. One such candidate, a recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 vaccine expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (CAV2-RG), is considered a promising option for dogs, given host specificity and safety. To assess the potential use of this vaccine in domestic dog populations, we investigated the prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus type 2 in South African dogs. Blood was collected from 241 dogs from the Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces. Sampled dogs had not previously been vaccinated against canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV1) or canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2). Animals from both provinces had a high percentage of seropositivity (45% and 62%), suggesting that CAV2 circulates extensively among domestic dog populations in South Africa. Given this finding, we evaluated the effect of pre-existing CAV-specific antibodies on the efficacy of the CAV2-RG vaccine delivered via the oral route in dogs. Purpose-bred Beagle dogs, which received prior vaccination against canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and CAV, were immunized by oral administration of CAV2-RG. After rabies virus (RABV) infection all animals, except one vaccinated dog, developed rabies. This study demonstrated that pre-existing antibodies against CAV, such as naturally occurs in South African dogs, inhibits the development of neutralizing antibodies against RABV when immunized with a CAV-based rabies recombinant vaccine. PMID:23867013

  4. High prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus (CAV) type 2 in domestic dog populations in South Africa precludes the use of CAV-based recombinant rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Wright, N; Jackson, F R; Niezgoda, M; Ellison, J A; Rupprecht, C E; Nel, L H

    2013-08-28

    Rabies in dogs can be controlled through mass vaccination. Oral vaccination of domestic dogs would be useful in the developing world, where greater vaccination coverage is needed especially in inaccessible areas or places with large numbers of free-roaming dogs. From this perspective, recent research has focused on development of new recombinant vaccines that can be administered orally in a bait to be used as adjunct for parenteral vaccination. One such candidate, a recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 vaccine expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (CAV2-RG), is considered a promising option for dogs, given host specificity and safety. To assess the potential use of this vaccine in domestic dog populations, we investigated the prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus type 2 in South African dogs. Blood was collected from 241 dogs from the Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces. Sampled dogs had not previously been vaccinated against canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV1) or canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2). Animals from both provinces had a high percentage of seropositivity (45% and 62%), suggesting that CAV2 circulates extensively among domestic dog populations in South Africa. Given this finding, we evaluated the effect of pre-existing CAV-specific antibodies on the efficacy of the CAV2-RG vaccine delivered via the oral route in dogs. Purpose-bred Beagle dogs, which received prior vaccination against canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and CAV, were immunized by oral administration of CAV2-RG. After rabies virus (RABV) infection all animals, except one vaccinated dog, developed rabies. This study demonstrated that pre-existing antibodies against CAV, such as naturally occurs in South African dogs, inhibits the development of neutralizing antibodies against RABV when immunized with a CAV-based rabies recombinant vaccine.

  5. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs. PMID:26763220

  6. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs.

  7. [Factors associated with Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs infested with ticks from Huanuco, Peru].

    PubMed

    Huerto-Medina, Edward; Dámaso-Mata, Bernardo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and associated factors of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs. Blood samples from 150 dogs infested with ticks in 10 veterinary clinics in the city of Huanuco in Peru were collected. The dogs were randomly selected without regard to breed, age or sex. Ehrlichia canis antibodies were detected by chromatographic immunoassay.51.3% of dogs were infected with Ehrlichia canis. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with the presence of Ehrlichia canis were: poor health of the dog (p = 0.049), a higher average of tick infestation (p = 0.018), and adult dogs (p = 0.038). The frequency of Ehrlichia canis in dogs of this city is high. Control of the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) vector of Ehrlichia canis is recommended. PMID:26732926

  8. THE EFFECT OF BILE DUCT LIGATION AND BILE DIVERSION ON FK506 PHARMACOKINETICS IN DOGS1

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Hiroyoki; Imventarza, Oscar; Venkataramanan, Raman; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Zhu, Yue; Warty, Vijay S.; Fung, John; Todo, Satoru; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Mongrel or beagle dogs were submitted to bile duct ligation, or to extraenteric biliary diversion by means of choledochoureterostomy. The kinetics of intravenously administered FK506 was not changed from control status two weeks after bile duct ligation, but the bioavailability of orally administered FK506 was nearly quadrupled. Following oral administration, the absorption of FK508 was highly variable. The results indicate that in dogs FK506 is absorbed from the intestine just as efficiently in the absence of enteric bile and in presence of exogenous bile salt supplement when compared with its absorption in presence of normal bile drainage. These findings with FK506 are different from those with cyclosporine after biliary obstruction or diversion and will have important practical as well as experimental ramifications. PMID:1373531

  9. The pharmacological effects of the anesthetic alfaxalone after intramuscular administration to dogs.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Jun; Ishizuka, Tomohito; Fukui, Sho; Oyama, Norihiko; Kawase, Kodai; Miyoshi, Kenjiro; Sano, Tadashi; Pasloske, Kirby; Yamashita, Kazuto

    2015-03-01

    The pharmacological effects of the anesthetic alfaxalone were evaluated after intramuscular (IM) administration to 6 healthy beagle dogs. The dogs received three IM doses each of alfaxalone at increasing dose rates of 5 mg/kg (IM5), 7.5 mg/kg (IM7.5) and 10 mg/kg (IM10) every other day. Anesthetic effect was subjectively evaluated by using an ordinal scoring system to determine the degree of neuro-depression and the quality of anesthetic induction and recovery from anesthesia. Cardiorespiratory variables were measured using noninvasive methods. Alfaxalone administered IM produced dose-dependent neuro-depression and lateral recumbency (i.e., 36 ± 28 min, 87 ± 26 min and 115 ± 29 min after the IM5, IM7.5 and IM10 treatments, respectively). The endotracheal tube was tolerated in all dogs for 46 ± 20 and 58 ± 21 min after the IM7.5 and IM10 treatments, respectively. It was not possible to place endotracheal tubes in 5 of the 6 dogs after the IM5 treatment. Most cardiorespiratory variables remained within clinically acceptable ranges, but hypoxemia was observed by pulse oximetry for 5 to 10 min in 2 dogs receiving the IM10 treatment. Dose-dependent decreases in rectal temperature, respiratory rate and arterial blood pressure also occurred. The quality of recovery was considered satisfactory in all dogs receiving each treatment; all the dog exhibited transient muscular tremors and staggering gait. In conclusion, IM alfaxalone produced a dose-dependent anesthetic effect with relatively mild cardiorespiratory depression in dogs. However, hypoxemia may occur at higher IM doses of alfaxalone.

  10. Evaluation of respiratory function by barometric whole-body plethysmography in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Talavera, Jesús; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Schuller, Simone; Garrérès, Alain Le; Gustin, Pascal; Detilleux, Johanne; Clercx, Cécile

    2006-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the validity of barometric whole-body plethysmography (BWBP), to establish reference values, and to standardise a bronchoprovocative test to investigate airway responsiveness using BWBP in healthy dogs. BWBP measurements were obtained from six healthy beagle dogs using different protocols: (1) during three consecutive periods (3.5min each) in two morning and two evening sessions; (2) before and after administration of two protocols of sedation; (3) before and after nebulisation of saline and increasing concentrations of carbachol and histamine both in conscious dogs and in dogs under both protocols of sedation. Enhanced pause (PENH) was used as index of bronchoconstriction. Basal BWBP measurements were also obtained in 22 healthy dogs of different breeds, age and weight. No significant influence of either time spent in the chamber or daytime was found for most respiratory variables but a significant dog effect was detected for most variables. A significant body weight effect was found on tidal volume and peak flow values (P<0.05). Response to carbachol was not reproducible and always associated with side effects. Nebulisation of histamine induced a significant increase in respiratory rate, peak expiratory flow, peak expiratory flow/peak inspiratory flow ratio and PENH (P<0.05). The response was reproduced in each dog at different concentrations of histamine. Sedation with acepromazine+buprenorphine had little influence on basal measurements and did not change the results of histamine challenge. It was concluded that BWBP is a safe, non invasive and reliable technique of investigation of lung function in dogs which provides new opportunities to characterise respiratory status, to evaluate airway hyperresponsiveness and to assess therapeutic interventions. PMID:15996882

  11. Diagnostic imaging features of normal anal sacs in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yechan; Jeong, Eunseok; Park, Sangjun; Jeong, Jimo; Choi, Ul Soo; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Namsoo; Lee, Kichang

    2016-09-30

    This study was conducted to provide normal reference features for canine and feline anal sacs using ultrasound, low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiograph contrast as diagnostic imaging tools. A total of ten clinically normal beagle dogs and eight clinically normally cats were included. General radiography with contrast, ultrasonography and low-field MRI scans were performed. The visualization of anal sacs, which are located at distinct sites in dogs and cats, is possible with a contrast study on radiography. Most surfaces of the anal sacs tissue, occasionally appearing as a hyperechoic thin line, were surrounded by the hypoechoic external sphincter muscle on ultrasonography. The normal anal sac contents of dogs and cats had variable echogenicity. Signals of anal sac contents on low-field MRI varied in cats and dogs, and contrast medium using T1-weighted images enhanced the anal sac walls more obviously than that on ultrasonography. In conclusion, this study provides the normal features of anal sacs from dogs and cats on diagnostic imaging. Further studies including anal sac evaluation are expected to investigate disease conditions.

  12. Ectopic liver and gallbladder in a cloned dog: Possible nonheritable anomaly.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jung; Kang, Sang Chul; Kim, Jae Hwan; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Geon A; Jo, Young Kwang; Choi, Jin; Kim, Hyunil; Lee, Yeon Hea; Yoo, Ji Min; Eom, Ki Dong; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2015-10-01

    Ectopic liver and gallbladder are rare anomalies usually not accompanied by any symptoms and are found during surgical exploration or autopsy. We aimed to find a cause of this anomaly using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology, which can produce genetically identical organisms. A cloned beagle having ectopic organs was produced and died on the day of birth. Major and ectopic organs were fixed and underwent histologic analysis. SCNT was performed using cells derived from the dead puppy to produce reclones. Normality of internal organs in the original donor dog and recloned dogs was evaluated by computed tomography. While a liver without the gallbladder was located in the abdominal cavity of the cloned dog, a well-defined, reddish brown mass with a small sac was also positioned outside of the thoracic cavity. Histologically, they presented as normal liver and gallbladder. Five reclones were produced, and computed tomography results revealed that the original donor dog and reclones had normal liver and gallbladder structure and location. This is the first report of both ectopic liver and gallbladder in an organism and investigation on the etiology of these abnormalities. Normal organ structure and position in the original donor dog and reclones suggests that the ectopic liver and gallbladder is a possible nonheritable anomaly.

  13. Diagnostic imaging features of normal anal sacs in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yechan; Jeong, Eunseok; Park, Sangjun; Jeong, Jimo; Choi, Ul Soo; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Namsoo

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide normal reference features for canine and feline anal sacs using ultrasound, low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiograph contrast as diagnostic imaging tools. A total of ten clinically normal beagle dogs and eight clinically normally cats were included. General radiography with contrast, ultrasonography and low-field MRI scans were performed. The visualization of anal sacs, which are located at distinct sites in dogs and cats, is possible with a contrast study on radiography. Most surfaces of the anal sacs tissue, occasionally appearing as a hyperechoic thin line, were surrounded by the hypoechoic external sphincter muscle on ultrasonography. The normal anal sac contents of dogs and cats had variable echogenicity. Signals of anal sac contents on low-field MRI varied in cats and dogs, and contrast medium using T1-weighted images enhanced the anal sac walls more obviously than that on ultrasonography. In conclusion, this study provides the normal features of anal sacs from dogs and cats on diagnostic imaging. Further studies including anal sac evaluation are expected to investigate disease conditions. PMID:26645338

  14. Ectopic liver and gallbladder in a cloned dog: Possible nonheritable anomaly.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jung; Kang, Sang Chul; Kim, Jae Hwan; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Geon A; Jo, Young Kwang; Choi, Jin; Kim, Hyunil; Lee, Yeon Hea; Yoo, Ji Min; Eom, Ki Dong; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2015-10-01

    Ectopic liver and gallbladder are rare anomalies usually not accompanied by any symptoms and are found during surgical exploration or autopsy. We aimed to find a cause of this anomaly using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology, which can produce genetically identical organisms. A cloned beagle having ectopic organs was produced and died on the day of birth. Major and ectopic organs were fixed and underwent histologic analysis. SCNT was performed using cells derived from the dead puppy to produce reclones. Normality of internal organs in the original donor dog and recloned dogs was evaluated by computed tomography. While a liver without the gallbladder was located in the abdominal cavity of the cloned dog, a well-defined, reddish brown mass with a small sac was also positioned outside of the thoracic cavity. Histologically, they presented as normal liver and gallbladder. Five reclones were produced, and computed tomography results revealed that the original donor dog and reclones had normal liver and gallbladder structure and location. This is the first report of both ectopic liver and gallbladder in an organism and investigation on the etiology of these abnormalities. Normal organ structure and position in the original donor dog and reclones suggests that the ectopic liver and gallbladder is a possible nonheritable anomaly. PMID:26159091

  15. Dispelling dog dogma: an investigation of heterochrony in dogs using 3D geometric morphometric analysis of skull shape.

    PubMed

    Drake, Abby Grace

    2011-01-01

    Heterochrony is an evolutionary mechanism that generates diversity via perturbations of the rate or timing of development that requires very little genetic innovation. As such, heterochrony is thought to be a common evolutionary mechanism in the generation of diversity. Previous research has suggested that dogs evolved via heterochrony and are paedomorphic wolves. This study uses three-dimensional landmark-based coordinate data to investigate heterochronic patterns within the skull morphology of the domestic dog. A total of 677 adult dogs representing 106 different breeds were measured and compared with an ontogenetic series of 401 wolves. Geometric morphometric analysis reveals that the cranial shape of none of the modern breeds of dogs resembles the cranial shapes of adult or juvenile wolves. In addition, investigations of regional heterochrony in the face and neurocranium also reject the hypothesis of heterochrony. Throughout wolf cranial development the position of the face and the neurocranium remain in the same plane. Dogs, however, have a de novo cranial flexion in which the palate is tilted dorsally in brachycephalic and mesaticephalic breeds or tilted ventrally in dolichocephalic and down-face breeds. Dogs have evolved very rapidly into an incredibly morphologically diverse species with very little genetic variation. However, the genetic alterations to dog cranial development that have produced this vast range of phylogenetically novel skull shapes do not coincide with the expectations of the heterochronic model. Dogs are not paedomorphic wolves.

  16. Pulmonary Echinococcus multilocularis metastasis in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Gendron, Karine; Goepfert, Christine; Linon, Elisa; Posthaus, Horst; Frey, Caroline F.

    2015-01-01

    A young adult Labrador retriever dog was presented for surgical debulking of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis. Computed tomography detected hepatomegaly with multiple large cavitary masses with extension of tissue from a lesion wall into the caudal vena cava and numerous nodules in all lung lobes. Following euthanasia, histology confirmed parasitic vesicles with granulomatous reaction in all lesions, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) established the causative agent to be Echinococcus multilocularis. This report is the first to present imaging features of pulmonary E. multilocularis granulomata in a dog. PMID:25750447

  17. Pulmonary Echinococcus multilocularis metastasis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Gendron, Karine; Goepfert, Christine; Linon, Elisa; Posthaus, Horst; Frey, Caroline F

    2015-03-01

    A young adult Labrador retriever dog was presented for surgical debulking of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis. Computed tomography detected hepatomegaly with multiple large cavitary masses with extension of tissue from a lesion wall into the caudal vena cava and numerous nodules in all lung lobes. Following euthanasia, histology confirmed parasitic vesicles with granulomatous reaction in all lesions, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) established the causative agent to be Echinococcus multilocularis. This report is the first to present imaging features of pulmonary E. multilocularis granulomata in a dog. PMID:25750447

  18. The Voyage of the Beagle: Field Work Lessons from Charles Darwin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Louis M.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes Charles Darwin's letters to his family during his voyage on H.M.S. Beagle. Relates the information to the development of Darwin's professional identity and the degree to which the concepts, field methods, and research methods revealed in Darwin's personal correspondence are useful to students of educational administration. (MD)

  19. Web-Beagle: a web server for the alignment of RNA secondary structures

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Eugenio; Pietrosanto, Marco; Ferrè, Fabrizio; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Web-Beagle (http://beagle.bio.uniroma2.it) is a web server for the pairwise global or local alignment of RNA secondary structures. The server exploits a new encoding for RNA secondary structure and a substitution matrix of RNA structural elements to perform RNA structural alignments. The web server allows the user to compute up to 10 000 alignments in a single run, taking as input sets of RNA sequences and structures or primary sequences alone. In the latter case, the server computes the secondary structure prediction for the RNAs on-the-fly using RNAfold (free energy minimization). The user can also compare a set of input RNAs to one of five pre-compiled RNA datasets including lncRNAs and 3′ UTRs. All types of comparison produce in output the pairwise alignments along with structural similarity and statistical significance measures for each resulting alignment. A graphical color-coded representation of the alignments allows the user to easily identify structural similarities between RNAs. Web-Beagle can be used for finding structurally related regions in two or more RNAs, for the identification of homologous regions or for functional annotation. Benchmark tests show that Web-Beagle has lower computational complexity, running time and better performances than other available methods. PMID:25977293

  20. Perinatal radiation-induced renal damage in the beagle

    SciTech Connect

    Jaenke, R.S.; Angleton, G.M. )

    1990-04-01

    The developing perinatal kidney is particularly sensitive to radiation. The pathogenesis of the radiation-induced lesion is related to the destruction of outer cortical developing nephrons and direct radiation injury with secondary hemodynamic alterations in remnant nephrons. In this study, which is part of a life span investigation of the effects of whole-body gamma radiation during prenatal and early postnatal life, dogs were given 0, 0.16, 0.83, or 1.25 Gy irradiation at either 55 days postcoitus or 2 days postpartum and were examined morphometrically and histopathologically at 70 days of age. Although irradiated dogs showed no reduction in the total number of nephrons per kidney, there was a significant increase in the total number and relative percentage of immature, dysplastic glomeruli. In addition, deeper cortical glomeruli of irradiated kidneys exhibited mesangial sclerosis similar to that associated with progressive renal failure in our previous studies. These findings are in accord with those reported at doses of 2.24 to 3.57 Gy and demonstrate that the perinatal kidney is affected by radiation doses much lower than previously demonstrated.

  1. Cognitive and behavioral assessment in dogs and pet food market applications.

    PubMed

    Zicker, Steven C

    2005-03-01

    A multi-disciplinary program was developed to assess the efficacy of antioxidant inclusion in a canine pet food on cognitive decline in aged beagles. A systematic approach to development of the food was used prior to beginning the cognitive studies. Comprehensive evaluation of antioxidant ingredients included assessments of commodities with naturally occurring antioxidants and synthetic antioxidants not commonly utilized, or at different concentrations than what was commonly utilized, in commercial pet foods. Studies were conducted to insure stability through processing, absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, safety, and tests for potential antioxidant biological benefit by ex vivo tests. Testing of the antioxidant-fortified food in aged beagles slowed the rate of cognitive decline in aged dogs. In addition, environmental enrichment also slowed the rate of cognitive decline. Importantly, the combination of dietary antioxidants and environmental enrichment was synergistic and resulted in the least amount of cognitive decline over the 30-month study period. Finally, a clinical study showed that antioxidant fortified food improved age-related behavioral changes in older pet dogs at in-home situations.

  2. Tularaemia in Norwegian dogs.

    PubMed

    Nordstoga, Anne; Handeland, Kjell; Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Iversen, Lena; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Mattsson, Roland; Wik-Larssen, Kjersti; Afset, Jan Egil; Næverdal, Rune; Lund, Arve

    2014-10-10

    We describe tularaemia in a Norwegian dog caused by Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica. A Hamilton Hound and his owner developed tulaeremia after hunting an infected mountain hare (Lepus timidus). The dog showed signs of lethargy, anorexia and fever during a period two to four days after hunting and thereafter fully recovered. Its antibody titers increased 32-fold from one to three weeks post exposure. Thereafter, the titer declined and leveled off at moderate positive values up to one year after exposure (end of study). This is believed to be the first case report of clinical F. tularensis subspecies holarctica infection in a European dog. In 2011, enormous numbers of Norway lemmings (Lemmus lemmus) occurred in Finnmark, the northernmost county of Norway and many dogs caught and swallowed lemmings. Some of these dogs developed non-specific signs of disease and the owners consulted a veterinary surgeon, who suspected tularaemia. In order to investigate this hypothesis, serum samples from 33 dogs were examined for antibodies to F. tularensis. The dogs were allocated into three groups: Dogs from Finnmark that became sick (Group 1) or remained healthy following contact with lemmings (Group 2), and healthy control dogs from Oslo without known contact with lemmings (Group 3). All the serum samples were analyzed with a tube agglutination assay. Among dogs exposed to lemmings, 10/11 and 3/12 were antibody positive in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively, whereas none of the control dogs (n=10) were positive for antibodies against F. tularensis. These results strongly indicate that the non-specific disease seen in the dogs in Finnmark was linked to F. tularensis infection acquired through contact with lemmings.

  3. Orally Administered DTPA Di-ethyl Ester for Decorporation of 241Am in dogs: Assessment of Safety and Efficacy in an Inhalation-Contamination Model

    PubMed Central

    Huckle, James E.; Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Pacyniak, Erik; Leed, Marina G. D.; Weber, Waylon M.; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Agha, Bushra J.; Susick, Robert L.; Mumper, Russell J.; Jay, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Currently two injectable products of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) are U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for decorporation of 241Am, however, an oral product is considered more amenable in a mass casualty situation. The diethyl ester of DTPA, named C2E2, is being developed as an oral drug for treatment of internal radionuclide contamination. Materials and methods Single dose decorporation efficacy of C2E2 administered 24-hours post contamination was determined in beagle dogs using a 241Am nitrate inhalation contamination model. Single and multiple dose toxicity studies in beagle dogs were performed as part of an initial safety assessment program. In addition, the genotoxic potential of C2E2 was evaluated by the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation Ames test, mammalian cell chromosome aberration cytogenetic assay and an in vivo micronucleus test. Results Oral administration of C2E2 significantly increased 241Am elimination over untreated controls and significantly reduced the retention of 241Am in tissues, especially liver, kidney, lung and bone. Daily dosing of 200 mg/kg/day for 10 days was well tolerated in dogs. C2E2 was found to be neither mutagenic or clastogenic. Conclusions The di-ethyl ester of DTPA (C2E2) was shown to effectively enhance the elimination of 241Am after oral administration in a dog inhalation-contamination model and was well tolerated in toxicity studies. PMID:25912343

  4. Physiology and behavior of dogs during air transport.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Renée; Scott, Shannon L; Emond, Jean-Pierre; Mercier, Florent; Cook, Nigel J; Schaefer, Al L

    2002-07-01

    Twenty-four beagles were used to measure physiological and behavioral reactions to air transport. Each of 3 groups of 4 sedated (with 0.5 mg/kg body weight of acepromazine maleate) and 4 non-sedated (control) dogs was flown on a separate flight between Montreal, Quebec, and Toronto, Ontario, after being transported by road from Quebec City to Montreal. Saliva and blood samples were taken before ground and air transport and after air transport. The heart rate was monitored during the whole experiment except during ground transport, and behavior was monitored by video during air transport. Sedation did not affect any of the variables measured. The mean plasma cortisol concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.05) after ground transport than at baseline (225.3 vs 134.5 nmol/L); the mean salivary cortisol concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.05) after both ground and air transport than at baseline (16.2 and 14.8, respectively, vs 12.6 nmol/L). The mean neutrophil count was significantly higher (P < 0.05) after both ground and air transport than at baseline (80.6 and 81.4, respectively, vs 69.5 per 100 white blood cells), whereas the mean lymphocyte count was significantly lower (P < 0.05) (13.2 and 13.7, respectively, vs 22.4 per 100 white blood cells). Loading and unloading procedures caused the largest increase in heart rate. On average, the dogs spent more than 50% of the time lying down, and they remained inactive for approximately 75% of the time, except during take-off. These results suggest that transportation is stressful for dogs and that sedation with acepromazine, at the dosage and timing used, does not affect the physiological and behavioral stress responses of dogs to air transport.

  5. Assessing human-dog conflicts in Todos Santos, Guatemala: bite incidences and public perception.

    PubMed

    Lunney, Meg; Jones, Andria; Stiles, Enid; Waltner-Toews, David

    2011-12-15

    The issues surrounding dog bites are a major public health concern, particularly in areas of low income where accessibility to adequate health care, veterinary medicine and sufficient management of canine population control is low. An understanding of the risk factors associated with human-dog conflicts may be important when establishing dog bite and disease prevention strategies. In May 2008, a census of 12 consociated neighbourhoods in Todos Santos, Guatemala was conducted to investigate dog bite incidences and the public perception of free-roaming dog populations. Approximately 16.5% (78/472) of households reported at least one dog bite between May 2006 and May 2008. In total, 85 incidents occurred: 49.4% (42/85) with adults (≥18 years) and 50.6% (43/85) children (<18 years). However, there was no significant difference in cumulative incidence of dog bites by victim gender or among age categories, there was a non-significant trend of higher cumulative incidence of dog bites in children aged six to 17 years compared to other age categories. The anatomical location of the bite varied, but bites to the legs were the most common (73/85; 85.9%). Of the 85 reported dog bites, 5.9% (5/85) were from dogs from the victims' own households, 48.2% (41/85) were from a neighbour's dog, 9.4% (8/85) were from dogs regularly seen in the community, and 15.3% (13/85) were from dogs not regularly seen in the community; the ownership status of the latter two categories of dogs could not be determined. Approximately 21% (18/85) of respondents did not know the type of dog that bit. Residents were asked for their opinions on potential problems associated with dogs in the community. The majority of respondents strongly agreed that dogs posed physical risks (78.8%; 372/472), could transmit infections to people (88.6%; 418/472), scared the family (82.4%; 389/472) and were too high in number (82.6%; 390/472). There were significant but weak correlations between owning a dog and

  6. Macracanthorhynchus ingens infection in a dog.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J R; Hendrix, C M; Allison, N; Butler, J M

    2001-07-15

    A 4-month-old sexually intact female Siberian Husky was examined because of diarrhea and 4 flesh-colored annulated helminths that were recovered from the dog's feces. Infection with Macracanthorhynchus ingens was diagnosed on the basis of morphologic features of the adult parasites and ova. Spindle-shaped eggs (mean length, 91 microm; mean width; 54 microm) were obtained from the body cavity of a gravid female specimen. The dog was treated empirically with epsiprantel (5.5 mg/kg [2.5 mg/lb] of body weight) and ivermectin (250 to 500 microg/kg [114 to 227 microg/lb]), and the diarrhea resolved. Infection with this parasite has been reported in raccoons from the same geographic area. Macracanthorhynchus ingens is typically a parasite of raccoons, wolves, badgers, foxes, skunks, mink, and moles; transmission from wildlife to dogs may occur via ingestion of infected intermediate hosts (millipedes).

  7. Cutaneous histiocytosis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Mays, M B; Bergeron, J A

    1986-02-15

    Multifocal cutaneous histiocytic lesions were recognized in 9 dogs. Clinically, the dogs had multiple erythematous plaques or nodules in the skin (1 to 5 cm diameter). Histologically, the lesions were comprised of dermal or pannicular infiltrates of large histiocytic cells, with varying numbers of other inflammatory cells intermixed. By electron microscopy, the cells resembled those of canine cutaneous histiocytoma. The lesions seemed to wax and wane and appeared in new sites, regardless of treatment. The dogs ranged in age from 2 to 13 years; 7 dogs were under 6 years of age. Both sexes and various breeds were represented. An infectious agent could not be identified.

  8. Effects of L-glutamine on acetylsalycylic acid induced gastric lesions and acid back diffusion in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hung, C R; Takeuchi, K; Okabe, S; Murata, T; Takagi, K

    1976-12-01

    Effects of L-glutamine on acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)-induced gastric mucosal lesions were studied in mongrel dogs. It was confirmed that when oral ASA at 1.0 or 2.0 g per dog is given in two divided doses, there is severe and consistent dose-dependent mucosal damage in the glandular portion of the stomach in fasted dogs. However, when L-glutamine 2.0 or 4.0 g per dog in two divided doses is given concomitantly with ASA 2.0 g per dog orally, the gastric irritation is significantly inhibited. Instillation of 20 mM of ASA in 100 mM HCl solution into the Heidenhain pouch of Beagle dogs produced a significant loss of H+ from the pouch and a gain of Na+ in the lumen compared with ASA-free controls. When L-glutamine (100 mM) was given concomitantly with ASA (20 mM) into the pouch, changes of electrolyte fluxes in response to ASA alone were significantly suppressed. However, 50 mM of L-glutamine had no appreciable effect on acid back diffusion caused by ASA 20 mM. The amino acid itself had little effect on the ionic movement in the pouch. Gross bleeding from the pouch treated with ASA was never observed with the concomitant dosing of ASA and L-glutamine 50 or 100 mM. PMID:15154

  9. Results of hepatic and renal function tests to different CO2 pneumoperitoneum conditions: An experimental capnoperitoneum study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Yeon; Choi, Seok Hwa

    2015-08-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most commonly used insufflation gas to provide exposure in the abdominal cavity during laparoscopic surgery. This study investigated the results of hepatic and renal function tests after different capnoperitoneum intraabdominal pressures in dogs. Twenty-four beagle dogs (12 males and 12 females) were used (n = 6 dogs). The intraabdominal pressure was maintained for 60 minutes, and urinalysis, hepatic and renal function tests were carried out at designed times. No surgery was performed on any of the dogs during the capnoperitoneum. In this study, whether low or high pressure, significant increases of gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatinine levels were observed after pneumoperitoneum. However, our results showed a trend toward higher serum concentrations of some enzymes in dogs at an insufflation pressure of 15 mmHg compared to that of the other groups, although these differences did not reach statistical significance. Therefore, low pressure capnoperitoneum should be considered for dogs with compromised splanchnic function, particularly those undergoing prolonged laparoscopic surgery.

  10. Toxicity of injected radium-226 in immature dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.

    1995-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of injected {sup 226}Ra in immature dogs and to compare the results with those from studies of injected {sup 226}Ra in young adult dogs. An historic objective of these studies, initiated at the University of Utah and continued at ITRI, was to compare the results in dogs to the population of dial painters who ingested {sup 226}Ra as young adults. Age at the time of exposure is considered to be an important factor in dosimetry and risk of developing radiation-induced disease, particularly bone cancer. In summary, dogs injected with {sup 226}Ra when immature had increased occurrences of bone tumors in a dose-related fashion.

  11. Functional analysis of dog multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) in comparison with rat Mrp2.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Mizuki; Ito, Kousei; Horie, Toshiharu

    2005-02-01

    We investigated whether the species difference in the biliary excretion activity of some Mrp2 substrates was attributable to the intrinsic transport potential or the expression level of Mrp2, especially in rat and dog. Dog Mrp2 cDNA was isolated from beagle dog liver, and a vesicle transport study was performed using recombinant rat and dog Mrp2 expressed in insect Sf9 cells. The ATP-dependent transport of 17beta-estradiol 17-(beta-D-glucuronide) ([3H]E(2)17betaG) and leukotriene C4 ([3H]LTC4), normalized by the absolute protein expression level, was similar in both Mrp2s. The Mrp2 protein expression in dog liver was only 10% of that in rat liver and was comparable with the reported difference in the biliary excretion clearance of temocaprilat as Mrp2 substrate. In contrast to LTC4, unique transport kinetics for E(2)17betaG were evident in dog Mrp2. In addition to the high-affinity site with a K(m) value of 3.25 +/- 0.10 microM, which is similar to that in rat Mrp2 (4.81 +/- 1.21 microM), dog Mrp2 has an additional low-affinity site (>75 microM), which makes a major contribution to the transport of E(2)17betaG (65% of the total transport capacity at tracer concentration). In summary, the difference in the biliary excretion activity of Mrp2 substrates between rat and dog depends on the Mrp2 protein expression level rather than the intrinsic transport activity of the transporter molecules. The unique transport properties of glucuronide conjugates by dog Mrp2 may lead to the species difference involving the drug-drug interaction or drug-induced hyperbilirubinemia on the bile canalicular membrane.

  12. Domestic dogs and puppies can use human voice direction referentially.

    PubMed

    Rossano, Federico; Nitzschner, Marie; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-06-22

    Domestic dogs are particularly skilled at using human visual signals to locate hidden food. This is, to our knowledge, the first series of studies that investigates the ability of dogs to use only auditory communicative acts to locate hidden food. In a first study, from behind a barrier, a human expressed excitement towards a baited box on either the right or left side, while sitting closer to the unbaited box. Dogs were successful in following the human's voice direction and locating the food. In the two following control studies, we excluded the possibility that dogs could locate the box containing food just by relying on smell, and we showed that they would interpret a human's voice direction in a referential manner only when they could locate a possible referent (i.e. one of the boxes) in the environment. Finally, in a fourth study, we tested 8-14-week-old puppies in the main experimental test and found that those with a reasonable amount of human experience performed overall even better than the adult dogs. These results suggest that domestic dogs' skills in comprehending human communication are not based on visual cues alone, but are instead multi-modal and highly flexible. Moreover, the similarity between young and adult dogs' performances has important implications for the domestication hypothesis. PMID:24807249

  13. Ectopic (subcutaneous) Paragonimus miyazakii infection in a dog.

    PubMed

    Madarame, H; Suzuki, H; Saitoh, Y; Tachibana, M; Habe, S; Uchida, A; Sugiyama, H

    2009-09-01

    Ectopic infection with Paragonimus miyazakii was determined to be the cause of a subcutaneous inguinal mass in a 15-month-old, male, boar-hunting dog. On histologic examination, the mass comprised granulomatous panniculitis, intralesional adult trematodes and eggs, and lymphadenitis. Extrapulmonary paragonimosis in animals is rare. This appears to be the first report in a dog of ectopic P. miyazakii infection with mature trematodes and eggs that involved the inguinofemoral lymphocenter and surrounding subcutis. PMID:19429999

  14. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Menchetti, Laura; Mancini, Stefania; Catalani, Maria Chiara; Boccini, Beatrice; Diverio, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this 'no-kill policy' has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project "RandAgiamo" implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs' adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs' visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (P < 0.001). The RandAgiamo project could be beneficial for the dogs' welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities. PMID:26479385

  15. Owned and unowned dog population estimation, dog management and dog bites to inform rabies prevention and response on Lombok Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mustiana, Ana; Toribio, Jenny-Ann; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Suadnya, I Wayan; Hernandez-Jover, Marta; Putra, Anak Agung Gde; Ward, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Although Indonesia has been rabies-infected since at least the 1880s, some islands remain rabies-free, such as Lombok. However, due to its adjacency to rabies-infected islands such as Bali and Flores, there is considerable risk of a rabies incursion. As part of a rabies risk assessment project, surveys were conducted to estimate the size of the dog population and to describe dog management practices of households belonging to different ethnic groups. A photographic-recapture method was employed and the number of unowned dogs was estimated. A total of 400 dog owning households were interviewed, 300 at an urban site and 100 at a rural site. The majority of the interviewed households belonged to the Balinese ethnic group. Owned dogs were more likely male, and non-pedigree or local breed. These households kept their dogs either fully restricted, semi-free roaming or free-roaming but full restriction was reported only at the urban site. Dog bite cases were reported to be higher at the urban site, and commonly affected children/young adults to 20 years old and males. A higher number of unowned dogs was observed at the urban site than at the rural site. Data generated within these surveys can inform rabies risk assessment models to quantify the probability of rabies being released into Lombok and resulting in the infection of the local dog population. The information gained is critical for efforts to educate dog owners about rabies, as a component of preparedness to prevent the establishment of rabies should an incursion occur.

  16. Owned and Unowned Dog Population Estimation, Dog Management and Dog Bites to Inform Rabies Prevention and Response on Lombok Island, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Mustiana, Ana; Toribio, Jenny-Ann; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Suadnya, I. Wayan; Hernandez-Jover, Marta; Putra, Anak Agung Gde; Ward, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Although Indonesia has been rabies-infected since at least the 1880s, some islands remain rabies-free, such as Lombok. However, due to its adjacency to rabies-infected islands such as Bali and Flores, there is considerable risk of a rabies incursion. As part of a rabies risk assessment project, surveys were conducted to estimate the size of the dog population and to describe dog management practices of households belonging to different ethnic groups. A photographic-recapture method was employed and the number of unowned dogs was estimated. A total of 400 dog owning households were interviewed, 300 at an urban site and 100 at a rural site. The majority of the interviewed households belonged to the Balinese ethnic group. Owned dogs were more likely male, and non-pedigree or local breed. These households kept their dogs either fully restricted, semi-free roaming or free-roaming but full restriction was reported only at the urban site. Dog bite cases were reported to be higher at the urban site, and commonly affected children/young adults to 20 years old and males. A higher number of unowned dogs was observed at the urban site than at the rural site. Data generated within these surveys can inform rabies risk assessment models to quantify the probability of rabies being released into Lombok and resulting in the infection of the local dog population. The information gained is critical for efforts to educate dog owners about rabies, as a component of preparedness to prevent the establishment of rabies should an incursion occur. PMID:25932916

  17. Chloramphenicol toxicity in dogs.

    PubMed

    Watson, A D

    1977-07-01

    Twenty dogs were given chloramphenicol by mouth night and morning for 14 days: six dogs were dosed at 225 mg/kg/day, four each at 175 and 125 mg/kg/day and three each at 275 and 75 mg/kg/day. Six control dogs were given empty gelatin capsules twice daily for the same period. Dogs dosed at 75 mg/kg consumed more food and gained a little more weight than the control dogs, while those in the 175, 225 and 275 mg/kg groups ate less and lost weight. Four dogs dosed at 175 mg/kg or above became dull and depressed and virtually ceased to eat. No changes were observed in erythrocyte and reticulocyte counts, haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume or total and differential leukocyte counts during the experiment. Bone marrow examination showed suppression of erythropoiesis in four of nine dogs dosed at 225 or 275 mg/kg/day. In addition, there was evidence of decreased mitotic activity and reduced rate of granulocytopoiesis in the 275 mg/kg group. Vacuolation of marrow cells was not observed. The two toxic effects observed (depression and hypophagia on the one hand, marrow suppression on the other) occurred separately or together in individual dogs.

  18. Idiopathic epilepsy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Thomas, W B

    2000-01-01

    Idiopathic epilepsy is a chronic condition characterized by recurrent seizures for which there is no identifiable cause. It is the most common neurologic disorder in the dog. This article discusses the diagnostic evaluation and rational treatment of dogs with recurrent seizures. Types of seizures, client education, choice of therapy, use of specific drugs, therapeutic monitoring, and nondrug treatments are reviewed.

  19. Do Dogs Know Bifurcations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minton, Roland; Pennings, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    When a dog (in this case, Tim Pennings' dog Elvis) is in the water and a ball is thrown downshore, it must choose to swim directly to the ball or first swim to shore. The mathematical analysis of this problem leads to the computation of bifurcation points at which the optimal strategy changes.

  20. Speed of Dog Adoption: Impact of Online Photo Traits.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Rachel; Witte, Thomas H

    2015-01-01

    The Internet has radically changed how dogs are advertised for adoption in the United States. This study was used to investigate how different characteristics in dogs' photos presented online affected the speed of their adoptions, as a proof of concept to encourage more research in this field. The study analyzed the 1st images of 468 adopted young and adult black dogs identified as Labrador Retriever mixed breeds across the United States. A subjective global measure of photo quality had the largest impact on time to adoption. Other photo traits that positively impacted adoption speed included direct canine eye contact with the camera, the dog standing up, the photo being appropriately sized, an outdoor photo location, and a nonblurry image. Photos taken in a cage, dogs wearing a bandana, dogs having a visible tongue, and some other traits had no effect on how fast the dogs were adopted. Improving the quality of online photos of dogs presented for adoption may speed up and possibly increase the number of adoptions, thereby providing a cheap and easy way to help fight the homeless companion animal population problem. PMID:25495493

  1. Speed of Dog Adoption: Impact of Online Photo Traits.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Rachel; Witte, Thomas H

    2015-01-01

    The Internet has radically changed how dogs are advertised for adoption in the United States. This study was used to investigate how different characteristics in dogs' photos presented online affected the speed of their adoptions, as a proof of concept to encourage more research in this field. The study analyzed the 1st images of 468 adopted young and adult black dogs identified as Labrador Retriever mixed breeds across the United States. A subjective global measure of photo quality had the largest impact on time to adoption. Other photo traits that positively impacted adoption speed included direct canine eye contact with the camera, the dog standing up, the photo being appropriately sized, an outdoor photo location, and a nonblurry image. Photos taken in a cage, dogs wearing a bandana, dogs having a visible tongue, and some other traits had no effect on how fast the dogs were adopted. Improving the quality of online photos of dogs presented for adoption may speed up and possibly increase the number of adoptions, thereby providing a cheap and easy way to help fight the homeless companion animal population problem.

  2. Does the attachment system towards owners change in aged dogs?

    PubMed

    Mongillo, Paolo; Pitteri, Elisa; Carnier, Paolo; Gabai, Gianfranco; Adamelli, Serena; Marinelli, Lieta

    2013-08-15

    Changes during senescence can significantly affect both the emotional and relational needs of old individuals and the characteristics of the attachment system. In order to determine whether the emotional response of dogs is affected by old age, we compared the behavioural parameters of adult (AD <7 years of age, n=25) and aged (AG ≥7 years of age, n=25) dogs in a distressing situation, which gives rise to attachment behaviour patterns (Strange Situation Test, SST). The physiological response of dogs was assessed by measurement of salivary cortisol variations in samples collected both at the dogs' homes and at the study location, before and after the SST. Both groups of dogs expressed clear-cut patterns of attachment to their owners. During the initial part of the procedure, AG dogs sought more physical contact, but behaved more passively and showed less interest in an unknown person during separation from their owners. Compared with AD dogs, AG ones showed a significant increase in salivary cortisol concentrations after the SST. The combination of physiological and behavioural data of the present study supports the hypothesis that, later in life, dogs cope less efficiently with emotional distress caused by mild social challenge. PMID:23911691

  3. Myocyte repolarization modulates myocardial function in aging dogs.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Andrea; Signore, Sergio; Qanud, Khaled; Borghetti, Giulia; Meo, Marianna; Cannata, Antonio; Zhou, Yu; Wybieralska, Ewa; Luciani, Marco; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Zhang, Eric; Matsuda, Alex;