Science.gov

Sample records for adult beta-globin gene

  1. Genomic organization and characterization of a three-gene rat adult beta-globin haplotype.

    PubMed

    Au, D M; Wong, W M; Tam, J W; Cheng, L Y; Lam, V M

    1995-11-20

    The isolation and detailed characterization of a three-beta-globin gene (GloB) haplotype in the Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rat is described. An enriched library, lambda SDHelib, was screened with a human GloB probe, humbg44, and from which a beta minor gene, Rathbbz, was isolated, sequenced and characterized. A S-D rat GloB-specific probe, Ratbgze12, derived from the Rathbbz gene, was then used to screen a S-D rat genomic library, lambda SDglib. The clone T1510 was isolated and identified to include the entire Rathbbz gene and part of another GloB gene, Rathbby, which was 5' upstream from Rathbbz. Chromosomal walking upstream using the riboprobe, rnaT71, led to the isolation of an overlapping clone, Ta49, which was shown to include two full-length GloB genes; the most 5' was Rathbbx followed by Rathbby. Sequence data suggests that Rathbbx is a beta major gene, whereas Rathbby is a hybrid gene of Rathbbx and Rathbbz. Genomic hybridization confirmed this particular three-gene haplotype in the S-D rat. This haplotype, a1, may be the prototype of the GloB cluster in rat.

  2. Characterization of the 5'-to-5'linked adult alpha- and beta-globin genes from three sciaenid fish species (Pseudosciaena crocea, Sciaenops ocellatus, Nibea miichthioides).

    PubMed

    Chu, Wuying; Wei, Yongwei; Qian, Ronghua; Yu, Xiameng; Yu, Lian

    2006-09-01

    Recently, we cloned the adult alpha-globin genes from large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea, cuneate drum Nibea miichthioides and red drum Sciaenops ocellatus. All these alpha-globins have a unique Gly insertion at the 47th residue. In this paper, the three sciaenid globin complexes were identified and compared in detail. Linkage analysis indicated that the sciaenid alpha- and beta-globin genes were oriented head-to-head relative to each other. The sciaenid intergenic regions between the linked alpha- and beta-globin genes were the smallest in reported fish globin gene complexes to date. Classical promoter elements were condensed and the CCAAT box unstable duplication was found in these regions. The promoter function of the intergenic region from large yellow croaker was tested by transient expression of EGFP in Vero cells. We also described a method for studying luciferase reporter gene transient expression in primary fish erythrocytes. We used the method to assess the promoter strength of the three intergenic regions between the sciaenid alpha- and beta-globin genes.

  3. The nucleotide sequence of the human beta-globin gene.

    PubMed

    Lawn, R M; Efstratiadis, A; O'Connell, C; Maniatis, T

    1980-10-01

    We report the complete nucleotide sequence of the human beta-globin gene. The purpose of this study is to obtain information necessary to study the evolutionary relationships between members of the human beta-like globin gene family and to provide the basis for comparing normal beta-globin genes with those obtained from the DNA of individuals with genetic defects in hemoglobin expression.

  4. The role of EKLF in human beta-globin gene competition.

    PubMed

    Wijgerde, M; Gribnau, J; Trimborn, T; Nuez, B; Philipsen, S; Grosveld, F; Fraser, P

    1996-11-15

    We have investigated the role of erythroid Kruppel-like factor (EKLF) in expression of the human beta-globin genes in compound EKLF knockout/human beta-locus transgenic mice. EKLF affects only the adult mouse beta-globin genes in homozygous knockout mice; heterozygous mice are unaffected. Here we show that EKLF knockout mice express the human epsilon and gamma-globin genes normally in embryonic red cells. However, fetal liver erythropoiesis, which is marked by a period of gamma- and beta-gene competition in which the genes are alternately transcribed, exhibits an altered ratio of gamma- to beta-gene transcription. EKLF heterozygous fetal livers display a decrease in the number of transcriptionally active beta genes with a reciprocal increase in the number of transcriptionally active gamma genes. beta-Gene transcription is absent in homozygous knockout fetuses with coincident changes in chromatin structure at the beta promoter. There is a further increase in the number of transcriptionally active gamma genes and accompanying gamma gene promoter chromatin alterations. These results indicate that EKLF plays a major role in gamma- and beta-gene competition and suggest that EKLF is important in stabilizing the interaction between the Locus Control Region and the beta-globin gene. In addition, these findings provide further evidence that developmental modulation of globin gene expression within individual cells is accomplished by altering the frequency and/or duration of transcriptional periods of a gene rather than changing the rate of transcription.

  5. Transcriptional activation of cloned human beta-globin genes by viral immediate-early gene products.

    PubMed

    Green, M R; Treisman, R; Maniatis, T

    1983-11-01

    When the human beta-globin gene is transfected into Hela cells, no beta-globin RNA is detected unless the gene is linked to a viral transcription enhancer. In this paper we show that trans-acting adenovirus and herpesvirus (pseudorabies) transcriptional regulatory proteins can circumvent this enhancer requirement for detectable beta-globin transcription in transient expression assays. The viral gene products can be provided by constitutively expressed, integrated viral genes in established cell lines, by viral infection of permissive cells, or by transfection of cells with bacterial plasmids carrying the viral immediate-early genes. These results demonstrate the utility of transient expression assays for studying regulatory mechanisms involving trans-acting factors. Analysis of beta-globin promoter mutants indicates that between 75 and 128 bp of sequence 5' to the mRNA cap site is required for enhancer-dependent transcription in Hela cells. In contrast, beta-globin transcription in the presence of viral immediate-early gene products requires only 36 bp of 5'-flanking sequence, which includes the TATA box. Thus both cis and trans-acting viral factors activate beta-globin gene transcription in transient expression experiments, but the mechanisms by which they act appear to be fundamentally different.

  6. Human beta-globin gene expression in transgenic mice is enhanced by a distant DNase I hypersensitive site.

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, P T; Liu, D P; Liu, W; Chang, J C; Kan, Y W

    1989-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that erythroid-specific DNase I hypersensitive sites (HS) located far upstream of the human beta-globin gene are important in regulating beta-globin gene expression. We used the polymerase chain reaction technique to amplify and clone an 882-base-pair DNA fragment spanning one of these HS, designated HSII, which is located 54 kilobases upstream of the beta-globin gene. The cloned HSII fragment was linked to a human beta-globin gene in either the genomic (HSII-beta) or antigenomic (HSII-beta) orientation. These two constructs and a beta-globin gene alone (beta) were injected into fertilized mouse eggs, and expression was analyzed in liver and brain from day-16 transgenic fetuses. Five of 7 beta-transgenic fetuses expressed human beta-globin mRNA, but the level of expression per gene copy was low, ranging from 0.93 to 22.4% of mouse alpha-globin mRNA (average 9.9%). In contrast, 11 of 12 HSII-beta transgenic fetuses expressed beta-globin mRNA at levels per gene copy ranging from 31.3 to 336.6% of mouse alpha-globin mRNA (average 139.5%). Only three fetuses containing intact copies of the HSII-beta construct were produced. Two of three expressed human beta-globin mRNA at levels per gene copy of 179.2 and 387.1%. Expression of human beta-globin mRNA was tissue-specific in all three types of transgenic fetuses. These studies demonstrate that a small DNA fragment containing a single erythroid-specific HS can stimulate high-level human beta-globin gene expression in transgenic mice. Images PMID:2780563

  7. Identification and molecular characterization of four new large deletions in the beta-globin gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Joly, Philippe; Lacan, Philippe; Garcia, Caroline; Couprie, Nicole; Francina, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Despite the fact that mutations in the human beta-globin gene cluster are essentially point mutations, a significant number of large deletions have also been described. We present here four new large deletions in the beta-globin gene cluster that have been identified on patients displaying an atypical hemoglobin phenotype (high HbF) at routine analysis. The first deletion, which spreads over 2.0 kb, removes the entire beta-globin gene, including its promoter, and is associated with a typical beta-thal minor phenotype. The three other deletions are larger (19.7 to 23.9 kb) and remove both the delta and beta-globin genes. Phenotypically, they look like an HPFH-deletion as they are associated with normal hematological parameters. The precise localization of their 5' and 3' breakpoints gives new insights about the differences between HPFH and (deltabeta)(0)-thalassemia at the molecular level. The importance of detection of these deletions in prenatal diagnosis and newborn screening of hemoglobinopathies is also discussed.

  8. Evolution and molecular characterization of a beta-globin gene from the Australian Echidna Tachyglossus aculeatus (Monotremata).

    PubMed

    Lee, M H; Shroff, R; Cooper, S J; Hope, R

    1999-07-01

    Coinciding with a period in evolution when monotremes, marsupials, and eutherians diverged from a common ancestor, a proto-beta-globin gene duplicated, producing the progenitors of mammalian embryonic and adult beta-like globin genes. To determine whether monotremes contain orthologues of these genes and to further investigate the evolutionary relationships of monotremes, marsupials, and eutherians, we have determined the complete DNA sequence of an echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) beta-like globin gene. Conceptual translation of the gene and sequence comparisons with eutherian and marsupial beta-like globin genes and echidna adult beta-globin indicate that the gene is adult expressed. Phylogenetic analyses do not clearly resolve the branching pattern of mammalian beta-like globin gene lineages and it is therefore uncertain whether monotremes have orthologues of the embryonic beta-like globin genes of marsupials and eutherians. Four models are proposed that provide a framework for interpreting further studies on the evolution of beta-like globin genes in the context of the evolution of monotremes, marsupials, and eutherians.

  9. The regulated expression of beta-globin genes introduced into mouse erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Chao, M V; Mellon, P; Charnay, P; Maniatis, T; Axel, R

    1983-02-01

    We have introduced a hybrid mouse-human beta-globin gene as well as the intact human beta-globin gene into murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells and have demonstrated that these genes are appropriately regulated during differentiation of the MEL cell in culture. The addition of chemical inducers to cotransformed cells results in a 5 to 50 fold increase in the level of mRNA transcribed from the exogenous globin gene. S1 nuclease and primer extension analyses demonstrate that these mRNAs initiate and terminate correctly. Nuclear transcription experiments indicate that induction of hybrid mRNA results at least in part from the increase in the rate of globin gene transcription. Furthermore, the induction appears to be specific for globin genes within an erythroid cell. These results permit the study of expression of the globin gene during erythroid differentiation and suggest that the specific induction of the globin gene is an inherent property of DNA sequences within or flanking the beta-globin genes. Moreover, the fact that the human and hybrid globin genes are both inducible in MEL cells suggests that these regulatory sequences are conserved between mouse and human cells.

  10. Regulated expression of a complete human beta-globin gene encoded by a transmissible retrovirus vector.

    PubMed Central

    Cone, R D; Weber-Benarous, A; Baorto, D; Mulligan, R C

    1987-01-01

    We introduced a human beta-globin gene into murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells by infection with recombinant retroviruses containing the complete genomic globin sequence. The beta-globin gene was correctly regulated during differentiation, steady-state mRNA levels being induced 5- to 30-fold after treatment of the cells with the chemical inducer dimethyl sulfoxide. Studies using vectors which yield integrated proviruses lacking transcriptional enhancer sequences indicated that neither retroviral transcription nor the retroviral enhancer sequences themselves had any obvious effect on expression of the globin gene. Viral RNA expression also appeared inducible, being considerably depressed in uninduced MEL cells but approaching normal wild-type levels after dimethyl sulfoxide treatment. We provide data which suggest that the control point for both repression and subsequent activation of virus expression in MEL cells lies in the viral enhancer element. Images PMID:3029570

  11. Expression of the human beta-globin gene after retroviral transfer into murine erythroleukemia cells and human BFU-E cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bender, M A; Miller, A D; Gelinas, R E

    1988-01-01

    Replication-defective amphotropic retrovirus vectors containing either the human beta-globin gene with introns or an intronless beta-globin minigene were constructed and used to study beta-globin expression following gene transfer into hematopoietic cells. The beta-globin genes were marked by introducing a 6-base-pair insertion into the region corresponding to the 5' untranslated region of the beta-globin mRNA to allow detection of RNA encoded by the new gene in human cells expressing normal human beta-globin RNA. Introduction of a virus containing the beta-globin gene with introns into murine erythroleukemia cells resulted in inducible expression of human beta-globin RNA and protein, while the viruses containing the minigene were inactive. The introduced human beta-globin gene was 6 to 110% as active as the endogenous mouse beta maj-globin genes in six randomly chosen cell clones. Introduction of the viruses into human BFU-E cells, followed by analysis of marked and unmarked globin RNAs in differentiated erythroid colonies, revealed that the introduced beta-globin gene was about 5% as active as the endogenous genes in these normal human erythroid cells and that again the minigene was inactive. These data are discussed in terms of the potential treatment of genetic disease by gene therapy. Images PMID:3288863

  12. Expression of the human. beta. -globin gene following retroviral-mediated transfer into multipotential hematopoietic progenitors of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsson, S.; Bodine, D.M.; Perry, L.; Papayannopoulou, T.; Nienhuis, A.W. )

    1988-08-01

    Efficient transfer of the {beta}-globin gene into primitive hematopoietic progenitors was achieved with consistent and significant expression in the progeny of those cells. Retroviral vectors containing the intact genomic human {beta}-globin gene and the neomycin (G418)-resistance (neo{sup R}) gene were constructed. These gave titers of 10{sup 6} or more neo{sup R} colony-forming units/ml when packaged in {psi}2 cells. Mouse bone marrow cells were infected by coculture with producer cells and injected into lethally irradiated animals. Several parameters were varied to enhance infection frequency of colony-forming units, spleen (CFU-S); overall 41% of 116 foci studied contained an intact proviral genome. The human {beta}-globin gene was expressed in 31 of 35 CFU-S-derived spleen colonies that contained the intact vector genome at levels ranging from 1% to 5% of that of the mouse {beta}-globin genes. Infected bone marrow cells were also injected into genetically anemic W/W{sup v} recipients without prior irradiation. Human {beta}-globin chains were detected in circulating erythrocytes by immunofluorescent staining with a specific monoclonal antibody. All animals injected with donor cells that had been cultured in G418 (1 mg/ml) for 48 hr after retroviral infection had circulating erythrocytes containing human {beta}-globin chains between 3 and 8 weeks after transplantation.

  13. Production of Gene-Corrected Adult Beta Globin Protein in Human Erythrocytes Differentiated from Patient iPSCs After Genome Editing of the Sickle Point Mutation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaosong; Wang, Ying; Yan, Wei; Smith, Cory; Ye, Zhaohui; Wang, Jing; Gao, Yongxing; Mendelsohn, Laurel; Cheng, Linzhao

    2015-05-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and genome editing provide a precise way to generate gene-corrected cells for disease modeling and cell therapies. Human iPSCs generated from sickle cell disease (SCD) patients have a homozygous missense point mutation in the HBB gene encoding adult β-globin proteins, and are used as a model system to improve strategies of human gene therapy. We demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system designer nuclease is much more efficient in stimulating gene targeting of the endogenous HBB locus near the SCD point mutation in human iPSCs than zinc finger nucleases and TALENs. Using a specific guide RNA and Cas9, we readily corrected one allele of the SCD HBB gene in human iPSCs by homologous recombination with a donor DNA template containing the wild-type HBB DNA and a selection cassette that was subsequently removed to avoid possible interference of HBB transcription and translation. We chose targeted iPSC clones that have one corrected and one disrupted SCD allele for erythroid differentiation assays, using an improved xeno-free and feeder-free culture condition we recently established. Erythrocytes from either the corrected or its parental (uncorrected) iPSC line were generated with similar efficiencies. Currently ∼6%-10% of these differentiated erythrocytes indeed lacked nuclei, characteristic of further matured erythrocytes called reticulocytes. We also detected the 16-kDa β-globin protein expressed from the corrected HBB allele in the erythrocytes differentiated from genome-edited iPSCs. Our results represent a significant step toward the clinical applications of genome editing using patient-derived iPSCs to generate disease-free cells for cell and gene therapies. Stem Cells 2015;33:1470-1479.

  14. Inter-MAR association contributes to transcriptionally active looping events in human beta-globin gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Di, Li-Jun; Lv, Xiang; Zheng, Wei; Xue, Zheng; Guo, Zhi-Chen; Liu, De-Pei; Liang, Chi-Chuan

    2009-01-01

    Matrix attachment regions (MARs) are important in chromatin organization and gene regulation. Although it is known that there are a number of MAR elements in the beta-globin gene cluster, it is unclear that how these MAR elements are involved in regulating beta-globin genes expression. Here, we report the identification of a new MAR element at the LCR (locus control region) of human beta-globin gene cluster and the detection of the inter-MAR association within the beta-globin gene cluster. Also, we demonstrate that SATB1, a protein factor that has been implicated in the formation of network like higher order chromatin structures at some gene loci, takes part in beta-globin specific inter-MAR association through binding the specific MARs. Knocking down of SATB1 obviously reduces the binding of SATB1 to the MARs and diminishes the frequency of the inter-MAR association. As a result, the ACH establishment and the alpha-like globin genes and beta-like globin genes expressions are affected either. In summary, our results suggest that SATB1 is a regulatory factor of hemoglobin genes, especially the early differentiation genes at least through affecting the higher order chromatin structure.

  15. Nonrandom association of polymorphic restriction sites in the beta-globin gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Antonarakis, S E; Boehm, C D; Giardina, P J; Kazazian, H H

    1982-01-01

    By using probes for epsilon-, Psibeta(1)-, and beta-globin genes, we found four additional polymorphic restriction sites that have frequencies >0.1 in persons of Mediterranean area origin, Asian Indians, and American Blacks. Three of these (HincII sites) and the two previously described polymorphic HindIII sites [one in intervening sequence (IVS) II of each gamma-globin gene] are distributed over 32 kilobases (kb) of DNA located 5' to the delta-globin gene. This region of DNA comprises two-thirds of the beta-globin gene cluster. Since each of these five polymorphic sites can be present (+) or absent (-), in theory there exist 32 possible combinations of sites (haplotypes). However, in Italians, Greeks, Indians, and Turks, 3 of the 32 haplotypes, (+----), (-+-++), and (-++-+), account for 92% of 89 beta(A) chromosomes examined. The observed frequencies for these haplotypes are 0.64, 0.15, and 0.13 in the populations studied, in contrast to expected frequencies (based on the observed gene frequencies at each of the five sites) of 0.20, 0.006, and 0.005, respectively. In American Blacks, a fourth haplotype, (----+), which is rare in non-Black populations, has a frequency of 0.37 in contrast to its expected frequency of 0.05. These results suggest a nonrandom association of DNA sequences over 32 kb 5' to the delta-globin gene in all populations studied. Two other polymorphic sites 3' to the delta gene (the newly discovered Ava II site in IVS II of the beta-globin gene and the BamHI site 3' to it) are nonrandomly associated with each other but randomly distributed with respect to the above haplotypes. This suggests that randomization of sequences has occurred within 12 kb of DNA between these two nonrandomly associated sequence clusters. Nonrandom association of polymorphic restriction sites has practical consequences in that it limits the usefulness of these additional HincII sites for prenatal diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies by linkage analysis. These sites provide

  16. A mutation of the beta-globin gene initiation codon, ATG-->AAG, found in a French Caucasian man.

    PubMed

    Lacan, Philippe; Aubry, Martine; Couprie, Nicole; Francina, Alain

    2005-01-01

    A new mutation of the beta-globin gene initiation codon, ATG-->AAG (Met-->Tyr), is reported in a man originating from the southeast of France. Typical hematological findings of beta-thalassemia (thal) trait were found. We emphasize the importance of characterizing uncommon beta-thal mutations for genetic counseling.

  17. Retroviral transfer of a human beta-globin/delta-globin hybrid gene linked to beta locus control region hypersensitive site 2 aimed at the gene therapy of sickle cell disease.

    PubMed Central

    Takekoshi, K J; Oh, Y H; Westerman, K W; London, I M; Leboulch, P

    1995-01-01

    Human gamma-globin and delta-globin chains have been previously identified as strong inhibitors of the polymerization of hemoglobin S, in contrast to the beta-globin chain, which exerts only a moderate antisickling effect. However, gamma-globin and delta-globin are normally expressed at very low levels in adult erythroid cells, in contrast to beta-globin. We report the design of a beta-globin/delta-globin hybrid gene, beta/delta-sickle cell inhibitor 1 (beta/delta-SCI1) and its transduction by retrovirus-mediated gene transfer. The beta/delta-SCI1-encoding gene retains the overall structure of the human beta-globin gene, while incorporating specific amino acid residues from the delta chain previously found responsible for its enhanced antisickling properties. To achieve high expression levels of beta/delta-SCI1 in adult erythrocytes, the hybrid gene was placed under the transcriptional control of the human beta-globin promoter and the DNase I hypersensitive site 2 of the human beta locus control region. High-titer retroviruses were generated, and stable proviral transmission was achieved in infected cells. The mRNA expression levels of the beta/delta-SCI1 gene in infected, dimethyl sulfoxide-induced murine erythroleukemia cells approached 85% of the endogenous murine beta maj-globin mRNA, on a per gene basis, evidence that high gene expression levels were achieved in adult erythroid cells. Further evaluation of this strategy in transgenic animal models of sickle cell disease should assess its efficacy for the gene therapy of human patients. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7708766

  18. Total beta-globin gene deletion has high frequency in Filipinos

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, N.; Miyakawa, F.; Hunt, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    The distribution of {beta}-thalassemia [{beta}{sup Th}] mutations is unique to each ethnic group. Most mutations affect one or a few bases; large deletions have been rare. Among families screened in Hawaii, [{beta}{sup Th}] heterozygotes were diagnosed by microcytosis, absence of abnormal hemoglobins on isoelectric focusing, and raised Hb A{sub 2} by chromatography. Gene frequency for {beta}{sup Th} was 0.02 in Filipinos. In Filipinos, polymerase chain reaction [PCR] with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for {beta}{sup Th} mutations detected a mutation in only 6 of 42 {beta}{sup Th} heterozygotes; an IVS2-666 C/T polymorphism showed non-heterozygosity in 37 and heterozygosity in only 5 of these {beta}{sup Th} heterozygotes. One {beta}{sup Th}/{beta}{sup Th} major patient and his mother had no mutation detected by allele-specific oligomer hybridization; PCR failed to amplify any DNA from his {beta}-globin gene. After a total {beta}-globin gene deletion [{beta}{sup Del}] was found in a Filipino family in Ontario, specific PCR amplification for {beta}{sup Del} detected this in 43 of 53 {beta}{sup Th} Filipino samples tested; the above {beta}{sup Th}/{beta}{sup Th} patient was a ({beta}{sup Del}/{beta}{sup Del}) homozygote. The {beta}{sup Del} may account for over 60% of all {beta}{sup Th} alleles in Filipinos; this is the highest proportion of a deletion {beta}{sup Th} mutation reported from any population. Most but not all {beta}{sup Del} heterozygotes had high Hb F [5.13 {plus_minus} 3.94 mean {plus_minus} 1 s.d.] compared to the codon 41/42 four base deletion common in Chinese [2.30 {plus_minus} 0.86], or to {beta}{sup Th} heterozygotes with normal {alpha}-globin genes [2.23 {plus_minus} 0.80].

  19. Effect of beta-globin gene cluster haplotype on the hematological and clinical features of sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Rieder, R F; Safaya, S; Gillette, P; Fryd, S; Hsu, H; Adams, J G; Steinberg, M H

    1991-03-01

    In 113 black American adults with sickle cell anemia (HbSS), we examined nine polymorphic restriction sites, including the Xmnl site 5' to the G gamma gene, to see whether haplotype is related to the level of HbF and the proportion of G gamma chains or if it influences the hematological and clinical features of the disease. Seventy-five percent of the patients were homozygous or heterozygous for the Benin (no. 19) or Central African Republic (Bantu, no. 20) haplotypes; 13.3% were homozygous or heterozygous for the Senegal (no. 3) haplotype, while 11.5% had other genotypes. Of the subjects, 14.2% were either homozygous or heterozygous for the Xmnl restriction site 5' to the G gamma gene. We found no effect of haplotype on HbF levels. The level of G gamma chains was 60.5% +/- 17.0% in individuals heterozygous or homozygous for haplotype no. 3 and was 46.9% +/- 11.6% in individuals with other haplotypes. Subjects with the Xmnl site 5' to the G gamma gene had G gamma globin levels of 59.5% +/- 16.7% while those lacking that site had an average of 47.2% +/- 12.1%. There were no significant differences among these groups in hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean cell volume, or clinical indicators of vaso-occlusive severity, including crises, hospitalizations per year, aseptic bone necrosis, acute chest syndrome, or leg ulcers. While the presence of haplotype 3 and the 5' G gamma Xmnl site were associated with increased G gamma chains, there was no effect on HbF level or other hematological and clinical features that might reflect disease severity. It is likely that determinants unrelated to haplotype, linked or unlinked to the beta-globin gene cluster, are the major effectors of differences in the levels of HbF in American patients with sickle cell anemia.

  20. Definition of the minimal requirements within the human beta-globin gene and the dominant control region for high level expression.

    PubMed Central

    Collis, P; Antoniou, M; Grosveld, F

    1990-01-01

    The human beta-globin dominant control region (DCR) was previously identified as a region from the 5' end of the human beta-globin locus which directs high level, site of integration-independent, copy number-dependent expression on a linked human beta-globin gene in transgenic mice and stably transfected mouse erythroleukaemia (MEL) cells. We have now analysed the elements comprising the DCR by systematic deletion mutagenesis in stable MEL transfectants. We have identified two independent elements within the DNase I hypersensitive sites 2 and 3, containing fragments which direct strong transcriptional inducibility of a beta-globin gene. Whilst the remaining two hypersensitive sites do not direct significant transcriptional induction, our data suggest that all four sites may be necessary for the fully regulated expression conferred by the DCR. We have also tested a number of beta-globin minigene constructs under the control of the DCR to assess if any of the local sequences from the gene may be removed without loss of expression. We find that the 3' enhancer may be removed without affecting expression, but there is an absolute requirement for the presence of the second intron, not related to the enhancer present in that intron. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2295312

  1. Transfer of nonselectable genes into mouse teratocarcinoma cells and transcription of the transferred human. beta. -globin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, E.F.; Mintz, B.

    1982-02-01

    Teratocarcinoma (TCC) stem cells can function as vehicles for the introduction of specific recombinant genes into mice. Because most genes do not code for a selectable marker, the authors investigated the transformation efficiency of vectors with a linked selectable gene. In one series, TCC cells first selected for thymidine kinase deficiency were treated with DNA from the plasmid vector PtkH..beta..1 containing the human genomic ..beta..-globin gene and the thymidine kinase gene of herpes simplex virus. A high transformation frequency was obtained after selection in hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine medium. Hybridization tests revealed that the majority of transformants had intact copies of the human gene among three to six total copies per cell. These were associated with cellular DNA sequences as judged from the presence of additional new restriction fragments and from stability of the sequences in tumors produced by injecting the cells subcutaneously. Total polyadenylate-containing RNA from cell cultures of two out of four transformants examined showed hybridization to the human gene probe: one RNA species resembled mature human ..beta..-globin mRNA transcripts; the others were of larger size. In differentiating tumors, various tissues, including hematopoietic cells of TCC provenance could be found. In a second model set of experiments, wild-type TCC cells were used to test a dominant-selection scheme with pSV-gpt vectors. Numerous transformants were isolated, and their transfected DNA was apparently stably integrated. Thus, any gene of choice can be transferred into TCC stem cells even without mutagenesis of the cells, and selected cell clones can be characterized. Cells of interest may then be introduced into early embryos to produce new mouse strains with predetermined genetic changes.

  2. Expression of human. alpha. -globin and mouse/human hybrid. beta. -globin genes in murine hemopoietic stem cells transduced by recombinant retroviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.L.; Dwarki, V.J.; Verma, I.M. )

    1990-06-01

    Murine cell lines releasing helper-free recombinant retroviruses containing human {alpha}-globin and mouse/human hybrid {beta}-globin genes were generated. The expression of the hybrid {beta}-globin gene but not the human {alpha}-globin gene was regulated appropriately in infected mouse erythroid leukemia (MEL) cells. Murine bone marrow cells were infected by coculture with virus-producing cells and transplanted into lethally irradiated syngeneic recipients. Greater than 90% of the spleen colonies (12-15 days), which are derived from hemopoietic multipotential stem cells, showed proviral integration. Various levels of expression of the transduced globin genes were detected in all of the provirus-positive spleen colonies. Proviral sequences and transcripts from the transduced globin genes could also be detected in a few long-term reconstituted recipients in an observation period of 10 months after transplantation.

  3. The beta-globin gene in Sardinian delta beta 0-thalassemia carries a C----T nonsense mutation at codon 39.

    PubMed

    Guida, S; Giglioni, B; Comi, P; Ottolenghi, S; Camaschella, C; Saglio, G

    1984-04-01

    Sardinian delta beta 0-thalassemia is an inherited syndrome characterized by the inactivity of the beta-globin gene and the persistent activity of the fetal gamma-globin genes, particularly the A gamma-globin gene. Previous mapping studies with restriction enzymes failed to show any abnormality in the non-alpha globin gene cluster. We have now examined the possibility that this syndrome might result from a single rather than two different defects. Restriction enzyme polymorphisms linked to the delta beta 0-thalassemic non-alpha globin fragments were defined providing the basis for cloning the delta beta 0-thalassemic beta-globin gene from the DNA of a heterozygous patient. This gene appears to carry a C----T single mutation causing the appearance of a stop codon at amino acid position 39 of the beta-globin gene. This mutation was previously reported in beta 0-thalassemic patients, in linkage with different haplotypes. We conclude that Sardinian delta beta 0-thalassemia is the result of two separate mutations, the former one (unknown) responsible for persistent expression of gamma-globin genes, the latter for beta 0-thalassemia.

  4. Beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes and HbF levels are not the only modulators of sickle cell disease in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Inati, A; Taher, A; Bou Alawi, W; Koussa, S; Kaspar, H; Shbaklo, H; Zalloua, P A

    2003-02-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder of the beta-globin chain. Despite the fact that all subjects with SCD have the same single base pair mutation, the severity of the clinical and hematological manifestations is extremely variable. This study examined for the first time in Lebanon the correlation between the clinical manifestation of SCD and the beta-globin gene haplotypes. The haplotypes of 50 patients diagnosed with SCD were determined using polymerase chain reaction amplification of fragments containing nine polymorphic restriction sites around and within the epsilon-Ggamma-Agamma-psibeta-delta-beta-globin gene complex. Most reported haplotypes were found in our population with the Benin haplotype as the most prevalent one. When the patients were divided according to their HbF levels into three groups (Group A: HbF < 5%, Group B: HbF between 5 and 15%, and Group C: HbF > 15%), surprisingly, the highest levels of HbF were associated with the most severe clinical cases. Our findings suggest that fetal hemoglobin levels are important but not the only parameters that affect the severity of the disease. In addition, the high levels of HbF in patients with CAR haplotypes did not seem to ameliorate the severity of symptoms, suggesting that genetic factors other than haplotypes are the major determinants of increased HbF levels in Lebanon.

  5. Beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes in Afro-Uruguayans from two geographical regions (South and North).

    PubMed

    Da Luz, Julio; Kimura, Elza Miyuki; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; Sonati, Maria de Fatima; Sans, Mónica

    2010-01-01

    The beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes were identified in 52 and 40 chromosomes from two Afro-Uruguayan populations located in the South and North of the country, respectively. In both regions, the 5' haplotype 2 (+ - - - -), characteristic of non-African populations, was the most frequent, reflecting a strong process of admixture in Afro-Uruguayans (0.355 and 0.262, respectively). The haplotypes 3 (- - - - +) and 4 (- + - - +), characteristics of African sub-Saharan populations, present inverse frequencies in North and South: whereas in the South haplotype 3 is the second most frequent (0.232), and haplotype 4 presents a low frequency (0.019), in the North haplotype 4 is the third most frequent (0.140), and haplotype 3 only reaches an intermediate frequency (0.088). The pairwise F(ST) and the exact test of differentiation show genetic heterogeneity between both regions. Nei's genetic distance show that South and North present affinities with Bantu groups, although the North present the smallest genetic distance with the Mandenka, a Senegalese population. With respect to 3' haplotypes, haplotype I was the most frequent in both populations, followed by haplotype II, characteristic of sub-Saharan Africans. The high frequencies of haplotype III-Asian could indicate admixture with Native American populations. The differences observed between both Uruguayan regions could be explained by microevolutionary events as genetic drift, founder effects, differential admixture, and/or distinct origin of the African slaves introduced in those regions.

  6. Changes in expression of murine alpha- and beta-globin genes during development

    SciTech Connect

    Popp, R.A.; D'Surney, S.J.; Wawrzyniak, C.J.

    1986-09-30

    Polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing was used to separate the multiple embryonic and adult hemoglobins in order to determine the relative amounts of the a1 and a/sup 2/ gene products in fetal mice of the Hba/sup c/ and Hba/sup g2/ haplotypes. In addition, centrifugal elutriation was used to separte the nucleated and non-nucleated red cells in order to determine the relative amounts of the b1/sup s2/ and b2/sup s/ gene products in each subpopulation of erythryocytes in fetal mice of the Hbb/sup s2/ haplotype. 22 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Axolotl hemoglobin: cDNA-derived amino acid sequences of two alpha globins and a beta globin from an adult Ambystoma mexicanum.

    PubMed

    Shishikura, Fumio; Takeuchi, Hiro-aki; Nagai, Takatoshi

    2005-11-01

    Erythrocytes of the adult axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, have multiple hemoglobins. We separated and purified two kinds of hemoglobin, termed major hemoglobin (Hb M) and minor hemoglobin (Hb m), from a five-year-old male by hydrophobic interaction column chromatography on Alkyl Superose. The hemoglobins have two distinct alpha type globin polypeptides (alphaM and alpham) and a common beta globin polypeptide, all of which were purified in FPLC on a reversed-phase column after S-pyridylethylation. The complete amino acid sequences of the three globin chains were determined separately using nucleotide sequencing with the assistance of protein sequencing. The mature globin molecules were composed of 141 amino acid residues for alphaM globin, 143 for alpham globin and 146 for beta globin. Comparing primary structures of the five kinds of axolotl globins, including two previously established alpha type globins from the same species, with other known globins of amphibians and representatives of other vertebrates, we constructed phylogenetic trees for amphibian hemoglobins and tetrapod hemoglobins. The molecular trees indicated that alphaM, alpham, beta and the previously known alpha major globin were adult types of globins and the other known alpha globin was a larval type. The existence of two to four more globins in the axolotl erythrocyte is predicted.

  8. Non-random association of the Rsa I polymorphic site 5' to the beta-globin gene with major sickle cell haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Sharon, B; Poncz, M; Surrey, S; Schwartz, E

    1988-01-01

    There are three main African haplotypes associated with the sickle mutation on chromosome 11. We have examined an Rsa I polymorphism 550 bp 5' to the beta-globin gene to study the degree of linkage disequilibrium between this Rsa I site and the three haplotypes. This Rsa I site is contained within the 10.3 kb or less area of randomization separating the 5'- and 3'-haplotype clusters. The beta S-containing chromosomes of the Benin and Senegal haplotypes are not cut, while those of the Central African Republic are cleaved by Rsa I at this site. Possible explanations of these findings are discussed.

  9. Beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes in sickle cell patients from southwest Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Z; Karimi, M; Haghshenass, M; Merat, A

    2003-11-01

    Sickle cell anemia in Iran is accompanied by a high level of HbF and mild clinical presentation. Here we report haplotypes of the beta gene cluster found in 81 randomly selected sickle cell patients, including 47 sickle cell anemia (SS), 17 sickle cell trait (AS), and 17 sickle/thalassemia (S/thal) from southwest Iran. We found all five common typical haplotypes as well as five atypical haplotypes in our patients. Except for four patients with homozygous Benin haplotype, none of the other African typical haplotypes were found in a homozygous state. Arab-Indian was found to be the most prevalent haplotype in the study population. This haplotype accounted for 51.1% as the homozygous form in SS patients, where 69.1% of chromosomes in these patients had the Arab-Indian haplotype. Bantu A2 was the second most prevalent haplotype among all patients. The mean %HbF in SS patients was 27.83 and in the homozygous Arab-Indian haplotype it was still higher (30.40%), while in AS patients the %HbF was only 1.20. The high %Ggamma chain (71.81) in the Arab-Indian homozygous haplotype was concomitant with the presence of an Xmn I site in both chromosomes. The presence of the Arab-Indian haplotype as the predominant haplotype might be suggestive of a gene flow to/from Saudi Arabia or India. More haplotype investigations of a normal population can clarify the high incidence of Bantu A2 haplotype in our population.

  10. Spectrum of Beta Globin Gene Mutations in Egyptian Children with β-Thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    El-Shanshory, MR; Hagag, AA; Shebl, SS; Badria, IM; Abd Elhameed, AH; Abd El-Bar, ES; Al-Tonbary, Y; Mansour, A; Hassab, H; Hamdy, M; Alfy, M; Sherief, L; Sharaf, E

    2014-01-01

    Background The molecular defects resulting in a β-thalassemia phenotype, in the Egyptian population, show a clear heterogenic mutations pattern. PCR-based techniques, including direct DNA sequencing are effective on the molecular detection and characterization of these mutations. The molecular characterization of β-thalassemia is necessary for carrier screening, genetic counseling, and to offer prenatal diagnosis. The aim of the work was to evaluate the different β-globin gene mutations in two hundred β-thalassemic Egyptian children. Subjects and Methods This study was carried out on two hundred β-thalassemic Egyptian children covering most Egyptian Governorates including 158 (79%) children with thalassemia major (TM) and 42 (21%) children with thalassemia intermedia(TI). All patients were subjected to meticulous history taking, clinical examination, complete blood count, hemoglobin electrophoresis, serum ferritin and direct fluorescent DNA sequencing of the β-globin gene to detect the frequency of different mutations. Results The most common mutations among patients were IVS I-110(G>A) 48%, IVS I-6(T>C) 40%, IVS I-1(G>A) 24%, IVS I-5(G>C)10%, IVS II-848 (C>A) 9%, IVS II-745(C>G) 8%, IVS II-1(G>A) 7%, codon “Cd”39(C> T) 4%, −87(C>G) 3% and the rare mutations were: Cd37 (G>A), Cd8 (−AA), Cd29(−G), Cd5 (−CT), Cd6(−A), Cd8/9(+G), Cd 106/107(+G), Cd27(C>T), IVS II-16(G> C), Cd 28 (−C), Cap+1(A>C), −88(C>A), all of these rare mutations were present in 1%. There was a considerable variation in phenotypic severity among patients resulting from the interaction of different β∘ and β+mutations. Furthermore, no genotype-phenotype association was found both among the cases with thalassemia major and the cases with thalassemia intermedia. Conclusion Direct DNA sequencing provides insights for the frequency of different mutations in patients with β-thalassemia including rare and/or unknown ones. The most common mutations in Egyptian children with

  11. An analysis of fetal hemoglobin variation in sickle cell disease: the relative contributions of the X-linked factor, beta-globin haplotypes, alpha-globin gene number, gender, and age.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y C; Smith, K D; Moore, R D; Serjeant, G R; Dover, G J

    1995-02-15

    Five factors have been shown to influence the 20-fold variation of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) levels in sickle cell anemia (SS): age, sex, the alpha-globin gene number, beta-globin haplotypes, and an X-linked locus that regulates the production of Hb F-containing erythrocytes (F cells), ie, the F-cell production (FCP) locus. To determine the relative importance of these factors, we studied 257 Jamaican SS subjects from a Cohort group identified by newborn screening and from a Sib Pair study. Linear regression analyses showed that each variable, when analyzed alone, had a significant association with Hb F levels (P < .05). Multiple regression analysis, including all variables, showed that the FCP locus is the strongest predictor, accounting for 40% of Hb F variation. beta-Globin haplotypes, alpha-globin genes, and age accounted for less than 10% of the variation. The association between the beta-globin haplotypes and Hb F levels becomes apparent if the influence of the FCP locus is removed by analyzing only individuals with the same FCP phenotype. Thus, the FCP locus is the most important factor identified to date in determining Hb F levels. The variation within each FCP phenotype is modulated by factors associated with the three common beta-globin haplotypes and other as yet unidentified factor(s).

  12. Molecular analysis of the beta-globin gene cluster in the Niokholo Mandenka population reveals a recent origin of the beta(S) Senegal mutation.

    PubMed

    Currat, Mathias; Trabuchet, Guy; Rees, David; Perrin, Pascale; Harding, Rosalind M; Clegg, John B; Langaney, André; Excoffier, Laurent

    2002-01-01

    A large and ethnically well-defined Mandenka sample from eastern Senegal was analyzed for the polymorphism of the beta-globin gene cluster on chromosome 11. Five RFLP sites of the 5' region were investigated in 193 individuals revealing the presence of 10 different haplotypes. The frequency of the sickle-cell anemia causing mutation (beta(S)) in the Mandenka estimated from this sample is 11.7%. This mutation was found strictly associated with the single Senegal haplotype. Approximately 600 bp of the upstream region of the beta-globin gene were sequenced for a subset of 94 chromosomes, showing the presence of four transversions, five transitions, and a composite microsatellite polymorphism. The sequence of 22 beta(S) chromosomes was also identical to the previously defined Senegal haplotype, suggesting that this mutation is very recent. Monte Carlo simulations (allowing for a specific balancing selection model, a logistic growth of the population, and variable initial frequencies of the Senegal haplotype) were used to estimate the age of the beta(S) mutation. Resulting maximum-likelihood estimates are 45-70 generations (1,350-2,100 years) for very different demographic scenarios. Smallest confidence intervals (25-690 generations) are obtained under the hypothesis that the Mandenka population is large (N(e) >5,000) and stationary or that it has undergone a rapid demographic expansion to a current size of >5,000 reproducing individuals, which is quite likely in view of the great diversity found on beta(A) chromosomes.

  13. Development of a High-Resolution Melting Approach for Scanning Beta Globin Gene Point Mutations in the Greek and Other Mediterranean Populations.

    PubMed

    Chassanidis, Christos; Boutou, Effrossyni; Voskaridou, Ersi; Balassopoulou, Angeliki

    2016-01-01

    Beta-thalassaemia is one of the most common autosomal recessive disorders worldwide. The disease's high incidence, which is observed in the broader Mediterranean area has led to the establishment of molecular diagnostics' assays to prevent affected births. Therefore, the development of a reliable, cost-effective and rapid scanning method for β globin gene point mutations, easily adapted to a routine laboratory, is absolutely essential. Here, we describe, for the first time, the development of a High-Resolution Melting Analysis (HRMA) approach, suitable for scanning the particularly heterogeneous beta globin gene mutations present in the Greek population, and thus adaptable to the Mediterranean and other areas where these mutations have been identified. Within this context, β globin gene regions containing mutations frequently identified in the Greek population were divided in ten overlapping amplicons. Our reactions' setup allowed for the simultaneous amplification of multiple primer sets and partial multiplexing, thereby resulting in significant reduction of the experimental time. DNA samples from β-thalassaemia patients/carriers with defined genotypes were tested. Distinct genotypes displayed distinguishable melting curves, enabling accurate detection of mutations. The described HRMA can be adapted to a high-throughput level. It represents a rapid, simple, cost-effective, reliable, highly feasible and sensitive method for β-thalassaemia gene scanning.

  14. Correction of a mouse model of sickle cell disease: lentiviral/antisickling beta-globin gene transduction of unmobilized, purified hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Levasseur, Dana N; Ryan, Thomas M; Pawlik, Kevin M; Townes, Tim M

    2003-12-15

    Although sickle cell anemia was the first hereditary disease to be understood at the molecular level, there is still no adequate long-term treatment. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is the only available cure, but this procedure is limited to a minority of patients with an available, histocompatible donor. Autologous transplantation of bone marrow stem cells that are transduced with a stably expressed, antisickling globin gene would benefit a majority of patients with sickle cell disease. Therefore, the development of a gene therapy protocol that corrects the disease in an animal model and is directly translatable to human patients is critical. A method is described in which unmobilized, highly purified bone marrow stem cells are transduced with a minimum amount of self-inactivating (SIN) lentiviral vector containing a potent antisickling beta-globin gene. These cells, which were transduced in the absence of cytokine stimulation, fully reconstitute irradiated recipients and correct the hemolytic anemia and organ pathology that characterize the disease in humans. The mean increase of hemoglobin concentration was 46 g/L (4.6 g/dL) and the average lentiviral copy number was 2.2; therefore, a 21-g/L /vector copy increase (2.1-g/dL) was achieved. This transduction protocol may be directly translatable to patients with sickle cell disease who cannot tolerate current bone marrow mobilization procedures and may not safely be exposed to large viral loads.

  15. Genomic organization and differential signature of positive selection in the alpha and beta globin gene clusters in two cetacean species.

    PubMed

    Nery, Mariana F; Arroyo, José Ignacio; Opazo, Juan C

    2013-01-01

    The hemoglobin of jawed vertebrates is a heterotetramer protein that contains two α- and two β-chains, which are encoded by members of α- and β-globin gene families. Given the hemoglobin role in mediating an adaptive response to chronic hypoxia, it is likely that this molecule may have experienced a selective pressure during the evolution of cetaceans, which have to deal with hypoxia tolerance during prolonged diving. This selective pressure could have generated a complex history of gene turnover in these clusters and/or changes in protein structure themselves. Accordingly, we aimed to characterize the genomic organization of α- and β-globin gene clusters in two cetacean species and to detect a possible role of positive selection on them using a phylogenetic framework. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogeny reconstructions revealed that both cetacean species had retained a similar complement of putatively functional genes. For the α-globin gene cluster, the killer whale presents a complement of genes composed of HBZ, HBK, and two functional copies of HBA and HBQ genes, whereas the dolphin possesses HBZ, HBK, HBA and HBQ genes, and one HBA pseudogene. For the β-globin gene cluster, both species retained a complement of four genes, two early expressed genes-HBE and HBH-and two adult expressed genes-HBD and HBB. Our natural selection analysis detected two positively selected sites in the HBB gene (56 and 62) and four in HBA (15, 21, 49, 120). Interestingly, only the genes that are expressed during the adulthood showed the signature of positive selection.

  16. Origin and spread of beta-globin gene mutations in India, Africa, and Mediterranea: analysis of the 5' flanking and intragenic sequences of beta S and beta C genes.

    PubMed

    Trabuchet, G; Elion, J; Baudot, G; Pagnier, J; Bouhass, R; Nigon, V M; Labie, D; Krishnamoorthy, R

    1991-06-01

    Nucleotide polymorphisms of both the 5' flanking and intragenic regions of the human beta-globin gene were investigated by directly sequencing genomic DNA after amplification by the polymerase chain reaction in 47 subjects homozygous for the beta S or the beta C mutation. The sickle-cell mutation was found in the context of five different haplotypes defined by eight nucleotide substitutions and various structures of a region of the simple repeated sequence (AT) chi Ty. All subjects from the same geographic origin bear an identical chromosomal structure, defining the Senegal-, Bantu-, Benin-, Cameroon-, and Indian-type chromosomes. These results strengthen our previous conclusions about the multiple occurrence of the sickle-cell mutation. The Benin-type chromosome was also found among Algerian and Sicilian sickle-cell patients, whereas the Indian-type chromosome was observed in two geographically distant tribes, illustrating the spread of these sickle-cell genes. We also found that the intragenic sequence polymorphisms (frameworks) are not always in linkage disequilibrium with the BamH I polymorphism downstream from the beta-globin gene, as had been previously observed. Finally, we present a tentative phylogenetic tree of the different alleles at this locus. Some polymorphisms of this sequence might be contemporary with our last common ancestor, the great apes, that is, about 4-6 millions years old.

  17. Beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes and alpha-thalassemia in sickle cell disease patients from Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Jones-Lecointe, Altheia; Smith, Erskine; Romana, Marc; Gilbert, Marie-Georges; Charles, Waveney P; Saint-Martin, Christian; Kéclard, Lisiane

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we have determined the frequency of beta(S) haplotypes in 163 sickle cell disease patients from Trinidad. The alpha(3.7) globin gene deletion status was also studied with an observed gene frequency of 0.17. Among the 283 beta(S) chromosomes analyzed, the Benin haplotype was the most prevalent (61.8%) followed by Bantu (17.3%), Senegal (8.5%), Cameroon (3.5%), and Arab-Indian (3.2%), while 5.7% of them were atypical. This beta(S) haplotypes distribution differed from those previously described in other Caribbean islands (Jamaica, Guadeloupe, and Cuba), in agreement with the known involvement of the major colonial powers (Spain, France, and Great Britain) in the slave trade in Trinidad and documented an Indian origin of the beta(S) gene.

  18. Inter-ethnic polymorphism of the beta-globin gene locus control region (LCR) in sickle-cell anemia patients.

    PubMed

    Périchon, B; Ragusa, A; Lapouméroulie, C; Romand, A; Moi, P; Ikuta, T; Labie, D; Elion, J; Krishnamoorthy, R

    1993-06-01

    Sequence polymorphisms within the 5'HS2 segment of human locus control region is described among sickle cell anemia patients. Distinct polymorphic patterns of a simple sequence repeat are observed in strong linkage disequilibrium with each of the five major beta s haplotypes. Potential functional relevance of this polymorphic region in globin gene expression is discussed.

  19. The beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes in sickle cell anemia patients from Northeast Brazil: a clinical and molecular view.

    PubMed

    Adorno, Elisângela Vitória; Zanette, Angela; Lyra, Isa; Souza, Cyntia Cajado; Santos, Leandro Ferraz; Menezes, Joelma Figueiredo; Dupuit, Marie France; Almeida, Mari Ney Tavares; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Gonçalves, Marilda Souza

    2004-08-01

    The beta(S)-globin haplotypes were studied in 78 sickle cell Brazilian patients from Bahia, Northeast Brazil, that has a large population of African origin. Hemoglobin (Hb) profiles were developed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and beta(S)-globin gene haplotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) techniques. We identified 44 (55.0%) patients with the CAR/Ben (Central African Republic/Benin) genotype, 16 (20.0%) Ben/Ben, 13 (16.2%) CAR/CAR and seven (8.8%) with other genotypes. Analyses of the phenotypes showed clinical differences related only to Hb F levels and blood transfusion therapy; the presence of -alpha(-3.7)-thalassemia (thal) demonstrated statistical significance when associated with hematocrit (p=0.044), MCV (p=0.0007), MCH (p=0.012) and spleen sequestration events. The haplotype diversity found in the present study can be justified by information about the origin of the slave traffic period in Bahia during the 19th century. The specific characteristics described among the Bahian sickle cell patients could be confirmed by increasing the number of patients with specific genotypes and further studies of genetic markers.

  20. Structural analysis of the 5 prime flanking region of the. beta. -globin gene in African sickle cell anemia patients: Further evidence for three origins of the sickle cell mutation in Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Chebloune, Y.; Pagnier, J.; Trabuchet, G.; Faure, C.; Verdier, G.; Labie, D.; Nigon, V. )

    1988-06-01

    Haplotype analysis of the {beta}-globin gene cluster shows two regions of DNA characterized by nonrandom association of restriction site polymorphisms. These regions are separated by a variable segment containing the repeated sequences (ATTTT){sub n} and (AT){sub x}T{sub y}, which might be involved in recombinational events. Studies of haplotypes linked to the sickle cell gene in Africa provide strong argument for three origins of the mutation: Benin, Senegal, and the Central African Republic. The structure of the variable segment in the three African populations was studied by S1 nuclease mapping of genomic DNA, which allows a comparison of several samples. A 1080-base-pair DNA segment was sequenced for one sample from each population. S1 nuclease mapping confirmed the homogeneity of each population with regard to both (ATTTT){sub n} and (AT){sub x}T{sub y} repeats. The authors found three additional structures for (AT){sub x}T{sub y} correlating with the geographic origin of the patients. Ten other nucleotide positions, 5{prime} and 3{prime} to the (AT){sub x}T{sub y} copies, were found to be variable when compared to homologous sequences from human and monkey DNAs. These results allow us to propose an evolutionary scheme for the polymorphisms in the 5{prime} flanking region of the {beta}-globin gene. The results strongly support the hypothesis of three origins for the sickle mutation in Africa.

  1. DNAase I hypersensitive site 3' to the beta-globin gene cluster containing two TAA insertions and a G-->A polymorphism is predominantly associated with the beta+-thalassemia IVS-I-6 (T-->C) mutation.

    PubMed

    Martins, Juliana T N; Bordin, Silvana; de Albuquerque, Dulcinéia M; Saad, Sara T O; Costa, Fernando F

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of DNA polymorphic sites is an important tool for the detection of gene flow in human evolutionary studies and to study the genetic background for gene mutations. The beta-globin locus contains several single-base restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) sites throughout chromosome 11. In addition to these polymorphic sequence repeats, others are being studied in order to expand our knowledge concerning the role between haplotype-genotype and phenotype associations. Far downstream of the expressed beta-globin genes, there is a hypersensitive site (HS) whose function remains obscure. We sequenced this region in 27 thalassemia patients and found a new pattern in the micro-satellite-like AT-rich region of this site: a new TAA insertion in addition to the one previously described in sickle cell patients with a concomitant polymorphism (G-->A). This new variation was found to be linked to the IVS-I-6 (T-->C) mutation. This polymorphism may be useful for studies concerning genotype and phenotype associations.

  2. Erythroid Krüppel-like factor (EKLF) is active in primitive and definitive erythroid cells and is required for the function of 5'HS3 of the beta-globin locus control region.

    PubMed

    Tewari, R; Gillemans, N; Wijgerde, M; Nuez, B; von Lindern, M; Grosveld, F; Philipsen, S

    1998-04-15

    Disruption of the gene for transcription factor EKLF (erythroid Krüppel-like factor) results in fatal anaemia caused by severely reduced expression of the adult beta-globin gene, while other erythroid-specific genes, including the embryonic epsilon- and fetal gamma-globin genes, are expressed normally. Thus, EKLF is thought to be a stage-specific factor acting through the CACC box in the beta-gene promoter, even though it is already present in embryonic red cells. Here, we show that a beta-globin gene linked directly to the locus control region (LCR) is expressed at embryonic stages, and that this is only modestly reduced in EKLF-/- embryos. Thus, embryonic beta-globin expression is not intrinsically dependent on EKLF. To investigate whether EKLF functions in the locus control region, we analysed the expression of LCR-driven lacZ reporters. This shows that EKLF is not required for reporter activation by the complete LCR. However, embryonic expression of reporters driven by 5'HS3 of the LCR requires EKLF. This suggests that EKLF interacts directly with the CACC motifs in 5'HS3 and demonstrates that EKLF is also a transcriptional activator in embryonic erythropoiesis. Finally, we show that overexpression of EKLF results in an earlier switch from gamma- to beta-globin expression. Adult mice with the EKLF transgene have reduced platelet counts, suggesting that EKLF levels affect the balance between the megakaryocytic and erythroid lineages. Interestingly, the EKLF transgene rescues the lethal phenotype of EKLF null mice, setting the stage for future studies aimed at the analysis of the EKLF protein and its role in beta-globin gene activation.

  3. Fine structure genetic analysis of a beta-globin promoter.

    PubMed

    Myers, R M; Tilly, K; Maniatis, T

    1986-05-02

    A novel procedure for saturation mutagenesis of cloned DNA was used to obtain more than 100 single base substitutions within the promoter of the mouse beta-major globin gene. The effects of these promoter substitutions on transcription were determined by transfecting the cloned mutant genes into HeLa cells on plasmids containing an SV40 transcription enhancer, and measuring the levels of correctly initiated beta-globin transcripts after 2 days. Mutations in three regions of the promoter resulted in a significant decrease in the level of transcription: (i) the CACCC box, located between -87 and -95, (ii) the CCAAT box, located between -72 and -77, and (iii) the TATA box, located between -26 and -30 relative to the start site of transcription. In contrast, two different mutations in nucleotides immediately upstream from the CCAAT box resulted in a 3- to 3.5-fold increase in transcription. With two minor exceptions, single base substitutions in all other regions of the promoter had no effect on transcription. These results precisely delineate the cis-acting sequences required for accurate and efficient initiation of beta-globin transcription, and they establish a general approach for the fine structure genetic analysis of eukaryotic regulatory sequences.

  4. Replication initiation patterns in the beta-globin loci of totipotent and differentiated murine cells: evidence for multiple initiation regions.

    PubMed

    Aladjem, Mirit I; Rodewald, Luo Wei; Lin, Chii Mai; Bowman, Sarah; Cimbora, Daniel M; Brody, Linnea L; Epner, Elliot M; Groudine, Mark; Wahl, Geoffrey M

    2002-01-01

    The replication initiation pattern of the murine beta-globin locus was analyzed in totipotent embryonic stem cells and in differentiated cell lines. Initiation events in the murine beta-globin locus were detected in a region extending from the embryonic Ey gene to the adult betaminor gene, unlike the restricted initiation observed in the human locus. Totipotent and differentiated cells exhibited similar initiation patterns. Deletion of the region between the adult globin genes did not prevent initiation in the remainder of the locus, suggesting that the potential to initiate DNA replication was not contained exclusively within the primary sequence of the deleted region. In addition, a deletion encompassing the six identified 5' hypersensitive sites in the mouse locus control region had no effect on initiation from within the locus. As this deletion also did not affect the chromatin structure of the locus, we propose that the sequences determining both chromatin structure and replication initiation lie outside the hypersensitive sites removed by the deletion.

  5. Frequency and origin of haplotypes associated with the beta-globin gene cluster in individuals with trait and sickle cell anemia in the Atlantic and Pacific coastal regions of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Cristian; Lizarralde-Iragorri, María Alejandra; Rojas-Gallardo, Diana; Barreto, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease with high prevalence in people of African descent. There are five typical haplotypes associated with this disease and the haplotypes associated with the beta-globin gene cluster have been used to establish the origin of African-descendant people in America. In this work, we determined the frequency and the origin of haplotypes associated with hemoglobin S in a sample of individuals with sickle cell anemia (HbSS) and sickle cell hemoglobin trait (HbAS) in coastal regions of Colombia. Blood samples from 71 HbAS and 79 HbSS individuals were obtained. Haplotypes were determined based on the presence of variable restriction sites within the β-globin gene cluster. On the Pacific coast of Colombia the most frequent haplotype was Benin, while on the Atlantic coast Bantu was marginally higher than Benin. Eight atypical haplotypes were observed on both coasts, being more diverse in the Atlantic than in the Pacific region. These results suggest a differential settlement of the coasts, dependent on where slaves were brought from, either from the Gulf of Guinea or from Angola, where the haplotype distributions are similar. Atypical haplotypes probably originated from point mutations that lost or gained a restriction site and/or by recombination events. PMID:24385850

  6. Frequency and origin of haplotypes associated with the beta-globin gene cluster in individuals with trait and sickle cell anemia in the Atlantic and Pacific coastal regions of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Fong, Cristian; Lizarralde-Iragorri, María Alejandra; Rojas-Gallardo, Diana; Barreto, Guillermo

    2013-12-01

    Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease with high prevalence in people of African descent. There are five typical haplotypes associated with this disease and the haplotypes associated with the beta-globin gene cluster have been used to establish the origin of African-descendant people in America. In this work, we determined the frequency and the origin of haplotypes associated with hemoglobin S in a sample of individuals with sickle cell anemia (HbSS) and sickle cell hemoglobin trait (HbAS) in coastal regions of Colombia. Blood samples from 71 HbAS and 79 HbSS individuals were obtained. Haplotypes were determined based on the presence of variable restriction sites within the β-globin gene cluster. On the Pacific coast of Colombia the most frequent haplotype was Benin, while on the Atlantic coast Bantu was marginally higher than Benin. Eight atypical haplotypes were observed on both coasts, being more diverse in the Atlantic than in the Pacific region. These results suggest a differential settlement of the coasts, dependent on where slaves were brought from, either from the Gulf of Guinea or from Angola, where the haplotype distributions are similar. Atypical haplotypes probably originated from point mutations that lost or gained a restriction site and/or by recombination events.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: methemoglobinemia, beta-globin type

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood cells. Specifically, it alters a molecule called hemoglobin within these cells. Hemoglobin within red blood cells attaches (binds) to oxygen ... in tissues throughout the body. Instead of normal hemoglobin, people with methemoglobinemia, beta-globin type have an ...

  8. Characterization of histone H3K27 modifications in the {beta}-globin locus

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yea Woon; Kim, AeRi

    2011-02-11

    Research highlights: {yields} The {beta}-globin locus control region is hyperacetylated and monomethylated at histone H3K27. {yields} Highly transcribed globin genes are marked by H3K27ac, but H3K27me2 is remarkable at silent globin genes in erythroid K562 cells. {yields} Association of PRC2 subunits is comparable with H3K27me3 pattern. {yields} Modifications of histone H3K27 are established in an enhancer-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Histone H3K27 is acetylated or methylated in the environment of nuclear chromatin. Here, to characterize the modification pattern of H3K27 in locus control region (LCR) and to understand the correlation of various H3K27 modifications with transcriptional activity of genes, we analyzed the human {beta}-globin locus using the ChIP assay. The LCR of the human {beta}-globin locus was enriched by H3K27ac and H3K27me1 in erythroid K562 cells. The highly transcribed globin genes were hyperacetylated at H3K27, but the repressed globin genes were highly dimethylated at this lysine in these cells. However, in non-erythroid 293FT cells, the {beta}-globin locus was marked by a high level of H3K27me3. EZH2 and SUZ12, subunits of polycomb repressive complex 2, were comparably detected with the H3K27me3 pattern in K562 and 293FT cells. In addition, H3K27ac, H3K27me1 and H3K27me3 were established in an enhancer-dependent manner in a model minichromosomal locus containing an enhancer and its target gene. Taken together, these results show that H3K27 modifications have distinctive correlations with the chromatin state or transcription level of genes and are influenced by an enhancer.

  9. Diversity of [beta]-globin mutations in Israeli ethnic groups reflects recent historic events

    SciTech Connect

    Filon, D.; Oron, V.; Krichevski, S.; Shaag, A.; Goldfarb, A.; Aker, M.; Rachmilewitz, E.A.; Rund, D.; Oppenheim, A. )

    1994-05-01

    The authors characterized nearly 500 [beta]-thalassemia genes from the Israeli population representing a variety of ethnic subgroups. They found 28 different mutations in the [beta]-globin gene, including three mutations ([beta][sup S], [beta][sup C], and [beta][sup O-Arab]) causing hemoglobinopathies. Marked genetic heterogeneity was observed in both the Arab (20 mutations) and Jewish (17 mutations) populations. On the other hand, two ethnic isolates - Druze and Samaritans - had a single mutation each. Fifteen of the [beta]-thalassemia alleles are Mediterranean in type, 5 originated in Kurdistan, 2 are of Indian origin, and 2 sporadic alleles came from Europe. Only one mutant allele-nonsense codon 37-appears to be indigenous to Israel. While human habitation in Israel dates back to early prehistory, the present-day spectrum of [beta]-globin mutations can be largely explained by migration events that occurred in the past millennium. 26 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. beta (+)-Thalassaemia in the Po river delta region (northern Italy): genotype and beta globin synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Del Senno, L; Pirastu, M; Barbieri, R; Bernardi, F; Buzzoni, D; Marchetti, G; Perrotta, C; Vullo, C; Kan, Y W; Conconi, F

    1985-01-01

    Six beta(+)-thalassaemic patients from the Po river delta region have been studied. Using synthetic oligonucleotides as specific hybridisation probes, the beta(+) IVS I mutation (G----A at position 108) was demonstrated. This lesion and the enzyme polymorphism pattern in the subjects examined are the same as have been described for other Mediterranean beta(+)-thalassaemias. Antenatal diagnosis through DNA analysis of beta(+)-thalassaemia is therefore possible. The production of beta globin in a beta(+), homozygote and in a beta (+), beta(0) 39 (nonsense mutation at codon 39) double heterozygote is approximately 20% and 10% respectively of total non-alpha globin synthesis. Despite some overlapping of the results, similar beta globin synthesis levels have been obtained in 43 beta(+)-thalassaemia patients. This suggests that in the Po river delta region the most common thalassaemic genes are beta(0) 39 and beta(+) IVS I. Images PMID:2580095

  11. Beta-globin gene haplotypes among cameroonians and review of the global distribution: is there a case for a single sickle mutation origin in Africa?

    PubMed

    Bitoungui, Valentina J Ngo; Pule, Gift D; Hanchard, Neil; Ngogang, Jeanne; Wonkam, Ambroise

    2015-03-01

    Studies of hemoglobin S haplotypes in African subpopulations have potential implications for patient care and our understanding of genetic factors that have shaped the prevalence of sickle cell disease (SCD). We evaluated HBB gene cluster haplotypes in SCD patients from Cameroon, and reviewed the literature for a global distribution. We reviewed medical records to obtain pertinent socio-demographic and clinical features for 610 Cameroonian SCD patients, including hemoglobin electrophoresis and full blood counts. RFLP-PCR was used to determine the HBB gene haplotype on 1082 chromosomes. A systematic review of the current literature was undertaken to catalogue HBB haplotype frequencies in SCD populations around the world. Benin (74%; n = 799) and Cameroon (19%; n = 207) were the most prevalent haplotypes observed among Cameroonian patients. There was no significant association between HBB haplotypes and clinical life events, anthropometric measures, hematological parameters, or fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels. The literature review of the global haplotype distributions was consistent with known historical migrations of the people of Africa. Previously reported data from Sudan showed a distinctly unusual pattern; all four classical haplotypes were reported, with an exceptionally high proportion of the Senegal, Cameroon, and atypical haplotypes. We did not observe any significant associations between HBB haplotype and SCD disease course in this cohort. Taken together, the data from Cameroon and from the wider literature suggest that a careful reassessment of African HBB haplotypes may shed further light on the evolutionary dynamics of the sickle allele, which could suggest a single origin of the sickle mutation.

  12. Beta-Globin Gene Haplotypes Among Cameroonians and Review of the Global Distribution: Is There a Case for a Single Sickle Mutation Origin in Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Bitoungui, Valentina J. Ngo; Pule, Gift D.; Hanchard, Neil; Ngogang, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Studies of hemoglobin S haplotypes in African subpopulations have potential implications for patient care and our understanding of genetic factors that have shaped the prevalence of sickle cell disease (SCD). We evaluated HBB gene cluster haplotypes in SCD patients from Cameroon, and reviewed the literature for a global distribution. We reviewed medical records to obtain pertinent socio-demographic and clinical features for 610 Cameroonian SCD patients, including hemoglobin electrophoresis and full blood counts. RFLP-PCR was used to determine the HBB gene haplotype on 1082 chromosomes. A systematic review of the current literature was undertaken to catalogue HBB haplotype frequencies in SCD populations around the world. Benin (74%; n=799) and Cameroon (19%; n=207) were the most prevalent haplotypes observed among Cameroonian patients. There was no significant association between HBB haplotypes and clinical life events, anthropometric measures, hematological parameters, or fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels. The literature review of the global haplotype distributions was consistent with known historical migrations of the people of Africa. Previously reported data from Sudan showed a distinctly unusual pattern; all four classical haplotypes were reported, with an exceptionally high proportion of the Senegal, Cameroon, and atypical haplotypes. We did not observe any significant associations between HBB haplotype and SCD disease course in this cohort. Taken together, the data from Cameroon and from the wider literature suggest that a careful reassessment of African HBB haplotypes may shed further light on the evolutionary dynamics of the sickle allele, which could suggest a single origin of the sickle mutation. PMID:25748438

  13. Genomic evidence for independent origins of beta-like globin genes in monotremes and therian mammals.

    PubMed

    Opazo, Juan C; Hoffmann, Federico G; Storz, Jay F

    2008-02-05

    Phylogenetic reconstructions of the beta-globin gene family in vertebrates have revealed that developmentally regulated systems of hemoglobin synthesis have been reinvented multiple times in independent lineages. For example, the functional differentiation of embryonic and adult beta-like globin genes occurred independently in birds and mammals. In both taxa, the embryonic beta-globin gene is exclusively expressed in primitive erythroid cells derived from the yolk sac. However, the "epsilon-globin" gene in birds is not orthologous to the epsilon-globin gene in mammals, because they are independently derived from lineage-specific duplications of a proto beta-globin gene. Here, we report evidence that the early and late expressed beta-like globin genes in monotremes and therian mammals (marsupials and placental mammals) are the products of independent duplications of a proto beta-globin gene in each of these two lineages. Results of our analysis of genomic sequence data from a large number of vertebrate taxa, including sequence from the recently completed platypus genome, reveal that the epsilon- and beta-globin genes of therian mammals arose via duplication of a proto beta-globin gene after the therian/monotreme split. Our analysis of genomic sequence from the platypus also revealed the presence of a duplicate pair of beta-like globin genes that originated via duplication of a proto beta-globin gene in the monotreme lineage. This discovery provides evidence that, in different lineages of mammals, descendent copies of the same proto beta-globin gene may have been independently neofunctionalized to perform physiological tasks associated with oxygen uptake and storage during embryonic development.

  14. Replication of alpha and beta globin DNA sequences occurs during early S phase in murine erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed Central

    Epner, E; Rifkind, R A; Marks, P A

    1981-01-01

    Murine erythroleukemia cells (MELC) can be induced to express the characteristics of erythroid differentiation by a variety of agents. Previous studies indicate that an action of inducer, occurring during early S phase, may be critical to the expression of differentiated characteristics such as initiation of accumulation of newly synthesized alpha and beta globin mRNAs. In this investigation, the time of replication of globin genes in MELC was studied. DNA was isolated from synchronous populations of cells obtained by centrifugal elutriation. Newly replicated DNA sequences were prepared from synchronized cells cultured for 1 1/2 hr with 5-bromodeoxyuridine; bromodeoxyuridine-containing DNA was isolated by CsCl gradient centrifugation. By employing cloned probes for hybridization to newly synthesized DNA, it was found that alpha and beta globin gene sequences are replicated early in S phase, while ribosomal RNA gene sequences are replicated to about the same extent in early, middle, and late S phases. PMID:6942415

  15. Insulation of the chicken beta-globin chromosomal domain from a chromatin-condensing protein, MENT.

    PubMed

    Istomina, Natalia E; Shushanov, Sain S; Springhetti, Evelyn M; Karpov, Vadim L; Krasheninnikov, Igor A; Stevens, Kimberly; Zaret, Kenneth S; Singh, Prim B; Grigoryev, Sergei A

    2003-09-01

    Active genes are insulated from developmentally regulated chromatin condensation in terminally differentiated cells. We mapped the topography of a terminal stage-specific chromatin-condensing protein, MENT, across the active chicken beta-globin domain. We observed two sharp transitions of MENT concentration coinciding with the beta-globin boundary elements. The MENT distribution profile was opposite to that of acetylated core histones but correlated with that of histone H3 dimethylated at lysine 9 (H3me2K9). Ectopic MENT expression in NIH 3T3 cells caused a large-scale and specific remodeling of chromatin marked by H3me2K9. MENT colocalized with H3me2K9 both in chicken erythrocytes and NIH 3T3 cells. Mutational analysis of MENT and experiments with deacetylase inhibitors revealed the essential role of the reaction center loop domain and an inhibitory affect of histone hyperacetylation on the MENT-induced chromatin remodeling in vivo. In vitro, the elimination of the histone H3 N-terminal peptide containing lysine 9 by trypsin blocked chromatin self-association by MENT, while reconstitution with dimethylated but not acetylated N-terminal domain of histone H3 specifically restored chromatin self-association by MENT. We suggest that histone H3 modification at lysine 9 directly regulates chromatin condensation by recruiting MENT to chromatin in a fashion that is spatially constrained from active genes by gene boundary elements and histone hyperacetylation.

  16. A five prime splice-region G yields C mutation in exon 1 of the human. beta. -globin gene inhibits pre-mRNA splicing: A mechanism for. beta. sup + -thalassemia

    SciTech Connect

    Vidaud, M.; Vidaud, D.; Amselem, S.; Rosa, J.; Goossens, M. ); Gattoni, R.; Stevenin, J. ); Chibani, J. )

    1989-02-01

    The authors have characterized a Mediterranean {beta}-thalassemia allele containing a sequence change at codon 30 that alters both {beta}-globin pre-mRNA splicing and the structure of the homoglobin product. Presumably, this G {yields} C transversion at position {minus}1 of intron 1 reduces severely the utilization of the normal 5{prime} splice site since the level of the Arg {yields} Thr mutant hemoglobin (designated hemoglobin Kairouan) found in the erythrocytes of the patient is very low (2% of total hemoglobin). Since no natural mutations of the guanine located at position {minus}1 of the CAG/GTAAGT consensus sequence had been isolated previously. They investigated the role of this nucleotide in the constitution of an active 5{prime} splice site by studying the splicing of the pre-mRNA in cell-free extracts. They demonstrate that correct splicing of the mutant pre-mRNA is 98% inhibited. Their results provide further insights into the mechanisms of pre-mRNA maturation by revealing that the last residue of the exon plays a role at least equivalent to that of the intron residue at position +5.

  17. Deletion of a region that is a candidate for the difference between the deletion forms of hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin and deltabeta-thalassemia affects beta- but not gamma-globin gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Calzolari, R; McMorrow, T; Yannoutsos, N; Langeveld, A; Grosveld, F

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of a number of cases of beta-globin thalassemia and hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) due to large deletions in the beta-globin locus has led to the identification of several DNA elements that have been implicated in the switch from human fetal gamma- to adult beta-globin gene expression. We have tested this hypothesis for an element that covers the minimal distance between the thalassemia and HPFH deletions and is thought to be responsible for the difference between a deletion HPFH and deltabeta-thalassemia, located 5' of the delta-globin gene. This element has been deleted from a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) containing the complete human beta-globin locus. Analysis of this modified YAC in transgenic mice shows that early embryonic expression is unaffected, but in the fetal liver it is subject to position effects. In addition, the efficiency of transcription of the beta-globin gene is decreased, but the developmental silencing of the gamma-globin genes is unaffected by the deletion. These results show that the deleted element is involved in the activation of the beta-globin gene perhaps through the loss of a structural function required for gene activation by long-range interactions. PMID:10022837

  18. DNaseI hypersensitive sites 1, 2 and 3 of the human beta-globin dominant control region direct position-independent expression.

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, P; Hurst, J; Collis, P; Grosveld, F

    1990-01-01

    The human beta-globin dominant control region (DCR) which flanks the multigene beta-globin locus directs high level, site of integration independent, copy number dependent expression on a linked human beta-globin gene in transgenic mice and stably transfected mouse erythroleukemia (MEL) cells. We have assayed each of the individual DNaseI hypersensitive regions present in the full 15kb DCR for position independence and copy number dependence of a linked beta-globin gene in transgenic mice. The results show that at least three of the individual DNaseI hypersensitive site regions (sites 1, 2 and 3), though expressing at lower levels than the full DCR, are capable of position independent, copy number dependent expression. Site 2 alone directs the highest level of expression of the single site constructs, producing nearly 70% of the level of the full DCR. Sites 1 and 3 each provide 30% of the full activity. Deletion of either site 2 or 3 from the complete set significantly reduces the level of expression, but does not effect position independence or copy number dependence. This demonstrates that sites 2 and 3 are required for full expression and suggests that all the sites are required for the full expression of even a single gene from this multigene locus. Images PMID:2362805

  19. Nonsense codons in human beta-globin mRNA result in the production of mRNA degradation products.

    PubMed Central

    Lim, S K; Sigmund, C D; Gross, K W; Maquat, L E

    1992-01-01

    Human beta zero-thalassemic beta-globin genes harboring either a frameshift or a nonsense mutation that results in the premature termination of beta-globin mRNA translation have been previously introduced into the germ line of mice (S.-K. Lim, J.J. Mullins, C.-M. Chen, K. Gross, and L.E. Maquat, EMBO J. 8:2613-2619, 1989). Each transgene produces properly processed albeit abnormally unstable mRNA as well as several smaller RNAs in erythroid cells. These smaller RNAs are detected only in the cytoplasm and, relative to mRNA, are longer-lived and are missing sequences from either exon I or exons I and II. In this communication, we show by using genetics and S1 nuclease transcript mapping that the premature termination of beta-globin mRNA translation is mechanistically required for the abnormal RNA metabolism. We also provide evidence that generation of the smaller RNAs is a cytoplasmic process: the 5' ends of intron 1-containing pre-mRNAs were normal, the rates of removal of introns 1 and 2 were normal, and studies inhibiting RNA synthesis with actinomycin D demonstrated a precursor-product relationship between full-length mRNA and the smaller RNAs. In vivo, about 50% of the full-length species that undergo decay are degraded to the smaller RNAs and the rest are degraded to undetectable products. Exposure of erythroid cells that expressed a normal human beta-globin transgene to either cycloheximide or puromycin did not result in the generation of the smaller RNAs. Therefore, a drug-induced reduction in cellular protein synthesis does not reproduce this aspect of cytoplasmic mRNA metabolism. These data suggest that the premature termination of beta-globin mRNA translation in either exon I or exon II results in the cytoplasmic generation of discrete mRNA degradation products that are missing sequences from exon I or exons I and II. Since these degradation products appear to be the same for all nonsense codons tested, there is no correlation between the position of

  20. Splicing and 3' end formation in the definition of nonsense-mediated decay-competent human beta-globin mRNPs.

    PubMed

    Neu-Yilik, G; Gehring, N H; Thermann, R; Frede, U; Hentze, M W; Kulozik, A E

    2001-02-01

    Premature translation termination codons are common causes of genetic disorders. mRNAs with such mutations are degraded by a surveillance mechanism termed nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), which represents a phylogenetically widely conserved post-transcriptional mechanism for the quality control of gene expression. How NMD-competent mRNPs are formed and specified remains a central question. Here, we have used human beta-globin mRNA as a model system to address the role of splicing and polyadenylation for human NMD. We show that (i) splicing is an indispensable component of the human beta-globin NMD pathway, which cannot be compensated for by exonic beta-globin 'failsafe' sequences; (ii) the spatial requirements of human beta-globin NMD, as signified by the maximal distance of the nonsense mutation to the final exon-exon junction, are less constrained than in yeast; and (iii) non-polyadenylated mRNAs with a histone 3' end are NMD competent. Thus, the formation of NMD-competent mRNP particles critically depends on splicing but does not require the presence of a poly(A) tail.

  1. Incorporation of beta-globin untranslated regions into a Sindbis virus vector for augmentation of heterologous mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Strong, T V; Hampton, T A; Louro, I; Bilbao, G; Conry, R M; Curiel, D T

    1997-06-01

    Polynucleotide immunization has been employed as a means of inducing immune responses through the introduction of antigen-encoding DNA. While immunization against specific tumor antigens may be achieved through this strategy, various candidate tumor antigens may not be approached via DNA-based vaccines as they represent transforming oncogenes. As an alternative approach, we have explored the utility of mRNA vectors for polynucleotide immunization. The transient expression achieved by mRNA may provide an efficient and safe system for stimulating immune responses to tumor-specific antigens. Our previous work demonstrated that a self-replicating RNA enhances the magnitude and duration of transgene expression for this application. Here we further modify the vector for optimal use in gene therapy through the incorporation of untranslated regions flanking the encoded transgene. The beta-globin 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) were inserted directly flanking the luciferase gene in both nonreplicative and replicative RNA constructs. In both cases, elevated and prolonged levels of luciferase expression were detected from the beta-globin UTR-flanked luciferase as compared to luciferase without these sequences. These modifications improve the ability of replicative RNA vectors to produce high, yet transient transgene expression for cancer immunotherapy strategies.

  2. Expression from herpesvirus promoters does not relieve the intron requirement for cytoplasmic accumulation of human beta-globin mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, X M; Gelembiuk, G W; Wang, C Y; Ryu, W S; Mertz, J E

    1991-01-01

    Expression plasmids were constructed in which the human beta-globin gene or a variant of it precisely lacking its two introns was transcribed from its own promoter, the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) promoter, or the immediate early promoter of human cytomegalovirus (CMV-IE). Forty two hours after transfection of these plasmids into monkey kidney cells, nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA were isolated. Quantitative S1 nuclease mapping and primer extension analysis were used to determine the relative abundances, cellular locations, and leader sizes of the accumulated beta-globin RNAs. Whereas transcripts of all of the intron-containing genes accumulated in the cytoplasm to high levels, transcripts of their cDNA variants were neither stably maintained in the nucleus nor accumulated in the cytoplasm, irrespective of the promoter from which transcription was driven. We conclude that the intron requirement for cytoplasmic accumulation of beta-globin RNA can not be circumvented by synthesis from either the promoter of the intronless HSV-tk gene or the CMV-IE promoter. Images PMID:1662815

  3. Normal and mutant human beta-globin pre-mRNAs are faithfully and efficiently spliced in vitro.

    PubMed

    Krainer, A R; Maniatis, T; Ruskin, B; Green, M R

    1984-04-01

    Human beta-globin mRNA precursors (pre-mRNAs) synthesized in vitro from a bacteriophage SP6 promoter/beta-globin gene fusion are accurately and efficiently spliced when added to a HeLa cell nuclear extract. Under optimal conditions, the first intervening sequence (IVS 1) is removed by splicing in up to 90% of the input pre-mRNA. Splicing requires ATP and in its absence the pre-mRNA is neither spliced nor cleaved at splice junctions. Splicing does not require that the pre-mRNA contain a correct 5' or 3' end, a 3' poly A tail, or a 5'-terminal cap structure. However, capping of the pre-mRNA significantly affects the specificity of in vitro processing. In the absence of a cap approximately 30%-40% of the pre-mRNA is accurately spliced, and a number of aberrantly cleaved RNAs are also detected. In contrast, capped pre-mRNAs are spliced more efficiently and produce fewer aberrant RNA species. The specificity of splice-site selection in vitro was tested by analyzing pre-mRNAs that contain beta-thalassemia splicing mutations in IVS 1. Remarkably, these mutations cause the same abnormal splicing events in vitro and in vivo. The ability to synthesize mutant pre-mRNAs and study their splicing in a faithful in vitro system provides a powerful approach to determine the mechanisms of RNA splice-site selection.

  4. Differential expression of murine adult hemoglobins in early ontogeny

    SciTech Connect

    Wawrzyniak, C.J.; Lewis, S.E.; Popp, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A hemoglobin mutation is described that permits study of the expression of the two adult ..beta..-globin genes throughout fetal and postnatal development. Mice with a mutation at the Hbb/sup s/, ..beta..-globin locus, were used to study the relative levels of ..beta..-s2major and ..beta..-sminor globins specified by the mutant Hbb/sup s2/ haplotype during development. At 11.5 days of gestation ..beta..-sminor comprised over 80% and ..beta..-s2major under 20% of the adult beta-globin. The relative level of ..beta..-sminor decreased through fetal development; at birth ..beta..-sminor represented 33.7% of the ..beta..-globin. The adult values of 71.0% ..beta..-s2major and 29.0% ..beta..-sminor globin are expressed in mice six days after birth. Because the two ..beta..-globin genes are expressed in mice of the Hbb/sup 2s/ haplotype, both the ..beta..-smajor and ..beta..-sminor genes must be expressed in mice of the Hbb/sup s/ haplotype. Expression of the ..beta..-sminor gene is elevated to 35.6% in Hbb/sup s2/ mice that have been bled repeatedly. Thus, the 5' ..beta..-s2major and 3' ..beta..-sminor genes of the Hbb/sup s2/ haplotype and, presumably the 5' ..beta..-smajor and 3' ..beta..-sminor genes of the Hbb/sup s/ haplotype, are regulated independently and are homologous to the 5' ..beta..-dmajor and 3' ..beta..-dminor genes of the Hbb/sup d/ haplotype. Mice of the Hbb/sup s2/ haplotype are better than mice of the Hbb/sup d/ haplotytpe for studying the mechanisms of hemoglobin switching because the Hbb/sup s2/ each of the three embryonic and two adult hemoglobins can be separated by electrophoresis. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Allele-specific enzymatic amplification of. beta. -globin genomic DNA for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, D.Y.; Ugozzoli, L.; Pal, B.K.; Wallace, B. )

    1989-04-01

    A rapid nonradioactive approach to the diagnosis of sickle cell anemia is described based on an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (ASPCR). This method allows direct detection of the normal or the sickle cell {beta}-globin allele in genomic DNA without additional steps of probe hybridization, ligation, or restriction enzyme cleavage. Two allele-specific oligonucleotide primers, one specific for the sickle cell allele and one specific for the normal allele, together with another primer complementary to both alleles were used in the polymerase chain reaction with genomic DNA templates. The allele-specific primers differed from each other in their terminal 3{prime} nucleotide. Under the proper annealing temperature and polymerase chain reaction conditions, these primers only directed amplification on their complementary allele. In a single blind study of DNA samples from 12 individuals, this method correctly and unambiguously allowed for the determination of the genotypes with no false negatives or positives. If ASPCR is able to discriminate all allelic variation (both transition and transversion mutations), this method has the potential to be a powerful approach for genetic disease diagnosis, carrier screening, HLA typing, human gene mapping, forensics, and paternity testing.

  6. The relative importance of the X-linked FCP locus and beta-globin haplotypes in determining haemoglobin F levels: a study of SS patients homozygous for beta S haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y P; Maier-Redelsperger, M; Smith, K D; Contu, L; Ducroco, R; de Montalembert, M; Belloy, M; Elion, J; Dover, G J; Girot, R

    1997-03-01

    Five factors have been hypothesized to influence the 20-fold variation in fetal haemoglobin (Hb F) levels in sickle cell anaemia (SS): age sex, alpha-globin gene number, beta-globin haplotype, and the X-linked F-cell production locus (FCP) that regulates the production of Hb F containing erythrocytes (F cells). We analysed the association of these factors with Hb F levels in 112 SS patients living in France who are homozygous for the three common African beta-globin haplotypes (Benin, Bantu or Central African Republic and Senegal). We found that: (1) FCP accounts for about 40% of the overall variation in Hb F levels, (2) when the FCP influence is removed, beta-globin haplotype is associated with 14% of the remaining Hb F variation, and (3) the other factors have little influence. Comparison with our previous study of SS individuals in Jamaica leads to the following conclusions: (1) the X-linked FCP locus is a major determinant of Hb F levels in SS disease, (2) factors linked to the beta-globin haplotype have only a small effect on the variation in Hb F levels, in either the homozygous or heterozygous state, and (3)approximately half of the variation in Hb F levels still remains to be explained.

  7. Common 5' beta-globin RFLP haplotypes harbour a surprising level of ancestral sequence mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Webster, Matthew T; Clegg, John B; Harding, Rosalind M

    2003-07-01

    Blocks of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the human genome represent segments of ancestral chromosomes. To investigate the relationship between LD and genealogy, we analysed diversity associated with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) haplotypes of the 5' beta-globin gene complex. Genealogical analyses were based on sequence alleles that spanned a 12.2-kb interval, covering 3.1 kb around the psibeta gene and 6.2 kb of the delta-globin gene and its 5' flanking sequence known as the R/T region. Diversity was sampled from a Kenyan Luo population where recent malarial selection has contributed to substantial LD. A single common sequence allele spanning the 12.2-kb interval exclusively identified the ancestral chromosome bearing the "Bantu" beta(s) (sickle-cell) RFLP haplotype. Other common 5' RFLP haplotypes comprised interspersed segments from multiple ancestral chromosomes. Nucleotide diversity was similar between psibeta and R/T-delta-globin but was non-uniformly distributed within the R/T-delta-globin region. High diversity associated with the 5' R/T identified two ancestral lineages that probably date back more than 2 million years. Within this genealogy, variation has been introduced into the 3' R/T by gene conversion from other ancestral chromosomes. Diversity in delta-globin was found to lead through parts of the main genealogy but to coalesce in a more recent ancestor. The well-known recombination hotspot is clearly restricted to the region 3' of delta-globin. Our analyses show that, whereas one common haplotype in a block of high LD represents a long segment from a single ancestral chromosome, others are mosaics of short segments from multiple ancestors related in genealogies of unsuspected complexity.

  8. Core histone hyperacetylation co-maps with generalized DNase I sensitivity in the chicken beta-globin chromosomal domain.

    PubMed Central

    Hebbes, T R; Clayton, A L; Thorne, A W; Crane-Robinson, C

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of core histone acetylation across the chicken beta-globin locus has been mapped in 15 day chicken embryo erythrocytes by immunoprecipitation of mononucleosomes with an antibody recognizing acetylated histones, followed by hybridization probing at several points in the locus. A continuum of acetylation was observed, covering both genes and intergenic regions. Using the same probes, the generalized sensitivity to DNase I was mapped by monitoring the disappearance of intact genomic restriction fragments from Southern transfers. Close correspondence between the 33 kb of sensitive chromatin and the extent of acetylation indicates that one role of the modification could be the generation and/or maintenance of the open conformation. The precision of acetylation mapping makes it a possible approach to the definition of chromosomal domain boundaries. Images PMID:8168481

  9. High-density SNP genotyping to define beta-globin locus haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Muralidhar, Shalini; Singh, Manisha; Sylvan, Caprice; Kalra, Inderdeep S; Quinn, Charles T; Onyekwere, Onyinye C; Pace, Betty S

    2009-01-01

    Five major beta-globin locus haplotypes have been established in individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) from the Benin, Bantu, Senegal, Cameroon, and Arab-Indian populations. Historically, beta-haplotypes were established using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis across the beta-locus, which consists of five functional beta-like globin genes located on chromosome 11. Previous attempts to correlate these haplotypes as robust predictors of clinical phenotypes observed in SCD have not been successful. We speculate that the coverage and distribution of the RFLP sites located proximal to or within the globin genes are not sufficiently dense to accurately reflect the complexity of this region. To test our hypothesis, we performed RFLP analysis and high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping across the beta-locus using DNA samples from healthy African Americans with either normal hemoglobin A (HbAA) or individuals with homozygous SS (HbSS) disease. Using the genotyping data from 88 SNPs and Haploview analysis, we generated a greater number of haplotypes than that observed with RFLP analysis alone. Furthermore, a unique pattern of long-range linkage disequilibrium between the locus control region and the beta-like globin genes was observed in the HbSS group. Interestingly, we observed multiple SNPs within the HindIII restriction site located in the Ggamma-globin intervening sequence II which produced the same RFLP pattern. These findings illustrated the inability of RFLP analysis to decipher the complexity of sequence variations that impacts genomic structure in this region. Our data suggest that high-density SNP mapping may be required to accurately define beta-haplotypes that correlate with the different clinical phenotypes observed in SCD.

  10. NF-E2 disrupts chromatin structure at human beta-globin locus control region hypersensitive site 2 in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, J A; Emerson, B M

    1996-01-01

    The human beta-globin locus control region (LCR) is responsible for forming an active chromatin structure extending over the 100-kb locus, allowing expression of the beta-globin gene family. The LCR consists of four erythroid-cell-specific DNase I hypersensitive sites (HS1 to -4). DNase I hypersensitive sites are thought to represent nucleosome-free regions of DNA which are bound by trans-acting factors. Of the four hypersensitive sites only HS2 acts as a transcriptional enhancer. In this study, we examine the binding of an erythroid protein to its site within HS2 in chromatin in vitro. NF-E2 is a transcriptional activator consisting of two subunits, the hematopoietic cell-specific p45 and the ubiquitous DNA-binding subunit, p18. NF-E2 binds two tandem AP1-like sites in HS2 which form the core of its enhancer activity. In this study, we show that when bound to in vitro-reconstituted chromatin, NF-E2 forms a DNase I hypersensitive site at HS2 similar to the site observed in vivo. Moreover, NF-E2 binding in vitro results in a disruption of nucleosome structure which can be detected 200 bp away. Although NF-E2 can disrupt nucleosomes when added to preformed chromatin, the disruption is more pronounced when NF-E2 is added to DNA prior to chromatin assembly. Interestingly, the hematopoietic cell-specific subunit, p45, is necessary for binding to chromatin but not to naked DNA. Interaction of NF-E2 with its site in chromatin-reconstituted HS2 allows a second erythroid factor, GATA-1, to bind its nearby sites. Lastly, nucleosome disruption by NF-E2 is an ATP-dependent process, suggesting the involvement of energy-dependent nucleosome remodeling factors. PMID:8816476

  11. Oxygen association-dissociation and stability analysis on mouse hemoglobins with mutant alpha- and beta-globins.

    PubMed

    D'Surney, S J; Popp, R A

    1992-10-01

    Oxygen association-dissociation and hemoglobin stability analysis were performed on mouse hemoglobins with amino acid substitutions in an alpha-globin (alpha 89, His to Leu) and a beta-globin (beta 59, Lys to Ile). The variant alpha-globin, designated chain 5m in the Hbag2 haplotype, had an high oxygen affinity and was stable. The variant beta-globin, (beta s2) of the Hbbs2 haplotype, also had an elevated oxygen affinity and in addition was moderately unstable in 19% isopropanol. Hemoglobins from the expected nine (Hbag2/Hbag2;Hbbs/Hbbs x Hbaa/Hbaa;Hbbs2/Hbbs2) F2 genotypes can be grouped into five classes of P50 values characterized by strict additivity and dependency on mutant globin gene dosage; physiologically, both globin variants gave indistinguishable effects on oxygen affinity. The hemoglobin of normal mice (Hbaa/Hbaa;Hbbs/Hbbs) had a P50 = 40 mm Hg and the hemoglobin of Hbag2/Hbag2;Hbbs2/Hbbs2 F2 mice had a P50 = 25 mm Hg (human P50 = 26 mm Hg). Peripheral blood from Hbag2/Hbag2;Hbbs/Hbbs, Hbaa/Hbaa;Hbbs2/Hbbs2 and Hbag2/Hbag2;Hbbs2/Hbbs2 mice exhibited normal hematological values except for a slightly higher hematocrit for Hbag2/Hbag2;Hbbs/Hbbs and Hbag2/Hbag2;Hbbs2/Hbbs2 mice, slightly elevated red cell counts for mice of the three mutant genotypes, and significantly lower values for the mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin for Hbag2/Hbag2;Hbbs2/Hbbs2 mice.

  12. A Synthetic Model of Human Beta-Thalassemia Erythropoiesis Using CD34+ Cells from Healthy Adult Donors

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Colleen; de Vasconcellos, Jaira F.; Noh, Seung-Jae; Rabel, Antoinette; Meier, Emily R.; Miller, Jeffery L.

    2013-01-01

    Based upon the lack of clinical samples available for research in many laboratories worldwide, a significant gap exists between basic and clinical studies of beta-thalassemia major. To bridge this gap, we developed an artificially engineered model for human beta thalassemia by knocking down beta-globin gene and protein expression in cultured CD34+ cells obtained from healthy adults. Lentiviral-mediated transduction of beta-globin shRNA (beta-KD) caused imbalanced globin chain production. Beta-globin mRNA was reduced by 90% compared to controls, while alpha-globin mRNA levels were maintained. HPLC analyses revealed a 96% reduction in HbA with only a minor increase in HbF. During the terminal phases of differentiation (culture days 14–21), beta-KD cells demonstrated increased levels of insoluble alpha-globin, as well as activated caspase-3. The majority of the beta-KD cells underwent apoptosis around the polychromatophilic stage of maturation. GDF15, a marker of ineffective erythropoiesis in humans with thalassemia, was significantly increased in the culture supernatants from the beta-KD cells. Knockdown of beta-globin expression in cultured primary human erythroblasts provides a robust ex vivo model for beta-thalassemia. PMID:23861885

  13. The beta -globin recombinational hotspot reduces the effects of strong selection around HbC, a recently arisen mutation providing resistance to malaria.

    PubMed

    Wood, Elizabeth T; Stover, Daryn A; Slatkin, Montgomery; Nachman, Michael W; Hammer, Michael F

    2005-10-01

    Recombination is expected to reduce the effect of selection on the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD), but the impact that recombinational hotspots have on sites linked to selected mutations has not been investigated. We empirically determine chromosomal linkage phase for 5.2 kb spanning the beta -globin gene and hotspot. We estimate that the HbC mutation, which is positively selected because of malaria, originated <5,000 years ago and that selection coefficients are 0.04-0.09. Despite strong selection and the recent origin of the HbC allele, recombination (crossing-over or gene conversion) is observed within 1 kb 5' of the selected site on more than one-third of the HbC chromosomes sampled. The rapid decay in LD upstream of the HbC allele demonstrates the large effect the ss-globin hotspot has in mitigating the effects of positive selection on linked variation.

  14. Isolation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a NF-E2-like basic leucine zipper transcriptional activator that binds to the tandem NF-E2/AP1 repeat of the beta-globin locus control region.

    PubMed Central

    Moi, P; Chan, K; Asunis, I; Cao, A; Kan, Y W

    1994-01-01

    Hypersensitive site 2 located in the beta-globin locus control region confers high levels of expression to the genes of the beta-globin cluster. A tandem repeat of the consensus sequence for the transcription factors AP1 and NF-E2 (activating protein 1 and nuclear factor erythroid 2, respectively) is present within hypersensitive site 2 and is absolutely required for strong enhancer activity. This sequence binds, in vitro and in vivo, to ubiquitous proteins of the AP1 family and to the recently cloned erythroid-specific transcription factor NF-E2. Using the tandem repeat as a recognition site probe to screen a lambda gt11 cDNA expression library from K562 cells, we isolated several DNA binding proteins. Here, we report the characterization of one of the clones isolated. The gene, which we named Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2), is encoded within a 2.2-kb transcript and predicts a 66-kDa protein with a basic leucine zipper DNA binding domain highly homologous to that of NF-E2. Although Nrf2 is expressed ubiquitously, a role of this protein in mediating enhancer activity of hypersensitive site 2 in erythroid cells cannot be excluded. In this respect, Nrf2 contains a powerful acidic activation domain that may participate in the transcriptional stimulation of beta-globin genes. Images PMID:7937919

  15. Determinants that contribute to cytoplasmic stability of human c-fos and. beta. -globin mRNAs are located at several sites in each mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Kabnick, K.S.; Housman, D.E.

    1988-08-01

    The authors have analyzed the contributions to cytoplasmic stability in an mRNA species with a very short half-life (human c-fos) and an mRNA species with a very long half-life (human ..beta..-globin). When the human c-fos promoter was used to drive the expression of human c-fos, ..beta..-globin, and chimeric DNAs between c-fos and ..beta..-globin in transfected cells, a pulse of mRNA synthesis was obtained following induction of transcription by refeeding quiescent cells with medium containing 15% calf serum. The mRNA half-life was determined by using Northern (RNA) blot analysis of mRNAs prepared at various times following the pulse of transcription. Under these conditions human c-fos mRNA exhibited a half-life of 6.6 min and human ..beta..-globin mRNA exhibited a half-life of 17.5 h. Replacement of the 3' end of the c-fos mRNA with the 3' end of the ..beta..-globin mRNA increased the half-life of the resultant RNA from 6.6 to 34 min. The reciprocal chimera had a half-life of 34.6 min compared with the 17.5-half-life of ..beta..-globin mRNA. These results suggest that sequences which make a major contribution to mRNA stability reside in the 3' end of either or both molecules. A chimera in which the 5' untranslated region of globin was replaced by part of the 5' untranslated region of fos led to destabilization of the encoded mRNA. This construct produced an mRNA with a half-life of 6.8 h instead of the 17.5-h half-life of globin. This result suggests that additional determinants of stability reside in the 5' end of these mRNA molecules. Substitution of part of the 5' untranslated region of fox by the 5' untranslated region of ..beta..-globin yielded an mRNA with stability similar to fos mRNA. These results suggest that interactions among sequences within each mRNA contribute to the stability of the respective molecules.

  16. Synthetic human beta-globin 5'HS2 constructs function as locus control regions only in multicopy transgene concatamers.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, J; Talbot, D; Dillon, N; Grosveld, F

    1993-01-01

    Transgenes linked to the beta-globin locus control region (LCR) are transcribed in a copy-dependent manner that is independent of the integration site. It has previously been shown that the LCR 5'HS2 region does not require its NF-E2 dimer binding site for LCR activity. In this paper we analyse synthetic 5'HS2 core constructs containing point mutations in the other factor binding sites 3' of the NF-E2 dimer site. The results show that 5'HS2 core is a partially active LCR that functions in a concatamer of at least two copies but not when present as a single copy in transgenic mice and that no single binding site within 5'HS2 is required for position-independent expression. In addition, the H-BP factor is identical to upstream stimulatory factor (USF) and full enhancement levels by 5'HS2 core in MEL cells require a combination of all the factor binding sites. We suggest that 5'HS2 cores in a concatamer interact with each other to establish an area of open chromatin and that this process may be the basis of LCR function. Images PMID:8428573

  17. Lack of neighborhood effects from a transcriptionally active phosphoglycerate kinase-neo cassette located between the murine beta-major and beta-minor globin genes.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, R M; Lu, Z H; Behl, R; Holt, J M; Ackers, G K; Ley, T J

    2001-07-01

    For the treatment of beta-globin gene defects, a homologous recombination-mediated gene correction approach would provide advantages over random integration-based gene therapy strategies. However, "neighborhood effects" from retained selectable marker genes in the targeted locus are among the key issues that must be taken into consideration for any attempt to use this strategy for gene correction. An Ala-to-Ile mutation was created in the beta6 position of the mouse beta-major globin gene (beta(6I)) as a step toward the development of a murine model system that could serve as a platform for therapeutic gene correction studies. The marked beta-major gene can be tracked at the level of DNA, RNA, and protein, allowing investigation of the impact of a retained phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK)-neo cassette located between the mutant beta-major and beta-minor globin genes on expression of these 2 neighboring genes. Although the PGK-neo cassette was expressed at high levels in adult erythroid cells, the abundance of the beta(6I) mRNA was indistinguishable from that of the wild-type counterpart in bone marrow cells. Similarly, the output from the beta-minor globin gene was also normal. Therefore, in this specific location, the retained, transcriptionally active PGK-neo cassette does not disrupt the regulated expression of the adult beta-globin genes. (Blood. 2001;98:65-73)

  18. Gamma-interferon alters globin gene expression in neonatal and adult erythroid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.A.; Perrine, S.P.; Antognetti, G.; Perlmutter, D.H.; Emerson, S.G.; Sieff, C.; Faller, D.V.

    1987-06-01

    The effect of gamma-interferon on fetal hemoglobin synthesis by purified cord blood, fetal liver, and adult bone marrow erythroid progenitors was studied with a radioligand assay to measure hemoglobin production by BFU-E-derived erythroblasts. Coculture with recombinant gamma-interferon resulted in a significant and dose-dependent decrease in fetal hemoglobin production by neonatal and adult, but not fetal, BFU-E-derived erythroblasts. Accumulation of fetal hemoglobin by cord blood BFU-E-derived erythroblasts decreased up to 38.1% of control cultures (erythropoietin only). Synthesis of both G gamma/A gamma globin was decreased, since the G gamma/A gamma ratio was unchanged. Picograms fetal hemoglobin per cell was decreased by gamma-interferon addition, but picograms total hemoglobin was unchanged, demonstrating that a reciprocal increase in beta-globin production occurred in cultures treated with gamma-interferon. No toxic effect of gamma-interferon on colony growth was noted. The addition of gamma-interferon to cultures resulted in a decrease in the percentage of HbF produced by adult BFU-E-derived cells to 45.6% of control. Fetal hemoglobin production by cord blood, fetal liver, and adult bone marrow erythroid progenitors, was not significantly affected by the addition of recombinant GM-CSF, recombinant interleukin 1 (IL-1), recombinant IL-2, or recombinant alpha-interferon. Although fetal progenitor cells appear unable to alter their fetal hemoglobin program in response to any of the growth factors added here, the interaction of neonatal and adult erythroid progenitors with gamma-interferon results in an altered expression of globin genes.

  19. The linkage arrangement of four rabbit beta-like globin genes.

    PubMed

    Lacy, E; Hardison, R C; Quon, D; Maniatis, T

    1979-12-01

    Four different regions of rabbit beta-like globin gene sequences designated beta 1, beta 2, beta 3 and beta 4 were identified in a set of clones isolated from a bacteriophage lambda library of chromosomal DNA fragments (Maniatis et al., 1978). Restriction mapping and blot hybridization (Southern, 1975) studies indicate that a subset of these clones containing beta 1 and beta 2 hybridizes to an adult beta-globin cDNA clone (Maniatis et al., 1976) more efficiently than to a human gamma-globin cDNA clone (Wilson et al., 1978), while another subset containing beta 3 and beta 4 displays the converse hybridization specificity. beta 1 was identified as the adult beta-globin gene, while beta 2, beta 3 and beta 4 have not been identified with any known rabbit globin polypeptides. Cross-hybridization and transcriptional orientation experiments indicate that the set of beta-like gene clones contains overlapping restriction fragments encompassing 44 kb of rabbit chromosomal DNA. In addition, all four genes have the same transcriptional orientation and are arranged in the order 5'-beta 4-beta 3-beta 2-beta 1-3'.

  20. Distribution of beta-globin haplotypes among the tribes of southern Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Aastha; Khurana, Priyanka; Mitra, Siuli; Raicha, Bhavesh; Saraswathy, K N; Italia, Yazdi M; Kshatriya, Gautam K

    2013-06-01

    The present study was carried out in Indo-European speaking tribal population groups of southern Gujarat (India) to elucidate the allelic and haplotypic content of β-globin system in individuals with HbAA genotypes. 6 neutral restriction sites of the β-globin system were analysed and various statistical parameters were estimated to draw meaningful interpretations. All the 6 sites were found to be polymorphic and most were in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium in the studied group. Haplotypes were constructed using two different combinations of the 6 restriction sites analysed. Analysis of the 5 sites revealed a set of three predominant haplotypes, '+----', '-++-+' and '-+-++'; and haplotypes '+--', '++-' and '+++' were found to be the most frequent when the 3 sites were used to construct the haplotypes. Haplotypic heterozygosity levels (>83%) observed in the present study group were comparable to those observed in African and Afro-American populations and greater than other world populations. All the ancestral haplotypes, +-----, -++-+, -+-++ and ----+ were found in the study group. The distribution pattern of various haplotypes was consistent with the global pattern. The paucity of comparable data from other Indian populations restricted one from making interpretations about the study group's relationships with other Indian populations but the results were indicative of older population histories or experience of gene flow by the study group and their affinities with populations of southern India.

  1. Definition of the ovalbumin gene promoter by transfer of an ovalglobin fusion gene into cultured cells.

    PubMed Central

    Knoll, B J; Zarucki-Schulz, T; Dean, D C; O'Malley, B W

    1983-01-01

    In order to study the initiation of transcription from the ovalbumin gene promoter, we constructed a hybrid gene (ovalglobin) in which 753 bps of ovalbumin gene 5'-flanking sequence were joined to the chicken adult beta-globin gene. When transfected into HeLa S3 cells, ovalglobin gene transcription initiated at the ovalbumin gene cap site, as measured by S1 nuclease and primer extension analysis. Deletion of 5'-flanking sequences to position -95 had little effect on transcription; deletion to -77 reduced transcription to about 20% of the wild type level and deletion to -48 reduced the level to about 2%. A deletion to -24, removing the sequence TATATAT, abolished transcription entirely. Hormonal regulation of the ovalglobin gene was observed when primary oviduct cells were used as recipients for DNA transfection. Under these conditions, addition of progesterone increased the level of ovalglobin transcripts to more than 10 times the uninduced level. Images PMID:6314256

  2. Defective haematopoiesis in fetal liver resulting from inactivation of the EKLF gene.

    PubMed

    Nuez, B; Michalovich, D; Bygrave, A; Ploemacher, R; Grosveld, F

    1995-05-25

    Erythroid Krüppel-like factor (EKLF) was originally isolated from erythroid cell RNA by differential screening and shown to be erythroid-specific, although a low level of EKLF was found in mast cell lines. EKLF contains three zinc-fingers homologous to those found in the Krüppel family of transcription factors. Because it binds the sequence CCACACCCT, EKLF may affect erythroid development as a result of its ability to bind to the CAC box in the promoter of the beta-globin gene. Mutation of this element leads to reduced beta-globin expression and it appears to mediate the effect of the globin locus control region on the promoter. Here we inactivate the EKLF gene through insertion of a lacZ reporter gene by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Heterozygous EKLF+/- mice show that the reporter gene is expressed in a developmentally specific manner in all types of erythroblasts in the fetal liver and adult bone marrow. Homozygous EKLF-/- mice appear normal during the embryonic stage of haematopoiesis in the yolk sac, but develop a fatal anaemia during early fetal life when haematopoiesis has switched to the fetal liver. Enucleated erythrocytes are formed but these do not contain the proper amount of haemoglobin. We conclude that the transcription factor EKLF is essential for the final steps of definitive erythropoiesis in fetal liver.

  3. Murine erythroleukemia cell line GM979 contains factors that can activate silent chromosomal human. gamma. -globin genes

    SciTech Connect

    Zitnik, G.; Hines, P.; Stamatoyannopoulos, G.; Papayannopoulou, T. )

    1991-03-15

    The authors introduced a normal chromosome 11 into GM979 murine erythroleukemia cells by fusing them with Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphocytes from a normal individual. In contrast to precious data obtained with other murine erythroleukemia cells, they detected activation of human chromosomal {gamma}-globin genes in GM979 cells. GM979, unlike previously used murine erythroleukemia cell lines, expresses murine embryonic globin in addition to adult globin. While all the hybrids expressed {gamma}- and {beta}-globin, they displayed a wide range of {gamma}-globin expression in relation to that of {beta}-globin. No correlation, however, was found in quantitative expression between murine embryonic globin and human {gamma}-globin in these hybrids, suggesting that the two globins are regulated independently, at least in this cell line. These data indicate that {gamma}-globin genes from normal, nonerythroid chromosomes are not irreversibly silenced, and they can be activated by a positive trans factor(s) present in GM979 cells.

  4. Hb Wilde and Hb Patagonia: two novel elongated beta-globin variants causing dominant beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Scheps, Karen G; Hasenahuer, Marcia A; Parisi, Gustavo; Fornasari, María S; Pennesi, Sandra P; Erramouspe, Beatriz; Basack, Felisa N; Veber, Ernesto S; Aversa, Luis; Elena, Graciela; Varela, Viviana

    2015-06-01

    We describe here the molecular and hematological characteristics of novel frameshift mutations in exon 2 of the HBB gene (in heterozygous state) found in two Argentinean pediatric patients with dominant β-thalassemia-like features. In Hb Wilde, HBB:c.270_273delTGAG(p.Glu90Cysfs*67), we detected the deletion of the third base of the codon 89 (T) and the codon 90 (GAG), whereas in Hb Patagonia, HBB:c.296_297dupGT(p.Asp99Trpfs*59), the frameshift mutation was due to a duplication of a 'GT' dinucleotide after the second base of codon 98 (GTG). The Hb Patagonia and Hb Wilde mutations would result in elongated β-globin chains with modified C-terminal sequences and a total of 155 and 157 amino acids residues, respectively. Based on bioinformatics and structural analysis, as well as protein modeling, we predict that the elongated β-globins would affect the formation of the αβ dimers and their stability, which would further support the mechanism for the observed clinical features in both patients.

  5. Beta-globin haplotype analysis suggests that a major source of Malagasy ancestry is derived from Bantu-speaking Negroids.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, R; Krause, A; Goldman, A; Campbell, G; Jenkins, T

    1996-06-01

    The origins of the inhabitants of Madagascar have not been fully resolved. Anthropological studies and preliminary genetic data point to two main sources of ancestry of the Malagasy, namely, Indonesian and African, with additional contributions from India and Arabia. The sickle-cell (beta s) mutation is found in populations of African and Indian origin. The frequency of the beta s-globin gene, derived from 1,425 Malagasy individuals, varies from 0 in some highland populations to .25 in some coastal populations. The beta s mutation is thought to have arisen at least five times, on the basis of the presence of five distinct beta s-associated haplotypes, each found in a separate geographic area. Twenty-five of the 35 Malagasy beta s haplotypes were of the typical "Bantu" type, 1 "Senegal" haplotype was found, and 2 rare or atypical haplotypes were observed; the remaining 7 haplotypes were consistent with the Bantu haplotype. The Bantu beta s mutation is thought to have been introduced into Madagascar by Bantu-speaking immigrants (colonists or slaves) from central or east Africa. The Senegal beta s mutation may have been introduced to the island via Portuguese naval explorers. This study provides the first definitive biological evidence that a major component of Malagasy ancestry is derived from African populations, in particular, Bantu-speaking Negroids. beta A haplotypes are also consistent with the claim for a significant African contribution to Malagasy ancestry but are also suggestive of Asian/Oceanic and Caucasoid admixture within the Malagasy population.

  6. Detection of a major gene for heterocellular hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin after accounting for genetic modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Thein, S.L.; Weatherall, D.J. ); Sampietro, M.; Rohde, K.; Rochette, J.; Lathrop, G.M.; Demenais, F.

    1994-02-01

    [open quotes]Heterocellular hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin[close quotes] (HPFH) is the term used to describe the genetically determined persistence of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) production into adult life, in the absence of any related hematological disorder. Whereas some forms are caused by mutations in the [beta]-globin gene cluster on chromosome 11, others segregate independently. While the latter are of particular interest with respect to the regulation of globin gene switching, it has not been possible to determine their chromosomal location, mainly because their mode of inheritance is not clear, but also because several other factors are known to modify Hb F production. The authors have examined a large Asian Indian pedigree which includes individuals with heterocellular HPFH associated with [beta]-thalassemia and/or [alpha]-thalassemia. Segregation analysis was conducted on the HPFH trait FC, defined to be the percentage of Hb F-containing cells (F-cells), using the class D regressive model. The results provide evidence for the presence of a major gene, dominant or codominant, which controls the FC values with residual familial correlations. The major gene was detected when the effects of genetic modifiers, notably [beta]-thalassemia and the XmnI-[sup G][gamma] polymorphism, are accounted for in this analysis. Linkage with the [beta]-globin gene cluster is excluded. The transmission of the FC values in this pedigree is informative enough to allow detection of linkage with an appropriate marker(s). The analytical approach outlined in this study, using simple regression to allow for genetic modifiers and thus allowing the mode of inheritance of a trait to be dissected out, may be useful as a model for segregation and linkage analyses of other complex phenotypes. 39 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. cis and trans activation of globin gene transcription in transient assays.

    PubMed

    Treisman, R; Green, M R; Maniatis, T

    1983-12-01

    We examined the effects of the simian virus 40 enhancer sequence on transcription of cloned human alpha- and beta-globin genes shortly after their introduction into cultured mammalian cells. We find that (i) detectable transcription of the beta-globin gene but not the alpha-globin gene requires linkage to the enhancer; (ii) the enhancer increases the amount of beta-globin RNA at least 100-fold but results in only a 5- to 10-fold increase in the amount of alpha-globin RNA; (iii) plasmid replication does not increase the level of beta-globin RNA, regardless of linkage to the enhancer, but does result in an approximately equal to 50-fold increase in the level of alpha-globin RNA; (iv) the enhancer is not required for and does not increase transcription of either gene in 293 cells, an adenovirus 5-transformed human kidney cell line. We also show that an enhancer sequence is not required for activity of the normally enhancer-dependent simian virus 40 early promoter in 293 cells, indicating that these cells contain a trans-acting factor(s) that circumvents the requirement for the enhancer sequence.

  8. A single-base change at a splice site in a beta 0-thalassemic gene causes abnormal RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Treisman, R; Proudfoot, N J; Shander, M; Maniatis, T

    1982-07-01

    We have studied the structure and transcription of a cloned human beta-globin gene from a fetus diagnosed for beta 0 thalassemia. The sequence of the beta 0 gene differs from that of a normal beta-globin gene at positions 1 and 74 of the second intervening sequence (IVS2). The position 1 change alters the GT dinucleotide conserved at 5' splice sites, while the position 74 change is a common sequence polymorphism. When the cloned beta 0 gene is introduced into HeLa cells by use of an SV40-derived plasmid vector, two abnormally spliced cytoplasmic beta-globin RNAs are detected. The predominant RNA differs from normal beta-globin mRNA by the insertion of the first 47 nucleotides of IVS2 between exons 2 and 3. The less abundant RNA comprises the normal first exon spliced directly to the third. Analysis of nuclear RNA suggests that the beta 0 transcript is inefficiently spliced and that the removal of the two intervening sequences is coupled.

  9. Linker scanning mutagenesis of the 5'-flanking region of the mouse beta-major-globin gene: sequence requirements for transcription in erythroid and nonerythroid cells.

    PubMed

    Charnay, P; Mellon, P; Maniatis, T

    1985-06-01

    We analyzed the sequences required for transcription of the mouse beta-major-globin gene by introducing deletion and linker scanning mutations into the 5'-flanking region and then studying the effects of these mutations on beta-globin gene transcription in a HeLa cell transient expression assay or after stable introduction into mouse erythroleukemia cells. Consistent with earlier studies, we found that three distinct regions upstream from the RNA capping site are required for efficient beta-globin gene transcription in HeLa cells: the ATA box located 30 base pairs upstream from the mRNA capping site (-30), the CCAAT box located at -75, and the distal sequence element CCACACCC located at -90. In the ATA and CAAT box regions, the sequences necessary for efficient transcription extend beyond the limits of the canonical sequences. Mutations in the sequences located between the three transcriptional control elements do not significantly affect transcription in HeLa cells. Although the promoter defined in HeLa cell transfection experiments is also required for efficient transcription in mouse erythroleukemia cells, none of the mutations tested affects the regulation of beta-globin gene transcription during mouse erythroleukemia cell differentiation. Thus, DNA sequences downstream from the mRNA cap site appear to be sufficient for the regulation of beta-globin gene expression during the differentiation of mouse erythroleukemia cells in culture.

  10. Human globin gene analysis for a patient with beta-o/delta beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed Central

    Ottolenghi, S; Lanyon, W G; Williamson, R; Weatherall, D J; Clegg, J B; Pitcher, C S

    1975-01-01

    Complementary DNA (cDNA) was prepared with RNA-dependent DNA polymerase from human globin messenger RNA (mRNA). Annealing and translation experimenta with total mRNA from circulating cells from a patient with heterozygous beta/heterozygous beta-delta-o thalassemia (beta-o/delta beta-o-thalassemia) demonstrated no detectable mRNA for beta-globin. cDNA enriched in sequences homologous to beta-globin mRNA was prepared by hydroxylapatite fractionation of hybrids formed between beta-o/delta beta-o-thalassemic mRNA and cDNA made from mRNA from a patient with alpha-thalassemia (hemoglobin H disease). The rate of annealing of this beta-enriched cDNA to normal human nuclear DNA was that of a sequence present as only a single copy per haploid genome. The beta-enriched cDNA annealed to the beta-o-delta beta-o-thalassemia total DNA with approximately the same kinetics as to normal DNA, indicating that no total gene deletion of beta-globin genes from the diploid genome has occurred, although the accuracy of the technique could not exclude with certainty a partial deletion or a deletion of a beta-globin gene from only one of the haploid genomes. This demonstrates that at least one of the beta-o- or the delta beta-o-thalassemia haploid genomes in this case contains a substantially intact beta-globin gene. PMID:49057

  11. Organisation of the Hb 1 genes of the Antarctic skate Bathyraja eatonii: new insights into the evolution of globin genes.

    PubMed

    Marino, Katia; Boschetto, Loredana; de Pascale, Donatella; Cocca, Ennio

    2007-12-30

    An extensive investigation of the organisation of globin genes has greatly contributed to the understanding of universal mechanisms of gene evolution and expression. Cartilaginous fish are the first organisms that have evolved the tetrameric form of hemoglobin (Hb). So far, there has been absolute lack of data about globin genes in chondrichthyans. Bathyraja is the dominant rajid south of 60 degrees S. In the framework of the investigations on globin genes of Antarctic red-blooded and Hb-less fish we obtained the cloning of the alpha- and beta-globin cDNAs of the main Hb (Hb 1) of the skate Bathyraja eatonii. Then, a genomic fragment of 6.2 kb was isolated where the Hb 1 alpha and beta genes are linked in a tail-to-head (3' to 5') orientation. The beta-globin gene promoter region and the chromosomal organisation of the Hb 1 genes of B. eatonii have been compared to their homologues in other vertebrates. The finding of a tail-to-head linkage of the Hb 1 alpha- and beta-globin genes in B. eatonii is the first characterisation of the organisation of globin genes in chondrichthyes; such finding offers a novel contribution to the understanding of the evolution of this class of genes. Moreover, the characterisation of chondrichthyan genes is very important for gaining insight into the ancestral state of vertebrate genomes.

  12. DNA polymorphisms at the BCL11A, HBS1L-MYB, and beta-globin loci associate with fetal hemoglobin levels and pain crises in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Lettre, Guillaume; Sankaran, Vijay G; Bezerra, Marcos André C; Araújo, Aderson S; Uda, Manuela; Sanna, Serena; Cao, Antonio; Schlessinger, David; Costa, Fernando F; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Orkin, Stuart H

    2008-08-19

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a debilitating monogenic blood disorder with a highly variable phenotype characterized by severe pain crises, acute clinical events, and early mortality. Interindividual variation in fetal hemoglobin (HbF) expression is a known and potentially heritable modifier of SCD severity. High HbF levels are correlated with reduced morbidity and mortality. Common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the BCL11A and HBS1L-MYB loci have been implicated previously in HbF level variation in nonanemic European populations. We recently demonstrated an association between a BCL11A SNP and HbF levels in one SCD cohort [Uda M, et al. (2008) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:1620-1625]. Here, we genotyped additional BCL11A SNPs, HBS1L-MYB SNPs, and an SNP upstream of (G)gamma-globin (HBG2; the XmnI polymorphism), in two independent SCD cohorts: the African American Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease (CSSCD) and an SCD cohort from Brazil. We studied the effect of these SNPs on HbF levels and on a measure of SCD-related morbidity (pain crisis rate). We strongly replicated the association between these SNPs and HbF level variation (in the CSSCD, P values range from 0.04 to 2 x 10(-42)). Together, common SNPs at the BCL11A, HBS1L-MYB, and beta-globin (HBB) loci account for >20% of the variation in HbF levels in SCD patients. We also have shown that HbF-associated SNPs associate with pain crisis rate in SCD patients. These results provide a clear example of inherited common sequence variants modifying the severity of a monogenic disease.

  13. Sardinian delta beta zero-thalassemia: a further example of a C to T substitution at position -196 of the A gamma globin gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Ottolenghi, S; Giglioni, B; Pulazzini, A; Comi, P; Camaschella, C; Serra, A; Guerrasio, A; Saglio, G

    1987-04-01

    Selective overexpression (50- to 100-fold) in adult erythroid cells of either G gamma or A gamma fetal globin gene is observed in hereditary conditions known as delta beta zero-thalassemia and hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH). Recently, a C----T change at position -196 of an overexpressed A gamma globin gene from an Italian HPFH was hypothesized, on the basis of indirect evidence, to represent the cause of the functional defect. We now show that the same mutation is present in a different overexpressed A gamma-globin gene from a Sardinian patient with a different syndrome (delta beta zero-thalassemia). The Sardinian A gamma globin gene differs from both the HPFH and the normal A gamma globin gene at nucleotide 1,560 in the noncoding portion of the third exon, where an A is deleted. In addition, the mutant -196 A gamma-globin gene is linked to a normal beta globin gene in HPFH, and to a beta-thalassemic gene (beta 39CAG----TAG) in delta beta zero-thalassemia. These data strengthen the suggestion that -196 mutation is causally linked to the abnormal phenotype and raise the question of whether the same or multiple mutational events are responsible for the appearance of the -196 mutation in different syndromes.

  14. beta(S)-Globin gene cluster haplotypes in the West Bank of Palestine.

    PubMed

    Samarah, Fekri; Ayesh, Suhail; Athanasiou, Miranda; Christakis, John; Vavatsi, Norma

    2009-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder of the beta-globin chain. In Palestine it is accompanied by a low level of Hb F (mean 5.14%) and a severe clinical presentation. In this study, 59 Palestinian patients, homozygotes for Hb S were studied for their haplotype background. Eight polymorphic sites in the beta-globin gene cluster were examined. The Benin haplotype was predominant with a frequency of 88.1%, followed by a frequency of 5.1% for the Bantu haplotype. One chromosome was found to carry the Cameroon haplotype (0.85%). Three atypical haplotypes were also found (5.95%). Heterogeneity was observed in Hb F production, ranging between 1.5 and 17.0%, whereas the (G)gamma ratio was homogeneous among all haplotypes with a normal amount of about 41%. Our results are in agreement with previous reports of the Benin haplotype origin in the Mediterranean.

  15. Acute chest syndrome is associated with single nucleotide polymorphism-defined beta globin cluster haplotype in children with sickle cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Bean, Christopher J; Boulet, Sheree L; Yang, Genyan; Payne, Amanda B; Ghaji, Nafisa; Pyle, Meredith E; Hooper, W Craig; Bhatnagar, Pallav; Keefer, Jeffrey; Barron-Casella, Emily A; Casella, James F; Debaun, Michael R

    2013-10-01

    Genetic diversity at the human β-globin locus has been implicated as a modifier of sickle cell anaemia (SCA) severity. However, haplotypes defined by restriction fragment length polymorphism sites across the β-globin locus have not been consistently associated with clinical phenotypes. To define the genetic structure at the β-globin locus more thoroughly, we performed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mapping in 820 children who were homozygous for the sickle cell mutation (HbSS). Genotyping results revealed very high linkage disequilibrium across a large region spanning the locus control region and the HBB (β-globin gene) cluster. We identified three predominant haplotypes accounting for 96% of the β(S) -carrying chromosomes in this population that could be distinguished using a minimal set of common SNPs. Consistent with previous studies, fetal haemoglobin level was significantly associated with β(S) -haplotypes. After controlling for covariates, an association was detected between haplotype and rate of hospitalization for acute chest syndrome (ACS) (incidence rate ratio 0·51, 95% confidence interval 0·29-0·89) but not incidence rate of vaso-occlusive pain or presence of silent cerebral infarct (SCI). Our results suggest that these SNP-defined β(S) -haplotypes may be associated with ACS, but not pain or SCI in a study population of children with SCA.

  16. Whole-Genome Analysis of Gene Conversion Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chih-Hao; Zhang, Yu; Hardison, Ross; Miller, Webb

    Gene conversion events are often overlooked in analyses of genome evolution. In a conversion event, an interval of DNA sequence (not necessarily containing a gene) overwrites a highly similar sequence. The event creates relationships among genomic intervals that can confound attempts to identify orthologs and to transfer functional annotation between genomes. Here we examine 1,112,202 paralogous pairs of human genomic intervals, and detect conversion events in about 13.5% of them. Properties of the putative gene conversions are analyzed, such as the lengths of the paralogous pairs and the spacing between their sources and targets. Our approach is illustrated using conversion events in the beta-globin gene cluster.

  17. Sequencing and mapping hemoglobin gene clusters in the australian model dasyurid marsupial sminthopsis macroura

    SciTech Connect

    De Leo, A.A.; Wheeler, D.; Lefevre, C.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Hope, R.; Kuliwaba, J.; Nicholas, K.R.; Westermanc, M.; Graves, J.A.M.

    2004-07-26

    Comparing globin genes and their flanking sequences across many species has allowed globin gene evolution to be reconstructed in great detail. Marsupial globin sequences have proved to be of exceptional significance. A previous finding of a beta-like omega gene in the alpha cluster in the tammar wallaby suggested that the alpha and beta cluster evolved via genome duplication and loss rather than tandem duplication. To confirm and extend this important finding we isolated and sequenced BACs containing the alpha and beta loci from the distantly related Australian marsupial Sminthopsis macroura. We report that the alpha gene lies in the same BAC as the beta-like omega gene, implying that the alpha-omega juxtaposition is likely to be conserved in all marsupials. The LUC7L gene was found 3' of the S. macroura alpha locus, a gene order shared with humans but not mouse, chicken or fugu. Sequencing a BAC contig that contained the S. macroura beta globin and epsilon globin loci showed that the globin cluster is flanked by olfactory genes, demonstrating a gene arrangement conserved for over 180 MY. Analysis of the region 5' to the S. macroura epsilon globin gene revealed a region similar to the eutherian LCR, containing sequences and potential transcription factor binding sites with homology to eutherian hypersensitive sites 1 to 5. FISH mapping of BACs containing S. macroura alpha and beta globin genes located the beta globin cluster on chromosome 3q and the alpha locus close to the centromere on 1q, resolving contradictory map locations obtained by previous radioactive in situ hybridization.

  18. Identification of patients with defects in the globin genes

    PubMed Central

    Dell’Edera, Domenico; Epifania, Annunziata Anna; Milazzo, Giusi Natalia; Leo, Manuela; Santacesaria, Carmela; Allegretti, Arianna; Mazzone, Eleonora; Panetta, Paolo; Iammarino, Giovanna; Lupo, Maria Giovanna; Barbieri, Rocchina; Lioi, Maria Brigida

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction hemoglobinopathies constitute a major health problem worldwide. These disorders are characterized by a clinical and hematological phenotypic heterogeneity. The increase of HbA2 is an invaluable hematological marker of the beta-thalassemia heterozygosis and of double heterozygosis for the alleles of delta and alpha globin genes or for the alleles of delta and beta globin genes which can cause the increase of HbA2 up to normal or borderline values. Case Report we report the case of a 30-year-old woman (first pregnant) who was admitted to our Unit at 12 weeks for a screening for thalassemia. The outcomes of the biochemical and haematological exams (MCV, MCH, HbA2, HbF) highlighted that the patient was a carrier of a beta-thalassemic trait. Molecular analysis of the beta globin genes highlighted a β039C>T heterozygous mutation. Biochemical and hematological parameters of the husband (MCV, MCH, HbA2, HbF) were normal except for the level of HbA2 (3,6%). The molecular analysis of the beta globin genes highlighted a IVS2 nt844 C>G heterozygous mutation. Furthermore, the heterozygous mutation δ+cod.27G>T was detected in his δ globin gene. For this reason, he was diagnosed a δ+β Thal. Conclusions the aim of this paper is to highlight that biochemical diagnosis could not exhaustive and a molecular diagnostic widening is required to detect the genetic deficiency causing the thalassemic trait. PMID:24611095

  19. Two new beta0-thalassemic mutations: a deletion (-CC) at codon 142 or overlapping codons 142-143, and an insertion (+T) at codon 45 or overlapping codons 44-45/45-46 of the beta-globin gene.

    PubMed

    Lacan, Philippe; Aubry, Martine; Couprie, Nicole; Francina, Alain

    2007-01-01

    We report here two new beta(0)-thalassemic mutations. In the first case, a deletion of two nucleotides (-CC) at codon 142 was found in a French Caucasian woman. In the second case, an insertion of a single nucleotide (+T) at codon 45 was found in a Turkish girl. In both cases, no dominant thalassemia-like phenotype was observed.

  20. Cell and Gene Therapy for the Beta-Thalassemias: Advances and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Mansilla-Soto, Jorge; Riviere, Isabelle; Boulad, Farid; Sadelain, Michel

    2016-04-01

    The beta-thalassemias are inherited anemias caused by mutations that severely reduce or abolish expression of the beta-globin gene. Like sickle cell disease, a related beta-globin gene disorder, they are ideal candidates for performing a genetic correction in patient hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The most advanced approach utilizes complex lentiviral vectors encoding the human β-globin gene, as first reported by May et al. in 2000. Considerable progress toward the clinical implementation of this approach has been made in the past five years, based on effective CD34+ cell mobilization and improved lentiviral vector manufacturing. Four trials have been initiated in the United States and Europe. Of 16 evaluable subjects, 6 have achieved transfusion independence. One of them developed a durable clonal expansion, which regressed after several years without transformation. Although globin lentiviral vectors have so far proven to be safe, this occurrence suggests that powerful insulators with robust enhancer-blocking activity will further enhance this approach. The combined discovery of Bcl11a-mediated γ-globin gene silencing and advances in gene editing are the foundations for another gene therapy approach, which aims to reactivate fetal hemoglobin (HbF) production. Its clinical translation will hinge on the safety and efficiency of gene targeting in true HSCs and the induction of sufficient levels of HbF to achieve transfusion independence. Altogether, the progress achieved over the past 15 years bodes well for finding a genetic cure for severe globin disorders in the next decade.

  1. Human tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene 3' untranslated region confers inducible toxin responsiveness to homologous promoter in monocytic THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Seiler-Tuyns, A; Dufour, N; Spertini, F

    1999-07-30

    To better define the role of 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) on transcriptional regulation of the human tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha gene, monocytic human THP-1 cells were transfected with two TNF-alpha promoter constructs spanning base pairs -1897/-1 and -1214/-1, respectively, and linked to the rabbit beta-globin gene. Quantitative globin gene expression of chimerae was measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. A construct linking the chicken beta-actin promoter and a deleted portion of the beta-globin gene was cotransfected and used as internal standard. Unexpectedly, when THP-1 cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide or toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, gene regulation was hardly detected. In contrast, endogenous TNF-alpha gene regulation measured by the same reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction procedure was vigorous. Remarkably, ligation of 3'UTR to chimeric constructs led to a drastic drop in the basal level of chimeric gene expression, resulting in a 15- to 40-fold induction of the reporter gene. Consistently, when the TNF-alpha promoter was replaced by the cytomegalovirus early immediate promoter, gene expression was also uniformly reduced but was no longer up-regulated upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1. These data provide the first line of evidence that, in addition to its role in TNF-alpha transcript stability and translation, human TNF-alpha 3'UTR also participates in modulating gene expression at the transcriptional level.

  2. CP2 binding to the promoter is essential for the enhanced transcription of globin genes in erythroid cells.

    PubMed

    Chae, Ji Hyung; Kim, Chul Geun

    2003-02-28

    We have previously reported that the reduced level of CP2 suppresses the mouse alpha- and beta-globin gene expression and hemoglobin synthesis during terminal differentiation of mouse erythroleukemia (MEL) cells in vitro [Chae et al. (1999)]. As an extension of this study, we demonstrated that human alpha-, epsilon-, and gamma- globin genes were also suppressed by the reduced expression of CP2 in K562 cells. To address how much CP2 contributes in the regulation of globin gene expression, we measured transcriptional activities of the wild type alpha-globin promoter and its various factor-binding sites mutants in erythroid and nonerythroid cells. Interestingly, CP2 site dependent transcriptional activation occurred in an erythroid-cell specific manner, even though CP2 is ubiquitously expressed. In addition, CP2 site mutation within the alpha-promoter severely suppressed promoter activity in differentiated, but not in undifferentiated MEL cells, suggesting that the CP2 binding site is needed for the enhanced transcription of globin genes during erythroid differentiation. When the human beta-globin locus control region was linked to the alpha-promoter, suppression was more severe in the CP2 site mutant in differentiated MEL cells. Overall data indicate that CP2 is a major factor in the regulation of globin expression in human and mouse erythroid cells, and CP2 binding to the globin gene promoter is essential for the enhanced transcription of globin genes in erythroid differentiation.

  3. REST regulation of gene networks in adult neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Shradha; Brulet, Rebecca; Zhang, Ling; Hsieh, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neural stem cells generate newborn neurons throughout life due to their ability to self-renew and exist as quiescent neural progenitors (QNPs) before differentiating into transit-amplifying progenitors (TAPs) and newborn neurons. The mechanisms that control adult neural stem cell self-renewal are still largely unknown. Conditional knockout of REST (repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor) results in precocious activation of QNPs and reduced neurogenesis over time. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms by which REST regulates adult neural stem cells, we perform chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and RNA-sequencing to identify direct REST target genes. We find REST regulates both QNPs and TAPs, and importantly, ribosome biogenesis, cell cycle and neuronal genes in the process. Furthermore, overexpression of individual REST target ribosome biogenesis or cell cycle genes is sufficient to induce activation of QNPs. Our data define novel REST targets to maintain the quiescent neural stem cell state. PMID:27819263

  4. REST regulation of gene networks in adult neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Shradha; Brulet, Rebecca; Zhang, Ling; Hsieh, Jenny

    2016-11-07

    Adult hippocampal neural stem cells generate newborn neurons throughout life due to their ability to self-renew and exist as quiescent neural progenitors (QNPs) before differentiating into transit-amplifying progenitors (TAPs) and newborn neurons. The mechanisms that control adult neural stem cell self-renewal are still largely unknown. Conditional knockout of REST (repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor) results in precocious activation of QNPs and reduced neurogenesis over time. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms by which REST regulates adult neural stem cells, we perform chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and RNA-sequencing to identify direct REST target genes. We find REST regulates both QNPs and TAPs, and importantly, ribosome biogenesis, cell cycle and neuronal genes in the process. Furthermore, overexpression of individual REST target ribosome biogenesis or cell cycle genes is sufficient to induce activation of QNPs. Our data define novel REST targets to maintain the quiescent neural stem cell state.

  5. LCR-mediated, long-term tissue-specific gene expression within replicating episomal plasmid and cosmid vectors.

    PubMed

    Chow, C-M; Athanassiadou, A; Raguz, S; Psiouri, L; Harland, L; Malik, M; Aitken, M A; Grosveld, F; Antoniou, M

    2002-03-01

    Locus control regions (LCRs) are transcriptional regulatory elements, which possess a dominant chromatin remodelling and transcriptional activating capability conferring full physiological levels of expression on a gene linked in cis, when integrated into the host cell genome. Using the human beta-globin LCR (betaLCR) as a model, we show that this class of control element can drive high levels of tissue-specific gene expression in stably transfected cultured cells from within an Epstein-Barr virus-based plasmid REV. Furthermore, a 38-kb betaLCR minilocus-REV cosmid vector was efficiently retained and maintained therapeutic levels of beta-globin transgene expression in the absence of drug selective pressure over a 2-month period of continuous culture equivalent to at least 60 generations. This demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of using REVs for gene therapy of the haemoglobinopathies. Importantly, our results demonstrate that as in the case of integrated transgenes, expression from within REVs is prone to silencing but that the inclusion of the betaLCR prevented this repression of gene function. Therefore, appropriate control elements to provide and maintain tissue-specific gene expression, as well as the episomal status of REVs is a crucial feature in vector design. Our data suggest that LCRs can contribute to this vital function.

  6. Role of an adenovirus E2 promoter binding factor in E1A-mediated coordinate gene control.

    PubMed Central

    Kovesdi, I; Reichel, R; Nevins, J R

    1987-01-01

    A product of the adenovirus gene E1A is responsible for the stimulation of transcription from six viral promoters as well as at least two cellular promoters. We have detected a HeLa cell factor, termed E2 promoter binding factor (E2F), that appears to mediate the transcriptional stimulation of the viral E2 promoter. Competition experiments revealed that E2F did not recognize and bind to the E1B, E3, E4, or major late promoter sequences. Furthermore, three additional promoters stimulated by E1A, heat shock protein 70, beta-globin, and early simian virus 40, do not bind E2F. In contrast, the factor does recognize sequences in the E1A enhancer, and within the E1A enhancer are duplicated binding sites for E2F. Finally, a single E2F binding site from the E1A enhancer can confer increased transcription to a mouse beta-globin promoter, dependent on the action of the E1A gene product. This stimulation requires binding of E2F since methylation of the binding site, which blocks binding in vitro, reduces transcription stimulation in vivo. We, therefore, conclude that E2F is likely to be responsible for the E1A-mediated stimulation of the E1A gene as well as the E2 gene but is not involved in the activation of the other E1A-inducible promoters. Images PMID:2951737

  7. Regulation and Function of Adult Neurogenesis: From Genes to Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Aimone, James B.; Li, Yan; Lee, Star W.; Clemenson, Gregory D.; Deng, Wei; Gage, Fred H.

    2014-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is a notable process due not only to its uniqueness and potential impact on cognition but also to its localized vertical integration of different scales of neuroscience, ranging from molecular and cellular biology to behavior. This review summarizes the recent research regarding the process of adult neurogenesis from these different perspectives, with particular emphasis on the differentiation and development of new neurons, the regulation of the process by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, and their ultimate function in the hippocampus circuit. Arising from a local neural stem cell population, new neurons progress through several stages of maturation, ultimately integrating into the adult dentate gyrus network. The increased appreciation of the full neurogenesis process, from genes and cells to behavior and cognition, makes neurogenesis both a unique case study for how scales in neuroscience can link together and suggests neurogenesis as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for a number of disorders. PMID:25287858

  8. Regulation and Function of Adult Neurogenesis. From Genes to Cognition

    DOE PAGES

    Aimone, J. B.; Li, Y.; Lee, S. W.; ...

    2014-10-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is a notable process due not only to its uniqueness and potential impact on cognition but also to its localized vertical integration of different scales of neuroscience, ranging from molecular and cellular biology to behavior. Our review summarizes the recent research regarding the process of adult neurogenesis from these different perspectives, with particular emphasis on the differentiation and development of new neurons, the regulation of the process by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, and their ultimate function in the hippocampus circuit. Arising from a local neural stem cell population, new neurons progress through several stages ofmore » maturation, ultimately integrating into the adult dentate gyrus network. Furthermore, the increased appreciation of the full neurogenesis process, from genes and cells to behavior and cognition, makes neurogenesis both a unique case study for how scales in neuroscience can link together and suggests neurogenesis as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for a number of disorders.« less

  9. Regulation and Function of Adult Neurogenesis. From Genes to Cognition

    SciTech Connect

    Aimone, J. B.; Li, Y.; Lee, S. W.; Clemenson, G. D.; Deng, W.; Gage, F. H.

    2014-10-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is a notable process due not only to its uniqueness and potential impact on cognition but also to its localized vertical integration of different scales of neuroscience, ranging from molecular and cellular biology to behavior. Our review summarizes the recent research regarding the process of adult neurogenesis from these different perspectives, with particular emphasis on the differentiation and development of new neurons, the regulation of the process by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, and their ultimate function in the hippocampus circuit. Arising from a local neural stem cell population, new neurons progress through several stages of maturation, ultimately integrating into the adult dentate gyrus network. Furthermore, the increased appreciation of the full neurogenesis process, from genes and cells to behavior and cognition, makes neurogenesis both a unique case study for how scales in neuroscience can link together and suggests neurogenesis as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for a number of disorders.

  10. Cell-type-specific expression and regulation of a c-fos-NGF fusion gene in neurons and astrocytes of transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Onténiente, B; Horellou, P; Neveu, I; Makeh, I; Suzuki, F; Bourdet, C; Grimber, G; Colin, P; Brachet, P; Mallet, J

    1994-02-01

    A mouse line transgenic for nerve growth factor (NGF) was developed using the mouse prepro-NGF cDNA inserted within a plasmid containing the proximal region (-10 to -550 bp) of the c-fos promoter and the transcription termination and polyadenylation signals of the rabbit beta-globin gene. No significant modification of gross behavior or central nervous system anatomy was detected in adult animals as assessed by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization for NGF and choline acetyltransferase. The expression of the transgene and the possible regulation of its expression by agents acting on the promoter were investigated in vitro. Despite the presence of an additional pool of NGF mRNA specific to the transgene, basal levels of NGF in the supernatant of transgenic astrocytes were similar to normal ones. On the other hand, transgenic neurons spontaneously synthesized and released levels of NGF two to three times higher than normal neurons, while mRNA levels were barely detectable by conventional Northern blotting. The tissue-specificity of NGF expression was respected, with higher levels in hippocampal than neocortical neurons. Increases of NGF mRNA by agents acting on the promoter could be observed in normal and transgenic astrocytes only after inhibition of the protein synthesis by cycloheximide, suggesting a similar rapid turnover of normal and transgenic transcripts. Cyclic AMP agonists specifically increased the secretion of NGF protein by transgenic astrocytes and neurons, while activators of the protein kinase C had a similar effect on transgenic and normal cells. Differences between amounts of NGF secreted by neurons and astrocytes with regards to their respective content in mRNA suggest that transgenic transcripts are subject to normal cell- and tissue-specific post-transcriptional regulations. Agents acting on the c-fos promoter through the protein kinase C or cyclic AMP routes differentially increased the secretion of NGF by transgenic astrocytes or

  11. Gene amplification as a cause of inherited thyroxine-binding globulin excess in two Japanese families

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Yuichi; Miura, Yoshitaka; Saito, Hidehiko

    1995-12-01

    T{sub 4}-binding globulin (TBG) is the major thyroid hormone transport protein in man. Inherited abnormalities in the level of serum TBG have been classified as partial deficiency, complete deficiency, and excess. Sequencing analysis of the TBG gene, located on Xq21-22, has uncovered the molecular defects causing partial and complete deficiency. However, the mechanism leading to inherited TBG excess remains unknown. In this study, two Japanese families, F-A and F-T, with inherited TBG excess were analyzed. Serum TBG levels in hemizygous males were 58 and 44 {mu}g/mL, 3- and 2-fold the normal value, respectively. The molecule had normal properties in terms of heat stability and isoelectric focussing pattern. The sequence of the coding region and the promoter activity of the TBG gene were also indistinguishable between hemizygotes and normal subjects. The gene dosage of TBG relative to that of {beta}-globin, which is located on chromosome 11, and Duchenne muscular dystropy, which is located on Xp, was evaluated by coamplification of these target genes using polymerase chain reaction and subsequent quantitation by HPLC. The TBG/{beta}-globin ratios of the affected male and female of F-A were 3.13 and 4.13 times, respectively, that in the normal males. The TBG/Duchenne muscular dystrophy ratios were 2.92 and 2.09 times the normal value, respectively. These results are compatible with three copies of TBG gene on the affected X-chromosome. Similarly, a 2-fold increase in gene dosage was demonstrated in the affected hemizygote of F-T. A 3-fold tandem amplification of the TBG gene was shown by in situ hybridization of prometaphase and interphase chromosomes from the affected male with a biotinylated genomic TBG probe, confirming the gene dosage results. Gene amplification of TBG is the cause of inherited TBG excess in these two families. 35 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Specific transcription and RNA splicing defects in five cloned beta-thalassaemia genes.

    PubMed

    Treisman, R; Orkin, S H; Maniatis, T

    1983-04-14

    Transcriptional analysis of five different cloned beta-thalassaemia genes introduced into cultured mammalian cells revealed specific defects in transcription and RNA splicing. A single base change 87 base pairs to the 5' side of the mRNA cap site significantly lowers the level of transcription and therefore appears to represent a promoter mutation. Three genes contain different single base changes in the first intervening sequence (IVS) 5' splice site. One mutation, at IVS1 position 1, inactivates the splice site completely; the other two, at IVS1 positions 5 and 6, reduce its activity. Each mutation activates the same three cryptic splice sites. The fifth gene contains a single base change within IVS2 at position 745, which results in the formation of abnormal beta-globin RNA that contains an extra exon.

  13. Bone status of adult female butyrylcholinesterase gene-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Haupt, Malte; Kauschke, Vivien; Sender, Jonas; Kampschulte, Marian; Kovtun, Anna; Dürselen, Lutz; Heiss, Christian; Lips, Katrin Susanne

    2015-11-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) degrades acetylcholine in addition to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) which is involved in embryonic development of limbs. Since BChE is expressed by osteoblast-like cells we asked whether it is functional in adult bone remodeling. We addressed this issue by analyzing BChE gene-deficient mice (BChE-KO). Bones were extracted from 16-week old female BChE-KO and corresponding wild type mice (WT). Femoral bones were used for biomechanical testing and μCT evaluation of cancellous and cortical bone. Also vertebrae Th12 and L1 were investigated with μCT while L3 was used for tartrate-resistant acidic phosphatase (TRAP) histomorphometry and Th10 for gene expression analysis by means of real-time RT-PCR. BChE-KO did not reveal significant differences in biomechanical bone strength and bone mineral density determined by μCT. Microarchitecture of cancellous and cortical bone showed an increase in μCT parameters like trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, and relative cortical bone area of femoral BChE-KO bone compared to WT. In vertebrae no changes of microstructure and mRNA expression were detected. However, osteoclast histomorphometry with TRAP stained sections demonstrated a significant increase in relative osteoclast number. In conclusion, in adult murine bone the role of BChE is limited to bone specific changes in microarchitecture and to an increase in relative number of bone resorbing osteoclasts whereas the main collagen resorbing enzyme Cathepsin-K (CtsK) was stably expressed. Besides, AChE might be able to compensate the lack of BChE. Thus, further analyses using bone tissue specific AChE BChE cre-lox double knockout mice would be helpful.

  14. A Digital Gene Expression-Based Bovine Gene Atlas Evaluating 92 Adult, Juvenile and Fetal Cattle Tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comprehensive transcriptome survey, or “Gene Atlas,” provides information essential for a complete understanding of the genomic biology of an organism. Using a digital gene expression approach, we developed a Gene Atlas of RNA abundance in 92 adult, juvenile and fetal cattle tissues. The samples...

  15. Correction of murine sickle cell disease using gamma-globin lentiviral vectors to mediate high-level expression of fetal hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Pestina, Tamara I; Hargrove, Phillip W; Jay, Dennis; Gray, John T; Boyd, Kelli M; Persons, Derek A

    2009-02-01

    Increased levels of red cell fetal hemogloblin, whether due to hereditary persistence of expression or from induction with hydroxyurea therapy, effectively ameliorate sickle cell disease (SCD). Therefore, we developed erythroid-specific, gamma-globin lentiviral vectors for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-targeted gene therapy with the goal of permanently increasing fetal hemoglobin (HbF) production in sickle red cells. We evaluated two different gamma-globin lentiviral vectors for therapeutic efficacy in the BERK sickle cell mouse model. The first vector, V5, contained the gamma-globin gene driven by 3.1 kb of beta-globin regulatory sequences and a 130-bp beta-globin promoter. The second vector, V5m3, was identical except that the gamma-globin 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) was replaced with the beta-globin 3'-UTR. Adult erythroid cells have beta-globin mRNA 3'-UTR-binding proteins that enhance beta-globin mRNA stability and we postulated this design might enhance gamma-globin expression. Stem cell gene transfer was efficient and nearly all red cells in transplanted mice expressed human gamma-globin. Both vectors demonstrated efficacy in disease correction, with the V5m3 vector producing a higher level of gamma-globin mRNA which was associated with high-level correction of anemia and secondary organ pathology. These data support the rationale for a gene therapy approach to SCD by permanently enhancing HbF using a gamma-globin lentiviral vector.

  16. Investigation of genes important in neurodevelopment disorders in adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Maussion, Gilles; Diallo, Alpha B; Gigek, Carolina O; Chen, Elizabeth S; Crapper, Liam; Théroux, Jean-Francois; Chen, Gary G; Vasuta, Cristina; Ernst, Carl

    2015-10-01

    Several neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are caused by mutations in genes expressed in fetal brain, but little is known about these same genes in adult human brain. Here, we test the hypothesis that genes associated with NDDs continue to have a role in adult human brain to explore the idea that NDD symptoms may be partially a result of their adult function rather than just their neurodevelopmental function. To demonstrate adult brain function, we performed expression analyses and ChIPseq in human neural stem cell(NSC) lines at different developmental stages and adult human brain, targeting two genes associated with NDDs, SATB2 and EHMT1, and the WNT signaling gene TCF7L2, which has not been associated with NDDs. Analysis of DNA interaction sites in neural stem cells reveals high (40-50 %) overlap between proliferating and differentiating cells for each gene in temporal space. Studies in adult brain demonstrate that consensus sites are similar to NSCs but occur at different genomic locations. We also performed expression analyses using BrainSpan data for NDD-associated genes SATB2, EHMT1, FMR1, MECP2, MBD5, CTNND2, RAI1, CHD8, GRIN2A, GRIN2B, TCF4, SCN2A, and DYRK1A and find high expression of these genes in adult brain, at least comparable to developing human brain, confirming that genes associated with NDDs likely have a role in adult tissue. Adult function of genes associated with NDDs might be important in clinical disease presentation and may be suitable targets for therapeutic intervention.

  17. Hox genes in the adult skeleton: Novel functions beyond embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Rux, Danielle R; Wellik, Deneen M

    2016-12-27

    Hox genes encode evolutionarily conserved transcription factors that control skeletal patterning in the developing embryo. They are expressed in regionally restricted domains and function to regulate the morphology of specific vertebral and long bone elements. Recent work has provided evidence that Hox genes continue to be regionally expressed in adult tissues. Fibroblasts cultured from adult tissues show broadly maintained Hox gene expression patterns. In the adult skeleton, Hox genes are expressed in progenitor-enriched populations of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), and genetic loss-of-function analyses have provided evidence that Hox genes function during the fracture healing process. This review will highlight our current understanding of Hox expression in the adult animal and its function in skeletal regeneration. Developmental Dynamics, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Implications of the genetic epidemiology of globin haplotypes linked to the sickle cell gene in southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Zohreh; Merat, Ahmad; Gerard, Nathalie; Krishnamoorthy, Rajagopal; Nagel, Ronald L

    2006-12-01

    To determine the origin of sickle cell mutation in different ethnic groups living in southern Iran, we studied the haplotype background of the betaS and betaA genes in subjects from the provinces of Fars, Khuzestan, Bushehr, Hormozgan, and Kerman and from the islands of Khark and Qeshm. beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes were determined using the PCR-RFLP technique. Detection of -alpha 3.7 deletion and beta-thalassemia mutations were defined by PCR and reverse dot blot techniques, respectively. The framework of the beta-globin gene was determined using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. We found that the betaS mutation in southern Iran is associated with multiple mutational events. Most of the patients were from two ethnic groups: Farsi speakers (presumably Persian in origin) from Fars province and patients of Arab origin from Khuzestan province. In both ethnic groups the Arab-Indian haplotype was the most prevalent. The frequencies of the Arab-Indian and African haplotypes in sickle cell anemia patients from the provinces of Fars and Khuzestan were similar. Among betaA chromosomes the Bantu A2 haplotype was the most prevalent. The decrease in alpha-globin production in SS patients and AS individuals appeared to be related to the reduction in mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin. The Arab-Indian haplotype gene flow into this region of Iran can be traced to the Sassanian Empire. It is likely that the influx of betaS genes linked to the Benin and Bantu haplotypes, of African origin, must have occurred during the Arab slave trade.

  19. Different Gene Expression Signatures in Children and Adults with Celiac Disease.

    PubMed

    Pascual, V; Medrano, L M; López-Palacios, N; Bodas, A; Dema, B; Fernández-Arquero, M; González-Pérez, B; Salazar, I; Núñez, C

    2016-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is developed after gluten ingestion in genetically susceptible individuals. It can appear at any time in life, but some differences are commonly observed between individuals with onset early in life or in adulthood. We aimed to investigate the molecular basis underlying those differences. We collected 19 duodenal biopsies of children and adults with CD and compared the expression of 38 selected genes between each other and with the observed in 13 non-CD controls matched by age. A Bayesian methodology was used to analyze the differences of gene expression between groups. We found seven genes with a similarly altered expression in children and adults with CD when compared to controls (C2orf74, CCR6, FASLG, JAK2, IL23A, TAGAP and UBE2L3). Differences were observed in 13 genes: six genes being altered only in adults (IL1RL1, CD28, STAT3, TMEM187, VAMP3 and ZFP36L1) and two only in children (TNFSF18 and ICOSLG); and four genes showing a significantly higher alteration in adults (CCR4, IL6, IL18RAP and PLEK) and one in children (C1orf106). This is the first extensive study comparing gene expression in children and adults with CD. Differences in the expression level of several genes were found between groups, being notorious the higher alteration observed in adults. Further research is needed to evaluate the possible genetic influence underlying these changes and the specific functional consequences of the reported differences.

  20. The Role of Hox Genes in Female Reproductive Tract Development, Adult Function, and Fertility.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S

    2015-11-09

    HOX genes convey positional identity that leads to the proper partitioning and adult identity of the female reproductive track. Abnormalities in reproductive tract development can be caused by HOX gene mutations or altered HOX gene expression. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and other endocrine disruptors cause Müllerian defects by changing HOX gene expression. HOX genes are also essential regulators of adult endometrial development. Regulated HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression is necessary for endometrial receptivity; decreased HOXA10 or HOXA11 expression leads to decreased implantation rates. Alternation of HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression has been identified as a mechanism of the decreased implantation associated with endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, leiomyoma, polyps, adenomyosis, and hydrosalpinx. Alteration of HOX gene expression causes both uterine developmental abnormalities and impaired adult endometrial development that prevent implantation and lead to female infertility.

  1. Comparison of larval and adult Drosophila astrocytes reveals stage-specific gene expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanmei; Ng, Fanny S; Jackson, F Rob

    2015-02-04

    The analysis of adult astrocyte glial cells has revealed a remarkable heterogeneity with regard to morphology, molecular signature, and physiology. A key question in glial biology is how such heterogeneity arises during brain development. One approach to this question is to identify genes with differential astrocyte expression during development; certain genes expressed later in neural development may contribute to astrocyte differentiation. We have utilized the Drosophila model and Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification (TRAP)-RNA-seq methods to derive the genome-wide expression profile of Drosophila larval astrocyte-like cells (hereafter referred to as astrocytes) for the first time. These studies identified hundreds of larval astrocyte-enriched genes that encode proteins important for metabolism, energy production, and protein synthesis, consistent with the known role of astrocytes in the metabolic support of neurons. Comparison of the larval profile with that observed for adults has identified genes with astrocyte-enriched expression specific to adulthood. These include genes important for metabolism and energy production, translation, chromatin modification, protein glycosylation, neuropeptide signaling, immune responses, vesicle-mediated trafficking or secretion, and the regulation of behavior. Among these functional classes, the expression of genes important for chromatin modification and vesicle-mediated trafficking or secretion is overrepresented in adult astrocytes based on Gene Ontology analysis. Certain genes with selective adult enrichment may mediate functions specific to this stage or may be important for the differentiation or maintenance of adult astrocytes, with the latter perhaps contributing to population heterogeneity.

  2. Analysis of gene expression in fetal and adult cells infected with rubella virus

    SciTech Connect

    Adamo, Maria Pilar; Zapata, Marta; Frey, Teryl K.

    2008-01-05

    Congenital infection with rubella virus (RUB) leads to persistent infection and congenital defects and we showed previously that primary human fetal fibroblasts did not undergo apoptosis when infected with RUB, which could promote fetal virus persistence [Adamo, P., Asis, L., Silveyra, P., Cuffini, C., Pedranti, M., Zapata, M., 2004. Rubella virus does not induce apoptosis in primary human embryo fibroblasts cultures: a possible way of viral persistence in congenital infection. Viral Immunol. 17, 87-100]. To extend this observation, gene chip analysis was performed on a line of primary human fetal fibroblasts (10 weeks gestation) and a line of human adult lung fibroblasts (which underwent apoptosis in response to RUB infection) to compare gene expression in infected and uninfected cells. A total of 632 and 516 genes were upregulated or downregulated in the infected fetal and adult cells respectively in comparison to uninfected cells, however only 52 genes were regulated in both cell types. Although the regulated genes were different, across functional gene categories the patterns of gene regulation were similar. In general, regulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes following infection appeared to favor apoptosis in the adult cells and lack of apoptosis in the fetal cells, however there was a greater relative expression of anti-apoptotic genes and reduced expression of pro-apoptotic genes in uninfected fetal cells versus uninfected adult cells and thus the lack of apoptosis in fetal cells following RUB infection was also due to the prevailing background of gene expression that is antagonistic to apoptosis. In support of this hypothesis, it was found that of a battery of five chemicals known to induce apoptosis, two induced apoptosis in the adult cells, but not in fetal cells, and two induced apoptosis more rapidly in the adult cells than in fetal cells (the fifth did not induce apoptosis in either). A robust interferon-stimulated gene response was induced

  3. Rapid and efficient gene delivery into the adult mouse brain via focal electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Tadashi; Nishimura, Yusuke; Gotoh, Hitoshi; Ono, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    In vivo gene delivery is required for studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms of various biological events. Virus-mediated gene transfer or generation of transgenic animals is widely used; however, these methods are time-consuming and expensive. Here we show an improved electroporation technique for acute gene delivery into the adult mouse brain. Using a syringe-based microelectrode, local DNA injection and the application of electric current can be performed simultaneously; this allows rapid and efficient gene transduction of adult non-neuronal cells. Combining this technique with various expression vectors that carry specific promoters resulted in targeted gene expression in astrocytic cells. Our results constitute a powerful strategy for the genetic manipulation of adult brains in a spatio-temporally controlled manner. PMID:27430903

  4. Assessment of Virally Vectored Autoimmunity as a Biocontrol Strategy for Cane Toads

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Anthony J.; Venables, Daryl; Voysey, Rhonda D.; Boyle, Donna G.; Shanmuganathan, Thayalini; Hardy, Christopher M.; Siddon, Nicole A.; Hyatt, Alex D.

    2011-01-01

    Background The cane toad, Bufo (Chaunus) marinus, is one of the most notorious vertebrate pests introduced into Australia over the last 200 years and, so far, efforts to identify a naturally occurring B. marinus-specific pathogen for use as a biological control agent have been unsuccessful. We explored an alternative approach that entailed genetically modifying a pathogen with broad host specificity so that it no longer caused disease, but carried a gene to disrupt the cane toad life cycle in a species specific manner. Methodology/Principal Findings The adult beta globin gene was selected as the model gene for proof of concept of autoimmunity as a biocontrol method for cane toads. A previous report showed injection of bullfrog tadpoles with adult beta globin resulted in an alteration in the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs as well as reduced survival. In B. marinus we established for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin exists. The effect of injecting B. marinus tadpoles with purified recombinant adult globin protein was then assessed using behavioural (swim speed in tadpoles and jump length in metamorphs), developmental (time to metamorphosis, weight and length at various developmental stages, protein profile of adult globin) and genetic (adult globin mRNA levels) measures. However, we were unable to detect any differences between treated and control animals. Further, globin delivery using Bohle iridovirus, an Australian ranavirus isolate belonging to the Iridovirus family, did not reduce the survival of metamorphs or alter the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs. Conclusions/Significance While we were able to show for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin does occur in B. marinus, we were not able to induce autoimmunity and disrupt metamorphosis. The short development time of B. marinus tadpoles may preclude this approach. PMID:21283623

  5. Widespread transcription of a Qa region gene in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    The mouse MHC class I family includes genes encoded in four regions: H- 2K, H-2D, Qa and Tla. While K/D genes are well characterized, relatively little is known about Qa or Tla genes. We have studied the transcription of a B10.P Qa region gene. DNA sequence comparisons of the transmembrane region, supported by Southern blot analysis of cosmid and genomic DNAs from BALB/c and C57BL/10, demonstrate the lambda 3a gene corresponds to Q4p. In both Northern blots and RNA protection experiments using probes derived from the 3' noncoding region, we found that Q4, like the H-2K and H-2D genes, is widely transcribed in B10.P tissues. These data demonstrate for the first time widespread transcription of a Qa gene. PMID:2439640

  6. A microarray gene analysis of peripheral whole blood in normal adult male rats after long-term GH gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ying; Tian, Ya-Ping

    2010-06-01

    The main aims of this study were to determine the effects of GH gene abuse/misuse in normal animals and to discover genes that could be used as candidate biomarkers for the detection of GH gene therapy abuse/misuse in humans. We determined the global gene expression profile of peripheral whole blood from normal adult male rats after long-term GH gene therapy using CapitalBio 27 K Rat Genome Oligo Arrays. Sixty one genes were found to be differentially expressed in GH gene-treated rats 24 weeks after receiving GH gene therapy, at a two-fold higher or lower level compared to the empty vector group (p < 0.05). These genes were mainly associated with angiogenesis, oncogenesis, apoptosis, immune networks, signaling pathways, general metabolism, type I diabetes mellitus, carbon fixation, cell adhesion molecules, and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. The results imply that exogenous GH gene expression in normal subjects is likely to induce cellular changes in the metabolism, signal pathways and immunity. A real-time qRT-PCR analysis of a selection of the genes confirmed the microarray data. Eight differently expressed genes were selected as candidate biomarkers from among these 61 genes. These 8 showed five-fold higher or lower expression levels after the GH gene transduction (p < 0.05). They were then validated in real-time PCR experiments using 15 single-treated blood samples and 10 control blood samples. In summary, we detected the gene expression profiles of rat peripheral whole blood after long-term GH gene therapy and screened eight genes as candidate biomarkers based on the microarray data. This will contribute to an increased mechanistic understanding of the effects of chronic GH gene therapy abuse/misuse in normal subjects.

  7. Different Gene Expression Signatures in Children and Adults with Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    López-Palacios, N.; Bodas, A.; Dema, B.; Fernández-Arquero, M.; González-Pérez, B.; Salazar, I.; Núñez, C.

    2016-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is developed after gluten ingestion in genetically susceptible individuals. It can appear at any time in life, but some differences are commonly observed between individuals with onset early in life or in adulthood. We aimed to investigate the molecular basis underlying those differences. We collected 19 duodenal biopsies of children and adults with CD and compared the expression of 38 selected genes between each other and with the observed in 13 non-CD controls matched by age. A Bayesian methodology was used to analyze the differences of gene expression between groups. We found seven genes with a similarly altered expression in children and adults with CD when compared to controls (C2orf74, CCR6, FASLG, JAK2, IL23A, TAGAP and UBE2L3). Differences were observed in 13 genes: six genes being altered only in adults (IL1RL1, CD28, STAT3, TMEM187, VAMP3 and ZFP36L1) and two only in children (TNFSF18 and ICOSLG); and four genes showing a significantly higher alteration in adults (CCR4, IL6, IL18RAP and PLEK) and one in children (C1orf106). This is the first extensive study comparing gene expression in children and adults with CD. Differences in the expression level of several genes were found between groups, being notorious the higher alteration observed in adults. Further research is needed to evaluate the possible genetic influence underlying these changes and the specific functional consequences of the reported differences. PMID:26859134

  8. Age-related decreased inhibitory vs. excitatory gene expression in the adult autistic brain.

    PubMed

    van de Lagemaat, Louie N; Nijhof, Bonnie; Bosch, Daniëlle G M; Kohansal-Nodehi, Mahdokht; Keerthikumar, Shivakumar; Heimel, J Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and restricted behavior and interests. A disruption in the balance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission has been hypothesized to underlie these disorders. Here we demonstrate that genes of both pathways are affected by ASD, and that gene expression of inhibitory and excitatory genes is altered in the cerebral cortex of adult but not younger autistic individuals. We have developed a measure for the difference in the level of excitation and inhibition based on gene expression and observe that in this measure inhibition is decreased relative to excitation in adult ASD compared to control. This difference was undetectable in young autistic brains. Given that many psychiatric features of autism are already present at an early age, this suggests that the observed imbalance in gene expression is an aging phenomenon in ASD rather than its underlying cause.

  9. Gene Expression in Adult Metafemales of Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Birchler, J. A.; Hiebert, J. C.; Krietzman, M.

    1989-01-01

    The expression of selected X-linked and autosomal genes was examined in metafemales (3X:2A) compared to diploid sisters. Three enzyme activities (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phospho-gluconate dehydrogenase, β-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase) encoded by X-linked genes are not significantly different in the two classes of flies. In contrast, three autosomally encoded enzyme activities (alcohol dehydrogenase, α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase) are reduced in metafemales. Protein and DNA comparisons between metafemales and diploid sisters show a lowered level of total protein whereas the total DNA measurements are similar. Thus, the total cell number in metafemales is basically unchanged but gene expression is reduced. Phenotypic analysis of three autosomal loci, glass (gl), purple (pr) and pink-peach (p(p)), show that all three have lowered expression in metafemales while the X-linked loci, white-apricot (w(a)) and Bar (B), are dosage compensated. Quantitative dot blot analysis of messenger RNA levels of the second chromosomal locus, alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh), and the X chromosomal locus, rudimentary (r), show that Adh has reduced expression and r is partially compensated per total RNA in metafemales. It is proposed that the increased dosage of the X chromosome inversely affects both the X and autosomal gene expression but the simultaneous increased dosage of the structural genes on the X results in dosage compensation. The reduced levels of expression of autosomal genes could contribute to the great inviability of metafemales. PMID:2503426

  10. Constitutive gene expression and specification of tissue identity in adult planarian biology

    PubMed Central

    Reddien, Peter W.

    2011-01-01

    Planarians are flatworms that constitutively maintain adult tissues through cell turnover and can regenerate entire organisms from tiny body fragments. In addition to requiring new cells (from neoblasts), these feats require mechanisms that specify tissue identity in the adult. Critical roles for Wnt and BMP signaling in regeneration and maintenance of the body axes have been uncovered, among other regulatory factors. Available data indicate that genes involved in positional identity regulation at key embryonic stages in other animals display persisting regionalized expression in adult planarians. These expression patterns suggest that a constitutively active gene expression map exists for maintenance of the planarian body. Planarians therefore present a fertile ground for identification of factors regulating regionalization of the metazoan body plan and for study of the attributes of these factors that can lead to maintenance and regeneration of adult tissues. PMID:21680047

  11. The Lr34 adult plant rust resistance gene provides seedling resistance in durum wheat without senescence.

    PubMed

    Rinaldo, Amy; Gilbert, Brian; Boni, Rainer; Krattinger, Simon G; Singh, Davinder; Park, Robert F; Lagudah, Evans; Ayliffe, Michael

    2016-12-22

    The hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) adult plant resistance gene, Lr34/Yr18/Sr57/Pm38/Ltn1, provides broad-spectrum resistance to wheat leaf rust (Lr34), stripe rust (Yr18), stem rust (Sr57) and powdery mildew (Pm38) pathogens, and has remained effective in wheat crops for many decades. The partial resistance provided by this gene is only apparent in adult plants and not effective in field-grown seedlings. Lr34 also causes leaf tip necrosis (Ltn1) in mature adult plant leaves when grown under field conditions. This D genome-encoded bread wheat gene was transferred to tetraploid durum wheat (T. turgidum) cultivar Stewart by transformation. Transgenic durum lines were produced with elevated gene expression levels when compared with the endogenous hexaploid gene. Unlike nontransgenic hexaploid and durum control lines, these transgenic plants showed robust seedling resistance to pathogens causing wheat leaf rust, stripe rust and powdery mildew disease. The effectiveness of seedling resistance against each pathogen correlated with the level of transgene expression. No evidence of accelerated leaf necrosis or up-regulation of senescence gene markers was apparent in these seedlings, suggesting senescence is not required for Lr34 resistance, although leaf tip necrosis occurred in mature plant flag leaves. Several abiotic stress-response genes were up-regulated in these seedlings in the absence of rust infection as previously observed in adult plant flag leaves of hexaploid wheat. Increasing day length significantly increased Lr34 seedling resistance. These data demonstrate that expression of a highly durable, broad-spectrum adult plant resistance gene can be modified to provide seedling resistance in durum wheat.

  12. The Lr34 adult plant rust resistance gene provides seedling resistance in durum wheat without senescence.

    PubMed

    Rinaldo, Amy; Gilbert, Brian; Boni, Rainer; Krattinger, Simon G; Singh, Davinder; Park, Robert F; Lagudah, Evans; Ayliffe, Michael

    2016-09-29

    The hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) adult plant resistance gene, Lr34/Yr18/Sr57/Pm38/Ltn1, provides broad spectrum resistance to wheat leaf rust (Lr34), stripe rust (Yr18), stem rust (Sr57) and powdery mildew (Pm38) pathogens, and has remained effective in wheat crops for many decades. The partial resistance provided by this gene is only apparent in adult plants and not effective in seedlings under standard growth conditions. Lr34 also causes leaf tip necrosis (Ltn1) in mature adult plant leaves when grown under field conditions. This D genome encoded bread wheat gene was transferred to tetraploid durum wheat (T. turgidum) cultivar Stewart by transformation. Transgenic durum lines were produced with elevated gene expression levels when compared with the endogenous hexaploid gene. Unlike nontransgenic hexaploid and durum control lines, these transgenic plants showed robust seedling resistance to pathogens causing wheat leaf rust, stripe rust and powdery mildew disease. The effectiveness of seedling resistance against each pathogen correlated with the level of transgene expression. No evidence of accelerated leaf necrosis or upregulation of senescence gene markers was apparent in these seedlings suggesting senescence is not required for Lr34 resistance. Several abiotic stress response genes were upregulated in these seedling in the absence of rust infection as previously observed in adult plant flag leaves of hexaploid wheat. Photoperiod and light intensity had significant effects on Lr34 phenotypes. These data demonstrate that expression of a highly durable, broad spectrum adult plant resistance gene can be modified to provide seedling resistance in durum wheat. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Mapping a gene for adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma to chromosome 3q

    SciTech Connect

    Wirtz, M.K.; Samples, J.R.; Kramer, P.L.

    1997-02-01

    Glaucoma is the third-leading cause of blindness in the world, affecting >13.5 million people. Adult-on-set primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common form of glaucoma in the United States. We present a family in which adult-onset POAG is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Twelve affected family members were identified from 44 at-risk individuals. The disease-causing gene was mapped to chromosome 3q21-24, with analysis of recombinant haplotypes suggesting a total inclusion region of 11.1 cM between markers D3S3637 and D3S1744. This is the first report of mapping of an adult-onset POAG gene to chromosome 3q, gene symbol GLC1C. 57 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Mapping a gene for adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma to chromosome 3q.

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, M K; Samples, J R; Kramer, P L; Rust, K; Topinka, J R; Yount, J; Koler, R D; Acott, T S

    1997-01-01

    Glaucoma is the third-leading cause of blindness in the world, affecting >13.5 million people. Adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common form of glaucoma in the United States. We present a family in which adult-onset POAG is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Twelve affected family members were identified from 44 at-risk individuals. The disease-causing gene was mapped to chromosome 3q21-24, with analysis of recombinant haplotypes suggesting a total inclusion region of 11.1 cM between markers D3S3637 and D3S1744. This is the first report of mapping of an adult-onset POAG gene to chromosome 3q, gene symbol GLC1C. PMID:9012402

  15. Adipose tissue gene expression and metabolic health of obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Das, Swapan Kumar; Ma, Lijun; Sharma, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Obese subjects with a similar body mass index (BMI) exhibit substantial heterogeneity in gluco- and cardio-metabolic heath phenotypes. However, defining genes that underlie the heterogeneity of metabolic features among obese individuals and determining metabolically healthy and unhealthy phenotypes remain challenging. We conducted unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue transcripts from 30 obese men and women ≥40 years old. Despite similar BMIs in all subjects, we found two distinct subgroups, one metabolically healthy (Group 1) and one metabolically unhealthy (Group 2). Subjects in Group 2 showed significantly higher total cholesterol (p=0.005), LDL cholesterol (p=0.006), 2h-Insulin during OGTT (p=0.015) and lower insulin sensitivity (SI, p=0.029) compared to Group 1. We identified significant up-regulation of 141 genes (e.g. MMP9 and SPP1) and down-regulation of 17 genes (e.g. NDRG4 and GINS3) in group 2 subjects. Intriguingly, these differentially expressed transcripts were enriched for genes involved in cardiovascular disease-related processes (p=2.81×10−11–3.74×10−02) and pathways involved in immune and inflammatory response (p=8.32×10−5–0.04). Two down-regulated genes, NDRG4 and GINS3, have been located in a genomic interval associated with cardiac repolarization in published GWASs and zebra fish knockout models. Our study provides evidence that perturbations in the adipose tissue gene expression network are important in defining metabolic health in obese subjects. PMID:25520251

  16. Gene by Neuroticism Interaction and Cognitive Function among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dar-Nimrod, Ilan; Chapman, Benjamin P.; Robbins, John A.; Porsteinsson, Anton; Mapstone, Mark; Duberstein, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Both ApoE (apolipoprotein E) ε-4 allele(s) and elevated trait neuroticism, the tendency to experience distress, are associated with cognitive function among older adults. We predicted that neuroticism moderates the association between ApoE and cognitive function and also explored whether other personality dimensions (openness to experience, agreeableness, extraversion, and conscientiousness) affect the association between ApoE status and cognitive function. Method Five-hundred and ninety-seven older adults (mean age of 78) enrolled in the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory (GEM) study completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory of personality. Cognitive function was assessed via the cognitive portion of the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog), and a blood sample for ApoE genotyping was drawn. Results As hypothesized, regression analysis indicated that neuroticism moderated the relationship between the presence of ApoE ε-4 and cognitive function. Individuals with high neuroticism scores had significantly lower ADAS-cog scores compared with individual with low neuroticism scores, but this was true only among carriers of ApoE ε-4 (interaction effect β = .124, p = .028). There was scant evidence that other personality dimensions moderate the association between ApoE ε-4 and cognitive function. Conclusions Cognitive function may be affected by ApoE and neuroticism acting in tandem. Research on the underlying physiological mechanisms by which neuroticism amplifies the effect of ApoE ε-4 is warranted. The study of genotype by phenotype interactions provides an important and useful direction for the study of cognitive function among older adults and for the development of novel prevention programs. PMID:23042108

  17. 20-Hydroxyecdysone stimulates the accumulation of translatable yolk polypeptide gene transcript in adult male Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Shirk, P D; Minoo, P; Postlethwait, J H

    1983-01-01

    Yolk polypeptide (YP) synthesis is hormonally stimulated during maturation of adult female Drosophila melanogaster. Synthesis of the three YPs is sex specific and occurs in fat body cells and follicle cells of adult females. However, males have been shown to produce YPs when treated with the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE). By using a cell-free translation system as an assay for YP mRNA, we found that 20-HE also causes the accumulation of translatable YP message in males. In addition, hybridization of cloned copies of genes for both YP1 and YP3 to total RNA from males showed that 20-HE caused the appearance of YP gene transcripts in males. Eight hours after treatment of males with 20-HE, YP gene transcript levels had increased at least 25-fold to approximately 2.7 x 10(6) copies of YP1 gene transcript per adult male fly. In normal adult females, there were 42 x 10(6) copies per fly by 24 hr. There was neither detectable YP synthesis nor translatable YP gene transcript in either normal 1- to 3-day-old males or 24-hr-old males treated with a juvenile hormone analogue. This evidence shows that 20-HE acts to regulate the levels of translatable YP mRNA in male Drosophila.

  18. Brain-expressed imprinted genes and adult behaviour: the example of Nesp and Grb10.

    PubMed

    Dent, Claire L; Isles, Anthony R

    2014-02-01

    Imprinted genes are defined by their parent-of-origin-specific monoallelic expression. Although the epigenetic mechanisms regulating imprinted gene expression have been widely studied, their functional importance is still unclear. Imprinted genes are associated with a number of physiologies, including placental function and foetal growth, energy homeostasis, and brain and behaviour. This review focuses on genomic imprinting in the brain and on two imprinted genes in particular, Nesp and paternal Grb10, which, when manipulated in animals, have been shown to influence adult behaviour. These two genes are of particular interest as they are expressed in discrete and overlapping neural regions, recognised as key "imprinting hot spots" in the brain. Furthermore, these two genes do not appear to influence placental function and/or maternal provisioning of offspring. Consequently, by understanding their behavioural function we may begin to shed light on the evolutionary significance of imprinted genes in the adult brain, independent of the recognised role in maternal care. In addition, we discuss the potential future directions of research investigating the function of these two genes and the behavioural role of imprinted genes more generally.

  19. Expression pattern of Piwi-like genes in adult Myzostoma cirriferum (Annelida).

    PubMed

    Weigert, Anne; Helm, Conrad; Hausen, Harald; Zakrzewski, Anne-C; Bleidorn, Christoph

    2013-09-01

    Piwi-like genes are a subgroup of Argonaute genes which participate as gene regulators by gene silencing. In most bilaterians, such as mouse, human, insects, and zebrafish, their expression is mostly limited to gonadal stem cells. But there are some striking exceptions to this pattern; flatworms and acoels also express Piwi-like genes in somatic stem cells, due to their unique replacement system. Annelid species like Capitella teleta and Platynereis dumerilii express these genes in cells of the posterior growth zone as well as in gonadal stem cells. To investigate the expression pattern of Piwi-like genes in another annelid, we established in situ hybridization for adult Myzostoma cirriferum. Piwi-like gene transcripts recovered in an mRNA-seq library of pooled adult stages of M. cirriferum were expanded using RACE PCR, cloned and sequenced. ML analysis confirmed the identity of both transcripts as part of the Piwi1-like or Piwi2-like subfamily of Argonaute proteins. The results of in situ hybridization studies show that the expression of both Piwi-like genes, Mc-Piwi1 and Mc-Piwi2, is clearly located only in gonadal stem cells, and as such we did not find any evidence for the existence of a posterior growth zone nor expression in somatic stem cells.

  20. Health and population effects of rare gene knockouts in adult humans with related parents.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Vagheesh M; Hunt, Karen A; Mason, Dan; Baker, Christopher L; Karczewski, Konrad J; Barnes, Michael R; Barnett, Anthony H; Bates, Chris; Bellary, Srikanth; Bockett, Nicholas A; Giorda, Kristina; Griffiths, Christopher J; Hemingway, Harry; Jia, Zhilong; Kelly, M Ann; Khawaja, Hajrah A; Lek, Monkol; McCarthy, Shane; McEachan, Rosie; O'Donnell-Luria, Anne; Paigen, Kenneth; Parisinos, Constantinos A; Sheridan, Eamonn; Southgate, Laura; Tee, Louise; Thomas, Mark; Xue, Yali; Schnall-Levin, Michael; Petkov, Petko M; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Maher, Eamonn R; Trembath, Richard C; MacArthur, Daniel G; Wright, John; Durbin, Richard; van Heel, David A

    2016-04-22

    Examining complete gene knockouts within a viable organism can inform on gene function. We sequenced the exomes of 3222 British adults of Pakistani heritage with high parental relatedness, discovering 1111 rare-variant homozygous genotypes with predicted loss of function (knockouts) in 781 genes. We observed 13.7% fewer homozygous knockout genotypes than we expected, implying an average load of 1.6 recessive-lethal-equivalent loss-of-function (LOF) variants per adult. When genetic data were linked to the individuals' lifelong health records, we observed no significant relationship between gene knockouts and clinical consultation or prescription rate. In this data set, we identified a healthy PRDM9-knockout mother and performed phased genome sequencing on her, her child, and control individuals. Our results show that meiotic recombination sites are localized away from PRDM9-dependent hotspots. Thus, natural LOF variants inform on essential genetic loci and demonstrate PRDM9 redundancy in humans.

  1. Health and population effects of rare gene knockouts in adult humans with related parents

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Vagheesh M.; Hunt, Karen A.; Mason, Dan; Baker, Christopher L.; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Barnes, Michael R.; Barnett, Anthony H.; Bates, Chris; Bellary, Srikanth; Bockett, Nicholas A.; Giorda, Kristina; Griffiths, Christopher J.; Hemingway, Harry; Jia, Zhilong; Kelly, M. Ann; Khawaja, Hajrah A.; Lek, Monkol; McCarthy, Shane; McEachan, Rosie; O’Donnell-Luria, Anne; Paigen, Kenneth; Parisinos, Constantinos A.; Sheridan, Eamonn; Southgate, Laura; Tee, Louise; Thomas, Mark; Xue, Yali; Schnall-Levin, Michael; Petkov, Petko M.; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Maher, Eamonn R.; Trembath, Richard C.; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Wright, John; Durbin, Richard; van Heel, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Examining complete gene knockouts within a viable organism can inform on gene function. We sequenced the exomes of 3,222 British Pakistani-heritage adults with high parental relatedness, discovering 1,111 rare-variant homozygous genotypes with predicted loss of gene function (knockouts) in 781 genes. We observed 13.7% fewer than expected homozygous knockout genotypes, implying an average load of 1.6 recessive-lethal-equivalent LOF variants per adult. Linking genetic data to lifelong health records, knockouts were not associated with clinical consultation or prescription rate. In this dataset we identified a healthy PRDM9 knockout mother, and performed phased genome sequencing on her, her child and controls, which showed meiotic recombination sites localised away from PRDM9-dependent hotspots. Thus, natural LOF variants inform upon essential genetic loci, and demonstrate PRDM9 redundancy in humans. PMID:26940866

  2. Identification of a new mutation on the beta-globin gene: codons 8/9 (+AGAA); GAG.AAG.TCT(Glu-Lys-Ser)>GAG. AAAGAAG, in a patient from the north of France with a phenotype of beta-thalassemia minor.

    PubMed

    Georgel, Anne France; Méreau, Claude; Willekens, Christophe; Bourgeois, Emmanuelle; Maboudou, Patrice; Crépin, Michel; Pissard, Serge; Rose, Christian

    2010-01-01

    A 37-year-old man presented a slight debility. The hemogram showed a phenotype of beta-thalassemia minor: Hb (13.1 g/dL), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) (62 fL) with low mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) (20.8 pg), associated with a high level of Hb A(2) of 5.3%. The serum ferritin level was 1,072 ng/mL. The sequencing of the mutated fragment revealed a duplication of four bases of codons 7/8 involving a shift in the open reading frame starting from codon 9 with a TGA stop codon at codon 23: codons 7/8/9 (+AGAA); GAG.AAG.TCT(Gly-Lys-Ser)>GAG.AAAGAAG. The human hemoglobin (Hb) instability tests were negative. The patient did not present the high iron Fe (HFE) mutation (C282Y, H63D). The same mutation was found in five other unrelated families (representing a total of 23 patients). All of their ancestors came from the north of France. This mutation has not been described before and could have its origins in the native populations of Northern France.

  3. Self administration of oxycodone by adolescent and adult mice affects striatal neurotransmitter receptor gene expression.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Blackwell, B; Schlussman, S D; Butelman, E R; Ho, A; Ott, J; Kreek, M J; Zhang, Y

    2014-01-31

    Illicit use of prescription opioid analgesics (e.g., oxycodone) in adolescence is a pressing public health issue. Our goal was to determine whether oxycodone self administration differentially affects striatal neurotransmitter receptor gene expression in the dorsal striatum of adolescent compared to adult C57BL/6J mice. Groups of adolescent mice (4 weeks old, n=12) and of adult mice (11 weeks old, n=11) underwent surgery during which a catheter was implanted into their jugular veins. After recovering from surgery, mice self administered oxycodone (0.25 mg/kg/infusion) 2 h/day for 14 consecutive days or served as yoked saline controls. Mice were sacrificed within 1h after the last self-administration session and the dorsal striatum was isolated for mRNA analysis. Gene expression was analyzed with real time PCR using a commercially available neurotransmitter receptor PCR array containing 84 genes. We found that adolescent mice self administered less oxycodone than adult mice over the 14 days. Monoamine oxidase A (Maoa) and neuropeptide Y receptor 5 mRNA levels were lower in adolescent mice than in adult mice without oxycodone exposure. Oxycodone self administration increased Maoa mRNA levels compared to controls in both age groups. There was a positive correlation of the amount of oxycodone self administered in the last session or across 14 sessions with Maoa mRNA levels. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor mRNA showed a significant Drug × Age interaction, with point-wise significance. More genes in the dorsal striatum of adolescents (19) changed in response to oxycodone self administration compared to controls than in adult (4) mice. Overall, this study demonstrates that repeated oxycodone self administration alters neurotransmitter receptors gene expression in the dorsal striatum of adolescent and adult mice.

  4. Hierarchy in gene expression is predictive of risk, progression, and outcome in adult acute myeloid leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Shubham; Deem, Michael W.

    2015-02-01

    Cancer progresses with a change in the structure of the gene network in normal cells. We define a measure of organizational hierarchy in gene networks of affected cells in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. With a retrospective cohort analysis based on the gene expression profiles of 116 AML patients, we find that the likelihood of future cancer relapse and the level of clinical risk are directly correlated with the level of organization in the cancer related gene network. We also explore the variation of the level of organization in the gene network with cancer progression. We find that this variation is non-monotonic, which implies the fitness landscape in the evolution of AML cancer cells is non-trivial. We further find that the hierarchy in gene expression at the time of diagnosis may be a useful biomarker in AML prognosis.

  5. Relationships between gene expression and brain wiring in the adult rodent brain.

    PubMed

    French, Leon; Pavlidis, Paul

    2011-01-06

    We studied the global relationship between gene expression and neuroanatomical connectivity in the adult rodent brain. We utilized a large data set of the rat brain "connectome" from the Brain Architecture Management System (942 brain regions and over 5000 connections) and used statistical approaches to relate the data to the gene expression signatures of 17,530 genes in 142 anatomical regions from the Allen Brain Atlas. Our analysis shows that adult gene expression signatures have a statistically significant relationship to connectivity. In particular, brain regions that have similar expression profiles tend to have similar connectivity profiles, and this effect is not entirely attributable to spatial correlations. In addition, brain regions which are connected have more similar expression patterns. Using a simple optimization approach, we identified a set of genes most correlated with neuroanatomical connectivity, and find that this set is enriched for genes involved in neuronal development and axon guidance. A number of the genes have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autistic spectrum disorder. Our results have the potential to shed light on the role of gene expression patterns in influencing neuronal activity and connectivity, with potential applications to our understanding of brain disorders. Supplementary data are available at http://www.chibi.ubc.ca/ABAMS.

  6. Prognostic value of quantitative analysis of WT1 gene transcripts in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chiusa, Luigi; Francia di Celle, Paola; Campisi, Paola; Ceretto, Cristina; Marmont, Filippo; Pich, Achille

    2006-02-01

    We quantified Wilm's tumor gene (WT1) using a real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 20 adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia at presentation. A WT1 level greater than 906 (median value for the whole series) was a significant predictor of a poor disease-free and overall survival in uni- and multivariate analyses.

  7. THE EFFECTS OF HYPERTHERMIA ON SPERMATOGENESIS, APOPTOSIS, GENE EXPRESSION AND FERTILITY IN ADULT MALE MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of hyperthermia on spermatogenesis, apoptosis, gene expression and fertility in adult male mice
    John C. Rockett1, Faye L. Mapp1, J. Brian Garges1, J. Christopher Luft1, Chisato Mori2 and David J. Dix1.
    1Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Envir...

  8. Cortisol-treated zebrafish embryos develop into pro-inflammatory adults with aberrant immune gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Hartig, Ellen I.; Zhu, Shusen; King, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic early-life stress increases adult susceptibility to numerous health problems linked to chronic inflammation. One way that this may occur is via glucocorticoid-induced developmental programming. To gain insight into such programming we treated zebrafish embryos with cortisol and examined the effects on both larvae and adults. Treated larvae had elevated whole-body cortisol and glucocorticoid signaling, and upregulated genes associated with defense response and immune system processes. In adulthood the treated fish maintained elevated basal cortisol levels in the absence of exogenous cortisol, and constitutively mis-expressed genes involved in defense response and its regulation. Adults derived from cortisol-treated embryos displayed defective tailfin regeneration, heightened basal expression of pro-inflammatory genes, and failure to appropriately regulate those genes following injury or immunological challenge. These results support the hypothesis that chronically elevated glucocorticoid signaling early in life directs development of a pro-inflammatory adult phenotype, at the expense of immunoregulation and somatic regenerative capacity. PMID:27444789

  9. Monoamine Oxidase a Promoter Gene Associated with Problem Behavior in Adults with Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Michael E.; Srour, Ali; Hedges, Lora K.; Lightfoot, David A.; Phillips, John A., III; Blakely, Randy D.; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2009-01-01

    A functional polymorphism in the promoter of the gene encoding monoamine oxidase A has been associated with problem behavior in various populations. We examined the association of MAOA alleles in adult males with intellectual/developmental disabilities with and without established histories of problem behavior. These data were compared with a…

  10. Gene-environment interaction in programming hippocampal plasticity: focus on adult neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Koehl, Muriel

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between genes and environment are a critical feature of development and both contribute to shape individuality. They are at the core of vulnerability resiliency for mental illnesses. During the early postnatal period, several brain structures involved in cognitive and emotional processing, such as the hippocampus, still develop and it is likely that interferences with this neuronal development, which is genetically determined, might lead to long-lasting structural and functional consequences and increase the risk of developing psychopathology. One particular target is adult neurogenesis, which is involved in the regulation of cognitive and emotional processes. Insights into the dynamic interplay between genes and environmental factors in setting up individual rates of neurogenesis have come from laboratory studies exploring experience-dependent changes in adult neurogenesis as a function of individual’s genetic makeup. These studies have implications for our understanding of the mechanisms regulating adult neurogenesis, which could constitute a link between environmental challenges and psychopathology. PMID:26300723

  11. Micromanipulation of gene expression in the adult zebrafish brain using cerebroventricular microinjection of morpholino oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Kizil, Caghan; Iltzsche, Anne; Kaslin, Jan; Brand, Michael

    2013-05-23

    Manipulation of gene expression in tissues is required to perform functional studies. In this paper, we demonstrate the cerebroventricular microinjection (CVMI) technique as a means to modulate gene expression in the adult zebrafish brain. By using CVMI, substances can be administered into the cerebroventricular fluid and be thoroughly distributed along the rostrocaudal axis of the brain. We particularly focus on the use of antisense morpholino oligonucleotides, which are potent tools for knocking down gene expression in vivo. In our method, when applied, morpholino molecules are taken up by the cells lining the ventricular surface. These cells include the radial glial cells, which act as neurogenic progenitors. Therefore, knocking down gene expression in the radial glial cells is of utmost importance to analyze the widespread neurogenesis response in zebrafish, and also would provide insight into how vertebrates could sustain adult neurogenesis response. Such an understanding would also help the efforts for clinical applications in human neurodegenerative disorders and central nervous system regeneration. Thus, we present the cerebroventricular microinjection method as a quick and efficient way to alter gene expression and neurogenesis response in the adult zebrafish forebrain. We also provide troubleshooting tips and other useful information on how to carry out the CVMI procedure.

  12. Schistosoma mansoni Egg, Adult Male and Female Comparative Gene Expression Analysis and Identification of Novel Genes by RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Letícia; Amaral, Murilo S.; Beckedorff, Felipe; Silva, Lucas F.; Dazzani, Bianca; Oliveira, Katia C.; Almeida, Giulliana T.; Gomes, Monete R.; Pires, David S.; Setubal, João C.; DeMarco, Ricardo; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide and is a public health problem. Schistosoma mansoni is the most widespread species responsible for schistosomiasis in the Americas, Middle East and Africa. Adult female worms (mated to males) release eggs in the hepatic portal vasculature and are the principal cause of morbidity. Comparative separate transcriptomes of female and male adult worms were previously assessed with using microarrays and Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE), thus limiting the possibility of finding novel genes. Moreover, the egg transcriptome was analyzed only once with limited bacterially cloned cDNA libraries. Methodology/Principal findings To compare the gene expression of S. mansoni eggs, females, and males, we performed RNA-Seq on these three parasite forms using 454/Roche technology and reconstructed the transcriptome using Trinity de novo assembly. The resulting contigs were mapped to the genome and were cross-referenced with predicted Smp genes and H3K4me3 ChIP-Seq public data. For the first time, we obtained separate, unbiased gene expression profiles for S. mansoni eggs and female and male adult worms, identifying enriched biological processes and specific enriched functions for each of the three parasite forms. Transcripts with no match to predicted genes were analyzed for their protein-coding potential and the presence of an encoded conserved protein domain. A set of 232 novel protein-coding genes with putative functions related to reproduction, metabolism, and cell biogenesis was detected, which contributes to the understanding of parasite biology. Conclusions/Significance Large-scale RNA-Seq analysis using de novo assembly associated with genome-wide information for histone marks in the vicinity of gene models constitutes a new approach to transcriptome analysis that has not yet been explored in schistosomes. Importantly, all data have been consolidated into a UCSC Genome Browser search

  13. Somatic stem cells express Piwi and Vasa genes in an adult ctenophore: ancient association of "germline genes" with stemness.

    PubMed

    Alié, Alexandre; Leclère, Lucas; Jager, Muriel; Dayraud, Cyrielle; Chang, Patrick; Le Guyader, Hervé; Quéinnec, Eric; Manuel, Michaël

    2011-02-01

    Stem cells are essential for animal development and adult tissue homeostasis, and the quest for an ancestral gene fingerprint of stemness is a major challenge for evolutionary developmental biology. Recent studies have indicated that a series of genes, including the transposon silencer Piwi and the translational activator Vasa, specifically involved in germline determination and maintenance in classical bilaterian models (e.g., vertebrates, fly, nematode), are more generally expressed in adult multipotent stem cells in other animals like flatworms and hydras. Since the progeny of these multipotent stem cells includes both somatic and germinal derivatives, it remains unclear whether Vasa, Piwi, and associated genes like Bruno and PL10 were ancestrally linked to stemness, or to germinal potential. We have investigated the expression of Vasa, two Piwi paralogues, Bruno and PL10 in Pleurobrachia pileus, a member of the early-diverging phylum Ctenophora, the probable sister group of cnidarians. These genes were all expressed in the male and female germlines, and with the exception of one of the Piwi paralogues, they showed similar expression patterns within somatic territories (tentacle root, comb rows, aboral sensory complex). Cytological observations and EdU DNA-labelling and long-term retention experiments revealed concentrations of stem cells closely matching these gene expression areas. These stem cell pools are spatially restricted, and each specialised in the production of particular types of somatic cells. These data unveil important aspects of cell renewal within the ctenophore body and suggest that Piwi, Vasa, Bruno, and PL10 belong to a gene network ancestrally acting in two distinct contexts: (i) the germline and (ii) stem cells, whatever the nature of their progeny.

  14. Dynamic Gene Expression in the Human Cerebral Cortex Distinguishes Children from Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sterner, Kirstin N.; Weckle, Amy; Chugani, Harry T.; Tarca, Adi L.; Sherwood, Chet C.; Hof, Patrick R.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Boddy, Amy M.; Abbas, Asad; Raaum, Ryan L.; Grégoire, Lucie; Lipovich, Leonard; Grossman, Lawrence I.; Uddin, Monica; Wildman, Derek E.

    2012-01-01

    In comparison with other primate species, humans have an extended juvenile period during which the brain is more plastic. In the current study we sought to examine gene expression in the cerebral cortex during development in the context of this adaptive plasticity. We introduce an approach designed to discriminate genes with variable as opposed to uniform patterns of gene expression and found that greater inter-individual variance is observed among children than among adults. For the 337 transcripts that show this pattern, we found a significant overrepresentation of genes annotated to the immune system process (pFDR≅0). Moreover, genes known to be important in neuronal function, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are included among the genes more variably expressed in childhood. We propose that the developmental period of heightened childhood neuronal plasticity is characterized by more dynamic patterns of gene expression in the cerebral cortex compared to adulthood when the brain is less plastic. That an overabundance of these genes are annotated to the immune system suggests that the functions of these genes can be thought of not only in the context of antigen processing and presentation, but also in the context of nervous system development. PMID:22666384

  15. Reciprocal regulation of transcription factors and PLC isozyme gene expression in adult cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Singal, Tushi; Dhalla, Naranjan S; Tappia, Paramjit S

    2010-06-01

    By employing a pharmacological approach, we have shown that phospholipase C (PLC) activity is involved in the regulation of gene expression of transcription factors such as c-Fos and c-Jun in cardiomyocytes in response to norepinephrine (NE). However, there is no information available regarding the identity of specific PLC isozymes involved in the regulation of c-Fos and c-Jun or on the involvement of these transcription factors in PLC isozyme gene expression in adult cardiomyocytes. In this study, transfection of cardiomyocytes with PLC isozyme specific siRNA was found to prevent the NE-mediated increases in the corresponding PLC isozyme gene expression, protein content and activity. Unlike PLC gamma(1) gene, silencing of PLC beta(1), beta(3) and delta(1) genes with si RNA prevented the increases in c-Fos and c-Jun gene expression in response to NE. On the other hand, transfection with c-Jun si RNA suppressed the NE-induced increase in c-Jun as well as PLC beta(1), beta(3) and delta(1) gene expression, but had no effect on PLC gamma(1) gene expression. Although transfection of cardiomyocytes with c-Fos si RNA prevented NE-induced expression of c-Fos, PLC beta(1) and PLC beta(3) genes, it did not affect the increases in PLC delta(1) and PLC gamma(1) gene expression. Silencing of either c-Fos or c-Jun also depressed the NE-mediated increases in PLC beta(1), beta(3) and gamma(1) protein content and activity in an isozyme specific manner. Furthermore, silencing of all PLC isozymes as well as of c-Fos and c-Jun resulted in prevention of the NE-mediated increase in atrial natriuretic factor gene expression. These findings, by employing gene silencing techniques, demonstrate that there occurs a reciprocal regulation of transcription factors and specific PLC isozyme gene expression in cardiomyocytes.

  16. Gene × Smoking Interactions on Human Brain Gene Expression: Finding Common Mechanisms in Adolescents and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolock, Samuel L.; Yates, Andrew; Petrill, Stephen A.; Bohland, Jason W.; Blair, Clancy; Li, Ning; Machiraju, Raghu; Huang, Kun; Bartlett, Christopher W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have examined gene × environment interactions (G × E) in cognitive and behavioral domains. However, these studies have been limited in that they have not been able to directly assess differential patterns of gene expression in the human brain. Here, we assessed G × E interactions using two publically available datasets…

  17. The Parahox gene Pdx1 is required to maintain positional identity in the adult foregut.

    PubMed

    Holland, Andrew M; Garcia, Sonia; Naselli, Gaetano; Macdonald, Raymond J; Harrison, Leonard C

    2013-01-01

    The homeobox gene Pdx1 is a key regulator of pancreas and foregut development. Loss of Pdx1 expression results in pancreas agenesis and impaired development of the gastro-duodenal domain including Brunner’s glands. We previously demonstrated a key role for Pdx1 in maintaining the integrity and function of insulin-secreting beta cells in the adult pancreas. In the present study, we aimed to determine if expression of Pdx1 is required to maintain the cellular identity of the gastro-duodenal domain in adult mice. Immunohistological studies were performed in a mouse model in which expression of Pdx1 was conditionally repressed with the doxycycline-responsive tetracycline transactivator system. Mice in which Pdx1 was chronically repressed developed hamartomas in the gastro-duodenal domain. These lesions appeared to arise from ectopic foci of anteriorized cells, consistent with a localised anterior homeotic shift. They emerge with the intercalation of tissue between the anteriorized and normal domains and appear strikingly similar to lesions in the colon of mice heterozygous for another Parahox gene, Cdx2. Continuing expression of Pdx1 into adult life is required to maintain regional cellular identity in the adult foregut, specifically at the gastro-duodenal boundary. Loss of Pdx1 expression leads to anterior transformation and intercalary regeneration of ectopic tissue. We propose a model in which the posterior dominance of classical Hox genes is mirrored by the Parahox genes, providing further evidence of the functional conservation of the Parahox genes. These findings may have implications for further understanding the molecular basis of gastro-duodenal metaplasia and gastro-intestinal transformations such as Barrett’s esophagus.

  18. A gain-of-function screen to identify genes that reduce lifespan in the adult of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several lines of evidence associate misregulated genetic expression with risk factors for diabetes, Alzheimer’s, and other diseases that sporadically develop in healthy adults with no background of hereditary disorders. Thus, we are interested in genes that may be expressed normally through parts of an individual’s life, but can cause physiological defects and disease when misexpressed in adulthood. Results We attempted to identify these genes in a model organism by arbitrarily misexpressing specific genes in adult Drosophila melanogaster, using 14,133 Gene Search lines. We identified 39 “reduced-lifespan genes” that, when misexpressed in adulthood, shortened the flies’ lifespan to less than 30% of that of control flies. About half of these genes have human orthologs that are known to be involved in human diseases. For about one-fourth of the reduced-lifespan genes, suppressing apoptosis restored the lifespan shortened by their misexpression. We determined the organs responsible for reduced lifespan when these genes were misexpressed specifically in adulthood, and found that while some genes induced reduced lifespan only when misexpressed in specific adult organs, others could induce reduced lifespan when misexpressed in various organs. This finding suggests that tissue-specific dysfunction may be involved in reduced lifespan related to gene misexpression. Gene ontology analysis showed that reduced-lifespan genes are biased toward genes related to development. Conclusions We identified 39 genes that, when misexpressed in adulthood, shortened the lifespan of adult flies. Suppressing apoptosis rescued this shortened lifespan for only a subset of the reduced-lifespan genes. The adult tissues in which gene misexpression caused early death differed among the reduced-lifespan genes. These results suggest that the cause of reduced lifespan upon misexpression differed among the genes. PMID:24739137

  19. Neonatal local noxious insult affects gene expression in the spinal dorsal horn of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ke; Novikova, Svetlana I; He, Fang; Dubner, Ronald; Lidow, Michael S

    2005-09-22

    Neonatal noxious insult produces a long-term effect on pain processing in adults. Rats subjected to carrageenan (CAR) injection in one hindpaw within the sensitive period develop bilateral hypoalgesia as adults. In the same rats, inflammation of the hindpaw, which was the site of the neonatal injury, induces a localized enhanced hyperalgesia limited to this paw. To gain an insight into the long-term molecular changes involved in the above-described long-term nociceptive effects of neonatal noxious insult at the spinal level, we performed DNA microarray analysis (using microarrays containing oligo-probes for 205 genes encoding receptors and transporters for glutamate, GABA, and amine neurotransmitters, precursors and receptors for neuropeptides, and neurotrophins, cytokines and their receptors) to compare gene expression profiles in the lumbar spinal dorsal horn (LDH) of adult (P60) male rats that received neonatal CAR treatment within (at postnatal day 3; P3) and outside (at postnatal 12; P12) of the sensitive period. The data were obtained both without inflammation (at baseline) and during complete Freund's adjuvant induced inflammation of the neonatally injured paw. The observed changes were verified by real-time RT-PCR. This study revealed significant basal and inflammation-associated aberrations in the expression of multiple genes in the LDH of adult animals receiving CAR injection at P3 as compared to their expression levels in the LDH of animals receiving either no injections or CAR injection at P12. In particular, at baseline, twelve genes (representing GABA, serotonin, adenosine, neuropeptide Y, cholecystokinin, opioid, tachykinin and interleukin systems) were up-regulated in the bilateral LDH of the former animals. The baseline condition in these animals was also characterized by up-regulation of seven genes (encoding members of GABA, cholecystokinin, histamine, serotonin, and neurotensin systems) in the LDH ipsilateral to the neonatally-injured paw. The

  20. Differential Expression of Hox and Notch Genes in Larval and Adult Stages of Echinococcus granulosus

    PubMed Central

    Dezaki, Ebrahim Saedi; Yaghoobi, Mohammad Mehdi; Taheri, Elham; Almani, Pooya Ghaseminejad; Tohidi, Farideh; Gottstein, Bruno; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2016-01-01

    This investigation aimed to evaluate the differential expression of HoxB7 and notch genes in different developmental stages of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto. The expression of HoxB7 gene was observed at all developmental stages. Nevertheless, significant fold differences in the expression level was documented in the juvenile worm with 3 or more proglottids, the germinal layer from infected sheep, and the adult worm from an experimentally infected dog. The notch gene was expressed at all developmental stages of E. granulosus; however, the fold difference was significantly increased at the microcysts in monophasic culture medium and the germinal layer of infected sheep in comparison with other stages. The findings demonstrated that the 2 aforementioned genes evaluated in the present study were differentially expressed at different developmental stages of the parasite and may contribute to some important biological processes of E. granulosus. PMID:27853123

  1. Adult rat bone marrow stromal cells express genes associated with dopamine neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Brian C.; Woodbury, Dale . E-mail: WOODBURYDL@AOL.COM; Black, Ira B.

    2006-05-19

    An intensive search is underway to identify candidates to replace the cells that degenerate in Parkinson's disease (PD). To date, no suitable substitute has been found. We have recently found that adult rat bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) can be induced to assume a neuronal phenotype in vitro. These findings may have particular relevance to the treatment of PD. We now report that adult MSCs express multiple dopaminergic genes, suggesting that they are potential candidates for cell therapy. Using RT-PCR, we have examined families of genes that are associated with the development and/or survival of dopaminergic neurons. MSCs transcribe a variety of dopaminergic genes including patched and smoothened (components of the Shh receptor), Gli-1 (downstream mediator of Shh), and Otx-1, a gene associated with formation of the mesencephalon during development. Furthermore, Shh treatment elicits a 1.5-fold increase in DNA synthesis in cultured MSCs, suggesting the presence of a functional Shh receptor complex. We have also found that MSCs transcribe and translate Nurr-1, a nuclear receptor essential for the development of dopamine neurons. In addition, MSCs express a variety of growth factor receptors including the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored ligand-binding subunit of the GDNF receptor, GFR{alpha}1, as well as fibroblast growth factor receptors one and four. The expression of genes that are associated with the development and survival of dopamine neurons suggests a potential role for these cells in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  2. Silencing of Two Insulin Receptor Genes Disrupts Nymph-Adult Transition of Alate Brown Citrus Aphid

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Bi-Yue; Shang, Feng; Zhang, Qiang; Xiong, Ying; Yang, Qun; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Insulin receptors play key roles in growth, development, and polymorphism in insects. Here, we report two insulin receptor genes (AcInR1 and AcInR2) from the brown citrus aphid, Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus. Transcriptional analyses showed that AcInR1 increased during the nymph–adult transition in alate aphids, while AcInR2 had the highest expression level in second instar nymphs. AcInR1 is important in aphid development from fourth instar nymphs to adults as verified by dsRNA feeding mediated RNAi. The silencing of AcInR1 or/and AcInR2 produced a variety of phenotypes including adults with normal wings, malformed wings, under-developed wings, and aphids failing to develop beyond the nymphal stages. Silencing of AcInR1 or AcInR2 alone, and co-silencing of both genes, resulted in 73% or 60%, and 87% of aphids with problems in the transition from nymph to normal adult. The co-silencing of AcInR1 and AcInR2 resulted in 62% dead nymphs, but no mortality occurred by silencing of AcInR1 or AcInR2 alone. Phenotypes of adults in the dsInR1 and dsInR2 were similar. The results demonstrate that AcInR1 and AcInR2 are essential for successful nymph–adult transition in alate aphids and show that RNAi methods may be useful for the management of this pest. PMID:28230772

  3. Human growth hormone (GH1) gene polymorphism map in a normal-statured adult population

    PubMed Central

    Esteban, Cristina; Audí, Laura; Carrascosa, Antonio; Fernández-Cancio, Mónica; Pérez-Arroyo, Annalisa; Ulied, Angels; Andaluz, Pilar; Arjona, Rosa; Albisu, Marian; Clemente, María; Gussinyé, Miquel; Yeste, Diego

    2007-01-01

    Objective GH1 gene presents a complex map of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the entire promoter, coding and noncoding regions. The aim of the study was to establish the complete map of GH1 gene SNPs in our control normal population and to analyse its association with adult height. Design, subjects and measurements A systematic GH1 gene analysis was designed in a control population of 307 adults of both sexes with height normally distributed within normal range for the same population: −2 standard deviation scores (SDS) to +2 SDS. An analysis was performed on individual and combined genotype associations with adult height. Results Twenty-five SNPs presented a frequency over 1%: 11 in the promoter (P1 to P11), three in the 5′UTR region (P12 to P14), one in exon 1 (P15), three in intron 1 (P16 to P18), two in intron 2 (P19 and P20), two in exon 4 (P21 and P22) and three in intron 4 (P23 to P25). Twenty-nine additional changes with frequencies under 1% were found in 29 subjects. P8, P19, P20 and P25 had not been previously described. P6, P12, P17 and P25 accounted for 6·2% of the variation in adult height (P = 0·0007) in this population with genotypes A/G at P6, G/G at P6 and A/G at P12 decreasing height SDS (−0·063 ± 0·031, −0·693 ± 0·350 and −0·489 ± 0·265, Mean ± SE) and genotypes A/T at P17 and T/G at P25 increasing height SDS (+1·094 ± 0·456 and +1·184 ± 0·432). Conclusions This study established the GH1 gene sequence variation map in a normal adult height control population confirming the high density of SNPs in a relatively small gene. Our study shows that the more frequent SNPs did not significantly contribute to height determination, while only one promoter and two intronic SNPs contributed significantly to it. Studies in larger populations will have to confirm the associations and in vitro functional studies will elucidate the mechanisms involved. Systematic GH1 gene analysis in patients with growth delay and suspected

  4. Family environment and adult resilience: contributions of positive parenting and the oxytocin receptor gene

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Bekh; Davis, Telsie A.; Wingo, Aliza P.; Mercer, Kristina B.; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Abundant research shows that childhood adversity increases the risk for adult psychopathology while research on influences of positive family environment on risk for psychopathology is limited. Similarly, a growing body of research examines genetic and gene by environment predictors of psychopathology, yet such research on predictors of resilience is sparse. Objectives We examined the role of positive factors in childhood family environment (CFE) and the OXTR rs53576 genotype in predicting levels of adult resilient coping and positive affect. We also examined whether the relationship between positive factors in the CFEs and adult resilient coping and positive affect varied across OXTR rs53576 genotype. Methods We gathered self-report data on childhood environment, trauma history, and adult resilience and positive affect in a sample of 971 African American adults. Results We found that positive CFE was positively associated with higher levels of resilient coping and positive affect in adulthood after controlling for childhood maltreatment, other trauma, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. We did not find a direct effect of OXTR 53576 on a combined resilient coping/positive-affect-dependent variable, but we did find an interaction of OXTR rs53576 with family environment. Conclusions Our data suggest that even in the face of adversity, positive aspects of the family environment may contribute to resilience. These results highlight the importance of considering protective developmental experiences and the interaction of such experiences with genetic variants in risk and resilience research. PMID:24058725

  5. Exploration of the Brn4-regulated genes enhancing adult hippocampal neurogenesis by RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingjing; Cheng, Xiang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Linmei; Mao, Yongxin; Tian, Guixiang; Xu, Wenhao; Wu, Yuhao; Ma, Zhi; Qin, Jianbing; Tian, Meiling; Jin, Guohua; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Xinhua

    2017-02-18

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is essential for learning and memory, and its dysfunction is involved in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying adult hippocampal neurogenesis are still largely unknown. Our previous studies indicated that the transcription factor Brn4 was upregulated and promoted neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the surgically denervated hippocampus in rats. In this study, we use high-throughput RNA sequencing to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the enhancement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis induced by lentivirus-mediated Brn4 overexpression in vivo. After 10 days of the lentivirus injection, we found that the expression levels of genes related to neuronal development and maturation were significantly increased and the expression levels of genes related to NSC maintenance were significantly decreased, indicating enhanced neurogenesis in the hippocampus after Brn4 overexpression. Through RNA sequencing, we found that 658 genes were differentially expressed in the Brn4-overexpressed hippocampi compared with GFP-overexpressed controls. Many of these differentially expressed genes are involved in NSC division and differentiation. By using quantitative real-time PCR, we validated the expression changes of three genes, including Ctbp2, Notch2, and Gli1, all of which are reported to play key roles in neuronal differentiation of NSCs. Importantly, the expression levels of Ctbp2 and Notch2 were also significantly changed in the hippocampus of Brn4 KO mice, which indicates that the expression levels of Ctbp2 and Notch2 may be directly regulated by Brn4. Our current study provides a solid foundation for further investigation and identifies Ctbp2 and Notch2 as possible downstream targets of Brn4. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Good Genes and Sexual Selection in Dung Beetles (Onthophagus taurus): Genetic Variance in Egg-to-Adult and Adult Viability

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2011-01-01

    Whether species exhibit significant heritable variation in fitness is central for sexual selection. According to good genes models there must be genetic variation in males leading to variation in offspring fitness if females are to obtain genetic benefits from exercising mate preferences, or by mating multiply. However, sexual selection based on genetic benefits is controversial, and there is limited unambiguous support for the notion that choosy or polyandrous females can increase the chances of producing offspring with high viability. Here we examine the levels of additive genetic variance in two fitness components in the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus. We found significant sire effects on egg-to-adult viability and on son, but not daughter, survival to sexual maturity, as well as moderate coefficients of additive variance in these traits. Moreover, we do not find evidence for sexual antagonism influencing genetic variation for fitness. Our results are consistent with good genes sexual selection, and suggest that both pre- and postcopulatory mate choice, and male competition could provide indirect benefits to females. PMID:21267411

  7. Effects of Doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and Brugia malayi adult female worms in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most filarial nematodes contain Wolbachia symbionts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and adult female Brugia malayi. Methods Brugia malayi infected gerbils were treated with doxycycline for 6-weeks. This treatment largely cleared Wolbachia and arrested worm reproduction. RNA recovered from treated and control female worms was labeled by random priming and hybridized to the Version 2- filarial microarray to obtain expression profiles. Results and discussion Results showed significant changes in expression for 200 Wolbachia (29% of Wolbachia genes with expression signals in untreated worms) and 546 B. malayi array elements after treatment. These elements correspond to known genes and also to novel genes with unknown biological functions. Most differentially expressed Wolbachia genes were down-regulated after treatment (98.5%). In contrast, doxycycline had a mixed effect on B. malayi gene expression with many more genes being significantly up-regulated after treatment (85% of differentially expressed genes). Genes and processes involved in reproduction (gender-regulated genes, collagen, amino acid metabolism, ribosomal processes, and cytoskeleton) were down-regulated after doxycycline while up-regulated genes and pathways suggest adaptations for survival in response to stress (energy metabolism, electron transport, anti-oxidants, nutrient transport, bacterial signaling pathways, and immune evasion). Conclusions Doxycycline reduced Wolbachia and significantly decreased bacterial gene expression. Wolbachia ribosomes are believed to be the primary biological target for doxycycline in filarial worms. B. malayi genes essential for reproduction, growth and development were also down-regulated; these changes are consistent with doxycycline effects on embryo development and reproduction. On the other hand, many B. malayi genes involved in energy production, electron-transport, metabolism, anti

  8. Dose-Responsive Gene Expression Changes in Juvenile and Adult Mummichogs (Fundulus heteroclitus) After Arsenic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Horacio O.; Hu, Jianjun; Gaworecki, Kristen M.; Roling, Jonathan A.; Baldwin, William S.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.; Bain, Lisa J.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated arsenic's effects on mummichogs (Fundulus heteroclitus), while also examining what role that gender or exposure age might play. Adult male and female mummichogs were exposed to 172ppb, 575ppb, or 1,720ppb arsenic as sodium arsenite for 10 days immediately prior to spawning. No differences were noted in the number or viability of eggs between the groups, but there was a significant increase in deformities in 1,720ppb arsenic exposure group. Total RNA from adult livers or 6-week old juveniles was used to probe custom macroarrays for changes in gene expression. In females, 3% of the genes were commonly differentially expressed in the 172 and 575ppb exposure groups compared to controls. In the males, between 1.1-3% of the differentially expressed genes were in common between the exposure groups. Several genes, including apolipoprotein and serum amyloid precursor were commonly expressed in either a dose-responsive manner or were dose-specific, but consistent across genders. These patterns of regulation were confirmed by QPCR. These findings will provide us with a better understanding of the effects of dose, gender, and exposure age on the response to arsenic. PMID:20451245

  9. Epigenetic gene regulation in the adult mammalian brain: multiple roles in memory formation.

    PubMed

    Lubin, Farah D

    2011-07-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) is one of numerous gene products necessary for long-term memory formation and dysregulation of bdnf has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cognitive and mental disorders. Recent work indicates that epigenetic-regulatory mechanisms including the markings of histone proteins and associated DNA remain labile throughout the life-span and represent an attractive molecular process contributing to gene regulation in the brain. In this review, important information will be discussed on epigenetics as a set of newly identified dynamic transcriptional mechanisms serving to regulate gene expression changes in the adult brain with particular emphasis on bdnf transcriptional readout in learning and memory formation. This review will also highlight evidence for the role of epigenetics in aberrant bdnf gene regulation in the pathogenesis of cognitive dysfunction associated with seizure disorders, Rett syndrome, Schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. Such research offers novel concepts for understanding epigenetic transcriptional mechanisms subserving adult cognition and mental health, and furthermore promises novel avenues for therapeutic approach in the clinic.

  10. Childhood maltreatment, the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene and adult depression in the general population.

    PubMed

    Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Schwahn, Christian; Appel, Katja; Mahler, Jessie; Schulz, Andrea; Spitzer, Carsten; Fenske, Kristin; Barnow, Sven; Lucht, Michael; Freyberger, Harald Jürgen; John, Ulrich; Teumer, Alexander; Wallaschofski, Henri; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry

    2010-12-05

    Dysregulations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have been implicated in the pathogenesis of depressive disorders and the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) was found to modulate emotional memory consolidation. Recently, two studies have reported an interaction between childhood abuse and the TAT-haplotype of the CRH-Receptor Gene (CRHR1) connecting childhood adversities and genetic susceptibility to adult depression. We tested the hypothesis of an interaction of childhood maltreatment with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of the CRHR1 gene not previously investigated. Caucasian subjects (n = 1,638) from the German general population (Study of Health in Pomerania, SHIP) were analyzed. As in the previous studies, childhood abuse and neglect were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and depression with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-2). The CRHR1-SNPs were genotyped on the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 platform. We identified an interaction between the TAT-haplotype and childhood physical neglect. The interaction with physical neglect showed significant (P < 0.05) results in 23 of the 28 SNPs, with rs17689882 (P = 0.0013) reaching "gene-wide" significance. Although we did not replicate the specific interaction of abuse and the TAT-haplotype of the CRHR1 gene we confirmed the relevance of an interplay between variants within the CRHR1 gene and childhood adversities in the modulation of depression in adults. The largest effect was found for rs17689882, a SNP previously not analyzed. Relevant sample differences between this and prior studies like lower BDI-2 scores, less childhood maltreatment and higher psychosocial functioning may account for the differences in gene-environment interaction findings. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Deletion of the homeobox gene PRX-2 affects fetal but not adult fibroblast wound healing responses.

    PubMed

    White, Philip; Thomas, David W; Fong, Steven; Stelnicki, Eric; Meijlink, Fritz; Largman, Corey; Stephens, Phil

    2003-01-01

    The phenotype of fibroblasts repopulating experimental wounds in vivo has been shown to influence both wound healing responses and clinical outcome. Recent studies have demonstrated that the human homeobox gene PRX-2 is strongly upregulated in fibroblasts within fetal, but not adult, mesenchymal tissues during healing. Differential homeobox gene expression by fibroblasts may therefore be important in mediating the scarless healing exhibited in early fetal wounds. RNase protection analysis demonstrated that murine Prx-2 expression was involved in fetal but not adult wound healing responses in vitro. Using fibroblasts established from homozygous mutant (Prx-2-/-) and wild-type (Prx-2+/+) murine skin tissues it was demonstrated that Prx-2 affected a number of fetal fibroblastic responses believed to be important in mediating scarless healing in vivo; namely cellular proliferation, extracellular matrix reorganization, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 and hyaluronic acid production. These data demonstrate how Prx-2 may contribute to the regulation of fetal, but not adult, fibroblasts and ultimately the wound healing phenotype. This study provides further evidence for the importance of homeobox transcription factors in the regulation of scarless wound healing. A further understanding of these processes will, it is hoped, enable the targeting of specific therapies in wound healing, both to effect scarless healing and to stimulate healing in chronic, nonhealing wounds such as venous leg ulcers.

  12. Potent spinal parenchymal AAV9-mediated gene delivery by subpial injection in adult rats and pigs

    PubMed Central

    Miyanohara, Atsushi; Kamizato, Kota; Juhas, Stefan; Juhasova, Jana; Navarro, Michael; Marsala, Silvia; Lukacova, Nada; Hruska-Plochan, Marian; Curtis, Erik; Gabel, Brandon; Ciacci, Joseph; Ahrens, Eric T; Kaspar, Brian K; Cleveland, Don; Marsala, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Effective in vivo use of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors to achieve gene-specific silencing or upregulation in the central nervous system has been limited by the inability to provide more than limited deep parenchymal expression in adult animals using delivery routes with the most clinical relevance (intravenous or intrathecal). Here, we demonstrate that the spinal pia membrane represents the primary barrier limiting effective AAV9 penetration into the spinal parenchyma after intrathecal AAV9 delivery. We develop a novel subpial AAV9 delivery technique and AAV9-dextran formulation. We use these in adult rats and pigs to show (i) potent spinal parenchymal transgene expression in white and gray matter including neurons, glial and endothelial cells after single bolus subpial AAV9 delivery; (ii) delivery to almost all apparent descending motor axons throughout the length of the spinal cord after cervical or thoracic subpial AAV9 injection; (iii) potent retrograde transgene expression in brain motor centers (motor cortex and brain stem); and (iv) the relative safety of this approach by defining normal neurological function for up to 6 months after AAV9 delivery. Thus, subpial delivery of AAV9 enables gene-based therapies with a wide range of potential experimental and clinical utilizations in adult animals and human patients. PMID:27462649

  13. Gene therapy for red-green colour blindness in adult primates.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Katherine; Hauswirth, William W; Li, Qiuhong; Connor, Thomas B; Kuchenbecker, James A; Mauck, Matthew C; Neitz, Jay; Neitz, Maureen

    2009-10-08

    Red-green colour blindness, which results from the absence of either the long- (L) or the middle- (M) wavelength-sensitive visual photopigments, is the most common single locus genetic disorder. Here we explore the possibility of curing colour blindness using gene therapy in experiments on adult monkeys that had been colour blind since birth. A third type of cone pigment was added to dichromatic retinas, providing the receptoral basis for trichromatic colour vision. This opened a new avenue to explore the requirements for establishing the neural circuits for a new dimension of colour sensation. Classic visual deprivation experiments have led to the expectation that neural connections established during development would not appropriately process an input that was not present from birth. Therefore, it was believed that the treatment of congenital vision disorders would be ineffective unless administered to the very young. However, here we show that the addition of a third opsin in adult red-green colour-deficient primates was sufficient to produce trichromatic colour vision behaviour. Thus, trichromacy can arise from a single addition of a third cone class and it does not require an early developmental process. This provides a positive outlook for the potential of gene therapy to cure adult vision disorders.

  14. Association analysis of FTO gene polymorphisms with obesity in Greek adults.

    PubMed

    Goutzelas, Yiannis; Kotsa, Kalliopi; Vasilopoulos, Yiannis; Tsekmekidou, Xanthippi; Stamatis, Costas; Yovos, John G; Sarafidou, Theologia; Mamuris, Zissis

    2017-05-20

    Nowadays, obesity is the greatest scourge worldwide, particularly for the developed countries and is a huge burden for the public health. Over the past decade, GWAS have revealed a number of genes associated with obesity. The fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene was the first one associated with obesity in a significant number of populations and recent meta-analysis studies confirm this association. FTO is a N-methyladenosine demethylase and in addition to the genetic association, its biological role in the regulation of body weight has been documented. Due to lack of replication regarding FTO association with obesity in the Greek adult population, we analyzed three SNPs, i.e. rs9939609, rs9930506 and rs3751812 in a cohort of 203 adults, comprising of 95 obese, 58 overweight and 50 control individuals. Analysis has shown a significant association for FTO (rs9930506; A/G) 'G' allele with obesity and a difference by 3.2 BMI units between the two homozygotes (AA versus GG). This association, which was detected for the first time in this population, suggests that FTO rs9930506 is a predisposition marker to obesity in the Greek adults, but the results should be taken cautiously due to the limitation of the relatively small sample size of the subjects.

  15. The core planar cell polarity gene, Vangl2, directs adult corneal epithelial cell alignment and migration

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, Amy S.; Panzica, D. Alessio; Walczysko, Petr; Holt, Amy B.; Henderson, Deborah J.; West, John D.; Rajnicek, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    This study shows that the core planar cell polarity (PCP) genes direct the aligned cell migration in the adult corneal epithelium, a stratified squamous epithelium on the outer surface of the vertebrate eye. Expression of multiple core PCP genes was demonstrated in the adult corneal epithelium. PCP components were manipulated genetically and pharmacologically in human and mouse corneal epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro. Knockdown of VANGL2 reduced the directional component of migration of human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells without affecting speed. It was shown that signalling through PCP mediators, dishevelled, dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis and Rho-associated protein kinase directs the alignment of HCE cells by affecting cytoskeletal reorganization. Cells in which VANGL2 was disrupted tended to misalign on grooved surfaces and migrate across, rather than parallel to the grooves. Adult corneal epithelial cells in which Vangl2 had been conditionally deleted showed a reduced rate of wound-healing migration. Conditional deletion of Vangl2 in the mouse corneal epithelium ablated the normal highly stereotyped patterns of centripetal cell migration in vivo from the periphery (limbus) to the centre of the cornea. Corneal opacity owing to chronic wounding is a major cause of degenerative blindness across the world, and this study shows that Vangl2 activity is required for directional corneal epithelial migration. PMID:27853583

  16. Subcellular localization of RNAs in transfected cells: role of sequences at the 5' terminus.

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso-Pizarro, A; Carlson, D P; Ross, J

    1984-01-01

    We have investigated the intracellular location of RNAs transcribed from transfected DNA. COS cells transfected with a clone containing the human adult beta globin gene contain three classes of globin RNAs. Their 3' termini and splice sites are indistinguishable from those of mature reticulocyte beta globin mRNA, and they are polyadenylated. However, as determined by S1 mapping, their 5' sequences are different. The 5' terminus of one is the same as that of mature beta globin mRNA (+1, cap site). The presumed 5' terminus of the second is located 30 nucleotides downstream from the cap site (+30). The third class contains additional nucleotides transcribed from sequences located 5' to the cap site (5' upstream RNA). The 5' upstream RNA molecules are restricted to the nucleus and are more stable than heterogeneous nuclear RNA. The +30 and +1 RNAs are located primarily in the cytoplasm. The data support the notion that nucleotide sequences and/or secondary modifications in the 5' region determine if an RNA is to be transported. Images PMID:6209612

  17. Correlation of a set of gene variants, life events and personality features on adult ADHD severity.

    PubMed

    Müller, Daniel J; Chiesa, Alberto; Mandelli, Laura; De Luca, Vincenzo; De Ronchi, Diana; Jain, Umesh; Serretti, Alessandro; Kennedy, James L

    2010-07-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) could persist into adult life in a substantial proportion of cases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of (1) adverse events, (2) personality traits and (3) genetic variants chosen on the basis of previous findings and (4) their possible interactions on adult ADHD severity. One hundred and ten individuals diagnosed with adult ADHD were evaluated for occurrence of adverse events in childhood and adulthood, and personality traits by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Common polymorphisms within a set of nine important candidate genes (SLC6A3, DBH, DRD4, DRD5, HTR2A, CHRNA7, BDNF, PRKG1 and TAAR9) were genotyped for each subject. Life events, personality traits and genetic variations were analyzed in relationship to severity of current symptoms, according to the Brown Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (BADDS). Genetic variations were not significantly associated with severity of ADHD symptoms. Life stressors displayed only a minor effect as compared to personality traits. Indeed, symptoms' severity was significantly correlated with the temperamental trait of Harm avoidance and the character trait of Self directedness. The results of the present work are in line with previous evidence of a significant correlation between some personality traits and adult ADHD. However, several limitations such as the small sample size and the exclusion of patients with other severe comorbid psychiatric disorders could have influenced the significance of present findings.

  18. The REVEILLE Clock Genes Inhibit Growth of Juvenile and Adult Plants by Control of Cell Size.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jennifer A; Shalit-Kaneh, Akiva; Chu, Dalena Nhu; Hsu, Polly Yingshan; Harmer, Stacey L

    2017-04-01

    The circadian clock is a complex regulatory network that enhances plant growth and fitness in a constantly changing environment. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the clock is composed of numerous regulatory feedback loops in which REVEILLE8 (RVE8) and its homologs RVE4 and RVE6 act in a partially redundant manner to promote clock pace. Here, we report that the remaining members of the RVE8 clade, RVE3 and RVE5, play only minor roles in the regulation of clock function. However, we find that RVE8 clade proteins have unexpected functions in the modulation of light input to the clock and the control of plant growth at multiple stages of development. In seedlings, these proteins repress hypocotyl elongation in a daylength- and sucrose-dependent manner. Strikingly, adult rve4 6 8 and rve3 4 5 6 8 mutants are much larger than wild-type plants, with both increased leaf area and biomass. This size phenotype is associated with a faster growth rate and larger cell size and is not simply due to a delay in the transition to flowering. Gene expression and epistasis analysis reveal that the growth phenotypes of rve mutants are due to the misregulation of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) and PIF5 expression. Our results show that even small changes in PIF gene expression caused by the perturbation of clock gene function can have large effects on the growth of adult plants.

  19. Catalog of gene expression in adult neural stem cells and their in vivo microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Cecilia; Wirta, Valtteri; Meletis, Konstantinos; Wikstroem, Lilian; Carlsson, Leif; Frisen, Jonas; Lundeberg, Joakim . E-mail: joakim.lundeberg@biotech.kth.se

    2006-06-10

    Stem cells generally reside in a stem cell microenvironment, where cues for self-renewal and differentiation are present. However, the genetic program underlying stem cell proliferation and multipotency is poorly understood. Transcriptome analysis of stem cells and their in vivo microenvironment is one way of uncovering the unique stemness properties and provides a framework for the elucidation of stem cell function. Here, we characterize the gene expression profile of the in vivo neural stem cell microenvironment in the lateral ventricle wall of adult mouse brain and of in vitro proliferating neural stem cells. We have also analyzed an Lhx2-expressing hematopoietic-stem-cell-like cell line in order to define the transcriptome of a well-characterized and pure cell population with stem cell characteristics. We report the generation, assembly and annotation of 50,792 high-quality 5'-end expressed sequence tag sequences. We further describe a shared expression of 1065 transcripts by all three stem cell libraries and a large overlap with previously published gene expression signatures for neural stem/progenitor cells and other multipotent stem cells. The sequences and cDNA clones obtained within this framework provide a comprehensive resource for the analysis of genes in adult stem cells that can accelerate future stem cell research.

  20. Identification of Susceptibility Genes of Adult Asthma in French Canadian Women

    PubMed Central

    Bérubé, Jean-Christophe; Gaudreault, Nathalie; Lavoie-Charland, Emilie; Sbarra, Laura; Henry, Cyndi; Madore, Anne-Marie; Paré, Peter D.; van den Berge, Maarten; Nickle, David; Laviolette, Michel; Laprise, Catherine; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Bossé, Yohan

    2016-01-01

    Susceptibility genes of asthma may be more successfully identified by studying subgroups of phenotypically similar asthma patients. This study aims to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with asthma in French Canadian adult women. A pooling-based genome-wide association study was performed in 240 allergic asthmatic and 120 allergic nonasthmatic women. The top associated SNPs were selected for individual genotyping in an extended cohort of 349 asthmatic and 261 nonasthmatic women. The functional impact of asthma-associated SNPs was investigated in a lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping study (n = 1035). Twenty-one of the 38 SNPs tested by individual genotyping showed P values lower than 0.05 for association with asthma. Cis-eQTL analyses supported the functional contribution of rs17801353 associated with C3AR1 (P = 7.90E − 10). The asthma risk allele for rs17801353 is associated with higher mRNA expression levels of C3AR1 in lung tissue. In silico functional characterization of the asthma-associated SNPs also supported the contribution of C3AR1 and additional genes including SYNE1, LINGO2, and IFNG-AS1. This pooling-based GWAS in French Canadian adult women followed by lung eQTL mapping suggested C3AR1 as a functional locus associated with asthma. Additional susceptibility genes were suggested in this homogenous subgroup of asthma patients. PMID:27445529

  1. Identification of Susceptibility Genes of Adult Asthma in French Canadian Women.

    PubMed

    Bérubé, Jean-Christophe; Gaudreault, Nathalie; Lavoie-Charland, Emilie; Sbarra, Laura; Henry, Cyndi; Madore, Anne-Marie; Paré, Peter D; van den Berge, Maarten; Nickle, David; Laviolette, Michel; Laprise, Catherine; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Bossé, Yohan

    2016-01-01

    Susceptibility genes of asthma may be more successfully identified by studying subgroups of phenotypically similar asthma patients. This study aims to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with asthma in French Canadian adult women. A pooling-based genome-wide association study was performed in 240 allergic asthmatic and 120 allergic nonasthmatic women. The top associated SNPs were selected for individual genotyping in an extended cohort of 349 asthmatic and 261 nonasthmatic women. The functional impact of asthma-associated SNPs was investigated in a lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping study (n = 1035). Twenty-one of the 38 SNPs tested by individual genotyping showed P values lower than 0.05 for association with asthma. Cis-eQTL analyses supported the functional contribution of rs17801353 associated with C3AR1 (P = 7.90E - 10). The asthma risk allele for rs17801353 is associated with higher mRNA expression levels of C3AR1 in lung tissue. In silico functional characterization of the asthma-associated SNPs also supported the contribution of C3AR1 and additional genes including SYNE1, LINGO2, and IFNG-AS1. This pooling-based GWAS in French Canadian adult women followed by lung eQTL mapping suggested C3AR1 as a functional locus associated with asthma. Additional susceptibility genes were suggested in this homogenous subgroup of asthma patients.

  2. T-cell suicide gene therapy prompts thymic renewal in adults after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vago, Luca; Oliveira, Giacomo; Bondanza, Attilio; Noviello, Maddalena; Soldati, Corrado; Ghio, Domenico; Brigida, Immacolata; Greco, Raffaella; Lupo Stanghellini, Maria Teresa; Peccatori, Jacopo; Fracchia, Sergio; Del Fiacco, Matteo; Traversari, Catia; Aiuti, Alessandro; Del Maschio, Alessandro; Bordignon, Claudio; Ciceri, Fabio; Bonini, Chiara

    2012-08-30

    The genetic modification of T cells with a suicide gene grants a mechanism of control of adverse reactions, allowing safe infusion after partially incompatible hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In the TK007 clinical trial, 22 adults with hematologic malignancies experienced a rapid and sustained immune recovery after T cell-depleted HSCT and serial infusions of purified donor T cells expressing the HSV thymidine kinase suicide gene (TK+ cells). After a first wave of circulating TK+ cells, the majority of T cells supporting long-term immune reconstitution did not carry the suicide gene and displayed high numbers of naive lymphocytes, suggesting the thymus-dependent development of T cells, occurring only upon TK+ -cell engraftment. Accordingly, after the infusions, we documented an increase in circulating TCR excision circles and CD31+ recent thymic emigrants and a substantial expansion of the active thymic tissue as shown by chest tomography scans. Interestingly, a peak in the serum level of IL-7 was observed after each infusion of TK+ cells, anticipating the appearance of newly generated T cells. The results of the present study show that the infusion of genetically modified donor T cells after HSCT can drive the recovery of thymic activity in adults, leading to immune reconstitution.

  3. Apoptosis-Related Gene Expression in an Adult Cohort with Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever.

    PubMed

    Guler, Nil; Eroglu, Cafer; Yilmaz, Hava; Karadag, Adil; Alacam, Hasan; Sunbul, Mustafa; Fletcher, Tom E; Leblebicioglu, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a life threatening acute viral infection characterized by fever, bleeding, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. It is a major emerging infectious diseases threat, but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood and few data exist for the role of apoptosis in acute infection. We aimed to assess apoptotic gene expression in leukocytes in a cross-sectional cohort study of adults with CCHF. Twenty participants with CCHF and 10 healthy controls were recruited at a tertiary CCHF unit in Turkey; at admission baseline blood tests were collected and total RNA was isolated. The RealTime ready Human Apoptosis Panel was used for real-time PCR, detecting differences in gene expression. Participants had CCHF severity grading scores (SGS) with low risk score (10 out of 20) and intermediate or high risk scores (10 out of 20) for mortality. Five of 20 participants had a fatal outcome. Gene expression analysis showed modulation of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes that facilitate apoptosis in the CCHF patient group. Dominant extrinsic pathway activation, mostly related with TNF family members was observed. Severe and fatal cases suggest additional intrinsic pathway activation. The clinical significance of relative gene expression is not clear, and larger longitudinal studies with simultaneous measurement of host and viral factors are recommended.

  4. Apoptosis-Related Gene Expression in an Adult Cohort with Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Guler, Nil; Eroglu, Cafer; Yilmaz, Hava; Karadag, Adil; Alacam, Hasan; Sunbul, Mustafa; Fletcher, Tom E.; Leblebicioglu, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a life threatening acute viral infection characterized by fever, bleeding, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. It is a major emerging infectious diseases threat, but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood and few data exist for the role of apoptosis in acute infection. We aimed to assess apoptotic gene expression in leukocytes in a cross-sectional cohort study of adults with CCHF. Twenty participants with CCHF and 10 healthy controls were recruited at a tertiary CCHF unit in Turkey; at admission baseline blood tests were collected and total RNA was isolated. The RealTime ready Human Apoptosis Panel was used for real-time PCR, detecting differences in gene expression. Participants had CCHF severity grading scores (SGS) with low risk score (10 out of 20) and intermediate or high risk scores (10 out of 20) for mortality. Five of 20 participants had a fatal outcome. Gene expression analysis showed modulation of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes that facilitate apoptosis in the CCHF patient group. Dominant extrinsic pathway activation, mostly related with TNF family members was observed. Severe and fatal cases suggest additional intrinsic pathway activation. The clinical significance of relative gene expression is not clear, and larger longitudinal studies with simultaneous measurement of host and viral factors are recommended. PMID:27304063

  5. Association of VAMP-2 and Syntaxin 1A Genes with Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kenar, Aẙe Nur Inci; Ay, Özlem İzci; Erdal, Mehmet Emin

    2014-01-01

    Objective The etiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been entirely clarified yet. Structural and metabolic differences at the prefrontal striatal cerebellary system and the interaction of gene and environment are the main factors that thought to play roles in the etiology. Genetic investigations are performed especially about the dopamine pathways and receptors. In this study; it was aimed to investigate the association of the synaptobrevin-2 (VAMP-2) gene Ins/Del polymorphism and syntaxin 1A gene intron 7 polymorphism, which take place in encoding presynaptic protein, with adult ADHD. Methods One hundred thirty-nine patients, having ADHD aging between 18 and 60 years and 106 healthy people as controls were included into the study. DNA samples were extracted from whole blood and genetic analysis were performed. Results A significant difference was determined between ADHD and VAMP-2 Ins/Del polymorphism and syntaxin 1A intron 7 polymorphism according to the control group. These polymorphisms were found not to be associated with subtypes of ADHD. Conclusion It is supposed that synaptic protein genes together with dopaminergic genes might have roles in the etiology of ADHD. PMID:24605127

  6. A long non-coding RNA promotes full activation of adult gene expression in the chicken α-globin domain.

    PubMed

    Arriaga-Canon, Cristian; Fonseca-Guzmán, Yael; Valdes-Quezada, Christian; Arzate-Mejía, Rodrigo; Guerrero, Georgina; Recillas-Targa, Félix

    2014-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were recently shown to regulate chromatin remodelling activities. Their function in regulating gene expression switching during specific developmental stages is poorly understood. Here we describe a nuclear, non-coding transcript responsive for the stage-specific activation of the chicken adult α(D) globin gene. This non-coding transcript, named α-globin transcript long non-coding RNA (lncRNA-αGT) is transcriptionally upregulated in late stages of chicken development, when active chromatin marks the adult α(D) gene promoter. Accordingly, the lncRNA-αGT promoter drives erythroid-specific transcription. Furthermore, loss of function experiments showed that lncRNA-αGT is required for full activation of the α(D) adult gene and maintenance of transcriptionally active chromatin. These findings uncovered lncRNA-αGT as an important part of the switching from embryonic to adult α-globin gene expression, and suggest a function of lncRNA-αGT in contributing to the maintenance of adult α-globin gene expression by promoting an active chromatin structure.

  7. AAV2 gene therapy readministration in three adults with congenital blindness.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Jean; Ashtari, Manzar; Wellman, Jennifer; Marshall, Kathleen A; Cyckowski, Laura L; Chung, Daniel C; McCague, Sarah; Pierce, Eric A; Chen, Yifeng; Bennicelli, Jeannette L; Zhu, Xiaosong; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Sun, Junwei; Wright, J Fraser; Auricchio, Alberto; Simonelli, Francesca; Shindler, Kenneth S; Mingozzi, Federico; High, Katherine A; Maguire, Albert M

    2012-02-08

    Demonstration of safe and stable reversal of blindness after a single unilateral subretinal injection of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying the RPE65 gene (AAV2-hRPE65v2) prompted us to determine whether it was possible to obtain additional benefit through a second administration of the AAV vector to the contralateral eye. Readministration of vector to the second eye was carried out in three adults with Leber congenital amaurosis due to mutations in the RPE65 gene 1.7 to 3.3 years after they had received their initial subretinal injection of AAV2-hRPE65v2. Results (through 6 months) including evaluations of immune response, retinal and visual function testing, and functional magnetic resonance imaging indicate that readministration is both safe and efficacious after previous exposure to AAV2-hRPE65v2.

  8. A chimeric mouse histone H4 gene containing either an intron or poly(A) addition signal behaves like a basal histone.

    PubMed Central

    Seiler-Tuyns, A; Paterson, B M

    1986-01-01

    We have modified the basic structure of the mouse H4 histone gene by introducing, in one case, the IVS-II of the human beta globin gene in the middle of the H4 coding region and, in the second case, the poly(A) addition signal from either the chicken vimentin gene or the alpha globin gene, displacing the hairpin loop structure in the 3' direction. Constructs were placed into the vector, PSV2gpt, and stably transformed into L cells. Pools of 100-500 independent transformants were analyzed for H4 expression. Even though the intron is processed correctly, the growth regulated expression of the modified gene is lost and the gene is now expressed at a constant basal level. Furthermore, unprocessed transcripts accumulate in the nucleus of Go cells when compared to exponentially growing cultures. Polyadenylated H4 RNA is correctly processed but expressed at reduced levels (30 fold) in a constitutive manner, independent of the growth state of the cell. The altered expression of these chimeric H4 genes compared to the endogenous copy or the transfected wild type gene suggests a structural model to explain the cell cycle independent expression of the basal histones. Images PMID:3024121

  9. Oral toxicity of Photorhabdus culture media on gene expression of the adult sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Yam Kumar; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll

    2012-01-01

    The oral toxicity of culture media of the symbiotic bacteria, Photorhabdus temperata, mutually associated with entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis megidis and Photorhabdus luminescens ssp. laumondii (TT01) mutually associated with Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, were investigated in the adults of Bemisia tabaci. The oral ingestion of sucrose diet solutions (20%) containing bacteria-free supernatant of the culture media from symbiotic bacteria gradually increased mortalities and was completely lethal at 60 h after the treatments, whereas the mortalities of the controls, sucrose solutions with or without media that uncultured with bacteria, were less than 17% up to 84 h of incubation. The effects of oral ingestion of symbiont culture media were demonstrated on the expression rates of several genes of B. tabaci using quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. Genes associated with immunity (knottin) and nervous system (acetylcholine receptor, acetylcholine esterase and sodium channel) were up-regulated while genes involved in metabolism (cytochromep450 and carboxylesterase) were down-regulated, but genes involved in development (ecdysone receptor), reproduction (vitellogenin) and stress (hsp70, hsp90 and shsp) did not change transcription rates. Our results provide information for the understanding of the mechanism of symbiont pathogenic factors for the manipulation of host physiology at the transcription level.

  10. The Protein Kinase KIS Impacts Gene Expression during Development and Fear Conditioning in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Manceau, Valérie; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Nabel, Elizabeth G.; Maucuer, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    The brain-enriched protein kinase KIS (product of the gene UHMK1) has been shown to phosphorylate the human splicing factor SF1 in vitro. This phosphorylation in turn favors the formation of a U2AF65-SF1-RNA complex which occurs at the 3′ end of introns at an early stage of spliceosome assembly. Here, we analyzed the effects of KIS knockout on mouse SF1 phosphorylation, physiology, adult behavior, and gene expression in the neonate brain. We found SF1 isoforms are differently expressed in KIS-ko mouse brains and fibroblasts. Re-expression of KIS in fibroblasts restores a wild type distribution of SF1 isoforms, confirming the link between KIS and SF1. Microarray analysis of transcripts in the neonate brain revealed a subtle down-regulation of brain specific genes including cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels and metabolic enzymes. Q-PCR analyses confirmed these defects and point to an increase of pre-mRNA over mRNA ratios, likely due to changes in splicing efficiency. While performing similarly in prepulse inhibition and most other behavioral tests, KIS-ko mice differ in spontaneous activity and contextual fear conditioning. This difference suggests that disregulation of gene expression due to KIS inactivation affects specific brain functions. PMID:22937132

  11. Effects of postnatal alcohol exposure on hippocampal gene expression and learning in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Moon, Jihye; Ryu, Jinhyun; Jeong, Joo Yeon; Roh, Gu Seob; Kim, Hyun Joon; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Choi, Wan Sung; Kang, Sang Soo

    2016-04-28

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a condition resulting from excessive drinking by pregnant women. Symptoms of FAS include abnormal facial features, stunted growth, intellectual deficits and attentional dysfunction. Many studies have investigated FAS, but its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. This study evaluated the relationship between alcohol exposure during the synaptogenesis period in postnatal mice and subsequent cognitive function in adult mice. We delivered two injections, separated by 2 h, of ethanol (3 g/kg, ethanol/saline, 20% v/v) to ICR mice on postnatal day 7. After 10 weeks, we conducted a behavioral test, sacrificed the animals, harvested brain tissue and analyzed hippocampal gene expression using a microarray. In ethanol-treated mice, there was a reduction in brain size and decreased neuronal cell number in the cortex, and also cognitive impairment. cDNA microarray results indicated that 1,548 genes showed a > 2-fold decrease in expression relative to control, whereas 974 genes showed a > 2-fold increase in expression relative to control. Many of these genes were related to signal transduction, synaptogenesis and cell membrane formation, which are highlighted in our findings.

  12. Genes and Pathways Involved in Adult Onset Disorders Featuring Muscle Mitochondrial DNA Instability

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Naghia; Ronchi, Dario; Comi, Giacomo Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Replication and maintenance of mtDNA entirely relies on a set of proteins encoded by the nuclear genome, which include members of the core replicative machinery, proteins involved in the homeostasis of mitochondrial dNTPs pools or deputed to the control of mitochondrial dynamics and morphology. Mutations in their coding genes have been observed in familial and sporadic forms of pediatric and adult-onset clinical phenotypes featuring mtDNA instability. The list of defects involved in these disorders has recently expanded, including mutations in the exo-/endo-nuclease flap-processing proteins MGME1 and DNA2, supporting the notion that an enzymatic DNA repair system actively takes place in mitochondria. The results obtained in the last few years acknowledge the contribution of next-generation sequencing methods in the identification of new disease loci in small groups of patients and even single probands. Although heterogeneous, these genes can be conveniently classified according to the pathway to which they belong. The definition of the molecular and biochemical features of these pathways might be helpful for fundamental knowledge of these disorders, to accelerate genetic diagnosis of patients and the development of rational therapies. In this review, we discuss the molecular findings disclosed in adult patients with muscle pathology hallmarked by mtDNA instability. PMID:26251896

  13. Genes and Pathways Involved in Adult Onset Disorders Featuring Muscle Mitochondrial DNA Instability.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Naghia; Ronchi, Dario; Comi, Giacomo Pietro

    2015-08-05

    Replication and maintenance of mtDNA entirely relies on a set of proteins encoded by the nuclear genome, which include members of the core replicative machinery, proteins involved in the homeostasis of mitochondrial dNTPs pools or deputed to the control of mitochondrial dynamics and morphology. Mutations in their coding genes have been observed in familial and sporadic forms of pediatric and adult-onset clinical phenotypes featuring mtDNA instability. The list of defects involved in these disorders has recently expanded, including mutations in the exo-/endo-nuclease flap-processing proteins MGME1 and DNA2, supporting the notion that an enzymatic DNA repair system actively takes place in mitochondria. The results obtained in the last few years acknowledge the contribution of next-generation sequencing methods in the identification of new disease loci in small groups of patients and even single probands. Although heterogeneous, these genes can be conveniently classified according to the pathway to which they belong. The definition of the molecular and biochemical features of these pathways might be helpful for fundamental knowledge of these disorders, to accelerate genetic diagnosis of patients and the development of rational therapies. In this review, we discuss the molecular findings disclosed in adult patients with muscle pathology hallmarked by mtDNA instability.

  14. Neuroendocrine function in adult female transgenic mice expressing the human growth hormone gene.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, V; Bartke, A; Wagner, T E

    1992-04-01

    Adult female transgenic mice expressing the human GH (hGH) gene with mouse metallothionein-I promoter are sterile. To evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary function in these animals, adult female transgenic mice and nontransgenic normal littermates were ovariectomized. On days 7 and 8 after ovariectomy, mice were injected with either oil or primed with 0.5 micrograms estradiol benzoate (EB) in oil, 24 h later treated with 10 micrograms EB/100 g body wt and a day later bled for measurements of FSH, LH, and PRL levels. Plasma gonadotropin and PRL levels were also measured in ovary-intact transgenic and normal siblings at estrus. Additional ovariectomized EB-treated transgenic mice and normal siblings were injected with either saline or GnRH in saline (1 ng/g body wt) and were bled 15 min later for determination of circulating hormone levels. At estrus, in transgenic mice, circulating FSH and PRL levels were significantly lower (FSH:P less than 0.001; PRL:P less than 0.025), but plasma LH concentrations were higher (P less than 0.001) than those in nontransgenic mice. As expected, ovariectomy significantly increased (P less than 0.001) circulating FSH and LH levels in both groups of mice relative to ovary-intact animals, but the increase in plasma LH levels was attenuated in transgenic mice. The suppressive effect of estrogen on circulating FSH and LH levels were similar in transgenic and nontransgenic mice. Treatment with GnRH significantly increased plasma FSH and LH levels in both transgenic and normal mice. However, the plasma FSH and LH responses to GnRH administration were significantly reduced (P less than 0.001) in transgenic mice. The results of these studies indicate that adult female transgenic mice expressing the hGH gene are hypoprolactinemic. Yet due to PRL-like activity of hGH, the gonadotropin secretion is altered. Thus, endogenously secreted hGH modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary function of adult female transgenic mice bearing the hGH gene.

  15. Distinct quasispecies characteristics and positive selection within the core gene in chronic hepatitis B virus infected child and adult patients.

    PubMed

    Haijun, Deng; Yong, Huang; Ailong, Huang; Quanxin, Long

    2015-05-01

    There are significant differences in clinical characteristics between chronic hepatitis B virus infected (CHB) child and adult patients. Viral quasispecies characteristics are associated with its pathogenic properties. For hepatitis B virus (HBV), its core region is the main immune recognition region for its enriched epitopes. In our study, we discuss the quasispecies characteristics and positive selection within core gene within chronic HBV infected child and adult patients. By analyzing 170 core gene sequences from child CHB patients and 121 core genes sequences from adult CHB patients, quasispecies characteristics were described by sequence complexity, diversity, non-synonymous substitution ratio (dN) and synonymous substitution ratios (dS). In addition, positive selection sites were also determined by bioinformatics tools. Then, all these parameters were compared between child and adult CHB patient groups. Compared with child patients, adult patients with CHB showed distinct quasispecies characteristics within the core region, had a higher sequence complexity and diversity and more positive selection sites, suggesting that the adult CHB patients had a higher immune selection pressure on the HBV core gene. Reduced selection pressure on the HBV core gene in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive CHB patients than HBeAg negative CHB patients were observed in both adult and child patient groups. The majority of the screened positive selection sites lay within human leukocyte antigens (HLA)-restricted epitopes. In conclusion, this study analyzed the quasispecies characteristics discrepancy between child and adult patients with CHB, and revealed the possible reason for the distinct clinical characteristics in the perspective of population genetics.

  16. Relationship of a variant in the NTRK1 gene to white matter microstructure in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Braskie, Meredith N; Jahanshad, Neda; Stein, Jason L; Barysheva, Marina; Johnson, Kori; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; Ringman, John M; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2012-01-01

    The NTRK1 gene (also known as TRKA) encodes a high affinity receptor for NGF, a neurotrophin involved in nervous system development and myelination. NTRK1 has been implicated in neurological function via links between the T allele at rs6336 (NTRK1-T) and schizophrenia risk. A variant in the neurotrophin gene, BDNF, was previously associated with white matter integrity in young adults, highlighting the importance of neurotrophins to white matter development. We hypothesized that NTRK1-T would relate to lower FA in healthy adults. We scanned 391 healthy adult human twins and their siblings (mean age: 23.6 ± 2.2 years; 31 NTRK1-T carriers, 360 non-carriers) using 105-gradient diffusion tensor imaging at 4 Tesla. We evaluated in brain white matter how NTRK1-T and NTRK1 rs4661063 allele A (rs4661063-A, which is in moderate linkage disequilibrium with rs6336) related to voxelwise fractional anisotropy – a common diffusion tensor imaging measure of white matter microstructure. We used mixed-model regression to control for family relatedness, age, and sex. The sample was split in half to test results reproducibility. The false discovery rate method corrected for voxelwise multiple comparisons. NTRK1-T and rs4661063-A correlated with lower white matter fractional anisotropy, independent of age and sex (multiple comparisons corrected: false discovery rate critical p = 0.038 for NTRK1-T and 0.013 for rs4661063-A). In each half-sample, the NTRK1-T effect was replicated in the cingulum, corpus callosum, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, superior corona radiata, and uncinate fasciculus. Our results suggest that NTRK1-T is important for developing white matter microstructure. PMID:22539856

  17. When do myopia genes have their effect? Comparison of genetic risks between children and adults.

    PubMed

    Tideman, J Willem L; Fan, Qiao; Polling, Jan Roelof; Guo, Xiaobo; Yazar, Seyhan; Khawaja, Anthony; Höhn, René; Lu, Yi; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Yamashiro, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Munemitsu; Gerhold-Ay, Aslihan; Nickels, Stefan; Zeller, Tanja; He, Mingguang; Boutin, Thibaud; Bencic, Goran; Vitart, Veronique; Mackey, David A; Foster, Paul J; MacGregor, Stuart; Williams, Cathy; Saw, Seang Mei; Guggenheim, Jeremy A; Klaver, Caroline C W

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies have identified many genetic loci for refractive error and myopia. We aimed to investigate the effect of these loci on ocular biometry as a function of age in children, adolescents, and adults. The study population consisted of three age groups identified from the international CREAM consortium: 5,490 individuals aged <10 years; 5,000 aged 10-25 years; and 16,274 aged >25 years. All participants had undergone standard ophthalmic examination including measurements of axial length (AL) and corneal radius (CR). We examined the lead SNP at all 39 currently known genetic loci for refractive error identified from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), as well as a combined genetic risk score (GRS). The beta coefficient for association between SNP genotype or GRS versus AL/CR was compared across the three age groups, adjusting for age, sex, and principal components. Analyses were Bonferroni-corrected. In the age group <10 years, three loci (GJD2, CHRNG, ZIC2) were associated with AL/CR. In the age group 10-25 years, four loci (BMP2, KCNQ5, A2BP1, CACNA1D) were associated; and in adults 20 loci were associated. Association with GRS increased with age; β = 0.0016 per risk allele (P = 2 × 10(-8) ) in <10 years, 0.0033 (P = 5 × 10(-15) ) in 10- to 25-year-olds, and 0.0048 (P = 1 × 10(-72) ) in adults. Genes with strongest effects (LAMA2, GJD2) had an early effect that increased with age. Our results provide insights on the age span during which myopia genes exert their effect. These insights form the basis for understanding the mechanisms underlying high and pathological myopia.

  18. Molecular mechanisms of human hemoglobin switching: selective undermethylation and expression of globin genes in embryonic, fetal, and adult erythroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Mavilio, F; Giampaolo, A; Carè, A; Migliaccio, G; Calandrini, M; Russo, G; Pagliardi, G L; Mastroberardino, G; Marinucci, M; Peschle, C

    1983-01-01

    The globin chain synthetic pattern and the extent of DNA methylation within embryonic, fetal, and adult beta-like globin gene domains were evaluated in greater than or equal to 90% purified human erythroblasts from yolk sacs and fetal livers in the 6- to 12-wk gestational period as well as from adult marrows. The 6-wk erythroblasts produce essentially embryonic epsilon chains, whereas the 12-wk erythroblasts synthesize largely fetal gamma globin and the adult marrow erythroblasts synthesize almost exclusively adult beta chains. In all phases of ontogenic development, a strong correlation exists between DNA hypomethylation in the close flanking sequences of globin genes and their expression. These results suggest that modulation of the methylation pattern may represent a key mechanism for regulating expression of human globin genes during embryonic leads to fetal and fetal leads to adult Hb switches in humans. In ontogenic development this mechanism might in turn correlate with a gradual modification of chromatin structure in the non-alpha gene cluster, thus leading to a 5' leads to 3' activation of globin genes in a balanced fashion. Images PMID:6316333

  19. Expression of five acetylcholine receptor subunit genes in Brugia malayi adult worms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ben-Wen; Rush, Amy C.; Weil, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are required for body movement in parasitic nematodes and are targets of “classical” anthelmintic drugs such as levamisole and pyrantel and of newer drugs such as tribendimidine and derquantel. While neurotransmission explains the effects of these drugs on nematode movement, their effects on parasite reproduction are unexplained. The levamisole AChR type (L-AChRs) in Caenorhabditis elegans is comprised of five subunits: Cel-UNC-29, Cel-UNC-38, Cel-UNC-63, Cel-LEV-1 and Cel-LEV-8. The genome of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi contains nine AChRs subunits including orthologues of Cel-unc-29, Cel-unc-38, and Cel-unc-63. We performed in situ hybridization with RNA probes to localize the expression of five AChR genes (Bm1_35890-Bma-unc-29, Bm1_20330-Bma-unc-38, Bm1_38195-Bma-unc-63, Bm1_48815-Bma-acr-26 and Bm1_40515-Bma-acr-12) in B. malayi adult worms. Four of these genes had similar expression patterns with signals in body muscle, developing embryos, spermatogonia, uterine wall adjacent to stretched microfilariae, wall of Vas deferens, and lateral cord. Three L-AChR subunit genes (Bma-unc-29, Bma-unc-38 and Bma-unc-63) were expressed in body muscle, which is a known target of levamisole. Bma-acr-12 was co-expressed with these levamisole subunit genes in muscle, and this suggests that its protein product may form receptors with other alpha subunits. Bma-acr-26 was expressed in male muscle but not in female muscle. Strong expression signals of these genes in early embryos and gametes in uterus and testis suggest that AChRs may have a role in nervous system development of embryogenesis and spermatogenesis. This would be consistent with embryotoxic effects of drugs that target these receptors in filarial worms. Our data show that the expression of these receptor genes is tightly regulated with regard to localization in adult worms and developmental stage in embryos and gametes. These results may help to explain the broad effects

  20. Identification of cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoter region of the rat brain creatine kinase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Hobson, G M; Molloy, G R; Benfield, P A

    1990-01-01

    The functional organization of the rat brain creatine kinase (ckb) promoter was analyzed by deletion, linker scanning, and substitution mutagenesis. Mutations were introduced into the ckb promoter of hybrid ckb/neo (neomycin resistance gene) genes, and the mutant genes were expressed transiently in HeLa cells. Expression was assayed by primer extension analysis of neo RNA, which allowed the transcription start sites and the amount of transcription to be determined. Transfections and primer extension reactions were internally controlled by simultaneous analysis of transcription from the adenovirus VA gene located on the same plasmid as the hybrid ckb/neo gene. We demonstrate that 195 bp of the ckb promoter is sufficient for efficient in vivo expression in HeLa cells. A nonconsensus TTAA element at -28 bp appears to provide the TATA box function for the ckb promoter in vivo. Two CCAAT elements, one at -84 bp and the other at -54 bp, and a TATAAA TA element (a consensus TATA box sequence) at -66 bp are required for efficient transcription from the TTAA element. In addition, we present evidence that the consensus beta-globin TATA box responds to the TATAAATA element in the same way as the ckb nonconsensus TTAA element. Images PMID:2247071

  1. Bisphenol A Exposure Is Associated with in Vivo Estrogenic Gene Expression in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, David; Harries, Lorna; Cipelli, Riccardo; Henley, William; Money, Cathryn; McCormack, Paul; Young, Anita; Guralnik, Jack; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bandinelli, Stefania; Corsi, Anna Maria

    2011-01-01

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic estrogen commonly used in polycarbonate plastic and resin-lined food and beverage containers. Exposure of animal and cell models to doses of BPA below the recommended tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 50 μg/kg/day have been shown to alter specific estrogen-responsive gene expression, but this has not previously been shown in humans. Objective: We investigated associations between BPA exposure and in vivo estrogenic gene expression in humans. Methods: We studied 96 adult men from the InCHIANTI population study and examined in vivo expression of six estrogen receptor, estrogen-related receptor, and androgen receptor genes in peripheral blood leukocytes. Results: The geometric mean urinary BPA concentration was 3.65 ng/mL [95% confidence interval (CI): 3.13, 4.28], giving an estimated mean excretion of 5.84 μg/day (95% CI: 5.00, 6.85), significantly below the current TDI. In age-adjusted models, there were positive associations between higher BPA concentrations and higher ESR2 [estrogen receptor 2 (ER beta)] expression (unstandardized linear regression coefficient = 0.1804; 95% CI: 0.0388, 0.3221; p = 0.013) and ESRRA (estrogen related receptor alpha) expression (coefficient = 0.1718; 95% CI: 0.0213, 0.3223; p = 0.026): These associations were little changed after adjusting for potential confounders, including obesity, serum lipid concentrations, and white cell subtype percentages. Upper-tertile BPA excretors (urinary BPA > 4.6 ng/mL) had 65% higher mean ESR2 expression than did lower-tertile BPA excretors (0–2.4 ng/mL). Conclusions: Because activation of nuclear-receptor–mediated pathways by BPA is consistently found in laboratory studies, such activation in humans provides evidence that BPA is likely to function as a xenoestrogen in this sample of adults. PMID:21831745

  2. A distinct regulatory region of the Bmp5 locus activates gene expression following adult bone fracture or soft tissue injury.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Catherine A; Wang, Zhen; Li, Emma; Tran, Misha C; Logan, Catriona Y; Nusse, Roel; Pantalena-Filho, Luiz; Yang, George P; Kingsley, David M

    2015-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are key signaling molecules required for normal development of bones and other tissues. Previous studies have shown that null mutations in the mouse Bmp5 gene alter the size, shape and number of multiple bone and cartilage structures during development. Bmp5 mutations also delay healing of rib fractures in adult mutants, suggesting that the same signals used to pattern embryonic bone and cartilage are also reused during skeletal regeneration and repair. Despite intense interest in BMPs as agents for stimulating bone formation in clinical applications, little is known about the regulatory elements that control developmental or injury-induced BMP expression. To compare the DNA sequences that activate gene expression during embryonic bone formation and following acute injuries in adult animals, we assayed regions surrounding the Bmp5 gene for their ability to stimulate lacZ reporter gene expression in transgenic mice. Multiple genomic fragments, distributed across the Bmp5 locus, collectively coordinate expression in discrete anatomic domains during normal development, including in embryonic ribs. In contrast, a distinct regulatory region activated expression following rib fracture in adult animals. The same injury control region triggered gene expression in mesenchymal cells following tibia fracture, in migrating keratinocytes following dorsal skin wounding, and in regenerating epithelial cells following lung injury. The Bmp5 gene thus contains an "injury response" control region that is distinct from embryonic enhancers, and that is activated by multiple types of injury in adult animals.

  3. Microarray Analysis of Cell Cycle Gene Expression in Adult Human Corneal Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ha Thi, Binh Minh; Campolmi, Nelly; He, Zhiguo; Pipparelli, Aurélien; Manissolle, Chloé; Thuret, Jean-Yves; Piselli, Simone; Forest, Fabien; Peoc'h, Michel; Garraud, Olivier; Gain, Philippe; Thuret, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Corneal endothelial cells (ECs) form a monolayer that controls the hydration of the cornea and thus its transparency. Their almost nil proliferative status in humans is responsible, in several frequent diseases, for cell pool attrition that leads to irreversible corneal clouding. To screen for candidate genes involved in cell cycle arrest, we studied human ECs subjected to various environments thought to induce different proliferative profiles compared to ECs in vivo. Donor corneas (a few hours after death), organ-cultured (OC) corneas, in vitro confluent and non-confluent primary cultures, and an immortalized EC line were compared to healthy ECs retrieved in the first minutes of corneal grafts. Transcriptional profiles were compared using a cDNA array of 112 key genes of the cell cycle and analysed using Gene Ontology classification; cluster analysis and gene map presentation of the cell cycle regulation pathway were performed by GenMAPP. Results were validated using qRT-PCR on 11 selected genes. We found several transcripts of proteins implicated in cell cycle arrest and not previously reported in human ECs. Early G1-phase arrest effectors and multiple DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest-associated transcripts were found in vivo and over-represented in OC and in vitro ECs. Though highly proliferative, immortalized ECs also exhibited overexpression of transcripts implicated in cell cycle arrest. These new effectors likely explain the stress-induced premature senescence that characterizes human adult ECs. They are potential targets for triggering and controlling EC proliferation with a view to increasing the cell pool of stored corneas or facilitating mass EC culture for bioengineered endothelial grafts. PMID:24747418

  4. Mapping Rph20: a gene conferring adult plant resistance to Puccinia hordei in barley.

    PubMed

    Hickey, L T; Lawson, W; Platz, G J; Dieters, M; Arief, V N; Germán, S; Fletcher, S; Park, R F; Singh, D; Pereyra, S; Franckowiak, J

    2011-06-01

    A doubled haploid (DH) barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) population of 334 lines (ND24260 × Flagship) genotyped with DArT markers was used to map genes for adult plant resistance (APR) to leaf rust (Puccinia hordei Otth) under field conditions in Australia and Uruguay. The Australian barley cultivar Flagship carries an APR gene (qRphFlag) derived from the cultivar Vada. Association analysis and composite interval mapping identified two genes conferring APR in this DH population. qRphFlag was mapped to the short arm of chromosome 5H (5HS), accounting for 64-85% of the phenotypic variation across four field environments and 56% under controlled environmental conditions (CEC). A second quantitative trait locus (QTL) from ND24260 (qRphND) with smaller effect was mapped to chromosome 6HL. In the absence of qRphFlag, qRphND conferred only a low level of resistance. DH lines displaying the highest level of APR carried both genes. Sequence information for the critical DArT marker bPb-0837 (positioned at 21.2 cM on chromosome 5HS) was used to develop bPb-0837-PCR, a simple PCR-based marker for qRphFlag. The 245 bp fragment for bPb-0837-PCR was detected in a range of barley cultivars known to possess APR, which was consistent with previous tests of allelism, demonstrating that the qRphFlag resistant allele is common in leaf rust resistant cultivars derived from Vada and Emir. qRphFlag has been designated Rph20, the first gene conferring APR to P. hordei to be characterised in barley. The PCR marker will likely be effective in marker-assisted selection for Rph20.

  5. Impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms in HBB gene causing haemoglobinopathies: in silico analysis.

    PubMed

    George Priya Doss, C; Rao, Sethumadhavan

    2009-04-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are being intensively studied to understand the biological basis of complex traits and diseases. Deleterious mutations of the human beta-globin gene (HBB) are responsible for beta-thalassaemia and other haemoglobinopathies, which are the most common genetic diseases of blood. Single amino acid substitutions in the globin chain are the commonest forms of haemoglobinopathy. Although many haemoglobinopathies present similar structural abnormal points, their functions sometimes are different. Here, using computational methods, we analysed the genetic variations that can alter the expression and function of the HBB gene. We applied an evolutionary perspective to screen the SNPs using a sequence homology-based SIFT tool, which suggested that 210 (90%) non-synonymous (ns)SNPs were found to be deleterious. The structure-based approach PolyPhen server suggested that 134 (57%) nsSNPS may disrupt protein function and structure. The PupaSuite tool predicted the phenotypic effect of SNPs on the structure and function of the affected protein. Structure analysis was carried out with the major mutation that occurred in the native protein coded by the HBB gene in HbC, HbD, HbE and HbS. The amino acid residues in the native and mutant modelled protein were further analysed for solvent accessibility, and secondary structure to check the stability of the proteins. The functional analysis presented here may be a good model for further research.

  6. Genes involved in thoracic exoskeleton formation during the pupal-to-adult molt in a social insect model, Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The insect exoskeleton provides shape, waterproofing, and locomotion via attached somatic muscles. The exoskeleton is renewed during molting, a process regulated by ecdysteroid hormones. The holometabolous pupa transforms into an adult during the imaginal molt, when the epidermis synthe3sizes the definitive exoskeleton that then differentiates progressively. An important issue in insect development concerns how the exoskeletal regions are constructed to provide their morphological, physiological and mechanical functions. We used whole-genome oligonucleotide microarrays to screen for genes involved in exoskeletal formation in the honeybee thoracic dorsum. Our analysis included three sampling times during the pupal-to-adult molt, i.e., before, during and after the ecdysteroid-induced apolysis that triggers synthesis of the adult exoskeleton. Results Gene ontology annotation based on orthologous relationships with Drosophila melanogaster genes placed the honeybee differentially expressed genes (DEGs) into distinct categories of Biological Process and Molecular Function, depending on developmental time, revealing the functional elements required for adult exoskeleton formation. Of the 1,253 unique DEGs, 547 were upregulated in the thoracic dorsum after apolysis, suggesting induction by the ecdysteroid pulse. The upregulated gene set included 20 of the 47 cuticular protein (CP) genes that were previously identified in the honeybee genome, and three novel putative CP genes that do not belong to a known CP family. In situ hybridization showed that two of the novel genes were abundantly expressed in the epidermis during adult exoskeleton formation, strongly implicating them as genuine CP genes. Conserved sequence motifs identified the CP genes as members of the CPR, Tweedle, Apidermin, CPF, CPLCP1 and Analogous-to-Peritrophins families. Furthermore, 28 of the 36 muscle-related DEGs were upregulated during the de novo formation of striated fibers attached to the

  7. Gene-environment interplay in Drosophila melanogaster: chronic nutritional deprivation in larval life affects adult fecal output.

    PubMed

    Urquhart-Cronish, Mackenzie; Sokolowski, Marla B

    2014-10-01

    Life history consequences of stress in early life are varied and known to have lasting impacts on the fitness of an organism. Gene-environment interactions play a large role in how phenotypic differences are mediated by stressful conditions during development. Here we use natural allelic 'rover/sitter' variants of the foraging (for) gene and chronic early life nutrient deprivation to investigate gene-environment interactions on excretion phenotypes. Excretion assay analysis and a fully factorial nutritional regimen encompassing the larval and adult life cycle of Drosophila melanogaster were used to assess the effects of larval and adult nutritional stress on adult excretion phenotypes. Natural allelic variants of for exhibited differences in the number of fecal spots when they were nutritionally deprived as larvae and well fed as adults. for mediates the excretion response to chronic early-life nutritional stress in mated female, virgin female, and male rovers and sitters. Transgenic manipulations of for in a sitter genetic background under larval but not adult food deprivation increases the number of fecal spots. Our study shows that food deprivation early in life affects adult excretion phenotypes and these excretion differences are mediated by for.

  8. Associations of PER3 and RORA Circadian Gene Polymorphisms and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Maglione, Jeanne E.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Parimi, Neeta; Evans, Daniel S.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Stone, Katie L.; Yaffe, Kristine; Redline, Susan; Tranah, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Depressive symptoms are common in older adults and associated with poor outcomes. While circadian genes have been implicated in depression, the relationship between circadian genes and depressive symptoms in older adults is unclear. Methods A cross-sectional genetic association study of 529 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) representing 30 candidate circadian genes was performed in two population-based cohorts: Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS, n=1270, age 76.58±5.61 years) and the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) in women (n=1740, 84.05±3.53 years) and a meta-analysis was performed. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale categorizing participants as having “none-few symptoms” (0-2), “some depressive symptoms” (>2<6), or “many depressive symptoms” (≥6). Results We found associations meeting multiple testing criteria for significance between the PER3 intronic SNP rs12137927 and decreased odds of reporting “some depressive symptoms” in the SOF sample (OR 0.61, CI 0.48-0.78, df=1, Wald chi-square −4.04, p=0.000054) and the meta-analysis (OR 0.61, CI 0.48-0.78, z= −4.04, p=0.000054) and between the PER3 intronic SNPs rs228644 (OR 0.74, CI 0.63-0.86, z= 3.82, p-value=0.00013) and rs228682 (OR 0.74, CI 0.86 0.63, z= 3.81, p-value=0.00014) and decreased odds of reporting “some depressive symptoms” in the meta-analysis compared to endorsing none-few depressive symptoms. The RORA intronic SNP rs11632098 was associated with greater odds of reporting “many depressive symptoms” (OR 2.16, CI 1.45-3.23, df=1, Wald chi-square 3.76, p=0.000168) in the men. In the meta analysis the association was attenuated and nominally significant (OR 1.63, CI 1.24-2.16, z=3.45, p=0.00056). Conclusions PER3 and RORA may play important roles in the development of depressive symptoms in older adults. PMID:25892098

  9. Impact of Huntington Disease Gene-Positive Status on Pre-Symptomatic Young Adults and Recommendations for Genetic Counselors.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ping; Fanos, Joanna H; Korty, Lauren; Siskind, Carly E; Hanson-Kahn, Andrea K

    2016-12-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which there is no cure. Predictive testing for HD is available to asymptomatic at-risk individuals. Approximately half of the population undergoing predictive testing for HD consists of young adults (≤35 years old). Finishing one's education, starting a career, engaging in romantic relationships and becoming a parent are key milestones of young adulthood. We conducted a qualitative study to explore how testing gene-positive for HD influences young adults' attainment of these milestones, and to identify major challenges that pre-symptomatic young adults face to aid the development of targeted genetic counseling. Results of our study demonstrate that 1) knowing one's gene-positive status results in an urgency to reach milestones and positively changes young adults' approach to life; 2) testing positive influences young adults' education and career choices, romantic relationships, and family planning; 3) young adults desire flexible and tailored genetic counseling to address needs and concerns unique to this population. Findings of this study contribute to the understanding of the impact of predictive testing for HD on young adults, and highlight issues unique to this population that call for further research, intervention and advocacy.

  10. DAT1 and DRD4 genes involved in key dimensions of adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Hasler, R; Salzmann, A; Bolzan, T; Zimmermann, J; Baud, P; Giannakopoulos, P; Perroud, N

    2015-06-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder often persisting in adulthood. Genetic studies of ADHD mainly focused on the Dopamine Transporter (DAT1) and the Dopamine Receptor 4 (DRD4) genes. Nevertheless, polymorphisms of these genes explain only a small fraction of the assigned risk, suggesting that intermediate dimensions and environmental factors should also be considered. We investigated in 77 adult ADHD subjects compared to 474 controls, how polymorphisms within the genes coding for DAT1 (40-bp VNTR in 3'UTR), the Dopamine Receptor 2 (DRD2) (rs1799732) and DRD4 (48-bp VNTR in exon 3), may modulate the expression of the disorder. By genotyping DAT1, we detected a new 9.5R allele showing a deletion of 40 bp and also an insertion of 19 bp compared to the 10R allele. This novel allele was found to be significantly protective for ADHD (p < 0.0001). Another significant difference was found in the distribution of DRD4 48-bp VNTR 6R allele when comparing patients and controls (p = 0.0007). In addition significant results were also found for DAT1 9.5R allele, which was associated with impulsiveness (p = 1.98 × 10(-4)) and trait anger scores (p = 7.66 × 10(-4)). Moreover, impulsiveness scores were partly modulated by an interaction between the DRD4 48-bp VNTR 6R allele and childhood maltreatment (p = 0.01), however, this result did not resist correction for multiple comparisons. Altogether, our results show the putative involvement of DAT1 and DRD4 genes in the aetiology of ADHD with a main role in modulation of key dimensions of the disorder.

  11. Thermal nociception in adult Drosophila: behavioral characterization and the role of the painless gene.

    PubMed

    Xu, S Y; Cang, C L; Liu, X F; Peng, Y Q; Ye, Y Z; Zhao, Z Q; Guo, A K

    2006-11-01

    Nociception, warning of injury that should be avoided, serves an important protective function in animals. In this study, we show that adult Drosophila avoids noxious heat by a jump response. To quantitatively analyze this nociceptive behavior, we developed two assays. In the CO2 laser beam assay, flies exhibit this behavior when a laser beam heats their abdomens. The consistency of the jump latency in this assay meets an important criterion for a good nociceptive assay. In the hot plate assay, flies jump quickly to escape from a hot copper plate (>45 degrees C). Our results demonstrate that, as in mammals, the latency of the jump response is inversely related to stimulus intensity, and innoxious thermosensation does not elicit this nociceptive behavior. To explore the genetic mechanisms of nociception, we examined several mutants in both assays. Abnormal nociceptive behavior of a mutant, painless, indicates that painless, a gene essential for nociception in Drosophila larvae, is also required for thermal nociception in adult flies. painless is expressed in certain neurons of the peripheral nervous system and thoracic ganglia, as well as in the definite brain structures, the mushroom bodies. However, chemical or genetic insults to the mushroom bodies do not influence the nociceptive behavior, suggesting that different painless-expressing neurons play diverse roles in thermal nociception. Additionally, no-bridge(KS49), a mutant that has a structural defect in the protocerebral bridge, shows defective response to noxious heat. Thus, our results validate adult Drosophila as a useful model to study the genetic mechanisms of thermal nociception.

  12. Association of SNAP-25 Gene Ddel and Mnll Polymorphisms with Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Herken, Hasan; Erdal, Mehmet Emin; Ünal, Gonca Ayşe; Çakaloz, Burcu; Ay, Mustafa Ertan; Yücel, Erinç; Edgünlü, Tuba; Şengül, Cem

    2014-01-01

    Objective The synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) gene is a presynaptic plasma membrane protein and an integral component of the vesicle docking and fusion machinery mediating secretion of neurotransmitters. Previously, several studies reported association between SNAP-25 and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We investigated whether these SNAP-25 polymorphisms (MnlI T/G and DdelI T/C) were also associated with ADHD in the Turkish population. Methods Our study comprised unrelated 139 subjects who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and 73 controls and all were of Turkish origin. Genetic analyses were performed and patients were evaluated with Wender-Utah Rating Scale and Adult ADD/ADHD DSM IV-Based Diagnostic Screening and Rating Scale. Results SNAP-25 DdelI polymorphism was not associated with ADHD but there was a statistically significant difference between ADHD patients and controls for SNAP-25 MnlI polymorphism. For SNAP-25 MnlI polymorphism patients with G/G genotype of the SNAP-25 gene MnlI polymorphism had higher Wender-Utah scores and higher scores in the 1st and 3rd parts of adult ADD/ADHD Scale. Conclusion We detected a significant association of the MnlI polymorphism in our ADHD sample which was similar to previous findings. Our study also revealed that SNAP-25 MnlI polymorphism was also associated with symptom severity of ADHD. This study is also, the first report on the association of SNAP-25 with ADHD in the Turkish population. PMID:25395980

  13. An enhancer trap screen for ecdysone-inducible genes required for Drosophila adult leg morphogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Gates, J; Thummel, C S

    2000-01-01

    Although extensive studies of Drosophila imaginal disc development have focused on proliferation and patterning, relatively little is known about how the patterned imaginal discs are transformed into adult structures during metamorphosis. Studies focused primarily on leg development have shown that this remarkable transformation is coordinated by pulses of the steroid hormone ecdysone and requires the function of ecdysone-inducible transcription factors as well as proteases and components of the contractile cytoskeleton and adherens junctions. Here, we describe a genetic screen aimed at expanding our understanding of the hormonal regulation of Drosophila adult leg morphogenesis. We screened 1300 lethal P-element enhancer trap insertions on the second chromosome for a series of sequential parameters including pupal lethality, defects in leg morphogenesis, and ecdysone-induced lacZ reporter gene expression. From this screen we identified four mutations, one of which corresponds to bancal, which encodes the Drosophila homolog of hnRNP K. We also identified vulcan, which encodes a protein that shares sequence similarity with a family of rat SAPAP proteins. Both bancal and vulcan are inducible by ecdysone, thus linking the hormone signal with leg morphogenesis. This screen provides new directions for understanding the hormonal regulation of leg development during Drosophila metamorphosis. PMID:11102372

  14. A Comparison of the Olfactory Gene Repertoires of Adults and Larvae in the Noctuid Moth Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Poivet, Erwan; Gallot, Aurore; Montagné, Nicolas; Glaser, Nicolas; Legeai, Fabrice; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the olfactory mechanisms in a lepidopteran pest model species, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, we have recently established a partial transcriptome from adult antennae. Here, we completed this transcriptome using next generation sequencing technologies, namely 454 and Illumina, on both adult antennae and larval tissues, including caterpillar antennae and maxillary palps. All sequences were assembled in 77,643 contigs. Their analysis greatly enriched the repertoire of chemosensory genes in this species, with a total of 57 candidate odorant-binding and chemosensory proteins, 47 olfactory receptors, 6 gustatory receptors and 17 ionotropic receptors. Using RT-PCR, we conducted the first exhaustive comparison of olfactory gene expression between larvae and adults in a lepidopteran species. All the 127 candidate olfactory genes were profiled for expression in male and female adult antennae and in caterpillar antennae and maxillary palps. We found that caterpillars expressed a smaller set of olfactory genes than adults, with a large overlap between these two developmental stages. Two binding proteins appeared to be larvae-specific and two others were adult-specific. Interestingly, comparison between caterpillar antennae and maxillary palps revealed numerous organ-specific transcripts, suggesting the complementary involvement of these two organs in larval chemosensory detection. Adult males and females shared the same set of olfactory transcripts, except two male-specific candidate pheromone receptors, two male-specific and two female-specific odorant-binding proteins. This study identified transcripts that may be important for sex-specific or developmental stage-specific chemosensory behaviors. PMID:23565215

  15. RNAi-Mediated Functional Analysis of Bursicon Genes Related to Adult Cuticle Formation and Tanning in the Honeybee, Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Elias-Neto, Moysés; Falcon, Tiago; Dallacqua, Rodrigo Pires; Martins, Juliana Ramos; Bitondi, Marcia Maria Gentile

    2016-01-01

    Bursicon is a heterodimeric neurohormone that acts through a G protein-coupled receptor named rickets (rk), thus inducing an increase in cAMP and the activation of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the cuticular tanning pathway. In insects, the role of bursicon in the post-ecdysial tanning of the adult cuticle and wing expansion is well characterized. Here we investigated the roles of the genes encoding the bursicon subunits during the adult cuticle development in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. RNAi-mediated knockdown of AmBurs α and AmBurs β bursicon genes prevented the complete formation and tanning (melanization/sclerotization) of the adult cuticle. A thinner, much less tanned cuticle was produced, and ecdysis toward adult stage was impaired. Consistent with these results, the knockdown of bursicon transcripts also interfered in the expression of genes encoding its receptor, AmRk, structural cuticular proteins, and enzymes in the melanization/sclerotization pathway, thus evidencing roles for bursicon in adult cuticle formation and tanning. Moreover, the expression of AmBurs α, AmBurs β and AmRk is contingent on the declining ecdysteroid titer that triggers the onset of adult cuticle synthesis and deposition. The search for transcripts of AmBurs α, AmBurs β and candidate targets in RNA-seq libraries prepared with brains and integuments strengthened our data on transcript quantification through RT-qPCR. Together, our results support our premise that bursicon has roles in adult cuticle formation and tanning, and are in agreement with other recent studies pointing for roles during the pharate-adult stage, in addition to the classical post-ecdysial ones. PMID:27907116

  16. RNAi-Mediated Functional Analysis of Bursicon Genes Related to Adult Cuticle Formation and Tanning in the Honeybee, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Costa, Claudinéia Pereira; Elias-Neto, Moysés; Falcon, Tiago; Dallacqua, Rodrigo Pires; Martins, Juliana Ramos; Bitondi, Marcia Maria Gentile

    2016-01-01

    Bursicon is a heterodimeric neurohormone that acts through a G protein-coupled receptor named rickets (rk), thus inducing an increase in cAMP and the activation of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the cuticular tanning pathway. In insects, the role of bursicon in the post-ecdysial tanning of the adult cuticle and wing expansion is well characterized. Here we investigated the roles of the genes encoding the bursicon subunits during the adult cuticle development in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. RNAi-mediated knockdown of AmBurs α and AmBurs β bursicon genes prevented the complete formation and tanning (melanization/sclerotization) of the adult cuticle. A thinner, much less tanned cuticle was produced, and ecdysis toward adult stage was impaired. Consistent with these results, the knockdown of bursicon transcripts also interfered in the expression of genes encoding its receptor, AmRk, structural cuticular proteins, and enzymes in the melanization/sclerotization pathway, thus evidencing roles for bursicon in adult cuticle formation and tanning. Moreover, the expression of AmBurs α, AmBurs β and AmRk is contingent on the declining ecdysteroid titer that triggers the onset of adult cuticle synthesis and deposition. The search for transcripts of AmBurs α, AmBurs β and candidate targets in RNA-seq libraries prepared with brains and integuments strengthened our data on transcript quantification through RT-qPCR. Together, our results support our premise that bursicon has roles in adult cuticle formation and tanning, and are in agreement with other recent studies pointing for roles during the pharate-adult stage, in addition to the classical post-ecdysial ones.

  17. Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors mediate efficient gene transduction in cultured neonatal and adult microglia.

    PubMed

    Su, Wei; Kang, John; Sopher, Bryce; Gillespie, James; Aloi, Macarena S; Odom, Guy L; Hopkins, Stephanie; Case, Amanda; Wang, David B; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S; Garden, Gwenn A

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are a specialized population of myeloid cells that mediate CNS innate immune responses. Efforts to identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate microglia behaviors have been hampered by the lack of effective tools for manipulating gene expression. Cultured microglia are refractory to most chemical and electrical transfection methods, yielding little or no gene delivery and causing toxicity and/or inflammatory activation. Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAVs) vectors are non-enveloped, single-stranded DNA vectors commonly used to transduce many primary cell types and tissues. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility and efficiency of utilizing rAAV serotype 2 (rAAV2) to modulate gene expression in cultured microglia. rAAV2 yields high transduction and causes minimal toxicity or inflammatory response in both neonatal and adult microglia. To demonstrate that rAAV transduction can induce functional protein expression, we used rAAV2 expressing Cre recombinase to successfully excise a LoxP-flanked miR155 gene in cultured microglia. We further evaluated rAAV serotypes 5, 6, 8, and 9, and observed that all efficiently transduced cultured microglia to varying degrees of success and caused little or no alteration in inflammatory gene expression. These results provide strong encouragement for the application of rAAV-mediated gene expression in microglia for mechanistic and therapeutic purposes. Neonatal microglia are functionally distinct from adult microglia, although the majority of in vitro studies utilize rodent neonatal microglia cultures because of difficulties of culturing adult cells. In addition, cultured microglia are refractory to most methods for modifying gene expression. Here, we developed a novel protocol for culturing adult microglia and evaluated the feasibility and efficiency of utilizing Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus (rAAV) to modulate gene expression in cultured microglia.

  18. Effects of tamoxifen on autosomal genes regulating ovary maintenance in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mingxi; Liu, Wei; Wang, Jingyun; Qin, Junwen; Wang, Yongan; Wang, Yu

    2015-12-01

    Environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), known to bind to estrogen/androgen receptors and mimic native estrogens, have been implicated as a main source for increasing human reproductive and developmental deficiencies and diseases. Tamoxifen (TAM) is one of the most well-known antiestrogens with defined adverse effects on the female reproductive tract, but the mechanisms related to autosomal gene regulation governing ovary maintenance in mammals remain unclear. The expression pattern and levels of key genes and proteins involved in maintaining the ovarian phenotype in mice were analyzed. The results showed that TAM induced significant upregulation of Sox9, which is the testis-determining factor gene. The results showed that TAM induced significant upregulation of Sox9, the testis-determining factor gene, and the expression level of Sox9 mRNA in the ovaries of mice exposed to 75 or 225 mg/kg bw TAM was 2- and 10-fold that in the control group, respectively (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the testicular fibroblast growth factor gene, Fgf9, was also elevated in TAM-treated ovaries. Accordingly, expression of the ovary development marker, forkhead transcription factor (FOXL2), and WNT4/FST signaling, were depressed. The levels of protein expression changed consistently with the target genes. Moreover, the detection of platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1) in TAM-treated ovaries suggested the formation of vascular endothelial cells, which is a further evidence for the differentiation of the ovaries to a testis-like phenotype. During this period, the level of 17β-estradiol, progesterone, and luteinizing hormone decreased, while that of testosterone increased by 3.3-fold (p = 0.013). The activation of a testis-specific molecular signaling cascade was a potentially important mechanism contributing to the gender disorder induced by TAM, which resulted in the differentiation of the ovaries to a testis-like phenotype in adult mice. Limited with

  19. Self administration of oxycodone alters synaptic plasticity gene expression in the hippocampus differentially in male adolescent and adult mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Brownstein, A J; Buonora, M; Niikura, K; Ho, A; Correa da Rosa, J; Kreek, M J; Ott, J

    2015-01-29

    Abuse and addiction to prescription opioids such as oxycodone (a short-acting Mu opioid receptor (MOP-r) agonist) in adolescence is a pressing public health issue. We have previously shown differences in oxycodone self-administration behaviors between adolescent and adult C57BL/6J mice and expression of striatal neurotransmitter receptor genes, in areas involved in reward. In this study, we aimed to determine whether oxycodone self-administration differentially affects genes regulating synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus of adolescent compared to adult mice, since the hippocampus may be involved in learning aspects associated with chronic drug self administration. Hippocampus was isolated for mRNA analysis from mice that had self administered oxycodone (0.25 mg/kg/infusion) 2h/day for 14 consecutive days or from yoked saline controls. Gene expression was analyzed with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a commercially available "synaptic plasticity" PCR array containing 84 genes. We found that adolescent and adult control mice significantly differed in the expression of several genes in the absence of oxycodone exposure, including those coding for mitogen-activated protein kinase, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma subunit, glutamate receptor, ionotropic AMPA2 and metabotropic 5. Chronic oxycodone self administration increased proviral integration site 1 (Pim1) and thymoma viral proto-oncogene 1 mRNA levels compared to controls in both age groups. Both Pim1 and cadherin 2 mRNAs showed a significant combined effect of Drug Condition and Age × Drug Condition. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of both cadherin 2 and cAMP response element modulators showed an experiment-wise significant difference between oxycodone and saline control in adult but not in adolescent mice. Overall, this study demonstrates for the first time that chronic oxycodone self-administration differentially alters synaptic plasticity gene expression in the hippocampus

  20. Beta-thalassemia genes in French-Canadians: haplotype and mutation analysis of Portneuf chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, F; Kokotsis, G; DeBraekeleer, M; Morgan, K; Scriver, C R

    1990-01-01

    beta-Thalassemia minor occurs at approximately 1% frequency in French-Canadians--in families residing in Portneuf County (population approximately 40,000) of Quebec province. We found eight different RFLP haplotypes at the beta-globin gene cluster in 37 normal persons and in 12 beta-thalassemia heterozygotes from six families. beta-Thalassemia genes in these families associated with two haplotypes only: Mediterranean I and Mediterranean II. There were two different beta-thalassemia mutations segregating in the Portneuf population: an RNA processing mutation (beta(+)IVS-1,nt110) on haplotype I (five families) and a point mutation leading to chain termination (beta(0) nonsense codon 39) on haplotype II (one family). The distribution of 5' haplotypes on normal beta A Portneuf chromosomes compared with other European populations was most similar to that in British subjects (data for French subjects have not yet been reported). Genealogical reconstructions traced the ancestry of carrier couples to settlers emigrating from several different regions of France to New France in the 17th century. These findings indicate genetic diversity of a greater degree among French-Canadians than recognized heretofore. Images Figure 4 PMID:1967205

  1. Beta-thalassemia genes in French-Canadians: haplotype and mutation analysis of Portneuf chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, F; Kokotsis, G; DeBraekeleer, M; Morgan, K; Scriver, C R

    1990-01-01

    beta-Thalassemia minor occurs at approximately 1% frequency in French-Canadians--in families residing in Portneuf County (population approximately 40,000) of Quebec province. We found eight different RFLP haplotypes at the beta-globin gene cluster in 37 normal persons and in 12 beta-thalassemia heterozygotes from six families. beta-Thalassemia genes in these families associated with two haplotypes only: Mediterranean I and Mediterranean II. There were two different beta-thalassemia mutations segregating in the Portneuf population: an RNA processing mutation (beta(+)IVS-1,nt110) on haplotype I (five families) and a point mutation leading to chain termination (beta(0) nonsense codon 39) on haplotype II (one family). The distribution of 5' haplotypes on normal beta A Portneuf chromosomes compared with other European populations was most similar to that in British subjects (data for French subjects have not yet been reported). Genealogical reconstructions traced the ancestry of carrier couples to settlers emigrating from several different regions of France to New France in the 17th century. These findings indicate genetic diversity of a greater degree among French-Canadians than recognized heretofore.

  2. The Mouse Murr1 Gene Is Imprinted in the Adult Brain, Presumably Due to Transcriptional Interference by the Antisense-Oriented U2af1-rs1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Youdong; Joh, Keiichiro; Masuko, Sadahiko; Yatsuki, Hitomi; Soejima, Hidenobu; Nabetani, Akira; Beechey, Colin V.; Okinami, Satoshi; Mukai, Tsunehiro

    2004-01-01

    The mouse Murr1 gene contains an imprinted gene, U2af1-rs1, in its first intron. U2af1-rs1 shows paternal allele-specific expression and is transcribed in the direction opposite to that of the Murr1 gene. In contrast to a previous report of biallelic expression of Murr1 in neonatal mice, we have found that the maternal allele is expressed predominantly in the adult brain and also preferentially in other adult tissues. This maternal-predominant expression is not observed in embryonic and neonatal brains. In situ hybridization experiments that used the adult brain indicated that Murr1 gene was maternally expressed in neuronal cells in all regions of the brain. We analyzed the developmental change in the expression levels of both Murr1 and U2af1-rs1 in the brain and liver, and we propose that the maternal-predominant expression of Murr1 results from transcriptional interference of the gene by U2af1-rs1 through the Murr1 promoter region. PMID:14673161

  3. DNA Methylation Changes in the IGF1R Gene in Birth Weight Discordant Adult Monozygotic Twins.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-Chien; Van Dongen, Jenny; Tan, Qihua; Willemsen, Gonneke; Christiansen, Lene; Boomsma, Dorret I; Spector, Tim D; Valdes, Ana M; Bell, Jordana T

    2015-12-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) can have an impact on health outcomes in later life, especially in relation to pre-disposition to metabolic disease. Several studies suggest that LBW resulting from restricted intrauterine growth leaves a footprint on DNA methylation in utero, and this influence likely persists into adulthood. To investigate this further, we performed epigenome-wide association analyses of blood DNA methylation using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip profiles in 71 adult monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs who were extremely discordant for birth weight. A signal mapping to the IGF1R gene (cg12562232, p = 2.62 × 10(-8)), was significantly associated with birth weight discordance at a genome-wide false-discovery rate (FDR) of 0.05. We pursued replication in three additional independent datasets of birth weight discordant MZ pairs and observed the same direction of association, but the results were not significant. However, a meta-analysis across the four independent samples, in total 216 birth-weight discordant MZ twin pairs, showed a significant positive association between birth weight and DNA methylation differences at IGF1R (random-effects meta-analysis p = .04), and the effect was particularly pronounced in older twins (random-effects meta-analysis p = .008, 98 older birth-weight discordant MZ twin pairs). The results suggest that severe intra-uterine growth differences (birth weight discordance >20%) are associated with methylation changes in the IGF1R gene in adulthood, independent of genetic effects.

  4. Cre-dependent selection yields AAV variants for widespread gene transfer to the adult brain.

    PubMed

    Deverman, Benjamin E; Pravdo, Piers L; Simpson, Bryan P; Kumar, Sripriya Ravindra; Chan, Ken Y; Banerjee, Abhik; Wu, Wei-Li; Yang, Bin; Huber, Nina; Pasca, Sergiu P; Gradinaru, Viviana

    2016-02-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) are commonly used vehicles for in vivo gene transfer. However, the tropism repertoire of naturally occurring AAVs is limited, prompting a search for novel AAV capsids with desired characteristics. Here we describe a capsid selection method, called Cre recombination-based AAV targeted evolution (CREATE), that enables the development of AAV capsids that more efficiently transduce defined Cre-expressing cell populations in vivo. We use CREATE to generate AAV variants that efficiently and widely transduce the adult mouse central nervous system (CNS) after intravenous injection. One variant, AAV-PHP.B, transfers genes throughout the CNS with an efficiency that is at least 40-fold greater than that of the current standard, AAV9 (refs. 14,15,16,17), and transduces the majority of astrocytes and neurons across multiple CNS regions. In vitro, it transduces human neurons and astrocytes more efficiently than does AAV9, demonstrating the potential of CREATE to produce customized AAV vectors for biomedical applications.

  5. Do SNPs of DRD4 gene predict adult persistence of ADHD in a Chinese sample?

    PubMed

    Li, Yueling; Baker-Ericzen, Mary; Ji, Ning; Chang, Weili; Guan, Lili; Qian, Qiujin; Zhang, Yujuan; Faraone, Stephen V; Wang, Yufeng

    2013-01-30

    The dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene has been frequently studied in relation to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) but little is known about the contribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the DRD4 gene to the development and persistence of ADHD. In the present study, we examined the association between two SNPs in DRD4 (rs1800955, rs916455) and adult ADHD persistence in a Chinese sample. Subjects (n=193) were diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and reassessed in young adulthood at an affiliated clinic of Peking University Sixth Hospital. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and Cox proportional hazard models were used to test the association between ADHD remission and alleles of the two SNPs. DRD4 rs916455 C allele carriers were more likely to have persistent ADHD symptoms in adulthood. No significant association was found between rs1800955 allele and the course of ADHD. These newly detected associations between DRD4 polymorphisms and ADHD prognosis in adulthood may help to predict the persistence of childhood ADHD into adulthood.

  6. An RbAp48-like gene regulates adult stem cells in planarians.

    PubMed

    Bonuccelli, Lucia; Rossi, Leonardo; Lena, Annalisa; Scarcelli, Vittoria; Rainaldi, Giuseppe; Evangelista, Monica; Iacopetti, Paola; Gremigni, Vittorio; Salvetti, Alessandra

    2010-03-01

    Retinoblastoma-associated proteins 46 and 48 (RbAp46 and RbAp48) are factors that are components of different chromatin-modelling complexes, such as polycomb repressive complex 2, the activity of which is related to epigenetic gene regulation in stem cells. To date, no direct findings are available on the in vivo role of RbAp48 in stem-cell biology. We recently identified DjRbAp48 - a planarian (Dugesia japonica) homologue of human RBAP48 - expression of which is restricted to the neoblasts, the adult stem cells of planarians. In vivo silencing of DjRbAp48 induces lethality and inability to regenerate, even though neoblasts proliferate and accumulate after wounding. Despite a partial reduction in neoblast number, we were always able to detect a significant number of these cells in DjRbAp48 RNAi animals. Parallel to the decrease in neoblasts, a reduction in the number of differentiated cells and the presence of apoptotic-like neoblasts were detectable in RNAi animals. These findings suggest that DjRbAp48 is not involved in neoblast maintenance, but rather in the regulation of differentiation of stem-cell progeny. We discuss our data, taking into account the possibility that DjRbAp48 might control the expression of genes necessary for cell differentiation by influencing chromatin architecture.

  7. Origin of leaf rust adult plant resistance gene Rph20 in barley.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Lee T; Lawson, Wendy; Platz, Greg J; Dieters, Mark; Franckowiak, Jerome

    2012-05-01

    Rph20 is the only reported, simply inherited gene conferring moderate to high levels of adult plant resistance (APR) to leaf rust (Puccinia hordei Otth) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Key parental genotypes were examined to determine the origin of Rph20 in two-rowed barley. The Dutch cultivar 'Vada' (released in the 1950s) and parents, 'Hordeum laevigatum' and 'Gull' ('Gold'), along with the related cultivar 'Emir' (a derivative of 'Delta'), were assessed for APR to P. hordei in a disease screening nursery. The marker bPb-0837-PCR, co-located with Rph20 on the short arm of chromosome 5H (5HS), was used to screen genotypes for the resistance allele, Rph20.ai. Results from phenotypic assessment and DNA analysis confirmed that Rph20 originated from the landrace 'H. laevigatum' (i.e., Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare). Tracing back this gene through the pedigrees of two-rowed barley cultivars, indicated that Rph20 has contributed APR to P. hordei for more than 60 years. Although there have been no reports of an Rph20-virulent pathotype, the search for alternative sources of APR should continue to avoid widespread reliance upon a single resistance factor.

  8. Transcriptome Analysis and Identification of Differentially Expressed Transcripts of Immune-Related Genes in Spleen of Gosling and Adult Goose.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anqi; Liu, Fei; Chen, Shun; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Sun, Kunfeng; Wu, Ying; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2015-09-22

    The goose (Anser cygnoides), having high nutritional value, high-quality feathers and high economic benefit, is an economically important poultry species. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the higher susceptibility to pathogens in goslings than in adult geese remains poorly understood. In this study, the histological sections of spleen tissue from a two-week-old gosling and an adult goose, respectively, were subjected to comparative analysis. The spleen of gosling was mainly composed of mesenchyma, accompanied by scattered lymphocytes, whereas the spleen parenchyma was well developed in the adult goose. To investigate goose immune-related genes, we performed deep transcriptome and gene expression analyses of the spleen samples using paired-end sequencing technology (Illumina). In total, 50,390 unigenes were assembled using Trinity software and TGICL software. Moreover, these assembled unigenes were annotated with gene descriptions and gene ontology (GO) analysis was performed. Through Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) analysis, we investigated 558 important immune-relevant unigenes and 23 predicted cytokines. In addition, 22 immune-related genes with differential expression between gosling and adult goose were identified, among which the three genes showing largest differences in expression were immunoglobulin alpha heavy chain (IgH), mannan-binding lectin serine protease 1 isoform X1 (MASP1) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4). Finally, of these 22 differentially expressed immune-related genes, seven genes, including tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 13B (TNFRSF13B), C-C motif chemokine 4-like (CCL4), CXCR4, interleukin 2 receptor alpha (IL2RA), MHC class I heavy chain (MHCIα), transporter of antigen processing 2 (TAP2) IgH, were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The expression levels of all the candidate unigenes were up-regulated in adult geese other than that of TNFRSF13B. The comparative

  9. Gene-environment interplay in Drosophila melanogaster: chronic food deprivation in early life affects adult exploratory and fitness traits.

    PubMed

    Burns, James Geoffrey; Svetec, Nicolas; Rowe, Locke; Mery, Frederic; Dolan, Michael J; Boyce, W Thomas; Sokolowski, Marla B

    2012-10-16

    Early life adversity has known impacts on adult health and behavior, yet little is known about the gene-environment interactions (GEIs) that underlie these consequences. We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to show that chronic early nutritional adversity interacts with rover and sitter allelic variants of foraging (for) to affect adult exploratory behavior, a phenotype that is critical for foraging, and reproductive fitness. Chronic nutritional adversity during adulthood did not affect rover or sitter adult exploratory behavior; however, early nutritional adversity in the larval period increased sitter but not rover adult exploratory behavior. Increasing for gene expression in the mushroom bodies, an important center of integration in the fly brain, changed the amount of exploratory behavior exhibited by sitter adults when they did not experience early nutritional adversity but had no effect in sitters that experienced early nutritional adversity. Manipulation of the larval nutritional environment also affected adult reproductive output of sitters but not rovers, indicating GEIs on fitness itself. The natural for variants are an excellent model to examine how GEIs underlie the biological embedding of early experience.

  10. Loss of function of the yellow-e gene causes dehydration-induced mortality of adult Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Noh, Mi Young; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Beeman, Richard W; Kanost, Michael R; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2015-03-15

    Yellow protein (dopachrome conversion enzyme, DCE) is involved in the melanin biosynthetic pathway that significantly accelerates pigmentation reactions in insects. Recent studies have suggested that the insect yellow genes represent a rapidly evolving gene family generating functionally diverse paralogs, but the exact physiological functions of several yellow genes are still not understood. To study the function(s) of one of the yellow genes, yellow-e (TcY-e), in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, we performed real-time PCR to analyze its developmental and tissue-specific expression, and utilized immunohistochemistry to identify the localization of the TcY-e protein in adult cuticle. Injection of double-stranded RNA for TcY-e (dsTcY-e) into late instar larvae had no effect on larval-pupal molting or pupal development. The pupal cuticle, including that lining the setae, gin traps and urogomphi, underwent normal tanning. Adult cuticle tanning including that of the head, mandibles and legs viewed through the translucent pupal cuticle was initiated on schedule (pupal days 4-5), indicating that TcY-e is not required for pupal or pharate adult cuticle pigmentation in T. castaneum. The subsequent pupal-adult molt, however, was adversely affected. Although pupal cuticle apolysis and slippage were evident, some of the adults (~25%) were unable to shed their exuvium and died entrapped in their pupal cuticle. In addition, the resulting adults rapidly became highly desiccated. Interestingly, both the failure of the pupal-adult molt and desiccation-induced mortality were prevented by maintaining the dsTcY-e-treated insects at 100% relative humidity (rh). However, when the high humidity-rescued adults were removed from 100% rh and transferred to 50% rh, they rapidly dehydrated and died, whereas untreated beetles thrived throughout development at 50% rh. We also observed that the body color of the high humidity-rescued dsTcY-e-adults was slightly darker than that of

  11. Skin incision induces expression of axonal regeneration-related genes in adult rat spinal sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Caitlin E.; Harrison, Benjamin J.; Rau, Kris K.; Hougland, M. Tyler; Bunge, Mary Bartlett; Mendell, Lorne M.; Petruska, Jeffrey C.

    2010-01-01

    Skin incision and nerve injury both induce painful conditions. Incisional and post-surgical pain is believed to arise primarily from inflammation of tissue and the subsequent sensitization of peripheral and central neurons. The role of axonal regeneration-related processes in development of pain has only been considered when there has been injury to the peripheral nerve itself, even though tissue damage likely induces injury of resident axons. We sought to determine if skin incision would affect expression of regeneration-related genes such as activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. ATF3 is absent from DRG neurons of the normal adult rodent, but is induced by injury of peripheral nerves and modulates the regenerative capacity of axons. Image analysis of immunolabeled DRG sections revealed that skin incision led to an increase in the number of DRG neurons expressing ATF3. RT-PCR indicated that other regeneration-associated genes (galanin, GAP-43, Gadd45a) were also increased, further suggesting an injury-like response in DRG neurons. Our finding that injury of skin can induce expression of neuronal injury/regeneration-associated genes may impact how clinical post-surgical pain is investigated and treated. Perspective Tissue injury, even without direct nerve injury, may induce a state of enhanced growth capacity in sensory neurons. Axonal regeneration-associated processes should be considered alongside nerve signal conduction and inflammatory/sensitization processes as possible mechanisms contributing to pain, particularly the transition from acute to chronic pain. PMID:20627820

  12. Gene Expression Profile of Adult Human Olfactory Bulb and Embryonic Neural Stem Cell Suggests Distinct Signaling Pathways and Epigenetic Control

    PubMed Central

    Marei, Hany E. S.; Ahmed, Abd-Elmaksoud; Michetti, Fabrizio; Pescatori, Mario; Pallini, Roberto; Casalbore, Patricia; Cenciarelli, Carlo; Elhadidy, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Global gene expression profiling was performed using RNA from human embryonic neural stem cells (hENSC), and adult human olfactory bulb-derived neural stem cells (OBNSCs), to define a gene expression pattern and signaling pathways that are specific for each cell lineage. We have demonstrated large differences in the gene expression profile of human embryonic NSC, and adult human OBNSCs, but less variability between parallel cultures. Transcripts of genes involved in neural tube development and patterning (ALDH1A2, FOXA2), progenitor marker genes (LMX1a, ALDH1A1, SOX10), proliferation of neural progenitors (WNT1 and WNT3a), neuroplastin (NPTN), POU3F1 (OCT6), neuroligin (NLGN4X), MEIS2, and NPAS1 were up-regulated in both cell populations. By Gene Ontology, 325 out of 3875 investigated gene sets were scientifically different. 41 out of the 307 investigated Cellular Component (CC) categories, 45 out of the 620 investigated Molecular Function (MF) categories, and 239 out of the 2948 investigated Biological Process (BP) categories were significant. KEGG Pathway Class Comparison had revealed that 75 out of 171 investigated gene sets passed the 0.005 significance threshold. Levels of gene expression were explored in three signaling pathways, Notch, Wnt, and mTOR that are known to be involved in NS cell fates determination. The transcriptional signature also deciphers the role of genes involved in epigenetic modifications. SWI/SNF DNA chromatin remodeling complex family, including SMARCC1 and SMARCE1, were found specifically up-regulated in our OBNSC but not in hENSC. Differences in gene expression profile of transcripts controlling epigenetic modifications, and signaling pathways might indicate differences in the therapeutic potential of our examined two cell populations in relation to in cell survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation following engraftments in different CNS insults. PMID:22485144

  13. In utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure: effects on fetal and adult cardiac gene expression and adult cardiac and renal morphology.

    PubMed

    Aragon, Andrea C; Kopf, Phillip G; Campen, Matthew J; Huwe, Janice K; Walker, Mary K

    2008-02-01

    The mouse heart is a target of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during fetal development, and microarray analysis demonstrates significant changes in expression of cardiac genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. We tested the hypothesis that developmental TCDD exposure would disrupt cardiac ECM expression and be associated with changes in cardiac morphology in adulthood. In one study, time-pregnant C57BL/6 mice were dosed with corn oil or 1.5, 3.0, or 6.0 microg TCDD/kg on gestation day (GD) 14.5 and sacrificed on GD 17.5, when changes in fetal cardiac mRNA expression were analyzed using quantitative PCR. TCDD induced mRNA expression of genes associated with ECM remodeling (matrix metalloproteinase 9 and 13, preproendothelin-1 [preproET-1]), cardiac hypertrophy (atrial natriuretic peptide, beta-myosin heavy chain, osteopontin), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) activation (cytochrome P4501A1, AHR repressor). Further, all TCDD-induced changes required the AHR since gene expression was not altered in AHR knockout fetuses. In a second study, time-pregnant mice were treated with corn oil or 6.0 microg TCDD/kg on GD 14.5, and male offspring were assessed for changes in cardiac gene expression and cardiac and renal morphology at 3 months. All TCDD-induced changes in cardiac gene expression observed fetally, except for preproET-1, remained induced in the hearts of adult male offspring. Adult male offspring of TCDD-exposed dams also displayed cardiac hypertrophy, decreased plasma volume, and mild hydronephrosis. These results demonstrate that in utero and lactational TCDD exposures alter cardiac gene expression and cardiac and renal morphology in adulthood, which may increase the susceptibility to cardiovascular dysfunction.

  14. Homology of the mesopallium in the adult chicken identified by gene expression of the neocortical marker cholecystokinin.

    PubMed

    Atoji, Yasuro; Karim, Mohammad Rabiul

    2014-03-06

    Studies of gene expression and fiber connections have suggested that the primary visual (entopallium) and auditory (field L2) centers in the avian telencephalon are homologous to layer 4 of extrastriate and auditory neocortices of mammals, respectively. In addition, it has been proposed that the arcopallium contains neurons homologous to layers 5/6 and that the mesopallium may be homologous to superficial neocortical layers, but gene expression evidence for the latter is lacking in adult birds. In the present study using adult chickens we have examined the gene expression of cholecystokinin (CCK) mRNA, a selective marker for layers 2/3 of mammalian neocortex. CCK mRNA was expressed in neurons of the entire mesopallium, but not in any part of the nidopallium. Together with hodological evidence of connections between the mesopallium and the two primary sensory areas, our results are consistent with the suggestion that the mesopallium is comparable to certain superficial layers of mammalian neocortex.

  15. Stage- and tissue-specific expression of two homeo box genes in sea urchin embryos and adults.

    PubMed

    Dolecki, G J; Wang, G; Humphreys, T

    1988-12-23

    We report the isolation of two different homeo box genes, HB3 and HB4, from the Hawaiian sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla. DNA sequencing revealed a definitive Antennapedia (Antp) class homeo box in each gene. Southern transfer hybridizations showed the genes to be single-copy. A 5.7-kb transcript of the HB3 gene was found in ovary, testis, small intestine and gastrula poly(A)+ RNA. The HB4 gene produces three transcripts. A 3.7-kb and a 4.4-kb transcript are expressed during embryogenesis. A 3.5-kb transcript appears in each of the adult tissues studied. The HB4 gene appears to be the sea urchin cognate of the Drosophila infrabdominal-7 (iab-7) gene, the mouse Hox 1.7 and Hox 3.2 genes and the Xenopus X1Hbox 6 gene. An examination of Antp class homeo box genes in deuterostomes indicates that a chromosomal duplication has taken place in the evolutionary line leading to the vertebrates after the divergence of the echinoderms. Thus, the sea urchin represents the primitive condition.

  16. Brain white matter structure and COMT gene are linked to second-language learning in adults.

    PubMed

    Mamiya, Ping C; Richards, Todd L; Coe, Bradley P; Eichler, Evan E; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2016-06-28

    Adult human brains retain the capacity to undergo tissue reorganization during second-language learning. Brain-imaging studies show a relationship between neuroanatomical properties and learning for adults exposed to a second language. However, the role of genetic factors in this relationship has not been investigated. The goal of the current study was twofold: (i) to characterize the relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and second-language immersion using diffusion tensor imaging, and (ii) to determine whether polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene affect the relationship. We recruited incoming Chinese students enrolled in the University of Washington and scanned their brains one time. We measured the diffusion properties of the white matter fiber tracts and correlated them with the number of days each student had been in the immersion program at the time of the brain scan. We found that higher numbers of days in the English immersion program correlated with higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. We show that fractional anisotropy declined once the subjects finished the immersion program. The relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and immersion varied in subjects with different COMT genotypes. Subjects with the Methionine (Met)/Valine (Val) and Val/Val genotypes showed higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity during immersion, which reversed immediately after immersion ended, whereas those with the Met/Met genotype did not show these relationships. Statistical modeling revealed that subjects' grades in the language immersion program were best predicted by fractional anisotropy and COMT genotype.

  17. Brain white matter structure and COMT gene are linked to second-language learning in adults

    PubMed Central

    Mamiya, Ping C.; Richards, Todd L.; Coe, Bradley P.; Eichler, Evan E.; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2016-01-01

    Adult human brains retain the capacity to undergo tissue reorganization during second-language learning. Brain-imaging studies show a relationship between neuroanatomical properties and learning for adults exposed to a second language. However, the role of genetic factors in this relationship has not been investigated. The goal of the current study was twofold: (i) to characterize the relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and second-language immersion using diffusion tensor imaging, and (ii) to determine whether polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene affect the relationship. We recruited incoming Chinese students enrolled in the University of Washington and scanned their brains one time. We measured the diffusion properties of the white matter fiber tracts and correlated them with the number of days each student had been in the immersion program at the time of the brain scan. We found that higher numbers of days in the English immersion program correlated with higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. We show that fractional anisotropy declined once the subjects finished the immersion program. The relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and immersion varied in subjects with different COMT genotypes. Subjects with the Methionine (Met)/Valine (Val) and Val/Val genotypes showed higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity during immersion, which reversed immediately after immersion ended, whereas those with the Met/Met genotype did not show these relationships. Statistical modeling revealed that subjects’ grades in the language immersion program were best predicted by fractional anisotropy and COMT genotype. PMID:27298360

  18. Early developmental gene enhancers affect subcortical volumes in the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Becker, Martin; Guadalupe, Tulio; Franke, Barbara; Hibar, Derrek P; Renteria, Miguel E; Stein, Jason L; Thompson, Paul M; Francks, Clyde; Vernes, Sonja C; Fisher, Simon E

    2016-05-01

    Genome-wide association screens aim to identify common genetic variants contributing to the phenotypic variability of complex traits, such as human height or brain morphology. The identified genetic variants are mostly within noncoding genomic regions and the biology of the genotype-phenotype association typically remains unclear. In this article, we propose a complementary targeted strategy to reveal the genetic underpinnings of variability in subcortical brain volumes, by specifically selecting genomic loci that are experimentally validated forebrain enhancers, active in early embryonic development. We hypothesized that genetic variation within these enhancers may affect the development and ultimately the structure of subcortical brain regions in adults. We tested whether variants in forebrain enhancer regions showed an overall enrichment of association with volumetric variation in subcortical structures of >13,000 healthy adults. We observed significant enrichment of genomic loci that affect the volume of the hippocampus within forebrain enhancers (empirical P = 0.0015), a finding which robustly passed the adjusted threshold for testing of multiple brain phenotypes (cutoff of P < 0.0083 at an alpha of 0.05). In analyses of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we identified an association upstream of the ID2 gene with rs7588305 and variation in hippocampal volume. This SNP-based association survived multiple-testing correction for the number of SNPs analyzed but not for the number of subcortical structures. Targeting known regulatory regions offers a way to understand the underlying biology that connects genotypes to phenotypes, particularly in the context of neuroimaging genetics. This biology-driven approach generates testable hypotheses regarding the functional biology of identified associations. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1788-1800, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Developmental methoxychlor exposure affects multiple reproductive parameters and ovarian folliculogenesis and gene expression in adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Passantino, Lisa; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2008-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 {mu}g/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor {beta} was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis.

  20. Mutations in the lysosomal [beta]-galactosidase gene that cause the adult form of GMI gangliosidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, S.; Rafi, M.A.; Wenger, D.A. )

    1994-06-01

    Three adult patients with acid-galactosidase deficiency/GM1 gangliosidosis who were from two unrelated families of Scandinavian descent were found to share a common point mutation in the coding region of the corresponding gene. The patients share common clinical features, including early dysarthria, mild ataxia, and bone abnormalities. When cDNA from the two patients in family 1 was PCR amplified and sequenced, most (39/41) of the clones showed a C-to-T transition (C[yields]T) at nucleotide 245 (counting from the initiation codon). This mutation changes the codon for the Thr(ACG) to Met(ATG). Mutant and normal sequences were also found in that position in genomic DNA, indicating the presence of another mutant allele. Genomic DNA from the patient in family 2 revealed the same point mutation in one allele. It was determined that in each family only the father carried the C[yields]T mutation. Expression studies showed that this mutation produced 3%-4% of [beta]-galactosidase activity, confirming its deleterious effects. The cDNA clones from the patients in family 1 that did not contain the C[yields]T revealed a 20-bp insertion of intronic sequence between nucleotides 75 and 76, the location of the first intron. Further analysis showed the insertion of a T near the 5[prime] splice donor site which led to the use of a cryptic splice site. It appears that the C[yields]T mutation results in enough functional enzyme to produce a mild adult form of the disease, even in the presence of a second mutation that likely produces nonfunctional enzyme. 31 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Adult onset asthma and interaction between genes and active tobacco smoking: The GABRIEL consortium

    PubMed Central

    Postma, D. S.; Moffatt, M. F.; Jarvis, D.; Ramasamy, A.; Wjst, M.; Omenaas, E. R.; Bouzigon, E.; Demenais, F.; Nadif, R.; Siroux, V.; Polonikov, A. V.; Solodilova, M.; Ivanov, V. P.; Curjuric, I.; Imboden, M.; Kumar, A.; Probst-Hensch, N.; Ogorodova, L. M.; Puzyrev, V. P.; Bragina, E. Yu; Freidin, M. B.; Nolte, I. M.; Farrall, A. M.; Cookson, W. O. C. M.; Strachan, D. P.; Koppelman, G. H.; Boezen, H. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies have identified novel genetic associations for asthma, but without taking into account the role of active tobacco smoking. This study aimed to identify novel genes that interact with ever active tobacco smoking in adult onset asthma. Methods We performed a genome-wide interaction analysis in six studies participating in the GABRIEL consortium following two meta-analyses approaches based on 1) the overall interaction effect and 2) the genetic effect in subjects with and without smoking exposure. We performed a discovery meta-analysis including 4,057 subjects of European descent and replicated our findings in an independent cohort (LifeLines Cohort Study), including 12,475 subjects. Results First approach: 50 SNPs were selected based on an overall interaction effect at p<10−4. The most pronounced interaction effect was observed for rs9969775 on chromosome 9 (discovery meta-analysis: ORint = 0.50, p = 7.63*10−5, replication: ORint = 0.65, p = 0.02). Second approach: 35 SNPs were selected based on the overall genetic effect in exposed subjects (p <10−4). The most pronounced genetic effect was observed for rs5011804 on chromosome 12 (discovery meta-analysis ORint = 1.50, p = 1.21*10−4; replication: ORint = 1.40, p = 0.03). Conclusions Using two genome-wide interaction approaches, we identified novel polymorphisms in non-annotated intergenic regions on chromosomes 9 and 12, that showed suggestive evidence for interaction with active tobacco smoking in the onset of adult asthma. PMID:28253294

  2. VEGF Gene Expression in Adult Human Thymus Fat: A Correlative Study with Hypoxic Induced Factor and Cyclooxigenase-2

    PubMed Central

    Tinahones, Francisco; Salas, Julian; Mayas, María Dolores; Ruiz-Villalba, Adrian; Macias-Gonzalez, Manuel; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; DeMora, Manuel; Moreno-Santos, Inmaculada; Bernal, Rosa; Cardona, Fernando; Bekay, Rajaa El

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that the adult human thymus degenerates into fat tissue; however, it has never been considered as a potential source of angiogenic factors. Recently, we have described that this fat (TAT) produces angiogenic factors and induces human endothelial cell proliferation and migration, indicating its potential angiogenic properties. Design Adult thymus fat and subcutaneous adipose tissue specimens were obtained from 28 patients undergoing cardiac surgery, making this tissue readily available as a prime source of adipose tissue. We focused our investigation on determining VEGF gene expression and characterizing the different genes, mediators of inflammation and adipogenesis, and which are known to play a relevant role in angiogenesis regulation. Results We found that VEGF-A was the isoform most expressed in TAT. This expression was accompanied by an upregulation of HIF-1α, COX-2 and HO-1 proteins, and by increased HIF-1 DNA binding activity, compared to SAT. Furthermore, we observed that TAT contains a high percentage of mature adipocytes, 0.25% of macrophage cells, 15% of endothelial cells and a very low percentage of thymocyte cells, suggesting the cellular variability of TAT, which could explain the differences in gene expression observed in TAT. Subsequently, we showed that the expression of genes known as adipogenic mediators, including PPARγ1/γ2, FABP-4 and adiponectin was similar in both TAT and SAT. Moreover the expression of these latter genes presented a significantly positive correlation with VEGF, suggesting the potential association between VEGF and the generation of adipose tissue in adult thymus. Conclusion Here we suggest that this fat has a potential angiogenic function related to ongoing adipogenesis, which substitutes immune functions within the adult thymus. The expression of VEGF seems to be associated with COX-2, HO-1 and adipogenesis related genes, suggesting the importance that this new fat has acquired in research in relation to

  3. A novel human gamma-globin gene vector for genetic correction of sickle cell anemia in a humanized sickle mouse model: critical determinants for successful correction.

    PubMed

    Perumbeti, Ajay; Higashimoto, Tomoyasu; Urbinati, Fabrizia; Franco, Robert; Meiselman, Herbert J; Witte, David; Malik, Punam

    2009-08-06

    We show that lentiviral delivery of human gamma-globin gene under beta-globin regulatory control elements in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) results in sufficient postnatal fetal hemoglobin (HbF) expression to correct sickle cell anemia (SCA) in the Berkeley "humanized" sickle mouse. Upon de-escalating the amount of transduced HSCs in transplant recipients, using reduced-intensity conditioning and varying gene transfer efficiency and vector copy number, we assessed critical parameters needed for correction. A systematic quantification of functional and hematologic red blood cell (RBC) indices, organ pathology, and life span was used to determine the minimal amount of HbF, F cells, HbF/F-cell, and gene-modified HSCs required for correcting the sickle phenotype. We show that long-term amelioration of disease occurred (1) when HbF exceeded 10%, F cells constituted two-thirds of the circulating RBCs, and HbF/F cell was one-third of the total hemoglobin in sickle RBCs; and (2) when approximately 20% gene-modified HSCs repopulated the marrow. Moreover, we show a novel model using reduced-intensity conditioning to determine genetically corrected HSC threshold that corrects a hematopoietic disease. These studies provide a strong preclinical model for what it would take to genetically correct SCA and are a foundation for the use of this vector in a human clinical trial.

  4. Desensitization and Incomplete Recovery of Hepatic Target Genes After Chronic Thyroid Hormone Treatment and Withdrawal in Male Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ohba, Kenji; Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Lesmana, Ronny; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Ghosh, Sujoy; Refetoff, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Clinical symptoms may vary and not necessarily reflect serum thyroid hormone (TH) levels during acute and chronic hyperthyroidism as well as recovery from hyperthyroidism. We thus examined changes in hepatic gene expression and serum TH/TSH levels in adult male mice treated either with a single T3 (20 μg per 100 g body weight) injection (acute T3) or daily injections for 14 days (chronic T3) followed by 10 days of withdrawal. Gene expression arrays from livers harvested at these time points showed that among positively-regulated target genes, 320 were stimulated acutely and 429 chronically by T3. Surprisingly, only 69 of 680 genes (10.1%) were induced during both periods, suggesting desensitization of the majority of acutely stimulated target genes. About 90% of positively regulated target genes returned to baseline expression levels after 10 days of withdrawal; however, 67 of 680 (9.9%) did not return to baseline despite normalization of serum TH/TSH levels. Similar findings also were observed for negatively regulated target genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of representative positively regulated target genes suggested that acetylation of H3K9/K14 was associated with acute stimulation, whereas trimethylation of H3K4 was associated with chronic stimulation. In an in vivo model of chronic intrahepatic hyperthyroidism since birth, adult male monocarboxylate transporter-8 knockout mice also demonstrated desensitization of most acutely stimulated target genes that were examined. In summary, we have identified transcriptional desensitization and incomplete recovery of gene expression during chronic hyperthyroidism and recovery. Our findings may be a potential reason for discordance between clinical symptoms and serum TH levels observed in these conditions. PMID:26866609

  5. Faecal Microbiota Composition in Adults Is Associated with the FUT2 Gene Determining the Secretor Status

    PubMed Central

    Wacklin, Pirjo; Tuimala, Jarno; Nikkilä, Janne; Sebastian Tims; Mäkivuokko, Harri; Alakulppi, Noora; Laine, Pia; Rajilic-Stojanovic, Mirjana; Paulin, Lars; de Vos, Willem M.; Mättö, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    The human intestine is colonised with highly diverse and individually defined microbiota, which likely has an impact on the host well-being. Drivers of the individual variation in the microbiota compositions are multifactorial and include environmental, host and dietary factors. We studied the impact of the host secretor status, encoded by fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) -gene, on the intestinal microbiota composition. Secretor status determines the expression of the ABH and Lewis histo-blood group antigens in the intestinal mucosa. The study population was comprised of 14 non-secretor (FUT2 rs601338 genotype AA) and 57 secretor (genotypes GG and AG) adult individuals of western European descent. Intestinal microbiota was analyzed by PCR-DGGE and for a subset of 12 non-secretor subjects and 12 secretor subjects additionally by the 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and the HITChip phylogenetic microarray analysis. All three methods showed distinct clustering of the intestinal microbiota and significant differences in abundances of several taxa representing dominant microbiota between the non-secretors and the secretors as well as between the FUT2 genotypes. In addition, the non-secretors had lower species richness than the secretors. The soft clustering of microbiota into enterotypes (ET) 1 and 3 showed that the non-secretors had a higher probability of belonging to ET1 and the secretors to ET3. Our study shows that secretor status and FUT2 polymorphism are associated with the composition of human intestinal microbiota, and appears thus to be one of the key drivers affecting the individual variation of human intestinal microbiota. PMID:24733310

  6. Higher brain BDNF gene expression is associated with slower cognitive decline in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lei; Boyle, Patricia A.; Schneider, Julie A.; De Jager, Philip L.; Bennett, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We tested whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression levels are associated with cognitive decline in older adults. Methods: Five hundred thirty-five older participants underwent annual cognitive assessments and brain autopsy at death. BDNF gene expression was measured in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Linear mixed models were used to examine whether BDNF expression was associated with cognitive decline adjusting for age, sex, and education. An interaction term was added to determine whether this association varied with clinical diagnosis proximate to death (no cognitive impairment, mild cognitive impairment, or dementia). Finally, we examined the extent to which the association of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology with cognitive decline varied by BDNF expression. Results: Higher brain BDNF expression was associated with slower cognitive decline (p < 0.001); cognitive decline was about 50% slower with the 90th percentile BDNF expression vs 10th. This association was strongest in individuals with dementia. The level of BDNF expression was lower in individuals with pathologic AD (p = 0.006), but was not associated with macroscopic infarcts, Lewy body disease, or hippocampal sclerosis. BDNF expression remained associated with cognitive decline in a model adjusting for age, sex, education, and neuropathologies (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the effect of AD pathology on cognitive decline varied by BDNF expression such that the effect was strongest for high levels of AD pathology (p = 0.015); thus, in individuals with high AD pathology (90th percentile), cognitive decline was about 40% slower with the 90th percentile BDNF expression vs 10th. Conclusions: Higher brain BDNF expression is associated with slower cognitive decline and may also reduce the deleterious effects of AD pathology on cognitive decline. PMID:26819457

  7. Optimal range for parvalbumin as relaxing agent in adult cardiac myocytes: gene transfer and mathematical modeling.

    PubMed Central

    Coutu, Pierre; Metzger, Joseph M

    2002-01-01

    Parvalbumin (PV) has recently been shown to increase the relaxation rate when expressed in intact isolated cardiac myocytes via adenovirus gene transfer. We report here a combined experimental and mathematical modeling approach to determine the dose-response and the sarcomere length (SL) shortening-frequency relationship of PV in adult rat cardiac myocytes in primary culture. The dose-response was obtained experimentally by observing the PV-transduced myocytes at different time points after gene transfer. Calcium transients and unloaded mechanical contractions were measured. The results were as follows. At low estimated [PV] (approximately 0.01 mM), contractile parameters were unchanged; at intermediate [PV], relaxation rate of the mechanical contraction and the decay rate of the calcium transient increased with little effects on amplitude; and at high [PV] (approximately 0.1 mM), relaxation rate was further increased, but the amplitudes of the mechanical contraction and the calcium transient were diminished when compared with control myocytes. The SL shortening-frequency relationship exhibited a biphasic response to increasing stimulus frequency in controls (decrease in amplitude and re-lengthening time from 0.2 to 1.0 Hz followed by an increase in these parameters from 2.0 to 4.0 Hz). The effect of PV was to flatten this frequency response. This flattening effect was partly explained by a reduction in the variation in fractional binding of PV to calcium during beats at high frequency. In conclusion, experimental results and mathematical modeling indicate that there is an optimal PV range for which relaxation rate is increased with little effect on contractile amplitude and that PV effectiveness decreases as the stimulus frequency increases. PMID:11964244

  8. Direct Screening of Blood by PCR and Pyrosequencing for a 16S rRNA Gene Target from Emergency Department and Intensive Care Unit Patients Being Evaluated for Bloodstream Infection

    PubMed Central

    Moore, M. S.; McCarroll, M. G.; McCann, C. D.; May, L.; Younes, N.

    2015-01-01

    Here we compared the results of PCR/pyrosequencing to those of culture for detecting bacteria directly from blood. DNA was extracted from 1,130 blood samples from 913 patients suspected of bacteremia (enrollment criteria were physician-ordered blood culture and complete blood count [CBC]), and 102 controls (healthy blood donors). Real-time PCR assays for beta-globin and Universal 16S rRNA gene targets were performed on all 1,232 extracts. Specimens identified by Universal 16S rRNA gene PCR/pyrosequencing as containing staphylococci, streptococci, or enteric Gram-negative rods had target-specific PCR/pyrosequencing performed. Amplifiable beta-globin (melting temperature [Tm], 87.2°C ± 0.2°C) occurred in 99.1% (1,120/1,130) of patient extracts and 100% (102/102) of controls. Concordance between PCR/pyrosequencing and culture was 96.9% (1,085/1,120) for Universal 16S rRNA gene targets, with positivity rates of 9.4% (105/1,120) and 11.3% (126/1,120), respectively. Bacteria cultured included staphylococci (59/126, 46.8%), Gram-negative rods (34/126, 27%), streptococci (32/126, 25.4%), and a Gram-positive rod (1/126, 0.8%). All controls screened negative by PCR/pyrosequencing. Clinical performance characteristics (95% confidence interval [CI]) for Universal 16S rRNA gene PCR/pyrosequencing included sensitivity of 77.8% (69.5 to 84.7), specificity of 99.3% (98.6 to 99.7), positive predictive value (PPV) of 93.3% (86.8 to 97.3), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 97.2% (96.0 to 98.2). Bacteria were accurately identified in 77.8% (98/126) of culture-confirmed sepsis samples with Universal 16S PCR/pyrosequencing and in 76.4% (96/126) with follow-up target-specific PCR/pyrosequencing. The initial PCR/pyrosequencing took ∼5.5 h to complete or ∼7.5 h when including target-specific PCR/pyrosequencing compared to 27.9 ± 13.6 h for Gram stain or 81.6 ± 24.0 h for phenotypic identification. In summary, this molecular approach detected the causative bacteria in over

  9. In Utero Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Alters Gene Expression in Lungs of Adult BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rouse, Rodney L.; Boudreaux, Marc J.; Penn, Arthur L.

    2007-01-01

    Background In utero environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure exacerbates initial lung responses of adult mice to ovalbumin (OVA), a common allergen in rodent models of allergic asthma. Objective We tested the hypothesis that in utero ETS exposure alters expression of genes (including asthma-related and inflammatory genes) in the lungs of adult mice and that this differential expression is reflected in differential respiratory and immune responses to nontobacco allergens. Methods Using Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 arrays, we examined gene expression changes in lungs of BALB/c mice exposed to ETS in utero, OVA, or saline aerosol at weeks 7–8, and OVA sensitization and challenge at weeks 11–15. Data sets were filtered by transcript p-value (≤ 0.05), false discovery rate (≤ 0.05), and fold change (≥ 1.5). Differential expression of selected genes was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Genes differentially expressed as a result of in utero ETS exposure are involved in regulation of biological processes (immune response, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell metabolism) through altered cytoskeleton, adhesion, transcription, and enzyme molecules. A number of genes prominent in lung inflammation were differentially expressed on PCR but did not pass selection criteria for microarray, including arginase (Arg1), chitinases (Chia, Chi3l3, Chi3l4), eotaxins (Ccl11, Ccl24), small proline-rich protein 2a (Sprr2a), and cytokines (Il4, Il6, Il10, Il13, Tnfa) . Conclusion The differential lung gene expression reported here is consistent with previously reported functional changes in lungs of mice exposed in utero to ETS and as adults to the nontobacco allergen OVA. PMID:18087596

  10. Globin gene-associated restriction-fragment-length polymorphisms in southern African peoples.

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, M; Jenkins, T

    1987-01-01

    The combination of polymorphic restriction-enzyme sites in the 3' region of the beta-globin gene cluster shows very little variation in southern-African Bantu-speaking black and Kalahari !Kung San populations. The sites of the 5' region, on the other hand, show marked variation, and two common haplotypes are present--the "Negro" type (- - - - +) and the "San" type (- + - - +)--in frequencies of .404 and .106, respectively, in the Bantu-speakers and .262 and .405, respectively, in the San. Twenty of 23 beta s-associated haplotypes in southern-African Bantu-speaking black subjects were the same as that found commonly in the Central African Republic (CAR)--i.e., the "Bantu" type--a finding providing the first convincing biological evidence for the common ancestry of geographically widely separated speakers of languages belonging to the Bantu family. The (-alpha) haplotype has a frequency of .21 in the Venda, .07 in both the Sotho-Tswana and the Nguni, and .06 among the !Kung San. These data are interpreted in the light of Plasmodium falciparum malaria selection and population movements in the African subcontinent. PMID:2891298

  11. Novel gene targets detected by genomic profiling in a consecutive series of 126 adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Safavi, Setareh; Hansson, Markus; Karlsson, Karin; Biloglav, Andrea; Johansson, Bertil; Paulsson, Kajsa

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children, adult cases of this disease are associated with a very poor prognosis. In order to ascertain whether the frequencies and patterns of submicroscopic changes, identifiable with single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis, differ between childhood and adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia, we performed single nucleotide polymorphism array analyses of 126 adult cases, the largest series to date, including 18 paired diagnostic and relapse samples. Apart from identifying characteristic microdeletions of the CDKN2A, EBF1, ETV6, IKZF1, PAX5 and RB1 genes, the present study uncovered novel, focal deletions of the BCAT1, BTLA, NR3C1, PIK3AP1 and SERP2 genes in 2-6% of the adult cases. IKZF1 deletions were associated with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (P=0.036), BCR-ABL1-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (P<0.001), and higher white blood cell counts (P=0.005). In addition, recurrent deletions of RASSF3 and TOX were seen in relapse samples. Comparing paired diagnostic/relapse samples revealed identical changes at diagnosis and relapse in 27%, clonal evolution in 22%, and relapses evolving from ancestral clones in 50%, akin to what has previously been reported in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia and indicating that the mechanisms of relapse may be similar in adult and childhood cases. These findings provide novel insights into the leukemogenesis of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia, showing similarities to childhood disease in the pattern of deletions and the clonal relationship between diagnostic and relapse samples, but with the adult cases harboring additional aberrations that have not been described in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  12. Characterization of the transcriptomes and cuticular protein gene expression of alate adult, brachypterous neotenic and adultoid reproductives of Reticulitermes labralis

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiaohong; Liu, He; Yang, Xiaojuan; Chen, Jiaoling; Zhang, Honggui; Xing, Lianxi; Zhang, Xiaojing

    2016-01-01

    The separation of primary reproductive and secondary reproductive roles based on the differentiation of alate adults and neotenic reproductives is the most prominent characteristic of termites. To clarify the mechanism underlying this differentiation, we sequenced the transcriptomes of alate adults (ARs), brachypterous neotenics (BNs) and adultoid reproductives (ANs) from the last instar nymphs of Reticulitermes labralis. A total of 404,152,188 clean sequencing reads was obtained and 61,953 unigenes were assembled. Of the 54 identified cuticular protein (CP) genes of the reproductives, 22 were classified into the CPR family and 7 were classified into the CPG family. qRT-PCR analyses of the 6 CP genes revealed that the CP genes involved in exocuticle sclerotization were highly expressed in the ARs and RR-1 involved in soft endocuticle was highly expressed in the ARs and ANs. These results suggest that the alate adults might increase cuticular component deposition to adapt to new or changing environments and that the development of reproductive individuals into primary or secondary reproductives is controlled by the expression of cuticular protein genes involved in the hardening of the exocuticle. In addition, the AN caste is a transitional type between the BN and AR castes in the process of evolution. PMID:27690209

  13. Enantio-alteration of gene transcription associated with bioconcentration in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to chiral PCB149

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Tingting; Cui, Feng; Mu, Pengqian; Yang, Yang; Xu, Nana; Yin, Zhiqiang; Jia, Qi; Yang, Shuming; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Chengju

    2016-01-01

    Enantioselective enrichment of chiral PCB149 (2,2’,3,4’,5’,6-hexachlorobiphenyl) was analysed in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to the racemate, (−)-PCB149, and (+)-PCB149. Greater enrichment of (−)-PCB149 compared to (+) PCB149 was observed following 0.5 ng/L exposure; however, as the exposure time and concentration increased, racemic enrichment was observed in adult fish exposed to the racemate. No biotransformation between the two isomers was observed in fish exposed to single enantiomers. When zebrafish were exposed to different forms of chiral PCB149, enantioselective expression of genes associated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was observed in brain and liver tissues and enantioselective correlations between bioconcentration and target gene expression levels were observed in brain and liver tissues. The strong positive correlations between expression levels of target genes (alox5a and alox12) and PCB149 bioconcentration suggest that prolonged exposure to the racemate of chiral PCB149 may result in inflammation-associated diseases. Prolonged exposure to (−)-PCB149 may also affect metabolic pathways such as dehydrogenation and methylation in the brain tissues of adult zebrafish. Hepatic expression levels of genes related to the antioxidant system were significantly negatively correlated with bioconcentration following exposure to (+)-PCB149. PMID:26786282

  14. Pitx genes are redeployed in adult myogenesis where they can act to promote myogenic differentiation in muscle satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Knopp, Paul; Figeac, Nicolas; Fortier, Mathieu; Moyle, Louise; Zammit, Peter S

    2013-05-01

    Skeletal muscle retains a resident stem cell population called satellite cells. Although mitotically quiescent in mature muscle, satellite cells can be activated to produce myoblast progeny to generate myonuclei for skeletal muscle homoeostasis, hypertrophy and repair. Regulation of satellite cell function in adult requires redeployment of many of the regulatory networks fundamental to developmental myogenesis. Involved in such control of muscle stem cell fate in embryos are members of the Pitx gene family of bicoid-class homeodomain proteins. Here, we investigated the expression and function of all three Pitx genes in muscle satellite cells of adult mice. Endogenous Pitx1 was undetectable, whilst Pitx2a, Pitx2b and Pitx2c were at low levels in proliferating satellite cells, but increased during the early stages of myogenic differentiation. By contrast, proliferating satellite cells expressed robust amounts of Pitx3, with levels then decreasing as cells differentiated, although Pitx3 remained expressed in unfused myoblasts. To examine the role of Pitx genes in satellite cell function, retroviral-mediated expression of Pitx1, all Pitx2 isoforms or Pitx3, was used. Constitutive expression of any Pitx isoform suppressed satellite cell proliferation, with the cells undergoing enhanced myogenic differentiation. Conversely, myogenic differentiation into multinucleated myotubes was decreased when Pitx2 or Pitx3 levels were reduced using siRNA. Together, our results show that Pitx genes play a role in regulating satellite cell function during myogenesis in adult.

  15. Enantio-alteration of gene transcription associated with bioconcentration in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to chiral PCB149

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Tingting; Cui, Feng; Mu, Pengqian; Yang, Yang; Xu, Nana; Yin, Zhiqiang; Jia, Qi; Yang, Shuming; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Chengju

    2016-01-01

    Enantioselective enrichment of chiral PCB149 (2,2’,3,4’,5’,6-hexachlorobiphenyl) was analysed in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to the racemate, (‑)-PCB149, and (+)-PCB149. Greater enrichment of (‑)-PCB149 compared to (+) PCB149 was observed following 0.5 ng/L exposure; however, as the exposure time and concentration increased, racemic enrichment was observed in adult fish exposed to the racemate. No biotransformation between the two isomers was observed in fish exposed to single enantiomers. When zebrafish were exposed to different forms of chiral PCB149, enantioselective expression of genes associated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was observed in brain and liver tissues and enantioselective correlations between bioconcentration and target gene expression levels were observed in brain and liver tissues. The strong positive correlations between expression levels of target genes (alox5a and alox12) and PCB149 bioconcentration suggest that prolonged exposure to the racemate of chiral PCB149 may result in inflammation-associated diseases. Prolonged exposure to (‑)-PCB149 may also affect metabolic pathways such as dehydrogenation and methylation in the brain tissues of adult zebrafish. Hepatic expression levels of genes related to the antioxidant system were significantly negatively correlated with bioconcentration following exposure to (+)-PCB149.

  16. Expression of the Norrie disease gene (Ndp) in developing and adult mouse eye, ear, and brain

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xin; Smallwood, Philip; Nathans, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    The Norrie disease gene (Ndp) codes for a secreted protein, Norrin, that activates canonical Wnt signaling by binding to its receptor, Frizzled-4. This signaling system is required for normal vascular development in the retina and for vascular survival in the cochlea. In mammals, the pattern of Ndp expression beyond the retina is poorly defined due to the low abundance of Norrin mRNA and protein. Here we characterize Ndp expression during mouse development by studying a knock-in mouse that carries the coding sequence of human placental alkaline phosphatase (AP) inserted at the Ndp locus (NdpAP). In the CNS, NdpAP expression is apparent by E10.5 and is dynamic and complex. The anatomically delimited regions of NdpAP expression observed prenatally in the CNS are replaced postnatally by widespread expression in astrocytes in the forebrain and midbrain, Bergman glia in the cerebellum, and Müller glia in the retina. In the developing and adult cochlea, NdpAP expression is closely associated with two densely vascularized regions, the stria vascularis and a capillary plexus between the organ of Corti and the spiral ganglion. These observations suggest the possibility that Norrin may have developmental and/or homeostatic functions beyond the retina and cochlea. PMID:21055480

  17. Fat brains, greedy genes, and parent power: a biobehavioural risk model of child and adult obesity.

    PubMed

    Carnell, Susan; Kim, Yale; Pryor, Katherine

    2012-06-01

    We live in a world replete with opportunities to overeat highly calorific, palatable foods - yet not everyone becomes obese. Why? We propose that individuals show differences in appetitive traits (e.g. food cue responsiveness, satiety sensitivity) that manifest early in life and predict their eating behaviours and weight trajectories. What determines these traits? Parental feeding restriction is associated with higher child adiposity, pressure to eat with lower adiposity, and both strategies with less healthy eating behaviours, while authoritative feeding styles coincide with more positive outcomes. But, on the whole, twin and family studies argue that nature has a greater influence than nurture on adiposity and eating behaviour, and behavioural investigations of genetic variants that are robustly associated with obesity (e.g. FTO) confirm that genes influence appetite. Meanwhile, a growing body of neuroimaging studies in adults, children and high risk populations suggests that structural and functional variation in brain networks associated with reward, emotion and control might also predict appetite and obesity, and show genetic influence. Together these different strands of evidence support a biobehavioural risk model of obesity development. Parental feeding recommendations should therefore acknowledge the powerful - but modifiable - contribution of genetic and neurological influences to children's eating behaviour.

  18. Differential expression of the FMRF gene in adult and hatchling stellate ganglia of the squid Loligo pealei

    PubMed Central

    Burbach, J. Peter H.; Grant, Philip; Hellemons, Anita J. C. G. M.; Degiorgis, Joseph A.; Li, Ka Wan; Pant, Harish C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The giant fiber system of the squid Loligo pealei mediates the escape response and is an important neurobiological model. Here, we identified an abundant transcript in the stellate ganglion (SG) that encodes a FMRFamide precursor, and characterized FMRFamide and FI/LRF-amide peptides. To determine whether FMRFamide plays a role in the adult and hatchling giant fiber system, we studied the expression of the Fmrf gene and FMRFamide peptides. In stage 29 embryos and stage 30 hatchlings, Ffmr transcripts and FMRFamide peptide were low to undetectable in the SG, in contrast to groups of neurons intensely expressing the Fmrf gene in several brain lobes, including those that innervate the SG. In the adult SG the Fmrf gene was highly expressed, but the FMRFamide peptide was in low abundance. Intense staining for FMRFamide in the adult SG was confined to microneurons and fibers in the neuropil and to small fibers surrounding giant axons in stellar nerves. This shows that the Fmrf gene in the SG is strongly regulated post-hatching, and suggests that the FMRFamide precursor is incompletely processed in the adult SG. The data suggest that the SG only employs the Fmrf gene post-hatching and restricts the biosynthesis of FMRFamide, demonstrating that this peptide is not a major transmitter of the giant fiber system. This contrasts with brain lobes that engage FMRFamide embryonically as a regulatory peptide in multiple neuronal systems, including the afferent fibers that innervate the SG. The biological significance of these mechanisms may be to generate diversity within Fmrf-expressing systems in cephalopods. PMID:24326188

  19. Effect of Varroa destructor, Wounding and Varroa Homogenate on Gene Expression in Brood and Adult Honey Bees.

    PubMed

    Koleoglu, Gun; Goodwin, Paul H; Reyes-Quintana, Mariana; Hamiduzzaman, Mollah Md; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto

    2017-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) gene expression related to immunity for hymenoptaecin (AmHym) and defensin-1 (AmDef-1), longevity for vitellogenin (AmVit2) and stem cell proliferation for poly U binding factor 68 kDa (AmPuf68) was compared following Varroa destructor parasitism, buffer injection and injection of V. destructor compounds in its homogenate. In adults, V. destructor parasitism decreased expression of all four genes, while buffer injection decreased expression of AmHym, AmPuf68 and AmVit2, and homogenate injection decreased expression of AmPuf68 and AmVit2 but increased expression of AmDef-1 relative to their respective controls. The effect of V. destructor parasitism in adults relative to the controls was not significantly different from buffer injection for AmHym and AmVit2 expression, and it was not significantly different from homogenate injection for AmPuf68 and AmVit2. In brood, V. destructor parasitism, buffer injection and homogenate injection decreased AmVit2 expression, whereas AmHym expression was decreased by V. destructor parasitism but increased by buffer and homogenate injection relative to the controls. The effect of varroa parasitism in brood was not significantly different from buffer or homogenate injection for AmPuf68 and AmVit2. Expression levels of the four genes did not correlate with detectable viral levels in either brood or adults. The results of this study indicate that the relative effects of V. destructor parasitism on honey bee gene expression are also shared with other types of stresses. Therefore, some of the effects of V. destructor on honey bees may be mostly due to wounding and injection of foreign compounds into the hemolymph of the bee during parasitism. Although both brood and adults are naturally parasitized by V. destructor, their gene expression responded differently, probably the result of different mechanisms of host responses during development.

  20. Sulforaphane induces Nrf2 target genes and attenuates inflammatory gene expression in microglia from brain of young adult and aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Brigitte E.; Johnson, Rodney W.

    2015-01-01

    Increased neuroinflammation and oxidative stress resulting from heightened microglial activation is associated with age-related cognitive impairment. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of the bioactive sulforaphane (SFN) on the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway in BV2 microglia and primary microglia, and to evaluate proinflammatory cytokine expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated primary microglia from adult and aged mice. BV2 microglia and primary microglia isolated from young adult and aged mice were treated with SFN and LPS. Changes in Nrf2 activity, expression of Nrf2 target genes, and levels of proinflammatory markers were assessed by quantitative PCR and immunoassay. SFN increased Nrf2 DNA-binding activity and upregulated Nrf2 target genes in BV2 microglia, while reducing LPS-induced interleukin (IL-)1β, IL-6, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In primary microglia from adult and aged mice, SFN increased expression of Nrf2 target genes and attenuated IL-1β, IL-6, and iNOS induced by LPS. These data indicate that SFN is a potential beneficial supplement that may be useful for reducing microglial mediated neuroinflammation and oxidative stress associated with aging. PMID:26571201

  1. Adult Drosophila melanogaster evolved for antibacterial defense invest in infection-induced expression of both humoral and cellular immunity genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background While the transcription of innate immunity genes in response to bacterial infection has been well-characterised in the Drosophila model, we recently demonstrated the capacity for such transcription to evolve in flies selected for improved antibacterial defense. Here we use this experimental system to examine how insects invest in constitutive versus infection-induced transcription of immunity genes. These two strategies carry with them different consequences with respect to energetic and pleiotropic costs and may be more or less effective in improving defense depending on whether the genes contribute to humoral or cellular aspects of immunity. Findings Contrary to expectation we show that selection preferentially increased the infection-induced expression of both cellular and humoral immunity genes. Given their functional roles, infection induced increases in expression were expected for the humoral genes, while increases in constitutive expression were expected for the cellular genes. We also report a restricted ability to improve transcription of immunity genes that is on the order of 2-3 fold regardless of total transcription level of the gene. Conclusions The evolved increases in infection-induced expression of the cellular genes may result from specific cross talk with humoral pathways or from generalised strategies for enhancing immunity gene transcription. A failure to see improvements in constitutive expression of the cellular genes suggests either that increases might come at too great a cost or that patterns of expression in adults are decoupled from the larval phase where increases would be most effective. The similarity in fold change increase across all immunity genes may suggest a shared mechanism for the evolution of increased transcription in small, discrete units such as duplication of cis-regulatory elements. PMID:21859495

  2. SpSM30 gene family expression patterns in embryonic and adult biomineralized tissues of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

    PubMed

    Killian, Christopher E; Croker, Lindsay; Wilt, Fred H

    2010-01-01

    The SpSM30 gene family of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, is comprised of six members, designated SpSM30A through SpSM30F (Livingston et al., 2006). The SpSM30 proteins are found uniquely in embryonic and adult mineralized tissues of the sea urchin. Previous studies have revealed that SpSM30 proteins are occluded within the embryonic endoskeleton and adult mineralized tissues (Killian and Wilt, 1996; Mann et al., 2008a,b; Urry et al., 2000). Furthermore, some of the SpSM30 proteins are among the most abundant of the approximately four-dozen integral matrix proteins of the larval spicule (Killian and Wilt, 1996). The amino acid sequence, protein domain architecture, and contiguity within the genome strongly support the supposition that the six genes constitute a gene family. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is used in the present study to describe the time course of expression of the family members during embryonic development, and their expression in adult tissues. SpSM30A, B, C and E are expressed, albeit at different levels, during overt spicule deposition in the embryo with some differences in the precise timing of expression. SpSM30D is not expressed in the embryo, and SpSM30F is expressed transiently and at low levels just prior to overt spicule formation. Whole mount in situ hybridization studies show that SpSM30A, B, C, and E are expressed exclusively in primary mesenchyme (PMC) cells and their descendants. In addition, tissue fractionation studies indicate that SpSM30F expression is highly enriched in PMCs. Each adult tissue examined expresses a different cohort of the SpSM30 family members at varying levels: SpSM30A mRNA is not expressed in adult tissues. Its expression is limited to the embryo. Conversely, SpSM30D mRNA is not expressed in the embryo, but is expressed in adult spines and teeth. SpSM30B and SpSM30C are expressed at modest levels in all mineralized adult tissues; SpSM30E is expressed highly in tooth and

  3. Comparative Transcriptomics Reveals Key Gene Expression Differences between Diapausing and Non-Diapausing Adults of Culex pipiens

    PubMed Central

    Kang, David S.; Denlinger, David L.; Sim, Cheolho

    2016-01-01

    Diapause is a critical eco-physiological adaptation for winter survival in the West Nile Virus vector, Culex pipiens, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms that distinguish diapause from non-diapause in this important mosquito species. We used Illumina RNA-seq to simultaneously identify and quantify relative transcript levels in diapausing and non-diapausing adult females. Among 65,623,095 read pairs, we identified 41 genes with significantly different transcript abundances between these two groups. Transcriptome divergences between these two phenotypes include genes related to juvenile hormone synthesis, anaerobic metabolism, innate immunity and cold tolerance. PMID:27128578

  4. ABAEnrichment: an R package to test for gene set expression enrichment in the adult and developing human brain.

    PubMed

    Grote, Steffi; Prüfer, Kay; Kelso, Janet; Dannemann, Michael

    2016-10-15

    We present ABAEnrichment, an R package that tests for expression enrichment in specific brain regions at different developmental stages using expression information gathered from multiple regions of the adult and developing human brain, together with ontologically organized structural information about the brain, both provided by the Allen Brain Atlas. We validate ABAEnrichment by successfully recovering the origin of gene sets identified in specific brain cell-types and developmental stages.

  5. SRY-box-containing Gene 2 Regulation of Nuclear Receptor Tailless (Tlx) Transcription in Adult Neural Stem Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Shimozaki, Koji; Zhang, Chun-Li; Suh, Hoonkyo; Denli, Ahmet M.; Evans, Ronald M.; Gage, Fred H.

    2012-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is maintained by self-renewable neural stem cells (NSCs). Their activity is regulated by multiple signaling pathways and key transcription factors. However, it has been unclear whether these factors interplay with each other at the molecular level. Here we show that SRY-box-containing gene 2 (Sox2) and nuclear receptor tailless (TLX) form a molecular network in adult NSCs. We observed that both Sox2 and TLX proteins bind to the upstream region of Tlx gene. Sox2 positively regulates Tlx expression, whereas the binding of TLX to its own promoter suppresses its transcriptional activity in luciferase reporter assays. Such TLX-mediated suppression can be antagonized by overexpressing wild-type Sox2 but not a mutant lacking the transcriptional activation domain. Furthermore, through regions involved in DNA-binding activity, Sox2 and TLX physically interact to form a complex on DNAs that contain a consensus binding site for TLX. Finally, depletion of Sox2 revealed the potential negative feedback loop of TLX expression that is antagonized by Sox2 in adult NSCs. These data suggest that Sox2 plays an important role in Tlx transcription in cultured adult NSCs. PMID:22194602

  6. Patterns of differential gene expression in adult rotation-resistant and wild-type western corn rootworm digestive tracts

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chia-Ching; Zavala, Jorge A; Spencer, Joseph L; Curzi, Matías J; Fields, Christopher J; Drnevich, Jenny; Siegfried, Blair D; Seufferheld, Manfredo J

    2015-01-01

    The western corn rootworm (WCR,Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) is an important pest of corn. Annual crop rotation between corn and soybean disrupts the corn-dependent WCR life cycle and is widely adopted to manage this pest. This strategy selected for rotation-resistant (RR) WCR with reduced ovipositional fidelity to corn. Previous studies revealed that RR-WCR adults exhibit greater tolerance of soybean diets, different gut physiology, and host–microbe interactions compared to rotation-susceptible wild types (WT). To identify the genetic mechanisms underlying these phenotypic changes, a de novo assembly of the WCR adult gut transcriptome was constructed and used for RNA-sequencing analyses of RNA libraries from different WCR phenotypes fed with corn or soybean diets. Global gene expression profiles of WT- and RR-WCR were similar when feeding on corn diets, but different when feeding on soybean. Using network-based methods, we identified gene modules transcriptionally correlated with the RR phenotype. Gene ontology enrichment analyses indicated that the functions of these modules were related to metabolic processes, immune responses, biological adhesion, and other functions/processes that appear to correlate to documented traits in RR populations. These results suggest that gut transcriptomic divergence correlated with brief soybean feeding and other physiological traits may exist between RR- and WT-WCR adults. PMID:26240606

  7. Transient receptor potential genes, smoking, occupational exposures and cough in adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid and ankyrin cation channels are activated by various noxious chemicals and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cough. The aim was to study the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TRP genes and irritant exposures on cough. Methods Nocturnal, usual, and chronic cough, smoking, and job history were obtained by questionnaire in 844 asthmatic and 2046 non-asthmatic adults from the Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA) and the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). Occupational exposures to vapors, gases, dusts, and/or fumes were assessed by a job-exposure matrix. Fifty-eight tagging SNPs in TRPV1, TRPV4, and TRPA1 were tested under an additive model. Results Statistically significant associations of 6 TRPV1 SNPs with cough symptoms were found in non-asthmatics after correction for multiple comparisons. Results were consistent across the eight countries examined. Haplotype-based association analysis confirmed the single SNP analyses for nocturnal cough (7-SNP haplotype: p-global = 4.8 × 10-6) and usual cough (9-SNP haplotype: p-global = 4.5 × 10-6). Cough symptoms were associated with exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke and occupational exposures (p < 0.05). Four polymorphisms in TRPV1 further increased the risk of cough symptoms from irritant exposures in asthmatics and non-asthmatics (interaction p < 0.05). Conclusions TRPV1 SNPs were associated with cough among subjects without asthma from two independent studies in eight European countries. TRPV1 SNPs may enhance susceptibility to cough in current smokers and in subjects with a history of workplace exposures. PMID:22443337

  8. The effects of temperature reduction on gene expression and oxidative stress in skeletal muscle from adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Malek, Renae L; Sajadi, Hedieh; Abraham, Joseph; Grundy, Martin A; Gerhard, Glenn S

    2004-07-01

    Longevity is inversely proportional to ambient temperature in ectothermic organisms such as fish. However, the mechanism by which reducing temperature over a physiological range increases life span is not known and available data are derived primarily from invertebrates. With a rodent-like longevity and abundant biological resources, the zebrafish is an ideal vertebrate ectothermic model in which to investigate this phenomenon. As an initial approach, the effects of a year-long 10 degrees C reduction in water temperature on global gene expression in tail skeletal muscle from adult zebrafish were determined using an oligonucleotide microarray representing 15,512 genes. Expression levels for approximately 600 genes were up-regulated by 1.7-fold or greater by the reduction in temperature, while a similar number of transcripts were down regulated by more than 1.7-fold. Using gene ontology (GO) classifications for molecular function, two functional groups, "oxygen and reactive oxygen species metabolism" and "response to oxidative stress," were found to be overrepresented among up-regulated genes. Transcripts levels for the genes in these two categories were increased by temperature reduction (TR). However, temperature reduction did not suppress lipid peroxidation potential, protein carbonyl content, or 8-oxoguanine level. Additional studies will be required to further delineate the role of altered gene expression and oxidative stress on the longevity-promoting effects of temperature reduction.

  9. Early life adversity and serotonin transporter gene variation interact to affect DNA methylation of the corticotropin-releasing factor gene promoter region in the adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    van der Doelen, Rick H A; Arnoldussen, Ilse A; Ghareh, Hussein; van Och, Liselot; Homberg, Judith R; Kozicz, Tamás

    2015-02-01

    The interaction between childhood maltreatment and the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene linked polymorphic region has been associated with increased risk to develop major depression. This Gene × Environment interaction has furthermore been linked with increased levels of anxiety and glucocorticoid release upon exposure to stress. Both endophenotypes are regulated by the neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or hormone, which is expressed by the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the central amygdala (CeA). Therefore, we hypothesized that altered regulation of the expression of CRF in these areas represents a major neurobiological mechanism underlying the interaction of early life stress and 5-HTT gene variation. The programming of gene transcription by Gene × Environment interactions has been proposed to involve epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. In this study, we report that early life stress and 5-HTT genotype interact to affect DNA methylation of the Crf gene promoter in the CeA of adult male rats. Furthermore, we found that DNA methylation of a specific site in the Crf promoter significantly correlated with CRF mRNA levels in the CeA. Moreover, CeA CRF mRNA levels correlated with stress coping behavior in a learned helplessness paradigm. Together, our findings warrant further investigation of the link of Crf promoter methylation and CRF expression in the CeA with behavioral changes that are relevant for psychopathology.

  10. CONVECTION-ENHANCED DELIVERY AND SYSTEMIC MANNITOL INCREASE GENE PRODUCT DISTRIBUTION OF AAV VECTORS 5, 8, AND 9 AND INCREASE GENE PRODUCT IN THE ADULT MOUSE BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Carty, Nikisha; Lee, Daniel; Dickey, Chad; Ceballos-Diaz, Carolina; Jansen-West, Karen; Golde, Todd E.; Gordon, Marcia N.; Morgan, Dave; Nash, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The use of recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors as a means of gene delivery to the central nervous system has emerged as a potentially viable method for the treatment of several types of degenerative brain diseases. However, a limitation of typical intracranial injections into the adult brain parenchyma is the relatively restricted distribution of the delivered gene to large brain regions such as the cortex, presumably due to confined dispersion of the injected particles. Optimizing the administration techniques to maximize gene distribution and gene expression is an important step in developing gene therapy studies. Here, we have found additive increases in distribution when 3 methods to increase brain distribution of rAAV were combined. The convection enhanced delivery (CED) method with the step-design cannula was used to deliver rAAV vector serotypes 5, 8 and 9 encoding GFP into the hippocampus of the mouse brain. While the CED method improved distribution of all 3 serotypes, the combination of rAAV9 and CED was particularly effective. Systemic mannitol administration, which reduces intracranial pressure, also further expanded distribution of GFP expression, in particular, increased expression on the contralateral hippocampi. These data suggest that combining advanced injection techniques with newer rAAV serotypes greatly improves viral vector distribution, which could have significant benefits for implementation of gene therapy strategies. PMID:20951738

  11. Targeted Disruption of the Lama3 Gene in Adult Mice Is Sufficient to Induce Skin Inflammation and Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Monika; König, Sabrina; Aumailley, Monique

    2017-02-01

    Genetic, clinical, and biochemical studies have shown that integrity of the dermal-epidermal junction requires a particular subset of laminins, that is, those containing the α3 chain encoded by the Lama3 gene. Inherited mutations in the human gene or introduction of constitutive mutations in the mouse gene prevent expression of these laminins, causing junctional epidermolysis bullosa, a very severe, often lethal disorder characterized by detachment of the epidermis from the dermis. This has precluded in vivo functional analysis of α3 chain-containing laminins, and it is still unknown whether and how they contribute to adult skin homeostasis. To address this question, we have disrupted the Lama3 gene in basal keratinocytes of adult mice. This led to the gradual disappearance of α3 chain-containing laminins along the dermal-epidermal junction and formation of subepidermal blisters like in congenital junctional epidermis bullosa. The mice lose their nails and have bullae and erosions on the footpads. Because the blistering is restricted to the interfollicular epidermis, the animals do not lose the epidermis and are viable. There is abundant and scattered deposition of collagen VII on the dermal side of the blisters, inflammation, and development of skin fibrosis with extensive accumulation of interstitial and microfibrillar collagens.

  12. Molecular variations linked to the grouping of beta- and alpha-globin genes in neonatal patients with sickle cell disease in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Marcos André C; Santos, Magnun N N; Araújo, Aderson S; Gomes, Yara M; Abath, Frederico G C; Bandeira, Flavia M G C

    2007-01-01

    Various factors have been described as phenotypic modulators of sickle cell disease, such as levels of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F), presence of alpha-thalassemia (thal), and haplotypes of the beta-globin genes. In order to characterize and determine the frequency of the betaS and betaC mutations and the prevalence of -alpha3.7-thal, 74 patients with sickle cell disease detected during neonatal screening in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, were studied. The haplotypes of the beta gene and -alpha3.7-thal were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and specific restriction endonucleases were used to establish the polymorphic sites of the haplotypes. The results showed the high frequency of the Central African Republic (CAR) or Bantu haplotype in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. The low frequency of the Benin haplotype recorded in this study, in comparison with other states in northeast Brazil, suggests the diversity of origins of Afro-Brazilians in this region.

  13. Direct Activation of Amidohydrolase Domain-Containing 1 Gene by Thyroid Hormone Implicates a Role in the Formation of Adult Intestinal Stem Cells During Xenopus Metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Okada, Morihiro; Miller, Thomas C; Fu, Liezhen; Shi, Yun-Bo

    2015-09-01

    The T3-dependent anuran metamorphosis resembles postembryonic development in mammals, the period around birth when plasma T3 levels peak. In particular, the remodeling of the intestine during metamorphosis mimics neonatal intestinal maturation in mammals when the adult intestinal epithelial self-renewing system is established. We have been using intestinal metamorphosis to investigate how the organ-specific adult stem cells are formed during vertebrate development. Early studies in Xenopus laevis have shown that this process involves complete degeneration of the larval epithelium and de novo formation of adult stem cells. A tissue-specific microarray analysis of intestinal gene expression during Xenopus laevis metamorphosis has identified a number of candidate stem cell genes. Here we have carried out detailed analyses of one such gene, amidohydrolase domain containing 1 (AMDHD1) gene, which encodes an enzyme in the histidine catabolic pathway. We show that AMDHD1 is exclusively expressed in the proliferating adult epithelial stem cells during metamorphosis with little expression in other intestinal tissues. We further provide evidence that T3 activates AMDHD1 gene expression directly at the transcription level through T3 receptor binding to the AMDHD1 gene in the intestine. In addition, we have reported earlier that histidine ammonia-lyase gene, another gene in histidine catabolic pathway, is similarly regulated by T3 in the intestine. These results together suggest that histidine catabolism plays a critical role in the formation and/or proliferation of adult intestinal stem cells during metamorphosis.

  14. From adult stem cells to cancer stem cells: Oct-4 Gene, cell-cell communication, and hormones during tumor promotion.

    PubMed

    Trosko, James E

    2006-11-01

    Carcinogenesis is characterized by "initiation," "promotion," and "progression" phases. The "stem cell theory" and "de-differentiation" theories are used to explain the origin of cancer. Growth control for stem cells, which lack functional gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), involves negative soluble or niche factors, while for progenitor cells, it involves GJIC. Tumor promoters, hormones, and growth factors inhibit GJIC reversibly. Oncogenes stably inhibit GJIC. Cancer cells, which lack growth control and the ability to terminally differentiate and to apoptose, lack GJIC. The Oct3/4 gene, a POU (Pit-Oct-Unc) family of transcription factors was thought to be expressed only in embryonic stem cells and in tumor cells. With the availability of normal adult human stem cells, tests for the expression of Oct3/4 gene and the stem cell theory in human carcinogenesis became possible. Human breast, liver, pancreas, kidney, mesenchyme, and gastric stem cells, HeLa and MCF-7 cells, and canine tumors were tested with antibodies and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for Oct3/4. Adult human breast stem cells, immortalized nontumorigenic and tumor cell lines, but not the normal differentiated cells, expressed Oct3/4. Adult human differentiated cells lose their Oct-4 expression. Oct3/4 is expressed in a few cells found in the basal layer of human skin epidermis. The data demonstrate that normal adult stem cells and cancer stem cells maintain expression of Oct3/4, consistent with the stem cell hypothesis of carcinogenesis. These Oct-4 positive cells might represent the "cancer stem cells." A strategy to target "cancer stem cells" is to suppress the Oct-4 gene in order to cause the cells to differentiate.

  15. The association of interacting neighborhood gene-environment risk with cortisol and blood pressure in African-American adults

    PubMed Central

    Coulon, Sandra M.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Van Horn, M. L.; Hand, Gregory A.; Kresovich, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background African-American adults are disproportionately affected by stress-related chronic conditions like high blood pressure (BP), and both environmental stress and genetic risk may play a role in its development. Purpose This study tested whether the dual risk of low neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and glucocorticoid genetic sensitivity interacted to predict waking cortisol and BP. Methods Cross-sectional waking cortisol and BP were collected from 208 African-American adults who were participating in a follow-up visit as part of the Positive Action for Today’s Health trial. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped, salivary cortisol samples were collected, and neighborhood SES was calculated using 2010 Census data. Results The sample was mostly female (65%), with weight classified as overweight or obese (MBMI=32.74, SD=8.88), and a mean age of 55.64 (SD=15.21). The gene-by-neighborhood SES interaction predicted cortisol (B=0.235, p=.001, r2=.036), but not BP. For adults with high genetic risk, waking cortisol was lower with lower SES but higher with higher SES (B=0.87). Lower neighborhood SES was also related to higher systolic BP (B=−0.794, p=.028). Conclusions Findings demonstrated an interaction whereby African-American adults with high genetic sensitivity had high levels of waking cortisol with higher neighborhood SES, and low levels with lower neighborhood SES. This moderation effect is consistent with a differential susceptibility gene-environment pattern, rather than a dual-risk pattern. These findings contribute to a growing body of evidence that demonstrates the importance of investigating complex gene-environment relations in order to better understand stress-related health disparities. PMID:26685668

  16. LOXL as a target to increase the elastin content in adult skin: a dill extract induces the LOXL gene expression.

    PubMed

    Cenizo, Valérie; André, Valérie; Reymermier, Corinne; Sommer, Pascal; Damour, Odile; Perrier, Eric

    2006-08-01

    The lysyl oxidases lysyl oxidase (LOX) and lysyl oxidase-like (LOXL) are responsible for elastin cross-linking. It was shown recently that LOXL is essential for the elastic fibres homeostasis and for their maintenance at adult age. We first determined whether or not elastin, LOX and LOXL are less expressed during adulthood. The LOX and LOXL mRNA level, quantified by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction decreased in adult skin fibroblasts compared with fibroblasts from children. In contrast, the elastin mRNA level remains stable at all ages. The goal of this study was to induce elastogenesis at the adult age. Therefore, both enzymes, and in particular LOXL, of which expression is the most affected by age, could be targeted to induce elastogenesis in adult skin. We screened a library of about 1000 active ingredients to find activators capable to stimulate specifically the LOXL gene expression in adult dermal fibroblasts. The positive effect of selected active ingredients was confirmed on fibroblasts grown on monolayers and on dermal and skin equivalent cultures. One extract, obtained from dill (LYS'LASTINE V, Engelhard, Lyon, France), stimulates the LOXL gene expression in dermal equivalents (+64% increase in the LOXL mRNA level when compared with control). At the same time, the elastin detection is increased in dermal equivalents and under the dermal-epidermal junction of skin equivalents, without increase of the elastin mRNA. In conclusion, LOXL can be considered as a new target to reinduce elastogenesis. Its stimulation by a dill extract is correlated with increased elastin detection, suggesting an increase in elastogenesis efficiency.

  17. Deletion and deletion/insertion mutations in the juxtamembrane domain of the FLT3 gene in adult acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Deeb, Kristin K.; Smonskey, Matthew T.; DeFedericis, HanChun; Deeb, George; Sait, Sheila N.J.; Wetzler, Meir; Wang, Eunice S.; Starostik, Petr

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to FLT3 ITD mutations, in-frame deletions in the FLT3 gene have rarely been described in adult acute leukemia. We report two cases of AML with uncommon in-frame mutations in the juxtamembrane domain of the FLT3 gene: a 3-bp (c.1770_1774delCTACGinsGT; p.F590_V592delinsLF) deletion/insertion and a 12-bp (c.1780_1791delTTCAGAGAATAT; p.F594_Y597del) deletion. We verified by sequencing that the reading frame of the FLT3 gene was preserved and by cDNA analysis that the mRNA of the mutant allele was expressed in both cases. Given the recent development of FLT3 inhibitors, our findings may be of therapeutic value for AML patients harboring similar FLT3 mutations. PMID:25379410

  18. Lack of Association between a 3'UTR VNTR Polymorphism of Dopamine Transporter Gene (SLC6A3) and ADHD in a Brazilian Sample of Adult Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aperecida da Silva, Maria; Cordeiro, Quirino; Louza, Mario; Vallada, Homero

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate a possible association between a 3'UTR VNTR polymorphism of the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) and ADHD in a Brazilian sample of adult patients. Method: Study Case-control with 102 ADHD adult outpatients ("DSM-IV" criteria) and 479 healthy controls. The primers' sequence used were: 3'UTR-Forward: 5' TGT GGT…

  19. A gene-brain-cognition pathway for the effect of an Alzheimer׳s risk gene on working memory in young adults.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Benson W; DiBattista, Amanda M; William Rebeck, G; Green, Adam E

    2014-08-01

    Identifying pathways by which genetic Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) risk factors exert neurocognitive effects in young adults are essential for the effort to develop early interventions to forestall or prevent AD onset. Here, in a brain-imaging cohort of 59 young adults, we investigated effects of a variant within the clusterin (CLU) gene on working memory function and gray matter volume in cortical areas that support working memory. In addition, we investigated the extent to which effects of CLU genotype on working memory were independent of variation in the strongest AD risk factor gene apolipoprotein E (APOE). CLU is among the strongest genetic AD risk factors and, though it appears to share AD pathogenesis-related features with, APOE, it has been far less well studied. CLU genotype was associated with working memory performance in our study cohort. Notably, we found that variation in gray matter volume in a parietal region, previously implicated in maintenance of information for working memory, mediated the effect of CLU on working memory performance. APOE genotype did not affect working memory within our sample, and did not interact with CLU genotype. To our knowledge, this work represents the first evidence of a behavioral effect of CLU genotype in young people. In addition, this work identifies the first gene-brain-cognition mediation effect pathway for the transmission of the effect of an AD risk factor. Relative to conventional pairwise associations in cognitive neurogenetic research, gene-brain-cognition mediation modeling provides a more integrated understanding of how genetic effects transmit from gene to brain to cognitive function.

  20. Gene polymorphisms and gene scores linked to low serum carotenoid status and their associations with metabolic disturbance and depressive symptoms in African-American adults

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, May A.; Nalls, Michael A.; Canas, J. Atilio; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2016-01-01

    Gene polymorphisms provide means to obtain unconfounded associations between carotenoids and various health outcomes. We tested whether gene polymophorisms and gene scores linked to serum carotenoid status are related to metabolic disturbance and depressive symptoms in African-American adults residing in Baltimore city, MD, using cross-sectional data from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhood of Diversity Across the Lifespan (HANDLS) study (Age range:30–64y, N=873–994). We examined 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms of various gene loci that were previously shown to be associated with low serum carotenoid status (SNPlcar). Genetic risk scores (5 low specific-carotenoid risk scores (LSCRS: α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein+zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene) and 1 low total-carotenoid risk score (LTCRS: total carotenoids)) were created. SNPlcar, LSCRS and LTCRS were entered as predictors for a number of health outcomes. Those included obesity, National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, elevated homeostatic model assessment, Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), C-reactive protein (CRP), hyperuricemia and elevated depressive symptoms (EDS, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) score≥16). Among key findings, SNPlcar were not associated with the main outcomes after correction for multiple testing. However, an inverse association was found between LTCRS and HDL-C dyslipidemia. Specifically, the α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin LSCRS were associated with lower odds of HDL-C dyslipidemia. However, the β-cryptoxanthin LSCRS was linked to a higher odds of EDS, with a linear dose-response relationship. In sum, gene risk scores linked to low serum carotenoids had mixed effects on HDL-C dyslipidemia and EDS. Further studies using larger African-American samples are needed. PMID:25201307

  1. Epigenetic abnormality of SRY gene in the adult XY female with pericentric inversion of the Y chromosome.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Tomoko; Warita, Katsuhiko; Sugawara, Teruo; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Takasaki, Ichiro; Kondo, Takashi; Hayashi, Fumio; Wang, Zhi-Yu; Matsumoto, Yoshiki; Miki, Takanori; Takeuchi, Yoshiki; Ebina, Yasuhiko; Yamada, Hideto; Sakuragi, Noriaki; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Nanmori, Takashi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Kant, Jeffrey A; Hoshi, Nobuhiko

    2010-06-01

    In normal ontogenetic development, the expression of the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) gene, involved in the first step of male sex differentiation, is spatiotemporally regulated in an elaborate fashion. SRY is expressed in germ cells and Sertoli cells in adult testes. However, only few reports have focused on the expressions of SRY and the other sex-determining genes in both the classical organ developing through these genes (gonad) and the peripheral tissue (skin) of adult XY females. In this study, we examined the gonadal tissue and fibroblasts of a 17-year-old woman suspected of having disorders of sexual differentiation by cytogenetic, histological, and molecular analyses. The patient was found to have the 46,X,inv(Y)(p11.2q11.2) karyotype and streak gonads with abnormally prolonged SRY expression. The sex-determining gene expressions in the patient-derived fibroblasts were significantly changed relative to those from a normal male. Further, the acetylated histone H3 levels in the SRY region were significantly high relative to those of the normal male. As SRY is epistatic in the sex-determination pathway, the prolonged SRY expression possibly induced a destabilizing effect on the expressions of the downstream sex-determining genes. Collectively, alterations in the sex-determining gene expressions persisted in association with disorders of sexual differentiation not only in the streak gonads but also in the skin of the patient. The findings suggest that correct regulation of SRY expression is crucial for normal male sex differentiation, even if SRY is translated normally.

  2. Association of Adiponectin Gene (ADIPOQ) rs2241766 Polymorphism with Obesity in Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jingjing; Liu, Zheng; Meng, Kai; Zhang, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Background Adiponectin plays an important role in regulating glucose levels and fatty acid oxidation. Multiple studies have assessed the association between rs2241766 polymorphism in the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) gene and obesity susceptibility. However, the results are inconsistent and inconclusive. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate this association in adults. Method Several electronic databases were searched for relevant literature published up to November 2013. Statistical analyses were performed using software Review Manager (Version 5.02) and STATA (Version 10.0). The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with a random-effects model or a fixed-effect model depending on heterogeneity among studies. Q tests and Egger’s tests were performed to assess heterogeneity and publication bias. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to confirm the reliability and stability of the meta-analysis. Results A total of 2,819 obese and 3,024 controls in 18 case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. The results indicated that compared with TT genotype, the ADIPOQ-rs2241766 GG genotype was associated with an increased risk for obesity (OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.11–1.73, P for heterogeneity = 0.520, I2 = 0%) in overall studies. Whereas, GT genotype was associated with a borderland increased risk for obesity (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.94–1.36, P for heterogeneity = 0.006, I2 = 51%). The susceptibility of obesity was increased based on genotypes of TT

  3. TRAP-seq Profiling and RNAi-Based Genetic Screens Identify Conserved Glial Genes Required for Adult Drosophila Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Fanny S.; Sengupta, Sukanya; Huang, Yanmei; Yu, Amy M.; You, Samantha; Roberts, Mary A.; Iyer, Lakshmanan K.; Yang, Yongjie; Jackson, F. Rob

    2016-01-01

    Although, glial cells have well characterized functions in the developing and mature brain, it is only in the past decade that roles for these cells in behavior and plasticity have been delineated. Glial astrocytes and glia-neuron signaling, for example, are now known to have important modulatory functions in sleep, circadian behavior, memory and plasticity. To better understand mechanisms of glia-neuron signaling in the context of behavior, we have conducted cell-specific, genome-wide expression profiling of adult Drosophila astrocyte-like brain cells and performed RNA interference (RNAi)-based genetic screens to identify glial factors that regulate behavior. Importantly, our studies demonstrate that adult fly astrocyte-like cells and mouse astrocytes have similar molecular signatures; in contrast, fly astrocytes and surface glia—different classes of glial cells—have distinct expression profiles. Glial-specific expression of 653 RNAi constructs targeting 318 genes identified multiple factors associated with altered locomotor activity, circadian rhythmicity and/or responses to mechanical stress (bang sensitivity). Of interest, 1 of the relevant genes encodes a vesicle recycling factor, 4 encode secreted proteins and 3 encode membrane transporters. These results strongly support the idea that glia-neuron communication is vital for adult behavior. PMID:28066175

  4. Interactions between beta-2 adrenoceptor gene variation, cardiovascular control and dietary sodium in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Eisenach, John H; Schroeder, Darrell R; Pavey, Emily S; Penheiter, Alan R; Knutson, Jean N; Turner, Stephen T; Joyner, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Dietary sodium affects function of the beta-2 adrenoceptor (ADRB2). We tested the hypothesis that haplotype variation in the ADRB2 gene would influence the cardiovascular and regional vasodilator responses to sympathoexcitatory manoeuvres following low, normal and high sodium diets, and ADRB2-mediated forearm vasodilation in the high sodium condition. Seventy-one healthy young adults were grouped by double homozygous haplotypes: Arg16+Gln27 (n = 31), the rare Gly16+Gln27 (n = 10) and Gly16+Glu27 (n = 30). Using a randomized cross-over design, subjects were studied following 5 days of controlled low, normal and high sodium with 1 month or longer between diets (and low hormone phase of the menstrual cycle). All three visits utilized ECG and finger plethysmography for haemodynamic measures, and the high sodium visit included a brachial arterial catheter for forearm vasodilator responses to isoprenaline with plethysmography. Lymphocytes were sampled for ex vivo analysis of ADRB2 density and binding conformation. We found a main effect of haplotype on ADRB2 density (P = 0.03) with the Gly16+Glu27 haplotype having the greatest density (low, normal, high sodium: 12.9 ± 0.9, 13.5 ± 0.9 and 13.6 ± 0.8 fmol mg(-1) protein, respectively) and Arg16+Gln27 having the least (9.3 ± 0.6, 10.1 ± 0.5 and 10.3 ± 0.6  fmol mg(-1) protein, respectively), but there were no sodium or haplotype effects on receptor binding conformation. In the mental stress trial, there was a main effect of haplotype on cardiac output (P = 0.04), as Arg16+Gln27 had the lowest responses. Handgrip and forearm vasodilation yielded no haplotype differences, and no correlations were present for ADRB2 density and haemodynamics. Our findings support cell-based evidence that ADRB2 haplotype influences ADRB2 protein expression independent of dietary sodium, yet the haemodynamic consequences appear modest in healthy humans.

  5. Circadian Regulation Gene Polymorphisms are Associated with Sleep Disruption and Duration, and Circadian Phase and Rhythm in Adults with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kathryn A.; Gay, Caryl; Byun, Eeeseung; Lerdal, Anners; Pullinger, Clive R.; Aouizerat, Bradley E.

    2016-01-01

    Genes involved in circadian regulation, such as circadian locomotor output cycles kaput [CLOCK], cryptochrome [CRY1], and period [PER], have been associated with sleep outcomes in prior animal and human research. However, it is unclear whether polymorphisms in these genes are associated with the sleep disturbances commonly experienced by adults living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe polymorphisms in selected circadian genes that are associated with sleep duration or disruption as well as the sleep-wake rhythm strength and phase timing among adults living with HIV/AIDS. A convenience sample of 289 adults with HIV/AIDS was recruited from HIV clinics and community sites in the San Francisco Bay Area. A wrist actigraph was worn for 72 hours on weekdays to estimate sleep duration or total sleep time (TST), sleep disruption or percentage of wake after sleep onset (WASO), and several circadian rhythm parameters: mesor, amplitude, the ratio of mesor to amplitude (circadian quotient), and 24-hour autocorrelation. Circadian phase measures included clock time for peak activity (acrophase) from actigraphy movement data, and bed time and final wake time from actigraphy and self-report. Genotyping was conducted for polymorphisms in 5 candidate genes involved in circadian regulation: CLOCK, CRY1, PER1, PER2, and PER3. Demographic and clinical variables were evaluated as potential covariates. Interactions between genotype and HIV variables (i.e., viral load, years since HIV diagnosis) were also evaluated. Controlling for potentially confounding variables (e.g., race, gender, CD4+ T-cell count, waist circumference, medication use, smoking, depressive symptoms), CLOCK was associated with WASO, 24-hour autocorrelation, and objectively-measured bed time; CRY1 was associated with circadian quotient; PER1 was associated with mesor and self-reported habitual wake time; PER2 was associated

  6. Effect of Varroa destructor, Wounding and Varroa Homogenate on Gene Expression in Brood and Adult Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Koleoglu, Gun; Goodwin, Paul H.; Reyes-Quintana, Mariana; Hamiduzzaman, Mollah Md.; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto

    2017-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) gene expression related to immunity for hymenoptaecin (AmHym) and defensin-1 (AmDef-1), longevity for vitellogenin (AmVit2) and stem cell proliferation for poly U binding factor 68 kDa (AmPuf68) was compared following Varroa destructor parasitism, buffer injection and injection of V. destructor compounds in its homogenate. In adults, V. destructor parasitism decreased expression of all four genes, while buffer injection decreased expression of AmHym, AmPuf68 and AmVit2, and homogenate injection decreased expression of AmPuf68 and AmVit2 but increased expression of AmDef-1 relative to their respective controls. The effect of V. destructor parasitism in adults relative to the controls was not significantly different from buffer injection for AmHym and AmVit2 expression, and it was not significantly different from homogenate injection for AmPuf68 and AmVit2. In brood, V. destructor parasitism, buffer injection and homogenate injection decreased AmVit2 expression, whereas AmHym expression was decreased by V. destructor parasitism but increased by buffer and homogenate injection relative to the controls. The effect of varroa parasitism in brood was not significantly different from buffer or homogenate injection for AmPuf68 and AmVit2. Expression levels of the four genes did not correlate with detectable viral levels in either brood or adults. The results of this study indicate that the relative effects of V. destructor parasitism on honey bee gene expression are also shared with other types of stresses. Therefore, some of the effects of V. destructor on honey bees may be mostly due to wounding and injection of foreign compounds into the hemolymph of the bee during parasitism. Although both brood and adults are naturally parasitized by V. destructor, their gene expression responded differently, probably the result of different mechanisms of host responses during development. PMID:28081188

  7. Circadian regulation gene polymorphisms are associated with sleep disruption and duration, and circadian phase and rhythm in adults with HIV.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kathryn A; Gay, Caryl; Byun, Eeeseung; Lerdal, Anners; Pullinger, Clive R; Aouizerat, Bradley E

    2015-01-01

    Genes involved in circadian regulation, such as circadian locomotor output cycles kaput [CLOCK], cryptochrome [CRY1] and period [PER], have been associated with sleep outcomes in prior animal and human research. However, it is unclear whether polymorphisms in these genes are associated with the sleep disturbances commonly experienced by adults living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe polymorphisms in selected circadian genes that are associated with sleep duration or disruption as well as the sleep-wake rhythm strength and phase timing among adults living with HIV/AIDS. A convenience sample of 289 adults with HIV/AIDS was recruited from HIV clinics and community sites in the San Francisco Bay Area. A wrist actigraph was worn for 72 h on weekdays to estimate sleep duration or total sleep time (TST), sleep disruption or percentage of wake after sleep onset (WASO) and several circadian rhythm parameters: mesor, amplitude, the ratio of mesor to amplitude (circadian quotient), and 24-h autocorrelation. Circadian phase measures included clock time for peak activity (acrophase) from actigraphy movement data, and bed time and final wake time from actigraphy and self-report. Genotyping was conducted for polymorphisms in five candidate genes involved in circadian regulation: CLOCK, CRY1, PER1, PER2 and PER3. Demographic and clinical variables were evaluated as potential covariates. Interactions between genotype and HIV variables (i.e. viral load, years since HIV diagnosis) were also evaluated. Controlling for potentially confounding variables (e.g. race, gender, CD4+ T-cell count, waist circumference, medication use, smoking and depressive symptoms), CLOCK was associated with WASO, 24-h autocorrelation and objectively-measured bed time; CRY1 was associated with circadian quotient; PER1 was associated with mesor and self-reported habitual wake time; PER2 was associated with TST

  8. Combining suppressive subtractive hybridization and cDNA microarrays to identify dietary phosphorus-responsive genes of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) kidney.

    PubMed

    Lake, Jennifer; Gravel, Catherine; Koko, Gabriel Koffi D; Robert, Claude; Vandenberg, Grant W

    2010-03-01

    Phosphorus (P)-responsive genes and how they regulate renal adaptation to phosphorous-deficient diets in animals, including fish, are not well understood. RNA abundance profiling using cDNA microarrays is an efficient approach to study nutrient-gene interactions and identify these dietary P-responsive genes. To test the hypothesis that dietary P-responsive genes are differentially expressed in fish fed varying P levels, rainbow trout were fed a practical high-P diet (R20: 0.96% P) or a low-P diet (R0: 0.38% P) for 7 weeks. The differentially-expressed genes between dietary groups were identified and compared from the kidney by combining suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) with cDNA microarray analysis. A number of genes were confirmed by real-time PCR, and correlated with plasma and bone P concentrations. Approximately 54 genes were identified as potential dietary P-responsive after 7 weeks on a diet deficient in P according to cDNA microarray analysis. Of 18 selected genes, 13 genes were confirmed to be P-responsive at 7 weeks by real-time PCR analysis, including: iNOS, cytochrome b, cytochrome c oxidase subunit II , alpha-globin I, beta-globin, ATP synthase, hyperosmotic protein 21, COL1A3, Nkef, NDPK, glucose phosphate isomerase 1, Na+/H+ exchange protein and GDP dissociation inhibitor 2. Many of these dietary P-responsive genes responded in a moderate way (R0/R20 ratio: <2-3 or >0.5) and in a transient manner to dietary P limitation. In summary, renal adaptation to dietary P deficiency in trout involves changes in the expression of several genes, suggesting a profile of metabolic stress, since many of these differentially-expressed candidates are associated with the cellular adaptative responses.

  9. Stable Host Gene Expression in the Gut of Adult Drosophila melanogaster with Different Bacterial Mono-Associations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Vivian; Ludington, William B.; Eisen, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the microbes found in the digestive tracts of animals influence host biology, but we still do not understand how they accomplish this. Here, we evaluated how different microbial species commonly associated with laboratory-reared Drosophila melanogaster impact host biology at the level of gene expression in the dissected adult gut and in the entire adult organism. We observed that guts from animals associated from the embryonic stage with either zero, one or three bacterial species demonstrated indistinguishable transcriptional profiles. Additionally, we found that the gut transcriptional profiles of animals reared in the presence of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae alone or in combination with bacteria could recapitulate those of conventionally-reared animals. In contrast, we found whole body transcriptional profiles of conventionally-reared animals were distinct from all of the treatments tested. Our data suggest that adult flies are insensitive to the ingestion of the bacteria found in their gut, but that prior to adulthood, different microbes impact the host in ways that lead to global transcriptional differences observable across the whole adult body. PMID:27898741

  10. Expression of the Otx2 homeobox gene in the developing mammalian brain: embryonic and adult expression in the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Rath, Martin F; Muñoz, Estela; Ganguly, Surajit; Morin, Fabrice; Shi, Qiong; Klein, David C; Møller, Morten

    2006-04-01

    Otx2 is a vertebrate homeobox gene, which has been found to be essential for the development of rostral brain regions and appears to play a role in the development of retinal photoreceptor cells and pinealocytes. In this study, the temporal expression pattern of Otx2 was revealed in the rat brain, with special emphasis on the pineal gland throughout late embryonic and postnatal stages. Widespread high expression of Otx2 in the embryonic brain becomes progressively restricted in the adult to the pineal gland. Crx (cone-rod homeobox), a downstream target gene of Otx2, showed a pineal expression pattern similar to that of Otx2, although there was a distinct lag in time of onset. Otx2 protein was identified in pineal extracts and found to be localized in pinealocytes. Total pineal Otx2 mRNA did not show day-night variation, nor was it influenced by removal of the sympathetic input, indicating that the level of Otx2 mRNA appears to be independent of the photoneural input to the gland. Our results are consistent with the view that pineal expression of Otx2 is required for development and we hypothesize that it plays a role in the adult in controlling the expression of the cluster of genes associated with phototransduction and melatonin synthesis.

  11. Molecular Epidemiology of ESBL Genes and Multi-Drug Resistance in Diarrheagenic Escherichia Coli Strains Isolated from Adults in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani-Dalini, Sadegh; Kargar, Mohammad; Doosti, Abbas; Abbasi, Pejman; Sarshar, Meysam

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to oxyimino cephalosporins antibiotics in Enterobacteriaceae is primarily done by the extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). Clear identification of risk factors for ESBLs-producing infections is necessary. Therefore, efficient strategies can be developed to decrease outbreak of these infections. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial susceptibility and ESBLs pattern of diarrhogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains isolated from adult patients. In the present study, diarrheogenic E. coli strains were isolated from 54 patients from the University of Medical Sciences hospitals in Shiraz. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by disk diffusion method by CLSI criteria. The presence of blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes was investigated by PCR using designated primers. The prevalence of ESBLs-producer E. coli strains was 12.96%. Antimicrobial resistance testing showed a high resistance to cefexime, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin and penicillin. Overall, β-lactamase genes were identified in 52 (96.30%) isolates which were identified as 45 (83.33%) blaTEM, 17 (31.48%) blaSHV and 11 (20.37%) blaCTX-M. ESBLs-producer E. coli is very prevalent in Diarrheogenic strains isolated from adult patients. Also, this study clearly showed that the blaTEM gene for ESBLs-producer E. coli was widespread in Iran. PMID:26664394

  12. The REVEILLE Clock Genes Inhibit Growth of Juvenile and Adult Plants by Control of Cell Size1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Jennifer A.; Chu, Dalena Nhu

    2017-01-01

    The circadian clock is a complex regulatory network that enhances plant growth and fitness in a constantly changing environment. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the clock is composed of numerous regulatory feedback loops in which REVEILLE8 (RVE8) and its homologs RVE4 and RVE6 act in a partially redundant manner to promote clock pace. Here, we report that the remaining members of the RVE8 clade, RVE3 and RVE5, play only minor roles in the regulation of clock function. However, we find that RVE8 clade proteins have unexpected functions in the modulation of light input to the clock and the control of plant growth at multiple stages of development. In seedlings, these proteins repress hypocotyl elongation in a daylength- and sucrose-dependent manner. Strikingly, adult rve4 6 8 and rve3 4 5 6 8 mutants are much larger than wild-type plants, with both increased leaf area and biomass. This size phenotype is associated with a faster growth rate and larger cell size and is not simply due to a delay in the transition to flowering. Gene expression and epistasis analysis reveal that the growth phenotypes of rve mutants are due to the misregulation of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) and PIF5 expression. Our results show that even small changes in PIF gene expression caused by the perturbation of clock gene function can have large effects on the growth of adult plants. PMID:28254761

  13. 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTRR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTR) gene polymorphisms and adult meningioma risk.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Yan-Wen; Shi, Hua-Ping; Wang, Yan-Zhong; Li, Gui-Ling; Yu, Hai-Tao; Xie, Xin-You

    2013-11-01

    The causes of meningiomas are not well understood. Folate metabolism gene polymorphisms have been shown to be associated with various human cancers. It is still controversial and ambiguous between the functional polymorphisms of folate metabolism genes 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTRR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTR) and risk of adult meningioma. A population-based case–control study involving 600 meningioma patients (World Health Organization [WHO] Grade I, 391 cases; WHO Grade II, 167 cases; WHO Grade III, 42 cases) and 600 controls was done for the MTHFR C677T and A1298C, MTRR A66G, and MTR A2756G variants in Chinese Han population. The folate metabolism gene polymorphisms were determined by using a polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Meningioma cases had a significantly lower frequency of MTHFR 677 TT genotype [odds ratio (OR) = 0.49, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.33–0.74; P = 0.001] and T allele (OR = 0.80, 95 % CI 0.67–0.95; P = 0.01) than controls. A significant association between risk of meningioma and MTRR 66 GG (OR = 1.41, 95 % CI 1.02–1.96; P = 0.04) was also observed. When stratifying by the WHO grade of meningioma, no association was found. Our study suggested that MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G variants may affect the risk of adult meningioma in Chinese Han population.

  14. Expression of spicule matrix protein gene SM30 in embryonic and adult mineralized tissues of sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitajima, T.; Tomita, M.; Killian, C. E.; Akasaka, K.; Wilt, F. H.

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA clone for spicule matrix protein, SM30, from sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus and have studied the expression of this gene in comparison with that of another spicule matrix protein gene, SM50. In cultured micromeres as well as in intact embryos transcripts of SM30 were first detectable around the onset of spicule formation and rapidly increased with the growth of spicules, which accompanied accumulation of glycosylated SM30 protein(s). When micromeres were cultured in the presence of Zn2+, spicule formation and SM30 expression were suppressed, while both events resumed concurrently after the removal of Zn2+ from the culture medium. Expression of SM50, in contrast, started before the appearance of spicules and was not sensitive to Zn2+. Differences were also observed in adult tissues; SM30 mRNA was detected in spines and tube feet but not in the test, while SM50 mRNA was apparent in all of these mineralized tissues at similar levels. These results strongly suggest that the SM30 gene is regulated by a different mechanism to that of the SM50 gene and that the products of these two genes are differently involved in sea urchin biomineralization. A possible role of SM30 protein in skeleton formation is discussed.

  15. Correlated 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and Gene Expression Profiles Underpin Gene and Organ-Specific Epigenetic Regulation in Adult Mouse Brain and Liver

    PubMed Central

    Lin, I-Hsuan; Chen, Yi-Fan; Hsu, Ming-Ta

    2017-01-01

    Background DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism essential for gene regulation and vital for mammalian development. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is the first oxidative product of the TET-mediated 5-methylcytosine (5mC) demethylation pathway. Aside from being a key intermediate in cytosine demethylation, 5hmC may have potential regulatory functions with emerging importance in mammalian biology. Methods Here, we investigate the global 5hmC enrichment in five brain structures, including cerebellum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and thalamus, as well as liver tissues from female and male adult mice by using chemical capture-based technique coupled with next-generation sequencing. At the same time, we carried out total RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to analyze the transcriptomes of brain regions and liver tissues. Results Our results reveal preferential 5hmC enrichment in the gene bodies of expressed genes, and 5hmC levels of many protein-coding genes are positively correlated with RNA expression intensity. However, more than 75% of genes with low or no 5hmC enrichment are genes encode for mitochondrial proteins and ribosomal proteins despite being actively transcribed, implying different transcriptional regulation mechanisms of these housekeeping genes. Brain regions developed from the same embryonic structures have more similar 5hmC profiles. Also, the genic 5hmC enrichment pattern is highly tissue-specific, and 5hmC marks genes involving in tissue-specific biological processes. Sex chromosomes are mostly depleted of 5hmC, and the X inactive specific transcript (Xist) gene located on the X chromosome is the only gene to show sex-specific 5hmC enrichment. Conclusions This is the first report of the whole-genome 5hmC methylome of five major brain structures and liver tissues in mice of both sexes. This study offers a comprehensive resource for future work of mammalian cytosine methylation dynamics. Our findings offer additional evidence that suggests 5hm

  16. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated expression of a human gamma-globin gene in human progenitor-derived erythroid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, J L; Donahue, R E; Sellers, S E; Samulski, R J; Young, N S; Nienhuis, A W

    1994-01-01

    Effective gene therapy for the severe hemoglobin (Hb) disorders, sickle-cell anemia and thalassemia, will require an efficient method to transfer, integrate, and express a globin gene in primary erythroid cells. To evaluate recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) for this purpose, we constructed a rAAV vector encoding a human gamma-globin gene (pJM24/vHS432A gamma). Its 4725-nucleotide genome consists of two 180-bp AAV inverted terminal repeats flanking the core elements of hypersensitive sites 2, 3, and 4 from the locus control region of the beta-globin gene cluster, linked to a mutationally marked A gamma-globin gene (A gamma) containing native promoter and RNA processing signals. CD34+ human hematopoietic cells were exposed to rAAV particles at a multiplicity of infection of 500-1000 and cultured in semisolid medium containing several cytokines. A reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay distinguished mRNA signals derived from transduced and endogenous human gamma-globin genes. Twenty to 40% of human erythroid burst-forming unit-derived colonies expressed the rAAV-transduced A gamma-globin gene at levels 4-71% that of the endogenous gamma-globin genes. The HbF content of pooled control colonies was 26%, whereas HbF was 40% of the total in pooled colonies derived from rAAV transduced progenitors. These data establish that rAAV containing elements from the locus control region linked to a gamma-globin gene are capable of transferring and expressing that gene in primary human hematopoietic cells resulting in a substantial increase in HbF content. Images PMID:7524085

  17. Identification of Development-Related Genes in the Ovaries of Adult Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) Lady Beetles Using a Time- Series Analysis by RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Du, Wenxiao; Zeng, Fanrong

    2016-12-14

    Adults of the lady beetle species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) are bred artificially en masse for classic biological control, which requires egg-laying by the H. axyridis ovary. Development-related genes may impact the growth of the H. axyridis adult ovary but have not been reported. Here, we used integrative time-series RNA-seq analysis of the ovary in H. axyridis adults to detect development-related genes. A total of 28,558 unigenes were functionally annotated using seven types of databases to obtain an annotated unigene database for ovaries in H. axyridis adults. We also analysed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between samples. Based on a combination of the results of this bioinformatics analysis with literature reports and gene expression level changes in four different stages, we focused on the development of oocyte reproductive stem cell and yolk formation process and identified 26 genes with high similarity to development-related genes. 20 DEGs were randomly chosen for quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to validate the accuracy of the RNA-seq results. This study establishes a robust pipeline for the discovery of key genes using high-throughput sequencing and the identification of a class of development-related genes for characterization.

  18. Identification of Development-Related Genes in the Ovaries of Adult Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) Lady Beetles Using a Time- Series Analysis by RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wenxiao; Zeng, Fanrong

    2016-01-01

    Adults of the lady beetle species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) are bred artificially en masse for classic biological control, which requires egg-laying by the H. axyridis ovary. Development-related genes may impact the growth of the H. axyridis adult ovary but have not been reported. Here, we used integrative time-series RNA-seq analysis of the ovary in H. axyridis adults to detect development-related genes. A total of 28,558 unigenes were functionally annotated using seven types of databases to obtain an annotated unigene database for ovaries in H. axyridis adults. We also analysed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between samples. Based on a combination of the results of this bioinformatics analysis with literature reports and gene expression level changes in four different stages, we focused on the development of oocyte reproductive stem cell and yolk formation process and identified 26 genes with high similarity to development-related genes. 20 DEGs were randomly chosen for quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to validate the accuracy of the RNA-seq results. This study establishes a robust pipeline for the discovery of key genes using high-throughput sequencing and the identification of a class of development-related genes for characterization. PMID:27966611

  19. Isolation and Culture of Adult Intestinal, Gastric, and Liver Organoids for Cre-recombinase-Mediated Gene Deletion.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Dustin J; Schwab, Renate H M; Tran, Bang M; Phesse, Toby J; Vincan, Elizabeth

    2016-10-05

    The discovery of Lgr5 as a marker of adult stem cells meant that stem cell populations could be purified and studied in isolation. Importantly, when cultured under the appropriate conditions these stem cells form organoids in tissue culture that retain many features of the tissue of origin. The organoid cultures are accessible to genetic and biochemical manipulation, bridging the gap between in vivo mouse models and conventional tissue culture. Here we describe robust protocols to establish organoids from gastrointestinal tissues (stomach, intestine, liver) and Cre-recombinase mediated gene manipulation in vitro.

  20. Changes in gene expression profiles as they relate to the adult plant leaf rust resistance in the wheat cv. Toropi

    PubMed Central

    Casassola, Alice; Brammer, Sandra P.; Chaves, Márcia S.; Martinelli, José A.; Stefanato, Francesca; Boyd, Lesley A.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf rust, caused by the foliar pathogen Puccinia triticina is a major disease of wheat in the southern region of Brazil and invariably impacts on production, being responsible for high yield losses. The Brazilian wheat cultivar Toropi has proven, durable adult plant resistance (APR) to leaf rust, which uniquely shows a pre-haustorial resistance phenotype. In this study we aimed to understand the interaction between P. triticina and the pre-haustorial APR in Toropi by quantitatively evaluating the temporal transcription profiles of selected genes known to be related to infection and defense in wheat. The expression profiles of 15 selected genes varied over time, grouping into six expression profile groups. The expression profiles indicated the induction of classical defence pathways in response to pathogen development, but also the potential modification of Toropi's cellular status for the benefit of the pathogen. Classical defence genes, including peroxidases, β-1,3-glucanases and an endochitinase were expressed both early (pre-haustorial) and late (post-haustorial) over the 72 h infection time course, while induction of transcription of other infection-related genes with a potential role in defence, although variable was maintained through-out. These genes directly or indirectly had a role in plant lignification, oxidative stress, the regulation of energy supply, water and lipid transport, and cell cycle regulation. The early induction of transcription of defence-related genes supports the pre-haustorial resistance phenotype in Toropi, providing a valuable source of genes controlling leaf rust resistance for wheat breeding. PMID:25892845

  1. Changes in gene expression profiles as they relate to the adult plant leaf rust resistance in the wheat cv. Toropi.

    PubMed

    Casassola, Alice; Brammer, Sandra P; Chaves, Márcia S; Martinelli, José A; Stefanato, Francesca; Boyd, Lesley A

    2015-01-01

    Leaf rust, caused by the foliar pathogen Puccinia triticina is a major disease of wheat in the southern region of Brazil and invariably impacts on production, being responsible for high yield losses. The Brazilian wheat cultivar Toropi has proven, durable adult plant resistance (APR) to leaf rust, which uniquely shows a pre-haustorial resistance phenotype. In this study we aimed to understand the interaction between P. triticina and the pre-haustorial APR in Toropi by quantitatively evaluating the temporal transcription profiles of selected genes known to be related to infection and defense in wheat. The expression profiles of 15 selected genes varied over time, grouping into six expression profile groups. The expression profiles indicated the induction of classical defence pathways in response to pathogen development, but also the potential modification of Toropi's cellular status for the benefit of the pathogen. Classical defence genes, including peroxidases, β-1,3-glucanases and an endochitinase were expressed both early (pre-haustorial) and late (post-haustorial) over the 72 h infection time course, while induction of transcription of other infection-related genes with a potential role in defence, although variable was maintained through-out. These genes directly or indirectly had a role in plant lignification, oxidative stress, the regulation of energy supply, water and lipid transport, and cell cycle regulation. The early induction of transcription of defence-related genes supports the pre-haustorial resistance phenotype in Toropi, providing a valuable source of genes controlling leaf rust resistance for wheat breeding.

  2. Gene Expression Profiling of Embryonic Human Neural Stem Cells and Dopaminergic Neurons from Adult Human Substantia Nigra

    PubMed Central

    Marei, Hany E. S.; Althani, Asma; Afifi, Nahla; Michetti, Fabrizio; Pescatori, Mario; Pallini, Roberto; Casalbore, Patricia; Cenciarelli, Carlo; Schwartz, Philip; Ahmed, Abd-Elmaksoud

    2011-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSC) with self-renewal and multipotent properties serve as an ideal cell source for transplantation to treat neurodegenerative insults such as Parkinson's disease. We used Agilent's and Illumina Whole Human Genome Oligonucleotide Microarray to compare the genomic profiles of human embryonic NSC at a single time point in culture, and a multicellular tissue from postmortem adult substantia nigra (SN) which are rich in dopaminergic (DA) neurons. We identified 13525 up-regulated genes in both cell types of which 3737 (27.6%) genes were up-regulated in the hENSC, 4116 (30.4%) genes were up-regulated in the human substantia nigra dopaminergic cells, and 5672 (41.93%) were significantly up-regulated in both cell population. Careful analysis of the data that emerged using DAVID has permitted us to distinguish several genes and pathways that are involved in dopaminergic (DA) differentiation, and to identify the crucial signaling pathways that direct the process of differentiation. The set of genes expressed more highly at hENSC is enriched in molecules known or predicted to be involved in the M phase of the mitotic cell cycle. On the other hand, the genes enriched in SN cells include a different set of functional categories, namely synaptic transmission, central nervous system development, structural constituents of the myelin sheath, the internode region of axons, myelination, cell projection, cell somata, ion transport, and the voltage-gated ion channel complex. Our results were also compared with data from various databases, and between different types of arrays, Agilent versus Illumina. This approach has allowed us to confirm the consistency of our obtained results for a large number of genes that delineate the phenotypical differences of embryonic NSCs, and SN cells. PMID:22163301

  3. A common variant in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index and predisposes to childhood and adult obesity.

    PubMed

    Frayling, Timothy M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Weedon, Michael N; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Freathy, Rachel M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Perry, John R B; Elliott, Katherine S; Lango, Hana; Rayner, Nigel W; Shields, Beverley; Harries, Lorna W; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Ellard, Sian; Groves, Christopher J; Knight, Bridget; Patch, Ann-Marie; Ness, Andrew R; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A; Ring, Susan M; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Sovio, Ulla; Bennett, Amanda J; Melzer, David; Ferrucci, Luigi; Loos, Ruth J F; Barroso, Inês; Wareham, Nicholas J; Karpe, Fredrik; Owen, Katharine R; Cardon, Lon R; Walker, Mark; Hitman, Graham A; Palmer, Colin N A; Doney, Alex S F; Morris, Andrew D; Smith, George Davey; Hattersley, Andrew T; McCarthy, Mark I

    2007-05-11

    Obesity is a serious international health problem that increases the risk of several common diseases. The genetic factors predisposing to obesity are poorly understood. A genome-wide search for type 2 diabetes-susceptibility genes identified a common variant in the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene that predisposes to diabetes through an effect on body mass index (BMI). An additive association of the variant with BMI was replicated in 13 cohorts with 38,759 participants. The 16% of adults who are homozygous for the risk allele weighed about 3 kilograms more and had 1.67-fold increased odds of obesity when compared with those not inheriting a risk allele. This association was observed from age 7 years upward and reflects a specific increase in fat mass.

  4. Unraveling the estrogen receptor (er) genes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reveals expression differences between the two adult life stages but little impact from polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) load.

    PubMed

    Nikoleris, Lina; Hansson, Maria C

    2015-01-15

    Estrogen receptors (ers) not only are activated by hormones but also interact with many human-derived environmental contaminants. Here, we present evidence for four expressed er genes in Atlantic salmon cDNA - two more ers (erα2 and erβ2) than previously published. To determine if er gene expression differs between two adult life-stages we sampled 20 adult salmon from the feeding phase in the Baltic Sea and during migration in the River Mörrum, Sweden. Results show that all four er genes are present in the investigated tissues, except for erα2 not appearing in the spleen. Overall, a profile analysis reveals the erα1 gene to be the most highly expressed er gene in both female and male Baltic Sea salmon tissues, and also in female River Mörrum salmon. In contrast, this gene has the lowest gene expression level of the four er genes in male salmon from the River Mörrum. The erα2 gene is expressed at the lowest levels in both female/male Baltic Sea salmon and in female River Mörrum salmon. Statistical analyses indicate a significant and complex interaction where both sex and adult life stage can impact er gene expression. Regression analyses did not demonstrate any significant relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden and er gene expression level, suggesting that accumulated pollutants from the Baltic Sea may be deactivated inside the salmon's lipid tissues and have limited impact on er activity. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of four er gene expression levels in two wild salmon populations from two different adult life stages where information about PCB load is also available.

  5. Experimental selection for body size at age modifies early life-history traits and muscle gene expression in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Ian P G; Johnston, Ian A

    2012-11-15

    The short generation time of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) was exploited to investigate the effects of selection for body size at age on early life-history traits and on the transcriptional response to a growth stimulus in skeletal muscle of adult fish. Replicate populations were either unselected (U-lineage) or subjected to four generations of experimental selection for small (S-lineage) or large (L-lineage) body size at 90 days post-fertilization. Body mass was on average 16.3% and 41.0% higher in the L- than in the U- and S-lineages, respectively. Egg diameter was 6.4% lower with 13% less yolk in the S-lineage compared with the other lineages. Maternal transcripts for igf2r, bmpr1aa, igf1ar, igf2a, igfbp5a, ghra and igfbp3 in 2-4 cell stage embryos were higher in the L- than in the S-lineage. Larvae from the L-lineage were significantly larger, but survivorship at the end of the first month was similar between lineages. Gene expression was measured in the fast muscle of adult fish fasted for 7 days and then re-fed to satiation for 48 h. The expression of 11 insulin-like growth factor pathway genes and 12 other nutritionally responsive genes was similar for the S- and L-lineages as was gut fullness with feeding. Transcript abundance for four genes (igf1a, igf2r, igfbp1a and igfbp1b) showed either regulated or constitutive differences between the S- and L-lineages. For example, igf2 receptor transcript abundance was higher and igbp1a/b transcript abundance was lower in the L- than in the S-lineage, consistent with an effect of selection on insulin-like growth factor signalling.

  6. A Common variant in RAB27A gene is associated with fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels in adults

    PubMed Central

    Bouzigon, Emmanuelle; Nadif, Rachel; Thompson, Emma E.; Concas, Maria Pina; Kuldanek, Susan; Du, Gaixin; Brossard, Myriam; Lavielle, Nolwenn; Sarnowski, Chloé; Vaysse, Amaury; Dessen, Philippe; van der Valk, Ralf JP; Duijts, Liesbeth; Henderson, A John; Jaddoe, Vincent WV; de Jongste, Johan C; Dizier, Marie-Hélène; Pin, Isabelle; Matran, Régis; Lathrop, Mark; Pirastu, Mario; Demenais, Florence; Ober, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Background Exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a biomarker for eosinophilic inflammation in the airways and for responsiveness to corticosteroids in asthmatics. Objective We sought to identify in adults the genetic determinants of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels and to assess whether environmental and disease-related factors influence these associations. Methods We performed a genome-wide association study of FeNO through meta-analysis of two independent discovery samples of European ancestry: the outbred EGEA study (French Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma, N=610 adults) and the Hutterites (N=601 adults), a founder population living on communal farms. Replication of main findings was assessed in adults from an isolated village in Sardinia (Talana study, N=450). We then investigated the influence of asthma, atopy and tobacco smoke exposure on these genetic associations and whether they were also associated with FeNO values in children of the EAGLE (EArly Genetics & Lifecourse Epidemiology, N=8,858) consortium. Results We detected a common variant in RAB27A (rs2444043) associated with FeNO that reached the genome-wide significant level (P=1.6×10−7) in the combined discovery and replication adult datasets. This SNP belongs to member of RAS oncogene family (RAB27A) and was associated with an expression quantitative trait locus for RAB27A in lymphoblastoid cell lines from asthmatics. A second suggestive locus (rs2194437, P=8.9×10−7) located nearby the sodium/calcium exchanger 1 (SLC8A1) was mainly detected in atopic subjects and influenced by inhaled corticosteroid use. These two loci were not associated with childhood FeNO values. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance This study identified a common variant located in RAB27A gene influencing FeNO levels specifically in adults and with a biological relevance to the regulation of FeNO levels. This study provides new insight into the biological mechanisms underlying FeNO levels in

  7. Sensory Input-Dependent Changes in Glutamatergic Neurotransmission- Related Genes and Proteins in the Adult Rat Trigeminal Ganglion.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Montoya, Julia; Buendia, Izaskun; Martin, Yasmina B; Egea, Javier; Negredo, Pilar; Avendaño, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Experience-dependent plasticity induces lasting changes in the structure of synapses, dendrites, and axons at both molecular and anatomical levels. Whilst relatively well studied in the cortex, little is known about the molecular changes underlying experience-dependent plasticity at peripheral levels of the sensory pathways. Given the importance of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the somatosensory system and its involvement in plasticity, in the present study, we investigated gene and protein expression of glutamate receptor subunits and associated molecules in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) of young adult rats. Microarray analysis of naïve rat TG revealed significant differences in the expression of genes, coding for various glutamate receptor subunits and proteins involved in clustering and stabilization of AMPA receptors, between left and right ganglion. Long-term exposure to sensory-enriched environment increased this left-right asymmetry in gene expression. Conversely, unilateral whisker trimming on the right side almost eliminated the mentioned asymmetries. The above manipulations also induced side-specific changes in the protein levels of glutamate receptor subunits. Our results show that sustained changes in sensory input induce modifications in glutamatergic transmission-related gene expression in the TG, thus supporting a role for this early sensory-processing node in experience-dependent plasticity.

  8. Sensory Input-Dependent Changes in Glutamatergic Neurotransmission- Related Genes and Proteins in the Adult Rat Trigeminal Ganglion

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Montoya, Julia; Buendia, Izaskun; Martin, Yasmina B.; Egea, Javier; Negredo, Pilar; Avendaño, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Experience-dependent plasticity induces lasting changes in the structure of synapses, dendrites, and axons at both molecular and anatomical levels. Whilst relatively well studied in the cortex, little is known about the molecular changes underlying experience-dependent plasticity at peripheral levels of the sensory pathways. Given the importance of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the somatosensory system and its involvement in plasticity, in the present study, we investigated gene and protein expression of glutamate receptor subunits and associated molecules in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) of young adult rats. Microarray analysis of naïve rat TG revealed significant differences in the expression of genes, coding for various glutamate receptor subunits and proteins involved in clustering and stabilization of AMPA receptors, between left and right ganglion. Long-term exposure to sensory-enriched environment increased this left–right asymmetry in gene expression. Conversely, unilateral whisker trimming on the right side almost eliminated the mentioned asymmetries. The above manipulations also induced side-specific changes in the protein levels of glutamate receptor subunits. Our results show that sustained changes in sensory input induce modifications in glutamatergic transmission-related gene expression in the TG, thus supporting a role for this early sensory-processing node in experience-dependent plasticity. PMID:27965535

  9. Subchronic inhalation of soluble manganese induces expression of hypoxia-associated angiogenic genes in adult mouse lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Bredow, Sebastian . E-mail: sbredow@LRRI.org; Falgout, Melanie M.; March, Thomas H.; Yingling, Christin M.; Malkoski, Stephen P.; Aden, James; Bedrick, Edward J.; Lewis, Johnnye L.; Divine, Kevin K.

    2007-06-01

    Although the lung constitutes the major exposure route for airborne manganese (Mn), little is known about the potential pulmonary effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Transition metals can mimic a hypoxia-like response, activating the hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) transcription factor family. Through binding to the hypoxia-response element (HRE), these factors regulate expression of many genes, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Increases in VEGF, an important biomarker of angiogenesis, have been linked to respiratory diseases, including pulmonary hypertension. The objective of this study was to evaluate pulmonary hypoxia-associated angiogenic gene expression in response to exposure of soluble Mn(II) and to assess the genes' role as intermediaries of potential pulmonary Mn toxicity. In vitro, 0.25 mM Mn(II) altered morphology and slowed the growth of human pulmonary epithelial cell lines. Acute doses between 0.05 and 1 mM stimulated VEGF promoter activity up to 3.7-fold in transient transfection assays. Deletion of the HRE within the promoter had no effect on Mn(II)-induced VEGF expression but decreased cobalt [Co(II)]-induced activity 2-fold, suggesting that HIF-1 may not be involved in Mn(II)-induced VEGF gene transcription. Nose-only inhalation to 2 mg Mn(II)/m{sup 3} for 5 days at 6 h/day produced no significant pulmonary inflammation but induced a 2-fold increase in pulmonary VEGF mRNA levels in adult mice and significantly altered expression of genes associated with murine angiogenesis. These findings suggest that even short-term exposures to soluble, occupationally relevant Mn(II) concentrations may alter pulmonary gene expression in pathways that ultimately could affect the lungs' susceptibility to respiratory disease.

  10. Local overexpression of Su(H)-MAPK variants affects Notch target gene expression and adult phenotypes in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Jasmin S.; Nagel, Anja C.; Schulz, Adriana; Wahl, Vanessa; Preiss, Anette

    2015-01-01

    In Drosophila, Notch and EGFR signalling pathways are closely intertwined. Their relationship is mostly antagonistic, and may in part be based on the phosphorylation of the Notch signal transducer Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] by MAPK. Su(H) is a transcription factor that together with several cofactors regulates the expression of Notch target genes. Here we address the consequences of a local induction of three Su(H) variants on Notch target gene expression. To this end, wild-type Su(H), a phospho-deficient Su(H)MAPK-ko and a phospho-mimetic Su(H)MAPK-ac isoform were overexpressed in the central domain of the wing anlagen. The expression of the Notch target genes cut, wingless, E(spl)m8-HLH and vestigial, was monitored. For the latter two, reporter genes were used (E(spl)m8-lacZ, vgBE-lacZ). In general, Su(H)MAPK-ko induced a stronger response than wild-type Su(H), whereas the response to Su(H)MAPK-ac was very weak. Notch target genes cut, wingless and vgBE-lacZ were ectopically activated, whereas E(spl)m8-lacZ was repressed by overexpression of Su(H) proteins. In addition, in epistasis experiments an activated form of the EGF-receptor (DERact) or the MAPK (rlSEM) and individual Su(H) variants were co-overexpressed locally, to compare the resultant phenotypes in adult flies (thorax, wings and eyes) as well as to assay the response of the Notch target gene cut in cell clones. PMID:26702412

  11. Population structure and uropathogenic virulence-associated genes of faecal Escherichia coli from healthy young and elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Vollmerhausen, Tara L; Ramos, Nubia L; Gündogdu, Aycan; Robinson, Wayne; Brauner, Annelie; Katouli, Mohammad

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the population structures of faecal Escherichia coli in 30 healthy young adults (13 males and 17 females) aged between 20 and 45 years and 29 elderly adults (14 females and 15 males) aged between 65 and 77 years. In all, 1566 strains were typed with the PhPlate system and grouped into biochemical phenotypes (BPTs). Strains with shared BPTs were further typed using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Forty-four per cent of the strains were shared between two or more age and gender groups. Elders had a significantly higher (P<0.001) number of BPTs (mean±standard error 3.3±0.27) than younger groups (1.82±0.27). Phylogenetic affiliation and virulence-associated genes (VAGs) of the strains showed that more than 80 % of the strains belonging to dominant types belonged to phylogroups B2 and D. Amongst dominant BPTs, phylogenetic group A was significantly associated with females (P<0.0001), and elders were more likely to carry group D (P<0.0124). Elderly males had a higher prevalence of VAGs than young males (P<0.0001) and young females (P<0.0005). We conclude that there is a lower prevalence of E. coli with uropathogenic properties in healthy young adults than in elders.

  12. Cochlear gene therapy with ancestral AAV in adult mice: complete transduction of inner hair cells without cochlear dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Jun; Hashimoto, Ken; Xiao, Ru; Vandenberghe, Luk H.; Liberman, M. Charles

    2017-01-01

    The use of viral vectors for inner ear gene therapy is receiving increased attention for treatment of genetic hearing disorders. Most animal studies to date have injected viral suspensions into neonatal ears, via the round window membrane. Achieving transduction of hair cells, or sensory neurons, throughout the cochlea has proven difficult, and no studies have been able to efficiently transduce sensory cells in adult ears while maintaining normal cochlear function. Here, we show, for the first time, successful transduction of all inner hair cells and the majority of outer hair cells in an adult cochlea via virus injection into the posterior semicircular canal. We used a “designer” AAV, AAV2/Anc80L65, in which the main capsid proteins approximate the ancestral sequence state of AAV1, 2, 8, and 9. Our injections also transduced ~10% of spiral ganglion cells and a much larger fraction of their satellite cells. In the vestibular sensory epithelia, the virus transduced large numbers of hair cells and virtually all the supporting cells, along with close to half of the vestibular ganglion cells. We conclude that this viral vector and this delivery route hold great promise for gene therapy applications in both cochlear and vestibular sense organs. PMID:28367981

  13. Zif268/egr1 gene controls the selection, maturation and functional integration of adult hippocampal newborn neurons by learning.

    PubMed

    Veyrac, Alexandra; Gros, Alexandra; Bruel-Jungerman, Elodie; Rochefort, Christelle; Kleine Borgmann, Felix B; Jessberger, Sebastian; Laroche, Serge

    2013-04-23

    New neurons are continuously added to the dentate gyrus of the adult mammalian brain. During the critical period of a few weeks after birth when newborn neurons progressively mature, a restricted fraction is competitively selected to survive in an experience-dependent manner, a condition for their contribution to memory processes. The mechanisms that control critical stages of experience-dependent functional incorporation of adult newborn neurons remain largely unknown. Here, we identify a unique transcriptional regulator of the functional integration of newborn neurons, the inducible immediate early gene zif268/egr1. We show that newborn neurons in zif268-KO mice undergo accelerated death during the critical period of 2-3 wk around their birth and exhibit deficient neurochemical and morphological maturation, including reduced GluR1 expression, increased NKCC1/KCC2b chloride cotransporter ratio, altered dendritic development, and marked spine growth defect. Investigating responsiveness of newborn neurons to activity-dependent expression of zif268 in learning, we demonstrate that in the absence of zif268, training in a spatial learning task during this critical period fails to recruit newborn neurons and promote their survival, leading to impaired long-term memory. This study reveals a previously unknown mechanism for the control of the selection, functional maturation, and experience-dependent recruitment of dentate gyrus newborn neurons that depends on the inducible immediate early gene zif268, processes that are critical for their contribution to hippocampal-dependent long-term memory.

  14. Cochlear gene therapy with ancestral AAV in adult mice: complete transduction of inner hair cells without cochlear dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Jun; Hashimoto, Ken; Xiao, Ru; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Liberman, M Charles

    2017-04-03

    The use of viral vectors for inner ear gene therapy is receiving increased attention for treatment of genetic hearing disorders. Most animal studies to date have injected viral suspensions into neonatal ears, via the round window membrane. Achieving transduction of hair cells, or sensory neurons, throughout the cochlea has proven difficult, and no studies have been able to efficiently transduce sensory cells in adult ears while maintaining normal cochlear function. Here, we show, for the first time, successful transduction of all inner hair cells and the majority of outer hair cells in an adult cochlea via virus injection into the posterior semicircular canal. We used a "designer" AAV, AAV2/Anc80L65, in which the main capsid proteins approximate the ancestral sequence state of AAV1, 2, 8, and 9. Our injections also transduced ~10% of spiral ganglion cells and a much larger fraction of their satellite cells. In the vestibular sensory epithelia, the virus transduced large numbers of hair cells and virtually all the supporting cells, along with close to half of the vestibular ganglion cells. We conclude that this viral vector and this delivery route hold great promise for gene therapy applications in both cochlear and vestibular sense organs.

  15. Sudden unexpected fatal encephalopathy in adults with OTC gene mutations-Clues for early diagnosis and timely treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background X-linked Ornithine Transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is often unrecognized in adults, as clinical manifestations are non-specific, often episodic and unmasked by precipitants, and laboratory findings can be normal outside the acute phase. It may thus be associated with significant mortality if not promptly recognized and treated. The aim of this study was to provide clues for recognition of OTCD in adults and analyze the environmental factors that, interacting with OTC gene mutations, might have triggered acute clinical manifestations. Methods We carried out a clinical, biochemical and molecular study on five unrelated adult patients (one female and four males) with late onset OTCD, who presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with initial fatal encephalopathy. The molecular study consisted of OTC gene sequencing in the probands and family members and in silico characterization of the newly detected mutations. Results We identified two new, c.119G>T (p.Arg40Leu) and c.314G>A (p.Gly105Glu), and three known OTC mutations. Both new mutations were predicted to cause a structural destabilization, correlating with late onset OTCD. We also identified, among the family members, 8 heterozygous females and 2 hemizygous asymptomatic males. Patients' histories revealed potential environmental triggering factors, including steroid treatment, chemotherapy, diet changes and hormone therapy for in vitro fertilization. Conclusions This report raises awareness of the ED medical staff in considering OTCD in the differential diagnosis of sudden neurological and behavioural disorders associated with hyperammonemia at any age and in both genders. It also widens the knowledge about combined effect of genetic and environmental factors in determining the phenotypic expression of OTCD. PMID:25026867

  16. Rearranged Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) Gene in Adult-Onset Papillary Thyroid Cancer Amongst Atomic Bomb Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Mayumi; Takahashi, Keiko; Hayashi, Yuzo; Nakachi, Kei; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background We previously noted that among atomic bomb survivors (ABS), the relative frequency of cases of adult papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) with chromosomal rearrangements (mainly RET/PTC) was significantly greater in those with relatively higher radiation exposure than those with lower radiation exposure. In contrast, the frequency of PTC cases with point mutations (mainly BRAFV600E) was significantly lower in patients with relatively higher radiation exposure than those with lower radiation exposure. We also found that among ABS, the frequency of PTC cases with no detectable gene alterations in RET, neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor 1 (NTRK1), BRAF, or RAS was significantly higher in patients with relatively higher radiation exposure than those with lower radiation exposure. However, in ABS with PTC, the relationship between the presence of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene fused with other gene partners and radiation exposure has received little study. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the relative frequency of rearranged ALK in ABS with PTC, and with no detectable gene alterations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF, or RAS, would be greater in those having relatively higher radiation exposures. Methods The 105 subjects in the study were drawn from the Life Span Study cohort of ABS of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were diagnosed with PTC between 1956 and 1993. Seventy-nine were exposed (>0 mGy), and 26 were not exposed to A-bomb radiation. In the 25 ABS with PTC, and with no detectable gene alterations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF, or RAS, we examined archival, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded PTC specimens for rearrangement of ALK using reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5′ RACE). Results We found rearranged ALK in 10 of 19 radiation-exposed PTC cases, but none among 6 patients with PTC with no radiation exposure. In addition, solid/trabecular-like architecture in PTC was closely associated with ALK

  17. Comparison of gene-specific DNA methylation patterns in equine induced pluripotent stem cell lines with cells derived from equine adult and fetal tissues.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Catherine H; Greve, Line; Novakofski, Kira D; Fortier, Lisa A

    2012-07-01

    Cellular pluripotency is associated with expression of the homeobox transcription factor genes NANOG, SOX2, and POU5F1 (OCT3/4 protein). Some reports suggest that mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) may express increased quantities of these genes, creating the possibility that MPCs are more "pluripotent" than other adult cell types. The objective of this study was to determine whether equine bone marrow-derived MPCs had gene expression or DNA methylation patterns that differed from either early fetal-derived or terminally differentiated adult cells. Specifically, this study compared DNA methylation of the NANOG and SOX2 promoter regions and concurrent gene expression of NANOG, SOX2, and POU5F1 in equine induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, fetal fibroblasts, fetal brain cells, adult chondrocytes, and MPCs. Results indicate that NANOG and POU5F1 were not detectable in appreciable quantities in tissues other than the equine iPS cell lines. Equine iPS cells expressed large quantities of all three genes examined. Significantly increased quantities of SOX2 were noted in iPS cells and both fetal-derived cell types compared with adult cells. MPCs and adult chondrocytes expressed equivalent, low quantities of SOX2. Further, NANOG and SOX2 expression inversely correlated with the DNA methylation pattern in the promoter region, such that as gene expression increased, DNA methylation decreased. The equine iPS cell lines examined demonstrated DNA methylation and gene expression patterns that were consistent with pluripotency features described in other species. Results do not support previous reports that NANOG, SOX2, and POU5F1 are poised for increased activity in MPCs compared with other adult cells.

  18. RNAi-mediated gene knockdown and in vivo diuresis assay in adult female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Drake, Lisa L; Price, David P; Aguirre, Sarah E; Hansen, Immo A

    2012-07-14

    This video protocol demonstrates an effective technique to knockdown a particular gene in an insect and conduct a novel bioassay to measure excretion rate. This method can be used to obtain a better understanding of the process of diuresis in insects and is especially useful in the study of diuresis in blood-feeding arthropods that are able to take up huge amounts of liquid in a single blood meal. This RNAi-mediated gene knockdown combined with an in vivo diuresis assay was developed by the Hansen lab to study the effects of RNAi-mediated knockdown of aquaporin genes on Aedes aegypti mosquito diuresis. The protocol is setup in two parts: the first demonstration illustrates how to construct a simple mosquito injection device and how to prepare and inject dsRNA into the thorax of mosquitoes for RNAi-mediated gene knockdown. The second demonstration illustrates how to determine excretion rates in mosquitoes using an in vivo bioassay.

  19. [Main regulatory element (MRE) of the Danio rerio α/β-globin gene domain exerts enhancer activity toward the promoters of the embryonic-larval and adult globin genes].

    PubMed

    Kovina, A P; Petrova, N V; Razin, S V; Yarovaia, O V

    2016-01-01

    In warm-blooded vertebrates, the α- and β-globin genes are organized in domains of different types and are regulated in different fashion. In cold-blooded vertebrates and, in particular, the tropical fish Danio rerio, the α- and β-globin genes form two gene clusters. A major D. rerio globin gene cluster is in chromosome 3 and includes the α- and β-globin genes of embryonic-larval and adult types. The region upstream of the cluster contains c16orf35, harbors the main regulatory element (MRE) of the α-globin gene domain in warm-blooded vertebrates. In this study, transient transfection of erythroid cells with genetic constructs containing a reporter gene under the control of potential regulatory elements of the domain was performed to characterize the promoters of the embryonic-larval and adult α- and β-globin genes of the major cluster. Also, in the 5th intron of c16orf35 in Danio reriowas detected a functional analog of the warm-blooded vertebrate MRE. This enhancer stimulated activity of the promoters of both adult and embryonic-larval α- and β-globin genes.

  20. RNA interference suppression of the receptor tyrosine kinase Torso gene impaired pupation and adult emergence in Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tao-Tao; Meng, Qing-Wei; Guo, Wen-Chao; Li, Guo-Qing

    2015-12-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster prothoracic gland (PG) cells, Torso mediates prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH)-triggered mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway (consisting of four core components Ras, Raf, MEK and ERK) to stimulate ecdysteroidogenesis. In this study, LdTorso, LdRas, LdRaf and LdERK were cloned in Leptinotarsa decemlineata. The four genes were highly or moderately expressed in the larval prothoracic glands. At the first- to third-instar stages, their expression levels were higher just before and right after the molt, and were lower in the mid instars. At the fourth-instar stage, their transcript levels were higher before prepupal stage. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of LdTorso delayed larval development, increased pupal weight, and impaired pupation and adult emergence. Moreover, knockdown of LdTorso decreased the mRNA levels of LdRas, LdRaf and LdERK, repressed the transcription of two ecdysteroidogenesis genes (LdPHM and LdDIB), lowered 20E titer, and downregulated the expression of several 20E-response genes (LdEcR, LdUSP, LdHR3 and LdFTZ-F1). Furthermore, silencing of LdTorso induced the expression of a JH biosynthesis gene LdJHAMT, increased JH titer, and activated the transcription of a JH early-inducible gene LdKr-h1. Thus, our results suggest that Torso transduces PTTH-triggered MAPK signal to regulate ecdysteroidogenesis in the PGs in a non-drosophiline insect.

  1. Temporal Gene Expression Profiles of Pre Blood-Fed Adult Females Immediately Following Eclosion in the Southern House Mosquito Culex Quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Reid, William R.; Zhang, Lee; Liu, Nannan

    2015-01-01

    Prior to acquisition of the first host blood meal, the anautogenous mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus requires a period of time in order to prepare for the blood feeding and, later, vitellogenesis. In the current study, we conducted whole transcriptome analyses of adult female Culex mosquitoes to identify genes that may be necessary for both taking of the blood meal, and processing of the blood meal in adult female mosquitoes Cx. quinquefasciatus. We examined temporal expression of genes for the periods of post eclosion and prior to the female freely taking a blood meal. We further evaluated the temporal expression of certain genes for the periods after the taking of a blood meal to identify genes that may be necessary for both the taking of the blood meal, and the processing of the blood meal. We found that adult females required a minimum of 48 h post-eclosion before they freely took their first blood meal. We hypothesized that gene expression signatures were altered in the mosquitoes before blood feeding in preparation for the acquisition of the blood meal through changes in multiple gene expression. To identify the genes involved in the acquisition of blood feeding, we quantified the gene expression levels of adult female Cx. quinquefasciatus using RNA Seq throughout a pre-blooding period from 2 to 72 h post eclosion at 12 h intervals. A total of 325 genes were determined to be differentially-expressed throughout the pre-blooding period, with the majority of differentially-expressed genes occurring between the 2 h and 12 h post-eclosion time points. Among the up-regulated genes were salivary proteins, cytochrome P450s, odorant-binding proteins, and proteases, while the majority of the down-regulated genes were hypothetical or cuticular genes. In addition, Trypsin was found to be up-regulated immediately following blood feeding, while trypsin and chymotrypsin were up-regulated at 48h and 60h post blood-feeding, respectively, suggesting that these proteases are

  2. DNA microarray-based experimental strategy for trustworthy expression profiling of the hippocampal genes by astaxanthin supplementation in adult mouse

    PubMed Central

    Yook, Jang Soo; Shibato, Junko; Rakwal, Randeep; Soya, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Naturally occurring astaxantin (ASX) is one of the noticeable carotenoid and dietary supplement, which has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and neuroprotective effects in the brain through crossing the blood–brain barrier. Specially, we are interested in the role of ASX as a brain food. Although ASX has been suggested to have potential benefit to the brain function, the underlying molecular mechanisms and events mediating such effect remain unknown. Here we examined molecular factors in the hippocampus of adult mouse fed ASX diets (0.1% and 0.5% doses) using DNA microarray (Agilent 4 × 44 K whole mouse genome chip) analysis. In this study, we described in detail our experimental workflow and protocol, and validated quality controls with the housekeeping gene expression (Gapdh and Beta-actin) on the dye-swap based approach to advocate our microarray data, which have been uploaded to Gene Expression Omnibus (accession number GSE62197) as a gene resource for the scientific community. This data will also form an important basis for further detailed experiments and bioinformatics analysis with an aim to unravel the potential molecular pathways or mechanisms underlying the positive effects of ASX supplementation on the brain, in particular the hippocampus. PMID:26981356

  3. Gene expression profiling of the hippocampal dentate gyrus in an adult toxicity study captures a variety of neurodevelopmental dysfunctions in rat models of hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Shiraki, Ayako; Saito, Fumiyo; Akane, Hirotoshi; Akahori, Yumi; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Itahashi, Megu; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    We previously found that developmental hypothyroidism changed the expression of genes in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus, a brain region where adult neurogenesis is known to occur. In the present study, we performed brain region-specific global gene expression profiling in an adult rat hypothyroidism model to see if it reflected the developmental neurotoxicity we saw in the developmental hypothyroidism model. Starting when male rats were 5 weeks old, we administered 6-propyl-2-thiouracil at a doses of 0, 0.1 and 10 mg kg(-1) body weight by gavage for 28 days. We selected four brain regions to represent both cerebral and cerebellar tissues: hippocampal dentate gyrus, cerebral cortex, corpus callosum and cerebellar vermis. We observed significant alterations in the expression of genes related to neural development (Eph family genes and Robo3) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal dentate gyrus and in the expression of genes related to myelination (Plp1 and Mbp) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. We observed only minor changes in the expression of these genes in the corpus callosum and cerebellar vermis. We used real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction to confirm Chrdl1, Hes5, Mbp, Plp1, Slit1, Robo3 and the Eph family transcript expression changes. The most significant changes in gene expression were found in the dentate gyrus. Considering that the gene expression profile of the adult dentate gyrus closely related to neurogenesis, 28-day toxicity studies looking at gene expression changes in adult hippocampal dentate gyrus may also detect possible developmental neurotoxic effects.

  4. Birth weight modifies the association between central nervous system gene variation and adult body mass index.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Haddad, Stephen A; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R

    2016-03-01

    Genome wide association studies have identified ~100 loci associated with body mass index (BMI). Persons with low birth weight have an increased risk of metabolic disorders. We postulate that normal mechanisms of body weight regulation are disrupted in subjects with low birth weight. The present analyses included 2215 African American women from the Black Women's Health Study, and were based on genotype data on 20 BMI-associated loci and self-reported data on birth weight, weight at age 18 and adult weight. We used general linear models to assess the association of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with BMI at age 18 and later in adulthood within strata of birth weight (above and below the median, 3200 g). Three SNPs (rs1320330 near TMEM18, rs261967 near PCSK1 and rs17817964 in FTO), and a genetic score combining these three variants, showed significant interactions with birth weight in relation to BMI. Among women with birth weight <3200 g, there was an inverse association between genetic score and BMI; beta-coefficient=-0.045 (95% confidence intervals (CI) -0.104, 0.013) for BMI at age 18, and -0.055 (95% CI -0.112, 0.002) for adult BMI. Among women with birth weight ⩾3200 g, genetic score was positively associated with BMI: beta-coefficient=0.110 (95% CI 0.051, 0.169) for BMI at age 18 (P for interaction=0.0002), and 0.112 (95% CI 0.054, 0.170) for adult BMI (P for interaction<0.0001). Because TMEM18, PCSK1 and FTO are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), our results suggest that low-birth weight may disrupt mechanisms of CNS body weight regulation.

  5. Val1483Ile in FASN gene is linked to central obesity and insulin sensitivity in adult white men.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Navarrete, José M; Botas, Patricia; Valdés, Sergio; Ortega, Francisco J; Delgado, Elías; Vázquez-Martín, Alejandro; Bassols, Judit; Pardo, Gerard; Ricart, Wifredo; Menéndez, Javier A; Fernández-Real, José M

    2009-09-01

    The Val1483Ile polymorphism in the human fatty acid synthase (FASN) gene is located within the interdomain region of the FASN close to the two dynamic active centers of the FASN enzyme and putatively affects FASN action. We aimed to evaluate the association of this polymorphism with obesity phenotypes, insulin sensitivity, and adipose tissue FASN activity in adult white subjects. The polymorphism was evaluated in association with metabolic variables in two independent studies: in a case-control study of 457 men (229 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 228 with altered glucose tolerance (AGT)); and in 600 population-based NGT subjects (274 men and 326 women). Adipose tissue FASN activity was analyzed using the method of Nepokroeff. The Ile variant was associated with a lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and a lower increase in weight over a 7-year period in NGT men. In a subset of 147 men, carriers of the Ile variant showed significantly increased insulin sensitivity. BMI (P < 0.001), WHR (P = 0.03), and Val1483Ile (P = 0.03), contributed independently to 37% of insulin sensitivity variance. In men from the population-based study, the Ile variant was associated with a lower BMI, WHR, fasting glucose, and systolic blood pressure compared with carriers of the Val variant. In agreement with these results, the adipose tissue FASN activity was significantly lower in subjects with the Ile variant (P = 0.01). In summary, adult white men with the Ile 1483 variant of the FASN gene seem protected from developing central obesity through decreased adipose tissue FASN activity.

  6. The sox gene Dichaete is expressed in local interneurons and functions in development of the Drosophila adult olfactory circuit.

    PubMed

    Melnattur, Krishna V; Berdnik, Daniela; Rusan, Zeid; Ferreira, Christopher J; Nambu, John R

    2013-02-01

    In insects, the primary sites of integration for olfactory sensory input are the glomeruli in the antennal lobes. Here, axons of olfactory receptor neurons synapse with dendrites of the projection neurons that relay olfactory input to higher brain centers, such as the mushroom bodies and lateral horn. Interactions between olfactory receptor neurons and projection neurons are modulated by excitatory and inhibitory input from a group of local interneurons. While significant insight has been gleaned into the differentiation of olfactory receptor and projection neurons, much less is known about the development and function of the local interneurons. We have found that Dichaete, a conserved Sox HMG box gene, is strongly expressed in a cluster of LAAL cells located adjacent to each antennal lobe in the adult brain. Within these clusters, Dichaete protein expression is detected in both cholinergic and GABAergic local interneurons. In contrast, Dichaete expression is not detected in mature or developing projection neurons, or developing olfactory receptor neurons. Analysis of novel viable Dichaete mutant alleles revealed misrouting of specific projection neuron dendrites and axons, and alterations in glomeruli organization. These results suggest noncell autonomous functions of Dichaete in projection neuron differentiation as well as a potential role for Dichaete-expressing local interneurons in development of the adult olfactory circuitry.

  7. Resident microglia from adult mice are refractory to nitric oxide-inducing stimuli due to impaired NOS2 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Courtney A; Roberts, Margo R

    2004-11-01

    Microglia are the immunoregulatory cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and share many characteristics with resident macrophages in extracerebral tissues. Nitric oxide (NO) is secreted by macrophages following induction of the NO synthase gene NOS2 by stimuli elicited during a T-cell response and/or by microbial products. NO regulates both innate and adaptive immune responses, such as killing intracellular pathogens and inhibiting T-cell proliferation. Regulation of NO production by microglia, however, is poorly understood. We find that microglia from healthy adult mice produce negligible amounts of NO compared with resident macrophages during restimulation of peptide-specific CD8 T cells, and therefore cannot block T-cell proliferation. The impaired NO response extends to exogenous NOS2-inducing stimuli, including cytokines, CD40 ligation, and lipopolysaccharide. In contrast, microglia produce proinflammatory cytokines in response to these same stimuli, and therefore possess a relatively selective block in NO production. We go on to show that resident microglia fail to produce detectable levels of either the NOS2 enzyme or NOS2 RNA in response to NO-inducing stimuli. We therefore propose that microglia in the healthy adult brain exist in an "NO-incompetent" state in which NO production is blocked at the level of NOS2 RNA. The inability of resident microglia in the healthy CNS to produce NO may allow these immunoregulatory cells to modulate immune processes temporally, and may serve to protect the CNS from irreparable damage at the onset of infection or injury.

  8. Social Isolation Stress Induces Anxious-Depressive-Like Behavior and Alterations of Neuroplasticity-Related Genes in Adult Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ieraci, Alessandro; Mallei, Alessandra; Popoli, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a major risk factor in the onset of several neuropsychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. Although several studies have shown that social isolation stress during postweaning period induces behavioral and brain molecular changes, the effects of social isolation on behavior during adulthood have been less characterized. Aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between the behavioral alterations and brain molecular changes induced by chronic social isolation stress in adult male mice. Plasma corticosterone levels and adrenal glands weight were also analyzed. Socially isolated (SI) mice showed higher locomotor activity, spent less time in the open field center, and displayed higher immobility time in the tail suspension test compared to group-housed (GH) mice. SI mice exhibited reduced plasma corticosterone levels and reduced difference between right and left adrenal glands. SI showed lower mRNA levels of the BDNF-7 splice variant, c-Fos, Arc, and Egr-1 in both hippocampus and prefrontal cortex compared to GH mice. Finally, SI mice exhibited selectively reduced mGluR1 and mGluR2 levels in the prefrontal cortex. Altogether, these results suggest that anxious- and depressive-like behavior induced by social isolation stress correlates with reduction of several neuroplasticity-related genes in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of adult male mice. PMID:26881124

  9. Social Isolation Stress Induces Anxious-Depressive-Like Behavior and Alterations of Neuroplasticity-Related Genes in Adult Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Ieraci, Alessandro; Mallei, Alessandra; Popoli, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a major risk factor in the onset of several neuropsychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. Although several studies have shown that social isolation stress during postweaning period induces behavioral and brain molecular changes, the effects of social isolation on behavior during adulthood have been less characterized. Aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between the behavioral alterations and brain molecular changes induced by chronic social isolation stress in adult male mice. Plasma corticosterone levels and adrenal glands weight were also analyzed. Socially isolated (SI) mice showed higher locomotor activity, spent less time in the open field center, and displayed higher immobility time in the tail suspension test compared to group-housed (GH) mice. SI mice exhibited reduced plasma corticosterone levels and reduced difference between right and left adrenal glands. SI showed lower mRNA levels of the BDNF-7 splice variant, c-Fos, Arc, and Egr-1 in both hippocampus and prefrontal cortex compared to GH mice. Finally, SI mice exhibited selectively reduced mGluR1 and mGluR2 levels in the prefrontal cortex. Altogether, these results suggest that anxious- and depressive-like behavior induced by social isolation stress correlates with reduction of several neuroplasticity-related genes in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of adult male mice.

  10. Association of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Gene Polymorphism and Expression with Urinary Tract Infection Types in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiaolin; Hou, Tianwen; Liu, Ying; Chen, Jing; Yao, Zhiyan; Ma, Cuiqing; Yang, Lijuan; Wei, Lin

    2010-01-01

    Background Innate immunity of which Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and CXCR1 are key elements plays a central role in the development of urinary tract infection (UTI). Although the relation between the genetics of TLR4 and CXCR1 and UTI is investigated partly, the polymorphisms and expression of TLR4 and CXCR1 in different types of UTI in adults are not extremely clear. Methodology/Principal Findings This study investigates the presence of TLR4 A (896) G and CXCR1 G (2608) C polymorphisms in 129 UTI patients using RFLP-PCR. Gene and allelic prevalence were compared with 248 healthy controls. Flow cytometry was used to detect TLR4 and CXCR1 expression in the monocytes of UTI patients and healthy controls. TLR4 (896) AG genotype and TLR4 (896) G allele had higher prevalence in UTI (especially in acute cystitis and urethritis) patients, whereas CXCR1 (2608) GC genotype and CXCR1 (2608) C allele had lower prevalence in UTI patients than controls. TLR4 expression was significantly lower in chronic UTI patients than in acute pyelonephritis or healthy controls. CXCR1 expression was similar in both controls and patients. TLR4 expression in chronic UTI patients after astragalus treatment was higher than pre-treatment. Conclusions The results indicate the relationship between the carrier status of TLR4 (896) G alleles and the development of UTI, especially acute cystitis and urethritis, in adults. TLR4 expression levels are correlated with chronic UTI. PMID:21151974

  11. Enrichment of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells facilitates transduction for stem cell gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Kismet; Urbinati, Fabrizia; Romero, Zulema; Campo-Fernandez, Beatriz; Kaufman, Michael L; Cooper, Aaron R; Masiuk, Katelyn; Hollis, Roger P; Kohn, Donald B

    2015-05-01

    Autologous hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy for sickle cell disease has the potential to treat this illness without the major immunological complications associated with allogeneic transplantation. However, transduction efficiency by β-globin lentiviral vectors using CD34-enriched cell populations is suboptimal and large vector production batches may be needed for clinical trials. Transducing a cell population more enriched for HSC could greatly reduce vector needs and, potentially, increase transduction efficiency. CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells, comprising ∼1%-3% of all CD34(+) cells, were isolated from healthy cord blood CD34(+) cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and transduced with a lentiviral vector expressing an antisickling form of beta-globin (CCL-β(AS3) -FB). Isolated CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells were able to generate progeny over an extended period of long-term culture (LTC) compared to the CD34(+) cells and required up to 40-fold less vector for transduction compared to bulk CD34(+) preparations containing an equivalent number of CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells. Transduction of isolated CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells was comparable to CD34(+) cells measured by quantitative PCR at day 14 with reduced vector needs, and average vector copy/cell remained higher over time for LTC initiated from CD34(+) /38(-) cells. Following in vitro erythroid differentiation, HBBAS3 mRNA expression was similar in cultures derived from CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells or unfractionated CD34(+) cells. In vivo studies showed equivalent engraftment of transduced CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells when transplanted in competition with 100-fold more CD34(+) /CD38(+) cells. This work provides initial evidence for the beneficial effects from isolating human CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells to use significantly less vector and potentially improve transduction for HSC gene therapy.

  12. Genes Interacting with Occupational Exposures to Low Molecular Weight Agents and Irritants on Adult-Onset Asthma in Three European Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rava, Marta; Ahmed, Ismail; Kogevinas, Manolis; Le Moual, Nicole; Bouzigon, Emmanuelle; Curjuric, Ivan; Dizier, Marie-Hélène; Dumas, Orianne; Gonzalez, Juan R.; Imboden, Medea; Mehta, Amar J.; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Zock, Jan-Paul; Jarvis, Deborah; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Demenais, Florence; Nadif, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Background: The biological mechanisms by which cleaning products and disinfectants—an emerging risk factor—affect respiratory health remain incompletely evaluated. Studying genes by environment interactions (G × E) may help identify new genes related to adult-onset asthma. Objectives: We identified interactions between genetic polymorphisms of a large set of genes involved in the response to oxidative stress and occupational exposures to low molecular weight (LMW) agents or irritants on adult-onset asthma. Methods: Our data came from three large European cohorts: Epidemiological Family-based Study of the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA), Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Disease in Adults (SAPALDIA), and European Community Respiratory Health Survey in Adults (ECRHS). A candidate pathway–based strategy identified 163 genes involved in the response to oxidative stress and potentially related to exposures to LMW agents/irritants. Occupational exposures were evaluated using an asthma job-exposure matrix and job-specific questionnaires for cleaners and healthcare workers. Logistic regression models were used to detect G × E interactions, adjusted for age, sex, and population ancestry, in 2,599 adults (mean age, 47 years; 60% women, 36% exposed, 18% asthmatics). p-Values were corrected for multiple comparisons. Results: Ever exposure to LMW agents/irritants was associated with current adult-onset asthma [OR = 1.28 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.58)]. Eight single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) by exposure interactions at five loci were found at p < 0.005: PLA2G4A (rs932476, chromosome 1), near PLA2R1 (rs2667026, chromosome 2), near RELA (rs931127, rs7949980, chromosome 11), PRKD1 (rs1958980, rs11847351, rs1958987, chromosome 14), and PRKCA (rs6504453, chromosome 17). Results were consistent across the three studies and after accounting for smoking. Conclusions: Using a pathway-based selection process, we identified novel genes potentially involved

  13. Gene delivery techniques for adult stem cell-based regenerative therapy.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seog-Jin; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Choi, Seong-Jun; Park, Jeong-Hui; Wall, Ivan B; Kim, Hae-Won

    2013-11-01

    Over the past decade, stem cells have been considered to be a promising resource to cure and regenerate damaged or diseased tissues with research extending from basic studies to clinical application. Furthermore, genetically modified stem cells have the potential to reduce tumorigenic risks and achieve safe tissue formation. Recent advances in genetic modification of stem cells have rendered these cells more accessible and stable. The successful genetic modification of stem cells relies heavily on designing vector systems, either viral or nonviral vectors, which can efficiently deliver therapeutic genes to the cells with minimum toxicity. Currently, viral vectors showing high transfection efficiencies still raise safety issues, whereas safer nonviral vectors exhibit extremely poor transfection in stem cells. Here, we attempt to review and discuss the main factors raising concern in previous reports, and devise strategies to solve the issues in gene delivery systems for successful stem cell-targeting regenerative therapy.

  14. Genome-wide chromatin and gene expression profiling during memory formation and maintenance in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Centeno, Tonatiuh Pena; Shomroni, Orr; Hennion, Magali; Halder, Rashi; Vidal, Ramon; Rahman, Raza-Ur; Bonn, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the formation and maintenance of memory requires epigenetic changes. In an effort to understand the spatio-temporal extent of learning and memory-related epigenetic changes we have charted genome-wide histone and DNA methylation profiles, in two different brain regions, two cell types, and three time-points, before and after learning. In this data descriptor we provide detailed information on data generation, give insights into the rationale of experiments, highlight necessary steps to assess data quality, offer guidelines for future use of the data and supply ready-to-use code to replicate the analysis results. The data provides a blueprint of the gene regulatory network underlying short- and long-term memory formation and maintenance. This ‘healthy’ gene regulatory network of learning can now be compared to changes in neurological or psychiatric diseases, providing mechanistic insights into brain disorders and highlighting potential therapeutic avenues. PMID:27727234

  15. Gene Silencing in Adult Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes Through Oral Delivery of Double-Stranded RNA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    insects is now common practice. With appropriately chosen targets, the RNAi pathway has also been exploited for insect control, typically through oral...of the naturally occurring phenomenon of RNA interference (RNAi) to study gene function in insects is now common practice. With appropriately chosen...targets, the RNAi pathway has also been exploited for insect control, typically through oral delivery of dsRNA. Adapting current methods to deliver

  16. High-frequency stimulation induces gradual immediate early gene expression in maturing adult-generated hippocampal granule cells.

    PubMed

    Jungenitz, Tassilo; Radic, Tijana; Jedlicka, Peter; Schwarzacher, Stephan W

    2014-07-01

    Increasing evidence shows that adult neurogenesis of hippocampal granule cells is advantageous for learning and memory. We examined at which stage of structural maturation and age new granule cells can be activated by strong synaptic stimulation. High-frequency stimulation of the perforant pathway in urethane-anesthetized rats elicited expression of the immediate early genes c-fos, Arc, zif268 and pCREB133 in almost 100% of mature, calbindin-positive granule cells. In contrast, it failed to induce immediate early gene expression in immature doublecortin-positive granule cells. Furthermore, doublecortin-positive neurons did not react with c-fos or Arc expression to mild theta-burst stimulation or novel environment exposure. Endogenous expression of pCREB133 was increasingly present in young cells with more elaborated dendrites, revealing a close correlation to structural maturation. Labeling with bromodeoxyuridine revealed cell age dependence of stimulation-induced c-fos, Arc and zif268 expression, with only a few cells reacting at 21 days, but with up to 75% of cells activated at 35-77 days of cell age. Our results indicate an increasing synaptic integration of maturing granule cells, starting at 21 days of cell age, but suggest a lack of ability to respond to activation with synaptic potentiation on the transcriptional level as long as immature cells express doublecortin.

  17. UPRT, a suicide-gene therapy candidate in higher eukaryotes, is required for Drosophila larval growth and normal adult lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arpan C.; Shimell, MaryJane; Leof, Emma R.; Haley, Macy J.; O’Connor, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) is a pyrimidine salvage pathway enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of uracil to uridine monophosphate (UMP). The enzyme is highly conserved from prokaryotes to humans and yet phylogenetic evidence suggests that UPRT homologues from higher-eukaryotes, including Drosophila, are incapable of binding uracil. Purified human UPRT also do not show any enzymatic activity in vitro, making microbial UPRT an attractive candidate for anti-microbial drug development, suicide-gene therapy, and cell-specific mRNA labeling techniques. Nevertheless, the enzymatic site of UPRT remains conserved across the animal kingdom indicating an in vivo role for the enzyme. We find that the Drosophila UPRT homologue, krishah (kri), codes for an enzyme that is required for larval growth, pre-pupal/pupal viability and long-term adult lifespan. Our findings suggest that UPRT from all higher eukaryotes is likely enzymatically active in vivo and challenges the previous notion that the enzyme is non-essential in higher eukaryotes and cautions against targeting the enzyme for therapeutic purposes. Our findings also suggest that expression of the endogenous UPRT gene will likely cause background incorporation when using microbial UPRT as a cell-specific mRNA labeling reagent in higher eukaryotes. PMID:26271729

  18. Sex-specific patterns and deregulation of endocrine pathways in the gene expression profiles of Bangladeshi adults exposed to arsenic contaminated drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Muñoz, Alexandra; Chervona, Yana; Hall, Megan; Kluz, Thomas; Gamble, Mary V.; Costa, Max

    2015-05-01

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water occurs globally and is associated with numerous diseases including skin, lung and bladder cancers, and cardiovascular disease. Recent research indicates that arsenic may be an endocrine disruptor. This study was conducted to evaluate the nature of gene expression changes among males and females exposed to arsenic contaminated water in Bangladesh at high and low doses. Twenty-nine (55% male) Bangladeshi adults with water arsenic exposure ranging from 50 to 1000 μg/L were selected from the Folic Acid Creatinine Trial. RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells for gene expression profiling using Affymetrix 1.0 ST arrays. Differentially expressed genes were assessed between high and low exposure groups for males and females separately and findings were validated using quantitative real-time PCR. There were 534 and 645 differentially expressed genes (p < 0.05) in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of males and females, respectively, when high and low water arsenic exposure groups were compared. Only 43 genes overlapped between the two sexes, with 29 changing in opposite directions. Despite the difference in gene sets both males and females exhibited common biological changes including deregulation of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes, deregulation of genes downstream of Sp1 (specificity protein 1) transcription factor, and prediction of estrogen receptor alpha as a key hub in cardiovascular networks. Arsenic-exposed adults exhibit sex-specific gene expression profiles that implicate involvement of the endocrine system. Due to arsenic's possible role as an endocrine disruptor, exposure thresholds for arsenic may require different parameters for males and females. - Highlights: • Males and females exhibit unique gene expression changes in response to arsenic. • Only 23 genes are common among the differentially expressed genes for the sexes. • Male and female gene lists exhibit common biological

  19. The dissection and SSR mapping of a high-temperature adult-plant stripe rust resistance gene in American spring wheat cultivar Alturas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust is one of major diseases in wheat production worldwide. The best economic and efficient method is to utilize resistant varieties. Alturas has high-temperature adult-plant resistance. In order to determine stripe rust resistance characteristics, resistance gene combination and molecular m...

  20. Genetic Heterogeneity of Beta Globin Mutations among Asian-Indians and Importance in Genetic Counselling and Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ravindra; Singh, Kritanjali; Panigrahi, Inusha; Agarwal, Sarita

    2013-01-01

    There are an estimated 45 million carriers of β-thalassemia trait and about 12,000-15,000 infants with β-thalassemia major are born every year in India. Thalassemia major constitutes a significant burden on the health care system. The burden of thalassemia major can be decreased by premarital screening and prenatal diagnosis. The success of prenatal diagnosis requires proper knowledge of spectrum of β-thalassemia mutations. In present study, β-thalassemia mutations were characterized in 300 thalassemia cases from 2007 to 2010 using ARMS-PCR and DNA sequencing. The five most common mutations accounted 78.9% of the studied chromosomes that includes IVS1-5(G>C), Cod 41-42(-TCTT), Cod8-9(+G), Cod16(-C) and 619bp del. Though IVS1-5(G>C) is most common mutation in all the communities, the percentage prevalence were calculated on sub caste basis and found that IVS1-5(G>C) percentage prevalence varied from 25 to 60 in Aroras & Khatris and Thakur respectively. Interestingly Cod41-42(-TCTT) mutation which is the second commonest among the mutations reported was totally absent in Kayasthas and Muslim community. These findings have implications for providing molecular diagnosis, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis to high risk couples of β-thalassemia.

  1. A common gene for juvenile and adult-onset primary open-angle glaucomas confined on chromosome 1q

    SciTech Connect

    Morissette, J.; Plante, M.; Raymond, V.

    1995-06-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), which causes progressive loss of the visual fields, was subdivided into two groups according to age at onset: (1) chronic open-angle glaucoma (COAG) diagnosed after 40 years and (2) juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) diagnosed between 3 years of age and early adulthood. A JOAG gene (GLC1A) was recently mapped to chromosome 1q. We studied 142 members of a huge multigenerational French Canadian family affected with autosomal dominant POAG. Either JOAG or COAG was diagnosed with ocular hypertension (OHT), which may lead to POAG. To localize a common disease gene that might be responsible for both glaucoma subsets, we performed linkage analysis considering JOAG and COAG under the same phenotypic category. JOAG/COAG was tightly linked to seven microsatellite markers on chromosome 1q23-q25; a maximum lod score of 6.62 was obtained with AF-M278ye5. To refine the disease locus, we exploited a recombination mapping strategy based on a unique founder effect. The same characteristic haplotype, composed of 14 markers spanning 12 cM between loci D1S196 and D1S212, was recognized in all persons affected by JOAG, COAG, or OHT, but it did not occur in unaffected spouses and in normal family members >35 years of age, except for three obligatory carriers. Key combination events confined the disease region within a 9-cM interval between loci D1S445 and D1S416/D1S480. These observations demonstrate that the GLC1A gene is responsible for both adult-onset and juvenile glaucomas and suggest that the JOAG and COAG categories within this family may be part of a clinical continuum artificially divided at age 40 years. 49 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Promoter Polymorphisms in the Plasma Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx-3) Gene: A Novel Risk Factor for Arterial Ischemic Stroke among Young Adults and Children

    PubMed Central

    Voetsch, Barbara; Jin, Richard C.; Bierl, Charlene; Benke, Kelly S.; Kenet, Gili; Simioni, Paolo; Ottaviano, Filomena; Damasceno, Benito P.; Annichino-Bizacchi, Joyce M.; Handy, Diane E.; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx-3) deficiency increases extracellular oxidant stress, decreases bioavailable nitric oxide, and promotes platelet activation. The aim of this study is to identify polymorphisms in the GPx-3 gene, examine their relationship to arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) in a large series of children and young adults, and determine their functional molecular consequences. Methods We studied the GPx-3 gene promoter from 123 young adults with idiopathic AIS and 123 age- and gender-matched controls by single-stranded conformational polymorphism and sequencing analysis. A second, independent population with childhood stroke was used for a replication study. We identified eight, novel, strongly linked polymorphisms in the GPx-3 gene promoter that formed two main haplotypes (H1 and H2). The transcriptional activity of the two most prevalent haplotypes was studied with luciferase reporter gene constructs. Results The H2 haplotype was overrepresented in both patient populations and associated with an independent increase in the risk of AIS in young adults (OR=2.07, 95% CI=1.03–4.47; p=0.034) and children (OR=2.13, 95% CI=1.23–4.90; p=0.027). In adults simultaneously exposed to vascular risk factors, the risk of AIS approximately doubled (OR=5.18, 95% CI=1.82–15.03, p<0.001). Transcriptional activity of the H2 haplotype was lower than that of the H1 haplotype, especially after upregulation by hypoxia (normalized relative luminescence: 3.54±0.32 vs. 2.47±0.26; p=0.0083). Conclusion These findings indicate that a novel GPx-3 promoter haplotype is an independent risk factor for AIS in children and young adults. This haplotype reduces the gene’s transcriptional activity, thereby compromising gene expression and plasma antioxidant and antithrombotic activities. PMID:17122425

  3. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction training reduces loneliness and pro-inflammatory gene expression in older adults: a small randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Creswell, J David; Irwin, Michael R; Burklund, Lisa J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Ma, Jeffrey; Breen, Elizabeth Crabb; Cole, Steven W

    2012-10-01

    Lonely older adults have increased expression of pro-inflammatory genes as well as increased risk for morbidity and mortality. Previous behavioral treatments have attempted to reduce loneliness and its concomitant health risks, but have had limited success. The present study tested whether the 8-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program (compared to a Wait-List control group) reduces loneliness and downregulates loneliness-related pro-inflammatory gene expression in older adults (N = 40). Consistent with study predictions, mixed effect linear models indicated that the MBSR program reduced loneliness, compared to small increases in loneliness in the control group (treatment condition × time interaction: F(1,35) = 7.86, p = .008). Moreover, at baseline, there was an association between reported loneliness and upregulated pro-inflammatory NF-κB-related gene expression in circulating leukocytes, and MBSR downregulated this NF-κB-associated gene expression profile at post-treatment. Finally, there was a trend for MBSR to reduce C Reactive Protein (treatment condition × time interaction: (F(1,33) = 3.39, p = .075). This work provides an initial indication that MBSR may be a novel treatment approach for reducing loneliness and related pro-inflammatory gene expression in older adults.

  4. A stochastic model of gene-culture coevolution suggested by the "culture historical hypothesis" for the evolution of adult lactose absorption in humans.

    PubMed

    Aoki, K

    1986-05-01

    A stochastic model of gene-culture coevolution, suggested by the "culture historical hypothesis" of Simoons and McCracken, is presented. According to this hypothesis, adult lactose absorption, believed to be an autosomal dominant trait, attained a high frequency in some human populations due to the positive selection pressure induced by culturally determined milk use in those populations. Two-dimensional Kolmogorov backward equations with appropriate boundary conditions are derived for the ultimate fixation probability of milk users, of the gene for adult lactose absorption, and of both jointly, and for the average time until fixation of the gene. These boundary value problems are solved numerically by the Gauss-Seidel method. I define a theoretical measure of the correlation between gene and culture in terms of the three ultimate fixation probabilities. Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to check and extend the numerical results and also to obtain the first arrival time at gene frequency 0.70, which is approximately the highest observed frequency in any population. Two results that pertain to the culture historical hypothesis are obtained. First, the incomplete correlation observed between adult lactose absorption and milk use does not necessarily constitute evidence against the hypothesis. Second, for the postulated genetic change to have occurred within the 6000-year period since the advent of dairying, either the effective population size was of the order of 100, or, if it was of larger order, the selection coefficient probably had to exceed 5%.

  5. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Training Reduces Loneliness and Pro-Inflammatory Gene Expression in Older Adults: A Small Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Creswell, J. David; Irwin, Michael R.; Burklund, Lisa J.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Arevalo, Jesusa M. G.; Ma, Jeffrey; Breen, Elizabeth Crabb; Cole, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    Lonely older adults have increased expression of pro-inflammatory genes as well as increased risk for morbidity and mortality. Previous behavioral treatments have attempted to reduce loneliness and its concomitant health risks, but have had limited success. The present study tested whether the 8-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program (compared to a Wait-List control group) reduces loneliness and downregulates loneliness-related pro-inflammatory gene expression in older adults (N=40). Consistent with study predictions, mixed effect linear models indicated that the MBSR program reduced loneliness, compared to small increases in loneliness in the control group (treatment condition × time interaction: F(1,35)=7.86, p=.008). Moreover, at baseline, there was an association between reported loneliness and upregulated pro-inflammatory NF-κB-related gene expression in circulating leukocytes, and MBSR downregulated this NF-κB-associated gene expression profile at post-treatment. Finally, there was a trend for MBSR to reduce C Reactive Protein (treatment condition × time interaction: (F(1,33)=3.39, p=.075). This work provides an initial indication that MBSR may be a novel treatment approach for reducing loneliness and related pro-inflammatory gene expression in older adults. PMID:22820409

  6. Activity-Dependent Plasticity and Gene Expression Modifications in the Adult CNS

    PubMed Central

    Carulli, Daniela; Foscarin, Simona; Rossi, Ferdinando

    2011-01-01

    Information processing, memory formation, or functional recovery after nervous system damage depend on the ability of neurons to modify their functional properties or their connections. At the cellular/molecular level, structural modifications of neural circuits are finely regulated by intrinsic neuronal properties and growth-regulatory cues in the extracellular milieu. Recently, it has become clear that stimuli coming from the external world, which comprise sensory inflow, motor activity, cognitive elaboration, or social interaction, not only provide the involved neurons with instructive information needed to shape connection patterns to sustain adaptive function, but also exert a powerful influence on intrinsic and extrinsic growth-related mechanisms, so to create permissive conditions for neuritic remodeling. Here, we present an overview of recent findings concerning the effects of experience on molecular mechanisms underlying CNS structural plasticity, both in physiological conditions and after damage, with particular focus on activity-dependent modulation of growth-regulatory genes and epigenetic modifications. PMID:22144945

  7. An adult Sanfilippo type A patient with homozygous mutation R206P in the sulfamidase gene.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Orazio; Coppa, Giovanni V; Bruni, Stefano; Villani, Guglielmo R D; Pontarelli, Gianfranco; Di Natale, Paola

    2005-02-15

    The Sanfilippo type A syndrome, one of the most frequent forms of mucopolysaccharidosis III, is characterized by severe mental retardation, progressive neurological degeneration, and mild somatic changes. It is due to a deficiency of heparan-N-sulfatase (sulfamidase) activity and consequent excretion of heparan sulfate in the urine. The disease is transmitted through an autosomal recessive mechanism, and more than 60 gene mutations have been identified. Up to now, only 10 cases of attenuated form of Sanfilippo type A syndrome have been described, and the specific mutation has been identified only in two of them. We report here on a female patient, 20 years old, with Sanfilippo type A syndrome presenting with a mild clinical phenotype characterized essentially by a moderate nonevolving mental retardation. The genetic analysis demonstrated that the patient is homozygous for mutation R206P; presence of polymorphism R456H was also found. This study places R206P as a mild mutation underlying Sanfilippo type A disease.

  8. Gene polymorphisms in folate metabolizing enzymes in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: effects on methotrexate-related toxicity and survival

    PubMed Central

    Ongaro, Alessia; De Mattei, Monica; Della Porta, Matteo Giovanni; Rigolin, GianMatteo; Ambrosio, Cristina; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Pellati, Agnese; Masieri, Federica Francesca; Caruso, Angelo; Catozzi, Linda; Gemmati, Donato

    2009-01-01

    Background The antifolate agent methotrexate is an important component of maintenance therapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, although methotrexate-related toxicity is often a reason for interruption of chemotherapy. Prediction of toxicity is difficult because of inter-individual variability susceptibility to antileukemic agents. Methotrexate interferes with folate metabolism leading to depletion of reduced folates. Design and Methods The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of polymorphisms for folate metabolizing enzymes with respect to toxicity and survival in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with methotrexate maintenance therapy. To this purpose, we evaluated possible associations between genotype and hematologic and non-hematologic toxicity and effects on survival at 2 years of follow-up in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Results Polymorphisms in the genes encoding for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C>T) and in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR 19 bp deletion) significantly increased the risk of hepatotoxicity in single (odds ratio 5.23, 95% confidence interval 1.13–21.95 and odds ratio 4.57, 95% confidence interval 1.01–20.77, respectively) and in combined analysis (odds ratio 6.82, 95% confidence interval 1.38–33.59). MTHFR 677C>T also increased the risk of leukopenia and gastrointestinal toxicity, whilst thymidylate synthase 28 bp repeat polymorphism increased the risk of anemia (odds ratio 8.48, 95% confidence interval 2.00–36.09). Finally, patients with MTHFR 677TT had a decreased overall survival rate (hazard ratio 2.37, 95% confidence interval 1.46–8.45). Conclusions Genotyping of folate polymorphisms might be useful in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia to optimize methotrexate therapy, reducing the associated toxicity with possible effects on survival. PMID:19648163

  9. Sex and strategy use matters for pattern separation, adult neurogenesis, and immediate early gene expression in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Shunya; Chow, Carmen; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) plays a crucial role for pattern separation, and there are sex differences in the regulation of neurogenesis. Although sex differences, favoring males, in spatial navigation have been reported, it is not known whether there are sex differences in pattern separation. The current study was designed to determine whether there are sex differences in the ability for separating similar or distinct patterns, learning strategy choice, adult neurogenesis, and immediate early gene (IEG) expression in the DG in response to pattern separation training. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats received a single injection of the DNA synthesis marker, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), and were tested for the ability of separating spatial patterns in a spatial pattern separation version of delayed nonmatching to place task using the eight-arm radial arm maze. Twenty-seven days following BrdU injection, rats received a probe trial to determine whether they were idiothetic or spatial strategy users. We found that male spatial strategy users outperformed female spatial strategy users only when separating similar, but not distinct, patterns. Furthermore, male spatial strategy users had greater neurogenesis in response to pattern separation training than all other groups. Interestingly, neurogenesis was positively correlated with performance on similar pattern trials during pattern separation in female spatial strategy users but negatively correlated with performance in male idiothetic strategy users. These results suggest that the survival of new neurons may play an important positive role for pattern separation of similar patterns in females. Furthermore, we found sex and strategy differences in IEG expression in the CA1 and CA3 regions in response to pattern separation. These findings emphasize the importance of studying biological sex on hippocampal function and neural plasticity.

  10. Association of -1082 interleukin-10 gene polymorphism in Peruvian adults with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Chambrone, Leandro; Ascarza, Amilcar; Guerrero, Maria E.; Pannuti, Claudio; de la Rosa, Manuel; Salinas-Prieto, Elmer

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess association of the -1082 IL-10 gene polymorphism with chronic periodontitis CP in a Peruvian population. Study Design: Samples of venous blood and DNA were obtained from 106 Peruvian subjects: a) 53 periodontally healthy; and b) 53 with CP. The association of the -1082 IL-10 promoter sequences was assessed by Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorfism (PCR-RFLP). Student’s t test were used to assess the clinical parameters, as well as the χ2 test and the odds ratio (OR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI) used performed for estimates regarding genotype and allele frequencies. Results: There were statistically significant differences between groups regarding the mean bleeding on probing, mean attachment level and mean probing depth (p < 0.00001) indicating that the matching based on the evaluated groups was adequate. The χ2 test found a statistically significant imbalance of genotypes between groups (p = 0.0172). The prevalence of CP was significantly higher in subjects harboring at least one A allele at position -1082 (AA and GA genotypes) in comparison to patients with the GG genotype (OR = 2.96; CI: 0.52; 5.41; p = 0.0099). Equally, subjects with the AA genotype were significantly associated to a diagnosis of CP (OR = 2.71; CI: 0.38; 5.04; p = 0.0231). On the other hand, subjects presenting a healthy periodontal status presented at least one G allele in comparison with the AA genotype (OR = 0.37; CI: 0.05, 0.69; p = 0.0231). For subjects with the GG genotype, the same positive association was observed (OR = 0.34; CI: 0.06, 0.62; p = 0.0099). There were no significant differences between groups amongst subjects with the GA genotype (OR = 1.19; CI: 0.22, 2.16; p = 0.6774). Conclusions: Within the limits of this study, IL-10 gene polymorphism at position -1082 does not appear to be associated to CP. Conversely, subjects with AA genotype seem to be at an increased risk of developing CP. Key

  11. Grafting of genetically manipulated cells into adult brain: toward graft-gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Uchida, K; Toya, S

    1996-06-01

    Accumulating evidence has shown that functional recoveries in various kinds of animal models of neurodegenerative diseases can be achieved by grafting fetal neurons into the brain. On the basis of these successful results, clinical trials are under way to determine whether human fetal mesencephalic tissue can ameliorate motor functions in patients with Parkinson's disease. Recent autopsy findings of parkinsonian patient implanted with human fetal mesencephalic tissue clearly revealed that the fetal neuronal graft can survive for extended period of time in the human brain and densely reinnervate the surrounding host striatal tissue. It is, however, still important to obtain more practical, effective and ethically justifiable donor material for the future clinical application of the procedures. Desirable properties for the donor cells include long-term survival in the host brain, neuronal cell type for the reconstruction of damaged neural circuits, and susceptibility to genetic manipulation for the practical use. With the development of molecular biology techniques, genetic modification and transplantation of the donor neuronal cells might be a feasible way to cure many kinds of central nervous system diseases toward a "graft-gene therapy".

  12. Adult-onset demyelinating neuropathy associated with FBLN5 gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Si; Lv, He; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Zhaoxia; Shi, Xin; Liang, Wei; Yuan, Yun

    2017-03-23

    Rare forms of autosomal-dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (AD-CMT) may be associated with mutations in Fibulin-5 (FBLN5) as AD-CMT is genetically heterogeneous. Here, we report the first pathological study of an Asian family. The proband was a 46-year-old man with slowly progressive distal numbness and weakness for 12 years. He had a history of diabetes mellitus for 12 years. His mother was 81 years old and had mild polyneuropathy. His 16-year-old daughter was asymptomatic. The nerve conduction velocities (NCVs) and compound muscular action potential (CMAP) amplitudes were moderately to severely reduced in the proband, and moderately reduced in his daughter and mother. A sensory response could not be elicited in the proband and was moderately to severely decreased in the daughter and mother. Nerve ultrasound indicated a general enlargement of the peripheral nerves in the proband, daughter, and mother. A sural nerve biopsy from the proband demonstrated a pronounced depletion of myelinated fibers, thin myelinated fibers, and onion-bulb formations. A reported heterozygous mutation of c.1117C>T in FBLN5 was identified in the proband, mother, and daughter. These findings confirm a novel subtype of AD-CMT 1 due to a mutation in the FBLN5 gene.
.

  13. Neurotrophic factor-related gene polymorphisms and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) score in a high-risk male population.

    PubMed

    Conner, Alex C; Kissling, Christian; Hodges, Edward; Hünnerkopf, Regina; Clement, R Marc; Dudley, Edward; Freitag, Christine M; Rösler, Michael; Retz, Wolfgang; Thome, Johannes

    2008-12-05

    Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a widely under-reported but nevertheless common condition with a clear heritable component. Several genes have been proposed to play a role in the childhood onset of this neurodevelopmental disorder; however, association studies of persistence of ADHD into adulthood have rarely been performed. Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are known to be involved in several aspects of neuronal development and neural plasticity in adults. They have also been linked, particularly through brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) interaction with dopamine transport, to the pathophysiology of ADHD. This study compares the genotypes of six different single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes within the neurotrophin system and their possible association with adult ADHD score in 143 high-risk male subjects referred to a forensic psychiatric unit. The genes included NTF3, NTRK2 (TrkB), NTRK3 (TrkC), BDNF, and p75(NTR). While none of the SNPs showed significant association with ADHD symptoms, one polymorphism within the exon of NTF3 (rs6332) showed a trend toward an association between the A-allele and increased scores using both the retrospective childhood analysis Wender-Utah Rating Scale (WURS-k) (P = 0.05) and the adult ADHD assessment Wender-Reimherr interview (P = 0.03). This SNP is a silent mutation which might be in linkage disequilibrium with a functional risk variant for ADHD. As the association was only suggestive, however, this finding needs replication in a larger study with higher power.

  14. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the hydroxyacid-oxoacid transhydrogenase gene decreases thiamethoxam resistance in adults of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xin; Xie, Wen; Li, Ru-mei; Zhou, Xiao-mao; Wang, Shao-li; Wu, Qing-jun; Yang, Ni-na; Xia, Ji-xing; Yang, Ze-zong; Guo, Li-tao; Liu, Ya-ting; Zhang, You-jun

    2017-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci has developed a high level of resistance to thiamethoxam, a second generation neonicotinoid insecticide that has been widely used to control this pest. In this study, we investigated whether hydroxyacid-oxoacid transhydrogenase (HOT) is involved in resistance to the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam in the whitefly. We cloned the full-length gene that encodes HOT in B. tabaci. Its cDNA contains a 1428-bp open reading frame encoding 475 amino acid residues. Then we evaluated the mRNA expression level of HOT in different developmental stages, and found HOT expression was significantly greater in thiamethoxam resistance adults than in thiamethoxam susceptible adults. Subsequently, seven field populations of B. tabaci adults were sampled, the expression of mRNA level of HOT significant positive correlated with thiamethoxam resistance level. At last, we used a modified gene silencing system to knock-down HOT expression in B. tabaci adults. The results showed that the HOT mRNA levels decreased by 57% and thiamethoxam resistance decreased significantly after 2 days of feeding on a diet containing HOT dsRNA. The results indicated that down-regulation of HOT expression decreases thiamethoxam resistance in B. tabaci adults. PMID:28117358

  15. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the hydroxyacid-oxoacid transhydrogenase gene decreases thiamethoxam resistance in adults of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Xie, Wen; Li, Ru-Mei; Zhou, Xiao-Mao; Wang, Shao-Li; Wu, Qing-Jun; Yang, Ni-Na; Xia, Ji-Xing; Yang, Ze-Zong; Guo, Li-Tao; Liu, Ya-Ting; Zhang, You-Jun

    2017-01-24

    Bemisia tabaci has developed a high level of resistance to thiamethoxam, a second generation neonicotinoid insecticide that has been widely used to control this pest. In this study, we investigated whether hydroxyacid-oxoacid transhydrogenase (HOT) is involved in resistance to the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam in the whitefly. We cloned the full-length gene that encodes HOT in B. tabaci. Its cDNA contains a 1428-bp open reading frame encoding 475 amino acid residues. Then we evaluated the mRNA expression level of HOT in different developmental stages, and found HOT expression was significantly greater in thiamethoxam resistance adults than in thiamethoxam susceptible adults. Subsequently, seven field populations of B. tabaci adults were sampled, the expression of mRNA level of HOT significant positive correlated with thiamethoxam resistance level. At last, we used a modified gene silencing system to knock-down HOT expression in B. tabaci adults. The results showed that the HOT mRNA levels decreased by 57% and thiamethoxam resistance decreased significantly after 2 days of feeding on a diet containing HOT dsRNA. The results indicated that down-regulation of HOT expression decreases thiamethoxam resistance in B. tabaci adults.

  16. Lactase gene c/t(-13910) polymorphism, calcium intake, and pQCT bone traits in Finnish adults.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, Sanna; Laaksonen, Marika; Mikkilä, Vera; Sievänen, Harri; Mononen, Nina; Räsänen, Leena; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli T; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho J

    2011-02-01

    Genetic lactase nonpersistence may influence calcium intake and thereby bone health. We investigated in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finn Study whether young adults aged 31-46 years with the C/C(-13910) genotype are more susceptible to reduced bone phenotypes, low-energy fractures, and low calcium intake than subjects with other lactase genotypes. We also analyzed the gene-environment interactions on bone with calcium intake and physical activity. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography bone traits were measured from the distal and shaft sites of the radius and tibia. The total number of those subjects whose nondominant forearm was measured and the lactase genotype was defined was 1551. Information on diet, lifestyle factors, and fractures was collected with questionnaires. The mean intake of calcium was the lowest in men with the C/C(-13910) genotype (P = 0.001). Men with the T/T(-13910) genotype had ~3% higher trabecular density at the distal radius and distal tibia compared to other lactase genotypes (P = 0.03 and 0.02, respectively). In women, we found no evidence of the gene effect at the radius and tibia. No major interactions of the C/T(-13910) polymorphism with calcium intake or physical activity on bone phenotypes were found in either sex. In conclusion, the C/T(-13910) polymorphism was associated with trabecular density at the distal radius and tibia in men. These differences may be due to the differences in calcium intake between the lactase genotypes.

  17. Aromatic DNA adducts and polymorphisms in metabolic genes in healthy adults: findings from the EPIC-Spain cohort.

    PubMed

    Agudo, Antonio; Peluso, Marco; Sala, Núria; Capellá, Gabriel; Munnia, Armelle; Piro, Sara; Marín, Fátima; Ibáñez, Raquel; Amiano, Pilar; Tormo, M José; Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chirlaque, M Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; Larrañaga, Nerea; Martínez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Quirós, J Ramón; Sánchez, M José; González, Carlos A

    2009-06-01

    Aromatic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arylamines and heterocyclic amines require metabolic activation to form metabolites able to bind to DNA, a process mediated by polymorphic enzymes. We measured aromatic DNA adducts in white blood cells by the (32)P-post-labelling assay in a sample of 296 healthy adults (147 men and 149 women) from five regions of Spain. We also analyzed functional polymorphisms in the metabolic genes CYP1A1, CYP1A2, EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT2 and SULT1A1. A significant increased level of DNA aromatic adducts was found related to the fast oxidation-hydrolysis phenotype defined by the polymorphism I462V in CYP1A1, the allele A in IVS1-154C>A of CYP1A2 and the combination Tyrosine-Arginine for Y113H and H139R of EPHX1. Geometric means (adducts per 10(-9) normal nucleotides) were 2.17, 4.04 and 6.30 for slow, normal and fast phenotypes, respectively (P-trend = 0.01). Slow acetylation by NAT2 was associated with a significant decrease in adduct level; subjects with slow alleles *5A and *7A/B had in average 1.56 x 10(-9)adducts, as compared with 5.60 for those with normal NAT2 activity (P-value = 0.01). No association was seen with polymorphisms of other metabolic genes such as GSTM1, GSTT1 or SULT1A1. We concluded that the metabolic pathways of oxidation, hydrolysis and acetylation are relevant to the formation of bulky DNA adducts. This could suggest a potential involvement of aromatic compounds in the formation of such adducts; however, given lack of specificity of the post-labeling assay, a firm conclusion cannot be drawn.

  18. Neuron-Enriched Gene Expression Patterns are Regionally Anti-Correlated with Oligodendrocyte-Enriched Patterns in the Adult Mouse and Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Powell Patrick Cheng; French, Leon; Pavlidis, Paul

    2013-01-01

    An important goal in neuroscience is to understand gene expression patterns in the brain. The recent availability of comprehensive and detailed expression atlases for mouse and human creates opportunities to discover global patterns and perform cross-species comparisons. Recently we reported that the major source of variation in gene transcript expression in the adult normal mouse brain can be parsimoniously explained as reflecting regional variation in glia to neuron ratios, and is correlated with degree of connectivity and location in the brain along the anterior-posterior axis. Here we extend this investigation to two gene expression assays of adult normal human brains that consisted of over 300 brain region samples, and perform comparative analyses of brain-wide expression patterns to the mouse. We performed principal components analysis (PCA) on the regional gene expression of the adult human brain to identify the expression pattern that has the largest variance. As in the mouse, we observed that the first principal component is composed of two anti-correlated patterns enriched in oligodendrocyte and neuron markers respectively. However, we also observed interesting discordant patterns between the two species. For example, a few mouse neuron markers show expression patterns that are more correlated with the human oligodendrocyte-enriched pattern and vice-versa. In conclusion, our work provides insights into human brain function and evolution by probing global relationships between regional cell type marker expression patterns in the human and mouse brain. PMID:23440889

  19. Accounting for Life-Course Exposures in Epigenetic Biomarker Association Studies: Early Life Socioeconomic Position, Candidate Gene DNA Methylation, and Adult Cardiometabolic Risk.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jonathan Y; Gavin, Amelia R; Richardson, Thomas S; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Siscovick, David S; Hochner, Hagit; Friedlander, Yechiel; Enquobahrie, Daniel A

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that epigenetic programming may mediate the relationship between early life environment, including parental socioeconomic position, and adult cardiometabolic health. However, interpreting associations between early environment and adult DNA methylation may be difficult because of time-dependent confounding by life-course exposures. Among 613 adult women (mean age = 32 years) of the Jerusalem Perinatal Study Family Follow-up (2007-2009), we investigated associations between early life socioeconomic position (paternal occupation and parental education) and mean adult DNA methylation at 5 frequently studied cardiometabolic and stress-response genes (ABCA1, INS-IGF2, LEP, HSD11B2, and NR3C1). We used multivariable linear regression and marginal structural models to estimate associations under 2 causal structures for life-course exposures and timing of methylation measurement. We also examined whether methylation was associated with adult cardiometabolic phenotype. Higher maternal education was consistently associated with higher HSD11B2 methylation (e.g., 0.5%-point higher in 9-12 years vs. ≤8 years, 95% confidence interval: 0.1, 0.8). Higher HSD11B2 methylation was also associated with lower adult weight and total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We found that associations with early life socioeconomic position measures were insensitive to different causal assumption; however, exploratory analysis did not find evidence for a mediating role of methylation in socioeconomic position-cardiometabolic risk associations.

  20. High levels of gene expression in the hepatocytes of adult mice, neonatal mice and tree shrews via retro-orbital sinus hydrodynamic injections of naked plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shaoduo; Fu, Qiuxia; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Jidong; Liu, Ying; Duan, Xiangguo; Jia, Shuaizheng; Peng, Jianchun; Gao, Bo; Du, Juan; Zhou, Qianqian; Li, Yuan; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhan, Linsheng

    2012-08-10

    Hydrodynamic-based gene delivery has emerged as an efficient and simple method for the intracellular transfection of naked plasmid DNA (pDNA) in vivo. In this system, a hydrodynamic injection via the tail vein is the most effective non-viral method of liver-targeted gene delivery. However, this injection is often technically challenging when used in animals whose tail veins are difficult to visualize or too small to operate on. To overcome this limitation, an alternative in vivo gene delivery method, the rapid injection of large volume of pDNA solution through retro-orbital sinus, was established. Using this technique, we successfully delivered pDNA to the tissue of adult mice, neonatal mice and tree shrews. The efficient expression of exogenous genes was specifically detected in the liver of test animals treated with this gene delivery method. This study demonstrates for the first time that the hydrodynamic gene delivery via the retro-orbital sinus can not only reach the same transgene efficiency as a tradition hydrodynamic-based intravascular injection but also be used in animals that are difficult to inject via the tail vein. This method could open up new areas in gene function studies and gene therapy disease treatment.

  1. Sex-specific patterns and deregulation of endocrine pathways in the gene expression profiles of Bangladeshi adults exposed to arsenic contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Alexandra; Chervona, Yana; Hall, Megan; Kluz, Thomas; Gamble, Mary V; Costa, Max

    2015-05-01

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water occurs globally and is associated with numerous diseases including skin, lung and bladder cancers, and cardiovascular disease. Recent research indicates that arsenic may be an endocrine disruptor. This study was conducted to evaluate the nature of gene expression changes among males and females exposed to arsenic contaminated water in Bangladesh at high and low doses. Twenty-nine (55% male) Bangladeshi adults with water arsenic exposure ranging from 50 to 1000 μg/L were selected from the Folic Acid Creatinine Trial. RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells for gene expression profiling using Affymetrix 1.0 ST arrays. Differentially expressed genes were assessed between high and low exposure groups for males and females separately and findings were validated using quantitative real-time PCR. There were 534 and 645 differentially expressed genes (p<0.05) in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of males and females, respectively, when high and low water arsenic exposure groups were compared. Only 43 genes overlapped between the two sexes, with 29 changing in opposite directions. Despite the difference in gene sets both males and females exhibited common biological changes including deregulation of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes, deregulation of genes downstream of Sp1 (specificity protein 1) transcription factor, and prediction of estrogen receptor alpha as a key hub in cardiovascular networks. Arsenic-exposed adults exhibit sex-specific gene expression profiles that implicate involvement of the endocrine system. Due to arsenic's possible role as an endocrine disruptor, exposure thresholds for arsenic may require different parameters for males and females.

  2. A brain-specific gene cluster isolated from the region of the mouse obesity locus is expressed in the adult hypothalamus and during mouse development

    SciTech Connect

    Laig-Webster, M.; Lim, M.E.; Chehab, F.F.

    1994-09-01

    The molecular defect underlying an autosomal recessive form of genetic obesity in a classical mouse model C57 BL/6J-ob/ob has not yet been elucidated. Whereas metabolic and physiological disturbances such as diabetes and hypertension are associated with obesity, the site of expression and the nature of the primary lesion responsible for this cascade of events remains elusive. Our efforts aimed at the positional cloning of the ob gene by YAC contig mapping and gene identification have resulted in the cloning of a brain-specific gene cluster from the ob critical region. The expression of this gene cluster is remarkably complex owing to the multitude of brain-specific mRNA transcripts detected on Northern blots. cDNA cloning of these transcripts suggests that they are expressed from different genes as well as by alternate splicing mechanisms. Furthermore, the genomic organization of the cluster appears to consist of at least two identical promoters displaying CpG islands characteristic of housekeeping genes, yet clearly involving tissue-specific expression. Sense and anti-sense synthetic RNA probes were derived from a common DNA sequence on 3 cDNA clones and hybridized to 8-16 days mouse embryonic stages and mouse adult brain sections. Expression in development was noticeable as of the 11th day of gestation and confined to the central nervous system mainly in the telencephalon and spinal cord. Coronal and sagittal sections of the adult mouse brain showed expression only in 3 different regions of the brain stem. In situ hybridization to mouse hypothalamus sections revealed the presence of a localized and specialized group of cells expressing high levels of mRNA, suggesting that this gene cluster may also be involved in the regulation of hypothalamic activities. The hypothalamus has long been hypothesized as a primary candidate tissue for the expression of the obesity gene mainly because of its well-established role in the regulation of energy metabolism and food intake.

  3. Candidate genes for Alzheimer’s disease are associated with individual differences in plasma levels of beta amyloid peptides in adults with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Schupf, Nicole; Lee, Annie; Park, Naeun; Dang, Lam-Ha; Pang, Deborah; Yale, Alexander; Oh, David Kyung-Taek; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Luchsinger, José A.; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne; Tycko, Benjamin; Kisselev, Sergey; Clark, Lorraine; Lee, Joseph H.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the contribution of candidate genes for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) on Chromosome 21 and other chromosomes to differences in Aβ peptide levels in a cohort of adults with DS, a population at high risk for AD. Participants were 254 non-demented adults with Down syndrome, 30–78 years of age. Genomic DNA was genotyped using an Illumina GoldenGate custom array. We used linear regression to examine differences in levels of Aβ peptides associated with the number of risk alleles, adjusting for age, sex, level of intellectual disability, race/ethnicity and the presence of the APOE ε4 allele. For Aβ42 levels, the strongest gene-wise association was found for a SNP on CAHLM1; for Aβ40 levels the strongest gene-wise associations were found for SNPs in IDE and SOD1, while the strongest gene-wise associations with levels of the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio were found for SNPs in SORCS1. Broadly classified, variants in these genes may influence APP processing (CALHM1, IDE), vesicular trafficking (SORCS1), and response to oxidative stress (SOD1). PMID:26166206

  4. Structure of the chromosomal gene and cDNAs coding for lactase-phlorizin hydrolase in humans with adult-type hypolactasia or persistence of lactase.

    PubMed Central

    Boll, W; Wagner, P; Mantei, N

    1991-01-01

    Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) splits lactose in the small intestine. LPH activity is high in the suckling; in many human populations the activity declines in adults, leading to adult-type hypolactasia, whereas in other populations the high LPH activity persists in adults. In the present work, we compared LPH sequences at the gene and cDNA level among adult subjects with high and low LPH activity. The complete intron-exon organization, including the sequences of all 17 exons and of the borders of all introns (as well as about 1,000 bp of 5' flanking region), was established for the cloned chromosomal LPH gene of a subject with persistence of lactase. Using PCR, we directly sequenced the exons of a hypolactasic subject. Except for silent mutations and the unknown linkage phase at two heterozygous positions, both coding sequences were identical. We further examined the LPH mRNA of a hypolactasic subject by S1 mapping and by sequencing a set of overlapping PCR products produced from cDNA templates. Except for allelic differences, the LPH sequence of the hypolactasic subject was identical to that of the LPH cDNAs of three subjects with persistence of lactase (one cDNA isolated previously by cloning and two characterized in the present work by PCR). No allele was peculiar to the hypolactasic subject. We conclude that humans with high or low levels of lactase can code for identical LPH enzymes. Images Figure 5 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:1902057

  5. Quantitative analysis of short- and long-distance racing performance in young and adult horses and association analysis with functional candidate genes in Spanish Trotter horses.

    PubMed

    Negro Rama, S; Valera, M; Membrillo, A; Gómez, M D; Solé, M; Menendez-Buxadera, A; Anaya, G; Molina, A

    2016-10-01

    The association of five candidate genes with sporting performance in young and adult Spanish Trotter horses (STHs) was performed according to a previous selection based on quantitative analysis of the trait time per kilometre (TPK). A total of 334 516 records of TPK from 5958 STHs were used to estimate the estimated breeding values (EBVs) at different age groups (young and adults horses) throughout the range of distances (1600-2700 m) using a bicharacter random regression model. The heritability estimated by distance ranged from 0.16 to 0.40, with a different range for the two age groups. Considering the animals with the best and the worst deregressed EBV, 321 STHs were selected for SNP genotyping in MSTN, COX4I2, PDK4, DMRT3 and CKM genes. An association analysis based on ridge and logistic regression revealed that the young trotters with genotype GG in PDK4 (p < 0.05) and AA of DMRT3 (p < 0.001) SNPs show the best potential in short-distance races, while those carrying the genotype AA in DMRT3 (p < 0.001) and CC in CKM (p < 0.05) genes seem to be the best in long-distance races. Adult trotters with genotype AA in DMRT3 also display greater speed (p < 0.05) and endurance (p < 0.001).

  6. Systemic AAV9 gene transfer in adult GM1 gangliosidosis mice reduces lysosomal storage in CNS and extends lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Weismann, Cara M.; Ferreira, Jennifer; Keeler, Allison M.; Su, Qin; Qui, Linghua; Shaffer, Scott A.; Xu, Zuoshang; Gao, Guangping; Sena-Esteves, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    GM1 gangliosidosis (GM1) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease where GLB1 gene mutations result in a reduction or absence of lysosomal acid β-galactosidase (βgal) activity. βgal deficiency leads to accumulation of GM1-ganglioside in the central nervous system (CNS). GM1 is characterized by progressive neurological decline resulting in generalized paralysis, extreme emaciation and death. In this study, we assessed the therapeutic efficacy of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) 9-mβgal vector infused systemically in adult GM1 mice (βGal−/−) at 1 × 1011 or 3 × 1011 vector genomes (vg). Biochemical analysis of AAV9-treated GM1 mice showed high βGal activity in liver and serum. Moderate βGal levels throughout CNS resulted in a 36–76% reduction in GM1-ganglioside content in the brain and 75–86% in the spinal cord. Histological analyses of the CNS of animals treated with 3 × 1011 vg dose revealed increased presence of βgal and clearance of lysosomal storage throughout cortex, hippocampus, brainstem and spinal cord. Storage reduction in these regions was accompanied by a marked decrease in astrogliosis. AAV9 treatment resulted in improved performance in multiple tests of motor function and behavior. Also the majority of GM1 mice in the 3 × 1011 vg cohort retained ambulation and rearing despite reaching the humane endpoint due to weight loss. Importantly, the median survival of AAV9 treatment groups (316–576 days) was significantly increased over controls (250–264 days). This study shows that moderate widespread expression of βgal in the CNS of GM1 gangliosidosis mice is sufficient to achieve significant biochemical impact with phenotypic amelioration and extension in lifespan. PMID:25964428

  7. Systemic AAV9 gene transfer in adult GM1 gangliosidosis mice reduces lysosomal storage in CNS and extends lifespan.

    PubMed

    Weismann, Cara M; Ferreira, Jennifer; Keeler, Allison M; Su, Qin; Qui, Linghua; Shaffer, Scott A; Xu, Zuoshang; Gao, Guangping; Sena-Esteves, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    GM1 gangliosidosis (GM1) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease where GLB1 gene mutations result in a reduction or absence of lysosomal acid β-galactosidase (βgal) activity. βgal deficiency leads to accumulation of GM1-ganglioside in the central nervous system (CNS). GM1 is characterized by progressive neurological decline resulting in generalized paralysis, extreme emaciation and death. In this study, we assessed the therapeutic efficacy of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) 9-mβgal vector infused systemically in adult GM1 mice (βGal(-/-)) at 1 × 10(11) or 3 × 10(11) vector genomes (vg). Biochemical analysis of AAV9-treated GM1 mice showed high βGal activity in liver and serum. Moderate βGal levels throughout CNS resulted in a 36-76% reduction in GM1-ganglioside content in the brain and 75-86% in the spinal cord. Histological analyses of the CNS of animals treated with 3 × 10(11) vg dose revealed increased presence of βgal and clearance of lysosomal storage throughout cortex, hippocampus, brainstem and spinal cord. Storage reduction in these regions was accompanied by a marked decrease in astrogliosis. AAV9 treatment resulted in improved performance in multiple tests of motor function and behavior. Also the majority of GM1 mice in the 3 × 10(11) vg cohort retained ambulation and rearing despite reaching the humane endpoint due to weight loss. Importantly, the median survival of AAV9 treatment groups (316-576 days) was significantly increased over controls (250-264 days). This study shows that moderate widespread expression of βgal in the CNS of GM1 gangliosidosis mice is sufficient to achieve significant biochemical impact with phenotypic amelioration and extension in lifespan.

  8. Vitamin D status: multifactorial contribution of environment, genes and other factors in healthy Australian adults across a latitude gradient.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Robyn M; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Dear, Keith; Valery, Patricia C; Taylor, Bruce; van der Mei, Ingrid; McMichael, Anthony J; Pender, Michael P; Chapman, Caron; Coulthard, Alan; Kilpatrick, Trevor J; Stankovich, Jim; Williams, David; Dwyer, Terence

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common and implicated in risk of several human diseases. Evidence on the relative quantitative contribution of environmental, genetic and phenotypic factors to vitamin D status (assessed by the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)D) in free-living populations is sparse. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 494 Caucasian adults aged 18-61years, randomly selected from the Australian Electoral Roll according to groups defined by age, sex and region (spanning 27°-43°South). Data collected included personal characteristics, sun exposure behaviour, biomarkers of skin type and past sun exposure, serum 25(OH)D concentration and candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms. Ambient ultraviolet radiation (UVR) levels in the month six weeks before blood sampling best predicted vitamin D status. Serum 25(OH)D concentration increased by 10nmol/L as reported time in the sun doubled. Overall, 54% of the variation in serum 25(OH)D concentration could be accounted for: 36% of the variation was explained by sun exposure-related factors; 14% by genetic factors (including epistasis) and 3.5% by direct measures of skin phenotype. Novel findings from this study are demonstration of gene epistasis, and quantification of the relative contribution of a wide range of environmental, constitutional and genetic factors to vitamin D status. Ambient UVR levels and time in the sun were of prime importance but it is nonetheless important to include the contribution of genetic factors when considering sun exposure effects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'.

  9. Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphisms and Early Parent-Infant Interactions Are Related to Adult Male Heart Rate Response to Female Crying

    PubMed Central

    Truzzi, Anna; Bornstein, Marc H.; Senese, Vincenzo P.; Shinohara, Kazuyuki; Setoh, Peipei; Esposito, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    Adults' adaptive interactions with intimate partners enhance well-being. Here we hypothesized that adult males' physiological responses to opposite-sex conspecifics' distress result from an interaction between an environmental factor (early social interaction with caregivers) and a genetic factor (a polymorphism within the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene, 5-HTTLPR). We assessed heart rate changes in 42 non-married male adults to distress vocalizations (female, infant, and bonobo cries). Males' early interaction with parents was assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument. Buccal mucosa cell samples were collected to assess their 5-HTTLPR genotype. A significant interaction emerged between early experience and genetic predisposition. Males with a genetic predisposition for higher sensitivity to environmental factors showed atypical physiological responses to adult female cries according to their experienced early maternal parenting. Environmental experiences and genetic characteristics are associated with adult males' physiological responses to socially meaningfully stimuli. Understanding the mechanisms that modulate responses to opposite-sex conspecifics may improve personal well-being and social adaptiveness. PMID:28293197

  10. Changes in expression of hepatic genes involved in energy metabolism during hibernation in captive, adult, female Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Shimozuru, Michito; Kamine, Akari; Tsubota, Toshio

    2012-10-01

    Hibernating bears survive up to 6 months without feeding by utilizing stored body fat as fuel. To investigate how bears maintain energy homeostasis during hibernation, we analyzed changes in mRNA expression of hepatic genes involved in energy metabolism throughout the hibernation period in captive, adult, female Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus). Real-time PCR analysis revealed down-regulation of glycolysis- (e.g., glucokinase), amino acid catabolism- (e.g., alanine aminotransferase) and de novo lipogenesis-related genes (e.g., acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1), and up-regulation of gluconeogensis- (e.g., pyruvate carboxylase), β-oxidation- (i.e., uncoupling protein 2) and ketogenesis-related genes (i.e., 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary-CoA synthase 2), during hibernation, compared to the active period (June). In addition, we found that glycolysis-related genes (i.e., glucokinase and pyruvate kinase) were more suppressed in the early phase of hibernation (January) compared to the late phase (March). One week after the commencement of feeding in April, expression levels of most genes returned to levels comparable to those seen in June, but β-oxidation-related genes were still up-regulated during this period. These results suggest that the modulation of gene expression is not static, but changes throughout the hibernation period. The transcriptional modulation during hibernation represents a unique physiological adaptation to prolonged fasting in bears.

  11. Growth response and expression of muscle growth-related candidate genes in adult zebrafish fed plant and fishmeal protein-based diets.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Pilar E; Peña, Andrea A; Lizama, Carla D; Araneda, Cristian; Iturra, Patricia; Neira, Roberto; Medrano, Juan F

    2013-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the effects of a plant protein- vs. fishmeal-based diet on growth response in a population of 24 families, as well as expression of growth-related genes in the muscle of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Each family was split to create two fish populations with similar genetic backgrounds, and the fish were fed either fishmeal (FM diet) or plant protein (PP diet) as the unique protein source in their diets from 35 to 98 days postfertilization (dpf). To understand the effect of the PP diet on gene expression, individuals from three families, representative of the mean weight in both populations, were selected. To understand the effect of familiar variation on gene expression, the same families were evaluated separately. At 98 dpf, growth-related genes Igf1a, Igf2a, mTOR, Pld1a, Mrf4, Myod, Myogenin, and Myostatin1b were evaluated. In males, Myogenin, Mrf4, and Igf2a showed changes attributable to the PP diet. In females, the effect of the PP diet did not modulate the expression in any of the eight genes studied. The effect of familiar variation on gene expression was observed among families. This study shows that PP diet and family variation have effects on gene expression in fish muscle.

  12. Alteration of Gene Expression, DNA Methylation, and Histone Methylation in Free Radical Scavenging Networks in Adult Mouse Hippocampus following Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Chater-Diehl, Eric J.; Castellani, Christina A.; Alberry, Bonnie L.; Singh, Shiva M.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular basis of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) is poorly understood; however, epigenetic and gene expression changes have been implicated. We have developed a mouse model of FASD characterized by learning and memory impairment and persistent gene expression changes. Epigenetic marks may maintain expression changes over a mouse’s lifetime, an area few have explored. Here, mice were injected with saline or ethanol on postnatal days four and seven. At 70 days of age gene expression microarray, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation microarray, H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 chromatin immunoprecipitation microarray were performed. Following extensive pathway analysis of the affected genes, we identified the top affected gene expression pathway as “Free radical scavenging”. We confirmed six of these changes by droplet digital PCR including the caspase Casp3 and Wnt transcription factor Tcf7l2. The top pathway for all methylation-affected genes was “Peroxisome biogenesis”; we confirmed differential DNA methylation in the Acca1 thiolase promoter. Altered methylation and gene expression in oxidative stress pathways in the adult hippocampus suggests a novel interface between epigenetic and oxidative stress mechanisms in FASD. PMID:27136348

  13. A self-inactivating lentiviral vector for SCID-X1 gene therapy that does not activate LMO2 expression in human T cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sheng; Mody, Disha; DeRavin, Suk See; Hauer, Julia; Lu, Taihe; Ma, Zhijun; Hacein-Bey Abina, Salima; Gray, John T; Greene, Michael R; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; Malech, Harry L; Sorrentino, Brian P

    2010-08-12

    To develop safer and more effective vectors for gene therapy of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1), we have evaluated new self-inactivating lentiviral vectors based on the HIV virus. The CL20i4-hgamma(c)-Revgen vector contains the entire human common gamma chain (gamma(c)) genomic sequence driven by the gamma(c) promoter. The CL20i4-EF1alpha-hgamma(c)OPT vector uses a promoter fragment from the eukaryotic elongation factor alpha (EF1alpha) gene to express a codon-optimized human gamma(c) cDNA. Both vectors contain a 400-bp insulator fragment from the chicken beta-globin locus within the self-inactivating long-terminal repeat. Transduction of bone marrow cells using either of these vectors restored T, B, and natural killer lymphocyte development and function in a mouse SCID-X1 transplantation model. Transduction of human CD34(+) bone marrow cells from SCID-X1 patients with either vector restored T-cell development in an in vitro assay. In safety studies using a Jurkat LMO2 activation assay, only the CL20i4-EF1alpha-hgamma(c)OPT vector lacked the ability to transactivate LMO2 protein expression, whereas the CL20i4-hgamma(c)-Revgen vector significantly activated LMO2 protein expression. In addition, the CL20i4-EF1alpha-hgamma(c)OPT vector has not caused any tumors in transplanted mice. We conclude that the CL20i4-EF1alpha-hgamma(c)OPT vector may be suitable for testing in a clinical trial based on these preclinical demonstrations of efficacy and safety.

  14. Retinoid Homeostatic Gene Expression in Liver, Lung and Kidney: Ontogeny and Response to Vitamin A-Retinoic Acid (VARA) Supplementation from Birth to Adult Age

    PubMed Central

    Owusu, Sarah A.; Ross, A. Catharine

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A (VA, retinol) metabolism is homeostatically controlled, but little is known of its regulation in the postnatal period. Here, we determined the postnatal trajectory of VA storage and metabolism in major compartments of VA metabolism–plasma, liver, lung, and kidney from postnatal (P) day 1 to adulthood. We also investigated the response to supplementation with VARA, a combination of VA and 10% all-trans-retinoic acid that previously was shown to synergistically increase retinol uptake and storage in lung. Nursling pups of dams fed a VA-marginal diet received an oral dose of oil (placebo) or VARA on each of four neonatal days: P1, P4, P7, and P10; and again as adults. Tissues were collected 6 h after the final dosing on P1, P4, P10, and at adult age. Gene transcripts for Lrat and Rbp4 in liver and Raldh-1 and Raldh-3 in lung, did not differ in the neonatal period but were higher, P<0.05, in adults, while Cyp26B1, Stra6, megalin, and Raldh-2 in lung did not differ from perinatal to adult ages. VARA supplementation increased total retinol in plasma, liver and lung, with a dose-by-dose accumulation in neonatal liver and lung, while transcripts for Lrat in liver, megalin in kidney, Cyp26A1/B1 in liver and lung, respectively, and Stra6 in lung, were all increased, suggesting pathways of VA uptake, storage and RA oxidation were each augmented after VARA. VARA decreased hepatic expression of Rbp4, responsible for VA trafficking from liver to plasma, and, in lung, of Raldh-1 and Raldh-2, which function in RA production. Our results define retinoid homeostatic gene expression from neonatal and adult age and show that while supplementation with VARA acutely alters retinol content and retinoid homeostatic gene expression in neonatal and adult lung, liver and kidney, VARA supplementation of neonates increased adult-age VA content only in the liver. PMID:26731668

  15. Gestational N-hexane inhalation alters the expression of genes related to ovarian hormone production and DNA methylation states in adult female F1 rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Zhang, Chenyun; Ni, Feng; Guo, Suhua; Wang, Wenxiang; Liu, Jing; Lu, Xiaoli; Huang, Huiling; Zhang, Wenchang

    2015-12-15

    Research has revealed that n-hexane can disrupt adult female endocrine functions; however, few reports have focused on endocrine changes in adult F1 females after maternal exposure during gestation. In this study, female Wistar rats inhaled 100, 500, 2500, or 12,500 ppm n-hexane for 4 h daily during their initial 20 gestational days. The F1 female offspring exhibited abnormal oestrus cycles. Compared with the controls, the in vitro-cultured ovarian granulosa cells of the 12,500 ppm group showed significantly reduced in vitro progesterone and oestradiol secretion. Elevated progesterone secretion was observed in the 500 ppm group, and decreased and significantly upregulated mRNA expression of the Star, Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1, and Hsd3b genes was observed in the 12,500 ppm and 500 ppm groups, respectively. The protein expression levels were consistent with the mRNA expression levels. Methylation screening of the promoter regions of these genes was performed using MeDIP-chip and confirmed by methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM), and the observed methylation state changes of the promoter regions were correlated with the gene expression levels. The results suggest that the hormone levels in the female offspring after gestational n-hexane inhalation correspond to the expression levels and DNA methylation states of the hormone production genes.

  16. The UV-absorber benzophenone-4 alters transcripts of genes involved in hormonal pathways in zebrafish (Danio rerio) eleuthero-embryos and adult males

    SciTech Connect

    Zucchi, Sara; Bluethgen, Nancy; Ieronimo, Andrea; Fent, Karl

    2011-01-15

    Benzophenone-4 (BP-4) is frequently used as UV-absorber in cosmetics and materials protection. Despite its frequent detection in the aquatic environment potential effects on aquatic life are unknown. In this study, we evaluate the effects of BP-4 in eleuthero-embryos and in the liver, testis and brain of adult male fish on the transcriptional level by focusing on target genes involved in hormonal pathways to provide a more complete toxicological profile of this important UV-absorber. Eleuthero-embryos and males of zebrafish were exposed up to 3 days after hatching and for 14 days, respectively, to BP-4 concentrations between 30 and 3000 {mu}g/L. In eleuthero-embryos transcripts of vtg1, vtg3, esr1, esr2b, hsd17ss3, cyp19b cyp19a, hhex and pax8 were induced at 3000 {mu}g/L BP-4, which points to a low estrogenic activity and interference with early thyroid development, respectively. In adult males BP-4 displayed multiple effects on gene expression in different tissues. In the liver vtg1, vtg3, esr1 and esr2b were down-regulated, while in the brain, vtg1, vtg3 and cyp19b transcripts were up-regulated. In conclusion, the transcription profile revealed that BP-4 interferes with the expression of genes involved in hormonal pathways and steroidogenesis. The effects of BP-4 differ in life stages and adult tissues and point to an estrogenic activity in eleuthero-embryos and adult brain, and an antiestrogenic activity in the liver. The results indicate that BP-4 interferes with the sex hormone system of fish, which is important for the risk assessment of this UV-absorber.

  17. Comparison of hepatic-like cell production from human embryonic stem cells and adult liver progenitor cells: CAR transduction activates a battery of detoxification genes.

    PubMed

    Funakoshi, Natalie; Duret, Cédric; Pascussi, Jean-Marc; Blanc, Pierre; Maurel, Patrick; Daujat-Chavanieu, Martine; Gerbal-Chaloin, Sabine

    2011-09-01

    In vitro production of human hepatocytes is of primary importance in basic research, pharmacotoxicology and biotherapy of liver diseases. We have developed a protocol of differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (ES) towards hepatocyte-like cells (ES-Hep). Using a set of human adult markers including CAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPalpha), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4/7 ratio (HNF4alpha1/HNF4alpha7), cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1), CYP3A4 and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), and fetal markers including alpha-fetoprotein, CYP3A7 and glutathione S-transferase P1, we analyzed the expression of a panel of 41 genes in ES-Hep comparatively with human adult primary hepatocytes, adult and fetal liver. The data revealed that after 21 days of differentiation, ES-Hep are representative of fetal hepatocytes at less than 20 weeks of gestation. The glucocorticoid receptor pathway was functional in ES-Hep. Extending protocols of differentiation to 4 weeks did not improve cell maturation. When compared with hepatocyte-like cells derived from adult liver non parenchymal epithelial (NPE) cells (NPE-Hep), ES-Hep expressed several adult and fetal liver makers at much greater levels (at least one order of magnitude), consistent with greater expression of liver-enriched transcription factors Forkhead box A2, C/EBPalpha, HNF4alpha and HNF6. It therefore seems that ES-Hep reach a better level of differentiation than NPE-Hep and that these cells use different lineage pathways towards the hepatic phenotype. Finally we showed that lentivirus-mediated expression of xenoreceptor CAR in ES-Hep induced the expression of several detoxification genes including CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP3A4, UDP-glycosyltransferase 1A1, solute carriers 21A6, as well as biotransformation of midazolam, a CYP3A4-specific substrate.

  18. In utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure: Effects on fetal and adult cardiac gene expression and adult cardiac and renal morphology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mouse heart is a target of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during fetal development, and microarray analysis demonstrates significant changes in expression of cardiac genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. We tested the hypothesis that developmental TCDD exposure wo...

  19. Paediatric and adult soft tissue sarcomas with NTRK1 gene fusions: a subset of spindle cell sarcomas unified by a prominent myopericytic/haemangiopericytic pattern.

    PubMed

    Haller, Florian; Knopf, Jasmin; Ackermann, Anne; Bieg, Matthias; Kleinheinz, Kortine; Schlesner, Matthias; Moskalev, Evgeny A; Will, Rainer; Satir, Ali Abdel; Abdelmagid, Ibtihalat E; Giedl, Johannes; Carbon, Roman; Rompel, Oliver; Hartmann, Arndt; Wiemann, Stefan; Metzler, Markus; Agaimy, Abbas

    2016-04-01

    Neoplasms with a myopericytomatous pattern represent a morphological spectrum of lesions encompassing myopericytoma of the skin and soft tissue, angioleiomyoma, myofibromatosis/infantile haemangiopericytoma and putative neoplasms reported as malignant myopericytoma. Lack of reproducible phenotypic and genetic features of malignant myopericytic neoplasms have prevented the establishment of myopericytic sarcoma as an acceptable diagnostic category. Following detection of a LMNA-NTRK1 gene fusion in an index case of paediatric haemangiopericytoma-like sarcoma by combined whole-genome and RNA sequencing, we identified three additional sarcomas harbouring NTRK1 gene fusions, termed 'spindle cell sarcoma, NOS with myo/haemangiopericytic growth pattern'. The patients were two children aged 11 months and 2 years and two adults aged 51 and 80 years. While the tumours of the adults were strikingly myopericytoma-like, but with clear-cut atypical features, the paediatric cases were more akin to infantile myofibromatosis/haemangiopericytoma. All cases contained numerous thick-walled dysplastic-like vessels with segmental or diffuse nodular myxohyaline myo-intimal proliferations of smooth muscle actin-positive cells, occasionally associated with thrombosis. Immunohistochemistry showed variable expression of smooth muscle actin and CD34, but other mesenchymal markers, including STAT6, were negative. This study showed a novel variant of myo/haemangiopericytic sarcoma with recurrent NTRK1 gene fusions. Given the recent introduction of a novel therapeutic approach targeting NTRK fusion-positive neoplasms, recognition of this rare but likely under-reported sarcoma variant is strongly encouraged.

  20. PANK2 gene analysis confirms genetic heterogeneity in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) but mutations are rare in other types of adult neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Matarin, M M; Singleton, A B; Houlden, H

    2006-10-23

    Mutations in the pantothenate kinase 2 gene (PANK2) are the cause of pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), an autosomal recessive (AR) disorder characterized by motor symptoms as such as dystonia or parkinsonism, mental retardation, retinitis pigmentosa and iron accumulation in the brain. As many neurodegenerative conditions have similar clinical features we screened a number of adult and childhood onset movement disorders for PANK2 mutation. This included cases with neurodegeneration and brain iron accumulation, corticobasal degeneartion, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple system atropy, giant axonal neuropathy (GAN), neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD), Guam dementia and HARP syndrome (pallido-pyramidal syndrome and hypoprebetalipoproteinemia, acanthocytosis, retinitis pigmentosa and pallidal degeneration). From our series of patients one patient with PKAN and a progressive severe dystonic syndrome, cerebellar ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa and eventual anarthria had a novel combination of two compound heterozygote mutations identified in the PANK2 gene, G-->A transition at base 1238 (G411R) and a C-->A transition at base 1184 (A395E). In the patient with HARP syndrome two compound heterozygote mutations (Met327Thr and IVS5-1 G to T) in the PANK2 gene were found. No other mutations were found in any of the other patient groups, suggesting that PANK2 mutations are not associated with the aetiology of these adult degenerative conditions and confirms the genetic heterogeneity in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation.

  1. Methylation of the leukocyte glucocorticoid receptor gene promoter in adults: associations with early adversity and depressive, anxiety and substance-use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tyrka, A R; Parade, S H; Welch, E S; Ridout, K K; Price, L H; Marsit, C; Philip, N S; Carpenter, L L

    2016-01-01

    Early adversity increases risk for developing psychopathology. Epigenetic modification of stress reactivity genes is a likely mechanism contributing to this risk. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene is of particular interest because of the regulatory role of the GR in hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis function. Mounting evidence suggests that early adversity is associated with GR promoter methylation and gene expression. Few studies have examined links between GR promoter methylation and psychopathology, and findings to date have been mixed. Healthy adult participants (N=340) who were free of psychotropic medications reported on their childhood experiences of maltreatment and parental death and desertion. Lifetime depressive and anxiety disorders and past substance-use disorders were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Methylation of exon 1F of the GR gene (NR3C1) was examined in leukocyte DNA via pyrosequencing. On a separate day, a subset of the participants (n=231) completed the dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) test. Childhood adversity and a history of past substance-use disorder and current or past depressive or anxiety disorders were associated with lower levels of NR3C1 promoter methylation across the region as a whole and at individual CpG sites (P<0.05). The number of adversities was negatively associated with NR3C1 methylation in participants with no lifetime disorder (P=0.018), but not in those with a lifetime disorder. GR promoter methylation was linked to altered cortisol responses to the Dex/CRH test (P<0.05). This study presents evidence of reduced methylation of NR3C1 in association with childhood maltreatment and depressive, anxiety and substance-use disorders in adults. This finding stands in contrast to our prior work, but is consistent with emerging findings, suggesting complexity in the regulation of this gene. PMID

  2. Methylation of the leukocyte glucocorticoid receptor gene promoter in adults: associations with early adversity and depressive, anxiety and substance-use disorders.

    PubMed

    Tyrka, A R; Parade, S H; Welch, E S; Ridout, K K; Price, L H; Marsit, C; Philip, N S; Carpenter, L L

    2016-07-05

    Early adversity increases risk for developing psychopathology. Epigenetic modification of stress reactivity genes is a likely mechanism contributing to this risk. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene is of particular interest because of the regulatory role of the GR in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Mounting evidence suggests that early adversity is associated with GR promoter methylation and gene expression. Few studies have examined links between GR promoter methylation and psychopathology, and findings to date have been mixed. Healthy adult participants (N=340) who were free of psychotropic medications reported on their childhood experiences of maltreatment and parental death and desertion. Lifetime depressive and anxiety disorders and past substance-use disorders were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Methylation of exon 1F of the GR gene (NR3C1) was examined in leukocyte DNA via pyrosequencing. On a separate day, a subset of the participants (n=231) completed the dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) test. Childhood adversity and a history of past substance-use disorder and current or past depressive or anxiety disorders were associated with lower levels of NR3C1 promoter methylation across the region as a whole and at individual CpG sites (P<0.05). The number of adversities was negatively associated with NR3C1 methylation in participants with no lifetime disorder (P=0.018), but not in those with a lifetime disorder. GR promoter methylation was linked to altered cortisol responses to the Dex/CRH test (P<0.05). This study presents evidence of reduced methylation of NR3C1 in association with childhood maltreatment and depressive, anxiety and substance-use disorders in adults. This finding stands in contrast to our prior work, but is consistent with emerging findings, suggesting complexity in the regulation of this gene.

  3. Transient overexpression of cyclin D2/CDK4/GLP1 genes induces proliferation and differentiation of adult pancreatic progenitors and mediates islet regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuyuan; Shimoda, Masayuki; Chen, Jiaxi; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Grayburn, Paul A

    2012-02-15

    The molecular mechanism of β-cell regeneration remains poorly understood. Cyclin D2/CDK4 expresses in normal β cells and maintains adult β-cell growth. We hypothesized that gene therapy with cyclin D2/CDK4/GLP-1 plasmids targeted to the pancreas of STZ-treated rats by ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) would force cell cycle re-entry of residual G(0)-phase islet cells into G(1)/S phase to regenerate β cells. A single UTMD treatment induced β-cell regeneration with reversal of diabetes for 6 mo without evidence of toxicity. We observed that this β-cell regeneration was not mediated by self-replication of pre-existing β cells. Instead, cyclin D2/CDK4/GLP-1 initiated robust proliferation of adult pancreatic progenitor cells that exist within islets and terminally differentiate to mature islets with β cells and α cells.

  4. Hb Bronte or alpha93(FG5)Val-->Gly: a new unstable variant of the alpha2-globin gene, associated with a mild alpha(+)-thalassemia phenotype.

    PubMed

    Lacerra, Giuseppina; Testa, Rosario; De Angioletti, Maria; Schilirò, Gino; Carestia, Clementina

    2003-08-01

    We report a new unstable variant identified in three carriers of a family from East Sicily; it was named Hb Bronte after the place from which the family originated. DNA sequencing from nucleotides -181 to +894 (alpha1) and to +884 (alpha2) revealed a GTG-->GGG substitution at codon 93 of the alpha2-globin gene. The MCV and MCH values were at the lower end of the normal range in the carriers. On cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the Hb A2 level was apparently increased to around 6%, and a small abnormal peak (0.3-0.4%) was detected after Hb A2. Two abnormal bands were detected by cellulose acetate electrophoresis: a major band (about 3-4%) migrated between Hb A and Hb F; a minor band (<1%) migrated between Hb A2 and carbonic anhydrase. Normal values of Hb A2 were detected by DEAE microchromatography. On reversed phase HPLC the variant chain was not detected, and most likely it was eluted with the alpha chain peak. The isopropanol stability test was very slightly positive in the carriers. Hemolytic symptoms were absent with the exception of indirect bilirubin, which was at high borderline in 2/3 carriers. In biosynthesis in vitro, the specific activity of the alpha chains was much higher than that of the beta-globin chains, and the alpha/beta biosynthetic ratio in the mother and proband was of the beta-thalassemia (thal) type (2.24 and 2.54, respectively). Time course experiments showed that the increase of the 3H-specific activity of the peak containing normal and variant alpha chains was not linear and was much higher than that of beta chains; moreover, the alpha/beta biosynthetic ratio varied during the 2 hours incubation.

  5. The gene encoding the VP16-accessory protein HCF (HCFC1) resides in human Xq28 and is highly expressed in fetal tissues and the adult kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.C.; Herr, W.; Parrish, J.E.; Massa, H.F.

    1995-01-20

    After herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, the viral regulatory protein VP16 activates transcription of the HSV immediate-early promoters by directing complex formation with two cellular proteins, the POU-homeodomain transcription factor Oct-1 and the host cell factor HCF. The function of HCF in uninfected cells is unknown. Here we show by fluorescence in situ hybridization and somatic cell hybrid analysis that the gene encoding human HCF, HCFC1, maps to the q28 region of the X chromosome. Yeast artificial chromosome and cosmid mapping localizes the HCFC1 gene within 100 kb distal of the renal vasopressin type-2 receptor (V2R) gene and adjacent to the renin-binding protein gene (RENBP). The HCFC1 gene is apparently unique. HCF transcripts and protein are most abundant in fetal and placental tissues and cell lines, suggesting a role in cell proliferation. In adults, HCF protein is abundant in the kidney, but not in the brain, a site of latent HSV infection and where HCF levels may influence progression of HSV infection. 42 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Construction of an adult barnacle (Balanus amphitrite) cDNA library and selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies

    PubMed Central

    Bacchetti De Gregoris, Tristano; Borra, Marco; Biffali, Elio; Bekel, Thomas; Burgess, J Grant; Kirby, Richard R; Clare, Anthony S

    2009-01-01

    Background Balanus amphitrite is a barnacle commonly used in biofouling research. Although many aspects of its biology have been elucidated, the lack of genetic information is impeding a molecular understanding of its life cycle. As part of a wider multidisciplinary approach to reveal the biogenic cues influencing barnacle settlement and metamorphosis, we have sequenced and annotated the first cDNA library for B. amphitrite. We also present a systematic validation of potential reference genes for normalization of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) data obtained from different developmental stages of this animal. Results We generated a cDNA library containing expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from adult B. amphitrite. A total of 609 unique sequences (comprising 79 assembled clusters and 530 singlets) were derived from 905 reliable unidirectionally sequenced ESTs. Bioinformatics tools such as BLAST, HMMer and InterPro were employed to allow functional annotation of the ESTs. Based on these analyses, we selected 11 genes to study their ability to normalize qRT-PCR data. Total RNA extracted from 7 developmental stages was reverse transcribed and the expression stability of the selected genes was compared using geNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder. These software programs produced highly comparable results, with the most stable gene being mt-cyb, while tuba, tubb and cp1 were clearly unsuitable for data normalization. Conclusion The collection of B. amphitrite ESTs and their annotation has been made publically available representing an important resource for both basic and applied research on this species. We developed a qRT-PCR assay to determine the most reliable reference genes. Transcripts encoding cytochrome b and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 were expressed most stably, although other genes also performed well and could prove useful to normalize gene expression studies. PMID:19552808

  7. The Reference Transcriptome of the Adult Female Biting Midge (Culicoides sonorensis) and Differential Gene Expression Profiling during Teneral, Blood, and Sucrose Feeding Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nayduch, Dana; Lee, Matthew B.; Saski, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Unlike other important vectors such as mosquitoes and sandflies, genetic and genomic tools for Culicoides biting midges are lacking, despite the fact that they vector a large number of arboviruses and other pathogens impacting humans and domestic animals world-wide. In North America, female Culicoides sonorensis midges are important vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), orbiviruses that cause significant disease in livestock and wildlife. Libraries of tissue-specific transcripts expressed in response to feeding and oral orbivirus challenge in C. sonorensis have previously been reported, but extensive genome-wide expression profiling in the midge has not. Here, we successfully used deep sequencing technologies to construct the first adult female C. sonorensis reference transcriptome, and utilized genome-wide expression profiling to elucidate the genetic response to blood and sucrose feeding over time. The adult female midge unigene consists of 19,041 genes, of which less than 7% are differentially expressed during the course of a sucrose meal, while up to 52% of the genes respond significantly in blood-fed midges, indicating hematophagy induces complex physiological processes. Many genes that were differentially expressed during blood feeding were associated with digestion (e.g. proteases, lipases), hematophagy (e.g., salivary proteins), and vitellogenesis, revealing many major metabolic and biological factors underlying these critical processes. Additionally, key genes in the vitellogenesis pathway were identified, which provides the first glimpse into the molecular basis of anautogeny for C. sonorensis. This is the first extensive transcriptome for this genus, which will serve as a framework for future expression studies, RNAi, and provide a rich dataset contributing to the ultimate goal of informing a reference genome assembly and annotation. Moreover, this study will serve as a foundation for subsequent studies of

  8. Short-term Low-strain Vibration Enhances Chemo-transport Yet Does Not Stimulate Osteogenic Gene Expression or Cortical Bone Formation in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kotiya, Akhilesh A.; Bayly, Philip V.; Silva, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    Development of low-magnitude mechanical stimulation (LMMS) based treatment strategies for a variety of orthopaedic issues requires better understanding of mechano-transduction and bone adaptation. Our overall goal was to study the tissue and molecular level changes in cortical bone in response to low-strain vibration (LSV: 70 Hz, 0.5 g, 300 με) and compare these to changes in response to a known anabolic stimulus: high-strain compression (HSC: rest inserted loading, 1000 με). Adult (6–7 month) C57BL/6 mice were used for the study and non-invasive axial compression of the tibia was used as a loading model. We first studied bone adaptation at the tibial mid-diaphysis, using dynamic histomorphometry, in response to daily loading of 15 min LSV or 60 cycles HSC for 5 consecutive days. We found that bone formation rate and mineral apposition rate were significantly increased in response to HSC but not LSV. The second aim was to compare chemo-transport in response to 5 min of LSV versus 5 min (30 cycles) of HSC. Chemo-transport increased significantly in response to both loading stimuli, particularly in the medial and the lateral quadrants of the cross section. Finally, we evaluated the expression of genes related to mechano-responsiveness, osteoblast differentiation, and matrix mineralization in tibias subjected to 15 min LSV or 60 cycles HSC for 1 day (4-hour time point) or 4 consecutive days (4-day time point). The expression level of most of the genes remained unchanged in response to LSV at both time points. In contrast, the expression level of all the genes changed significantly in response to HSC at the 4-hour time point. We conclude that short-term, low-strain vibration results in increased chemo-transport, yet does not stimulate an increase in mechano-responsive or osteogenic gene expression, and cortical bone formation in tibias of adult mice. PMID:20937421

  9. Left-Right Axis Differentiation and Functional Lateralization: a Haplotype in the Methyltransferase Encoding Gene SETDB2 Might Mediate Handedness in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Arning, Larissa; Gerding, Wanda M; Hengstler, Jan G; Epplen, Jörg T; Güntürkün, Onur; Beste, Christian; Akkad, Denis A

    2016-11-01

    Handedness is a multifactorial trait, and genes contributing to the differentiation of the left-right axis during embryogenesis have been identified as a major gene group associated with this trait. The methyltransferase SETDB2 (SET domain, bifurcated 2) has been shown to regulate structural left-right asymmetry in the vertebrate central nervous system by suppressing fgf8 expression. Here, we investigated the relation of genetic variation in SETDB2-and its paralogue SETDB1-with different handedness phenotypes in 950 healthy adult participants. We identified a haplotype on SETDB2 for which homozygous individuals showed a significantly lower lateralization quotient for handedness than the rest of the cohort after correction for multiple comparisons. Moreover, direction of handedness was significantly associated with genetic variation in this haplotype. This effect was mainly, but not exclusively, driven by the sequence variation rs4942830, as individuals homozygous for the A allele of this single nucleotide polymorphism had a significantly lower lateralization quotient than individuals with at least one T allele. These findings further confirm a role of genetic pathways relevant for structural left-right axis differentiation for functional lateralization. Moreover, as the protein encoded by SETDB2 regulates gene expression epigenetically by histone H3 methylation, our findings highlight the importance of investigating the role of epigenetic modulations of gene expression in relation to handedness.

  10. Antibacterial activities of multi drug resistant Myroides odoratimimus bacteria isolated from adult flesh flies (Diptera: sarcophagidae) are independent of metallo beta-lactamase gene

    PubMed Central

    Dharne, M.S.; Gupta, A.K.; Rangrez, A.Y.; Ghate, H.V.; Patole, M.S.; Shouche, Y.S.

    2008-01-01

    Flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) are well known cause of myiasis and their gut bacteria have never been studied for antimicrobial activity against bacteria. Antimicrobial studies of Myroides spp. are restricted to nosocomial strains. A Gram-negative bacterium, Myroides sp., was isolated from the gut of adult flesh flies (Sarcophaga sp.) and submitted to evaluation of nutritional parameters using Biolog GN, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, susceptibility to various antimicrobials by disc diffusion method and detection of metallo β-lactamase genes (TUS/MUS). The antagonistic effects were tested on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolated from human clinical specimens, environmental samples and insect mid gut. Bacterial species included were Aeromonas hydrophila, A. culicicola, Morganella morganii subsp. sibonii, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Weissella confusa, Escherichia coli, Ochrobactrum sp., Serratia sp., Kestersia sp., Ignatzschineria sp., Bacillus sp. The Myroides sp. strain was resistant to penicillin-G, erythromycin, streptomycin, amikacin, kanamycin, gentamycin, ampicillin, trimethoprim and tobramycin. These strain showed antibacterial action against all bacterial strains except W. confusa, Ignatzschineria sp., A. hydrophila and M. morganii subsp. sibonii. The multidrug resistance of the strain was similar to the resistance of clinical isolates, inhibiting growth of bacteria from clinical, environmental and insect gut samples. The metallo β-lactamase (TUS/MUS) genes were absent, and resistance due to these genes was ruled out, indicating involvement of other secretion machinery. PMID:24031236

  11. Reference Genes for qPCR Analysis in Resin-Tapped Adult Slash Pine As a Tool to Address the Molecular Basis of Commercial Resinosis

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Júlio C.; de Costa, Fernanda; Füller, Thanise N.; Rodrigues-Corrêa, Kelly C. da Silva; Kerber, Magnus R.; Lima, Mariano S.; Fett, Janette P.; Fett-Neto, Arthur G.

    2016-01-01

    Pine oleoresin is a major source of terpenes, consisting of turpentine (mono- and sesquiterpenes) and rosin (diterpenes) fractions. Higher oleoresin yields are of economic interest, since oleoresin derivatives make up a valuable source of materials for chemical industries. Oleoresin can be extracted from living trees, often by the bark streak method, in which bark removal is done periodically, followed by application of stimulant paste containing sulfuric acid and other chemicals on the freshly wounded exposed surface. To better understand the molecular basis of chemically-stimulated and wound induced oleoresin production, we evaluated the stability of 11 putative reference genes for the purpose of normalization in studying Pinus elliottii gene expression during oleoresinosis. Samples for RNA extraction were collected from field-grown adult trees under tapping operations using stimulant pastes with different compositions and at various time points after paste application. Statistical methods established by geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper softwares were consistent in pointing as adequate reference genes HISTO3 and UBI. To confirm expression stability of the candidate reference genes, expression profiles of putative P. elliottii orthologs of resin biosynthesis-related genes encoding Pinus contorta β-pinene synthase [PcTPS-(−)β-pin1], P. contorta levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase (PcLAS1), Pinus taeda α-pinene synthase [PtTPS-(+)αpin], and P. taeda α-farnesene synthase (PtαFS) were examined following stimulant paste application. Increased oleoresin yields observed in stimulated treatments using phytohormone-based pastes were consistent with higher expression of pinene synthases. Overall, the expression of all genes examined matched the expected profiles of oleoresin-related transcript changes reported for previously examined conifers. PMID:27379135

  12. A gene expression study of dorso-ventrally restricted pigment pattern in adult fins of Neolamprologus meeli, an African cichlid species

    PubMed Central

    Sefc, Kristina M.

    2017-01-01

    Fish color patterns are among the most diverse phenotypic traits found in the animal kingdom. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms that control in chromatophore distribution and pigmentation underlying this diversity is a major goal in developmental and evolutionary biology, which has predominantly been pursued in the zebrafish model system. Here, we apply results from zebrafish work to study a naturally occurring color pattern phenotype in the fins of an African cichlid species from Lake Tanganyika. The cichlid fish Neolamprologus meeli displays a distinct dorsal color pattern, with black and white stripes along the edges of the dorsal fin and of the dorsal half of the caudal fin, corresponding with differences in melanophore density. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms controlling the differences in dorsal and ventral color patterning in the fins, we quantitatively assessed the expression of 15 candidate target genes involved in adult zebrafish pigmentation and stripe formation. For reference gene validation, we screened the expression stability of seven widely expressed genes across the investigated tissue samples and identified tbp as appropriate reference. Relative expression levels of the candidate target genes were compared between the dorsal, striped fin regions and the corresponding uniform, grey-colored regions in the anal and ventral caudal fin. Dorso-ventral expression differences, with elevated levels in both white and black stripes, were observed in two genes, the melanosome protein coding gene pmel and in igsf11, which affects melanophore adhesion, migration and survival. Next, we predicted potential shared upstream regulators of pmel and igsf11. Testing the expression patterns of six predicted transcriptions factors revealed dorso-ventral expression difference of irf1 and significant, negative expression correlation of irf1 with both pmel and igsf11. Based on these results, we propose pmel, igsf11 and irf1 as likely components of

  13. Murine adult neural progenitor cells alter their proliferative behavior and gene expression after the activation of Toll-like-receptor 3

    PubMed Central

    Melnik, A.; Tauber, S.; Dumrese, C.; Ullrich, O.; Wolf, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Viral infections during pregnancy significantly increase the risk for psychological pathologies like schizophrenia in the offspring. One of the main morphological hallmarks of schizophrenia is a reduced size of the hippocampus. Since new neurons are produced in this particular brain compartment throughout life, it might be possible that low neurogenesis levels triggered by a maternal viral infection contribute to developmental deficits of the hippocampus. We injected polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) in pregnant C57Bl/6 mice to stimulate an anti-viral response through TLR3 and examined gene expressions in the neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) of the offspring at different ages. Additionally, we treated adult NPC lines with Poly I:C to investigate its direct effect. We could show for the first time that TLR3 and its downstream effector molecule IRF3 are expressed in adult NPCs. Poly I:C treatment in vitro and in vivo led to the regulation of proliferation and genes involved in antiviral response, migration, and survival. These findings indicate that NPCs of the fetus are able to react towards an in utero immune response, and thus, changes in the neuronal stem cell pool can contribute to the development of neurological diseases like schizophrenia. PMID:24688771

  14. The Drosophila melanogaster importin alpha3 locus encodes an essential gene required for the development of both larval and adult tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Mason, D Adam; Máthé, Endre; Fleming, Robert J; Goldfarb, David S

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear transport of classical nuclear localization signal (cNLS)-containing proteins is mediated by the cNLS receptor importin alpha. The conventional importin alpha gene family in metazoan animals is composed of three clades that are conserved between flies and mammals and are referred to here as alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3. In contrast, plants and fungi contain only alpha1 genes. In this study we report that Drosophila importin alpha3 is required for the development of both larval and adult tissues. Importin alpha3 mutant flies die around the transition from first to second instar larvae, and homozygous importin alpha3 mutant eyes are defective. The transition to second instar larvae was rescued with importin alpha1, alpha2, or alpha3 transgenes, indicating that Importin alpha3 is normally required at this stage for an activity shared by all three importin alpha's. In contrast, an alpha3-specific biochemical activity(s) of Importin alpha3 is probably required for development to adults and photoreceptor cell development, since only an importin alpha3 transgene rescued these processes. These results are consistent with the view that the importin alpha's have both overlapping and distinct functions and that their role in animal development involves the spatial and temporal control of their expression. PMID:14704178

  15. Screening of early antigen genes of adult-stage Trichinella spiralis using pig serum from different stages of early infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this work was to identify novel, early antigens present in Trichinella spiralis. To this end, a cDNA library generated from 3-day old adult worms (Ad3) was immunologically screened using serum from a pig infected with 20,000 muscle larvae. The serum was obtained from multiple, time cours...

  16. Ecdysone Receptor-based Singular Gene Switches for Regulated Transgene Expression in Cells and Adult Rodent Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seoghyun; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Choi, Dae-Kyoung; Won, Minho; Park, Kyeong Ah; Ju, Sung-Kyu; Kang, Kidong; Bae, Young-Ki; Hur, Gang Min; Ro, Hyunju

    2016-01-01

    Controlled gene expression is an indispensable technique in biomedical research. Here, we report a convenient, straightforward, and reliable way to induce expression of a gene of interest with negligible background expression compared to the most widely used tetracycline (Tet)-regulated system. Exploiting a Drosophila ecdysone receptor (EcR)-based gene regulatory system, we generated nonviral and adenoviral singular vectors designated as pEUI(+) and pENTR-EUI, respectively, which contain all the required elements to guarantee regulated transgene expression (GAL4-miniVP16-EcR, termed GvEcR hereafter, and 10 tandem repeats of an upstream activation sequence promoter followed by a multiple cloning site). Through the transient and stable transfection of mammalian cell lines with reporter genes, we validated that tebufenozide, an ecdysone agonist, reversibly induced gene expression, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with negligible background expression. In addition, we created an adenovirus derived from the pENTR-EUI vector that readily infected not only cultured cells but also rodent tissues and was sensitive to tebufenozide treatment for regulated transgene expression. These results suggest that EcR-based singular gene regulatory switches would be convenient tools for the induction of gene expression in cells and tissues in a tightly controlled fashion. PMID:27673563

  17. Bilateral renal tumors in an adult man with Smith-Magenis syndrome: The role of the FLCN gene.

    PubMed

    Dardour, Leila; Verleyen, Pieter; Lesage, Karl; Holvoet, Maureen; Devriendt, Koen

    2016-10-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a contiguous-gene disorder most commonly caused by a deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. We report a 57 year-old man with SMS who presents bilateral renal tumors. This is most likely related to haploinsufficiency of FLCN gene, located in the deleted region, and a known tumor suppressor gene. Haploinsufficiency of FLCN causes Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS), characterized by pulmonary cysts, renal and skin tumors. The present observation suggests that the follow-up of patients with SMS should also focus on possible manifestations of BHDS.

  18. A pilot study examining the impact of exercise training on skeletal muscle genes related to the TLR signaling pathway in older adults following hip fracture recovery.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Alec I; Briggs, Robert A; Barrows, Katherine M; Nelson, Daniel S; Kwon, Oh Sung; Hopkins, Paul N; Higgins, Thomas F; Marcus, Robin L; Drummond, Micah J

    2017-01-01

    Older adults after hip fracture surgery experience progressive muscle atrophy and weakness, limiting full recovery. Further understanding of the molecular mechanisms in muscle with adaptation to exercise training in this vulnerable population is necessary. Therefore, we conducted a pilot study to investigate the skeletal muscle inflammatory and ceramide biosynthesis gene expression levels associated with the toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway before (Pre) and following a 3-mo multicomponent exercise training program in older adults (3M, 4F; 78.4 ± 13.3 yr; 25.5 ± 2.3 kg/m(2)) ~4 mo after repair from hip fracture (HipFx). Vastus lateralis biopsies from the surgical limb were obtained before (Pre) and after training. Molecular end points and muscle function data were also compared with matched nonexercise healthy controls (CON). As a follow-up analysis, we evaluated specific sphingolipid pools in HipFx and CON muscle. Following training, quadriceps cross-sectional area, strength, and 6-min walk (6MW) increased in the surgical limb (P < 0.05). Additionally, MYD88, TAK1, NFKB1, IL6, SPT2, and CERS1 gene expression decreased after training (P ≤ 0.05), but some remained elevated above CON levels. Interestingly, MYD88 mRNA was inversely correlated to quadriceps CSA, strength, and 6MW. Finally, muscle dihydroceramides and phosphoceramides in HipFx were lower than CON at Pre (P ≤ 0.05), but after training differences from CON were removed. Together, our pilot data support that exercise training alters skeletal muscle inflammation and ceramide metabolism associated with TLR signaling in older adults recovering from hip fracture surgery and may be related to improvements in muscle function recovery.

  19. Variation in the TAS2R31 bitter taste receptor gene relates to liking for the nonnutritive sweetener Acesulfame-K among children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Bobowski, Nuala; Reed, Danielle R.; Mennella, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    The nonnutritive sweetener (NNS) acesulfame potassium (Ace-K) elicits a bitter off-taste that varies among adults due to polymorphisms in a bitter taste receptor gene. Whether polymorphisms affect liking for Ace-K by children, who live in different sensory worlds, is unknown. We examined hedonic response to Ace-K among children compared to adults, and whether response was related to common variants of the TAS2R31 bitter taste receptor gene and to NNS intake. Children (N = 48) and their mothers (N = 34) rated liking of Ace-K, and mothers reported whether they or their children ever consume NNSs via questionnaire. Participants were genotyped for TAS2R31 variant sites associated with adult perception of Ace-K (R35W, L162M, A227V, and V240I). Regardless of age, more participants with 1 or no copies than with 2 copies of the TAS2R31 WMVI haplotype liked Ace-K (p = 0.01). NNS-sweetened products were consumed by 50% and 15% of mothers and children, respectively, with no association between intake and TAS2R31. The TAS2R31 WMVI haplotype was partly responsible for children’s hedonic response to Ace-K, highlighting a potential role for inborn differences in vulnerability to overconsumption of Ace-K-containing products. Currently available methods to measure NNS intake yield crude estimates at best, suggesting self-reports are not reflective of actual intake. PMID:27966661

  20. FLRF, a novel evolutionarily conserved RING finger gene, is differentially expressed in mouse fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, J M; Li, X; Nachtman, R G; Jurecic, R

    2001-01-01

    Through differential screening of mouse hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and progenitor subtracted cDNA libraries we have identified a HSC-specific transcript that represents a novel RING finger gene, named FLRF (fetal liver ring finger). FLRF represent a novel evolutionarily highly conserved RING finger gene, present in Drosophila, zebrafish, Xenopus, mouse, and humans. Full-length cDNA clones for mouse and human gene encode an identical protein of 317 amino acids with a C3HC4 RING finger domain at the amino terminus. During embryonic hematopoiesis FLRF is abundantly transcribed in mouse fetal liver HSC (Sca-1+c-kit+AA4.1+Lin- cells), but is not expressed in progenitors (AA4.1-). In adult mice FLRF is not transcribed in a highly enriched population of bone marrow HSC (Rh-123lowSca-1+c-kit+Lin- cells). Its expression is upregulated in a more heterogeneous population of bone marrow HSC (Lin-Sca-1+ cells), downregulated as they differentiate into progenitors (Lin-Sca-1- cells), and upregulated as progenitors differentiate into mature lymphoid and myeloid cell types. The human FLRF gene that spans a region of at least 12 kb and consists of eight exons was localized to chromosome 12q13, a region with frequent chromosome aberrations associated with multiple cases of acute myeloid leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The analysis of the genomic sequence upstream of the first exon in the mouse and human FLRF gene has revealed that both putative promoters contain multiple putative binding sites for several hematopoietic (GATA-1, GATA-2, GATA-3, Ikaros, SCL/Tal-1, AML1, MZF-1, and Lmo2) and other transcription factors, suggesting that mouse and human FLRF expression could be regulated in a developmental and cell-specific manner during hematopoiesis. Evolutionary conservation and differential expression in fetal and adult HSC and progenitors suggest that the FLRF gene could play an important role in HSC/progenitor cell lineage commitment and differentiation and could be

  1. Antimicrobial peptide gene cecropin-2 and defensin respond to peptidoglycan infection in the female adult of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi-Huo; Wei, Dong; Yuan, Guo-Rui; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-04-01

    Cecropins and defensins are important antimicrobial peptides in insects and are inducible after injection of immune triggers. In this study, we cloned the cDNAs of two antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), cecropin-2 (BdCec-2) and defensin (BdDef) from Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a serious pest causing great economic losses to fruits and vegetables. The BdCec-2 sequence of 192bp encodes a protein of 63 amino acids residues with a predicted molecular weight of 6.78kD. The 282bp cDNA of BdDef encodes a protein of 93 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 9.81kD. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that BdCec-2 and BdDef had similar expression profiles among development stages, the highest mRNA levels of these two AMP genes were observed in the adult stage. Among different adult body segments and tissues, both genes had similar transcriptional profiles, the highest mRNA levels appeared in abdomen and fat body, which was consistent with the reported fact that fat body was the main organ synthesizing AMPs in insects. The expression of BdCec-2 and BdDef were up-regulated after challenge with peptidoglycans from Escherichia coli (PGN-EB) and Staphylococcus aureus (PGN-SA), respectively, suggesting their antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms. These results describe for the first time the basic properties of the cecropin-2 and defensin genes from B. dorsalis that probably play an important role in the defense response against invading microbes.

  2. KCNJ6 is associated with adult alcohol dependence and involved in gene × early life stress interactions in adolescent alcohol drinking.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Toni-Kim; Laucht, Manfred; Ridinger, Monika; Wodarz, Norbert; Rietschel, Marcella; Maier, Wolfgang; Lathrop, Mark; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Schumann, Gunter

    2011-05-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence have proven to be complex genetic traits that are influenced by environmental factors. Primate and human studies have shown that early life stress increases the propensity for alcohol abuse in later life. The reinforcing properties of alcohol are mediated by dopaminergic signaling; however, there is little evidence to indicate how stress alters alcohol reinforcement. KCNJ6 (the gene encoding G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channel 2 (GIRK2)) is a brain expressed potassium channel with inhibitory effects on dopaminergic tone. The properties of GIRK2 have been shown to be enhanced by the stress peptide corticotrophin-releasing hormone. Therefore, we sought to examine the role of KCNJ6 polymorphisms in adult alcohol dependence and stress-related alcohol abuse in adolescents. We selected 11 SNPs in the promoter region of KCNJ6, which were genotyped in 1152 adult alcohol dependents and 1203 controls. One SNP, rs2836016, was found to be associated with alcohol dependence (p=0.01, false discovery rate). We then assessed rs2836016 in an adolescent sample of 261 subjects, which were characterized for early life stress and adolescent hazardous drinking, defined using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), to examine gene-environment interactions. In the adolescent sample, the risk genotype of rs2836016 was significantly associated with increased AUDIT scores, but only in those individuals exposed to high levels of psychosocial stress in early life (p=0.01). Our findings show that KCNJ6 is associated with alcohol dependence and may moderate the effect of early psychosocial stress on risky alcohol drinking in adolescents. We have identified a candidate gene for future studies investigating a possible functional link between the response to stress and alcohol reinforcement.

  3. Influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms of cytokine genes on anti-HBs antibody production after hepatitis B vaccination in a Japanese young adult population.

    PubMed

    Yukimasa, Nobuyasu; Sato, Shoichi; Oboshi, Wataru; Watanabe, Toru; Uzawa, Ryuichi

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B (HB) vaccination is one of the most efficient tools to prevent the transmission of the virus. Considerable variability exists in HB vaccine responses, with 5-10% of healthy Japanese adults demonstrating no response following a standard vaccination. Recently, polymorphisms of immune-regulatory genes, such as cytokine genes, have been reported to influence the immune response to HB vaccine. The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the genetic association between several cytokine gene polymorphisms and the immune response to HB vaccination in a Japanese population. One hundred and twenty three vaccinated young adults were classified according to the level of antibody-titer (anti-HBs). Single nucleotide polymorphism typing for IFN-γ (+874, 3'-UTR), IL-10 (-591, -819, -1082), and TNF-α (-308, -857), was accomplished using the PCR-RFLP or SSP-PCR method. The TNF-α (-857) CC type and the IL-10 (-1082) AG type were present more frequently in the low titer group than in the high titer group. The TNF-α (-857) CC type was found to be significantly associated with low response of serum anti-HBs. The anti-HBs antibody was not readily produced in the IL-10 (-1082) AG and TNF-α (-857) CC haplotype. Conversely, the antibody was readily produced in the IL-10 (-1082) AA and TNF-α (-857) CC haplotype, and the IL-10 (-1082) AA and TNF-α (-857) CT haplotype, suggesting a high likelihood of the IL-10 (-1082) AG type to be included in the low anti-HBs group, and high anti-HBs antibody production in those with the TNF-α (-857) CT type. These SNPs may produce ethnically-specific differences in the immune response to HB vaccine in the Japanese population. J. Med. Invest. 63: 256-261, August, 2016.

  4. Chromosomal rearrangements associated with LINE elements in the mouse genome.

    PubMed Central

    Shyman, S; Weaver, S

    1985-01-01

    Two segments of DNA that have apparently inserted in the interval between the two adult beta-globin genes in BALB/c (Hbbd haplotype) but not in C57B1/10 (Hbbs haplotype) mouse strains have been described (1). These putative insertions, each about 1000 bp in length, mapped near a repetitive element. To determine the precise position of these alleged insertions, their target sites, and the nature of their boundaries, we cloned and sequenced the appropriate regions of both chromosomes. One of the two segments is not an insertion but rather a region between two independently integrated L1 repetitive elements (LINEs) (2), one in Hbbd and the other in the Hbbs chromosome. The other segment is an insertion of 940 bp which is located within the L1 element in the Hbbd chromosome. This insert is unusual in that it exists in only one copy in the BALB/c genome. PMID:2991852

  5. Genes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Genes URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  6. Mutational Landscape and Gene Expression Patterns in Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemias with Monosomy 7 as a Sole Abnormality.

    PubMed

    Eisfeld, Ann-Kathrin; Kohlschmidt, Jessica; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Volinia, Stefano; Blachly, James S; Nicolet, Deedra; Oakes, Christopher; Kroll, Karl; Orwick, Shelley; Carroll, Andrew J; Stone, Richard M; Byrd, John C; de la Chapelle, Albert; Bloomfield, Clara D

    2017-01-01

    Monosomy of chromosome 7 is the most frequent autosomal monosomy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), where it associates with poor clinical outcomes. However, molecular features associated with this sole monosomy subtype (-7 AML), which may give insights into the basis for its poor prognosis, have not been characterized. In this study, we analyzed 36 cases of -7 AML for mutations in 81 leukemia/cancer-associated genes using a customized targeted next-generation sequencing panel (Miseq). Global gene and miRNA expression profiles were also determined using paired RNA and small RNA sequencing data. Notably, gene mutations were detected in all the major AML-associated functional groups, which include activated signaling, chromatin remodeling, cohesin complex, methylation, NPM1, spliceosome, transcription factors, and tumor suppressors. Gene mutations in the chromatin remodeling groups were relatively more frequent in patients <60 years of age, who also had less mutations in the methylation and spliceosome groups compared with patients ≥60 years of age. Novel recurrent mutational events in AML were identified in the SMARCA2 gene. In patients ≥60 years of age, the presence of spliceosome mutations associated with a lower complete remission rate (P = 0.03). RNA sequencing revealed distinct gene and miRNA expression patterns between the sole -7 and non -7 AML cases, with reduced expression, as expected, of many genes and miRNAs mapped to chromosome 7, and overexpression of ID1, MECOM, and PTPRM, among others. Overall, our findings illuminate a number of molecular features of the underlying aggressive pathobiology in -7 AML patients. Cancer Res; 77(1); 207-18. ©2016 AACR.

  7. Mutational landscape and gene-expression patterns in adult acute myeloid leukemias with monosomy 7 as a sole abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Eisfeld, Ann-Kathrin; Kohlschmidt, Jessica; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Volinia, Stefano; Blachly, James S.; Nicolet, Deedra; Oakes, Christopher; Kroll, Karl; Orwick, Shelley; Carroll, Andrew J.; Stone, Richard M.; Byrd, John C.; de la Chapelle, Albert; Bloomfield, Clara D.

    2016-01-01

    Monosomy of chromosome 7 is the most frequent autosomal monosomy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), where it associates with poor clinical outcomes. However, molecular features associated with this sole monosomy subtype (-7 AML) which may give insights into the basis for its poor prognosis have not been characterized. In this study, we analyzed 36 cases of -7 AML for mutations in 81 leukemia/cancer-associated genes using a customized targeted next-generation sequencing panel (Miseq). Global gene and microRNA expression profiles were also determined using paired RNA and small RNA sequencing data. Notably, gene mutations were detected in all the major AML-associated functional groups, which include activated signaling, chromatin remodeling, cohesin complex, methylation, NPM1, spliceosome, transcription factors and tumor suppressors. Gene mutations in the activated signaling and chromatin remodeling groups were relatively more frequent in patients <60 years of age, who also had more mutations in the methylation and spliceosome groups compared to patients {greater than or equal to} 60 years of age. Novel recurrent mutational events in AML were identified in the SMARCA2 gene. In patients {greater than or equal to} 60 years of age, the presence of spliceosome mutations associated with a lower complete remission rate (p=0.03). RNA sequencing revealed distinct gene and microRNA expression patterns between the sole -7 and non-7 AML cases, with reduced expression as expected of many genes and microRNAs mapped to chromosome 7, and overexpression of ID1, MECOM, and PTPRM, among others. Overall, our findings illuminate a number of molecular features of the underlying aggressive pathobiology in -7 AML patients. PMID:27784745

  8. Timing of Expression of a Gene in the Adult Drosophila Is Regulated by Mechanisms Independent of Temperature and Metabolic Rate

    PubMed Central

    Rogina, B.; Helfand, S. L.

    1996-01-01

    The examination of β-galactosidase (β-gal) expression in the third segment of the antenna of the 2216 enhancer trap line in Drosophila melanogaster reveals two distinct spatial and temporal regulatory patterns of expression during adult life. Type I expression is characterized by a decline in the level of β-gal expression with increasing age. Starting from a maximal level of expression at the time of adult emergence, there is a decrease in the number of cells that express β-gal so that by 40-50 days of adult life few cells express β-gal. Varying the ambient temperature and using hyperactivity mutants (Hyperkinetic(1), Shaker(5)) demonstrates that the rate of this decline is independent of temperature and metabolic rate. Type II expression is distinctly different in spatial distribution and temporal regulation from the first pattern. Type II expression is restricted in the antenna to a small (<20-30) set of cells whose level of expression changes in a periodic manner with time. The regulation of this periodicity appears to be linked to ambient temperature. PMID:8844152

  9. Mutation screen and association studies for the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) gene and early onset and adult obesity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The orexigenic effects of cannabinoids are limited by activation of the endocannabinoid degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). The aim of this study was to analyse whether FAAH alleles are associated with early and late onset obesity. Methods We initially assessed association of five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FAAH with early onset extreme obesity in up to 521 German obese children and both parents. SNPs with nominal p-values ≤ 0.1 were subsequently analysed in 235 independent German obesity families. SNPs associated with childhood obesity (p-values ≤ 0.05) were further analysed in 8,491 adult individuals of a population-based cohort (KORA) for association with adult obesity. One SNP was further analysed in 985 German obese adults and 588 normal and underweight controls. In parallel, we screened the FAAH coding region for novel sequence variants in 92 extremely obese children using single-stranded-conformation-polymorphism-analysis and denaturing HPLC and assessed the implication of the identified new variants for childhood obesity. Results The trio analysis revealed some evidence for an association of three SNPs in FAAH (rs324420 rs324419 and rs873978) with childhood obesity (two-sided p-values between 0.06 and 0.10). Although analyses of these variants in 235 independent obesity families did not result in statistically significant effects (two-sided p-values between 0.14 and 0.75), the combined analysis of all 603 obesity families supported the idea of an association of two SNPs in FAAH (rs324420 and rs2295632) with early onset extreme obesity (p-values between 0.02 and 0.03). No association was, however, found between these variants and adult obesity. The mutation screen revealed four novel variants, which were not associated with early onset obesity (p > 0.05). Conclusions As we observed some evidence for an association of the FAAH variants rs2295632 rs324420 with early onset but not adult obesity, we conclude that the

  10. Sense and antisense transcripts of the developmentally regulated murine hsp70.2 gene are expressed in distinct and only partially overlapping areas in the adult brain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murashov, A. K.; Wolgemuth, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined the spatial pattern of expression of a member of the hsp70 gene family, hsp70.2, in the mouse central nervous system. Surprisingly, RNA blot analysis and in situ hybridization revealed abundant expression of an 'antisense' hsp70.2 transcript in several areas of adult mouse brain. Two different transcripts recognized by sense and antisense riboprobes for the hsp70.2 gene were expressed in distinct and only partially overlapping neuronal populations. RNA blot analysis revealed low levels of the 2.7 kb transcript of hsp70.2 in several areas of the brain, with highest signal in the hippocampus. Abundant expression of a slightly larger (approximately 2.8 kb) 'antisense' transcript was detected in several brain regions, notably in the brainstem, cerebellum, mesencephalic tectum, thalamus, cortex, and hippocampus. In situ hybridization revealed that the sense and antisense transcripts were both predominantly neuronal and localized to the same cell types in the granular layer of the cerebellum, trapezoid nucleus of the superior olivary complex, locus coeruleus and hippocampus. The hsp70.2 antisense transcripts were particularly abundant in the frontal cortex, dentate gyrus, subthalamic nucleus, zona incerta, superior and inferior colliculi, central gray, brainstem, and cerebellar Purkinje cells. Our findings have revealed a distinct cellular and spatial localization of both sense and antisense transcripts, demonstrating a new level of complexity in the function of the heat shock genes.

  11. Variation in genes related to cochlear biology is strongly associated with adult-onset deafness in border collies.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Jennifer S; Lam, Ernest T; Ruhe, Alison L; Erdman, Carolyn A; Robertson, Kathryn R; Webb, Aubrey A; Williams, D Colette; Chang, Melanie L; Hytönen, Marjo K; Lohi, Hannes; Hamilton, Steven P; Neff, Mark W

    2012-09-01

    Domestic dogs can suffer from hearing losses that can have profound impacts on working ability and quality of life. We have identified a type of adult-onset hearing loss in Border Collies that appears to have a genetic cause, with an earlier age of onset (3-5 years) than typically expected for aging dogs (8-10 years). Studying this complex trait within pure breeds of dog may greatly increase our ability to identify genomic regions associated with risk of hearing impairment in dogs and in humans. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to detect loci underlying adult-onset deafness in a sample of 20 affected and 28 control Border Collies. We identified a region on canine chromosome 6 that demonstrates extended support for association surrounding SNP Chr6.25819273 (p-value = 1.09 × 10(-13)). To further localize disease-associated variants, targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of one affected and two unaffected dogs was performed. Through additional validation based on targeted genotyping of additional cases (n = 23 total) and controls (n = 101 total) and an independent replication cohort of 16 cases and 265 controls, we identified variants in USP31 that were strongly associated with adult-onset deafness in Border Collies, suggesting the involvement of the NF-κB pathway. We found additional support for involvement of RBBP6, which is critical for cochlear development. These findings highlight the utility of GWAS-guided fine-mapping of genetic loci using targeted NGS to study hereditary disorders of the domestic dog that may be analogous to human disorders.

  12. Induction of vitellogenin gene expression in adult male fathead minnows for select EDCs in 48-hour exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been shown to be present in surface waters, sediments and sludge, and are known to induce vitellogenin gene liver transcripts in male fathead minnows. The purpose of our study was to establish the lowest concentrations of estrogenic chemicals ...

  13. Embryonic expression of shuttle craft, a Drosophila gene involved in neuron development, is associated with adult lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Krementsova, Anna V.; Trostnikov, Mikhail V.; Pasyukova, Elena G.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the progress in aging research that highlights the role of the nervous system in longevity, whether genes that control development and consequently structure of the nervous system affect lifespan is unclear. We demonstrated that a mutation in shuttle craft, a gene involved in the nervous system development, increased the lifespan of unmated females and decreased the lifespan of mated females, without affecting males. Precise reversions of the mutation lead to the restoration of the lifespan specific to control females. In mutant unmated females, increased lifespan was associated with elevated locomotion at older ages, indicating slowed aging. In mutant mated females, reproduction was decreased compared to controls, indicating a lack of tradeoff between this trait and lifespan. No differences in shuttle craft transcription were observed between whole bodies, ovaries, and brains of mutant and control females of different ages, either unmated or mated. The amount of shuttle craft transcript appeared to be substantially decreased in mutant embryos. Our results demonstrated that a gene that regulates development of the nervous system might also influence longevity, and thus expanded the spectrum of genes involved in lifespan control. We hypothesize that this “carry-over” effect might be the result of transcription regulation in embryos. PMID:25567608

  14. Juvenile hormone facilitates the antagonism between adult reproduction and diapause through the methoprene-tolerant gene in the female Colaphellus bowringi.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Li, Yi; Zhu, Li; Zhu, Fen; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-07-01

    In insects, the process whereby juvenile hormone (JH) regulates short-day (SD)-induced reproductive diapause has been previously investigated. However, we still do not understand the mechanism by which JH regulates long-day (LD)-induced reproductive diapause. In this study, we use a cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi, which is a serious pest of cruciferous vegetables in Asia capable of entering reproductive diapause under LD conditions, as a model to test whether JH regulates female reproductive diapause similar to the mechanism of SD-induced diapause. Our results showed that the JH analog (JHA) methoprene significantly induced ovarian development but inhibited lipid accumulation of diapause-destined adults. Meanwhile, the transcripts of the vitellogenin (Vg) genes were upregulated, whereas the expression of the fat synthesis and stress tolerance genes were downregulated. RNA interference of the JH candidate receptor gene methoprene-tolerant (Met) blocked JH-induced ovarian development and Vg transcription, suggesting a positive regulatory function for JH-Met signaling in reproduction. Furthermore, under reproduction-inducing conditions, Met depletion promoted a diapause-like phenotype, including arrested ovarian development and increased lipid storage, and stimulated the expression of diapause-related genes involved in lipid synthesis and stress tolerance, suggesting JH-Met signaling plays an important role in the inhibition of diapause. Accordingly, our data indicate that JH acts through Met to facilitate development of the reproductive system by upregulating Vg expression while inhibiting diapause by suppressing lipid synthesis and stress tolerance in the cabbage beetle. Combined with previous studies in SD-induced reproductive diapause, we conclude that JH may regulate female reproductive diapause using a conserved Met-dependent pathway, regardless of the length of the photoperiod inducing diapause in insects.

  15. Short-term treatment of adult male zebrafish (Danio Rerio) with 17α-ethinyl estradiol affects the transcription of genes involved in development and male sex differentiation.

    PubMed

    Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim; Volkova, Kristina; Hallgren, Stefan; Olsson, Per-Erik; Porsch-Hällström, Inger

    2014-08-01

    The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) disturbs reproduction and causes gonadal malformation in fish. Effects on the transcription of genes involved in gonad development and function that could serve as sensitive biomarkers of reproductive effects in the field is, however, not well known. We have studied mRNA expression in testes and liver of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) males treated with 0, 5 or 25 ng/L EE2for 14 days. qPCR analysis showed that the mRNA expression of four genes linked to zebrafish male sex determination and differentiation, Anti-Mullerian Hormone, Double sex and mab-related protein, Sry-related HMG box-9a and Nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group number 1b were significantly decreased by 25 ng/L, but not 5 ng/L EE2 compared with the levels in untreated fish. The decreased transcription was correlated with a previously shown spawning failure in these males (Reyhanian et al., 2011. Aquat Toxicol 105, 41-48), suggesting that decreased mRNA expression of genes regulating male sexual function could be involved in the functional sterility. The mRNA level of Cytochrome P-45019a, involved in female reproductive development, was unaffected by hormone treatment. The transcription of the female-specific Vitellogenin was significantly induced in testes. While testicular Androgen Receptor and the Estrogen Receptor-alpha mRNA levels were unchanged, Estrogen receptor-beta was significantly decreased by 25 ng/L EE2. Hepatic Estrogen Receptor-alpha mRNA was significantly increased by both exposure concentrations, while Estrogen Receptor-beta transcription was unaltered. The decreased transcription of male-predominant genes supports a demasculinization of testes by EE2 and might reflect reproductive disturbances in the environment.

  16. HPA Axis Gene Expression and DNA Methylation Profiles in Rats Exposed to Early Life Stress, Adult Voluntary Ethanol Drinking and Single Housing

    PubMed Central

    Todkar, Aniruddha; Granholm, Linnea; Aljumah, Mujtaba; Nilsson, Kent W.; Comasco, Erika; Nylander, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    The neurobiological basis of early life stress (ELS) impact on vulnerability to alcohol use disorder is not fully understood. The effect of ELS, adult ethanol consumption and single housing, on expression of stress and DNA methylation regulatory genes as well as blood corticosterone levels was investigated in the hypothalamus and pituitary of adult out-bred Wistar rats subjected to different rearing conditions. A prolonged maternal separation (MS) of 360 min (MS360) was used to study the effect of ELS, and a short MS of 15 min (MS15) was used as a control. Voluntary ethanol drinking was assessed using a two-bottle free choice paradigm to simulate human episodic drinking. The effects of single housing and ethanol were assessed in conventional animal facility rearing (AFR) conditions. Single housing in adulthood was associated with lower Crhr1 and higher Pomc expression in the pituitary, whereas ethanol drinking was associated with higher expression of Crh in the hypothalamus and Crhr1 in the pituitary, accompanied by lower corticosterone levels. As compared to controls with similar early life handling, rats exposed to ELS displayed lower expression of Pomc in the hypothalamus, and higher Dnmt1 expression in the pituitary. Voluntary ethanol drinking resulted in lower Fkbp5 expression in the pituitary and higher Crh expression in the hypothalamus, independently of rearing conditions. In rats exposed to ELS, water and ethanol drinking was associated with higher and lower corticosterone levels, respectively. The use of conventionally reared rats as control group yielded more significant results than the use of rats exposed to short MS. Positive correlations, restricted to the hypothalamus and ELS group, were observed between the expression of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal receptor and the methylation-related genes. Promoter DNA methylation and expression of respective genes did not correlate suggesting that other loci are involved in transcriptional regulation

  17. PDYN, a gene implicated in brain/mental disorders, is targeted by REST in the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Richard; Bäckman, Cristina M; Harvey, Brandon K; Kadyrova, Helena; Bazov, Igor; Shippenberg, Toni S; Bakalkin, Georgy

    2014-11-01

    The dynorphin κ-opioid receptor system is implicated in mental health and brain/mental disorders. However, despite accumulating evidence that PDYN and/or dynorphin peptide expression is altered in the brain of individuals with brain/mental disorders, little is known about transcriptional control of PDYN in humans. In the present study, we show that PDYN is targeted by the transcription factor REST in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and that that interfering with REST activity increases PDYN expression in these cells. We also show that REST binding to PDYN is reduced in the adult human brain compared to SH-SY5Y cells, which coincides with higher PDYN expression. This may be related to MIR-9 mediated down-regulation of REST as suggested by a strong inverse correlation between REST and MIR-9 expression. Our results suggest that REST represses PDYN expression in SH-SY5Y cells and the adult human brain and may have implications for mental health and brain/mental disorders.

  18. Genome-wide analysis of the bHLH gene family in planarians identifies factors required for adult neurogenesis and neuronal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Cowles, Martis W; Brown, David D R; Nisperos, Sean V; Stanley, Brianna N; Pearson, Bret J; Zayas, Ricardo M

    2013-12-01

    In contrast to most well-studied model organisms, planarians have a remarkable ability to completely regenerate a functional nervous system from a pluripotent stem cell population. Thus, planarians provide a powerful model to identify genes required for adult neurogenesis in vivo. We analyzed the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors, many of which are crucial for nervous system development and have been implicated in human diseases. However, their potential roles in adult neurogenesis or central nervous system (CNS) function are not well understood. We identified 44 planarian bHLH homologs, determined their patterns of expression in the animal and assessed their functions using RNAi. We found nine bHLHs expressed in stem cells and neurons that are required for CNS regeneration. Our analyses revealed that homologs of coe, hes (hesl-3) and sim label progenitors in intact planarians, and following amputation we observed an enrichment of coe(+) and sim(+) progenitors near the wound site. RNAi knockdown of coe, hesl-3 or sim led to defects in CNS regeneration, including failure of the cephalic ganglia to properly pattern and a loss of expression of distinct neuronal subtype markers. Together, these data indicate that coe, hesl-3 and sim label neural progenitor cells, which serve to generate new neurons in uninjured or regenerating animals. Our study demonstrates that this model will be useful to investigate how stem cells interpret and respond to genetic and environmental cues in the CNS and to examine the role of bHLH transcription factors in adult tissue regeneration.

  19. Inducible Fli-1 gene deletion in adult mice modifies several myeloid lineage commitment decisions and accelerates proliferation arrest and terminal erythrocytic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Starck, Joëlle; Weiss-Gayet, Michèle; Gonnet, Colette; Guyot, Boris; Vicat, Jean-Michel; Morlé, François

    2010-12-02

    This study investigated the role of the ETS transcription factor Fli-1 in adult myelopoiesis using new transgenic mice allowing inducible Fli-1 gene deletion. Fli-1 deletion in adult induced mild thrombocytopenia associated with a drastic decrease in large mature megakaryocytes number. Bone marrow bipotent megakaryocytic-erythrocytic progenitors (MEPs) increased by 50% without increase in erythrocytic and megakaryocytic common myeloid progenitor progeny, suggesting increased production from upstream stem cells. These MEPs were almost unable to generate pure colonies containing large mature megakaryocytes, but generated the same total number of colonies mainly identifiable as erythroid colonies containing a reduced number of more differentiated cells. Cytological and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses of MEP progeny in semisolid and liquid cultures confirmed the drastic decrease in large mature megakaryocytes but revealed a surprisingly modest (50%) reduction of CD41-positive cells indicating the persistence of a megakaryocytic commitment potential. Symmetrical increase and decrease of monocytic and granulocytic progenitors were also observed in the progeny of purified granulocytic-monocytic progenitors and common myeloid progenitors. In summary, this study indicates that Fli-1 controls several lineages commitment decisions at the stem cell, MEP, and granulocytic-monocytic progenitor levels, stimulates the proliferation of committed erythrocytic progenitors at the expense of their differentiation, and is a major regulator of late stages of megakaryocytic differentiation.

  20. Localization of a gene for benign adult familial myoclonic epilepsy to chromosome 8q23.3-q24.1.

    PubMed Central

    Mikami, M; Yasuda, T; Terao, A; Nakamura, M; Ueno, S; Tanabe, H; Tanaka, T; Onuma, T; Goto, Y; Kaneko, S; Sano, A

    1999-01-01

    Benign adult familial myoclonic epilepsy is an autosomal dominant idiopathic epileptic syndrome characterized by adult-onset tremulous finger movement, myoclonus, epileptic seizures, and nonprogressive course. It was recently recognized in Japanese families. In this study, we report that the gene locus is assigned to the distal long arm of chromosome 8, by linkage analysis in a large Japanese kindred with a maximum two-point LOD score of 4.31 for D8S555 at recombination fraction of 0 (maximum multipoint LOD score of 5.42 for the interval between D8S555 and D8S1779). Analyses of recombinations place the locus within an 8-cM interval, between D8S1784 and D8S1694, in which three markers, D8S1830, D8S555, and D8S1779, show no recombination with the phenotypes. Although three other epilepsy-related loci on chromosome 8q have been recognized-one on chromosome 8q13-21 (familial febrile convulsion) and two others on chromosome 8q24 (KCNQ3 and childhood absence epilepsy)-the locus assigned here is distinct from these three epilepsy-related loci. This study establishes the presence of a new epilepsy-related locus on 8q23.3-q24.11. PMID:10441581

  1. Expression of c-fos gene in central nervous system of adult medaka (Oryzias latipes) after hypergravity stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura, S.; Ijiri, K.

    The immediate-early genes serve as useful neurobiological tools for mapping brain activity induced by a sensory stimulation. In this study, we have examined brain activity related to gravity perception of medaka (Oryzias latipes) by use of c-fos. The gene, which is homologous to the c-fos genes of other vertebrates, was identified in medaka. Functionally important domains are highly conserved among all the vertebrate species analyzed. Intraperitoneal administration of kainic acid transiently induced the c-fos mRNAs in medaka brain. The results indicate that the expression of c-fos can be utilized as a suitable anatomical marker for the increased neural activities in the central nervous system of medaka. Fish were continuously exposed to 3G hypergravity by centrifugation. Investigation of c-fos mRNA expression showed that c-fos mRNA significantly increased 30 minutes after a start of 3G exposure. The distribution of its transcripts within brains was analyzed by an in situ hybridization method. The 3G-treated medakas displayed c-fos positive cells in their brainstem regions, which are related to vestibular function, such as torus semicircularis, posterior octavu nucleus, nucleus tangentialis and inferior olive. Our results established the method to trace the activated area in the fish brain following gravity stimulation. The method will be a useful tool for understanding gravity perception in the brain.

  2. The Role of CREB in CML

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Feng YQ et al. Anti-beta s- ribozyme reduces beta s mRNA levels in transgenic mice: Potential application to the gene therapy of sickle cell anemia... ribozymes . RNA 2003;9:1254–1263. 13 Pace BS, Qian X, Ofori-Acquah SF. Selective inhibition of beta-globin RNA transcripts by antisense RNA molecules. Cell

  3. Genetic alterations related to BRAF-FGFR genes and dysregulated MAPK/ERK/mTOR signaling in adult pilocytic astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Pankaj; Kumar, Anupam; Jha, Prerana; Purkait, Suvendu; Faruq, Mohammed; Suri, Ashish; Suri, Vaishali; Sharma, Mehar C; Sarkar, Chitra

    2016-09-08

    Pilocytic astrocytomas occur rarely in adults and show aggressive tumor behavior. However, their underlying molecular-genetic events are largely uncharacterized. Hence, 59 adult pilocytic astrocytoma (APA) cases of classical histology were studied (MIB-1 LI: 1%-5%). Analysis of BRAF alterations using qRT-PCR, confirmed KIAA1549-BRAF fusion in 11 (19%) and BRAF-gain in 2 (3.4%) cases. BRAF-V600E mutation was noted in 1 (1.7%) case by sequencing. FGFR1-mutation and FGFR-TKD duplication were seen in 7/59 (11.9%) and 3/59 (5%) cases, respectively. Overall 36% of APAs harbored BRAF and/or FGFR genetic alterations. Notably, FGFR related genetic alterations were enriched in tumors of supratentorial region (8/25, 32%) as compared with other locations (P = 0.01). The difference in age of cases with FGFR1-mutation (Mean age ± SD: 37.2 ± 15 years) vs. KIAA1549-BRAF fusion (Mean age ± SD: 25.1 ± 4.1 years) was statistically significant (P = 0.03). Combined BRAF and FGFR alterations were identified in 3 (5%) cases. Notably, the cases with more than one genetic alteration were in higher age group (Mean age ± SD: 50 ± 12 years) as compared with cases with single genetic alteration (Mean age ± SD: 29 ± 10; P = 0.003). Immunopositivity of p-MAPK/p-MEK1 was found in all the cases examined. The pS6-immunoreactivity, a marker of mTOR activation was observed in 34/39 (87%) cases. Interestingly, cases with BRAF and/or FGFR related alteration showed significantly lower pS6-immunostatining (3/12; 25%) as compared with those with wild-type BRAF and/or FGFR (16/27; 59%) (P = 0.04). Further, analysis of seven IDH wild-type adult diffuse astrocytomas (DA) showed FGFR related genetic alterations in 43% cases. These and previous results suggest that APAs are genetically similar to IDH wild-type adult DAs. APAs harbor infrequent BRAF alterations but more frequent FGFR alterations as compared with pediatric cases. KIAA1549-BRAF fusion

  4. Developmental fluoxetine exposure increases behavioral despair and alters epigenetic regulation of the hippocampal BDNF gene in adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    Boulle, Fabien; Pawluski, Jodi L; Homberg, Judith R; Machiels, Barbie; Kroeze, Yvet; Kumar, Neha; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Kenis, Gunter; van den Hove, Daniel L A

    2016-04-01

    A growing number of infants are exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications during the perinatal period. Perinatal exposure to SSRI medications alter neuroplasticity and increase depressive- and anxiety-related behaviors, particularly in male offspring as little work has been done in female offspring to date. The long-term effects of SSRI on development can also differ with previous exposure to prenatal stress, a model of maternal depression. Because of the limited work done on the role of developmental SSRI exposure on neurobehavioral outcomes in female offspring, the aim of the present study was to investigate how developmental fluoxetine exposure affects anxiety and depression-like behavior, as well as the regulation of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling in the hippocampus of adult female offspring. To do this female Sprague-Dawley rat offspring were exposed to prenatal stress and fluoxetine via the dam, for a total of four groups of female offspring: 1) No Stress+Vehicle, 2) No Stress+Fluoxetine, 3) Prenatal Stress+Vehicle, and 4) Prenatal Stress+Fluoxetine. Primary results show that, in adult female offspring, developmental SSRI exposure significantly increases behavioral despair measures on the forced swim test, decreases hippocampal BDNF exon IV mRNA levels, and increases levels of the repressive histone 3 lysine 27 tri-methylated mark at the corresponding promoter. There was also a significant negative correlation between hippocampal BDNF exon IV mRNA levels and immobility in the forced swim test. No effects of prenatal stress or developmental fluoxetine exposure were seen on tests of anxiety-like behavior. This research provides important evidence for the long-term programming effects of early-life exposure to SSRIs on female offspring, particularily with regard to affect-related behaviors and their underlying molecular mechanisms.

  5. Genetic Labeling Reveals Novel Cellular Targets of Schizophrenia Susceptibility Gene: Distribution of GABA and Non-GABA ErbB4-Positive Cells in Adult Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Bean, Jonathan C.; Lin, Thiri W.; Sathyamurthy, Anupama; Liu, Fang; Yin, Dong-Min; Xiong, Wen-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and its receptor ErbB4 are schizophrenia risk genes. NRG1-ErbB4 signaling plays a critical role in neural development and regulates neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Nevertheless, its cellular targets remain controversial. ErbB4 was thought to express in excitatory neurons, although recent studies disputed this view. Using mice that express a fluorescent protein under the promoter of the ErbB4 gene, we determined in what cells ErbB4 is expressed and their identity. ErbB4 was widely expressed in the mouse brain, being highest in amygdala and cortex. Almost all ErbB4-positive cells were GABAergic in cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia, and most of amygdala in neonatal and adult mice, suggesting GABAergic transmission as a major target of NRG1-ErbB4 signaling in these regions. Non-GABAergic, ErbB4-positive cells were present in thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, and hindbrain. In particular, ErbB4 is expressed in serotoninergic neurons of raphe nuclei but not in norepinephrinergic neurons of the locus ceruleus. In hypothalamus, ErbB4 is present in neurons that express oxytocin. Finally, ErbB4 is expressed in a group of cells in the subcortical areas that are positive for S100 calcium binding protein β. These results identify novel cellular targets of NRG1-ErbB4 signaling. PMID:25274830

  6. Allelic Variation in TAS2R Bitter Receptor Genes Associates with Variation in Sensations from and Ingestive Behaviors toward Common Bitter Beverages in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, John E.; Wallace, Margaret R.; Knopik, Valerie S.; Herbstman, Deborah M.; Bartoshuk, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    The 25 human bitter receptors and their respective genes (TAS2Rs) contain unusually high levels of allelic variation, which may influence response to bitter compounds in the food supply. Phenotypes based on the perceived bitterness of single bitter compounds were first linked to food preference over 50 years ago. The most studied phenotype is propylthiouracil bitterness, which is mediated primarily by the TAS2R38 gene and possibly others. In a laboratory-based study, we tested for associations between TAS2R variants and sensations, liking, or intake of bitter beverages among healthy adults who were primarily of European ancestry. A haploblock across TAS2R3, TAS2R4, and TAS2R5 explained some variability in the bitterness of espresso coffee. For grapefruit juice, variation at a TAS2R19 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was associated with increased bitterness and decreased liking. An association between a TAS2R16 SNP and alcohol intake was identified, and the putative TAS2R38–alcohol relationship was confirmed, although these polymorphisms did not explain sensory or hedonic responses to sampled scotch whisky. In summary, TAS2R polymorphisms appear to influence the sensations, liking, or intake of common and nutritionally significant beverages. Studying perceptual and behavioral differences in vivo using real foods and beverages may potentially identify polymorphisms related to dietary behavior even in the absence of known ligands. PMID:21163912